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Sample records for prehospital hypertonic resuscitation-head

  1. Out-of-Hospital Hypertonic Resuscitation Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bulger, Eileen M.; May, Susanne; Brasel, Karen J.; Schreiber, Martin; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Newgard, Craig; Slutsky, Arthur; Coimbra, Raul; Emerson, Scott; Minei, Joseph P.; Bardarson, Berit; Kudenchuk, Peter; Baker, Andrew; Christenson, Jim; Idris, Ahamed; Davis, Daniel; Fabian, Timothy C.; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Callaway, Clifton; Williams, Carolyn; Banek, Jane; Vaillancourt, Christian; van Heest, Rardi; Sopko, George; Hata, J. Steven; Hoyt, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Hypertonic fluids restore cerebral perfusion with reduced cerebral edema and modulate inflammatory response to reduce subsequent neuronal injury and thus have potential benefit in resuscitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids improves neurologic outcome following severe TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 114 North American emergency medical services agencies within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, conducted between May 2006 and May 2009 among patients 15 years or older with blunt trauma and a prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less who did not meet criteria for hypovolemic shock. Planned enrollment was 2122 patients. Intervention A single 250-mL bolus of 7.5% saline/6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline), or 0.9% saline (normal saline) initiated in the out-of-hospital setting. Main Outcome Measure Six-month neurologic outcome based on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) (dichotomized as >4 or ≤4). Results The study was terminated by the data and safety monitoring board after randomization of 1331 patients, having met prespecified futility criteria. Among the 1282 patients enrolled, 6-month outcomes data were available for 1087 (85%). Baseline characteristics of the groups were equivalent. There was no difference in 6-month neurologic outcome among groups with regard to proportions of patients with severe TBI (GOSE ≤4) (hypertonic saline/dextran vs normal saline: 53.7% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.2% [95% CI, −4.5% to 9.0%]; hypertonic saline vs normal saline: 54.3% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.9% [95% CI, −4.0% to 9.7%]; P=.67). There were no statistically significant differences in distribution of GOSE category or Disability Rating Score by treatment group. Survival at 28 days was 74.3% with hypertonic saline

  2. Out-of-hospital hypertonic resuscitation following severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bulger, Eileen M; May, Susanne; Brasel, Karen J; Schreiber, Martin; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Tisherman, Samuel A; Newgard, Craig; Slutsky, Arthur; Coimbra, Raul; Emerson, Scott; Minei, Joseph P; Bardarson, Berit; Kudenchuk, Peter; Baker, Andrew; Christenson, Jim; Idris, Ahamed; Davis, Daniel; Fabian, Timothy C; Aufderheide, Tom P; Callaway, Clifton; Williams, Carolyn; Banek, Jane; Vaillancourt, Christian; van Heest, Rardi; Sopko, George; Hata, J Steven; Hoyt, David B

    2010-10-06

    Hypertonic fluids restore cerebral perfusion with reduced cerebral edema and modulate inflammatory response to reduce subsequent neuronal injury and thus have potential benefit in resuscitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids improves neurologic outcome following severe TBI. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 114 North American emergency medical services agencies within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, conducted between May 2006 and May 2009 among patients 15 years or older with blunt trauma and a prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less who did not meet criteria for hypovolemic shock. Planned enrollment was 2122 patients. A single 250-mL bolus of 7.5% saline/6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline), or 0.9% saline (normal saline) initiated in the out-of-hospital setting. Six-month neurologic outcome based on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) (dichotomized as >4 or ≤4). The study was terminated by the data and safety monitoring board after randomization of 1331 patients, having met prespecified futility criteria. Among the 1282 patients enrolled, 6-month outcomes data were available for 1087 (85%). Baseline characteristics of the groups were equivalent. There was no difference in 6-month neurologic outcome among groups with regard to proportions of patients with severe TBI (GOSE ≤4) (hypertonic saline/dextran vs normal saline: 53.7% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.2% [95% CI, -4.5% to 9.0%]; hypertonic saline vs normal saline: 54.3% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.9% [95% CI, -4.0% to 9.7%]; P = .67). There were no statistically significant differences in distribution of GOSE category or Disability Rating Score by treatment group. Survival at 28 days was 74.3% with hypertonic saline/dextran, 75.7% with hypertonic saline, and 75.1% with normal saline (P = .88). Among patients with severe

  3. Superiority of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran Over Hypertonic Saline during the First 30 Minutes of Resuscitation Following Hemorrhagic Hypotension in Conscious Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Comole:ion. :mediately after nerorrhage, zne swine were aarnin stereo nyoer:cn c sal ine/dextran or hyper~onc saline at 4 mi/kg, and 4finCtiona; variac as... C , Ho HS, Gunther RA, Boyle WA, Holcroft JW. Small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline dextran solution. Surg 1986;100(No. 2):239-246. 2...concept. J Trauma 1985;25:65-70. 11. Border JR, Lewis FR, Aprahamian C , Haller JA, Jacobs LM, Luterman A. Prehospital trauma care--stabilize or scoop and

  4. Hypertonicity: Pathophysiologic Concept and Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Raj, Dominic S; Malhotra, Deepak; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Rohrscheib, Mark; Khitan, Zeid; Murata, Glen H; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances in tonicity (effective osmolarity) are the major clinical disorders affecting cell volume. Cell shrinking secondary to hypertonicity causes severe clinical manifestations and even death. Quantitative management of hypertonic disorders is based on formulas computing the volume of hypotonic fluids required to correct a given level of hypertonicity. These formulas have limitations. The major limitation of the predictive formulas is that they represent closed system calculations and have been tested in anuric animals. Consequently, the formulas do not account for ongoing fluid losses during development or treatment of the hypertonic disorders. In addition, early comparisons of serum osmolality changes predicted by these formulas and observed in animals infused with hypertonic solutions clearly demonstrated that hypertonicity creates new intracellular solutes causing rises in serum osmolality higher than those predicted by the formulas. The mechanisms and types of intracellular solutes generated by hypertonicity and the effects of the solutes have been studied extensively in recent times. The solutes accumulated intracellularly in hypertonic states have potentially major adverse effects on the outcomes of treatment of these states. When hypertonicity was produced by the infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride solutions, the predicted and observed changes in serum sodium concentration were equal. This finding justifies the use of the predictive formulas in the management of hypernatremic states. PMID:27382523

  5. Prehospital stroke care

    PubMed Central

    Saver, Jeffrey L.; Starkman, Sidney; Lees, Kennedy R.; Endres, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Brain cells die rapidly after stroke and any effective treatment must start as early as possible. In clinical routine, the tight time–outcome relationship continues to be the major limitation of therapeutic approaches: thrombolysis rates remain low across many countries, with most patients being treated at the late end of the therapeutic window. In addition, there is no neuroprotective therapy available, but some maintain that this concept may be valid if administered very early after stroke. Recent innovations have opened new perspectives for stroke diagnosis and treatment before the patient arrives at the hospital. These include stroke recognition by dispatchers and paramedics, mobile telemedicine for remote clinical examination and imaging, and integration of CT scanners and point-of-care laboratories in ambulances. Several clinical trials are now being performed in the prehospital setting testing prehospital delivery of neuroprotective, antihypertensive, and thrombolytic therapy. We hypothesize that these new approaches in prehospital stroke care will not only shorten time to treatment and improve outcome but will also facilitate hyperacute stroke research by increasing the number of study participants within an ultra-early time window. The potentials, pitfalls, and promises of advanced prehospital stroke care and research are discussed in this review. PMID:23897876

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of hypertonic saline in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Motaharinia, Javad; Etezadi, Farhad; Moghaddas, Azadeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-10-05

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and nosocomial infection following trauma-hemorrhage are among the most important causes of mortality in hemorrhagic shock patients. Dysregulation of the immune system plays a central role in MODS and a fluid having an immunomodulatory effect could be advantageous in hemorrhagic shock resuscitation. Hypertonic saline (HS) is widely used as a resuscitation fluid in trauma-hemorrhagic patients. Besides having beneficial effects on the hemodynamic parameters, HS has modulatory effects on various functions of immune cells such as degranulation, adhesion molecules and cytokines expression, as well as reactive oxygen species production. This article reviews clinical evidence for decreased organ failure and mortality in hemorrhagic shock patients resuscitated with HS. Despite promising results in animal models, results from pre-hospital and emergency department administration in human studies did not show improvement in survival, organ failure, or a reduction in nosocomial infection by HS resuscitation. Further post hoc analysis showed some benefit from HS resuscitation for severely-injured patients, those who received more than ten units of blood by transfusion, patients who underwent surgery, and victims of traumatic brain injury. Several reasons are suggested to explain the differences between clinical and animal models.

  7. Prehospital care in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, E; Pusponegoro, A

    2005-01-01

    Current system: Hospitals of varying standards are widespread but have no system of emergency ambulance or patient retrieval. Indonesia's only public emergency ambulance service, 118, is based in five of the biggest cities and is leading the way in paramedic training and prehospital care. Challenges and developments: There are many challenges faced including the culture of acceptance, vast geographical areas, traffic, inadequate numbers of ambulances, and access to quality training resources. Recently there have been a number of encouraging developments including setting up of a disaster response brigade, better provision of ambulances, and development of paramedic training. Conclusions: An integrated national regionalised hospital and prehospital system may seem fantastic but with the enthusiasm of those involved and perhaps some help from countries with access to training resources it may not be an unrealistic goal. PMID:15662073

  8. Diagnosis of hypertonic Oddi's sphincter dyskinesia

    SciTech Connect

    Varro, V.; Doebroente, Z.; Hajnal, F.; Csernay, L.; Nemessanyi, Z.; Lang, J.; Narai, G.; Szabo, E.

    1983-11-01

    The diagnostic possibility of hypertonic Oddi's sphincter dysfunction was evaluated in 100 cholecystectomized and 28 noncholecystectomized patients. An organic lesion interfering with free bile flow was ruled out in every case. The existence of the syndrome, i.e., the dysfunction of the Oddi's musculature, was verified using the morphine-choleretic test combined with either dynamic hepatobiliary scintigraphy or (in selected cases) percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Hypertonic Oddi's sphincter dyskinesia can be regarded as an independent clinical syndrome.

  9. Advances in prehospital trauma care

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kelvin; Ramesh, Ramaiah; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Prehospital trauma care developed over the last decades parallel in many countries. Most of the prehospital emergency medical systems relied on input or experiences from military medicine and were often modeled after the existing military procedures. Some systems were initially developed with the trauma patient in mind, while other systems were tailored for medical, especially cardiovascular, emergencies. The key components to successful prehospital trauma care are the well-known ABCs of trauma care: Airway, Breathing, Circulation. Establishing and securing the airway, ventilation, fluid resuscitation, and in addition, the quick transport to the best-suited trauma center represent the pillars of trauma care in the field. While ABC in trauma care has neither been challenged nor changed, new techniques, tools and procedures have been developed to make it easier for the prehospital provider to achieve these goals in the prehospital setting and thus improve the outcome of trauma patients. PMID:22096773

  10. Prehospital Trauma Care in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Chew, David; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Pek, Pin Pin; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital emergency care in Singapore has taken shape over almost a century. What began as a hospital-based ambulance service intended to ferry medical cases was later complemented by an ambulance service under the Singapore Fire Brigade to transport trauma cases. The two ambulance services would later combine and come under the Singapore Civil Defence Force. The development of prehospital care systems in island city-state Singapore faces unique challenges as a result of its land area and population density. This article defines aspects of prehospital trauma care in Singapore. It outlines key historical milestones and current initiatives in service, training, and research. It makes propositions for the future direction of trauma care in Singapore. The progress Singapore has made given her circumstances may serve as lessons for the future development of prehospital trauma systems in similar environments. Key words: Singapore; trauma; prehospital emergency care; emergency medical services.

  11. Resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhagic shock patients with hypertonic saline-without dextran-inhibits neutrophil and endothelial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Junger, Wolfgang G; Rhind, Shawn G; Rizoli, Sandro B; Cuschieri, Joseph; Shiu, Maria Y; Baker, Andrew J; Li, Linglin; Shek, Pang N; Hoyt, David B; Bulger, Eileen M

    2012-10-01

    Posttraumatic inflammation and excessive neutrophil activation cause multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a major cause of death among hemorrhagic shock patients. Traditional resuscitation strategies may exacerbate inflammation; thus, novel fluid treatments are needed to reduce such posttraumatic complications. Hypertonic resuscitation fluids inhibit inflammation and reduce MODS in animal models. Here we studied the anti-inflammatory efficacy of hypertonic fluids in a controlled clinical trial. Trauma patients in hypovolemic shock were resuscitated in a prehospital setting with 250 mL of either 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS; n = 9), 7.5% hypertonic saline + 6% dextran 70 (HSD; n = 8), or 0.9% normal saline (NS; n = 17). Blood samples were collected on hospital admission and 12 and 24 h after resuscitation. Multicolor flow cytometry was used to quantify neutrophil expression of cell-surface activation/adhesion (CD11b, CD62L, CD64) and degranulation (CD63, CD66b, CD35) markers as well as oxidative burst activity. Circulating concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVACM-1), P- and E-selectins, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) were assessed by immunoassay. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, leukocytosis, and mortality were lower in the HS and HSD groups than in the NS group. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Hypertonic saline prevented priming and activation and neutrophil oxidative burst and CD11b and CD66b expression. Hypertonic saline also reduced circulating markers of neutrophil degranulation (MPO and MMP-9) and endothelial cell activation (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, soluble E-selectin, and soluble P-selectin). Hypertonic saline + 6% dextran 70 was less capable than HS of suppressing the upregulation of most of these activation markers. This study demonstrates that initial resuscitation with HS, but neither NS nor HSD, can attenuate

  12. Prehospital Sepsis Care.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jerrilyn; Lawner, Benjamin J

    2017-02-01

    Prehospital care providers are tasked with the delivery of time-sensitive care, and emergency medical services (EMS) systems must match patients to appropriate clinical resources. Modern systems are uniquely positioned to recognize and treat patients with sepsis. Interventions such as administration of intravenous fluid and transporting patients to the appropriate level of definitive care are linked to improved patient outcomes. As EMS systems refine their protocols for the recognition and stabilization of patients with suspected or presumed sepsis, EMS providers need to be educated about the spectrum of sepsis-related presentations and treatment strategies need to be standardized.

  13. Pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark H; Habig, Karel; Wright, Christopher; Hughes, Amy; Davies, Gareth; Imray, Chirstopher H E

    2015-12-19

    Pre-hospital care is emergency medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. It traditionally incorporated a breadth of care from bystander resuscitation to statutory emergency medical services treatment and transfer. New concepts of care including community paramedicine, novel roles such as emergency care practitioners, and physician delivered pre-hospital emergency medicine are re-defining the scope of pre-hospital care. For severely ill or injured patients, acting quickly in the pre-hospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions greatly affecting outcomes. The transfer of skills and procedures from hospital care to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies, challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations requires management that is tailored to the patient's clinical need and setting. Pre-hospital clinicians should be generalists with a broad understanding of medical, surgical, and trauma pathologies, who will often work from locally developed standard operating procedures, but who are able to revert to core principles. Pre-hospital emergency medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management skills (especially in major incidents, which have their own set of management principles). Traditionally, research into the hyper-acute phase (the first hour) of disease has been difficult, largely because physicians are rarely present and issues of consent, transport expediency, and resourcing of research. However, the pre-hospital phase is acknowledged as a crucial period, when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neuronal and cardiac tissue can be prevented. The development of pre-hospital emergency medicine into a sub-specialty in its own right should bring focus to this period of care.

  14. Imaging of prehospital stroke therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michelle P; Sanossian, Nerses; Liebeskind, David S

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant quality improvement efforts to streamline in-hospital acute stroke care in the conventional model, there remain inherent layers of treatment delays, which could be eliminated with prehospital diagnostics and therapeutics administered in a mobile stroke unit. Early diagnosis using Telestroke and neuroimaging while in the ambulance may enable targeted routing to hospitals with specialized care, which will likely improve patient outcomes. Key clinical trials in Telestroke, mobile stroke units with prehospital neuroimaging capability, prehospital ultrasound and co-administration of various classes of neuroprotectives, antiplatelets and antithrombin agents with intravenous thrombolysis are discussed in this article. PMID:26308602

  15. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    You, Guo-xing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Gan; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Xi-gang; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong; He, Yue-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD) resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR) in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs. Methods Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 50±5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7) to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1): HSD (4 ml/kg), LR (40 ml/kg), and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR). Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2). After two hours of observation (R3), autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis. Results Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2) at R3 (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW) and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) than the other groups (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups. Conclusions Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection

  16. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-xiang; Wang, Bo; You, Guo-xing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Gan; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Xi-gang; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong; He, Yue-zhong

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD) resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR) in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs. Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 50 ± 5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7) to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1): HSD (4 ml/kg), LR (40 ml/kg), and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR). Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2). After two hours of observation (R3), autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis. Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2) at R3 (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW) and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) than the other groups (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups. Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection. Our findings suggest that

  17. Hypertonicity: Clinical entities, manifestations and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos; Ing, Todd S; Raj, Dominic S; Malhotra, Deepak; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Rohrscheib, Mark; Khitan, Zeid J; Murata, Glen H; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2017-01-01

    Hypertonicity causes severe clinical manifestations and is associated with mortality and severe short-term and long-term neurological sequelae. The main clinical syndromes of hypertonicity are hypernatremia and hyperglycemia. Hypernatremia results from relative excess of body sodium over body water. Loss of water in excess of intake, gain of sodium salts in excess of losses or a combination of the two are the main mechanisms of hypernatremia. Hypernatremia can be hypervolemic, euvolemic or hypovolemic. The management of hypernatremia addresses both a quantitative replacement of water and, if present, sodium deficit, and correction of the underlying pathophysiologic process that led to hypernatremia. Hypertonicity in hyperglycemia has two components, solute gain secondary to glucose accumulation in the extracellular compartment and water loss through hyperglycemic osmotic diuresis in excess of the losses of sodium and potassium. Differentiating between these two components of hypertonicity has major therapeutic implications because the first component will be reversed simply by normalization of serum glucose concentration while the second component will require hypotonic fluid replacement. An estimate of the magnitude of the relative water deficit secondary to osmotic diuresis is obtained by the corrected sodium concentration, which represents a calculated value of the serum sodium concentration that would result from reduction of the serum glucose concentration to a normal level. PMID:28101446

  18. Pre-Hospital Resuscitation of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock with Hypertonic Solutions Worsen Hypocoagulation and Hyperfibrinolysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    and hemoglobin levels were similar in all groups. The HSD-resuscitated patients had higher admission international normalized ratio values and more...T 1 L) and 24-h fluid administration (mean, 15.7 T 15.1 L). Admission hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were lower for HSD-treated patients de- spite...9.1) Osmolarity, mmol/L 317.7 (34.4) 334 (29.6) 335 (29.6) 303.1 (34.8) Hemoglobin , g/dL 10.2 (2.2) 10.7 (2.7) 9.7 (2.9) 10.2 (2.6) Hematocrit, L/L

  19. Hypertonic saline: a change of practice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth; von Fintel, Nichola

    2012-01-01

    This practice development review describes how the introduction of hypertonic saline in the treatment of raised intracranial pressure was brought about in one critical care unit. It considers the need for staff education and patient safety as an integral part of the change process. The aim was to review making a practice change, using Lewin's three step change model and describes possible pitfalls in the process and ways of overcoming or avoiding them. The inclusion criterion for critiqued literature was: Worldwide, English language studies from the last 26 years. Exclusion was articles from non-academically recognized sources. The search was limited to primary and empirical sources. This article uses Lewin's change model to describe driving and restraining forces, highlighting potential problems and suggesting ways in which they can be overcome when implementing a change in practice. Critical to the success of any change is the importance of evaluation, and suitable methods of evaluating the change are also suggested. Critical care and neurosurgical nurses need to be aware of the potentially serious side effects, actions and correct methods of administration of hypertonic saline to ensure its safe use and ensure patient safety. Effects and side effects of hypertonic saline are described, highlighting the need for care in introducing such agents into a clinical area. The methodology used was an electronic search. The change in practice relates to the introduction of hypertonic saline, but could be adapted for any change in clinical nursing practice. © 2012 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  20. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. The active ingredient and its concentration in the product is as follows...

  1. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. The active ingredient and its concentration in the product is as follows...

  2. Prehospital curriculum development: a learning objective approach.

    PubMed

    Schafermeyer, R W

    1993-02-01

    Prehospital curriculum development is a time-consuming, yet essential, component of emergency medical technician and paramedic education. Over the past several years, much has changed within the EMS system and with the approach to educating the prehospital care provider. Learning is defined as a permanent change in behavior that comes about as a result of a planned experience. This planned experience must include learning objectives that incorporate assessment of presenting signs and symptoms and demonstrate the prehospital care providers' psychomotor skills in providing prehospital care based on that assessment.

  3. A randomized, controlled trial of nebulized 5% hypertonic saline and mixed 5% hypertonic saline with epinephrine in bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Tinsa, Faten; Abdelkafi, Sana; Bel Haj, Imen; Hamouda, Samia; Brini, Ines; Zouari, Bechir; Boussetta, Khadija

    2014-11-01

    Bronchiolitis is a public health problem in the word and in Tunisia. Nebulized hypertonic saline seems to have some benefits in bronchiolitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized 5% hypertonic saline alone or mixed with epinephrine in bronchiolitis as measured by improvement in clinical score, oxygen saturation or reduction in duration of hospitalization. This prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial was performed at Children's Hospital of Tunis from February 2012 to Mars 2012. A total of 94 patients less than 12 months of age with diagnosis of moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled and assigned to receive 5% nebulized hypertonic saline, mixed 5% hypertonic saline with standard epinephrine 0,1% or normal saline (placebo) at admission and every 4 hours during hospitalization. There were no significant difference between nebulized 5% hypertonic saline, mixed 5% hypertonic saline with epinephrine or normal saline at baseline, T30 min, T60 min, and T120 min after start study in Wang severity score, oxygen saturation in room air, rate respiratory and heart rate. There was no difference in duration of hospitalization. Nebulized 5% hypertonic saline or mixed 5% hypertonic saline with epinephrine are safety but does not appear effective in treating moderately ill infants with the first acute bronchiolitis.

  4. Resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhagic shock patients with hypertonic saline - without dextran - inhibits neutrophil and endothelial cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Junger, Wolfgang G.; Rhind, Shawn G.; Rizoli, Sandro B.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Shiu, Maria Y.; Baker, Andrew J.; Li, Linglin; Shek, Pang N.; Hoyt, David B.; Bulger, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Post-traumatic inflammation and excessive neutrophil activation cause multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a major cause of death among hemorrhagic shock patients. Traditional resuscitation strategies may exacerbate inflammation and thus novel fluid treatments are needed to reduce these post-traumatic complications. Hypertonic resuscitation fluids inhibit inflammation and reduce MODS in animal models. Here we studied the anti-inflammatory efficacy of hypertonic fluids in a controlled clinical trial. Methods Trauma patients in hypovolemic shock were resuscitated in a pre-hospital setting with 250 ml of either 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS; n=9), 7.5% hypertonic saline + 6% dextran-70 (HSD; n=8), or 0.9% normal saline (NS; n=17). Blood samples were collected on hospital admission and 12 and 24 h post-resuscitation. Multi-color flow cytometry was used to quantify neutrophil expression of cell-surface activation/adhesion (CD11b, CD62L, CD64) and degranulation (CD63, CD66b, CD35) markers as well as oxidative burst activity. Circulating concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, P-, E-selectins, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 were assessed with immunoassays. Results MODS, leukocytosis, and mortality were lower in the HS and HSD groups than in the NS group. However, these differences were not statistically significant. HS prevented priming and activation and neutrophil oxidative burst and CD11b and CD66b expression. HS also reduced circulating markers of neutrophil degranulation (MPO and MMP-9) and endothelial cell activation (sICAM-1, cVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and sP-selectin). HSD was less capable than HS of suppressing the upregulation of most of these activation markers. Conclusions This study demonstrates that initial resuscitation with HS but neither NS nor HSD can attenuate post-traumatic neutrophil and endothelial cell activation in hemorrhagic shock

  5. Advances in prehospital airway management.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Pe; Grabinsky, A

    2014-01-01

    Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts.

  6. Advances in prehospital airway management

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, PE; Grabinsky, A

    2014-01-01

    Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts. PMID:24741499

  7. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    PubMed

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2017-05-30

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Prehospital Nursing in Maryland - Legal Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    midwifery . In Massachusetts, the Board of Registration in Nursing is authorized to establish conditions and regulations for nursing practice in the...because as a registered nurse, she could orly practice midwifery after complying with the Prehospital Nursing 41 Board’s rules and regulations regarding...standards for the practice of Certified Nurse Practitioner and Nurse Midwifery (Md. Health Occu. Code Ann. §8-306 & §§8-601-603, 1991). Prehospital nursing

  9. Reassessing training levels for prehospital EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Briese, G L

    1983-01-01

    One of the major questions confronting prehospital care services today concerns determining the appropriate level of training for EMS personnel that will provide the most cost effective systems. Unfortunately there are no studies which assess this problem. Various communities have modified or expanded the roles of prehospital personnel beyond the traditional training of EMTs and paramedics. Continuing education and skills maintenance are ongoing problems faced by all EMS systems, which have been addressed in various ways by individual locales.

  10. [Stiff baby syndrome is a rare cause of neonatal hypertonicity].

    PubMed

    Rønne, Maria Sode; Nielsen, Preben Berg; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2014-02-24

    Stiff baby syndrome (hyperekplexia) is a rare genetic disorder. The condition can easily be misdiagnosed as epilepsy or severe sepsis because of hypertonicity and seizure-like episodes and has an increased risk of severe apnoea and sudden infant death. Tapping of the nasal bridge inducing a startle response is the clinical hallmark. We report cases of two sisters born with stiff baby syndrome with hypertonicity, exaggerated startle reaction and cyanosis. The syndrome has a good prognosis if treated with clonazepam and both cases were developmental normal after one year.

  11. The prehospital management of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Scott A; Rojanasarntikul, Dhanadol; Jagoda, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of death and disability, particularly in younger populations. The prehospital evaluation and management of TBI is a vital link between insult and definitive care and can have dramatic implications for subsequent morbidity. Following a TBI the brain is at high risk for further ischemic injury, with prehospital interventions targeted at reducing this secondary injury while optimizing cerebral physiology. In the following chapter we discuss the prehospital assessment and management of the brain-injured patient. The initial evaluation and physical examination are discussed with a focus on interpretation of specific physical examination findings and interpretation of vital signs. We evaluate patient management strategies including indications for advanced airway management, oxygenation, ventilation, and fluid resuscitation, as well as prehospital strategies for the management of suspected or impending cerebral herniation including hyperventilation and brain-directed hyperosmolar therapy. Transport decisions including the role of triage models and trauma centers are discussed. Finally, future directions in the prehospital management of traumatic brain injury are explored. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prehospital Cricothyrotomy Kits Used in Combat.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Steven G; April, Michael D; Cunningham, Cord W; Long, Adrianna N; Carter, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Surgical cricothyrotomy remains the only definitive airway management modality for the tactical setting recommended by Tactical Combat Casualty Care guidelines. Some units have fielded commercial cricothyrotomy kits to assist Combat Medics with surgical cricothyrotomy. To our knowledge, no previous publications report data on the use of these kits in combat settings. This series reports the the use of two kits in four patients in the prehospital combat setting. Using the Department of Defense Trauma Registry and the Prehospital Trauma Registry, we identified four cases of patients who underwent prehospital cricothyrotomy with the use of commercial kits. In the first two cases, a Medic successfully used a North American Rescue CricKit (NARCK) to obtain a surgical airway in a Servicemember with multiple amputations from an improvised explosive device explosion. In case 3, the Medic unsuccessfully used an H&H Medical kit to attempt placement of a surgical airway in a Servicemember shot in the head by small arms fire. A second attempt to place a surgical airway using a NARCK was successful. In case 4, a Soldier sustained a gunshot wound to the chest. A Medic described fluid in the airway precluding bag-valve-mask ventilation; the Medic attempted to place a surgical airway with the H&H kit without success. Four cases of prehospital surgical airway cannulation on the battlefield demonstrated three successful uses of prehospital cricothyrotomy kits. Further research should focus on determining which kits may be most useful in the combat setting. 2017.

  13. Prehospital care in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, C B; Lai, K K; Mak, K P

    2000-09-01

    A quick and efficient prehospital emergency response depends on immediate ambulance dispatch, patient assessment, triage, and transport to hospital. During 1999, the Ambulance Command of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department responded to 484,923 calls, which corresponds to 1329 calls each day. Cooperation between the Fire Services Department and the Hospital Authority exists at the levels of professional training of emergency medical personnel, quality assurance, and a coordinated disaster response. In response to the incident at the Hong Kong International Airport in the summer of 1999, when an aircraft overturned during landing, the pre-set quota system was implemented to send patients to designated accident and emergency departments. Furthermore, the 'first crew at the scene' model has been adopted, whereby the command is established and triage process started by the first ambulance crew members to reach the scene. The development of emergency protocols should be accompanied by good field-to-hospital and interhospital communication, the upgrading of decision-making skills, a good monitoring and auditing structure, and commitment to training and skills maintenance.

  14. Efflux of red cell water into buffered hypertonic solutions.

    PubMed

    OLMSTEAD, E G

    1960-03-01

    Buffered NaCl solutions hypertonic to rabbit serum were prepared and freezing point depressions of each determined after dilution with measured amounts of water. Freezing point depression of these dilutions was a linear function of the amount of water added. One ml. of rabbit red cells was added to each 4 ml. of the hypertonic solutions and after incubation at 38 degrees C. for 30 minutes the mixture was centrifuged and a freezing point depression determined on the supernatant fluid. The amount of water added to the hypertonic solutions by the red cells was calcuated from this freezing point depression. For each decrease in the freezing point of -0.093 degrees C. of the surrounding solution red cells gave up approximately 5 ml. of water per 100 ml. of red cells in the range of -0.560 to -0.930 degrees C. Beyond -0.930 degrees C. the amount of water given up by 100 ml. of red cells fits best a parabolic equation. The maximum of this equation occurred at a freezing point of the hypertonic solution of -2.001 degrees C. at which time the maximum amount of water leaving the red cells would be 39.9 ml. per 100 ml. of red cells. The data suggest that only about 43 per cent of the red cell water is available for exchange into solutions of increasing tonicity.

  15. Phosphoinositolphosphate (PIP) cascade induction by hypertonic stress of plant tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.; Jacoby, B. )

    1989-04-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) was determined by competition with ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 3} for binding to an IP{sub 3} specific protein. A hypertonic mannitol, sorbitol or lactose shock induced an increase in the rate of K{sup +} uptake and raised the IP{sub 3} content of Beta vulgaris slices, excised Vigna mungo and Sorghum bicolor roots, as well as attached V. mungo roots. Increased K{sup +} uptake could also be induced by compounds that artificially induce the PIP cascade, or mimic it's products. A hypertonic shock, administered to intact B. vulgaris slices, further enhanced the phosphorylation of a 20 kD protein in the plasmalemma. Maximal IP{sub 3} content was found 10 min after hypertonic induction and maximal K{sup +} uptake was obtained 10 min later. The effect of a continuous hypertonic treatment on IP{sub 3} content, but not on K{sup +} uptake, was transient. Li{sup +} decreased the rate of IP{sub 3} metabolism.

  16. Hypertonic saline inhibits luminal sodium channels in respiratory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hebestreit, Alexandra; Kersting, Ulrich; Hebestreit, Helge

    2007-05-01

    Physical exercise with increased ventilation leads to a considerable rise in water loss from the airways. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of transepithelial fluid transport necessary to compensate for these losses are unknown but may include changes in luminal ion channel conductance. The present study was designed to examine the effects of an increase in luminal chloride and sodium concentrations which may locally occur during hyperventilation on luminal ion conductance in the respiratory epithelium of healthy controls and patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF). Changes in luminal chloride and sodium conductance were inferred by recording nasal potential difference in eight healthy subjects and 10 patients with CF, using superfusing solutions based on isotonic saline (150 mM) on one occasion and solutions based on hypertonic saline (300 mM) on the other. Switching from isotonic to hypertonic saline superfusion decreased potential difference in controls and CF patients significantly. Amiloride induced a decrease of potential difference which was larger with isotonic than with hypertonic saline (controls 9.5 +/- 6.1 vs. 3.7 +/- 4.6 mV; CF 17.2 +/- 7.2 vs. 9.8 +/- 7.6 mV). Chloride conductance stimulated with solutions low in chloride and containing isoproterenol was not significantly changed by hypertonic saline solutions compared with isotonic solutions in both groups. The findings indicate a significant inhibition of luminal sodium conductance by high luminal sodium concentrations. This mechanism may be involved in the regulation of fluid transport across the respiratory epithelium during exercise and in the improvement of mucociliary clearance and lung functions with inhalation of hypertonic saline in CF.

  17. Prehospital research in sub-saharan Africa: establishing research tenets.

    PubMed

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Sasser, Scott M; Wallis, Lee A

    2013-12-01

    Prehospital care constitutes an important link in the continuum of emergency care and confers a survival benefit to injured and ill persons. As development of acute and emergency care in sub-Saharan Africa expands, there is a strong need to improve the delivery of prehospital care to help relieve the overwhelming regional morbidity and mortality attributable to time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. Effective research is integral to prehospital care development, as it helps quantify the need for prehospital care and tests effective solutions. Unfortunately, there is limited consensus guiding such research in the low-resource nations of sub-Saharan Africa that face unique challenges. This article aims to assimilate the current pertinent literature to demonstrate research success stories and challenges, and ultimately to build on previous efforts to establish prehospital research priorities for sub-Saharan Africa. Region-specific obstacles hindering prehospital research include the lack of epidemiologic data on emergency conditions, the underdevelopment of in-hospital emergency care, confusing prehospital terminology, poorly defined prehospital research priorities, the lack of qualified local prehospital researchers, and a poor understanding of local prehospital care systems. Solutions are offered to overcome each challenge by building on previous recommendations, by proposing new guiding principles, and by identifying areas where further consensus-building is needed. These guiding principles and suggestions are designed to steer discussions and output from future global health meetings targeted at improving prehospital research and development in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Anaesthesia and pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Booth, A; Steel, A; Klein, J

    2013-01-01

    Major trauma is a leading cause of death and disability in the UK, particularly in the young. Pre-hospital emergency medicine (PHEM) involves provision of immediate medical care to critically ill and injured patients, across all age ranges, often in environments that may be remote and are not only physically challenging but also limited in terms of time and resources. PHEM is now a GMC-recognised subspecialty of anaesthesia or emergency medicine and the first recognised training program in the UK commenced in August 2012. This article discusses subspeciality development in PHEM, the competency based framework for training in PHEM, and the provision of pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia.

  19. Prehospital management of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mattu, Amal; Lawner, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of prehospital treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure has in some ways come full circle: rather than emphasizing a battery of new pharmacotherapies, out-of-hospital providers have a renewed focus on aggressive use of nitrates, optimization of airway support, and rapid transport. The use of furosemide and morphine has become de-emphasized, and a flurry of research activity and excitement revolves around the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Further research will clarify the role of bronchodilators and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the prehospital setting.

  20. Commercial filming of prehospital patient care

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, P D; Henning, J D

    2007-01-01

    Commercial filming of patients in the hospital and now the prehospital environment is becoming increasingly common. Television programmes that focus on medical emergencies with real footage of events remain highly successful and can make compelling viewing for both medical professionals and the general public alike. Recently several commentators have questioned the ethical aspects of filming in hospital emergency departments, and noted the lack of available evidence. This article reviews commercial filming and its impact in the prehospital environment and examines the ethical implications and current guidance in this unique setting. PMID:18029523

  1. ROC Trials Update on Prehospital Hypertonic Saline Resuscitation in the Aftermath of the US-Canadian Trials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    reperfusion injury in striated muscle. Am J Physiol. 1997;272(4 Pt 2):H1710-6. 17. Varicoda EY, Poli de Figueiredo LF, Cruz RJ, Jr., Silva LE, Rocha e Silva M...uncontrolled aortotomy hemorrhage. Shock. 2005;24(1):92-6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.shk. 0000168872.37660.d2. 19. Riddez L , Drobin D, Sjostrand F...http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1097/00024382-200205000-00006. 20. Sallum EA, Sinozaki S, Calil AM, Coimbra R, Silva MR, de Figueiredo LF, et al. Blood loss

  2. Military Medical Revolution: Prehospital Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Military medical revolution: Prehospital combat casualty care Lorne H. Blackbourne, MD, David G. Baer, PhD, Brian J. Eastridge, MD, Bijan Kheirabadi...sur- vival for patients with combat-related traumatic injuries. J Trauma. 2009;66(suppl 4):S69 S76. 33. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M, Cantrell J, Oetjen

  3. What is dignity in prehospital emergency care?

    PubMed

    Abelsson, Anna; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2017-05-01

    Ethics and dignity in prehospital emergency care are important due to vulnerability and suffering. Patients can lose control of their body and encounter unfamiliar faces in an emergency situation. To describe what specialist ambulance nurse students experienced as preserved and humiliated dignity in prehospital emergency care. The study had a qualitative approach. Data were collected by Flanagan's critical incident technique. The participants were 26 specialist ambulance nurse students who described two critical incidents of preserved and humiliated dignity, from prehospital emergency care. Data consist of 52 critical incidents and were analyzed with interpretive content analysis. Ethical considerations: The study followed the ethical principles in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The result showed how human dignity in prehospital emergency care can be preserved by the ambulance nurse being there for the patient. The ambulance nurses meet the patient in the patient's world and make professional decisions. The ambulance nurse respects the patient's will and protects the patient's body from the gaze of others. Humiliated dignity was described through the ambulance nurse abandoning the patient and by healthcare professionals failing, disrespecting, and ignoring the patient. It is a unique situation when a nurse meets a patient face to face in a critical life or death moment. The discussion describes courage and the ethical vision to see another human. Dignity was preserved when the ambulance nurse showed respect and protected the patient in prehospital emergency care. The ambulance nurse students' ethical obligation results in the courage to see when a patient's dignity is in jeopardy of being humiliated. Humiliated dignity occurs when patients are ignored and left unprotected. This ethical dilemma affects the ambulance nurse students badly due to the fact that the morals and attitudes of ambulance nurses are reflected in their actions toward the patient.

  4. Urea-prostaglandin versus hypertonic saline for instillation abortion.

    PubMed

    Binkin, N J; Schulz, K F; Grimes, D A; Cates, W

    1983-08-15

    Authorities have suggested use of a combination of hyperosmolar urea and low-dose prostaglandin F2 alpha as a second-trimester intra-amniotic abortifacient to avoid the disadvantages of hypertonic saline solution. To examine the safety and efficacy of urea-prostaglandin compared with the instillation of saline solution, we analyzed data from a prospective multicenter study conducted in the United States between 1975 and 1978. Both agents were highly effective in producing an abortion. However, urea-prostaglandin had a significantly lower rate of serious complications when compared with saline solution (1.03 versus 2.18 per 100 abortions; p less than 0.001). Urea-prostaglandin also had a significantly shorter induction-to-abortion time (14.2 versus 25.6 hours; p less than 0.001). Urea-prostaglandin, therefore, appears to be superior to hypertonic saline solution as an abortifacient.

  5. Mechanism of antigen presentation after hypertonic loading of soluble antigens

    PubMed Central

    Enders, Georg A

    2002-01-01

    Hypertonic loading of proteins into cells has been used to introduce soluble proteins into the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway of antigen presentation followed by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) induction. The precise mechanism for this pathway is not completely understood. The antigen is either processed and presented by/on the same cell or by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) after taking up the antigen from damaged or apoptotic cells. After loading labelled ovalbumin (OVA), it could be co-precipitated with the proteasome complex, supporting the role of this pathway for antigen processing. The processing speed however, appeared to be slow since intact OVA could be detected inside the cells even after 18 hr. This corresponded well with the processing of OVA by isolated proteasomes. On the other hand, enough peptides for recognition of target cells by CTLs were generated in this reaction. One reason for the low level of processing might be that hypertonic loading may damage the cells and inhibit direct processing. In fact, at least 50% of the cells became positive for Annexin V binding after hypertonic loading which indicates severe membrane alterations usually associated with the progress of apoptosis. Annexin V binds to phosphatidylserine residues which also serve as ligand for CD36 expressed on monocytes and some immature dendritic cells. This may direct the phagocytic pathway to hypertonically loaded cells and thus enable professional APCs to present OVA-peptides. Therefore, in addition to the direct processing of OVA, CTLs can be primed by professional APC after uptake of apoptotic, OVA-loaded cells. PMID:12153514

  6. Release of ATP induced by hypertonic solutions in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aleu, Jordi; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Navarro, Piedad; de Lara, Ivanna Pérez; Bahima, Laia; Marsal, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2003-01-01

    ATP mediates intercellular communication. Mechanical stress and changes in cell volume induce ATP release from various cell types, both secretory and non-secretory. In the present study, we stressed Xenopus oocytes with a hypertonic solution enriched in mannitol (300 mm). We measured simultaneously ATP release and ionic currents from a single oocyte. A decrease in cell volume, the activation of an inward current and ATP release were coincident. We found two components of ATP release: the first was associated with granule or vesicle exocytosis, because it was inhibited by tetanus neurotoxin, and the second was related to the inward current. A single exponential described the correlation between ATP release and the hypertonic-activated current. Gadolinium ions, which block mechanically activated ionic channels, inhibited the ATP release and the inward current but did not affect the decrease in volume. Oocytes expressing CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) released ATP under hypertonic shock, but ATP release was significantly inhibited in the first component: that related to granule exocytosis. Since the ATP measured is the balance between ATP release and ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes, we measured the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity of the oocyte surface during osmotic stress, as the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of ATP, which was inhibited by more than 50 % in hypertonic conditions. The best-characterized membrane protein showing NTPDase activity is CD39. Oocytes injected with an antisense oligonucleotide complementary to CD39 mRNA released less ATP and showed a lower amplitude in the inward current than those oocytes injected with water. PMID:12562935

  7. Treatment of hypertonicity in muscles of lip retraction.

    PubMed

    Hand, C R; Burns, M O; Ireland, E

    1979-06-01

    An EMG biofeedback program was developed for a 56-year-old Parkinsonism patient who exhibited pathological lip hypertonia and retraction. The program was designed to achieve the following goals: (1) to demonstrate a reduction in postural lip hypertonicity and (2) to demonstrate a reduction in lip hypertonicity during a series of increasingly complex speech activities. To achieve the first goal, contrastive tasks of full contraction and relaxation were utilized. Each posture was sustained while voltage measurements were made at specific intervals. Procedures to modify lip retraction during speech included five tasks in which the patient was to monitor the audio feedback signal. The tasks involved: prolongation of a neutral vowel, consonant-vowel combinations, monosyllabic words, sentences, and a paragraph-reading task. Data collected over six biofeedback sessions are presented. Trend analyses showed consistent muscular reduction within each task. The following explanations for the decrease in the patient's hypertonicity were discussed: (1) reduction of anisometric contraction, (2) reduction of isometric contraction, (3) relearning of agonistic-antagonistic muscle balance.

  8. Hypertonic saline releases the attached small intestinal cystic fibrosis mucus.

    PubMed

    Ermund, Anna; Meiss, Lauren N; Scholte, Bob J; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2015-01-01

    Hypertonic saline inhalation has become a cornerstone in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), but its effect on CF mucus is still not understood. In CF, mucus stagnates in the airways, causing mucus plugging, and forming a substrate for bacterial invasion. Using horizontal Ussing-type chambers to allow easy access to the tissue, we have recently shown that the small intestinal mucus of CF mice is attached to the epithelium and not freely movable as opposed to normal mucus, thus pointing to a similarity between the CF mucus in the ileum and airways. In the same type of system, we investigated how hypertonic saline affects mucus thickness, attachment and penetrability to fluorescent beads the size of bacteria in ileal explants from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant (ΔF508) mouse, in order to characterize how this common therapy affects mucus properties. Hypertonic saline (1.75-5%) detached the mucus from the epithelium, but the mucus remained impenetrable to beads the size of bacteria. This approach might be used to test other mucolytic interventions in CF. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Hypertonic saline releases the attached small intestinal cystic fibrosis mucus

    PubMed Central

    Ermund, Anna; Meiss, Lauren N; Scholte, Bob J; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2015-01-01

    Hypertonic saline inhalation has become a cornerstone in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), but its effect on CF mucus is still not understood. In CF, mucus stagnates in the airways, causing mucus plugging, and forming a substrate for bacterial invasion. Using horizontal Ussing-type chambers to allow easy access to the tissue, we have recently shown that the small intestinal mucus of CF mice is attached to the epithelium and not freely movable as opposed to normal mucus, thus pointing to a similarity between the CF mucus in the ileum and airways. In the same type of system, we investigated how hypertonic saline affects mucus thickness, attachment and penetrability to fluorescent beads the size of bacteria in ileal explants from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant (ΔF508) mouse, in order to characterize how this common therapy affects mucus properties. Hypertonic saline (1.75–5%) detached the mucus from the epithelium, but the mucus remained impenetrable to beads the size of bacteria. This approach might be used to test other mucolytic interventions in CF. PMID:25311799

  10. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  11. Out-of-hospital Hypertonic Resuscitation After Traumatic Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Bulger, Eileen M.; May, Susanne; Kerby, Jeffery D.; Emerson, Scott; Stiell, Ian G.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Brasel, Karen J.; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Coimbra, Raul; Rizoli, Sandro; Minei, Joseph P.; Hata, J. Steven; Sopko, George; Evans, David C.; Hoyt, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids would improve survival after severe injury with hemorrhagic shock. Background Hypertonic fluids have potential benefit in the resuscitation of severely injured patients because of rapid restoration of tissue perfusion, with a smaller volume, and modulation of the inflammatory response, to reduce subsequent organ injury. Methods Multicenter, randomized, blinded clinical trial, May 2006 to August 2008, 114 emergency medical services agencies in North America within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Inclusion criteria: injured patients, age ≥ 15 years with hypovolemic shock (systolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mm Hg or systolic blood pressure 71–90 mm Hg with heart rate ≥ 108 beats per minute). Initial resuscitation fluid, 250 mL of either 7.5% saline per 6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran, HSD), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline, HS), or 0.9% saline (normal saline, NS) administered by out-of-hospital providers. Primary outcome was 28-day survival. On the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board, the study was stopped early (23% of proposed sample size) for futility and potential safety concern. Results A total of 853 treated patients were enrolled, among whom 62% were with blunt trauma, 38% with penetrating. There was no difference in 28-day survival—HSD: 74.5% (0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], −7.5 to 7.8); HS: 73.0% (−1.4; 95% CI, −8.7–6.0); and NS: 74.4%, P = 0.91. There was a higher mortality for the postrandomization subgroup of patients who did not receive blood transfusions in the first 24 hours, who received hypertonic fluids compared to NS [28-day mortality—HSD: 10% (5.2; 95% CI, 0.4–10.1); HS: 12.2% (7.4; 95% CI, 2.5–12.2); and NS: 4.8%, P < 0.01]. Conclusion Among injured patients with hypovolemic shock, initial resuscitation fluid treatment with either HS or HSD compared with NS, did not result in superior 28-day survival. However

  12. The Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services

    PubMed Central

    Frischknecht Christensen, Erika; Berlac, Peter Anthony; Nielsen, Henrik; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services (QEMS) is to assess, monitor, and improve the quality of prehospital emergency medical service care in the entire prehospital patient pathway. The aim of this review is to describe the design and the implementation of QEMS. Study population The study population consists of all “112 patient contacts” defined as emergency patients, where the entrance to health care is a 112 call forwarded to one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers in Denmark since January 1, 2014. Estimated annual number of included “112 patients” is 300,000–350,000. Main variables We defined nine quality indicators and the following variables: time stamps for emergency calls received at one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers, dispatch of prehospital unit(s), arrival of first prehospital unit, arrival of first supplemental prehospital unit, and mission completion. Finally, professional level and type of the prehospital resource dispatched to an incident and end-of-mission status (mission completed by phone, on scene, or admission to hospital) are registered. Descriptive data Descriptive data included age, region, and Danish Index for Emergency Care including urgency level. Conclusion QEMS is a new database under establishment and is expected to provide the basis for quality improvement in the prehospital setting and in the entire patient care pathway, for example, by providing prehospital data for research and other quality databases. PMID:27843347

  13. Clinical governance in pre-hospital care.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson-Steel, I; Edwards, S; Gough, M

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to discover and recognize the importance of clinical governance within a new and emerging quality National Health Service (NHS) system. It evaluates the present state of prehospital care and recommends how change, via clinical governance, can ensure a paradigm shift from its currently fragmented state to a seamless ongoing patient care episode. Furthermore, it identifies the drivers of a quality revolution, examines the monitoring and supervision of quality care, and evaluates the role of evidence-based practice. A frank and open view of immediate care doctors is presented, with recommendations to improve the quality of skill delivery and reduce the disparity that exists. Finally, it reviews the current problems with pre-hospital care and projects a future course for quality and patient care excellence. PMID:11383428

  14. [Prehospital care in extremity major vascular injuries].

    PubMed

    Samokhvallov, I M; Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Seleznev, A B

    2011-09-01

    The problem of temporary hemorrhage control is one of the most important issues of modern war surgery and surgery of trauma. It is a review of literature devoted to prehospital care in extremity major vascular injuries, embraced up-to-date domestic materials as well as the modern foreign papers in this area. The most important historical landmarks of temporary hemorrhage control system are considered. We paid special attention to the most usable methods and means of hemorrhage control which are utilized at the modern time: pressure bandages, tourniquets, local haemostatic agents. The comprehensive analysis of the contamporary haemostatic means concerning U.S. Army has done. The experience of foreign colleagues in development of prehospital care for the injured, creation and progress of new haemostatic methods, application of temporary hemorrhage control system is analyzed.

  15. Prehospital ACLS--does it work?

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Alok; Mehrotra, Avanti; Gupta, Anoop K; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2002-11-01

    Cardiac disease is the most common cause of death in the United States, and sudden cardiac arrest frequently claims the lives of men and women during their most productive years. It is believed that much better survival rates can be achieved for victims of cardiac arrest through optimizing the "chain of survival" as described by the American Heart Association. The relative and incremental benefit of full prehospital ACLS over basic life support and defibrillation is unproven, however. This is an important issue in this era of cost containment. Some of the ongoing studies including the OPALS study may clarify the cost effectiveness and relative efficacy of rapid defibrillation and full ACLS programs for victims of prehospital cardiac arrest [6].

  16. Prehospital care and new models of regionalization.

    PubMed

    Cone, David C; Brooke Lerner, E; Band, Roger A; Renjilian, Chris; Bobrow, Bentley J; Crawford Mechem, C; Carter, Alix J E; Kupas, Douglas F; Spaite, Daniel W

    2010-12-01

    This article summarizes the discussions of the emergency medical services (EMS) breakout session at the June 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." The group focused on prehospital issues such as the identification of patients by EMS personnel, protocol-driven destination selection, bypassing closer nondesignated centers to transport patients directly to more distant designated specialty centers, and the modes of transport to be used as they relate to the regionalization of emergency care. It is our hope that the proposed research agenda will be advanced in a way that begins to rigorously approach the unanswered research questions and that these answers, in turn, will lead to an evidence-based, cohesive, comprehensive, and more uniform set of guidelines that govern the delivery and practice of prehospital emergency care.

  17. International comparison of prehospital trauma care systems.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Bahman S; Nathens, Avery B; Cameron, Peter; Civil, Ian; Gruen, Russel L; Koepsell, Thomas D; Lecky, Fiona E; Lefering, Rolf L; Liberman, Moishe; Mock, Charles N; Oestern, Hans-Jörg; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Waydhas, Christian; Rivara, Frederick P

    2007-09-01

    Given the recent emphasis on developing prehospital trauma care globally, we embarked upon a multicentre study to compare trauma patients' outcome within and between countries with technician-operated advanced life support (ALS) and physician-operated (Doc-ALS) emergency medical service (EMS) systems. These environments represent the continuum of prehospital care in high income countries with more advanced prehospital trauma care systems. Five countries with ALS-EMS system and four countries with Doc-ALS EMS system provided us with de-identified patient-level data from their national or local trauma registries. Generalised linear latent and mixed models was used in order to compare emergency department (ED) shock rate (systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90mmHg) and early trauma fatality rate (i.e. death during the first 24h after hospital arrival) between ALS and Doc-ALS EMS systems. Logistic regression was used to compare outcomes of interest among different countries, accounting for within-system correlation in patient outcomes. After adjustment for patient age, sex, type and mechanism of injury, injury severity score and SBP at scene, the ED shock rate did not vary significantly between Doc-ALS and ALS systems (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.73-1.91). However, the early trauma fatality rate was significantly lower in Doc-ALS EMS systems compared with ALS EMS systems (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.91). Furthermore, we found a considerable heterogeneity in patient outcomes among countries even with similar type of EMS systems. These findings suggest that prehospital trauma care systems that dispatch a physician to the scene may be associated with lower early trauma fatality rates, but not necessarily with significantly better outcomes on other clinical measures. The reasons for these findings deserve further studies.

  18. Ethical conflicts in the prehospital setting.

    PubMed

    Adams, J G; Arnold, R; Siminoff, L; Wolfson, A B

    1992-10-01

    To assess the range of ethical conflicts that confront prehospital care providers. Convenience sample, from October 1989 to January 1990. An urban advanced life support emergency medical service that transports approximately 3,000 patients per month. Six hundred seven paramedic responses were analyzed by a single observer. An ethical conflict was identified when the paramedic faced a dilemma about what "ought to be done" and the paramedic's values conflicted or potentially conflicted with the patient's. Cases with potential ethical consequence were brought to experts in medical ethics and epidemiology for further analysis and classification. Ethical conflicts arose in 14.4% of paramedic responses (88 of 607 cases). Twenty-seven percent of the conflicts involved issues of informed consent, such as refusal of treatment or transport, conflicts of hospital destination, treatment of minors, and consent for research. Difficulties regarding the duty of the paramedics, usually under threatening circumstances, accounted for 19% of the dilemmas encountered. Requests for limitation of resuscitation accounted for 14%. Other circumstances that presented ethical conflicts involved questions of patient competence (17%), resource allocation (10%), confidentiality (8%), truth telling (3%), and training (1%). The data demonstrate a range of ethical conflicts in the prehospital setting and point to areas in which policy needs to be developed. The data also can be used in a prehospital ethics curriculum for paramedics and physicians. Because case sampling was not strictly random, absolute conclusions should not be drawn regarding the frequency of the dilemmas.

  19. [Mobile stroke unit for prehospital stroke treatment].

    PubMed

    Walter, S; Grunwald, I Q; Fassbender, K

    2016-01-01

    The management of acute stroke patients suffers from several major problems in the daily clinical routine. In order to achieve optimal treatment a complex diagnostic work-up and rapid initiation of therapy are necessary; however, most patients arrive at hospital too late for any type of acute stroke treatment, although all forms of treatment are highly time-dependent according to the generally accepted "time is brain" concept. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated the feasibility of prehospital stroke diagnostic work-up and treatment. This was accomplished by use of a specialized ambulance, equipped with computed tomography for multimodal imaging and a point-of-care laboratory system. In both trials the results demonstrated a clear superiority of the prehospital treatment group with a significant reduction of treatment times, significantly increased number of patients treated within the first 60 min after symptom onset and an optimized triage to the correct target hospital. Currently, mobile stroke units are in operation in various countries and should lead to an improvement in stroke treatment; nevertheless, intensive research is still needed to analyze the best framework settings for prehospital stroke management.

  20. Prevalence of Prehospital Hypoxemia and Oxygen Use in Trauma Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    2008; 12(Suppll): Sl-52. 10. Care CoTCC: Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines. November I, 2010. Available at http://www.naemt.org/Libraries/ PHTLS ...Prehospital Trauma Life Support Committee, Arilerican College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. PHTLS : Prehospital Trauma Life Support. Ed 6. St

  1. Vasopressin responses to corticotropin-releasing factor and hypertonicity after truncal vagotomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Raff, H; Papanek, P E; Cowles, V E

    1996-01-01

    Infusion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) augments the plasma vasopressin response to infusion of hypertonic saline in conscious dogs. Furthermore, afferent vagal nerve input from the abdomen is involved in the control of vasopressin release and may be altered by CRF. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effect of CRF on the vasopressin response to hypertonic saline and to determine if it is mediated by afferent input carried from the abdominal vagus. Conscious male dogs (n = 5) underwent infusion of isotonic saline (vehicle), CRF (10 or 20 ng.kg-1.min-1), hypertonic saline (0.2 mmol.kg-1.min-1), or the combination of CRF and hypertonic saline. Hypertonic saline increased plasma sodium from 147 +/- 1 to 153 +/- 1 meq/1 and plasma vasopressin from 2.5 +/- 0.1 to 5.8 +/- 0.4 pg/ml. CRF infusion alone had no effect on plasma vasopressin. The addition of 10 or 20 ng.kg-1.min-1 CRF augmented the vasopressin response to hypertonic saline to 7.7 +/- 1.7 and 6.9 +/- 0.3 pg/ml, respectively. Truncal vagotomy did not attenuate the vasopressin response to hypertonic saline with or without CRF infusion. We conclude that CRF augments the vasopressin response to hypertonic saline and that this effect is not mediated via afferents from the abdominal vagus.

  2. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Flores-González, J Carlos; Matamala-Morillo, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Campoy, Patricia; Pérez-Guerrero, Juan J; Serrano-Moyano, Belén; Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  3. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. Results A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). Conclusions In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. Trial Registration EudraCT 2009-016042-57 PMID:26575036

  4. The renal medullary interstitium: focus on osmotic hypertonicity.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Janusz; Dobrowolski, Leszek

    2003-03-01

    1. There has been continued interest in the functional role of the renal medullary interstitium and intense research in this area has furnished new information regarding the extent, dynamics and mechanisms determining fluctuations in medullary osmotic hypertonicity. 2. Any change in the tonicity (interstitial solute concentration) indicates an imbalance of the rate of solute delivery to the interstitium (by tubular transport) and solute removal therefrom (by the microcirculation). It is often difficult to establish whether alteration of the delivery or removal triggered the change in medullary tissue tonicity. 3. Newer in vivo studies have confirmed earlier predictions and indirect evidence indicating that the rate of NaCl transport in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is the major determinant of medullary ionic hypertonicity. 4. The hypothesis of a 'washout' of medullary solutes during increased medullary blood flow (MBF) has been re-evaluated. A novel experimental approach has provided direct evidence of a modest dissipation of medullary solutes with increasing MBF and a modest accumulation of solutes with decreasing MBF. 5. Increasing evidence is reviewed indicating that medullary tonicity is not only a regulated variable, but also that it may itself modulate the activity of multiple local endocrine and paracrine control systems and thereby affect local microcirculation and the function of medullary interstitial and tubular cells.

  5. Rationale for hypertonic saline therapy for cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Tarran, Robert; Donaldson, Scott; Boucher, Richard C

    2007-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by alterations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTCR) gene. More than 1400 mutations in the CFTCR gene have been described, but the most common mutation (noted in 70% of CF chromosomes) is DeltaF508. Alterations in the CFTCR gene result in deranged sodium and chloride ion transport channels. This leads to failure of airway epithelia to hydrate their surfaces normally, particularly in response to infectious or toxic insults. Additional effects include mucus adhesion to airway surface, chronic inflammation, and infections. The concept that airway surface dehydration can cause CF-like lung disease is supported by in vitro data and in vivo animal models. Rehydrating airway surfaces may reduce or prevent lung injury and damage. Short- and longer term studies have shown that inhalation of hypertonic saline is well tolerated and improves lung function, reduces exacerbations, and improves quality of life in CF patients. This review discusses the importance of airway epithelial sodium and chloride channels in the pathogenesis of CF, and strategies (particularly the use of inhaled hypertonic saline) to reverse or minimize lung inflammation and injury in this disease.

  6. Effects of hypertonic saline on expression of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Thiel, M; Buessecker, F; Eberhardt, K; Chouker, A; Setzer, F; Kreimeier, U; Arfors, K E; Peter, K; Messmer, K

    2001-08-01

    Hypertonic saline prevents vascular adherence of neutrophils and ameliorates ischemic tissue injury. We hypothesized that hypertonic saline attenuates N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated expression of adhesion molecules on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). fMLP-stimulated up-regulation of beta2-integrins was diminished by hypertonic saline but not by hypertonic choline chloride-, mannitol-, or sucrose-modified Hanks' buffered salt solution. Shedding of L-selectin was decreased by hypertonic saline and choline chloride but not by hypertonic mannitol or sucrose. When the effects of hypertonic sodium chloride- and choline chloride-modified media were compared, neither solution affected fMLP-receptor binding but both equally inhibited fMLP-stimulated increase in intracellular calcium, ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated numerical up-regulation of beta2-integrins. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p38 and p44/42 for phosphorylation revealed that hypertonic solutions did not differ in preventing fMLP-stimulated increases in phospho-p38 and phospho-p44/42. Resting PMNLs shrunk by hypertonic saline increased their volume during incubation and further during chemotactic stimulation. Addition of amiloride further enhanced inhibition of up-regulation of beta2-integrins. No fMLP-stimulated volume changes occurred in PMNLs exposed to hypertonic choline chloride, resulting in significant cell shrinkage. Results suggest a sodium-specific inhibitory effect on up-regulation of beta2-integrins of fMLP-stimulated PMNLs, which is unlikely to be caused by alterations of fMLP receptor binding, decrease in cytosolic calcium, attenuation of calcium or protein kinase C-dependent pathways, suppression of p38- or p44/42 MAP kinase-dependent pathways, or cellular ability to increase or decrease volumes.

  7. Protein kinase Cmu plays an essential role in hypertonicity-induced heat shock protein 70 expression.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Sook; Lee, Jae Seon; Huang, Tai Qin; Seo, Jeong Sun

    2008-12-31

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which evidences important functions as a molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic molecule, is substantially induced in cells exposed to a variety of stresses, including hypertonic stress, heavy metals, heat shock, and oxidative stress, and prevents cellular damage under these conditions. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the induction of HSP70 in response to hypertonicity has been characterized to a far lesser extent. In this study, we have investigated the cellular signaling pathway of HSP70 induction under hypertonic conditions. Initially, we applied a variety of kinase inhibitors to NIH3T3 cells that had been exposed to hypertonicity. The induction of HSP70 was suppressed specifically by treatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors (Gö6976 and GF109203X). As hypertonicity dramatically increased the phosphorylation of PKCmu, we then evaluated the role of PKCmu in hypertonicity-induced HSP70 expression and cell viability. The depletion of PKCmu with siRNA or the inhibition of PKCmu activity with inhibitors resulted in a reduction in HSP70 induction and cell viability. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP), a transcription factor for hypertonicity-induced HSP70 expression, was translocated rapidly into the nucleus and was modified gradually in the nucleus under hypertonic conditions. When we administered treatment with PKC inhibitors, the mobility shift of TonEBP was affected in the nucleus. However, PKCmu evidenced no subcellular co-localization with TonEBP during hypertonic exposure. From our results, we have concluded that PKCmu performs a critical function in hypertonicity-induced HSP70 induction, and finally cellular protection, via the indirect regulation of TonEBP modification.

  8. The utility of the prehospital electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew T; Dukelow, Adam; McLeod, Shelley; Rodriguez, Severo; Lewell, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) can capture valuable information in the prehospital setting. By the time patients are assessed by an emergency department (ED) physician, their symptoms and any ECG changes may have resolved. We sought to determine whether the prehospital electrocardiogram (pECG) could influence ED management and how often the pECG was available to and reviewed by the ED physician. A retrospective medical record review was conducted on a random sample of patients ≥ 18 years who had a prehospital 12-lead ECG and were transported to one of two tertiary care centres. Data were recorded onto a standardized data extraction tool. Three investigators independently compared the pECG to the first ECG obtained in the ED after patient arrival at the hospital. Any abnormalities not present on the ED ECG were adjudicated to ascertain whether they had the potential to change ED management. Of 115 ambulance runs selected, 47 had no pECG attached to the ambulance call record (ACR) and another 5 were excluded (one ST elevation myocardial infarction, one cardiac arrest, three ACR missing). Of the 63 pECGs reviewed, 16 (25%) showed changes not apparent on the initial ED ECG (κ  =  0.83; 95% CI 0.74-0.93), of which 12 had differences that might influence ED management (κ  =  0.76; 95% CI 0.72-0.82). Only one hospital record contained a copy of the pECG, despite the current protocol that paramedics print two copies of the pECG on arrival in the ED (one copy for the ACR and one to be handed to the medical personnel). None of 110 ED charts documented that the pECG was reviewed by the ED physician. The pECG has the potential to influence ED management. Improvement in paramedic and physician documentation and a formal pECG handover process appear necessary.

  9. Accuracy of Prehospital Transport Time Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, David J.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; Angus, Derek C.; Martin-Gill, Christian; Callaway, Clifton W.; Rea, Thomas D.; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kurland, Kristen; Seymour, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimates of prehospital transport times are an important part of emergency care system research and planning; however the accuracy of these estimates is unknown. We examined the accuracy of three estimation methods against observed transport times in a large cohort of prehospital patient transports. Methods We performed a validation study using prehospital records in King County, Washington and southwestern Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2006 and 2005 to 2011, respectively. We generated transport time estimates using three methods: linear arc distance, Google Maps and ArcGIS Network Analyst. We assessed estimation error, defined as the absolute difference between observed and estimated transport time, and the proportion of estimated times that were within specified error thresholds. Based on the primary results, we then tested whether a regression estimate that incorporated population density, time-of-day and season could improve accuracy. Finally, we compared hospital catchment areas using each method with a fixed drive time. Results We analyzed 29,935 prehospital transports to 44 hospitals. The mean absolute error was 4.8 minutes (± 7.3) using linear arc, 3.5 minutes (± 5.4) using Google Maps and 4.4 minutes (± 5.7) using ArcGIS. All pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (p<0.01). Estimation accuracy was lower for each method among transports more than twenty minutes (mean absolute error was 12.7 minutes (± 11.7) for linear arc, 9.8 minutes (± 10.5) for Google Maps and 11.6 minutes (± 10.9) for ArcGIS). Estimates were within five minutes of observed transport time for 79% of linear arc estimates, 86.6% of Google Maps estimates and 81.3% of ArcGIS estimates. The regression-based approach did not substantially improve estimation. There were large differences in hospital catchment areas estimated by each method. Conclusion We showed that route-based transport time estimates demonstrate moderate accuracy. These methods can be valuable for

  10. Accuracy of prehospital transport time estimation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, David J; Kahn, Jeremy M; Angus, Derek C; Martin-Gill, Christian; Callaway, Clifton W; Rea, Thomas D; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kurland, Kristen; Seymour, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of prehospital transport times are an important part of emergency care system research and planning; however, the accuracy of these estimates is unknown. The authors examined the accuracy of three estimation methods against observed transport times in a large cohort of prehospital patient transports. This was a validation study using prehospital records in King County, Washington, and southwestern Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2006 and 2005 to 2011, respectively. Transport time estimates were generated using three methods: linear arc distance, Google Maps, and ArcGIS Network Analyst. Estimation error, defined as the absolute difference between observed and estimated transport time, was assessed, as well as the proportion of estimated times that were within specified error thresholds. Based on the primary results, a regression estimate was used that incorporated population density, time of day, and season to assess improved accuracy. Finally, hospital catchment areas were compared using each method with a fixed drive time. The authors analyzed 29,935 prehospital transports to 44 hospitals. The mean (± standard deviation [±SD]) absolute error was 4.8 (±7.3) minutes using linear arc, 3.5 (±5.4) minutes using Google Maps, and 4.4 (±5.7) minutes using ArcGIS. All pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Estimation accuracy was lower for each method among transports more than 20 minutes (mean [±SD] absolute error was 12.7 [±11.7] minutes for linear arc, 9.8 [±10.5] minutes for Google Maps, and 11.6 [±10.9] minutes for ArcGIS). Estimates were within 5 minutes of observed transport time for 79% of linear arc estimates, 86.6% of Google Maps estimates, and 81.3% of ArcGIS estimates. The regression-based approach did not substantially improve estimation. There were large differences in hospital catchment areas estimated by each method. Route-based transport time estimates demonstrate moderate accuracy. These methods can be valuable

  11. Prehospital emergency care in Shanghai: present and future.

    PubMed

    Gui, Li; Gu, Shen; Lu, Feng; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Ling

    2012-12-01

    In Shanghai, prehospital emergency medical services are provided by the public Ambulance Services. The 60th anniversary of the local Ambulance Services is a good opportunity to provide an overview of the current trends in prehospital emergency medical care in Shanghai. In this report, the features of Shanghai prehospital emergency medical care are described, as well as the Shanghai model of purely prehospital emergency medical care, including the communications and dispatch system, ambulance depots and ambulances, and prehospital rescue teams. Responses to major incidents including public health emergencies and natural disasters are also discussed, with the intention of highlighting future directions in emergency medical services, as well as the influence of international trends in emergency patient care. Although Shanghai has the most advanced dispatch system in China (equipped with a Global Positioning System, Global Information System, and more) and can be expanded quickly in case of mass casualty incidents, there is, as yet, no uniform Emergency Medical Service (EMS) dispatching for the entire city. Nor are there certifications, degrees, or special continuing education programs available for EMS dispatchers. Although there are more and more ambulance depots spread all over Shanghai, the city struggles with inadequate prehospital emergency caregivers, because every ambulance has to be staffed with a qualified Emergency Physician, and there are also recruitment problems for ambulance physicians. Although faced with many challenges, substantial progress is expected in Shanghai prehospital emergency care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of hypertonic buffer composition on lymph node uptake and bioavailability of rituximab, after subcutaneous administration

    PubMed Central

    Fathallah, Anas M.; Turner, Michael R.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous administration of biologics is highly desirable; however, incomplete bioavailability after sc administration remains a major challenge. In this work we investigated the effects of excipient dependent hyper-osmolarity on lymphatic uptake and plasma exposure of rituximab as a model protein. Using Swiss Webster (SW) mice as our animal model, we compared the effects of NaCl, mannitol and, O-Phospho-L-Serine (OPLS) on plasma concentration of rituximab over 5 days after sc administration. We observed an increase in plasma concentrations in animals administered rituximab in hypertonic buffer solutions, as compared to isotonic buffer. Bioavailability, as estimated by our pharmacokinetic model, increased from 29% in isotonic buffer to 54% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl, to almost complete bioavailability in hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS or mannitol. This improvement in plasma exposure is due to improved lymphatic trafficking as evident from the increase in the fraction of dose trafficked through the lymph node in the presence of hypertonic buffers. The fraction of the dose trafficked through the lymphatic, as estimated by the model, increased from 0.05 % in isotonic buffer to 13% in hyper-tonic buffer containing NaCl to about 30% for hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS and mannitol. Our data suggests that hypertonic solutions may be a viable option to improve sc bioavailability. PMID:25377184

  13. Effects of hypertonic buffer composition on lymph node uptake and bioavailability of rituximab, after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Fathallah, Anas M; Turner, Michael R; Mager, Donald E; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V

    2015-03-01

    The subcutaneous administration of biologics is highly desirable; however, incomplete bioavailability after s.c. administration remains a major challenge. In this work we investigated the effects of excipient dependent hyperosmolarity on lymphatic uptake and plasma exposure of rituximab as a model protein. Using Swiss Webster (SW) mice as the animal model, we compared the effects of NaCl, mannitol and O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) on the plasma concentration of rituximab over 5 days after s.c. administration. An increase was observed in plasma concentrations in animals administered rituximab in hypertonic buffer solutions, compared with isotonic buffer. Bioavailability, as estimated by our pharmacokinetic model, increased from 29% in isotonic buffer to 54% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl, to almost complete bioavailability in hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS or mannitol. This improvement in plasma exposure is due to the improved lymphatic trafficking as evident from the increase in the fraction of dose trafficked through the lymph nodes in the presence of hypertonic buffers. The fraction of the dose trafficked through the lymphatics, as estimated by the model, increased from 0.05% in isotonic buffer to 13% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl to about 30% for hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS and mannitol. The data suggest that hypertonic solutions may be a viable option for improving s.c. bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Isotonic and hypertonic crystalloid solutions in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Kortgen, Andreas; Hartog, Christiane; Riedemann, Niels; Reinhart, Konrad

    2009-06-01

    Disorders of fluid and electrolyte balance in the critically ill are volume-related, compositional, or both. Targeting 'normal' values for plasma volume, osmolality and electrolytes might not be optimal in conditions as diverse as intracranial trauma/haemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy, abdominal hypertension, or major surgery, because a hyperosmolar state seems to favourably affect tissue (brain and intestinal) oedema formation. However, adequately powered studies regarding the impact of hypertonic saline on outcome are lacking. Isotonic crystalloids are the cornerstone of resuscitation and must be balanced against natural or artificial colloids and vasopressors. Crystalloid resuscitation is superior to vasopressors in shock associated with blunt trauma, and is at least not inferior to colloids in septic shock. Traditional rules of thumb indicating the need for three to four times the amount of crystalloids for the plasma volume to be replaced are probably erroneous and might have contributed to association of overly aggressive crystalloid resuscitation with poor outcome.

  15. Hypertonic saline challenge in an adult epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Rabone, S J; Phoon, W O; Anderson, S D; Wan, K C; Seneviratne, M; Gutierrez, L; Brannan, J

    1996-06-01

    Bronchial provocation tests using pharmacological agents such as methacholine or histamine are used in epidemiological studies to identify asthma despite recognition of limitations in specificity, positive predictive value and availability of reagents. Hypertonic saline (4.5%) bronchial challenge (HSBC), although less sensitive than pharmacological challenges, is reportedly highly specific in diagnosing current asthma. Added advantages are that reagents are cheap, stable and recognized by participants. Thus, HSBC may offer benefits over pharmacological tests in epidemiological surveys. This paper reports on the second field survey using the test, a study of 99 adults from the timber industry in Western Australia. The test is described and critically appraised as a practical epidemiological tool for assessing asthma prevalence. At a cutoff point of 20% FEV, fall, HSBC was positive in 8% of subjects, appeared specific for asthma, was safe, well-accepted and easy to use in the field.

  16. Monitoring the intracellular calcium response to a dynamic hypertonic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaowen; Yue, Wanqing; Liu, Dandan; Yue, Jianbo; Li, Jiaqian; Sun, Dong; Yang, Mengsu; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-03-01

    The profiling of physiological response of cells to external stimuli at the single cell level is of importance. Traditional approaches to study cell responses are often limited by ensemble measurement, which is challenging to reveal the complex single cell behaviors under a dynamic environment. Here we report the development of a simple microfluidic device to investigate intracellular calcium response to dynamic hypertonic conditions at the single cell level in real-time. Interestingly, a dramatic elevation in the intracellular calcium signaling is found in both suspension cells (human leukemic cell line, HL-60) and adherent cells (lung cancer cell line, A549), which is ascribed to the exposure of cells to the hydrodynamic stress. We also demonstrate that the calcium response exhibits distinct single cell heterogeneity as well as cell-type-dependent responses to the same stimuli. Our study opens up a new tool for tracking cellular activity at the single cell level in real time for high throughput drug screening.

  17. Effect of the prehospital trauma life support program (PHTLS) on prehospital trauma care.

    PubMed

    Ali, J; Adam, R U; Gana, T J; Bedaysie, H; Williams, J I

    1997-05-01

    Improvement in trauma patient outcome has been demonstrated after the implementation of the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) program in Trinidad and Tobago. This study was aimed at identifying prehospital care factors that may explain this improvement. All patients transferred by ambulance to the major trauma referral hospital had assessment of airway control, oxygen use, cervical (C)-spine control, and hemorrhage control, as well as splinting of extremities during pre-PHTLS (July of 1990 to December of 1991; n = 332) and post-PHTLS periods (January of 1994 to June of 1995; n = 350). Pre-PHTLS data were compared with post-PHTLS data by chi 2 analysis with a p value < or = 0.05 being considered statistically significant. The frequency (%) increased in the post-PHTLS period for airway control (10 vs. 99.7%), C-spine control (2.1 vs. 89.4%), splinting of extremities (22 vs. 60.6%), hemorrhage control (16 vs. 96.9%), and oxygen use (6.6 vs. 89.5%) when no specific problem was identified. When a specific problem was identified in these areas, the post-PHTLS percentage also increased for airway control (16.2 vs. 100%), C-spine control (25 vs. 100%), splinting of extremities (33.9 vs. 100%), hemorrhage control (18 vs. 100%), and oxygen use (43.2 vs. 98.9%). Prehospital trauma care has changed after the introduction of the PHTLS program as indicated by more frequent airway control, use of oxygen, control of cervical (C)-spine and hemorrhage, as well as splinting of fractures. This finding was evident not only as a routine but particularly when a specific related problem was identified. This change in prehospital care could be responsible for the improved trauma patient outcome after PHTLS.

  18. Multicenter observational prehospital resuscitation on helicopter study.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, John B; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Greene, Thomas J; Fox, Erin E; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri N; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E

    2017-07-01

    Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets, and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from January to November 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs, whereas the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high-risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared with patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. Twenty-five thousand one hundred eighteen trauma patients were admitted, 2,341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1,058 (45%) met the highest-risk criteria. Five hundred eighty-five of 1,058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and Glasgow Coma Scale (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, whereas median Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 hours (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 hours (12.6% vs 8.9%), and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). Twenty-four percent of eligible patients received a PHT. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs, and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality

  19. Identification of dynamic prehospital changes with continuous vital signs acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peter; Galvagno, Samuel M; Sen, Ayan; Dutton, Richard; Jordan, Sean; Floccare, Douglas; Handley, Christopher; Shackelford, Stacy; Pasley, Jason; Mackenzie, Colin

    2014-01-01

    In most trauma registries, prehospital trauma data are often missing or unreliable because of the difficult dual task consigned to prehospital providers of recording vital signs and simultaneously resuscitating patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the analysis of continuous vital signs acquired automatically, without prehospital provider input, improves vital signs data quality, captures more extreme values that might be missed with conventional human data recording, and changes Trauma Injury Severity Scores compared with retrospectively compiled prehospital trauma registry data. A statewide vital signs collection network in 6 medevac helicopters was deployed for prehospital vital signs acquisition using a locally built vital signs data recorder (VSDR) to capture continuous vital signs from the patient monitor onto a memory card. VSDR vital signs data were assessed by 3 raters, and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to test interrater reliability. Agreement between VSDR and trauma registry data was compared with the methods of Altman and Bland including corresponding calculations for precision and bias. Automated prehospital continuous VSDR data were collected in 177 patients. There was good agreement between the first recorded vital signs from the VSDR and the trauma registry value. Significant differences were observed between the highest and lowest heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and pulse oximeter from the VSDR and the trauma registry data (P< .001). Trauma Injury Severity Scores changed in 12 patients (7%) when using data from the VSDR. Real-time continuous vital signs monitoring and data acquisition can identify dynamic prehospital changes, which may be missed compared with vital signs recorded manually during distinct prehospital intervals. In the future, the use of automated vital signs trending may improve the quality of data reported for inclusion in trauma registries. These data may be used to develop

  20. Diagnostic value of prehospital ECG in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Bobinger, Tobias; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Kopp, Markus; Kurka, Natalia; Arnold, Martin; Heider, Stefan; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2017-05-16

    To investigate the diagnostic yield of prehospital ECG monitoring provided by emergency medical services in the case of suspected stroke. Consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted to our tertiary stroke center via emergency medical services and with available prehospital ECG were prospectively included during a 12-month study period. We assessed prehospital ECG recordings and compared the results to regular 12-lead ECG on admission and after continuous ECG monitoring at the stroke unit. Overall, 259 patients with prehospital ECG recording were included in the study (90.3% ischemic stroke, 9.7% intracerebral hemorrhage). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was detected in 25.1% of patients, second-degree or greater atrioventricular block in 5.4%, significant ST-segment elevation in 5.0%, and ventricular ectopy in 9.7%. In 18 patients, a diagnosis of new-onset AF with direct clinical consequences for the evaluation and secondary prevention of stroke was established by the prehospital recordings. In 2 patients, the AF episodes were limited to the prehospital period and were not detected by ECG on admission or during subsequent monitoring at the stroke unit. Of 126 patients (48.6%) with relevant abnormalities in the prehospital ECG, 16.7% received medical antiarrhythmic therapy during transport to the hospital, and 6.4% were transferred to a cardiology unit within the first 24 hours in the hospital. In a selected cohort of patients with stroke, the in-field recordings of the ECG detected a relevant rate of cardiac arrhythmia. The results can add to the in-hospital evaluation and should be considered in prehospital care of acute stroke. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Pre-Hospital Emergency in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ghardashi, Fatemeh; Izadi, Ahmad Reza; Ravangard, Ramin; Mirhashemi, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Context Pre-hospital care plays a vital role in saving trauma patients. Objectives This study aims to review studies conducted on the pre-hospital emergency status in Iran. Data Sources Data were sourced from Iranian electronic databases, including SID, IranMedex, IranDoc, Magiran, and non-Iranian electronic databases, such as Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, available data and statistics for the country were used. Data Selection All Persian-language articles published in Iranian scientific journals and related English-language articles published in Iranian and non-Iranian journals indexed on valid sites for September 2005 - 2014 were systematically reviewed. Data Extraction To review the selected articles, a data extraction form developed by the researchers as per the study’s objective was adopted. The articles were examined under two categories: structure and function of pre-hospital emergency. Results A total of 19 articles were selected, including six descriptive studies (42%), four descriptive-analytical studies (21%), five review articles (16%), two qualitative studies (10.5%), and two interventional (experimental) studies (10.5%). In addition, of these, 14 articles (73.5%) had been published in the English language. The focus of these selected articles were experts (31.5%), bases of emergency medical services (26%), injured (16%), data reviews (16%), and employees (10.5%). A majority of the studies (68%) investigated pre-hospital emergency functions and 32% reviewed the pre-hospital emergency structure. Conclusions The number of studies conducted on pre-hospital emergency services in Iran is limited. To promote public health, consideration of prevention areas, processes to provide pre-hospital emergency services, policymaking, foresight, systemic view, comprehensive research programs and roadmaps, and assessments of research needs in pre-hospital emergency seem necessary. PMID:27626016

  2. Prehospital Lactate Improves Accuracy of Prehospital Criteria for Designating Trauma Activation Level

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B.; Lerner, E. Brooke; Sperry, Jason L.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Guyette, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma activation level is determined by prehospital criteria. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) recommends trauma activation criteria; however, their accuracy may be limited. Prehospital lactate has shown promise in predicting trauma center resource requirements. Our objective was to investigate the added value of incorporating prehospital lactate in an algorithm to designate trauma activation level. Methods Air medical trauma patients undergoing prehospital lactate measurement were included. Algorithms using ACS activation criteria (ACS) and ACS activation criteria plus prehospital lactate (ACS+LAC) to designate trauma activation level were compared. Test characteristics and net reclassification improvement (NRI), which evaluates reclassification of patients among risk categories with additional predictive variables, were calculated. Algorithms were compared to predict trauma center need (TCN) defined as >1unit of blood in the ED; spinal cord injury; advanced airway; thoracotomy or pericardiocentesis; ICP monitoring; emergent operative or interventional radiology procedure; or death. Results There were 6,347 patients included. Twenty-eight percent had TCN. The ACS+LAC algorithm upgraded 256 patients and downgraded 548 patients compared to the ACS algorithm. The ACS+LAC algorithm versus ACS algorithm had a NRI of 0.058 (95%CI 0.044, 0.071; p<0.01), with an event NRI of −0.5% and non-event NRI of 6.2%. When weighted to favor changes in under-triage, the ACS+LAC still had a favorable overall reclassification (wNRI 0.041; 95%CI 0.028, 0.054; p=0.01). The ACS+LAC algorithm increased PPV, NPV, and accuracy. Over-triage was reduced 7.2%, while under-triage only increased 0.7%. The area under the curve (AUC) was significantly higher for the ACS+LAC algorithm (0.79 vs. 0.76, p<0.01). Conclusions The ACS+LAC algorithm reclassified patients to more appropriate levels of trauma activation when compared to the ACS algorithm. This overall benefit is achieved

  3. Intradermal microdialysis of hypertonic saline attenuates cutaneous vasodilatation in response to local heating.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Jennifer J; Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G

    2011-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that microdialysis of hypertonic saline would attenuate the skin blood flow response to local heating. Seventeen healthy subjects (23 ± 1 years old) were studied. In one group (n = 9), four microdialysis fibres were placed in the forearm skin and infused with the following: (1) Ringer solution; (2) normal saline (0.9% NaCl); (3) hypertonic saline (3% NaCl); and (4) 10 mm l-NAME. A second group (n = 8) was infused with the following: (1) normal saline; (2) hypertonic saline; (3) normal saline + l-NAME; and (4) hypertonic saline + l-NAME. Red blood cell flux was measured via laser Doppler flowmetry during local heating to 42°C. Site-specific maximal vasodilatation was determined by infusing 28 mm sodium nitroprusside while the skin was heated to 43°C. Data were expressed as the percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (%CVC(max)). The local heating response at the Ringer solution and normal saline sites did not differ (n = 9; initial peak Ringer solution, 69 ± 6 versus normal saline, 66 ± 2%CVC(max); plateau Ringer solution, 89 ± 4 versus normal saline, 89 ± 5%CVC(max)). Hypertonic saline reduced the initial peak (n = 9; normal saline, 66 ± 2 versus hypertonic saline, 54 ± 4%CVC(max); P < 0.05) and plateau (normal saline, 89 ± 5 versus hypertonic saline, 78 ± 2%CVC(max); P < 0.05) compared with normal saline. Plateau %CVC(max) was attenuated to a similar value at the normal saline + l-NAME and hypertonic saline + l-NAME sites (n = 8; normal saline + l-NAME, 39 ± 6 and hypertonic saline + l-NAME, 39 ± 5%CVC(max)). The nitric oxide contribution (plateau %CVC(max) - l-NAME plateau %CVC(max)) was lower at the hypertonic saline site (normal saline, 55 ± 6 versus hypertonic saline, 35 ± 4; P < 0.01). These data suggest an effect of salt on the cutaneous response to local heating, which may be mediated through a decreased production and/or availability of nitric oxide.

  4. A Multi Agent Based Approach for Prehospital Emergency Management.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Shoshtarian Malak, Jaleh; Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Danesh Shahraki, Azimeh

    2017-07-01

    To demonstrate an architecture to automate the prehospital emergency process to categorize the specialized care according to the situation at the right time for reducing the patient mortality and morbidity. Prehospital emergency process were analyzed using existing prehospital management systems, frameworks and the extracted process were modeled using sequence diagram in Rational Rose software. System main agents were identified and modeled via component diagram, considering the main system actors and by logically dividing business functionalities, finally the conceptual architecture for prehospital emergency management was proposed. The proposed architecture was simulated using Anylogic simulation software. Anylogic Agent Model, State Chart and Process Model were used to model the system. Multi agent systems (MAS) had a great success in distributed, complex and dynamic problem solving environments, and utilizing autonomous agents provides intelligent decision making capabilities.  The proposed architecture presents prehospital management operations. The main identified agents are: EMS Center, Ambulance, Traffic Station, Healthcare Provider, Patient, Consultation Center, National Medical Record System and quality of service monitoring agent. In a critical condition like prehospital emergency we are coping with sophisticated processes like ambulance navigation health care provider and service assignment, consultation, recalling patients past medical history through a centralized EHR system and monitoring healthcare quality in a real-time manner. The main advantage of our work has been the multi agent system utilization. Our Future work will include proposed architecture implementation and evaluation of its impact on patient quality care improvement.

  5. Prehospital analgesia with nitrous oxide/oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, K. D.

    1981-01-01

    A pilot study of prehospital analgesia with 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen was undertaken in patients experiencing severe pain from various sources. Under the supervision of an ambulance attendant N2O/O2 was administered through a face mask held by the patient and connected to a portable regulator/tank unit. Two types of units were evaluated -- Entonox (with premixed N2O and O2) and Nitronox (with separate cylinders of N2O and O2, the gases being mixed at the time of administration). Of the 72 patients 69 obtained worthwhile analgesia (marked or partial relief of pain) during treatment in the field or in the ambulance. There were no serious side effects, and those that did occur reflected N2O's expected action (e.g., giddiness). N2O/O2 is thus considered a safe and effective analgesic, suitable for use by ambulance personnel. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7306895

  6. Pre-hospital care--current concepts.

    PubMed

    Boyington, T; Williams, D

    1995-01-01

    After a brief outline of past developments in the training of ambulance personnel, this paper traces the adoption in the UK of Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) courses from the US. The 1991 World Student Games in Sheffield, UK led to liaison between training staff from South Yorkshire Metropolitan Ambulance and Paramedic Service (SYMAPS) and from Western New York Medical Training Institute. As a result, the trauma care policy of SYMAPS was altered from aiming to stabilise the patient at the scene of the accident to emphasising rapid and thorough assessment, packaging and transport. This is a resume of the scope of the PHTLS provider course. The course concentrates on the principles of PHTLS for the multisystems trauma victim.

  7. The prehospital management of avalanche victims.

    PubMed

    Kornhall, Daniel K; Martens-Nielsen, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Avalanche accidents are frequently lethal events with an overall mortality of 23%. Mortality increases dramatically to 50% in instances of complete burial. With modern day dense networks of ambulance services and rescue helicopters, health workers often become involved during the early stages of avalanche rescue. Historically, some of the most devastating avalanche accidents have involved military personnel. Armed forces are frequently deployed to mountain regions in order to train for mountain warfare or as part of ongoing conflicts. Furthermore, military units are frequently called to assist civilian organised rescue in avalanche rescue operations. It is therefore important that clinicians associated with units operating in mountain regions have an understanding of, the medical management of avalanche victims, and of the preceding rescue phase. The ensuing review of the available literature aims to describe the pathophysiology particular to avalanche victims and to outline a structured approach to the search, rescue and prehospital medical management.

  8. Spine immobilization: prehospitalization to final destination.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Care of the combat casualty with spinal column or spinal cord injury has not been previously described, particularly in regards to spinal immobilization. The ultimate goal of spinal immobilization in the combat casualty is to first ``do no further harm'' and then provide a stable, painless spine and an optimal neurologic recovery. The protocol for treatment of the combat casualty with suspected spinal column or spinal cord injury from the battlefield to final arrival at a definitive treatment center is discussed, and the special considerations for medical evacuation off the battlefield and for aeromedical transport are delineated. Selective prehospital spine immobilization, which involves spinal immobilization with backboard, semi-rigid cervical collar, lateral supports, and straps or tape, is recommended if there is suspicion of spinal column or spinal cord injury in the combat casualty and when conditions and resources permit. The authors do not recommend spinal immobilization for the combat casualty with isolated penetrating trauma.

  9. Dose Response Effects of Hypertonic Saline and Dextran on Cardiovascular Responses in Sheep

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    137-144, 1995 DOSE RESPONSE EFFECTS OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND DEXTRAN ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES AND PLASMA VOLUME EXPANSION IN SHEEP Michael A...addressed the dose - response effects of HS or D-70 solutions or their possible synergistic combinations to evaluate optimal concentrations of the HS and D...205-217, 1989. 13. Halvorsen L, Günther RA, Dubick MA, Holcroft JW: Dose response characteristics of hypertonic saline dextran solution. J Trauma

  10. What are the effects of hypertonic saline plus furosemide in acute heart failure?

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Patricio; Rain, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Paola

    2015-08-27

    In search of new therapies to solve diuretic resistance in acute heart failure, the addition of hypertonic saline has been proposed. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified two systematic reviews including nine pertinent randomized controlled trials. We combined the evidence and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded hypertonic saline associated with furosemide probably decrease mortality, length of hospital stay and hospital readmission in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

  11. Comparison of Normal Saline, Hypertonic Saline Albumin and Terlipressin plus Hypertonic Saline Albumin in an Infant Animal Model of Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model. Methods Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) 30 ml/kg (n = 13), 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS) 15 ml/kg (n = 13) or single bolus of terlipressin 15 μg/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS) (n = 13) over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared. Results After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure) and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow) were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS. Conclusions In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not

  12. Prehospital thrombolysis: a manual from Berlin.

    PubMed

    Ebinger, Martin; Lindenlaub, Sascha; Kunz, Alexander; Rozanski, Michal; Waldschmidt, Carolin; Weber, Joachim E; Wendt, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin; Kellner, Philipp A; Kaczmarek, Sabina; Endres, Matthias; Audebert, Heinrich J

    2013-11-26

    In acute ischemic stroke, time from symptom onset to intervention is a decisive prognostic factor. In order to reduce this time, prehospital thrombolysis at the emergency site would be preferable. However, apart from neurological expertise and laboratory investigations a computed tomography (CT) scan is necessary to exclude hemorrhagic stroke prior to thrombolysis. Therefore, a specialized ambulance equipped with a CT scanner and point-of-care laboratory was designed and constructed. Further, a new stroke identifying interview algorithm was developed and implemented in the Berlin emergency medical services. Since February 2011 the identification of suspected stroke in the dispatch center of the Berlin Fire Brigade prompts the deployment of this ambulance, a stroke emergency mobile (STEMO). On arrival, a neurologist, experienced in stroke care and with additional training in emergency medicine, takes a neurological examination. If stroke is suspected a CT scan excludes intracranial hemorrhage. The CT-scans are telemetrically transmitted to the neuroradiologist on-call. If coagulation status of the patient is normal and patient's medical history reveals no contraindication, prehospital thrombolysis is applied according to current guidelines (intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, iv rtPA, alteplase, Actilyse). Thereafter patients are transported to the nearest hospital with a certified stroke unit for further treatment and assessment of strokeaetiology. After a pilot-phase, weeks were randomized into blocks either with or without STEMO care. Primary end-point of this study is time from alarm to the initiation of thrombolysis. We hypothesized that alarm-to-treatment time can be reduced by at least 20 min compared to regular care.

  13. Prehospital Thrombolysis: A Manual from Berlin

    PubMed Central

    Ebinger, Martin; Lindenlaub, Sascha; Kunz, Alexander; Rozanski, Michal; Waldschmidt, Carolin; Weber, Joachim E.; Wendt, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin; Kellner, Philipp A.; Kaczmarek, Sabina; Endres, Matthias; Audebert, Heinrich J.

    2013-01-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, time from symptom onset to intervention is a decisive prognostic factor. In order to reduce this time, prehospital thrombolysis at the emergency site would be preferable. However, apart from neurological expertise and laboratory investigations a computed tomography (CT) scan is necessary to exclude hemorrhagic stroke prior to thrombolysis. Therefore, a specialized ambulance equipped with a CT scanner and point-of-care laboratory was designed and constructed. Further, a new stroke identifying interview algorithm was developed and implemented in the Berlin emergency medical services. Since February 2011 the identification of suspected stroke in the dispatch center of the Berlin Fire Brigade prompts the deployment of this ambulance, a stroke emergency mobile (STEMO). On arrival, a neurologist, experienced in stroke care and with additional training in emergency medicine, takes a neurological examination. If stroke is suspected a CT scan excludes intracranial hemorrhage. The CT-scans are telemetrically transmitted to the neuroradiologist on-call. If coagulation status of the patient is normal and patient's medical history reveals no contraindication, prehospital thrombolysis is applied according to current guidelines (intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, iv rtPA, alteplase, Actilyse). Thereafter patients are transported to the nearest hospital with a certified stroke unit for further treatment and assessment of strokeaetiology. After a pilot-phase, weeks were randomized into blocks either with or without STEMO care. Primary end-point of this study is time from alarm to the initiation of thrombolysis. We hypothesized that alarm-to-treatment time can be reduced by at least 20 min compared to regular care. PMID:24300505

  14. Comparison of the in vitro effects of saline, hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch, hypertonic saline, and two forms of hydroxyethyl starch on whole blood coagulation and platelet function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wurlod, Virginie A; Howard, Judith; Francey, Thierry; Schweighauser, Ariane; Adamik, Katja N

    2015-01-01

    To compare the in vitro effects of hypertonic solutions and colloids to saline on coagulation in dogs. In vitro experimental study. Veterinary teaching hospital. Twenty-one adult dogs. Blood samples were diluted with saline, 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with 6% hydroxyethylstarch with an average molecular weight of 200 kDa and a molar substitution of 0.4 (HH), 7.2% hypertonic saline (HTS), hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 or hydroxyethyl starch 600/0.75 at ratios of 1:22 and 1:9, and with saline and HES at a ratio of 1:3. Whole blood coagulation was analyzed using rotational thromboelastometry (extrinsic thromboelastometry-cloting time (ExTEM-CT), maximal clot firmness (MCF) and clot formation time (CFT) and fibrinogen function TEM-CT (FibTEM-CT) and MCF) and platelet function was analyzed using a platelet function analyzer (closure time, CTPFA ). All parameters measured were impaired by saline dilution. The CTPFA was prolonged by 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with 6% hydroxyethylstarch with an average molecular weight of 200 kDa and a molar substitution of 0.4 (HH) and HTS but not by HES solutions. At clinical dilutions equivalent to those generally administered for shock (saline 1:3, HES 1:9, and hypertonic solutions 1:22), CTPFA was more prolonged by HH and HTS than other solutions but more by saline than HES. No difference was found between the HES solutions or the hypertonic solutions. ExTEM-CFT and MCF were impaired by HH and HTS but only mildly by HES solutions. At clinically relevant dilutions, no difference was found in ExTEM-CFT between HTS and saline or in ExTEM-MCF between HH and saline. No consistent difference was found between the 2 HES solutions but HH impaired ExTEM-CFT and MCF more than HTS. At high dilutions, FibTEM-CT and -MCF and ExTEM-CT were impaired by HES. Hypertonic solutions affect platelet function and whole blood coagulation to a greater extent than saline and HES. At clinically relevant dilutions, only CTPFA was markedly more

  15. Effects of hypertonic perfusion on the ultrastructure of frog cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Hatae, J; Kawata, H

    1978-11-01

    The ultrastructural changes induced by hypertonic perfusion were investigated using the ventricular muscle of the bullfrog. It was demonstrated that the fixative tonicity critically affects the ultrastructure. Effects of sucrose-, NaCl- and urea-hypertonicities were investigated and compared. In both sucrose- and NaCl-hypertonic media, although the cardiac muscle strongly shrank and the extracellular spaces markedly increased according to increasing tonicity the width of the intercalated disc cleft remained unchanged and the cleft was never separated even in 3 times hypertonicity. The sucrose-hypertonicity made the feature of the fine structure extremely obscure and the electron densities in both the Z-line and the intercalated disc region markedly decreased. When both the perfusate and fixative were made hypertonic by urea, which is known to easily penetrate the cell membrane, a shrinkage of the myocardial cells was observed but to a lesser extent as compared with sucrose or NaCl. The striation pattern was disordered in this condition though the intercalated discs were never affected.

  16. Creatine as a compatible osmolyte in muscle cells exposed to hypertonic stress

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Roberta R; Bonelli, Mara A; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Brigotti, Maurizio; Fumarola, Claudia; Sestili, Piero; Mozzoni, Paola; De Palma, Giuseppe; Mutti, Antonio; Carnicelli, Domenica; Vacondio, Federica; Silva, Claudia; Borghetti, Angelo F; Wheeler, Kenneth P; Petronini, Pier Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    Exposure of C2C12 muscle cells to hypertonic stress induced an increase in cell content of creatine transporter mRNA and of creatine transport activity, which peaked after about 24 h incubation at 0.45 osmol (kg H2O)−1. This induction of transport activity was prevented by addition of either cycloheximide, to inhibit protein synthesis, or of actinomycin D, to inhibit RNA synthesis. Creatine uptake by these cells is largely Na+ dependent and kinetic analysis revealed that its increase under hypertonic conditions resulted from an increase in Vmax of the Na+-dependent component, with no significant change in the Km value of about 75 μmol l−1. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a more than threefold increase in the expression of creatine transporter mRNA in cells exposed to hypertonicity. Creatine supplementation significantly enhanced survival of C2C12 cells incubated under hypertonic conditions and its effect was similar to that obtained with the well known compatible osmolytes, betaine, taurine and myo-inositol. This effect seemed not to be linked to the energy status of the C2C12 cells because hypertonic incubation caused a decrease in their ATP content, with or without the addition of creatine at 20 mmol l−1 to the medium. This induction of creatine transport activity by hypertonicity is not confined to muscle cells: a similar induction was shown in porcine endothelial cells. PMID:16873409

  17. Hypertonicity enhances GABA uptake by cultured rat retinal capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yahara, Tohru; Tachikawa, Masanori; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We have reported previously that taurine transporter (TauT) mediates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a substrate in a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB2 cells). This study investigates how TauT-mediated GABA transport is regulated in TR-iBRB2 cells under hypertonic conditions. [³H]GABA uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells exposed to 12 h- to 24 h-hypertonic culture medium was significantly greater than that of isotonic culture medium. [³H]GABA uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells was Na(+)-, Cl(-)-, and concentration-dependent with a Michaelis-Menten (K(m)) constant of 3.5 mM under isotonic conditions and K(m) of 0.324 and 5.48 mM under hypertonic conditions. Under hypertonic conditions, [³H]GABA uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells was more potently inhibited by substrates of TauT, such as taurine and β-alanine, than those of GABA transporters such as GABA, nipecotic acid, and betaine. These results suggest that an unknown high-affinity GABA transport process and TauT-mediated GABA transport are enhanced under hypertonic conditions. In conclusion, hypertonicity enhances GABA uptake by cultured rat retinal capillary endothelial cells.

  18. Hypertonic saline up-regulates A3 adenosine receptors expression of activated neutrophils and increases acute lung injury after sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yu; Pauzenberger, Reinhard; Mark, Hirsh I.; Junger, Wolfgang G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Hypertonic saline resuscitation reduces tissue damage by inhibiting polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Hypertonic saline triggers polymorphonuclear neutrophils to release adenosine triphosphate that is converted to adenosine, inhibiting polymorphonuclear neutrophils through A2a adenosine receptors. polymorphonuclear neutrophils also express A3 adenosine receptors that enhance polymorphonuclear neutrophils functions. Here we investigated whether A3 receptors may diminish the efficacy of hypertonic saline in a mouse model of acute lung injury. Design Randomized animal study and laboratory investigation. Setting University research laboratory. Interventions The effect of A3 receptors on the efficacy of hypertonic saline resuscitation was assessed in A3 receptor knockout and wild-type mice. Animals were treated with hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl, 4 mL/kg) before or after cecal ligation and puncture, and acute lung injury and mortality were determined. The effect of timing of hypertonic saline exposure on A3 receptor expression and degranulation was studied in vitro with isolated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Measurements and main results Treatment of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with hypertonic saline before stimulation with formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine inhibited A3 receptor expression and degranulation, whereas hypertonic saline-treatment after formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulation augmented A3 receptor expression and degranulation. Acute lung injury in wild-type mice treated with hypertonic saline after cecal ligation and puncture was significantly greater than in wild-type mice pretreated with hypertonic saline. This aggravating effect of delayed hypertonic saline-treatment was absent in A3 receptor knockout mice. Similarly, mortality in wild-type mice with delayed hypertonic saline-treatment was significantly higher (88%) than in animals treated with hypertonic saline before cecal ligation and puncture (50%). Mortality in A3

  19. [Effectiveness of inhaled hypertonic saline in children with bronchiolitis].

    PubMed

    Li, Guangpu; Zhao, Jing

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of inhaled nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) solution in infants with acute bronchiolitis. Totally 129 patients with acute bronchiolitis (clinical severity score ≥ 4, aged 2-18 months) admitted to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics from November 2012 to January 2013 were enrolled. All the subjects were assigned to receive 1.5 ml compound ipratropium bromide solution for inhalation and 1 ml budesonide firstly, twice a day. Then, the subjects were randomized to receive 2 ml doses of nebulized 5% HS (Group A), 3% HS (Group B) or 0.9% NS (Group C), twice a day. The treatment lasted for 3 days. Clinical severity scores before treatment and 24, 48, 72 h after treatment were documented. Bronchospasm, nausea and emesis were recorded to assess safety. A total of 124 patients completed this research.Group A included 40 cases, Group B included 42 cases, Group C included 42 cases. Demographic characteristics, pre-treatment duration and clinical severity score before treatment were similar among the 3 group.Seventy-two hours after treatment, the clinical severity score of Group A, B, and C were 3.5 (1.0) , 4.0 (1.0) and 5.0 (0) . At 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment, the clinical severity score were significantly different among the three groups (χ(2) = 36.000, 51.200, 50.800, P < 0.05) .One patient in Group A got paroxysmal cough everytime as soon as he received 5% HS (6 times).Other 3 patients in Group A got paroxysmal cough once. The incidence of adverse effect of Group A was 3.75% (9/240); no adverse event occurred in other group. The incidence of adverse effect among this three group was significantly different (χ(2) = 19.13, P < 0.01). Inhalation of nebulized 5% and 3% hypertonic saline could decrease clinical symptoms of patient with acute bronchiolitis; 5% HS was superior to 3% HS. But 2 ml dose of 5% HS may induce paroxysmal cough.

  20. Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli in hypertonic sucrose media.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, Taketo; Furukawa, Soichi; Narisawa, Naoki; Hagiwara, Chisato; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

    2009-06-01

    High osmotic environments produced by NaCl or sucrose have been used as reliable and traditional methods of food preservation. We tested, Escherichia coli as an indicator of food-contaminating bacterium, to determine if it can form biofilm in a hyperosmotic environment. E. coli K-12 IAM1264 did not form biofilm in LB broth that contained 1 M NaCl. However, the bacterium formed biofilm in LB broth that contained 1 M sucrose, although the planktonic growth was greatly suppressed. The biofilm, formed on solid surfaces, such as titer-plate well walls and glass slides, solely around the air-liquid interface. Both biofilm forming cells and planktonic cells in the hypertonic medium adopted a characteristic, fat and filamentous morphology with no FtsZ rings, which are a prerequisite for septum formation. Biofilm forming cells were found to be alive based on propidium iodide staining. The presence of 1 M sucrose in the food environment is not sufficient to prevent biofilm formation by E. coli.

  1. Intubation of Profoundly Agitated Patients Treated with Prehospital Ketamine.

    PubMed

    Olives, Travis D; Nystrom, Paul C; Cole, Jon B; Dodd, Kenneth W; Ho, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-01

    Profound agitation in the prehospital setting confers substantial risk to patients and providers. Optimal chemical sedation in this setting remains unclear. The goal of this study was to describe intubation rates among profoundly agitated patients treated with prehospital ketamine and to characterize clinically significant outcomes of a prehospital ketamine protocol. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who received prehospital ketamine, per a predefined protocol, for control of profound agitation and who subsequently were transported to an urban Level 1 trauma center from May 1, 2010 through August 31, 2013. Identified records were reviewed for basic ambulance run information, subject characteristics, ketamine dosing, and rate of intubation. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance run data were matched to hospital-based electronic medical records. Clinically significant outcomes are characterized, including unadjusted and adjusted rates of intubation. Overall, ketamine was administered 227 times in the prehospital setting with 135 cases meeting study criteria of use of ketamine for treatment of agitation. Endotracheal intubation was undertaken for 63% (85/135) of patients, including attempted prehospital intubation in four cases. Male gender and late night arrival were associated with intubation in univariate analyses (χ2=12.02; P=.001 and χ2=5.34; P=.021, respectively). Neither ketamine dose, co-administration of additional sedating medications, nor evidence of ethanol (ETOH) or sympathomimetic ingestion was associated with intubation. The association between intubation and both male gender and late night emergency department (ED) arrival persisted in multivariate analysis. Neither higher dose (>5mg/kg) ketamine nor co-administration of midazolam or haloperidol was associated with intubation in logistic regression modeling of the 120 subjects with weights recorded. Two deaths were observed. Post-hoc analysis of intubation rates suggested a

  2. Mannitol versus hypertonic saline: Safety and efficacy of mannitol and hypertonic saline in sputum induction and bronchial hyperreactivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Puebla, M J; Olaguibel, J M; Almudevar, E; Echegoyen, A A; Vela, C; de Esteban, B

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophilic asthma phenotype predicts good response to corticosteroids and associates to asthmatic exacerbations. Sputum induction by hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation is technically demanding. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to osmotic agents indirectly mirrors active airway inflammation. We compared the safety and ability of HS and mannitol to induce sputum and measure BHR. We evaluated the stability of inflammatory phenotypes. We studied 35 non-smoking asthmatics randomized to undergo HS and mannitol challenges on 2 days 1 week apart. Sputum was sampled for cell analysis and phenotyped as eosinophilic (≥3% eosinophils) and non-eosinophilic (<3%) asthma. Nineteen subjects had BHR to mannitol and nine of them also had BHR to HS. Drops in forced expiratory volume in 1 s were higher from HS challenge than from mannitol challenge. Adequate sputum samples were obtained from 80% subjects (68% mannitol and 71% HS). Eosinophils and macrophages from both challenges correlated. Neutrophils were higher in sputum from HS. Ninety percent samples were equally phenotyped with HS and mannitol. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and BHR correlated in both challenges. HS and mannitol showed similar capacity to produce valuable sputum samples. BHR to both osmotic stimuli partially resembled airway eosinophilic inflammation but mannitol was more sensitive than HS to assess BHR. Eosinophilic phenotype remained stable in most patients with both stimuli. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. National consensus on communication in prehospital trauma care, the DENIM study.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Annelieke Maria Karien; Geeraedts, Leo Maria George; Giannakopoulos, Georgios Fredericus; Terra, Maartje; Christiaans, Herman M T; Mokkink, Lidwine Brigitta; Bloemers, Frank Willem

    2017-07-11

    In the Netherlands prehospital trauma care is provided by emergency medical services (EMS) nurses. This care is extended by Physician staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (P-HEMS) for the more severely injured patient. Prehospital communication is a factor of influence on the identification of these patients and the dispatch of P-HEMS. Though prehospital communication it is often perceived to be incomplete and unstructured. To elucidated factors of influence on prehospital triage and the identification of the severely injured patient a Delphi study was performed. A three round modified Delphi study was designed to explore concepts amongst experts in prehospital trauma care. P-HEMS physicians/nurses, trauma surgeons, EMS nurses and dispatch center operators where asked to state their opinion regarding identification of the poly trauma patient, trauma patient characteristics, prehospital communication and prehospital handover. Seventy-one panellist completed all three rounds. For the first round seven cases and 13 theses were presented. From the answers/argumentation the second round was build, in which 68 theses had to be ranked within four principle themes: factors that influence prehospital communication, critical information for proper handover, factors influencing collaboration and how training/education can influence this. Out of these answers the third survey was build, focussing on determining the exact content of a prehospital trauma handover. The majority of the panellists agreed to a set of parameters resulting in a new model of inter-professional hand over regarding prehospital trauma patients. Exact identification of the poly trauma patient in need of care by P-HEMS is difficult though prehospital communication and the prehospital handover may be improved. The respondents report that prehospital communication needs to be unambiguous to improve trauma care. Consensus was reached on a set of ten parameters that should minimally be handed over with

  4. Prehospital thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: the Belgian eminase prehospital study (BEPS). BEPS Collaborative Group.

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    Interest in early thrombolysis has prompted a study on the feasibility and time course of prehospital thrombolysis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in six centres in Belgium. Patients with clinically suspected AMI and with typical ECG changes presenting within 4 h after onset of pain were treated with 30 units of Anisoylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Activator Complex (APSAC, eminase) intravenously by a mobile intensive care unit (MICU). Sixty-two patients were included in the study and an AMI was confirmed in 60. The mean time (+/- 1 SD) from onset of pain to injection of APSAC was 95 +/- 47 min and the mean estimated time gain, calculated as the time difference between the arrival of the MICU at home and the arrival of the MICU at the emergency department, was 50 +/- 17 min. In the prehospital period four patients developed ventricular fibrillation and one cardiogenic shock. During hospital stay severe complications were observed in four patients. Two events were fatal, one diffuse haemorrhage and one septal rupture; two events were non fatal, one feasible and that an estimated time gain of 50 min can be obtained. Potential risks and benefits remain to be demonstrated in a large controlled clinical trial.

  5. Refraining from pre-hospital advanced airway management: a prospective observational study of critical decision making in an anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital critical care service.

    PubMed

    Rognås, Leif; Hansen, Troels Martin; Kirkegaard, Hans; Tønnesen, Else

    2013-10-25

    We report prospectively recorded observational data from consecutive cases in which the attending pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologist considered performing pre-hospital advanced airway management but decided to withhold such interventions. Anaesthesiologists from eight pre-hospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region (a mixed rural and urban region with 1.27 million inhabitants) registered data from February 1st 2011 to October 31st 2012. Included were patients of all ages for whom pre-hospital advanced airway management were considered but not performed. The main objectives were to investigate (1) the pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists' reasons for considering performing pre-hospital advanced airway management in this group of patients (2) the pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists' reasons for not performing pre-hospital advanced airway management (3) the methods used to treat these patients (4) the incidence of complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management not being performed. We registered data from 1081 cases in which the pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists' considered performing pre-hospital advanced airway management. The anaesthesiologists decided to withhold pre-hospital advanced airway management in 32.1% of these cases (n = 347). In 75.1% of these cases (n = 257) pre-hospital advanced airway management were withheld because of the patient's condition and in 30.8% (n = 107) because of patient co-morbidity. The most frequently used alternative treatment was bag-mask ventilation, used in 82.7% of the cases (n = 287). Immediate complications related to the decision of not performing pre-hospital advanced airway management occurred in 0.6% of the cases (n = 2). We have illustrated the complexity of the critical decision-making associated with pre-hospital advanced airway management. This study is the first to identify the most common reasons why pre-hospital critical care

  6. Prehospital emergency medical services in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hisamuddin, N A R Nik; Hamzah, M Shah; Holliman, C James

    2007-05-01

    Once a very slowly developing country in a Southeast Asia region, Malaysia has undergone considerable change over the last 20 years after the government changed its focus from agriculture to developing more industry and technology. The well-known "Vision 2020," introduced by the late Prime Minister, set a target for the nation to be a developed country in the Asia region by the year 2020. As the economy and standard of living have improved, the demand from the public for a better health care system, in particular, emergency medical services (EMS), has increased. Despite the effort by the government to improve the health care system in Malaysia, EMS within the country are currently limited, best described as being in the "developing" phase. The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, Civil Defense, and non-governmental organizations such as Red Crescent and St. John's Ambulance, provide the current ambulance services. At the present time, there are no uniform medical control or treatment protocols, communication systems, system management, training or education, or quality assurance policies. However, the recent development of and interest in an Emergency Medicine training program has gradually led to improved EMS and prehospital care.

  7. [The effect of hypertonic saline solution on the rheology after burn-blast combined injury].

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Zhu, P; Wang, Z; Liu, D; Wu, Z; Song, G; Long, M

    1997-12-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic saline solution on the rheology and putative mechanism, we investigated the changes of plasma viscosity, blood viscosity and reduced viscosity in dogs treated with hypertonic saline solution after burn-blast combined injury and observed the effect of hypertonic saline solution therapy on the viscoelastic property of erythrocyte membranes measured by micropippette aspiration technique in rats with burn. The results showed that the blood viscosity and reduced viscosity increased significantly in dogs after injury, and plasma viscosity also increased significantly at 24 h after injury. Elastic moduli and viscous coefficients of erythrocyte membranes increased obviously in rats after burn. The hypertonic saline solution therapy could significantly improve blood viscosity and reduced viscosity, but it did not significantly improve elastic moduli and viscous coefficients of erythrocyte membranes. These suggested that the hardness of erythrocyte membranes increased, the deform property of erythrocyte membranes decreased, and the blood rheology became worse after burn blast combined injury. Hypertonic saline solution therapy could significantly improve the blood rheology. The effect did not bear a significant relationship with the change of single biomechanics property of erythrocyte membranes. It might be related with other factors.

  8. The effect of tonicity and hypertonic solutions on microvascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Victorino, Gregory P; Newton, Christopher R; Curran, Brian

    2002-05-15

    The effect of hypertonic saline (HS) on microvascular permeability is unclear. We hypothesized that varying degrees of tonicity and HS solutions alter microvascular fluid flux across the endothelium. Hydraulic permeability (L(p)) is a measure of water flow across the endothelial barrier. L(p) was measured in cannulated rat mesenteric venules using the modified Landis micro-occlusion technique. The effect of tonicity was tested by measuring L(p) after successive perfusions with Ringers' solutions of varying sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (85, 135, 185, and 235 mM) (n = 6). Additional venules were perfused with control Ringers' ([NaCl] = 135 mM) and measures of L(p) were obtained after subsequent perfusions with 7% NaCl followed by 7% NaCl with 6% dextran (n = 6). Tonicity had a significant dose-dependent effect on L(p) (P < 0.0001). Perfusion with 7% NaCl significantly increased L(p) (P < 0.0001). The addition of 6% dextran to 7% NaCl significantly decreased L(p) compared with perfusion with 7% NaCl alone (P = 0.002). We conclude that (1) tonicity influences microvascular permeability, (2) HS increases microvascular permeability, and (3) the addition of dextran to HS greatly attenuates this response. These findings suggest an important role for tonicity and a possible deleterious effect of HS in modulating microvascular permeability as well as the benefit of dextran with HS for maintaining intravascular volume. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  9. Management of pain in pre-hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael; Rodgers, Antony

    2015-06-01

    Assessment and management of pain in pre-hospital care settings are important aspects of paramedic and clinical team roles. As emergency department waiting times and delays in paramedic-to-nurse handover increase, it becomes more and more vital that patients receive adequate pre-hospital pain relief. However, administration of analgesia can be inadequate and can result in patients experiencing oligoanalgesia, or under-treated pain. This article examines these issues along with the aetiology of trauma and the related socioeconomic background of traumatic injury. It reviews validated pain-assessment tools, outlines physiological responses to traumatic pain and discusses some of the misconceptions about the provision of effective analgesia in pre-hospital settings.

  10. Anaesthetist-provided pre-hospital advanced airway management in children: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Tarpgaard, Mona; Hansen, Troels Martin; Rognås, Leif

    2015-08-27

    Pre-hospital advanced airway management has been named one of the top-five research priorities in physician-provided pre-hospital critical care. Few studies have been made on paediatric pre-hospital advanced airway management. The aim of this study was to investigate pre-hospital endotracheal intubation success rate in children, first-pass success rates and complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management in patients younger than 16 years of age treated by pre-hospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region (1.3 million inhabitants). A prospective descriptive study based on data collected from eight anaesthetist-staffed pre-hospital critical care teams between February 1st 2011 and November 1st 2012. Primary endpoints were 1) pre-hospital endotracheal intubation success rate in children 2) pre-hospital endotracheal intubation first-pass success rate in children and 3) complications related to prehospital advanced airway management in children. The pre-hospital critical care anaesthetists attempted endotracheal intubation in 25 children, 13 of which were less than 2 years old. In one patient, a neonate (600 g birth weight), endotracheal intubation failed. The patient was managed by uneventful bag-mask ventilation. All other 24 children had their tracheas successfully intubated by the pre-hospital critical care anaesthetists resulting in a pre-hospital endotracheal intubation success rate of 96 %. Overall first pass success-rate was 75 %. In the group of patients younger than 2 years old, first pass success-rate was 54 %. The total rate of airway management related complications such as vomiting, aspiration, accidental intubation of the oesophagus or right main stem bronchus, hypoxia (oxygen saturation < 90 %) or bradycardia (according to age) was 20 % in children younger than 16 years of age and 38 % in children younger than 2 years of age. No deaths, cardiac arrests or severe bradycardia (heart rate <60) occurred in relation to pre-hospital

  11. Outcome following physician supervised prehospital resuscitation: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Krüger, Andreas J; Zwisler, Stine T; Brøchner, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prehospital care provided by specially trained, physician-based emergency services (P-EMS) is an integrated part of the emergency medical systems in many developed countries. To what extent P-EMS increases survival and favourable outcomes is still unclear. The aim of the study was thus to investigate ambulance runs initially assigned ‘life-saving missions’ with emphasis on long-term outcome in patients treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark Methods All MECU runs are registered in a database by the attending physician, stating, among other parameters, the treatment given, outcome of the treatment and the patient's diagnosis. Over a period of 80 months from May 1 2006 to December 31 2012, all missions in which the outcome of the treatment was registered as ‘life saving’ were scrutinised. Initial outcome, level of competence of the caretaker and diagnosis of each patient were manually established in each case in a combined audit of the prehospital database, the discharge summary of the MECU and the medical records from the hospital. Outcome parameters were final outcome, the aetiology of the life-threatening condition and the level of competences necessary to treat the patient. Results Of 25 647 patients treated by the MECU, 701 (2.7%) received prehospital ‘life saving treatment’. In 596 (2.3%) patients this treatment exceeded the competences of the attending emergency medical technician or paramedic. Of these patients, 225 (0.9%) were ultimately discharged to their own home. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that anaesthesiologist administrated prehospital therapy increases the level of treatment modalities leading to an increased survival in relation to a prehospital system consisting of emergency medical technicians and paramedics alone and thus supports the concept of applying specialists in anaesthesiology in the prehospital setting especially when treating patients with cardiac arrest, patients in

  12. [Prehospital management of acute childhood poisoning in Spain].

    PubMed

    Salazar, June; Zubiaur, Oihane; Azkunaga, Beatriz; Molina, Juan Carlos; Mintegi, Santiago

    2017-06-01

    This objective was to analyze prehospital management of acute childhood poisonings. Poisonings treated in 59 pediatric emergency departments participating in the Toxicology Observation Project of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine were registered prospectively between 2008 and 2014. We analyzed consultations made and treatments received before the patient arrived in the emergency department. A total of 902 poisonings were registered; in 870 cases (96.4%) cases whether or not a prehospital consultation had been made was on record. An emergency service of come type was contacted or visited in 312 cases (35.9%). Calls were most often made to the central emergency service (122 cases [14%]), primary care centers (100 cases [11.5%]), or the National Toxicology Institute (60 cases, [6.9%]). Choice of service to call or visit varied greatly according to type of poisoning. Prehospital treatment was more often received if a service had been contacted (26.3%) than if not (6.8%) (P<.001). Treatment was also more specific to the type of poisoning (e.g., decontamination, oxygen therapy, antidotes) if a prehospital service had been contacted. About half the cases that consulted a poisoning service but did not receive treatment before coming to a hospital did receive treatment in the hospital emergency department. We conclude that a substantial percentage of patients who seek care for childhood poisoning from an emergency department have also consulted a prehospital service. Better prehospital management of such cases could facilitate earlier treatment when required and also preempt unnecessary trips to pediatric emergency departments.

  13. Multicenter Evaluation of Prehospital Opioid Pain Management in Injured Children.

    PubMed

    Browne, Lorin R; Shah, Manish I; Studnek, Jonathan R; Ostermayer, Daniel G; Reynolds, Stacy; Guse, Clare E; Brousseau, David C; Lerner, E Brooke

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Emergency Medical Services Physicians' (NAEMSP) Position Statement on Prehospital Pain Management and the joint National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) Evidence-based Guideline for Prehospital Analgesia in Trauma aim to improve the recognition, assessment, and treatment of prehospital pain. The impact of implementation of these guidelines on pain management in children by emergency medical services (EMS) agencies has not been assessed. Determine the change in frequency of documented pain severity assessment and opiate administration among injured pediatric patients in three EMS agencies after adoption of best practice recommendations. This is a retrospective study of children <18 years of age with a prehospital injury-related primary impression from three EMS agencies. Each agency independently implemented pain protocol changes which included adding the use of age-appropriate pain scales, decreasing the minimum age for opiate administration, and updating fentanyl dosing. We abstracted data from prehospital electronic patient records before and after changes to the pain management protocols. The primary outcomes were the frequency of administration of opioid analgesia and documentation of pain severity assessment as recorded in the prehospital patient care record. A total of 3,597 injured children were transported prior to pain protocol changes and 3,743 children after changes. Opiate administration to eligible patients across study sites regardless of documentation of pain severity was 156/3,089 (5%) before protocol changes and 175/3,509 (5%) after (p = 0.97). Prior to protocol changes, 580 (18%) children had documented pain assessments and 430 (74%) had moderate-to-severe pain. After protocol changes, 644 (18%) patients had pain severity documented with 464 (72%) in moderate-to-severe pain. For all study agencies, pain severity was documented in 13%, 19%, and 22% of

  14. Skills required for maritime pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care (PHEC) in the military has undergone major changes during the last 10 years of warfighting in the land environment. Providing this care in the maritime environment presents several unique challenges. This paper examines the clinical capabilities required of a PHEC team in the maritime environment and how this role can be fulfilled as part of Role 2 Afloat. It applies to Pre-hospital emergency care projected from a hospital not to General Duties Medical Officers at Role 1.

  15. Cell and molecular biology of organic osmolyte accumulation in hypertonic renal cells.

    PubMed

    Handler, J S; Kwon, H M

    2001-02-01

    When the renal medulla becomes hypertonic in association with the formation of concentrated urine, the cells of the medulla avoid the stress of high intracellular salts by accumulating small non-perturbing organic osmolytes. The response has been studied in most detail in cultured kidney-derived cells, and confirmed in studies of the intact kidney. The non-perturbing osmolytes, myo-inositol, betaine, and sorbitol, are accumulated because of stimulation of the transcription of the genes for the proteins that catalyze their accumulation by transport or synthesis. The genes involved have all been cloned and sequenced and contain tonicity responsive regulatory elements (TonEs) in their 5' region. During hypertonicity, the elements are occupied by TonE-binding protein, a transacting factor that has been cloned and characterized. Current efforts focus on identifying the mechanism by which cells sense hypertonicity and how that leads to activation of TonE-binding protein. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Dornase alpha compared to hypertonic saline for lung atelectasis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Youness, Houssein A; Mathews, Kathryn; Elya, Marwan K; Kinasewitz, Gary T; Keddissi, Jean I

    2012-12-01

    Despite the lack of randomized trials, nebulized Dornase alpha and hypertonic saline are used empirically to treat atelectasis in mechanically ventilated patients. Our objective was to determine the clinical and radiological efficacy of these medications as an adjunct to standard therapy in critically ill patients. Mechanically ventilated patients with new onset (<48 h) lobar or multilobar atelectasis were randomized into three groups: nebulized Dornase alpha, hypertonic (7%) saline or normal saline every 12 h. All patients received standard therapy, including chest percussion therapy, kinetic therapy, and bronchodilators. The primary endpoint was the change in the daily chest X-ray atelectasis score. A total of 33 patients met the inclusion criteria and were randomized equally into the three groups. Patients in the Dornase alpha group showed a reduction of 2.18±1.33 points in the CXR score from baseline to day 7, whereas patients in the normal saline group had a reduction of 1.00±1.79 points, and patients in the hypertonic saline group showed a score reduction of 1.09±1.51 points. Pairwise comparison of the mean change of the CXR score showed no statistical difference between hypertonic saline, normal saline, and dornase alpha. Airway pressures as well as oxygenation, expressed as PaO(2)/F(I)O(2) and time to extubation also were similar among groups. During the study period the rate of extubation was 54% (6/11), 45% (5/11), and 63% (7/11) in the normal saline, hypertonic saline, and Dornase alpha groups, respectively (p=0.09). No treatment related complications were observed. There was no significant improvement in the chest X-ray atelectasis score in mechanically ventilated patients with new onset atelectasis who were nebulized with Dornase alpha twice a day. Hypertonic saline was no more effective than normal saline in this population. Larger randomized control trials are needed to confirm our results.

  17. Inhibition by hypertonic solutions of Ca-dependent electrogenesis in single crab muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, G; Sorenson, A L

    1977-10-01

    This study describes the effect of hypertonic solutions on isolated muscle fibers of Callinectes danae. Solutions of twice normal tonicity (2.0 T) inhibit both the normal graded membrane responses and the spikes induced by procaine, tetraethylammonium, or barium. The inhibition is maintained throughout exposure to hypertonic solutions prepared by addition of impermeant solutes such as NaCl, sucrose, or Tris-propionate, but is reversible on their withdrawal. In the presence of permeant solutes such as glycerol or acetamide, the inhibition is transient. In both cases the onset of inhibition of the depolarizing Ca electrogenesis is correlated with shrinkage of the fiber. In the case of permeant solutes, the time course of recovery of the graded responses or the spikes follows the recovery of the fiber volume. Changes in the passive electrical characteristics of the fibers due to hypertonic solutions were unrelated to the blockade of membrane Ca activation. The current-voltage relationship in hypertonic sollution revealed no increase in depolarizing K activation. Inhibition of the graded membrane responses and spikes appears to be associated with depression of Ca conductance. Hypertonic solutions might affect the activation of Ca conductance through reduction of the electric field generated by fixed negative surface charges and/or morphological changes in the T tubules. Membrane depolarization elicited little or no tension in 2.0 T solutions while caffeine contracture (10 mM) with an ampliture of 76% of the maximal contractile ability could still be elicited. This indicates that direct effects of hypertonic solutions on the contractile apparatus were not responsible for loss of tension. The latter is attributed to the inhibition of the transmembrane Ca currents.

  18. Prehospital Administration of Epinephrine in Pediatric Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Eli; Hern, H Gene; Barger, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Anaphylaxis in the pediatric population is both serious and potentially lethal. The incidence of allergic and anaphylactic reactions has been increasing and the need for life saving intervention with epinephrine must remain an important part of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provider training. Our aim was to characterize dosing and timing of epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol in the pediatric patient with anaphylaxis. In this retrospective chart review, we studied prehospital medication administration in pediatric patients ages 1 month up to 14 years old classified as having a severe allergic reaction or anaphylaxis. We compared rates of epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol given to patients with allergic conditions including anaphylaxis. In addition, we calculated the rate of epinephrine administration in cases of anaphylaxis and determined what percentage of time the epinephrine was given by EMS or prior to their arrival. Of the pediatric patient contacts, 205 were treated for allergic complaints. Of those with allergic complaints, 98 of 205 (48%; 95% CI 41%, 55%) had symptoms consistent with anaphylaxis and indications for epinephrine. Of these 98, 53 (54%, 95% CI 44%, 64%) were given epinephrine by EMS or prior to EMS arrival. Among the patients in anaphylaxis not given epinephrine prior to EMS arrival, 6 (12%; 95% CI 3%, 21%) received epinephrine from EMS, 10 (20%; 95% CI 9%, 30%) received diphenhydramine only, 9 (18%, 95% CI 7%-28%) received only albuterol and 17 (33%, 95% CI 20%-46%) received both albuterol and diphenhydramine. 9 patients in anaphylaxis received no treatment prior to arriving to the emergency department (18%, 95% CI 7%-28%). In pediatric patients who met criteria for anaphylaxis and the use of epinephrine, only 54% received epinephrine and the overwhelming majority received it prior to EMS arrival. EMS personnel may not be treating anaphylaxis appropriately with epinephrine.

  19. [Isolation of monocytes from peripheral blood by gradient centrifugation on Lymphoprep in a hypertonic medium].

    PubMed

    Májský, A

    1989-12-08

    The author describes a new method of isolation of monocytes from peripheral blood, involving hypertonization of the blood and isolation of monocytes by centrifuging above a gradient of hypertonic Lymphoprep. The method makes it possible to obtain a monocyte suspension with at least 85% cells; there are no B lymphocytes in the suspension and the monocytes are not damaged. The quality of the thus obtained monocytes was tested by examination with monocytic sera and with HLA-DR antibodies, whereby the test was concurrently made with monocytes obtained by adherence and with B lymphocytes.

  20. An open, interoperable, and scalable prehospital information technology network architecture.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam B; Rokos, Ivan C; Burns, Kevin; Van Gelder, Carin M; Fisher, Roger M; Dunford, James V; Cone, David C; Bogucki, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most intractable challenges in prehospital medicine include response time optimization, inefficiencies at the emergency medical services (EMS)-emergency department (ED) interface, and the ability to correlate field interventions with patient outcomes. Information technology (IT) can address these and other concerns by ensuring that system and patient information is received when and where it is needed, is fully integrated with prior and subsequent patient information, and is securely archived. Some EMS agencies have begun adopting information technologies, such as wireless transmission of 12-lead electrocardiograms, but few agencies have developed a comprehensive plan for management of their prehospital information and integration with other electronic medical records. This perspective article highlights the challenges and limitations of integrating IT elements without a strategic plan, and proposes an open, interoperable, and scalable prehospital information technology (PHIT) architecture. The two core components of this PHIT architecture are 1) routers with broadband network connectivity to share data between ambulance devices and EMS system information services and 2) an electronic patient care report to organize and archive all electronic prehospital data. To successfully implement this comprehensive PHIT architecture, data and technology requirements must be based on best available evidence, and the system must adhere to health data standards as well as privacy and security regulations. Recent federal legislation prioritizing health information technology may position federal agencies to help design and fund PHIT architectures.

  1. Paramedic use of needle thoracostomy in the prehospital environment.

    PubMed

    Warner, Keir J; Copass, Michael K; Bulger, Eileen M

    2008-01-01

    The use of prehospital needle thoracostomy (NT) is controversial as it is not without risk. Issues such as inappropriate patient selection, misplacement causing iatrogenic injury, treatment failures in obese patients, and delaying definitive tube thoracostomy in the emergency department contribute to this controversy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a cohort of patients undergoing NT by paramedics for tension pneumothorax and review the indications for use, complications, and emergency department outcomes of NT. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing NT in the prehospital setting and transported directly to a Level 1 trauma center over a one-year period. Patients were transported by a single ground transport agency staffed by paramedics. All paramedics were trained to follow uniform protocols for treatment procedures. Variables included indications for NT, patient demographics, prehospital vital signs, injury mechanism, chest X-ray, and Emergency Department outcomes. Paramedics responded to 20,330 advanced life support calls, and 39 (0.2%) patients had a NT placed for treatment of tension pneumothorax. Twenty-two (56.4%) patients were in circulatory arrest, with 12 suffering traumatic arrest and 10 patients in nontraumatic PEA arrest. The remaining 17 (43.6%) patients were treated for nonarrest causes. The use of NT appears to be a safe procedure when preformed by paramedics in an urban EMS system. Prehospital NT resulted in four cases of unexpected survival.

  2. Prehospital Volume Therapy as an Independent Risk Factor after Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Matthias; Lefering, Rolf; Touma, Alexander; Schoeneberg, Carsten; Keitel, Judith; Lendemans, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prehospital volume therapy remains widely used after trauma, while evidence regarding its disadvantages is growing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the volume administered in a prehospital setting as an independent risk factor for mortality. Material and Methods. Patients who met the following criteria were analyzed retrospectively: Injury Severity Score = 16, primary admission (between 2002 and 2010), and age = 16 years. The following data had to be available: volume administered (including packed red cells), blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, therapeutic measures, and laboratory results. Following a univariate analysis, independent risk factors for mortality after trauma were investigated using a multivariate regression analysis. Results. A collective of 7,641 patients met the inclusion criteria, showing that increasing volumes administered in a prehospital setting were an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio: 1.34). This tendency was even more pronounced in patients without severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (odds ratio: 2.71), while the opposite tendency was observed in patients with TBI. Conclusions. Prehospital volume therapy in patients without severe TBI represents an independent risk factor for mortality. In such cases, respiratory and circulatory conditions should be stabilized during permissive hypotension, and patient transfer should not be delayed. PMID:25949995

  3. Predicting prehospital care students' first-year academic performance.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    To answer two research questions: First, can previously identified factors relating to academic performance be used to predict first-year academic success for students undertaking a newly developed and vocationally oriented prehospital care course delivered in a rural setting? Second, can the study's findings be used to develop appropriate student selection criteria to assist in the admission of students into relevant tertiary studies or the prehospital care industry? A retrospective review of all first-year, on-campus prehospital care students enrolled in a vocational course at a rural Australian university from 1998 to 2001 was conducted. Six predictors of academic performance were examined, namely: University Admission Index (UAI), postsecondary educational qualifications, student entry type (traditional or mature-aged), previous health-related experience, gender, and background (rural or urban). Three dependent variables assessed academic performance: grade point average (GPA) of students who completed all required first-year subjects, GPA of students who completed at least one subject in the first year, and the student's ability to successfully complete the first year. UAI > 50, previous health-related experience, postsecondary educational qualifications, background, student entry type, and gender were all found to be significant predictors of first-year academic performance in selective cohorts. In addition, a combination of predictors produced higher GPAs than did any single predictor. Academic performance of first-year students in the prehospital care discipline can be predicted given the appropriate selection variables. Admission selection can be assisted with the generated Student Selection 001.

  4. An intelligent pre-hospital patient care system.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Mark; Myung, Dan; Hashmi, Nada; Shankaranarayanan, G

    2007-01-01

    iRevive is a sensor-supported, pre-hospital patient care system for the capture and transmittal of electronic patient data from the field to hospitals. It is being developed by 10Blade and Boston MedFlight. iRevive takes advantage of emerging technologies to offer a robust, flexible, and extensible IT infrastructure for patient data collection.

  5. Pre-hospital triage performance after standardized trauma courses.

    PubMed

    Lampi, Maria; Junker, Johan; Berggren, Peter; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Vikström, Tore

    2017-05-19

    The pre-hospital triage process aims at identifying and prioritizing patients in the need of prompt intervention and/or evacuation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate triage decision skills in a Mass Casualty Incident drill. The study compares two groups of participants in Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support courses. A questionnaire was used to deal with three components of triage of victims in a Mass Casualty Incident: decision-making; prioritization of 15 hypothetical casualties involved in a bus crash; and prioritization for evacuation. Swedish Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants filled in the same triage skills questionnaire just before and after their respective course. One hundred fifty-three advanced Trauma Life Support course participants were compared to 175 Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants. The response rates were 90% and 95%, respectively. A significant improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for the Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support group in regards to decision-making. This difference was only noticeable among the participants who had previously participated in Mass Casualty Incident drills or had experience of a real event (pre-test mean ± standard deviation 2.4 ± 0.68, post-test mean ± standard deviation 2.60 ± 0.59, P = 0.04). No improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for either group regarding prioritization of the bus crash casualties or the correct identification of the most injured patients for immediate evacuation. Neither Advanced Trauma Life Support nor Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants showed general improvement in their tested triage skills. However, participation in Mass Casualty Incident drills or experience of real events prior to the test performed here, were shown to be advantageous for Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants. These courses should be

  6. Development of key performance indicators for prehospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrian; Wakai, Abel; Walsh, Cathal; Cummins, Fergal; O'Sullivan, Ronan

    2016-04-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to monitor and evaluate critical areas of clinical and support functions that influence patient outcome. Traditional prehospital emergency care performance monitoring has focused solely on response time metrics. The landscape of emergency care delivery in Ireland is in the process of significant national reconfiguration. The development of KPIs is therefore considered one of the key priorities in prehospital research. The aim of this study was to develop a suite of KPIs for prehospital emergency care in Ireland. A systematic literature review of prehospital care performance measurement was undertaken followed by a three-round Delphi consensus process facilitated by a broad-based multidisciplinary group of panellists. The consensus process was conducted between June 2012 and October 2013. Each candidate indicator on the Delphi survey questionnaire was rated using a 5-point Likert-type rating scale. Agreement was defined as at least 70% of responders rating an indicator as 'agree' or 'strongly agree' on the rating scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Sensitivity of the ratings was examined for robustness by bootstrapping the original sample. Of the 78 citations identified by the systematic review, 5 relevant publications were used to select candidate indicators for the Delphi round 1 questionnaire. Response rates in Delphi rounds 1 and 2 were 89% and 83%, respectively. Following the consensus development conference, 101 KPIs reached consensus. Based on the Donabedian framework for quality-of-care indicators, 7 of the KPIs which reached agreement were structure KPIs, 74 were process KPIs and 20 were outcome KPIs. The highest ranked indicator was a process KPI ('Direct transport of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients to a primary percutaneous intervention (PCI)-capable facility for ECG to PCI time <90 min'). Improving the quality of prehospital care requires the development and implementation of

  7. Road Traffic Injury in Lagos, Nigeria: Assessing Prehospital Care.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nasiru A; Ajani, Abdul Wahab O; Mustafa, Ibrahim A; Balogun, Rufai A; Oludara, Mobolaji A; Idowu, Olufemi E; Solagberu, Babatunde A

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Injuries are the third most important cause of overall deaths globally with one-quarter resulting from road traffic crashes. Majority of these deaths occur before arrival in the hospital and can be reduced with prompt and efficient prehospital care. The aim of this study was to highlight the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in Lagos, Nigeria and assess the effectiveness of prehospital care, especially the role of Lagos State Ambulance Service (LASAMBUS) in providing initial care and transportation of the injured to the hospital. A three-year, retrospective review of road traffic injured patients seen at the Surgical Emergency Room (SER) of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Nigeria, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 was conducted. Parameters extracted from the Institution Trauma Registry included bio-data, date and time of injury, date and time of arrival in SER, host status, type of vehicle involved, and region(s) injured. Information on how patients came to the hospital and outcome in SER also were recorded. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS; IBM Corporation; Armonk, New York USA) version 16. A total of 23,537 patients were seen during the study period. Among them, 16,024 (68.1%) had trauma. Road traffic crashes were responsible in 5,629 (35.0%) of trauma cases. Passengers constituted 42.0% of the injured, followed by pedestrians (34.0%). Four wheelers were the most frequent vehicle type involved (54.0%), followed by motor cycles (30.0%). Regions mainly affected were head and neck (40.0%) and lower limb (29.0%). Less than one-quarter (24.0%) presented to the emergency room within an hour, while one-third arrived between one and six hours following injury. Relatives brought 55.4%, followed by bystanders (21.4%). Only 2.3% had formal prehospital care and were brought to the hospital by LASAMBUS. They also had significantly shorter arrival time. One hundred and nine patients

  8. Prehospital care pathway delays: gender and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sharon; Condell, Sarah; Begley, Cecily; Fitzgerald, Tony

    2006-02-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study that identified gender specific prehospital care pathway delays amongst Irish women and men with myocardial infarction. Women are more likely to experience a poorer prognosis than their male counterparts following hospitalization for myocardial infarction, yet research shows that women continue to experience prehospital care pathway delays. A 1-year prospective census was carried in six major academic teaching hospitals in Dublin, Ireland in 2001-2002. A total of 277 (31%) female and 613 (69%) male patients with confirmed myocardial infarction were included in the study. Women were more likely to experience prolonged 'initial symptom-onset to A&E delays' (14 hours vs. 2.8 hours P < 0.0001), and 'intense symptom-onset to A&E delays' (3.1 hours vs. 1.8 hours , P < 0.0001), i.e. arrival at a hospital accident and emergency department. Advancing age was associated with greater prehospital delays (P < 0.0001), whilst patients with private health insurance had shorter delays than public patients (without private health insurance) or those with medical cards (entitling them to means-tested medical benefits) (P = 0.001). Patients who drove themselves by car to hospital had shorter median prehospital times than those arriving by any other admission mode (P < 0.0001), whilst those referred by their general practitioner had longer delays than those who were self-referred (5 hours vs. 1.7 hours, P < 0.0001). Female gender, advancing age, referral source, insurance status and mode of transport to hospital are independent factors contributing to prehospital patient delays. Nurses who care for patients with coronary artery disease have a unique opportunity to educate people about the most appropriate action to be taken in the event of experiencing symptoms.

  9. Prehospital pain management in children with traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Anna; Skotnicka-Klonowicz, Grażyna

    2015-05-01

    Damage that arises as a result of injuries is one of the most common causes of children presenting to hospital emergency departments. The aim of the study was to assess the implementation of recommendations for prehospital pain management in injured children provided by various health care centers. A total of 7146 children aged 0 to 18 years because of injury were admitted to the Department of Paediatric Emergency Medicine in the Maria Konopnicka Memorial University Teaching Hospital No. 4 in Lodz within the period of 12 months. From this group, 1493 children received prehospital emergency care from various health care centers. Health care centers provided prehospital aid to 21% of all children with injuries. Boys (60.3%) and children older than 5 years (80%) predominated among pediatric trauma cases. Prehospital emergency aid was most frequently administered to children by emergency medical services personnel (42.7%) and a primary health care physician (28.1%). Injuries of head (42.1%), neck (1.1%), chest (1.7%), abdomen (2.5%), upper (32.2%), and lower (19.9%) limbs as well as burns (5.3%) were diagnosed in pediatric patients. Indications for prehospital analgesia were found in 489 of 1493 patients (32.7%). Analgesia was administered to 159 children (32%), pain medication was not given to 223 children (46%), and in 107 cases (22%), there was a lack of information on that subject. Despite the training of medical staff, provision of analgesia for children with burns and traumatic injuries of the osteoarticular system is inadequate.

  10. Prehospital transport of patients with spinal cord injury in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ahidjo, Kawu A; Olayinka, Salami A; Ayokunle, Olawepo; Mustapha, Alimi F; Sulaiman, Gbadegesin AA; Gbolahan, Adebule T

    2011-01-01

    Background A well-organized and efficient prehospital transport is associated with improved outcome in trauma patients. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on prehospital transport of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and its relation to mortality. Objective To determine if prehospital transportation is a predictor of mortality in patients with SCI in Nigeria. Design Prospective cohort study Methods Prehospital transport related conditions, injury arrival intervals and persons that brought patients with SCI to the casualty were noted. Data analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test and multiple logistic regressions. Main Outcome Measures Mortality within 6 weeks on admission Results 168 patients with SCI presented in the casualty during this review period. Majority (67.9%) presented after 24 hrs of the injury. Majority (58.3%) were conveyed into the casualty by their relatives. Salon car (54.2%) was the most common mode of transportation where majority (55.4%) laid on their back during the transfer. Majority (75%) of the patients had multiple hospital presentation before reporting in our casualty. The mortality observed was 16.7%. Multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, gender, and means of transportation revealed that age (OR= 63.41, 95% CI= 9.24-43.53), crouched position during transfer (OR= 23.52, 95% CI= 7.26-74.53), presentation after 24 hrs (OR=5.48, 95% CI=3.20-16.42) and multiple hospital presentation (OR= 7.94, 95% CI= 1.89-33.43) were associated with mortality within 6 weeks of admission. Conclusion A well-organized and efficient prehospital transport would reduce mortality in spinal cord injured patients. Public enlightenment campaign on factors that could reduce road traffic injury would help reduce mortality. PMID:21756570

  11. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. III. Hypertonic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Wu, H. L.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that treatment in anisotonic medium modifies rejoining of radiation-induced breaks in interphase chromosomes. In previous work, we have demonstrated that formation of exchanges in human lymphocytes has a slow component (half-time of 1-2 h), but a fraction of exchanges are also observed in samples assayed soon after exposure. In this paper we studied the effect of hypertonic treatment on rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced breaks using fluorescence in situ hybridization of prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes. Isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with 7 Gy gamma rays, fused to mitotic hamster cells and incubated in hypertonic solution (0.5 M NaCl) for the period normally allowed for interphase chromosome condensation to occur. The data from hypertonic treatment experiments indicate the presence of a class of interphase chromosome breaks that rejoin and misrejoin very quickly (half-time of 5-6 min). The fast misrejoining of these lesions is considered to be responsible for the initial level of exchanges which we reported previously. No significant effect of hypertonic treatment on the yield of chromosome aberrations scored at the first postirradiation mitosis was detected.

  12. Chemical castration with intratesticular injection of 20% hypertonic saline: a minimally invasive method.

    PubMed

    Emir, Levent; Dadali, Mümtaz; Sunay, Melih; Erol, Demokan; Caydere, Muzaffer; Ustün, Hüseyin

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to ablate testicular tissue by hypertonic saline solution in a rat model, thereby to discover a minimally invasive alternative method to medical and surgical castration in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. A total of 40 male Wistar rats were divided into orchiectomy (n = 20) and experimental groups. In the experimental group, 20% (n = 20) hypertonic saline solution was injected into the rat testes. Blood was taken prior to, 1 day, and 30 days after the intervention for testosterone determination. All testicles were surgically removed for pathologic examination. Skin infection, necrosis, and testicular abscess were not detected in any rat. Pathologic examination revealed necrosis in almost all areas of the testicle. The comparison of 0, day 1, and day 30 measurements of total testosterone did not reveal a statistically significant difference between the control and hypertonic saline groups at each of the three time points (Mann-Whitney U-test, P > 0.05). Intratesticular hypertonic saline injection seems to be an alternative method in the future to its rivals such as orchiectomy and medical castration. This new approach offers a minimally invasive and less expensive method aside from preserving body image in metastatic prostatic carcinoma. However, our conclusions should be supported with more experimental studies before a clinical study is taken into account.

  13. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla.

  14. Rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced chromatin breaks. III. Hypertonic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Wu, H. L.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that treatment in anisotonic medium modifies rejoining of radiation-induced breaks in interphase chromosomes. In previous work, we have demonstrated that formation of exchanges in human lymphocytes has a slow component (half-time of 1-2 h), but a fraction of exchanges are also observed in samples assayed soon after exposure. In this paper we studied the effect of hypertonic treatment on rejoining and misrejoining of radiation-induced breaks using fluorescence in situ hybridization of prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes. Isolated lymphocytes were irradiated with 7 Gy gamma rays, fused to mitotic hamster cells and incubated in hypertonic solution (0.5 M NaCl) for the period normally allowed for interphase chromosome condensation to occur. The data from hypertonic treatment experiments indicate the presence of a class of interphase chromosome breaks that rejoin and misrejoin very quickly (half-time of 5-6 min). The fast misrejoining of these lesions is considered to be responsible for the initial level of exchanges which we reported previously. No significant effect of hypertonic treatment on the yield of chromosome aberrations scored at the first postirradiation mitosis was detected.

  15. Dose Effect of HSD (Hypertonic Saline/Dextran) Survival Following Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    injured patients. Ann Surg 1987;206:279-288. 6. Kramer GC, Perron PR, Lindsey C , et al. Small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline dextran...No.3:297-298. 12. Greenfield RH, Bessen HA, Henneman PL. Effect of crystalloid infusion on hematocrit and intravascular volume in healthy, nonbleeding

  16. Hypertonic saline attenuates TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nydam, Trevor L; Moore, Ernest E; McIntyre, Robert C; Wright, Franklin L; Gamboni-Robertson, Fabia; Eckels, Phillip C; Banerjee, Anirban

    2009-05-01

    Resuscitation with hypertonic saline (HTS) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) and modulates postinjury hyperinflammation. TNF-alpha-stimulated pulmonary epithelium is a major contributor to hemorrhage-induced ALI. We hypothesized that HTS would inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB proinflammatory signaling in pulmonary epithelial cells. Therefore, we pretreated human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) with hypertonic medium (180 mM NaCl) for 30 min, followed by TNF-alpha stimulation (10 ng/mL). Key regulatory steps and protein concentrations in this pathway were assessed for significant alterations. Hypertonic saline significantly reduced TNF-alpha-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 levels and NF-kappaB nuclear localization. The mechanism is attenuated phosphorylation and delayed degradation of IkappaB alpha. Hypertonic saline did not alter TNF-alpha-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation or constitutive vascular endothelial growth factor expression, suggesting that the observed inhibition is not a generalized suppression of protein phosphorylation or cellular function. These results show that HTS inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation in the pulmonary epithelium and, further, our understanding of its beneficial effects in hemorrhage-induced ALI.

  17. Cerebral regulation of renal sodium excretion in sheep infused intravenously with hypertonic NaCl.

    PubMed Central

    Chodobski, A; McKinley, M J

    1989-01-01

    1. The natriuretic response to intravenous infusion of 2 M-NaCl was investigated in six conscious sheep. This hypertonic NaCl load resulted in relatively small, physiological (2-3 mmol l-1) increases in plasma Na+ concentration and was followed by a natriuresis with a maximum mean urinary sodium excretion 5 times higher than pre-infusion values. 2. Intravenous infusion of isotonic NaCl, delivering the same Na+ load as hypertonic NaCl infusion, did not induce natriuresis. This suggested, therefore, that with the hypertonic sodium load administered in the present study, the rise in plasma Na+ and/or tonicity rather than increase in blood volume is important in evoking the natriuretic response. 3. Intracerebroventricular infusion of low-Na+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reduced CSF Na+ concentration, decreased plasma vasopressin (AVP) levels and caused a copious water diuresis. This was associated with excessive loss of water and large increases in plasma Na+ concentration and osmolality. 4. The natriuresis induced by intravenous hypertonic NaCl load could be blocked by lowering CSF Na+ concentration in situations where water diuresis was either prevented or reduced by intravenous infusion of AVP or by delayed intracerebroventricular infusion of low-Na+ CSF, respectively. 5. The results of the present study provide further evidence that renal sodium excretion can be controlled by the central nervous system. PMID:2621619

  18. Hypertonic Saline Resuscitation Restores Inflammatory Cytokine Balance in Post-Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    hypertonic saline with 6% dextran-70 (HSD) has been shown in experimental studies to reduce shock/resuscitation-induced inflammatory reactions and...hemodynamics and reestablishing inflammatory equilibrium [12]. Various immunoinflammatory alterations have been described in clinical and experimental ...ultimately causing greater morbidity and mortality [4]. Moreover, convincing experimental evidence indicates that conventional large-volume fluid

  19. Hypertonic Saline Resuscitation Restores Inflammatory Cytokine Balance in Post-Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    immunocompetant cells experience bidirectional communication with hormones and cytokines [35,40]. Thus, despite compelling experimental findings, HSD has not...hypertonic saline with 6% dextran-70 (HSD) has been shown in experimental studies to reduce shock/resuscitation-induced inflammatory reactions and...alterations have been described in clinical and experimental investigations of post-traumatic hemorrhagic shock [13]. The initial immunological

  20. Abnormal Osmotic Avoidance Behavior in C. elegans Is Associated with Increased Hypertonic Stress Resistance and Improved Proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elaine C.; Kim, Heejung; Ditano, Jennifer; Manion, Dacie; King, Benjamin L.; Strange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Protein function is controlled by the cellular proteostasis network. Proteostasis is energetically costly and those costs must be balanced with the energy needs of other physiological functions. Hypertonic stress causes widespread protein damage in C. elegans. Suppression and management of protein damage is essential for optimal survival under hypertonic conditions. ASH chemosensory neurons allow C. elegans to detect and avoid strongly hypertonic environments. We demonstrate that mutations in osm-9 and osm-12 that disrupt ASH mediated hypertonic avoidance behavior or genetic ablation of ASH neurons are associated with enhanced survival during hypertonic stress. Improved survival is not due to altered systemic volume homeostasis or organic osmolyte accumulation. Instead, we find that osm-9(ok1677) mutant and osm-9(RNAi) worms exhibit reductions in hypertonicity induced protein damage in non-neuronal cells suggesting that enhanced proteostasis capacity may account for improved hypertonic stress resistance in worms with defects in osmotic avoidance behavior. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes that play roles in managing protein damage are upregulated in osm-9(ok1677) worms. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of work demonstrating that intercellular communication between neuronal and non-neuronal cells plays a critical role in integrating cellular stress resistance with other organismal physiological demands and associated energy costs. PMID:27111894

  1. Trigeminal pathways for hypertonic saline and light-evoked corneal reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mostafeezur; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Thompson, Randall; Bereiter, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Cornea-evoked eyeblinks maintain tear film integrity on the ocular surface in response to dryness and protect the eye from real or potential damage. Eyelid movement following electrical stimulation has been well studied in humans and animals; however, the central neural pathways that mediate protective eyeblinks following natural nociceptive signals are less certain. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris/caudalis (Vi/Vc) transition and subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical cord (Vc/C1) junction regions on orbicularis oculi electromyographic (OOemg) activity evoked by ocular surface application of hypertonic saline or exposure to bright light in urethane anesthetized male rats. The Vi/Vc and Vc/C1 regions are the main sites of termination for trigeminal afferent nerves that supply the ocular surface, while hypertonic saline (saline = 0.15-5M) and bright light (light = 5-20k lux) selectively activate ocular surface and intraocular trigeminal nerves, respectively, and excite second-order neurons at the Vi/Vc and Vc/C1 regions. Integrated OOemg activity, ipsilateral to the applied stimulus, increased with greater stimulus intensities for both modalities. Lidocaine applied to the ocular surface inhibited OOemg responses to hypertonic saline, but did not alter the response to light. Lidocaine injected into the trigeminal ganglion blocked completely the OOemg responses to hypertonic saline and light indicating a trigeminal afferent origin. Synaptic blockade by cobalt chloride of the Vi/Vc or Vc/C1 region greatly reduced OOemg responses to hypertonic saline and bright light. These data indicate that OOemg activity evoked by natural stimuli known to cause irritation or discomfort in humans depends on a relay in both the Vi/Vc transition and Vc/C1 junction regions. PMID:25086311

  2. Trigeminal pathways for hypertonic saline- and light-evoked corneal reflexes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Okamoto, K; Thompson, R; Bereiter, D A

    2014-09-26

    Cornea-evoked eyeblinks maintain tear film integrity on the ocular surface in response to dryness and protect the eye from real or potential damage. Eyelid movement following electrical stimulation has been well studied in humans and animals; however, the central neural pathways that mediate protective eyeblinks following natural nociceptive signals are less certain. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris/caudalis (Vi/Vc) transition and subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical cord (Vc/C1) junction regions on orbicularis oculi electromyographic (OOemg) activity evoked by ocular surface application of hypertonic saline or exposure to bright light in urethane anesthetized male rats. The Vi/Vc and Vc/C1 regions are the main sites of termination for trigeminal afferent nerves that supply the ocular surface, while hypertonic saline (saline=0.15-5M) and bright light (light=5k-20klux) selectively activate ocular surface and intraocular trigeminal nerves, respectively, and excite second-order neurons at the Vi/Vc and Vc/C1 regions. Integrated OOemg activity, ipsilateral to the applied stimulus, increased with greater stimulus intensities for both modalities. Lidocaine applied to the ocular surface inhibited OOemg responses to hypertonic saline, but did not alter the response to light. Lidocaine injected into the trigeminal ganglion blocked completely the OOemg responses to hypertonic saline and light indicating a trigeminal afferent origin. Synaptic blockade by cobalt chloride of the Vi/Vc or Vc/C1 region greatly reduced OOemg responses to hypertonic saline and bright light. These data indicate that OOemg activity evoked by natural stimuli known to cause irritation or discomfort in humans depends on a relay in both the Vi/Vc transition and Vc/C1 junction regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Peritoneal equilibrium test with hypertonic exchange: practical application in a peritoneal dialysis program].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, A; Marrón, B; Berlanga, J R; Reyero, A; Gazapo, R

    2001-01-01

    Peritoneal equilibration test (PET) employing a 2.27%/2.5% glucose exchange is the most widely used method of to evaluating peritoneal function and small solute transport. Hypertonic (3.86%/4.25% glucose) PET has been recently recommended for the evaluation of ultrafiltration and to study certain causes of ultrafiltration failure, such as aquaporin dysfunction, through the analysis of dialysate sodium. However, there is not enough information on the optimal way to express the changes in dialysate sodium concentration, the normal range of values for this parameter, and possible adverse effects of hypertonic PET in the general population of peritoneal dialysis patients. A hypertonic PET was performed in 22 patients. Ultrafiltration failure (ultrafiltration < 0.4 L) was present in seven patients. Patients with ultrafiltration failure had higher small solute peritoneal transport and dialysate sodium concentration and had been treated with peritoneal dialysis for longer periods of time. Dialysate sodium concentration at 60 and 240 minutes was directly correlated with small solute peritoneal transport calculated as D/PCr240 (r = 0.74, p = 0.0008 y r = 0.84, p < 0.0001) and inversely correlated with ultrafiltration (r = 0.64, p = 0.0016 y r = 0.72, p = 0.0002). An absence of a dip in dialysis sodium, suggestive of aquaporin dysfunction, was only observed in one patient with a high-average small solute peritoneal transport. Dialysate sodium concentration at 60 minutes is a better discriminator between ultrafiltration failure patients than parameters such as D/PNa or the absolute dip in dialysate sodium with respect to time zero. We observed the following adverse effects: symptomatic hypotension in 2 patients with preserved ultrafiltration. In conclusion, hypertonic PET allows to confirm the diagnosis of ultrafiltration failure, but monitoring dialysate sodium concentration offers additional information only in patients with severe aquaporin dysfunction. Hypertonic PET may

  4. Oxytocinergic and serotonergic systems involvement in sodium intake regulation: satiety or hypertonicity markers?

    PubMed

    Godino, Andrea; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Vivas, Laura

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the inhibitory participation of serotonergic (5-HT) and oxytocinergic (OT) neurons on sodium appetite induced by peritoneal dialysis (PD) in rats. The activity of 5-HT neurons increases after PD-induced 2% NaCl intake and decreases after sodium depletion; however, the activity of the OT neurons appears only after PD-induced 2% NaCl intake. To discriminate whether the differential activations of the 5-HT and OT neurons in this model are a consequence of the sodium satiation process or are the result of stimulation caused by the entry to the body of a hypertonic sodium solution during sodium access, we analyzed the number of Fos-5-HT- and Fos-OT-immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus-supraoptic nucleus, respectively, after isotonic vs. hypertonic NaCl intake induced by PD. We also studied the OT plasma levels after PD-induced isotonic or hypertonic NaCl intake. Sodium intake induced by PD significantly increased the number of Fos-5-HT cells, independently of the concentration of NaCl consumed. In contrast, the number of Fos-OT neurons increased after hypertonic NaCl intake, in both depleted and non-depleted animals. The OT plasma levels significantly increased only in the PD-induced 2% NaCl intake group in relation to others, showing a synergic effect of both factors. In summary, 5-HT neurons were activated after body sodium status was reestablished, suggesting that this system is activated under conditions of satiety. In terms of the OT system, both OT neural activity and OT plasma levels were increased by the entry of hypertonic NaCl solution during sodium consumption, suggesting that this system is involved in the processing of hyperosmotic signals.

  5. Multivariate predictors of failed prehospital endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Henry E; Kupas, Douglas F; Paris, Paul M; Bates, Robyn R; Costantino, Joseph P; Yealy, Donald M

    2003-07-01

    Conventionally trained out-of-hospital rescuers (such as paramedics) often fail to accomplish endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients requiring invasive airway management. Previous studies have identified univariate variables associated with failed out-of-hospital ETI but have not examined the interaction between the numerous factors impacting ETI success. This study sought to use multivariate logistic regression to identify a set of factors associated with failed adult out-of-hospital ETI. The authors obtained clinical and demographic data from the Prehospital Airway Collaborative Evaluation, a prospective, multicentered observational study involving advanced life support (ALS) emergency medical services (EMS) systems in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Providers used standard forms to report details of attempted ETI, including system and patient demographics, methods used, difficulties encountered, and initial outcomes. The authors excluded data from sedation-facilitated and neuromuscular blockade-assisted intubations. The main outcome measure was ETI failure, defined as failure to successfully place an endotracheal tube on the last out-of-hospital laryngoscopy attempt. Logistic regression was performed to develop a multivariate model identifying factors associated with failed ETI. Data were used from 45 ALS systems on 663 adult ETIs attempted during the period June 1, 2001, to November 30, 2001. There were 89 cases of failed ETI (failure rate 13.4%). Of 61 factors potentially related to ETI failure, multivariate logistic regression revealed the following significant covariates associated with ETI failure (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; likelihood ratio p-value): presence of clenched jaw/trismus (9.718; 95% CI = 4.594 to 20.558; p < 0.0001); inability to pass the endotracheal tube through the vocal cords (7.653; 95% CI = 3.561 to 16.447; p < 0.0001); inability to visualize the vocal cords (7.638; 95% CI = 3.966 to 14.707; p < 0.0001); intact gag reflex

  6. Pre-hospital advanced airway management by experienced anaesthesiologists: a prospective descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Rognås, Leif; Hansen, Troels Martin; Kirkegaard, Hans; Tønnesen, Else

    2013-07-25

    We report data from the first Utstein-style study of physician-provided pre-hospital advanced airway management. Anaesthesiologists from eight pre-hospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region (a mixed rural and urban region with 1.27 million inhabitants) prospectively registered data according to the template for reporting data from pre-hospital advanced airway management. Data collection took place from February 1st 2011 to October 31st 2012. Included were patients of all ages on whom pre-hospital advanced airway management was performed. The objective was to estimate the incidences of failed and difficult pre-hospital endotracheal intubation, and complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management. The overall incidence of successful pre-hospital endotracheal intubation among 636 intubation attempts was 99.7%, even though 22.4% of pre-hospital endotracheal intubations required more than one intubation attempt. The overall incidence of complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management was 7.9%. Following rapid sequence intubation, the incidence of first pass success was 85.8%, the overall incidence of complications was 22.0%, the incidence of hypotension 7.3% and that of hypoxia 5.3%. Multiple endotracheal intubation attempts were associated with an increased overall incidence of complications. No airway management related deaths occurred. The overall incidence of successful pre-hospital endotracheal intubations compares to those found in other physician-staffed pre-hospital systems. The incidence of pre-hospital endotracheal intubations requiring more than one attempt is higher than suspected. The incidence of hypotension or hypoxia after pre-hospital rapid sequence intubation compares to those found in UK emergency departments. Pre-hospital advanced airway management including pre-hospital endotracheal intubation performed by experienced anaesthesiologists is associated with high success rates and relatively low

  7. The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support (OPALS) Study: rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Spaite, D W; Lyver, M B; Munkley, D P; Field, B J; Dagnone, E; Maloney, J P; Jones, G R; Luinstra, L G; Jermyn, B D; Ward, R; DeMaio, V J

    1998-08-01

    The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support Study represents the largest prehospital study yet conducted, worldwide. This study will involve more than 25,000 cardiac arrest, trauma, and critically ill patients over an 8-year period. The study will evaluate the incremental benefit of rapid defibrillation and prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support measures for cardiac arrest survival and the benefit of Advanced Life Support for patients with traumatic injuries and other critically ill prehospital patients. This article describes the OPALS study with regard to the rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

  8. [Prehospital teamwork life support service for traffic accident victims].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Waleska Antunes da Porciúncula; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize prehospital teamwork service for traffic accident victims, identifying the actors' activities, the teamwork and the relations with actors from other areas. This is a qualitative study, in which data collection took place by observing the events that occurred at a public service in the city of Porto Alegre, in addition to interviews with each professional involved in the service. The results showed that prehospital care is founded on teamwork and that the understanding among professionals should go beyond the historical hierarchic relation existing in health organizations. There is a need to value the broad field of knowledge, which is associated with the core of care activities that meet most trauma victim needs.

  9. [Nursing care in pre-hospital services and airmedical removal].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Patricia Kuerten; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Radünz, Vera; Wosny, Antônio de Miranda

    2003-01-01

    The present article is a description of an experience developed during the Conclusive Monography of the Nursing Course from Santa Catarina's Federal University, in the second semester year 2000. It discusses the importance of the Pre-hospital Attendiment Service and Airmedical Removal, and the need of nurses preparation to attend the increasing requests of those services. It presents a historical review on these kind of attention method in health, in Brazil and in the world. It discusses some aspects related to management of human and material resources, concerning its specificity in those kind of services. It also points out the importance of the Nurse roll, and the necessity of widening their skills to act in the field of pre-hospital attendiment and airmedical removal.

  10. [Specific aspects of pediatric emergencies in the prehospital setting].

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Grundmann, U; Reinert, J; Gortner, L

    2016-02-01

    Life-threatening pediatric emergencies are relatively rare in the prehospital setting; therefore, the treating emergency physician may not always be familiar with and well trained in these situations. However, pediatric emergencies require early recognition and initiation of specific diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to prevent further complications. Treatment of pediatric emergencies follows current recommendations as detailed in published international guidelines. The aim of this review is to provide specific information with regard to respiratory, cardiac and neurological medical emergencies commnly encountered in children in the prehospital setting. It is not the aim of this review article to provide specific guidance with regard to a variety of surgical emergencies. Due to improved treatment modalities the emergency medical team may also be confronted with acutely ill children with very severe and complex underlying clinical syndromes (e.g. complex cardiac malformations and syndromic genetic disorders). This article also provides specific information with regard to treatment of this susceptible and vulnerable patient cohort.

  11. Hypertonic saline is more effective than normal saline in seasonal allergic rhinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Marchisio, P; Varricchio, A; Baggi, E; Bianchini, S; Capasso, M E; Torretta, S; Capaccio, P; Gasparini, C; Patria, F; Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a very common childhood disease that is associated with a significant reduction in the patients' quality of life. Its treatment combines educating the patients and their parents, immunotherapy and drug administration. However, even the best approach does not relieve the symptoms of a number of patients. Alternative therapies are particularly needed for children because the fear of adverse events frequently reduces parental compliance to the prescribed drugs, and immunotherapy is less easy to administer than in adults. In this prospective investigator-blinded study we evaluated whether children, with a documented history of seasonal grass pollen-related AR, benefit from nasal irrigation by assessing the effects on nasal signs and symptoms, on middle ear effusion and on adenoidal hypertrophy. We randomized children aged 5 to 9 years (median age 82 months) to normal saline or hypertonic saline (a 2.7% sodium chloride solution), administered twice-daily using a disposable 20 ml syringe, or no treatment. Nasal symptoms (rhinorrhea, itching, sneezing, nasal obstruction), swelling of turbinates, adenoid hypertrophy or middle ear effusion were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. Two hundred and twenty children (normal saline: 80; hypertonic saline: 80; no treatment: 60) completed the study. After four weeks, all the considered items were significantly reduced in the group receiving hypertonic saline (P < 0.0001), whereas in the group receiving normal saline only rhinorrhea (P = 0.0002) and sneezing (P = 0.002) were significantly reduced. There was no significant change in any of the items in the control group. The duration of oral antihistamines was significantly lower in the children receiving hypertonic saline than in those treated with normal saline or in controls. No adverse events were reported and parental satisfaction and compliance with the procedure were globally very good, regardless of the solution used. Using our

  12. Small volume resuscitation with hypertonic sodium chloride solution in cattle undergoing surgical correction of abomasal volvulus.

    PubMed

    Sickinger, M; Doll, K; Roloff, N C; Halekoh, U

    2014-09-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of rapid intravenous (IV) infusion of a 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with that of continuous application of an isotonic solution in stabilizing the circulation of cows with abomasal volvulus. Cattle treated with hypertonic saline had a significantly greater reduction in volume deficit within the first 10 min of therapy than cows treated with isotonic saline (from 5.9 ± 4.8 to 2.1 ± 4.4 L/100 kg vs. 7.0 ± 4.5 to 4.9 ± 3.8 L/100 kg, respectively). The central venous pressure (CVP) of the cows given the hypertonic saline rose within the first 10 min of therapy from 7.3 ± 3.5 to 10.8 ± 3.4 cm H2O, while the CVP of the cattle treated with isotonic saline did not increase significantly during this time. Sixty minutes after the start of the infusion, the CVP of the isotonic group was still significantly lower than that of the hypertonic group (9.5 ± 2.1 vs. 10.3 ± 3.3 cm H2O, respectively). Within the first 60 min, the base excess decreased from 5.5 ± 6.9 to 4.7 ± 6.2 mmol/L in the hypertonic group whereas it increased from 5.6 ± 5.7 to 6.8 ± 5.4 mmol/L in the isotonic group. These results suggest that for cows with abomasal volvulus, IV therapy with hypertonic saline may improve the haemodynamic and circulatory situation considerably faster and more effectively than continuous infusion with isotonic saline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endotracheal Intubation in Patients Treated for Prehospital Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph B.; Nicholas, Katherine S.; Varelas, Panayiotis N.; Harsh, Donna M.; Durkalski, Valerie; Silbergleit, Robert; Wang, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Limited data describe the frequency, timing, or indications for endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients with status epilepticus. A better understanding of the characteristics of patients with status epilepticus requiring airway interventions could inform clinical care. We sought to characterize ETI use in patients with prehospital status epilepticus. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial, a multi-center, randomized trial comparing intravenous lorazepam to intramuscular midazolam for prehospital status epilepticus treatment. Subjects received ETI in the prehospital, Emergency Department (ED), or inpatient setting at the discretion of caregivers. Results Of 1023 enrollments, 218 (21 %) received ETI. 204 (93.6 %) of the ETIs were performed in the hospital and 14 (6.4 %) in the prehospital setting. Intubated patients were older (52 vs 41 years, p < 0.001), and men underwent ETI more than women (26 vs 21 %, p = 0.047). Patients with ongoing seizures on ED arrival had a higher rate of ETI (32 vs 16 %, p < 0.001), as did those who received rescue anti-seizure medication (29 vs 20 %, p = 0.004). Mortality was higher for intubated patients (7 vs 0.4 %, p < 0.001). Most ETI (n = 133, 62 %) occurred early (prior to or within 30 min after ED arrival), and late ETI was associated with higher mortality (14 vs 3 %, p = 0.002) than early ETI. Conclusions ETI is common in patients with status epilepticus, particularly among the elderly or those with refractory seizures. Any ETI and late ETI are both associated with higher mortality. PMID:25623785

  14. Prehospital Tranexamic Acid Use for Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    2016 with the last GOSE evaluation in early 2017 . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), TXA, prehospital 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...will complete enrollment in Nov. 2016 with follow-up to be conducted into early 2017 . The NHBLI has provided ROC with the first no cost extension...through 12/31/2016 and verbally assured the investigators that a no cost extension will be approved for 2017 in order to complete the study and analyses

  15. Man or machine? An experimental study of prehospital emergency amputation

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Caroline; Porter, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prehospital emergency amputation is a rare procedure, which may be necessary to free a time-critical patient from entrapment. This study aimed to evaluate four techniques of cadaveric lower limb prehospital emergency amputation. Method A guillotine amputation of the distal femur was undertaken in fresh frozen self-donated cadavers. A prehospital doctor conducted a surgical amputation with Gigli saw or hacksaw for bone cuts and firefighters carried out the procedure using the reciprocating saw and Holmatro device. The primary outcome measures were time to full amputation and the number of attempts required. The secondary outcomes were observed quality of skin cut, soft tissue cut and CT assessment of the proximal bone. Observers also noted the potential risks to the rescuer or patient during the procedure. Results All techniques completed amputation within 91 s. The reciprocating saw was the quickest technique (22 s) but there was significant blood spattering and continuation of the cut to the surface under the leg. The Holmatro device took less than a minute. The quality of the proximal femur was acceptable with all methods, but 5 cm more proximal soft tissue damage was made by the Holmatro device. Conclusions Emergency prehospital guillotine amputation of the distal femur can effectively be performed using scalpel and paramedic shears with bone cuts by the Gigli saw or fire service hacksaw. The reciprocating saw could be used to cut bone if no other equipment was available but carried some risks. The Holmatro cutting device is a viable option for a life-threatening entrapment where only firefighters can safely access the patient, but would not be a recommended primary technique for medical staff. PMID:27280425

  16. Prehospital care for multiple trauma patients in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maegele, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For the German speaking countries, Tscherne's definition of "polytrauma" which represents an injury of at least two body regions with one or a combination being life-threatening is still valid. The timely and adequate management including quick referral of the trauma patient into a designated trauma center may limit secondary injury and may thus improve outcomes already during the prehospital phase of care. The professional treatment of multiple injured trauma patients begins at the scene in the context of a well structured prehospital emergency medical system. The "Primary Survey" is performed by the emergency physician at the scene according to the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS)-concept. The overall aim is to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening conditions even in the absence of patient history and diagnosis ("treat-first-what-kills-first"). If no immediate treatment is necessary, a "Secondary Sur- vey" follows with careful and structured body examination and detailed assessment of the trauma mechanism. Massive and life-threatening states of hemorrhage should be addressed immediately even disregarding the ABCDE-scheme. Critical trauma patients should be referred without any delay ("work and go")toTR-DGU® certified trauma centers of the local trauma networks. Due to the difficult pre- hospital environment the number of quality studies in the field is low and, as consequence, the level of evidence for most recommendations is also low. Much information has been obtained from different care systems and the interchangeability of results is limited. The present article provides a synopsis of rec- ommendations for early prehospital care for the severely injured based upon the 2011 updated multi- disciplinary S3-Guideline "Polytrauma/Schwerstverletzten Behandlung", the most recently updated European Trauma guideline and the current PHTLS-algorithms including grades of recommendation whenever possible.

  17. [Pre-hospital adverse events: a way to go].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ortiz, Nancy Jezzi; Aranaz Andrés, Jesús María; Gea Velázquez De Castro, María Teresa; Miralles Bueno, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of adverse events is a problem at all levels of care and creates a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. In Spain there have been significant investigations of adverse effects (AE) in hospitals and primary care, however, studies of pre-hospital care are not yet developed. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, type, preventability, severity and impact of "pre-hospital" adverse events, which were detected in the hospitalization index and the comparing those that occurred in ambulatory and non-ambulatory care. Case Series Study, with analytical components, of a sample of subjects included in the "National study of adverse events related to hospitalization (ENEAS). Qualitative data are presented as proportions with confidence intervals. For comparative analysis of qualitative data, we used the chi-square test. Of a total of 5624 patients, 2.3% (N=131) ((95%)CI: 1.94-2.72) had an AE that occurred prior to hospitalization or "pre-hospital", and 40.5% of these (N=53) ((95%)CI: 32.05-48.86) were preventable. In 44 patients the AE had its origin in ambulatory care and 85 patients in non-ambulatory care. The characteristic of patients with ambulatory AE are men and older women (median 76 years) who consulted for medical problems (84.1%) and the AE were related to medication in 77.8%. The characteristic of patients with non-ambulatory AE, were men (median 73 years), consulting for medical and surgical problems (44,7-55,3%) and the EA is related to medications, infections and procedures. The characteristics of patients with AE and undesirable effects that occurred during pre-hospitalization period depended on whether they originated during ambulatory care or non-ambulatory care. Therefore prevention strategies should take these differences into account. Copyright 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Prehospital use of furosemide for the treatment of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Andy; Stiell, Ian G; Dionne, Richard; Maloney, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of acute decompensated heart failure (HF) in the prehospital setting can be challenging. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the appropriateness of furosemide use by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and its association with adverse outcomes. This study was a multi-centre health records review of EMS patients who received prehospital furosemide or had an emergency department (ED) diagnosis of HF. We included acutely ill patients ≥50 years of age with shortness of breath transported by land EMS. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine associations between furosemide use and serious adverse outcomes (acute renal failure, intubation, vasopressors or death). The study population consisted of 330 patients (N=58, furosemide given by EMS but no HF diagnosed in ED; N=110, furosemide given, HF diagnosed; N=162, no furosemide given, HF diagnosed). The median dose of intravenous furosemide was 80 mg (range 20-80 mg). Serious adverse outcomes occurred in 61 patients (19.0%, 23.6% and 14.8% of the three groups, respectively; p=0.18). The adjusted ORs for adverse events with furosemide use was 0.62 (95% CI 0.33 to 1.43) in patients with a diagnosis of HF and 1.14 (95% CI 0.58 to 2.23) in those without. More than a third of patients who received prehospital furosemide did not have an HF diagnosis, suggesting that the prehospital diagnosis of HF can be challenging. Serious adverse outcomes were identified in all patient groups and we found no statistically significant associations between furosemide use and adverse events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Man or machine? An experimental study of prehospital emergency amputation.

    PubMed

    Leech, Caroline; Porter, Keith

    2016-09-01

    Prehospital emergency amputation is a rare procedure, which may be necessary to free a time-critical patient from entrapment. This study aimed to evaluate four techniques of cadaveric lower limb prehospital emergency amputation. A guillotine amputation of the distal femur was undertaken in fresh frozen self-donated cadavers. A prehospital doctor conducted a surgical amputation with Gigli saw or hacksaw for bone cuts and firefighters carried out the procedure using the reciprocating saw and Holmatro device. The primary outcome measures were time to full amputation and the number of attempts required. The secondary outcomes were observed quality of skin cut, soft tissue cut and CT assessment of the proximal bone. Observers also noted the potential risks to the rescuer or patient during the procedure. All techniques completed amputation within 91 s. The reciprocating saw was the quickest technique (22 s) but there was significant blood spattering and continuation of the cut to the surface under the leg. The Holmatro device took less than a minute. The quality of the proximal femur was acceptable with all methods, but 5 cm more proximal soft tissue damage was made by the Holmatro device. Emergency prehospital guillotine amputation of the distal femur can effectively be performed using scalpel and paramedic shears with bone cuts by the Gigli saw or fire service hacksaw. The reciprocating saw could be used to cut bone if no other equipment was available but carried some risks. The Holmatro cutting device is a viable option for a life-threatening entrapment where only firefighters can safely access the patient, but would not be a recommended primary technique for medical staff. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. An analysis of dilemmas posed by prehospital DNR orders.

    PubMed

    Hall, S A

    1997-01-01

    This article briefly recounts the development of the prehospital do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order and indicates certain situations, such as a choking episode or a suicide attempt, in which the presence of a DNR order may provoke a moral dilemma for the emergency medical technician as to whether or not the patient should be treated. An ethical analysis of this question is performed and concludes that resuscitative treatment is ethical and mandatory.

  1. [Recruitment and training of prehospital emergency care nurses in Paris].

    PubMed

    Pladec, Boris Martin le; Menoret, Romuald; Rodes, Raphaël

    2016-11-01

    In collaboration with the ambulance driver and the emergency doctor, the prehospital nurse provides care in a universe which is often difficult and sometimes hostile. Whether they are a nurse from the Samu (urgent medical aid service) or from the Paris fire service, how are they recruited and what training do these emergency care professionals receive? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Availability and Quality of Prehospital Care on Pakistani Interurban Roads

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Junaid A.; Waseem, Hunniya; Razzak, Junaid A.; Shiekh, Naeem-ul-lah; Khoso, Ajmal Khan; Salmi, L.-Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Interurban road crashes often result in severe Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs). Prehospital emergency care on interurban roads was rarely evaluated in the low- and middle-income countries. The study highlighted the availability and quality of prehospital care facilities on interurban roads in Pakistan, a low-income country. The study setting was a 592-km-long National highway in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Using the questionnaires adapted from the World Health Organization prehospital care guidelines [Sasser et al., 2005], managers and ambulance staff at the stations along highways were interviewed regarding the process of care, supplies in ambulances, and their experience of trauma care. Ambulance stations were either managed by the police or the Edhi Foundation (EF), a philanthropic organization. All highway stations were managed by the EF; the median distance between highway stations was 38 km (Interquartile Range [IQR]=27–46). We visited 14 stations, ten on the highway section, and four in cities, including two managed by the police. Most highway stations (n=13) received one RTI call per day. Half of stations (n=5) were inside highway towns, usually near primary or secondary-level healthcare facilities. Travel time to the nearest tertiary healthcare facility ranged from 31 to 70 minutes (median=48 minutes; IQR=30–60). Other shortcomings noted for stations were not triaging RTI cases (86%), informing hospitals (64%), or recording response times (57%). All ambulances (n=12) had stretchers, but only 58% had oxygen cylinders. The median schooling of ambulance staff (n=13) was 8 years (IQR=3–10), and the median paramedic training was 3 days (IQR=2–3). Observed shortcomings in prehospital care could be improved by public-private partnerships focusing on paramedic training, making available essential medical supplies, and linking ambulance stations with designated healthcare facilities for appropriate RTI triage. PMID:24406963

  3. Acute Stroke: Current Evidence-based Recommendations for Prehospital Care

    PubMed Central

    Glober, Nancy K.; Sporer, Karl A.; Guluma, Kama Z.; Serra, John P.; Barger, Joe A.; Brown, John F.; Gilbert, Gregory H.; Koenig, Kristi L.; Rudnick, Eric M.; Salvucci, Angelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the United States, emergency medical services (EMS) protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with a suspected stroke and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the state of California. Methods We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with a suspected stroke and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations. We then compared the stroke protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. The specific protocol components that we analyzed were the use of a stroke scale, blood glucose evaluation, use of supplemental oxygen, patient positioning, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac monitoring, fluid assessment and intravenous access, and stroke regionalization. Results Protocols across EMS agencies in California varied widely. Most used some sort of stroke scale with the majority using the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS). All recommended the evaluation of blood glucose with the level for action ranging from 60 to 80mg/dL. Cardiac monitoring was recommended in 58% and 33% recommended an ECG. More than half required the direct transport to a primary stroke center and 88% recommended hospital notification. Conclusion Protocols for a patient with a suspected stroke vary widely across the state of California. The evidence-based recommendations that we present for the prehospital diagnosis and treatment of this condition may be useful for EMS medical directors tasked with creating and revising these protocols. PMID:26973735

  4. Prehospital gastrointestinal decontamination of toxic ingestions: a missed opportunity.

    PubMed

    Wax, P M; Cobaugh, D J

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if emergency medical services (EMS) providers routinely initiate field gastrointestinal decontamination of adult drug overdose patients transported to the emergency department (ED). A retrospective prehospital chart review was performed on adult patients identified as drug overdose who were transported by EMS. ED charts on patients transported to a university hospital were reviewed for follow-up data. Prehospital care records showed that gastrointestinal decontamination was initiated in only 6 of 361 (2%) patients, all of whom received ipecac. No patient received activated charcoal. The median transport time was 25 minutes (range, 5 to 66 minutes). Follow-up data on patients transported to the university hospital revealed that 30 of 43 (70%) patients who might have been suitable candidates for prehospital activated charcoal actually received activated charcoal in the ED. Median time to activated charcoal in the ED was 82 minutes (range, 32 to 329 min). Use of activated charcoal in the field appears to be deferred despite its known loss of efficacy over time. The failure to start activated charcoal in the field contributes to the delay in initiating activated charcoal therapy.

  5. Immediate emergency department external cardiac pacing for prehospital bradyasystolic arrest.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Nowak, R M; Martin, G B; Best, R; Carden, D L; Tomlanovich, M C

    1985-04-01

    Approximately 25% of patients in prehospital cardiac arrest present in bradyasystolic rhythms, and their long-term prognosis is very poor. Our study was undertaken to determine the utility of immediate emergency department (ED) external cardiac pacing in this situation. Twenty patients presenting with bradyasystolic prehospital cardiac arrest were entered in the study. All received the usual advanced cardiac life support therapy, but also were externally paced immediately using an automated external defibrillator and pacemaker (AEDP). Only two of 20 patients showed evidence of electrical capture, and none developed pulses with pacing. Four of the 20 patients developed a sinus rhythm and blood pressure during resuscitation. Three survived to leave the ED, but none survived to leave the hospital. An increase in the rate of bradycardia and pulseless idioventricular rhythms that was independent of electrical capture or pharmacologic therapy was noted occasionally. Although survival was not enhanced using the AEDP, the device was reliable, easy to use, and free of complications. External cardiac pacing warrants further investigation in the prehospital setting.

  6. Effect of hypertonic saline treatment on the inflammatory response after hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Holms, Carla Augusto; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Kahvegian, Marcia; Massoco, Cristina Oliveira; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi; Gutierrez, Paulo Sampaio; Junior, Jose Otavio Costa Auler

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertonic saline has been proposed to modulate the inflammatory cascade in certain experimental conditions, including pulmonary inflammation caused by inhaled gastric contents. The present study aimed to assess the potential anti-inflammatory effects of administering a single intravenous dose of 7.5% hypertonic saline in an experimental model of acute lung injury induced by hydrochloric acid. METHODS: Thirty-two pigs were anesthetized and randomly allocated into the following four groups: Sham, which received anesthesia and were observed; HS, which received intravenous 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (4 ml/kg); acute lung injury, which were subjected to acute lung injury with intratracheal hydrochloric acid; and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline, which were subjected to acute lung injury with hydrochloric acid and treated with hypertonic saline. Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were recorded over four hours. Subsequently, bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected at the end of the observation period to measure cytokine levels using an oxidative burst analysis, and lung tissue was collected for a histological analysis. RESULTS: Hydrochloric acid instillation caused marked changes in respiratory mechanics as well as blood gas and lung parenchyma parameters. Despite the absence of a significant difference between the acute lung injury and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline groups, the acute lung injury animals presented higher neutrophil and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed pulmonary edema, congestion and alveolar collapse in both groups; however, the differences between groups were not significant. Despite the lower cytokine and neutrophil levels observed in the acute lung injury + hypertonic saline group, significant differences were not observed among the treated and non-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertonic saline

  7. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  8. Effect of hypertonic saline treatment on the inflammatory response after hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in pigs.

    PubMed

    Holms, Carla Augusto; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Kahvegian, Marcia; Massoco, Cristina Oliveira; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi; Gutierrez, Paulo Sampaio; Auler Junior, Jose Otavio Costa

    2015-08-01

    Hypertonic saline has been proposed to modulate the inflammatory cascade in certain experimental conditions, including pulmonary inflammation caused by inhaled gastric contents. The present study aimed to assess the potential anti-inflammatory effects of administering a single intravenous dose of 7.5% hypertonic saline in an experimental model of acute lung injury induced by hydrochloric acid. Thirty-two pigs were anesthetized and randomly allocated into the following four groups: Sham, which received anesthesia and were observed; HS, which received intravenous 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (4 ml/kg); acute lung injury, which were subjected to acute lung injury with intratracheal hydrochloric acid; and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline, which were subjected to acute lung injury with hydrochloric acid and treated with hypertonic saline. Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were recorded over four hours. Subsequently, bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected at the end of the observation period to measure cytokine levels using an oxidative burst analysis, and lung tissue was collected for a histological analysis. Hydrochloric acid instillation caused marked changes in respiratory mechanics as well as blood gas and lung parenchyma parameters. Despite the absence of a significant difference between the acute lung injury and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline groups, the acute lung injury animals presented higher neutrophil and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed pulmonary edema, congestion and alveolar collapse in both groups; however, the differences between groups were not significant. Despite the lower cytokine and neutrophil levels observed in the acute lung injury + hypertonic saline group, significant differences were not observed among the treated and non-treated groups. Hypertonic saline infusion after intratracheal hydrochloric

  9. Can empirical hypertonic saline or sodium bicarbonate treatment prevent the development of cardiotoxicity during serious amitriptyline poisoning? Experimental research.

    PubMed

    Paksu, Muhammet Sukru; Zengin, Halit; Ilkaya, Fatih; Paksu, Sule; Guzel, Hasan; Ucar, Durmus; Uzun, Adem; Alacam, Hasan; Duran, Latif; Murat, Naci; Guzel, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate whether hypertonic saline or sodium bicarbonate administration prevented the development of cardiotoxicity in rats that received toxic doses of amitriptyline. Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats were used in the study. The animals were divided into six groups. Group 1 received toxic doses of i.p. amitriptyline. Groups 2 and 3 toxic doses of i.p. amitriptyline, plus i.v. sodium bicarbonate and i.v. hypertonic saline, respectively. Group 4 received only i.v. sodium bicarbonate, group 5 received only i.v. hypertonic saline, and group 6 was the control. Electrocardiography was recorded in all rats for a maximum of 60 minutes. Blood samples were obtained to measure the serum levels of sodium and ionised calcium. The survival time was shorter in group 1. In this group, the animals' heart rates also decreased over time, and their QRS and QTc intervals were significantly prolonged. Groups 2 and 3 showed less severe changes in their ECGs and the rats survived for a longer period. The effects of sodium bicarbonate or hypertonic saline treatments on reducing the development of cardiotoxicity were similar. The serum sodium levels decreased in all the amitriptyline-applied groups. Reduction of serum sodium level was most pronounced in group 1. Empirical treatment with sodium bicarbonate or hypertonic saline can reduce the development of cardiotoxicity during amitriptyline intoxication. As hypertonic saline has no adverse effects on drug elimination, it should be considered as an alternative to sodium bicarbonate therapy.

  10. TonEBP stimulates multiple cellular pathways for adaptation to hypertonic stress: organic osmolyte-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Do; Choi, Soo Youn; Lim, Sun Woo; Lamitina, S. Todd; Ho, Steffan N.; Go, William Y.

    2011-01-01

    TonEBP (tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein) is a transcription factor that promotes cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes in the hypertonic renal medulla by stimulating expression of its target genes. Genetically modified animals with deficient TonEBP activity in the kidney suffer from severe medullary atrophy in association with cell death, demonstrating that TonEBP is essential for the survival of the renal medullary cells. Using both TonEBP knockout cells and RNA interference of TonEBP, we found that TonEBP promoted cellular adaptation to hypertonic stress. Microarray analyses revealed that the genetic response to hypertonicity was dominated by TonEBP in that expression of totally different sets of genes was increased by hypertonicity in those cells with TonEBP vs. those without TonEBP activity. Of over 100 potentially new TonEBP-regulated genes, we selected seven for further analyses and found that their expressions were all dependent on TonEBP. RNA interference experiments showed that some of these genes, asporin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 and -7, and an extracellular lysophospholipase D, plus heat shock protein 70, a known TonEBP target gene, contributed to the adaptation to hypertonicity without promoting organic osmolyte accumulation. We conclude that TonEBP stimulates multiple cellular pathways for adaptation to hypertonic stress in addition to organic osmolyte accumulation. PMID:21209002

  11. TonEBP stimulates multiple cellular pathways for adaptation to hypertonic stress: organic osmolyte-dependent and -independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Do; Choi, Soo Youn; Lim, Sun Woo; Lamitina, S Todd; Ho, Steffan N; Go, William Y; Kwon, H Moo

    2011-03-01

    TonEBP (tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein) is a transcription factor that promotes cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes in the hypertonic renal medulla by stimulating expression of its target genes. Genetically modified animals with deficient TonEBP activity in the kidney suffer from severe medullary atrophy in association with cell death, demonstrating that TonEBP is essential for the survival of the renal medullary cells. Using both TonEBP knockout cells and RNA interference of TonEBP, we found that TonEBP promoted cellular adaptation to hypertonic stress. Microarray analyses revealed that the genetic response to hypertonicity was dominated by TonEBP in that expression of totally different sets of genes was increased by hypertonicity in those cells with TonEBP vs. those without TonEBP activity. Of over 100 potentially new TonEBP-regulated genes, we selected seven for further analyses and found that their expressions were all dependent on TonEBP. RNA interference experiments showed that some of these genes, asporin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 and -7, and an extracellular lysophospholipase D, plus heat shock protein 70, a known TonEBP target gene, contributed to the adaptation to hypertonicity without promoting organic osmolyte accumulation. We conclude that TonEBP stimulates multiple cellular pathways for adaptation to hypertonic stress in addition to organic osmolyte accumulation.

  12. Roles of TauT and system A in cytoprotection of rat syncytiotrophoblast cell line exposed to hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, T; Sai, Y; Fujii, J; Muta, M; Iizasa, H; Tomi, M; Deureh, M; Kose, N; Nakashima, E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the cytoprotective mechanism(s) induced in a conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT 18d-1) exposed to hypertonic conditions. Hypertonicity-induced apoptosis of TR-TBT 18d-1 cells, but this was blocked by addition of 1 mM taurine to the culture medium. TauT-knockdown using siRNA revealed that TauT is a major contributor to taurine uptake by TR-TBT 18d-1 cells, at least under normal conditions. Cellular uptake of [(3)H]taurine and [(14)C]betaine by TR-TBT 18d-1 cells cultured under hypertonic conditions was increased compared to that under normal conditions. TauT, BGT-1, ATA2 and HSP70 mRNAs were upregulated by hypertonicity, while OCTN2, ENT1 and CNT1 mRNAs were downregulated. [(3)H]Taurine uptake was strongly inhibited by TauT inhibitors such as hypotaurine and β-alanine. MeAIB, a system A specific substrate, inhibited hypertonic stress-induced [(14)C]betaine uptake. These results suggest that TauT and system A play cytoprotective roles in syncytiotrophoblasts exposed to hypertonic stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypertonic Saline for the Treatment of Bronchiolitis in Infants and Young Children: A Critical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiolitis, an infection of the lower respiratory tract, is the leading cause of infant and child hospitalization in the United States. Therapeutic options for management of bronchiolitis are limited. Hypertonic saline inhalation therapy has been studied in numerous clinical trials with mixed results. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published updated guidelines on the diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis, which include new recommendations on the use of hypertonic saline. We reviewed all published clinical trials mentioned in the 2014 AAP guidelines, as well as additional trials published since the guidelines, and critically evaluated each trial to determine efficacy, safety, and expectations of hypertonic saline inhalation therapy. A total of 2682 infants were studied over the course of 22 clinical trials. Nine trials were carried out in the outpatient/clinic/emergency department and 13 in the inpatient setting. We agree with the AAP guidelines regarding the recommendation to use nebulized hypertonic saline for infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis, with the expectation of reducing bronchiolitis scores and length of stay when it is expected to last more than 72 hours. However, we also believe there might be an advantage for hypertonic saline in reducing admission rates from the emergency department, based on close examination of the results of recent trials. This review also highlights important gaps in the available literature that need to be addressed in order to define the role of inhaled hypertonic saline therapy. PMID:26997926

  14. Telemedicine in pre-hospital care: a review of telemedicine applications in the pre-hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Amadi-Obi, Ahjoku; Gilligan, Peadar; Owens, Niall; O'Donnell, Cathal

    2014-01-01

    The right person in the right place and at the right time is not always possible; telemedicine offers the potential to give audio and visual access to the appropriate clinician for patients. Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) in the area of video-to-video communication have led to growth in telemedicine applications in recent years. For these advances to be properly integrated into healthcare delivery, a regulatory framework, supported by definitive high-quality research, should be developed. Telemedicine is well suited to extending the reach of specialist services particularly in the pre-hospital care of acute emergencies where treatment delays may affect clinical outcome. The exponential growth in research and development in telemedicine has led to improvements in clinical outcomes in emergency medical care. This review is part of the LiveCity project to examine the history and existing applications of telemedicine in the pre-hospital environment. A search of electronic databases including Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for relevant papers was performed. All studies addressing the use of telemedicine in emergency medical or pre-hospital care setting were included. Out of a total of 1,279 articles reviewed, 39 met the inclusion criteria and were critically analysed. A majority of the studies were on stroke management. The studies suggested that overall, telemedicine had a positive impact on emergency medical care. It improved the pre-hospital diagnosis of stroke and myocardial infarction and enhanced the supervision of delivery of tissue thromboplasminogen activator in acute ischaemic stroke. Telemedicine presents an opportunity to enhance patient management. There are as yet few definitive studies that have demonstrated whether it had an effect on clinical outcome.

  15. Telemedicine in pre-hospital care: a review of telemedicine applications in the pre-hospital environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The right person in the right place and at the right time is not always possible; telemedicine offers the potential to give audio and visual access to the appropriate clinician for patients. Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) in the area of video-to-video communication have led to growth in telemedicine applications in recent years. For these advances to be properly integrated into healthcare delivery, a regulatory framework, supported by definitive high-quality research, should be developed. Telemedicine is well suited to extending the reach of specialist services particularly in the pre-hospital care of acute emergencies where treatment delays may affect clinical outcome. The exponential growth in research and development in telemedicine has led to improvements in clinical outcomes in emergency medical care. This review is part of the LiveCity project to examine the history and existing applications of telemedicine in the pre-hospital environment. A search of electronic databases including Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for relevant papers was performed. All studies addressing the use of telemedicine in emergency medical or pre-hospital care setting were included. Out of a total of 1,279 articles reviewed, 39 met the inclusion criteria and were critically analysed. A majority of the studies were on stroke management. The studies suggested that overall, telemedicine had a positive impact on emergency medical care. It improved the pre-hospital diagnosis of stroke and myocardial infarction and enhanced the supervision of delivery of tissue thromboplasminogen activator in acute ischaemic stroke. Telemedicine presents an opportunity to enhance patient management. There are as yet few definitive studies that have demonstrated whether it had an effect on clinical outcome. PMID:25635190

  16. Understanding Safety in Prehospital Emergency Medical Services for Children

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Erika K.; O’Brien, Kerth; Curry, Merlin; Meckler, Garth D.; Engle, Philip P.; Jui, Jonathan; Summers, Caitlin; Lambert, William; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective For over a decade, the field of medicine has recognized the importance of studying and designing strategies to prevent safety issues in hospitals and clinics. However, there has been less focus on understanding safety in prehospital emergency medical services, particularly in regard to children. Roughly 27.7 million (or 27%) of the annual ED visits are by children under the age of 19, and about 2 million of these children reach the hospital via EMS. This paper adds to our qualitative understanding of the nature and contributors to safety events in the prehospital emergency care of children. Methods We conducted four 8–12 person focus groups among paid and volunteer Emergency Medical Services providers to understand: 1) patient safety issues that occur in the prehospital care of children, and 2) factors that contribute to these safety issues (e.g. patient, family, systems, environmental, or individual provider factors). Focus groups were conducted in rural and urban settings. Interview transcripts were coded for overarching themes. Results Key factors and themes identified in the analysis were grouped into categories using an ecological approach that distinguishes between systems, team, child and family, and individual provider level contributors. At the systems level, focus group participants cited challenges such as lack of appropriately sized equipment or standardized pediatric medication dosages, insufficient human resources, limited pediatric training and experience, and aspects of emergency medical services culture. EMS team level factors centered on communication with other EMS providers (both prehospital and hospital). Family and child factors included communication barriers and challenging clinical situations or scene characteristics. Finally, focus group participants highlighted a range of provider level factors including heightened levels of anxiety, insufficient experience and training with children and errors in assessment and decision

  17. Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile tear gas exposure: Rinsing with amphoteric, hypertonic, and chelating solution.

    PubMed

    Brvar, M

    2016-02-01

    Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) is the tear gas used by the police. The aim was to evaluate an amphoteric, hypertonic, and chelating rinsing solution in CS exposure. The first (CS) group of six police officers was exposed to CS only. The second (preexposure) group of eight sprayed their faces with an aqueous, hypertonic, amphoteric, and chelating solution before CS exposure. The third (postexposure) group of eight sprayed their faces with an aqueous, hypertonic, amphoteric, and chelating solution after CS exposure. The time between exiting the CS cloud and arriving at the "ready for action" checkpoint was measured. Their facial pain both inside the CS cloud and at the checkpoint was assessed (0-10 points). The pain level inside the CS cloud was significantly lower in the preexposed group (5.6 ± 1.1; p = 0.01) than in the CS group (9.7 ± 0.5) and in the postexposure group (9.1 ± 0.4) where it was similar. The time interval between CS exposure and arrival at the checkpoint in the preexposure group (1:26 ± 0:44 min) was significantly shorter than both in the CS group (2:28 ± 0:25 min; p = 0.04) and postexposure group (2:30 ± 0:48 min; p = 0.02) where it was not different. The residual pain at the checkpoint in the preexposure (1.1 ± 0.4) and postexposure (1.4 ± 0.7) groups was similar with a significant lower pain level than in the CS group (2.3 ± 0.5; p = 0.02). CS decontamination with an aqueous, hypertonic, amphoteric, and chelating solution reduces facial pain, whereas prevention with it reduces pain and recovery time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Effects of hypertonic saline infusion and water drinking on atrial peptide.

    PubMed

    Salazar, F J; Granger, J P; Joyce, M L; Burnett, J C; Bove, A A; Romero, J C

    1986-12-01

    This study was undertaken to define the changes in plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) induced by hypertonic saline infusion followed by spontaneous water drinking and to determine whether these changes in ANP are correlated with changes in right atrial pressure (RAP) and plasma levels of vasopressin (AVP). Conscious dogs (n = 5) were infused with hypertonic saline (6%) at a rate of 1.4 ml/min for 4 h. Water was withheld for the first 2 h and administered ad libitum for the final 2 h. Hypertonic saline infusion induced increases (P less than 0.05) in plasma osmolality (posM), pAVP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and RAP (1.9 +/- 0.6 to 3.1 +/- 0.7 mmHg). These changes were accompanied by an increase of pANP (68 +/- 14 to 120 +/- 33 pg/ml, P less than 0.05). Spontaneous water drinking (1,410 +/- 127 ml) returned posM and pAVP to control levels and produced a further and significant increment in RAP (150%) and pANP (100%). During the water-drinking phase MAP was not further altered, and hematocrit decreased by 11.1% (P less than 0.05). A positive linear correlation (P less than 0.001) was found between increases in RAP and pANP. The administration of an AVP vasopressor antagonist in a similar protocol, and before hypertonic saline infusion, inhibited the increase of MAP, but it did not alter the changes of posM, hematocrit, RAP, nor pANP. These results suggest that changes in the release of ANP during increases in posM and after spontaneous water drinking are predominantly controlled by changes in RAP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Ionic imbalance, in addition to molecular crowding, abates cytoskeletal dynamics and vesicle motility during hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paula; Roth, Isabelle; Meda, Paolo; Féraille, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Hasler, Udo

    2015-06-16

    Cell volume homeostasis is vital for the maintenance of optimal protein density and cellular function. Numerous mammalian cell types are routinely exposed to acute hypertonic challenge and shrink. Molecular crowding modifies biochemical reaction rates and decreases macromolecule diffusion. Cell volume is restored rapidly by ion influx but at the expense of elevated intracellular sodium and chloride levels that persist long after challenge. Although recent studies have highlighted the role of molecular crowding on the effects of hypertonicity, the effects of ionic imbalance on cellular trafficking dynamics in living cells are largely unexplored. By tracking distinct fluorescently labeled endosome/vesicle populations by live-cell imaging, we show that vesicle motility is reduced dramatically in a variety of cell types at the onset of hypertonic challenge. Live-cell imaging of actin and tubulin revealed similar arrested microfilament motility upon challenge. Vesicle motility recovered long after cell volume, a process that required functional regulatory volume increase and was accelerated by a return of extracellular osmolality to isosmotic levels. This delay suggests that, although volume-induced molecular crowding contributes to trafficking defects, it alone cannot explain the observed effects. Using fluorescent indicators and FRET-based probes, we found that intracellular ATP abundance and mitochondrial potential were reduced by hypertonicity and recovered after longer periods of time. Similar to the effects of osmotic challenge, isovolumetric elevation of intracellular chloride concentration by ionophores transiently decreased ATP production by mitochondria and abated microfilament and vesicle motility. These data illustrate how perturbed ionic balance, in addition to molecular crowding, affects membrane trafficking.

  20. Emergency anesthesia for evacuating a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage in a child overdosed with hypertonic saline

    PubMed Central

    Goonasekera, Chulananda; Bedford, James; Harpreet, Sodhi; Giombini, Mariangela; Sheikh, Asme

    2016-01-01

    A previously healthy 1-year-old child with a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage received 10 times higher dose of hypertonic saline inadvertently immediately before surgery. This case report describes deviations in fluid management needed to alleviate salt toxicity and its adverse effects during surgery under anesthesia perioperatively. The child made an uneventful recovery with no evident residual damage at follow-up. PMID:28217157

  1. Combination of Hot-Hypertonic Saline and Pressure Dressing in the Management of Parotid Fistula.

    PubMed

    Aisha; Fatima, Saira; Memon, Aijaz Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Parotid fistula is a rare complication of surgical or non-surgical trauma on or in the vicinity of parotid gland. Many pharmacological agents and surgical methods are used to treat it with their own merits, demerits and patient preferences. Injection of hypertonic hot saline along with compression dressing is an economical, patient-preferred and almost complication-free method to deal parotid fistula with promising results.

  2. Elevation of ouabainlike compound levels with hypertonic sodium chloride load in rat plasma and tissues.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Goto, A; Nagoshi, H; Terano, Y; Omata, M

    1997-07-01

    A major biologically active endogenous digitalis-like factor in the mammalian body may be an isomer of ouabain (ouabainlike compound, OLC). However, the exact role of OLC in sodium homeostasis is still unclear, and acute isotonic volume expansion does not enhance the secretion of OLC. We tested the hypothesis that OLC may be more important in the response to acute hypertonic NaCl load rather than isotonic volume expansion. We injected intraperitoneally 2 mL of 20% NaCl solution into male Wistar rats (n=34) and measured OLC levels in plasma, hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal at baseline (n=10) and 1, 2, and 4 hours (n=8 for each). In response to hypertonic NaCl loading, plasma Na-K ratio was elevated at 2 and 4 hours (P<.01). OLC levels in pituitary increased (P<.01) at 1 hour. Thereafter, plasma OLC levels increased at 2 and 4 hours (P<.05; basal, 75+/-11 pmol/L [+/-SEM]; 1 hour, 55+/-11; 2 hours, 130+/-24; 4 hours, 156+/-20). Concomitantly, OLC levels in adrenal increased at 2 and 4 hours (P<.01; basal, 1.7+/-0.2 pmol/g; 1 hour, 4.5+/-0.9; 2 hours, 5.0+/-0.7; 4 hours, 6.8+/-2.2). A significant correlation was observed between OLC levels in plasma and adrenal (P<.05). Plasma Na-K ratio positively correlated with OLC levels in plasma (r=.51, P<.01) and adrenal (r=.48, P<.01). Similar injection of physiological saline solution or hypertonic sucrose solution in physiological saline did not increase OLC levels in plasma and tissues. These findings indicate the elevation of OLC levels in plasma, pituitary, and adrenal in response to acute hypertonic NaCl load in rats and suggest that OLC may be involved in the response to the hypernatremic state.

  3. Ionic imbalance, in addition to molecular crowding, abates cytoskeletal dynamics and vesicle motility during hypertonic stress

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paula; Roth, Isabelle; Meda, Paolo; Féraille, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Hasler, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Cell volume homeostasis is vital for the maintenance of optimal protein density and cellular function. Numerous mammalian cell types are routinely exposed to acute hypertonic challenge and shrink. Molecular crowding modifies biochemical reaction rates and decreases macromolecule diffusion. Cell volume is restored rapidly by ion influx but at the expense of elevated intracellular sodium and chloride levels that persist long after challenge. Although recent studies have highlighted the role of molecular crowding on the effects of hypertonicity, the effects of ionic imbalance on cellular trafficking dynamics in living cells are largely unexplored. By tracking distinct fluorescently labeled endosome/vesicle populations by live-cell imaging, we show that vesicle motility is reduced dramatically in a variety of cell types at the onset of hypertonic challenge. Live-cell imaging of actin and tubulin revealed similar arrested microfilament motility upon challenge. Vesicle motility recovered long after cell volume, a process that required functional regulatory volume increase and was accelerated by a return of extracellular osmolality to isosmotic levels. This delay suggests that, although volume-induced molecular crowding contributes to trafficking defects, it alone cannot explain the observed effects. Using fluorescent indicators and FRET-based probes, we found that intracellular ATP abundance and mitochondrial potential were reduced by hypertonicity and recovered after longer periods of time. Similar to the effects of osmotic challenge, isovolumetric elevation of intracellular chloride concentration by ionophores transiently decreased ATP production by mitochondria and abated microfilament and vesicle motility. These data illustrate how perturbed ionic balance, in addition to molecular crowding, affects membrane trafficking. PMID:26045497

  4. Hypertonic sabouraud broth as a simple and powerful test for Candida dubliniensis screening.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sydney Hartz; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; de Laet Sant'Ana, Priscilla; Oliveira, Loiva O; Santurio, Janio M; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2002-05-01

    We developed a new screening test for C. dubliniensis based on its inability to grow on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 6.5% NaCl. A total of 266 clinical yeast isolates and 3 reference strains were tested, including 250 C. albicans and 19 C. dubliniensis strains. All C. albicans isolates tested exhibited significant growth on hypertonic Sabouraud broth up to 96 h, while, all C. dubliniensis isolates did not exhibit any visually detectable growth during the same period.

  5. Use of Moderately Hypertonic Sodium Chloride in the Resuscitation of Patients from Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-08

    administered at the time of entry. Measurements Serum samples were collected for measurement of chemistry panels, blood counts and blood gases, which...chloride; moderately hypertonic solutions; trauma; fluid resuscitation;psystolic blood pressure; heart rate, urine output; PaO 2/FI0 2 ratio; fluid...administeredv-patients; survival; shock; trauma, isotonic solutions lactated Ringer’s; organ failure; 3% sodium chloride- blood replacement; pulmonary

  6. The Use of Hypertonic Solutions to Resuscitate Animals from Hypovolemic Shock.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-18

    protein was determined with Biuret assay on arterial blood samples taken every 30 min. Serum sodium and potassium were measured on a Nova I Na t /K...determine if a variable changed with respect to time after resuscitation [131. The paired Student t test was used to compare variable differences between...through the femoral onstrated, a two-tailed t test with the Bonfer- venous catheter. The hypertonic saline was roni correction for multiple comparisons

  7. Effects of SFO lesion or captopril on drinking induced by intragastric hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, E M; Fitts, D A

    1998-06-08

    This study examined the hypothesis that the subfornical organ (SFO), a circumventricular organ with both osmosensitive elements and dipsogenic receptors for circulating angiotensin (ANG) II, is important for the water drinking response that follows an intragastric (ig) load of hypertonic NaCl. A 2-ml saline load was administered ig at 300, 900, or 1200 mOsm/kg to rats with sham lesions or lesions of the SFO, and intake was measured periodically for 2 h. Hypertonic loads caused sham-lesioned rats, but not SFO-lesioned rats, to drink earlier in the test or to drink more water than did the isotonic load. Inhibition of ANG II synthesis in unoperated rats with 100 mg/kg of captopril reduced water intake only during the initial 15 min after a gavage of 1200 mOsm/kg saline. Loads of 900 and 1200 mOsm/kg both increased plasma osmolality and sodium concentration by 15 min after gavage without greatly affecting hematocrit or plasma protein concentration. Thus, the SFO is important for the osmotically-induced water drinking response after acute ig administration of hypertonic saline. With the possible exception of the first 15 min, this drinking response is independent of the peripheral synthesis of ANG II. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sphingomyelin metabolism is involved in the differentiation of MDCK cells induced by environmental hypertonicity

    PubMed Central

    Favale, Nicolás Octavio; Santacreu, Bruno Jaime; Pescio, Lucila Gisele; Marquez, Maria Gabriela; Sterin-Speziale, Norma Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are relevant lipid components of eukaryotic cells. Besides regulating various cellular processes, SLs provide the structural framework for plasma membrane organization. Particularly, SM is associated with detergent-resistant microdomains. We have previously shown that the adherens junction (AJ) complex, the relevant cell-cell adhesion structure involved in cell differentiation and tissue organization, is located in an SM-rich membrane lipid domain. We have also demonstrated that under hypertonic conditions, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells acquire a differentiated phenotype with changes in SL metabolism. For these reasons, we decided to evaluate whether SM metabolism is involved in the acquisition of the differentiated phenotype of MDCK cells. We found that SM synthesis mediated by SM synthase 1 is involved in hypertonicity-induced formation of mature AJs, necessary for correct epithelial cell differentiation. Inhibition of SM synthesis impaired the acquisition of mature AJs, evoking a disintegration-like process reflected by the dissipation of E-cadherin and β- and α-catenins from the AJ complex. As a consequence, MDCK cells did not develop the hypertonicity-induced differentiated epithelial cell phenotype. PMID:25670801

  9. [Septic shock. Update of treatment using hypertonic saline and antidiuretic hormone-vasopressin].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ramírez, J; Aguirre Sánchez-Covisa, M; Araujo, F; Gil Trujillo, S; Collar, L G; Bocharán, S

    2012-01-01

    Safety in the use of small volumes of hypertonic saline solution for hypovolaemic shock and in the treatment of intracranial hypertension has been demonstrated in studies in the field of resuscitation. There is little experience of this for septic shock in humans. Beneficial immunomodulatory effects have been detected in pre-clinical studies. Interactions with the pituitary-adrenal axis and with the secretion of anti-diuretic hormone are varied and suggestive, but are not sufficiently understood. On the other hand, vasopressin has cardiovascular, osmoregulatory, and coagulation effects, and also acts on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is a relative deficit of vasopressin in septic shock. Its use in these patients does not seem to have any advantages as regards mortality, but may be beneficial in patients at risk from acute renal failure, or those who receive corticosteroids. Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue that has also been studied. The synergy between vasopressin and hypertonic saline is a hypothesis that is mainly supported in pre-clinical studies. The use of hypertonic saline solution in septic shock, although promising, is still experimental, and must be restricted to the field of controlled clinical trials.

  10. Early Implementation of THAM for ICP Control: Therapeutic Hypothermia Avoidance and Reduction in Hypertonics/Hyperosmotics.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, F A; Gillman, L M; Teitelbaum, J; West, M

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tromethamine (THAM) has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP). Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI) receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.

  11. Prehospital diagnosis of massive ethylene glycol poisoning and use of an early antidote.

    PubMed

    Amathieu, Roland; Merouani, Medhi; Borron, Stephen W; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Smail, Nadia; Adnet, Frédéric

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a patient suspected of voluntary massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. Prehospital diagnosis was established by portable blood analyser and an early antidote with 4 MP treatment initiated in out-of-hospital setting. Use of portable blood analyser in prehospital care should be considered in case of suspected massive poisoning by ethylene glycol.

  12. Addressing prehospital patient safety using the science of injury prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Zachary F; Hargarten, Stephen; Vernick, Jon

    2008-01-01

    There is inadequate information about the scope and character of adverse events in prehospital care. However, there is ample evidence to suggest that prehospital patient safety hazards are often unique and underrecognized. We first summarize what is currently understood about prehospital patient safety and identify the specific aspects of emergency medical services (EMS) care that may make conventional approaches to the evaluation and improvement of patient safety more difficult. Next we introduce the concept of using injury prevention and control science to analyze prehospital adverse events and to help develop EMS patient safety solutions. Injury prevention and control is a proven public health approach for the study and reduction of both intentional and unintentional injuries. It includes the use of a Haddon phase-factor matrix to identify possible interventions, especially environmental modifications that provide automatic protection. We demonstrate how this method can be used as a complementary approach in efforts to prevent injuries caused by prehospital adverse medical events.

  13. Supporting Information Use and Retention of Pre-Hospital Information during Trauma Resuscitation: A Qualitative Study of Pre-Hospital Communications and Information Needs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhan; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Burd, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    Pre-hospital communication is a critical first step towards ensuring efficient management of critically injured patients during trauma resuscitation. Information about incoming patients received from the field and en route serves a critical role in helping emergency medical teams prepare for patient care. Despite many efforts, inefficiencies persist. In this paper, we examine the pre-hospital communications between pre-hospital and hospital providers, including the types of information transferred during en-route calls, as well as the information needs of trauma teams. Our findings show that Emergency Medical Services (EMS) teams report a great deal of information from the field, most of which match the needs of trauma teams. We discuss design implications for a computerized system to support the use and retention of pre-hospital information during trauma resuscitation. PMID:24551428

  14. Pre-exercise ingestion of pickle juice, hypertonic saline, or water and aerobic performance and thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Peikert, Jarett; Miller, Kevin C; Albrecht, Jay; Tucker, Jared; Deal, James

    2014-01-01

    Ingesting high-sodium drinks pre-exercise can improve thermoregulation and performance. Athletic trainers (19%) give athletes pickle juice (PJ) prophylactically for cramping. No data exist on whether this practice affects aerobic performance or thermoregulation. To determine if drinking 2 mL/kg body mass of PJ, hypertonic saline, or deionized water (DIW) pre-exercise affects aerobic performance or thermoregulation. Crossover study. Controlled laboratory study. Nine euhydrated men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 184.0 ± 8.2 cm, mass = 82.6 ± 16.0 kg) completed testing. Participants rested for 65 minutes. During this period, they ingested 2 mL/kg of PJ, hypertonic saline, or DIW. Next, they drank 5 mL/kg of DIW. Blood was collected before and after ingestion of all fluids. Participants were weighed and ran in the heat (temperature = 38.3°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 21.1% ± 4.7%) at increasing increments of maximal heart rate (50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%) until exhaustion or until rectal temperature exceeded 39.5°C. Participants were weighed postexercise so we could calculate sweat volume. Time to exhaustion, rectal temperature, changes in plasma volume, and sweat volume. Time to exhaustion did not differ among drinks (PJ = 77.4 ± 5.9 minutes, hypertonic saline = 77.4 ± 4.0 minutes, DIW = 75.7 ± 3.2 minutes; F2,16 = 1.1, P = .40). Core temperature of participants was similar among drinks (PJ = 38.7°C ± 0.3°C, hypertonic saline = 38.7°C ± 0.4°C, DIW = 38.8°C ± 0.4°C; P = .74) but increased from pre-exercise (36.7°C ± 0.2°C) to postexercise (38.7°C ± 0.4°C) (P < .05). No differences were observed for changes in plasma volume or sweat volume among drinks (P > .05). Ingesting small amounts of PJ or hypertonic saline with water did not affect performance or select thermoregulatory measures. Drinking larger volumes of PJ and water may be more effective at expanding the extracellular space.

  15. Pre-Exercise Ingestion of Pickle Juice, Hypertonic Saline, or Water and Aerobic Performance and Thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Peikert, Jarett; Miller, Kevin C.; Albrecht, Jay; Tucker, Jared; Deal, James

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ingesting high-sodium drinks pre-exercise can improve thermoregulation and performance. Athletic trainers (19%) give athletes pickle juice (PJ) prophylactically for cramping. No data exist on whether this practice affects aerobic performance or thermoregulation. Objective: To determine if drinking 2 mL/kg body mass of PJ, hypertonic saline, or deionized water (DIW) pre-exercise affects aerobic performance or thermoregulation. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory study. Patients or Other Participants: Nine euhydrated men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 184.0 ± 8.2 cm, mass = 82.6 ± 16.0 kg) completed testing. Intervention(s): Participants rested for 65 minutes. During this period, they ingested 2 mL/kg of PJ, hypertonic saline, or DIW. Next, they drank 5 mL/kg of DIW. Blood was collected before and after ingestion of all fluids. Participants were weighed and ran in the heat (temperature = 38.3°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 21.1% ± 4.7%) at increasing increments of maximal heart rate (50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%) until exhaustion or until rectal temperature exceeded 39.5°C. Participants were weighed postexercise so we could calculate sweat volume. Main Outcome Measure(s): Time to exhaustion, rectal temperature, changes in plasma volume, and sweat volume. Results: Time to exhaustion did not differ among drinks (PJ = 77.4 ± 5.9 minutes, hypertonic saline = 77.4 ± 4.0 minutes, DIW = 75.7 ± 3.2 minutes; F2,16 = 1.1, P = .40). Core temperature of participants was similar among drinks (PJ = 38.7°C ± 0.3°C, hypertonic saline = 38.7°C ± 0.4°C, DIW = 38.8°C ± 0.4°C; P = .74) but increased from pre-exercise (36.7°C ± 0.2°C) to postexercise (38.7°C ± 0.4°C) (P < .05). No differences were observed for changes in plasma volume or sweat volume among drinks (P > .05). Conclusions: Ingesting small amounts of PJ or hypertonic saline with water did not affect performance or select thermoregulatory measures. Drinking larger volumes of

  16. Prehospital preparedness for pediatric mass-casualty events.

    PubMed

    Shirm, Steve; Liggin, Rebecca; Dick, Rhonda; Graham, James

    2007-10-01

    Recent events have reiterated the need for well-coordinated planning for mass-casualty events, including those that involve children. The objective of this study was to document the preparedness of prehospital emergency medical services agencies in the United States for the care of children who are involved in mass-casualty events. A national list of all licensed prehospital emergency medical services agencies was prepared through contact with each state's emergency medical services office. A survey was mailed to 3748 emergency medical services agencies that were selected randomly from the national list in November 2004; a second survey was mailed to nonresponders in March 2005. Descriptive statistics were used to describe study variables. Most (72.9%) agencies reported having a written plan for response to a mass-casualty event, but only 248 (13.3%) reported having pediatric-specific mass-casualty event plans. Most (69%) services reported that they did not have a specific plan for response to a mass-casualty event at a school. Most (62.1%) agencies reported that their mass-casualty event plan does not include provisions for people with special health care needs. Only 19.2% of the services reported using a pediatric-specific triage protocol for mass-casualty events, and 12.3% reported having a pediatrician involved in their medical control. Although most (69.3%) agencies reported participation in a local or regional disaster drill in the past year, fewer than half of those that participated in drills (49.0%) included pediatric victims. Although children are among the most vulnerable in the event of disaster, there are substantial deficiencies in the preparedness plans of prehospital emergency medical services agencies in the United States for the care of children in a mass-casualty event.

  17. Community Implementation of a Prehospital Spinal Immobilization Guideline.

    PubMed

    Jones Rhodes, Whitney; Steinbruner, David; Finck, Lani; Flarity, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively describe the underpinnings of the successful implementation of a collaborative prehospital spinal immobilization guideline throughout the emergency medical services (EMS) community in two counties in Colorado. We also describe lessons learned that may be beneficial to other communities considering similar initiatives. Qualitative data were collected from key informants who were directly involved in the implementation of a new prehospital spinal immobilization guideline among four community hospitals in two different hospital systems and the associated EMS providers within the two counties. We interviewed a purposively selected sample of emergency department (ED) physicians and other ED staff, hospital decision makers, EMS educators as well as fire department and EMS medical directors. Data were collected and reviewed until saturation was achieved. We conducted qualitative analysis to summarize and synthesize themes. Ten key informants were interviewed, at which point saturation was achieved and several clear themes emerged. Participants described successful community-wide guideline implementation despite a history of competition, isolation, and conflict between the various EMS organizations and hospitals on past EMS and trauma initiatives. Factors related to success included the nearly universal perception that the initiative was "cutting edge" and thus an important paradigm shift in care for the community, as a whole. Participants reported the ability of community stakeholders to jointly assure a collaborative approach, characterized by intensive education for EMS personnel and others involved, and the ability of the community to together secure the new equipment required for success. Key informants described a convergence of factors as leading to the successful implementation of a prehospital spinal immobilization guideline. Lessons learned regarding how to overcome a tradition of competition and isolation to allow

  18. Method of cold saline storage for prehospital induced hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Kampmeyer, Mitch; Callaway, Clifton

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last decade has supported the use of cold intravenous (IV) fluid as a method for initiating therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest resuscitation. However, prehospital care programs employing this treatment have encountered various difficulties. Barriers to prehospital induced hypothermia (IH) protocols include the lack of effective or economically reasonable methods to maintain cold saline in the field. Validation of a simple method could allow agencies to equip numerous rigs with cold saline. The aim of this study was to determine whether a standard commercial cooler can maintain two 1-L normal saline solution (NSS) bags below 4 degrees C in three different environments. Environments simulating those of an ambulance compartment were created for the experiment. NSS temperatures were continuously recorded inside a standard commercial cooler under one of three scenarios: ambient room temperature (25 degrees C) without ice packs, ambient room temperature with ice packs, and 50 degrees C ambient temperature with ice packs. Four trials under each condition were performed. In a room-temperature environment without ice packs, the NSS warmed to 4 degrees C in a mean interval of 1 hour 21 minutes. Using room temperature with ice packs, the NSS warmed to 4 degrees C in a mean interval of 29 hours 53 minutes. In a constant hot environment of 50 degrees C, the NSS warmed to 4 degrees C in a mean interval of 10 hours 50 minutes. A significant difference was found between the three environments (log-rank = 17.90, df = 2, p = 0.0001). Prehospital refrigeration devices are needed for current and future IH protocols. Low-technology methods in the form of a cooler and ice packs can provide cold saline storage for longer than a full 24-hour shift in a room-temperature ambulance. In extremely hot conditions, 4 degrees C NSS can be maintained for nearly 11 hours using this method. This model exhibits an economical, easily deployable cold saline storage unit.

  19. Prehospital stroke diagnostics based on neurological examination and transcranial ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Moriz; Boy, Sandra; Hölscher, Thilo; Ertl, Michael; Zimmermann, Markus; Ittner, Karl-Peter; Pemmerl, Josef; Pels, Hendrik; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schlachetzki, Felix

    2014-02-27

    Transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) has proved to be a fast and reliable tool for the detection of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions in a hospital setting. In this feasibility study on prehospital sonography, our aim was to investigate the accuracy of TCCS for neurovascular emergency diagnostics when performed in a prehospital setting using mobile ultrasound equipment as part of a neurological examination. Following a '911 stroke code' call, stroke neurologists experienced in TCCS rendezvoused with the paramedic team. In patients with suspected stroke, TCCS examination including ultrasound contrast agents was performed. Results were compared with neurovascular imaging (CTA, MRA) and the final discharge diagnosis from standard patient-centered stroke care. We enrolled '232 stroke code' patients with follow-up data available in 102 patients with complete TCCS examination. A diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made in 73 cases; 29 patients were identified as 'stroke mimics'. MCA occlusion was diagnosed in ten patients, while internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion/high-grade stenosis leading to reversal of anterior cerebral artery flow was diagnosed in four patients. The initial working diagnosis 'any stroke' showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 48%. 'Major MCA or ICA stroke' diagnosed by mobile ultrasound showed an overall sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 98%. The study demonstrates the feasibility and high diagnostic accuracy of emergency transcranial ultrasound assessment combined with neurological examinations for major ischemic stroke. Future combination with telemedical support, point-of-care analysis of blood serum markers, and probability algorithms of prehospital stroke diagnosis including ultrasound may help to speed up stroke treatment.

  20. A retrospective review of the prehospital use of activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Joseph; Kahn, Christopher A; Dunford, James V; Patel, Ekta; Clark, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    We studied the complications and timing implications of prehospital activated charcoal (PAC). Appropriateness of PAC administration was also evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed prehospital records over 32 months for overdose cases, where PAC was administered. Cases were assessed for amount and type of ingestant, clinical findings, timing of PAC, timing of transport and arrival into the emergency department (ED), and complications. Encounter duration in cases of PAC was compared with that, for all cases during the study period, where an overdose patient who did not receive activated charcoal was transported. Two thousand eight hundred forty-five total cases were identified. In 441 cases, PAC was given; and complications could be assessed. Two hundred eighty-one of these had complete information regarding timing of ingestion, activated charcoal administration, and transport. The average time between overdose and PAC was 49.8 minutes (range, 7-199 minutes; median, 41.0 minutes; SD, 30.4 minutes). Complications included emesis (7%), declining mental status (4%), declining blood pressure (0.4%), and declining oxygen saturation (0.4%). Four hundred seventeen cases of PAC had documentation of timing of emergency medical service (EMS) arrival on scene and arrival at the ED. Average EMS encounter time was 29 minutes (range, 10-53 minutes; median, 27.9 minutes). Two thousand forty-four poisoning patients were transported who did not receive PAC. The average EMS encounter time for this group was 28.1 minutes (range, 4-82 minutes; median, 27.3 minutes), not significantly different (P =.114). Prehospital activated charcoal did not appear to markedly delay transport or arrival of overdose patients into the ED and was generally safe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal artery thermometer use in the prehospital setting.

    PubMed

    Carleton, Erica; Fry, Brenda; Mulligan, Ashlee; Bell, Ali; Brossart, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Prehospital vital signs are an important and required component of patient assessment. We compared the temporal artery thermometer (TAT) to the digital thermometer currently used in our emergency medical service (EMS) system and then to the digital thermometer used in the emergency department. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the TAT in the prehospital setting. Other outcomes of interest included whether extraneous factors or cold ambient temperatures affected the TAT readings and paramedic satisfaction with the TAT. This was a prospective, observational study. Patient temperature was taken by EMS personnel with both the digital thermometer and the TAT, and a chart review was conducted on a sample of these patients to compare the TAT to the emergency department digital thermometer. A total of 818 patients had their temperatures taken with both thermometers in the prehospital setting. The relationship between the TAT and digital thermometer measurement was positive and moderate; however, there was poor agreement between the two devices. Sixty-nine charts were reviewed, and a positive correlation was found between the TAT and the emergency department digital thermometer, with good agreement between the two devices. No extraneous factors were found to have a noticeable effect on the temperature measurements; the TAT performed well in cold weather, and the EMS personnel reported it to be easy to use. The TAT appears to be a suitable alternative to digital thermometers currently used in many EMS systems. The paramedics involved in this study liked the TAT better than the in-ambulance digital thermometer and believed it to be more accurate. Further research on this topic is required.

  2. Prehospital stroke diagnostics based on neurological examination and transcranial ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) has proved to be a fast and reliable tool for the detection of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions in a hospital setting. In this feasibility study on prehospital sonography, our aim was to investigate the accuracy of TCCS for neurovascular emergency diagnostics when performed in a prehospital setting using mobile ultrasound equipment as part of a neurological examination. Methods Following a ‘911 stroke code’ call, stroke neurologists experienced in TCCS rendezvoused with the paramedic team. In patients with suspected stroke, TCCS examination including ultrasound contrast agents was performed. Results were compared with neurovascular imaging (CTA, MRA) and the final discharge diagnosis from standard patient-centered stroke care. Results We enrolled ‘232 stroke code’ patients with follow-up data available in 102 patients with complete TCCS examination. A diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made in 73 cases; 29 patients were identified as ‘stroke mimics’. MCA occlusion was diagnosed in ten patients, while internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion/high-grade stenosis leading to reversal of anterior cerebral artery flow was diagnosed in four patients. The initial working diagnosis ‘any stroke’ showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 48%. ‘Major MCA or ICA stroke’ diagnosed by mobile ultrasound showed an overall sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 98%. Conclusions The study demonstrates the feasibility and high diagnostic accuracy of emergency transcranial ultrasound assessment combined with neurological examinations for major ischemic stroke. Future combination with telemedical support, point-of-care analysis of blood serum markers, and probability algorithms of prehospital stroke diagnosis including ultrasound may help to speed up stroke treatment. PMID:24572006

  3. Prehospital Intubation is Associated with Favorable Outcomes and Lower Mortality in ProTECT III.

    PubMed

    Denninghoff, Kurt R; Nuño, Tomas; Pauls, Qi; Yeatts, Sharon D; Silbergleit, Robert; Palesch, Yuko Y; Merck, Lisa H; Manley, Geoff T; Wright, David W

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes more than 2.5 million emergency department visits, hospitalizations, or deaths annually. Prehospital endotracheal intubation has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with TBI in several retrospective observational studies. We evaluated the relationship between prehospital intubation, functional outcomes, and mortality using high quality data on clinical practice collected prospectively during a randomized multicenter clinical trial. ProTECT III was a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of early administration of progesterone in 882 patients with acute moderate to severe nonpenetrating TBI. Patients were excluded if they had an index GCS of 3 and nonreactive pupils, those with withdrawal of life support on arrival, and if they had documented prolonged hypotension and/or hypoxia. Prehospital intubation was performed as per local clinical protocol in each participating EMS system. Models for favorable outcome and mortality included prehospital intubation, method of transport, index GCS, age, race, and ethnicity as independent variables. Significance was set at α = 0.05. Favorable outcome was defined by a stratified dichotomy of the GOS-E scores in which the definition of favorable outcome depended on the severity of the initial injury. Favorable outcome was more frequent in the 349 subjects with prehospital intubation (57.3%) than in the other 533 patients (46.0%, p = 0.003). Mortality was also lower in the prehospital intubation group (13.8% v. 19.5%, p = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis of prehospital intubation and mortality, adjusted for index GCS, showed that odds of dying for those with prehospital intubation were 47% lower than for those that were not intubated (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.36-0.78). 279 patients with prehospital intubation were transported by air. Modeling transport method and mortality, adjusted for index GCS, showed increased odds of dying in those transported by ground

  4. Use of Dried Plasma in Prehospital Battlefield Resuscitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-08

    acquisition and use of non-licensed dried plasma products , unless the products are used as INDs. a. The "Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...battlefield.4•17•69 Dried Plasma 17. Dried plasma is currently prepared either through a spray-drying technique, or a freeze drying and...could be administered.5•13•17•45•63•65•66 5 SUBJECT: Use of Dried Plasma in Prehospital Battlefield Resuscitation 2011-04 a. Freeze - Dried Plasma

  5. Severe Cranioencephalic Trauma: Prehospital Care, Surgical Management and Multimodal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; M Rubiano, Andres; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Calderon-Miranda, Willem; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Blancas Rivera, Marco Antonio; Agrawal, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death in developed countries. It is estimated that only in the United States about 100,000 people die annually in parallel among the survivors there is a significant number of people with disabilities with significant costs for the health system. It has been determined that after moderate and severe traumatic injury, brain parenchyma is affected by more than 55% of cases. Head trauma management is critical is the emergency services worldwide. We present a review of the literature regarding the prehospital care, surgical management and intensive care monitoring of the patients with severe cranioecephalic trauma.

  6. Severe Cranioencephalic Trauma: Prehospital Care, Surgical Management and Multimodal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; M. Rubiano, Andres; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Calderon-Miranda, Willem; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Blancas Rivera, Marco Antonio; Agrawal, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death in developed countries. It is estimated that only in the United States about 100,000 people die annually in parallel among the survivors there is a significant number of people with disabilities with significant costs for the health system. It has been determined that after moderate and severe traumatic injury, brain parenchyma is affected by more than 55% of cases. Head trauma management is critical is the emergency services worldwide. We present a review of the literature regarding the prehospital care, surgical management and intensive care monitoring of the patients with severe cranioecephalic trauma.  PMID:27162922

  7. Would a prehospital practitioner model improve patient care in rural Australia?

    PubMed Central

    O'Meara, P

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Soft systems methodology was used to develop and critically appraise the prehospital practitioner model as an alternative to existing models. This approach started from the philosophical viewpoint that prehospital services should be patient centred. Soft systems methodology was used to structure the elements of prehospital systems and the relations between them into metaphors and pictures that could be analysed. Results: This analysis showed that the most powerful reason for advocating the prehospital practitioner model is that it places prehospital systems within a symbiotic relationship with the healthcare system. Unlike the existing emergency service models or the "chain of survival" model, it is an integrated system that provides a range of services at multiple points during the patient care cycle. Thus, the prehospital practitioner would have roles in the prevention of injury and illness, responding to emergencies, facilitating recovery, and planning future strategies for a healthy community. Conclusions: Implementing this new model would see the prehospital system using its available capacity more effectively to fulfill broader public health and primary care outreach roles than is currently the case. Patients would be referred or transported to the most appropriate and cost effective facility as part of a seamless system that provides patients with well organised and high quality care. PMID:12642545

  8. Systematic review of the effectiveness of prehospital critical care following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    von Vopelius-Feldt, Johannes; Brandling, Janet; Benger, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    Improving survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a priority for modern emergency medical services (EMS) and prehospital research. Advanced life support (ALS) is now the standard of care in most EMS. In some EMS, prehospital critical care providers are also dispatched to attend OHCA. This systematic review presents the evidence for prehospital critical care for OHCA, when compared to standard ALS care. We searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, EmBASE, CINAHL Plus and AMED (via EBSCO), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, NIHR Health Technology Assessment Database, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov. Search terms related to cardiac arrest and prehospital critical care. All studies that compared patient-centred outcomes between prehospital critical care and ALS for OHCA were included. The review identified six full text publications that matched the inclusion criteria, all of which are observational studies. Three studies showed no benefit from prehospital critical care but were underpowered with sample sizes of 1028-1851. The other three publications showed benefit from prehospital critical care delivered by physicians. However, an imbalance of prognostic factors and hospital treatment in these studies systematically favoured the prehospital critical care group. Current evidence to support prehospital critical care for OHCA is limited by the logistic difficulties of undertaking high quality research in this area. Further research needs an appropriate sample size with adjustments for confounding factors in observational research design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intratesticular injection of hypertonic saline : non-invasive alternative method for animal castration model.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Byung Kuk; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies, including our own, have demonstrated that the intratesticular injection of hypertonic saline (20%) decreased serum testosterone level which was similar to the surgical castration in the rat, showing the state of chemical castration. In the present study, we further verify the efficacy of this less invasive method as an alternative of surgical orchidectomy in the andevrepological field. Sterilized 20% saline was directly injected into the adult male rats (750 μl per testis). The tested rats were divided into 3 groups including intact group (intact), orchidectomy group (ORX) and saline injection group (SAL) after bilateral orchidectomy was performed at the same day of injection. All rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks after injection. The reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostates) were collected and used for DNA and protein pattern analyses. Also, patho-histological studies on the testes were performed. In contrast to the intact group, similar DNA damages of testis and seminal vesicle were appeared in ORX group and SAL group. The DNA degradations seemed to be the results of necrosis rather than apoptosis. In the protein pattern analysis, all the testing tissues exerted similar patterns in the ORX group and the SAL group compared to the those of intact group. Patho-histological studies revealed that severe degenerative changes in testicular seminiferous tubules and massive infiltration of immune cells in SAL group. The present study confirmed that direct injection of hypertonic saline into the testis caused the equivalent biochemical changes in the accessory sex organs as shown in the orchidectomized animals. These results suggest that hypertonic saline injection model could be a useful castration model which can substitute for surgical castration when its safety is secured through further study in the future.

  10. [Changes induced by hypertonic solutions in the transportation of calcium by the cardiac reticular sarcoplasma].

    PubMed

    Sierra, M; Holguín, J A

    1979-01-01

    In the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the myocardium, celular organell which function is to regulate the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium in contraction and relaxation, we have studied the effect of hypertonic solutions of sucrose between 1 and 6.96 times the normal tonicity in order to observe the behavior of the internal linked or free calcium of this structure, as well as to prove the hypothesis that hypertonic solutions encourage the calcium exit of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum with the resulting signs of contractures. The following results were obtained: 1. The ATP hydrolisis and calcium transport rate are 14% and 90% respectively of the maximum speeds of 10(-5) M in calcium, while for concentrations of 10(-7) M or ess of the said cation, the transport rates and the ATPase do not reach 5% of the maximum values. 2. Between 1 and 2.54 times of the normal tonicity the calcium uptake remains between 400 and 500 nmoles of calcium/mg protein/min, the transported amount of calcium varies between 14 and 16 nmoles/mg protein and the rate of the ATP hydrolysis increases a 37% to 0.4 M in sucrose. 3. Between 0.4 and 1.2 M in sucrose of 2.54 to 6.96 times the isotonicity, the calcium transport rate velocity as well as the ATP hydrolisis are strongly inhibited. The vesicles volume minimizes and the amount of linked calcium remains within the control values, proving that the capacity of linking this cathion is independent from sarcoplasmic reticulum volume. These results show that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is involved in the contractures induced by hypertonic solutions in intact cells, since the osmolarity increase produces changes of volume which results in a decrease of the calcium transportation velocity or in an increase of the exit of said cathion.

  11. SABRE: a multicentre randomised control trial of nebulised hypertonic saline in infants hospitalised with acute bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Everard, Mark L; Hind, Daniel; Ugonna, Kelechi; Freeman, Jennifer; Bradburn, Mike; Cooper, Cindy L; Cross, Elizabeth; Maguire, Chin; Cantrill, Hannah; Alexander, John; McNamara, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    Aim Acute bronchiolitis is the commonest cause for hospitalisation in infancy. Supportive care remains the cornerstone of current management and no other therapy has been shown to influence the course of the disease. It has been suggested that adding nebulised hypertonic saline to usual care may shorten the duration of hospitalisation. To determine whether hypertonic saline does have beneficial effects we undertook an open, multi-centre parallel-group, pragmatic RCT in ten UK hospitals. Methods Infants admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis and requiring oxygen therapy were randomised to receive usual care alone or nebulised 3% hypertonic saline (HS) administered 6-hourly. Randomisation was within 4 h of admission. The primary outcome was time to being assessed as ‘fit’ for discharge with secondary outcomes including time to discharge, incidence of adverse events together with follow up to 28 days assessing patient centred health related outcomes. Results A total of 317 infants were recruited to the study. 158 infants were randomised to HS (141 analysed) and 159 to standard care (149 analysed). There was no difference between the two arms in time to being declared fit for discharge (hazard ratio: 0−95, 95% CI: 0.75−1.20) nor to actual discharge (hazard ratio: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.76−1.23). There was no difference in adverse events. One infant in the HS group developed bradycardia with desaturation. Conclusion This study does not support the use of nebulised HS in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis over usual care with minimal handlings. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01469845. PMID:25389139

  12. Modulation of jaw muscle spindle afferent activity following intramuscular injections with hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    2001-05-01

    Transient noxious chemical stimulation of small diameter muscle afferents modulates jaw movement-related responses of caudal brainstem neurons. While it is likely that the effect is mediated from the spindle afferents in the mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) via the caudally projecting Probst's tract, the mechanisms of pain induced modulations of jaw muscle spindle afferents is not known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that jaw muscle nociceptors gain access to muscle spindle afferents in the same muscle via central mechanisms and alter their sensitivity. Thirty-five neurons recorded from the Vmes were characterized as muscle spindle afferents based on their responses to passive jaw movements, muscle palpation, and electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve. Each cell was tested by injecting a small volume (250 microl) of either 5% hypertonic and/or isotonic saline into the receptor-bearing muscle. Twenty-nine units were tested with 5% hypertonic saline, of which 79% (23/29) showed significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during one or more phases of ramp-and-hold movements. Among the muscle spindle primary-like units (n = 12), MFRs of 4 units were facilitated, five reduced, two showed mixed responses and one unchanged. In secondary-like units (n = 17), MFRs of 9 were facilitated, three reduced and five unchanged. Thirteen units were tested with isotonic saline, of which 77% showed no significant changes of MFRs. Further analysis revealed that the hypertonic saline not only affected the overall output of muscle spindle afferents, but also increased the variability of firing and altered the relationship between afferent signal and muscle length. These results demonstrated that activation of muscle nociceptors significantly affects proprioceptive properties of jaw muscle spindles via central neural mechanisms. The changes can have deleterious effects on oral motor function as well as kinesthetic sensibility.

  13. The effect of cooling and hypertonic exposure on murine oocyte function, fertilization, and development.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J E; Fuller, B J; Bernard, A; Shaw, R W

    1995-08-01

    Several individual but related steps are involved in the cryopreservation process, including the addition of cryoprotectants at various temperatures, cooling to subzero temperatures, and long-term storage. The process is completed by rewarming and removal of cryoprotectants prior to a return to physiological conditions. In this series of experiments we have attempted to distinguish the effects of some of these procedures. Control, untreated ovulated mouse oocytes showed 95% in vitro fertilization (190/200) and 92% subsequent development to hatching blastocyst (184/200). Exposure of oocytes to either isotonic or hypertonic media at 37 degrees C did not significantly change the rate of fertilization (90%, 108/120; and 89%, 154/174, respectively) or subsequent embryonic development (85%, 102/120; and 82%, 143/174, respectively). Slow cooling in isotonic medium (-3 degrees C/min) to 0 degree C had no effect on the rate of fertilization (83%, 103/124), but rapid cooling (> 1000 degrees C/min) to 0 degree C resulted in a significant reduction in fertilization rate to 75% (151/202). When oocytes suspended in a hypertonic solution were cooled using slow or rapid rates, there were marked decreases in fertilization to 26% (61/231) and 56% (156/278), respectively. Subsequent embryonic growth was reduced to 15% (34/231) after slow cooling and 26% (72/278) after rapid cooling. Exposure of oocytes to glycerol at 37 degrees C and dimethyl sulfoxide at 0 degree C reduced the fertilization rate to 57% (67/118) and 73% (103/145), respectively, with a corresponding reduction in embryonic growth to 52% (61/118) and 65% (94/145), but there were no additional effects of cooling or hypertonic exposure after addition of cryoprotectants.

  14. Hypertonicity Compromises Renal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Signaling through Tis11b-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Control

    PubMed Central

    Viengchareun, Say; Lema, Ingrid; Lamribet, Khadija; Keo, Vixra; Blanchard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates the Na+-retaining action of aldosterone. MR is highly expressed in the distal nephron, which is submitted to intense variations in extracellular fluid tonicity generated by the corticopapillary gradient. We previously showed that post-transcriptional events control renal MR abundance. Here, we report that hypertonicity increases expression of the mRNA-destabilizing protein Tis11b, a member of the tristetraprolin/ZFP36 family, and thereby, decreases MR expression in renal KC3AC1 cells. The 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs) of human and mouse MR mRNA, containing several highly conserved adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs), were cloned downstream of a reporter gene. Luciferase activities of full-length or truncated MR Luc-3′-UTR mutants decreased drastically when cotransfected with Tis11b plasmid, correlating with an approximately 50% shorter half-life of ARE-containing transcripts. Using site-directed mutagenesis and RNA immunoprecipitation, we identified a crucial ARE motif within the MR 3′-UTR, to which Tis11b must bind for destabilizing activity. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggested that endogenous Tis11b physically interacts with MR mRNA in KC3AC1 cells, and Tis11b knockdown prevented hypertonicity-elicited repression of MR. Moreover, hypertonicity blunted aldosterone-stimulated expression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine-zipper protein and the α-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel, supporting impaired MR signaling. Challenging the renal osmotic gradient by submitting mice to water deprivation, diuretic administration, or high-Na+ diet increased renal Tis11b and decreased MR expression, particularly in the cortex, thus establishing a mechanistic pathway for osmotic regulation of MR expression in vivo. Altogether, we uncovered a mechanism by which renal MR expression is regulated through mRNA turnover, a post-transcriptional control that seems physiologically relevant. PMID:24700863

  15. Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongquan; Soong, Seng-jaw; Grimes, Gary J; Orthner, Helmuth F

    2004-01-01

    Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs) are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home) using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG) machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER). The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management. PMID:15339336

  16. [Prehospital stage of medical aid to patients with acute coronary syndrome and elevated ST segment].

    PubMed

    Vertkin, A L; Morozov, S N; Fedorov, A I

    2013-01-01

    We studied effect of time on the outcome of acute coronary syndrome and elevated ST segment at the prehospital stage. Logistic regression analysis revealed two time-dependent predictors: "symptom-needle" time and total call service time. In patients undergoing prehospital thrombolysis, these indices (88 and 85 min respectively) reliably predicted the probability of fatal outcome. Their values of 71 and 77 min respectively predicted the risk of unfavourable outcome. The total call service time may serve as an indicator of the quality of work of an ambulance crew at the prehospital stage of management of acute coronary syndrome with elevated ST segment.

  17. Prehospital Naloxone Administration as a Public Health Surveillance Tool: A Retrospective Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Heather A; Clemency, Brian M; Snyder, Ryan; Consiglio, Joseph D; May, Paul R; Moscati, Ronald M

    2015-08-01

    Abuse or unintended overdose (OD) of opiates and heroin may result in prehospital and emergency department (ED) care. Prehospital naloxone use has been suggested as a surrogate marker of community opiate ODs. The study objective was to verify externally whether prehospital naloxone use is a surrogate marker of community opiate ODs by comparing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) naloxone administration records to an independent database of ED visits for opiate and heroin ODs in the same community. A retrospective chart review of prehospital and ED data from July 2009 through June 2013 was conducted. Prehospital naloxone administration data obtained from the electronic medical records (EMRs) of a large private EMS provider serving a metropolitan area were considered a surrogate marker for suspected opiate OD. Comparison data were obtained from the regional trauma/psychiatric ED that receives the majority of the OD patients. The ED maintains a de-identified database of narcotic-related visits for surveillance of narcotic use in the metropolitan area. The ED database was queried for ODs associated with opiates or heroin. Cross-correlation analysis was used to test if prehospital naloxone administration was independent of ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs. Naloxone was administered during 1,812 prehospital patient encounters, and 1,294 ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs were identified. The distribution of patients in the prehospital and ED datasets did not differ by gender, but it did differ by race and age. The frequency of naloxone administration by prehospital providers varied directly with the frequency of ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs. A monthly increase of two ED visits for opiate-related ODs was associated with an increase in one prehospital naloxone administration (cross-correlation coefficient [CCF]=0.44; P=.0021). A monthly increase of 100 ED visits for heroin-related ODs was associated with an increase in 94 prehospital naloxone administrations (CCF=0.46; P=.0012

  18. An evaluation of pre-hospital communication between ambulances and an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We studied pre-hospital notification and the quality of data received from ambulance crews transporting seriously ill or injured patients to an accident and emergency department. During a two-month study period, pre-hospital notification was received for 54 patients. However, the department was notified about only 25 of 62 patients (40%) who, on arrival by ambulance, were triaged as emergencies. Despite developing a data protocol for emergency pre-hospital communication and being equipped to receive emergency ambulance calls directly, many such patients still arrived either unannounced or described in insufficient detail to allow appropriate preparations to be made for them.

  19. Hypertonic/Hyperoncotic Resuscitation from Shock: Reduced Volume Requirement and Lower Intracranial Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    volume re- gs reference organs for measurement 3f organ blood suscitation with hypertonic saline dextran flow, using radioactive microspheres. All...oastllto Amaintained throyighout the 30 minute shoth Interval Blood was At ot; sir -o,;tnrn M,’.t was rvdured Iron 1111 tmean+SC r-ov~ed to reduce...a volume much smaller than the original shed blood volume (4-12). The addition of colloid, usually 6.0% low-molecular weight dextran , has been used

  20. Evaluation of the Maintained Effect of 3% Hypertonic Saline Solution in an Animal Model of Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Leonardo M.; de Andrade, Almir F.; Belon, Alessandro R.; Soares, Matheus S.; Amorim, Robson Luis; Otochi, Jose Pinhata; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Paiva, Wellingson S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current clinical treatment methods for refractory intracranial hypertension include elevation of the decubitus, ventilation adjustment, and use of hypertonic solutions such as hypertonic saline and mannitol solutions. Previous studies have shown that hypertonic solutions are particularly effective. Although several concentrations of saline solution have been proposed, a 3% solution is the most widely used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maintained efficacy of a 3% hypertonic saline solution in an experimental model of intracranial hypertension. Material/Methods A porcine model of reversible intracranial hypertension was created by inserting a balloon catheter into the brain parenchyma, which was inflated and deflated to simulate intracranial hypertension and its surgical correction. The experiment included 3 groups of animals (A, B, and C) with different balloon inflation volumes. In group B, balloons were inflated 2 times to simulate reexpansion. A 20 mL/kg bolus of 3% saline solution was infused using a pump 90 minutes after the start of balloon inflation, and the effects of intracranial pressure were evaluated 60 minutes after infusion. Results No increases outside of the normal range were observed in mean serum sodium concentrations (p=0.09). In addition, we identified no differences within each group in serum sodium levels measured during hypertonic saline infusion (p=0.21). No significant reductions in intracranial pressure were observed in any of the 3 groups. Conclusions Bolus infusion of 3% hypertonic saline solution with the aid of a pump does not significantly reduce intracranial pressure in an animal model of intracranial hypertension. PMID:27777397

  1. Effect of different concentrations of hypertonic saline at different times on protoscoleces of hydatid cyst isolated from liver and lung.

    PubMed

    Tappeh, Khosrow Hazreti; Einshaei, Ali; Mahmudloo, Rahim; Mohammadzadeh, Habib; Tahermaram, Mansoor; Mousavi, Seyed Javad

    2011-01-01

    Most surgeons inject scoloidal materials into the cyst before or after its removal, since any contamination to normal sites will cause re-growth of the same cyst. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal effect of hypertonic saline at different doses and different times on protoscolexes of lung and liver. The livers and lungs of killed animals with hydatid cyst disease were gathered from Urmia Industrial Abattoirs. They were transferred to the university parasitological lab immediately. The hydatid cyst fluid was aspirated with a 10 mm syringe and poured into a 15 cc tubes. The movement of protoscoleces and staining with 0.1% eosin was the test to determine viability of protoscoleces. Those with color absorption were those which were not viable. Different concentrations of hypertonic saline were given at different time. The results showed that in 20% of hypertonic saline in the 4th minute, 80% of protoscoleces were alive while in the 5th minute 50% were alive, in the 7th minute 20% and 8th minute 5%, 9th minute all of them were dead. In the 10% concentration, at up to 9 minutes 50% were alive, in the 18th minute 20% and in 30 minutes 10% of protoscoleces were alive. In the 5% concentration at up to 10 minutes 90% were alive while in the 22nd minute 80% and in 30 minutes 70% of protoscoleces were alive. When we inject 20% hypertonic saline into the cyst cavity there is aprobability that the cyst contaminates the bile duct and liver through the small hole we made. This material may cause widespread necrosis of the liver. We should use 10% hypertonic saline minimally for 45 minute before surgery and after cyst removal, since the hypertonic saline itself may cause injury to the biliary system.

  2. Serotonin, glutamate and glycerol are released after the injection of hypertonic saline into human masseter muscles – a microdialysis study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic myalgia is associated with higher muscle levels of certain algesic biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate if hypertonic saline-induced jaw myalgia also leads to release of such biomarkers and if there were any sex differences in this respect. Methods Healthy participants, 15 men and 15 aged-matched women (25.7 ± 4.3 years) participated. Intramuscular microdialysis into masseter muscles was performed to sample serotonin (5-HT), glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerol. After 2 hours 0.2 mL hypertonic saline (58.5 mg/mL) was injected into the masseter on one side and 0.2 mL isotonic saline (9 mg/mL) into the contralateral masseter close to the microdialysis catheter. Microdialysis continued for 1 hour after the injections. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain were assessed before and after injections. Results The median (IQR) peak pain intensity (0–100 visual analogue scale) after hypertonic saline was 52.5 (38.0) and after isotonic saline 7.5 (24.0) (p < 0.05). 5-HT, glutamate and glycerol increased after hypertonic saline injection (p < 0.05). Lactate, pyruvate and glucose showed no change. PPT after microdialysis was reduced on both sides (p < 0.05) but without side differences. Pain after hypertonic saline injection correlated positively to 5-HT (p < 0.05) and negatively to glycerol (p < 0.05). Conclusions 5-HT, glutamate and glycerol increased after a painful hypertonic saline injection into the masseter muscle, but without sex differences. Since increased levels of 5-HT and glutamate have been reported in chronic myalgia, this strengthens the validity of the pain model. Glycerol warrants further investigations. PMID:25519464

  3. Serotonin, glutamate and glycerol are released after the injection of hypertonic saline into human masseter muscles - a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Louca, Sofia; Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar; Gerdle, Björn; Svensson, Peter; List, Thomas; Ernberg, Malin

    2014-12-17

    Chronic myalgia is associated with higher muscle levels of certain algesic biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate if hypertonic saline-induced jaw myalgia also leads to release of such biomarkers and if there were any sex differences in this respect. Healthy participants, 15 men and 15 aged-matched women (25.7 ± 4.3 years) participated. Intramuscular microdialysis into masseter muscles was performed to sample serotonin (5-HT), glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerol. After 2 hours 0.2 mL hypertonic saline (58.5 mg/mL) was injected into the masseter on one side and 0.2 mL isotonic saline (9 mg/mL) into the contralateral masseter close to the microdialysis catheter. Microdialysis continued for 1 hour after the injections. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain were assessed before and after injections. The median (IQR) peak pain intensity (0-100 visual analogue scale) after hypertonic saline was 52.5 (38.0) and after isotonic saline 7.5 (24.0) (p < 0.05). 5-HT, glutamate and glycerol increased after hypertonic saline injection (p < 0.05). Lactate, pyruvate and glucose showed no change. PPT after microdialysis was reduced on both sides (p < 0.05) but without side differences. Pain after hypertonic saline injection correlated positively to 5-HT (p < 0.05) and negatively to glycerol (p < 0.05). 5-HT, glutamate and glycerol increased after a painful hypertonic saline injection into the masseter muscle, but without sex differences. Since increased levels of 5-HT and glutamate have been reported in chronic myalgia, this strengthens the validity of the pain model. Glycerol warrants further investigations.

  4. Hypertonic conditions trigger transient plasmolysis, growth arrest and blockage of transporter endocytosis in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bitsikas, Vassilis; Karachaliou, Mayia; Gournas, Christos; Diallinas, George

    2011-01-01

    By using Aspergillus nidulans strains expressing functional GFP-tagged transporters under hypertonic conditions, we noticed the rapid appearance of cortical, relatively static, fluorescent patches (0.5-2.3 μm). These patches do not correspond to transporter microdomains as they co-localize with other plasma membrane-associated molecules, such as the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and the SsoA t-Snare, or the lipophilic markers FM4-64 and filipin. In addition, they do not show characteristics of lipid rafts, MCCs or other membrane microdomains. Deconvoluted microscopic images showed that fluorescent patches correspond to plasma membrane invaginations. Transporters remain fully active during this phenomenon of localized plasmolysis. Plasmolysis was however associated with reduced growth rate and a dramatic blockage in transporter and FM4-64 endocytosis. These phenomena are transient and rapidly reversible upon wash-out of hypertonic media. Based on the observation that block in endocytosis by hypertonic treatment altered dramatically the cellular localization of tropomyosin (GFP-TpmA), although it did not affect the cortical appearance of upstream (SlaB-GFP) or downstream (AbpA-mRFP) endocytic components, we conclude that hypertonicity modifies actin dynamics and thus acts indirectly on endocytosis. This was further supported by the effect of latrunculin B, an actin depolymerization agent, on endocytosis. We show that the phenomena observed in A. nidulans also occur in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that they constitute basic homeostatic responses of ascomycetes to hypertonic shock. Finally, our work shows that hypertonic treatments can be used as physiological tools to study the endocytic down-regulation of transporters in A. nidulans, as non-conditional genetic blocks affecting endocytic internalization are lethal or severely debilitating.

  5. INHALED HYPERTONIC SALINE IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN LESS THAN SIX YEARS OF AGE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS: THE ISIS RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ratjen, Felix; Brumback, Lyndia; Daniel, Stephen; Rowbotham, Ron; McNamara, Sharon; Johnson, Robin; Kronmal, Richard; Davis, Stephanie D

    2013-01-01

    Context Inhaled hypertonic saline is recommended as therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients 6 years of age and older, but its efficacy has never been evaluated in CF patients <6 years of age. Objective To determine if hypertonic saline reduces the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients <6 years of age. Design and Setting A multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April 2009 to October 2011 at 30 CF care centers in the United States and Canada. Participants Participants had an established diagnosis of CF and were 4 to 60 months of age. A total of 344 patients were assessed for eligibility; 321 participants were randomized; 29 (9%) withdrew prematurely. Intervention The active group (n=158) received 7% hypertonic saline and the control group (n=163) received 0.9% isotonic saline nebulized twice daily for 48 weeks. Both groups received albuterol or levalbuterol prior to each study drug dose. Main Outcome Measures the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations during the 48 week treatment period treated with oral, inhaled or intravenous antibiotics. Results The mean pulmonary exacerbation rate (events/person-year) was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.0, 2.5) in the hypertonic saline group and 2.3 (95% CI, 2.1, 2.6) in the isotonic saline group; the rate ratio was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84, 1.14)). Among participants with pulmonary exacerbations, the mean number of total antibiotic treatment days for a pulmonary exacerbation was 60 (95% CI 49, 70) in the hypertonic saline group and 52 (95% CI 43, 61) in the isotonic saline group. There was no significant difference in secondary endpoints including height, weight, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough or respiratory symptom scores. Infant pulmonary function testing performed as an exploratory outcome in a subgroup (N=73, with acceptable measurements at 2 visits in 45) did not demonstrate significant differences between groups except for the mean change in forced

  6. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    PubMed

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endocytic response of type I alveolar epithelial cells to hypertonic stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaohua; Singh, Raman Deep; Godin, Lindsay; Pagano, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    We present plasma membrane (PM) internalization responses of type I alveolar epithelial cells to a 50 mosmol/l increase in tonicity. Our research is motivated by interest in ATI repair, for which endocytic retrieval of PM appears to be critical. We validated pharmacological and molecular tools to dissect the endocytic machinery of these cells and used these tools to test the hypothesis that osmotic stress triggers a pathway-specific internalization of PM domains. Validation experiments confirmed the fluorescent analogs of lactosyl-ceramide, transferrin, and dextran as pathway-specific cargo of caveolar, clathrin, and fluid-phase uptake, respectively. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that hypertonic exposure causes a downregulation of clathrin and fluid-phase endocytosis while stimulating caveolar endocytosis. The tonicity-mediated increase in caveolar endocytosis was associated with the translocation of caveolin-1 from the PM and was absent in cells that had been transfected with dominant-negative dynamin constructs. In separate experiments we show that hypertonic exposure increases the probability of PM wound repair following micropuncture from 82 ± 4 to 94 ± 2% (P < 0.01) and that this effect depends on Src pathway activation-mediated caveolar endocytosis. The therapeutic and biological implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:21257731

  8. The effect of hypertonic saline dextran solutions on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in anaesthetised piglets.

    PubMed

    Bellezza, M; Kerbaul, F; Roussel, L; Imbert, M; Guidon, C

    2002-10-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a regulatory mechanism by which blood is diverted from poorly ventilated to better ventilated areas of the lung. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent to which hypertonic saline dextran and dextran solutions modify the magnitude of HPV during isovolumic haemodilution in intact acutely instrumented piglets. Eighteen large white piglets were anesthetised and assigned to two groups. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and cardiac output (Q), systemic arterial pressure and left arterial pressure (LAP) were measured. A decrease in Q was obtained by reducing venous return. This enabled measurement of transpulmonary pressures (mean PAP minus LAP) at four levels of Q in hyperoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2)=0.4) then in hypoxia (Fi,O2=0.1) in the two groups before blood soustraction (10 mL x kg(-1)) and after loading with sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% and dextran 6% or with dextran 6% alone. Dextran alone led to a decrease in mean PAP-LAP/Q values, and NaCl with dextran was associated with a significant shift of mean PAP-LAP/Q plots to higher pressures in hypoxia. Hypertonic saline dextran solution, as replacement fluid in isovolaemic haemodilution increased the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas dextran solution reduced it.

  9. Trehalose metabolism genes of Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) in hypertonic osmotic pressure survival

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiaoli; Li, Danlei; Zhang, Ruizhi; Ling, Yaming

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation caused by hypertonic osmotic pressure by entering a state of suspended animation known as osmobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi can be induced to enter osmobiosis by soaking in osmolytes. It is assumed that sugars (in particular trehalose) are instrumental for survival under environmental stress. In A. besseyi, two putative trehalose-6-phosphate synthase genes (TPS) encoding enzymes catalyzing trehalose synthesis, and a putative trehalase gene (TRE) encoding enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of trehalose were identified and then characterized based on their transcriptome. RT-qPCR analyses showed that each of these genes is expressed as mRNA when A. besseyi is entering in, during and recovering from osmobiosis, but only for certain periods. The changes of TRE activity were consistent with the transcript level changes of the TRE gene, and the trehalose level declined at certain periods when the nematodes were in, as well as recovering from, osmobiosis; this suggested that the hydrolysis of threhalose is essential. The feeding method of RNA interference (RNAi) was used to temporarily knock down the expression of each of the TPS and TRE genes. No obviously different phenotype was observed from any of the genes silenced individually or simultaneously, but the survival under hypertonic osmotic pressure reduced significantly and the recovery was delayed. These results indicated that trehalose metabolism genes should play a role in osmobiosis regulation and function within a restricted time frame. PMID:28396490

  10. Granulocyte markers in hypertonic and isotonic saline-induced sputum of asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Cianchetti, S; Bacci, E; Ruocco, L; Bartoli, M L; Ricci, M; Pavia, T; Dente, F L; Di Franco, A; Vagaggini, B; Paggiaro, P L

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether hyperosmolarity affects granulocyte mediator levels in induced sputum of asthmatic subjects. A total of 32 mild-to-moderate asthmatics, who inhaled either hypertonic (HS; 4.5% NaCl) or isotonic (IS; 0.9% NaCl) solutions for 15 min, were studied. Selected sputum was used for analysis. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil protein X (EPX), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and free neutrophil elastase (NE) were measured in sputum supernatant. Sample weight, total and differential cell counts, as well as viability and squamous cell percentage were no different after the two tests. No significant differences in ECP, EPX, MPO or NE levels were observed between HS- and IS-induced sputum. Repeatability of the two tests was good for macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, ECP, EPX and NE, but not for lymphocytes and MPO. In conclusion, hyperosmolarity does not affect sputum cell counts and the levels of most granulocyte degranulation markers examined in this study, confirming that both hypertonic and isotonic solutions can be reliably used to induce sputum in asthmatics.

  11. Symptomatic Abdominal Simple Cysts: Is Percutaneous Sclerotherapy with Hypertonic Saline and Bleomycin a Treatment Option?

    PubMed Central

    Souftas, V. D.; Kosmidou, M.; Karanikas, M.; Souftas, D.; Menexes, G.; Prassopoulos, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous sclerotherapy of symptomatic simple abdominal cysts, using hypertonic saline and bleomycin, as an alternative to surgery. Materials and Methods. This study involved fourteen consecutive patients (ten women, four men, mean age: 59.2 y) with nineteen symptomatic simple cysts (liver n = 14, kidney n = 3, and adrenal n = 2) treated percutaneously using a modified method. Initially CT-guided drainage was performed; the next day the integrity of the cyst/exclusion of extravasation or communications was evaluated under fluoroscopy, followed by two injections/reabsorptions of the same quantity of hypertonic NaCl 15% solution and three-time repetition of the same procedure with the addition of bleomycin. The catheter was then removed; the patients were hospitalized for 12 hours and underwent follow-ups on 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. Cyst's volumes and the reduction rate (%) were calculated in each evaluation. Results. No pain or complications were noted. A significant cyst's volume reduction was documented over time (P < 0.001). On the 12th month 17 cysts disappeared and two displayed a 98.7% and 68.9% reduction, respectively. Conclusion. This percutaneous approach constitutes a very promising nonsurgical alternative for patients with symptomatic simple cyst, without complications under proper precautions, leading to eliminating the majority of cysts. PMID:25878660

  12. Development of a novel method for decellularizing a nerve graft using a hypertonic sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasuhisa; Sakakibara, Shuhsuke; Terashi, Hiroto; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-11-01

    Acellular nerves are a reconstruction material and provide scaffolds for nerve regeneration. Numerous methods to develop acellular nerves have been described. However, these methods pose problems that can be attributed to incomplete acellular processing and destruction of the extracellular matrix (ECM); the former may lead to rejection response, while the latter may damage the scaffold. In order to overcome problems associated with the above-mentioned methods, we developed a novel method that employs a hypertonic sodium chloride solution to decellularize nerve graft material. Rat sciatic nerves were harvested, dipped in hypertonic sodium chloride solution (1 M), and shaken for 24 h. We then washed the nerves in phosphate-buffered saline for 7 days with shaking and evaluated the acellular nerves by hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) staining, immunostaining, and electron microscopy. We then transplanted the grafts to the sciatic nerve of another rat and evaluated the outcomes by H-E staining, immunostaining (anti-neurofilament antibody, anti-S-100 antibody), anterograde nerve tracing, and electron microscopy. We found that our method successfully decellularized the grafts, but was mild enough to leave the ECM intact. Two months after transplantation, immunostaining and anterograde nerve tracing confirmed that Schwann cells infiltrated the grafts and induced neurofilament extension. Our methodology preserves the ECM, is simple to develop, and does not involve substances that harm biogenic tissue. Acellular nerve tissue processed in this way could become a substitute material for bridging nerve gaps. Our method could also aid in the development of other acellular tissues.

  13. Desiccation and hypertonicity of the airway surface fluid and thermally induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Kotaru, Chakradhar; Hejal, Rana B; Finigan, J H; Coreno, Albert J; Skowronski, Mary E; Brianas, Lori; McFadden, E R

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether drying and hypertonicity of the airway surface fluid (ASF) are involved in thermally induced asthma, nine subjects performed isocapnic hyperventilation (HV) (minute ventilation 62.2 +/- 8.3 l/min) of frigid air (-8.9 +/- 3.3 degrees C) while periciliary fluid was collected endoscopically from the trachea. Osmolality was measured by freezing-point depression. The baseline 1-s forced expiratory volume was 73 +/- 4% of predicted and fell 26.4% 10 min postchallenge (P > 0.0001). The volume of ASF collected was 11.0 +/- 2.2 microl at rest and remained constant during and after HV as the airways narrowed (HV 10.6 +/- 1.9, recovery 6.5 +/- 1.7 microl; P = 0.18). The osmolality also remained stable throughout (rest 336 +/- 16, HV 339 +/- 16, and recovery 352 +/- 19 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P = 0.76). These data demonstrate that airway desiccation and hypertonicity of the ASF do not develop during hyperpnea in asthma; therefore, other mechanisms must cause exercise- and hyperventilation-induced airflow limitation.

  14. [Animal experimentation of reimplantation of hypertonic saline-induced devitalized bone].

    PubMed

    Peng, Chang-liang; Yang, Yi; Sun, Xin; Guo, Wei

    2012-12-18

    To observe the healing process and the change of biomechanical properties of hypertonic saline-induced devitalized bone segment, so as to provide fundamental theory for clinical treatment. A model of New Zealand rabbit ulnar segments devitalized by hypertonic saline was established and then reimplanted in situ. The ulnar specimens were taken for examination of X-rays, light microscope and three-point-bend test at the end of 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. The devitalized bone healed at the end of 12 weeks in the X-ray film. The histological examination showed that osteoblast multiplied and secreted osteoid gradually. The maximal breaking load of the devitalized bone continuously increased and reached the top at the end of 24 weeks [control group (206.25±16.64) N vs. devitalized group (196.88±8.24) N, P>0.05]. The devitalized bone healed through intramembranous and endochondral ossification, and the endochondral ossification predominated; the biomechanical strength of devitalized bone continually increased as time lasted.

  15. A study of prehospital medical documentation by military medical providers during precombat training.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Adam B; Mott, Jeffrey C; Kotwal, Russ S

    2015-01-01

    Documentation of medical care provided is paramount for improving performance and ultimately reducing morbidity and mortality. However, documentation of prehospital trauma care on the battlefield has historically been suboptimal. Modernization of prehospital documentation tools have aligned data and information to be gathered with up-to-date treatment being rendered through Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) protocols and practices. Our study was conducted to evaluate TCCC Card completion, and accuracy of card completion, by military medical providers conducting precombat training through the Tactical Combat Medical Care Course. Study results do not show a deficiency in TCCC documentation training as provided by this course which should translate to adequate ability to accurately document prehospital trauma care on the battlefield. Leadership emphasis and community acceptance is required to increase compliance with prehospital documentation.

  16. Best practice recommendations for prehospital veterinary care of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Rita M; Palmer, Lee; Baker, Janice; Brenner, Jo-Anne; Crowe, Dennis T Tim; Dorman, David; Gicking, John C; Gilger, Brian; Otto, Cynthia M; Robertson, Sheilah A; Rozanski, Elizabeth; Trumpatori, Brian

    2016-01-01

    To examine available evidence on prehospital care in human and veterinary trauma and emergency medicine and develop best practice guidelines for use by both paramedical and nonparamedical personnel in the approach to the prehospital care of dogs and cats. Systematic evaluation of the literature gathered via medical databases searches of Medline, CAB abstracts, and Google Scholar. From a review and systematic evaluation of the available evidence, consensus guidelines on the approach to prehospital care of dogs and cats in 18 scenarios were developed. Due to the lack of current evidence in the veterinary prehospital arena, best practice guidelines were developed as an initial platform. Recommendations were based on a review of pertinent human and available veterinary literature as well as a consensus of the authors' professional opinions. It is anticipated that evidence-based additions will be made in the future. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  17. Prehospital Pediatric Care: Opportunities for Training, Treatment, and Research.

    PubMed

    Drayna, Patrick C; Browne, Lorin R; Guse, Clare E; Brousseau, David C; Lerner, E Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric transports comprise approximately 10% of emergency medical services (EMS) requests for aid, but little is known about the clinical characteristics of pediatric EMS patients and the interventions they receive. Our objective was to describe the pediatric prehospital patient cohort in a large metropolitan EMS system. This retrospective analysis of all pediatric (age <19 years) EMS patients transported from October 2011 to September 2013 was conducted by reviewing a system-wide National EMS Information System (NEMSIS)-compliant database of all EMS patient encounters. We identified the most common primary working assessments, the frequency of abnormal initial vital signs, and the interventions provided. Vital signs included systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory (RR) and pulse rate, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), pulse oximetry (Pox), and respiratory effort. We defined abnormal vital signs using previously reported age-specific standards. We identified the working assessments most frequently associated with abnormal vital signs and the working assessments associated with the most commonly performed interventions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. There were 9,956 pediatric transports, 8.7% of the total call volume. The most common working assessments were "other" (16.1%), respiratory distress (13.7%), seizure (12.4%), and blunt trauma (12.0%). Vital signs were documented at variable rates: RR (91.1%), GCS (82.9%), SBP (71.3%), pulse (69.4%), respiratory effort (49.7%), and Pox (33.5%). Of all transported patients, 61.5% had a documented abnormal initial vital sign. Patients with an abnormal vital sign had the same most common working assessments as those with normal vital signs. Glucometry (16.9%), medication delivery (13.6%), and IV placement (11.5%) were the most common interventions and were most often provided to patients with working assessments of seizure, asthma, trauma, altered consciousness, or "other." Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0

  18. Pre-hospital transfusion of plasma in hemorrhaging trauma patients independently improves hemostatic competence and acidosis.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Hanne H; Rahbar, Elaheh; Baer, Lisa A; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A; Steinmetz, Jacob; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Stensballe, Jakob; Johansson, Pär I; Wade, Charles E

    2016-12-09

    The early use of blood products has been associated with improved patient outcomes following severe hemorrhage or traumatic injury. We aimed to investigate the influence of pre-hospital blood products (i.e. plasma and/or RBCs) on admission hemostatic properties and patient outcomes. We hypothesized that pre-hospital plasma would improve hemostatic function as evaluated by rapid thrombelastography (rTEG). We conducted a prospective observational study recruiting 257 trauma patients admitted to a Level I trauma center having received either blood products pre-hospital or in-hospital within 6 hours of admission. Clinical data on patient demographics, blood biochemistry, injury severity score and mortality were collected. Admission rTEG was conducted to characterize the coagulation profile and hemostatic function. 75 patients received pre-hospital plasma and/or RBCs (PH group; nearly half received both RBCs and plasma) whereas 182 patients only received in-hospital blood products (RBCs, Plasma and Platelets) within 6 hours of admission (IH group). PH patients had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores, more penetrating injuries, lower systolic blood pressures, lower hemoglobin levels, lower platelet counts and greater acidosis upon ED admission than the IH group (all p < 0.05). Despite differences in type of injury and admission vitals indicating that the PH group had more signs of bleeding than the IH group, there were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality (PH 26.7% vs. IH 20.9% p = 0.31). When comparing rTEG variables between PH patients transfused with 0, 1 or 2 units of plasma, more pre-hospital plasma transfusion was tendency towards improved rTEG variables. When adjusting for pre-hospital RBC, pre-hospital plasma was associated with significantly higher rTEG MA (p = 0.012) at hospital admission. After adjusting for pre-hospital RBCs, pre-hospital plasma transfusion was independently associated with increased rTEG MA, as well as arrival indices of

  19. [Effect of 3% hypertonic saline as early fluid resuscitation in pediatric septic shock].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Ren, Xiaoxu; Gun, Linying; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Yiming

    2015-08-01

    The mainstay of therapy in patients with septic shock is early and aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation. However the type of intravenous fluid that would be ideal for managing septic shock has been intensely debated. In this study, the authors observed the effects of 3% hypertonic saline solution compared with normal saline solution as early fluid resuscitation in children with septic shock. In this prospective study, 44 septic shock children seen in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics were enrolled from January 2012 to January 2014, of whom 33 were male and 11 were female. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: normal saline group (NS group, 24 patients) and 3% hypertonic saline group (HS group,20 patients). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups of patients in age, gender, pediatric critical illness score (PCIS), oxygenation index (OI = PaO2/FiO2), arterial lactate, initial hemodynamic parameters, serum sodium and treatment at time of admission. Patients in NS group received normal saline guided by standard therapy. Those in HS group received 6 ml/kg 3% hypertonic saline as a single bolus over 10 min to 15 min with a maximum of 2 boluses and other standard therapy. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial lactate, oxygenation index, urine output, serum sodium, lactate clearance rate, PCIS, fluid infusion volume, vasoactive - inotropic score, mechanical ventilation time , as well as incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and 28 days in - hospital mortality were recorded for all patients. (1) HR, MAP in both groups were significantly higher after infusion than those on admission. There were no significant difference in HR and MAP at 1h, 3h, 6h and 24h after infusion between NS group and HS group. (2) OI in HS group was significantly higher than that on admission at 3 hours after infusion [(321. 8 ± 50. 7) vs. (296. 5 ± 58. 2

  20. The Swiss bus accident on 13 March 2012: lessons for pre-hospital care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The recent bus crash in Switzerland involving many children provides several lessons for the pre-hospital care community. The use of multiple helicopters that are capable of flying at night and that carry advanced medical pre-hospital teams undoubtedly saved lives following the tragedy. We describe the medical response to the incident and the lessons that can be learned for emergency medical services. PMID:22784360

  1. The identification of criteria to evaluate prehospital trauma care using the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Rosengart, Matthew R; Nathens, Avery B; Schiff, Melissa A

    2007-03-01

    Current trauma system performance improvement emphasizes hospital- and patient-based outcome measures such as mortality and morbidity, with little focus upon the processes of prehospital trauma care. Little data exist to suggest which prehospital criteria should serve as potential filters. This study identifies the most important filters for auditing prehospital trauma care using a Delphi technique to achieve consensus of expert opinion. Experts in trauma care from the United States (n = 81) were asked to generate filters of potential utility in monitoring the prehospital aspect of the trauma system, and were then required to rank these questions in order of importance to identify those of greatest importance. Twenty-eight filters ranking in the highest tertile are proposed. The majority (54%) pertains to aspects of emergency medical services, which comprise 7 of the top 10 (70%) filters. Triage filters follow in priority ranking, comprising 29% of the final list. Filters concerning interfacility transfers and transportation ranked lowest. This study identifies audit filters representing the most important aspects of prehospital trauma care that merit continued evaluation and monitoring. A subsequent trial addressing the utility of these filters could potentially enhance the sensitivity of identifying deviations in prehospital care, standardize the performance improvement process, and translate into an improvement in patient care and outcome.

  2. Creating a dignified option: ethical considerations in the formulation of prehospital DNR protocol.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, D J; Milzman, D P; Sulmasy, D P

    1995-03-01

    Increasing numbers of states are recognizing the importance of developing policies to allow Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders to be recognized in the prehospital setting, especially by emergency medical personnel. The ethical issues involved in creating such policies have not been widely addressed. Using the experience of developing such a policy for the District of Columbia as a model, we discuss six major ethical issues involved in prehospital DNR order policy development. 1) Can the justification for the policy be grounded in the doctor's duty of beneficence? 2) Should the concept of futility be applied to prehospital DNR orders? 3) How specific should prehospital DNR orders be? 4) How can one maximize patient participation in the prehospital DNR decision? 5) How much consideration ought to be given to the scarcity of health care resources in the development and justification of such policies? 6) Should paramedics be empowered to pronounce DNR patients dead in the field? This discussion ought to be of benefit to all those involved in developing or revising prehospital DNR policies.

  3. Migrants' and professionals' views on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Diana; Hannig, Christian; Schmidt, Silke

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to explore the views of migrants and professionals on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care in order to adapt such care to migrants' needs. Interviews were conducted with 41 migrants who had received direct (as a patient) or indirect (as a significant other) pre-hospital emergency care. Furthermore, 20 professionals in the field of pre-hospital emergency care were interviewed. The content analysis showed five distinguishable categories based on the statements by the migrants and six categories based on the statements by the professionals. While migrants gave priority to basic proficiencies of first responders such as 'social/emotional competencies' and 'communication skills', the professionals considered '(basic) cultural knowledge', 'awareness' and 'attitude' the most important. Furthermore, migrants provided practical indications, e.g. regarding areas of cultural knowledge, whereas professionals seemed to view the issue of culturally pre-hospital emergency care from a more theoretical perspective. The issues of the culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care itself, as well as the varying points of view of the two groups interviewed, resulted in eight recommendations for culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care.

  4. Prehospital care - scoop and run or stay and play?

    PubMed

    Smith, R Malcolm; Conn, Alasdair K T

    2009-11-01

    Improved training and expertise has enabled emergency medical personnel to provide advanced levels of care at the scene of trauma. While this could be expected to improve the outcome from major injury, current data does not support this. Indeed, prehospital interventions beyond the BLS level have not been shown to be effective and in many cases have proven to be detrimental to patient outcome. It is better to "scoop and run" than "stay and play". Current data relates to the urban environment where transport times to trauma centres are short and where it appears better to simply rapidly transport the patient to hospital than attempt major interventions at the scene. There may be more need for advanced techniques in the rural environment or where transport times are prolonged and certainly a need for more studies into subsets of patients who may benefit from interventions in the field.

  5. Personal protective equipment provision in prehospital care: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Krzanicki, D A; Porter, K M

    2009-12-01

    Safety in prehospital practice is a paramount principle. Personal protective equipment (PPE) use is intrinsic to safe practice. There is varied guidance as to what constitutes effective PPE. No evidence is available of what current provision encompasses. A questionnaire-based study directed to all ambulance trusts, British Association for Immediate Care (BASICS) schemes and air ambulance operations in England, Scotland and Wales. Total response rate was in excess of 66%. A specific protocol for PPE use was issued by 81%, 89% and 38% of ambulance trusts, air ambulance and BASICS schemes, respectively. There was a wide variation in provision of PPE both within and between different groups of providers. Fewer than 55% of providers had an evaluation system in place for reviewing PPE use. Many reasons account for the differences in provision. There is a clear need for a standard to be set nationally in conjunction with locally implemented evaluation and re-accreditation processes.

  6. Application of Telemedicine System to Prehospital Medical Control

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Suck Ju; Kwon, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although ambulance-based telemedicine has been reported to be safe and feasible, its clinical usefulness has not been well documented, and different prehospital management systems would yield different results. The authors evaluated the feasibility and usefulness of telemedicine-assisted direct medical control in the Korean emergency medical service system. Methods Twenty ambulances in the Busan area were equipped with a telemedicine system. Three-lead electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and pulse oximetry data from the patient and audiovisual input from the scene were transferred to a server. Consulting physicians used desktop computers and the internet to connect to the server. Both requesting emergency medical service (EMS) providers and consulting physicians were asked to fill out report forms and submit them for analysis. Results In the 41 cases in which telemedicine equipment was used, cellular phones were concomitantly used in 28 cases (68.35%) to compensate for the poor audio quality provided by the equipment. The EMS providers rated the video transmission quality with a 4-point average score (interquartile range [IQR] 2-5) on a 5-point scale, and they rated the biosignal transmission quality as 4 (IQR 3-5). The consulting physicians rated the video quality as 4 (IQR 2.5-4) and the biosignal quality as 4 (IQR 3-4). The physicians' ratings for usefulness for making diagnosis or treatment decisions did not differ significantly in relation to the method of communication used. Conclusions Our study did not find any significant advantage of implementing telemedicine over the use of voice calls in delivering on-line medical control. More user-friendly, smaller devices with clear advantages over voice communication would be required before telemedicine can be successfully implemented in prehospital patient care. PMID:26279957

  7. Advanced airway management is necessary in prehospital trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Lockey, D J; Healey, B; Crewdson, K; Chalk, G; Weaver, A E; Davies, G E

    2015-04-01

    Treatment of airway compromise in trauma patients is a priority. Basic airway management is provided by all emergency personnel, but the requirement for on-scene advanced airway management is controversial. We attempted to establish the demand for on-scene advanced airway interventions. Trauma patients managed with standard UK paramedic airway interventions were assessed to determine whether airway compromise had been effectively treated or whether more advanced airway management was required. A prospective observational study was conducted to identify trauma patients requiring prehospital advanced airway management attended by a doctor-paramedic team. The team assessed and documented airway compromise on arrival, interventions performed before and after their arrival, and their impact on airway compromise. Four hundred and seventy-two patients required advanced airway intervention and received 925 airway interventions by ground-based paramedics. Two hundred and sixty-nine patients (57%) still had airway compromise on arrival of the enhanced care team; no oxygen had been administered to 52 patients (11%). There were 45 attempted intubations by ground paramedics with a 64% success rate and 11% unrecognized oesophageal intubation rate. Doctor-paramedic teams delivering prehospital anaesthesia achieved definitive airway management for all patients. A significant proportion of severely injured trauma patients required advanced airway interventions to effectively treat airway compromise. Standard ambulance service interventions were only effective for a proportion of patients, but might not have always been applied appropriately. Complications of advanced airway management occurred in both provider groups, but failed intubation and unrecognized oesophageal intubation were a particular problem in the paramedic intubation group. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  8. Prehospital triage accuracy in a criteria based dispatch centre.

    PubMed

    Dami, Fabrice; Golay, Christel; Pasquier, Mathieu; Fuchs, Vincent; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Hugli, Olivier

    2015-10-27

    Priority dispatch accuracy is a key issue in optimizing the match between patients' medical needs and pre-hospital resources. This study measures the accuracy of a Criteria Based Dispatch (CBD) system, by evaluating discrepancies between dispatch priorities and ambulance crews' severity evaluations. This is a retrospective study conducted from January 2011 to December 2011. We ruled that a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) score > 3 (injuries/diseases which can possibly lead to deterioration of vital signs) to 7 (lethal injuries/ diseases) should require a priority dispatch with lights and siren (L&S), while NACA scores < 4 should require a priority dispatch without L&S. Over triage was defined as the proportion of L&S dispatches with a NACA score < 4, and under triage as the proportion of dispatches without L&S with a NACA score > 3. There were 29,008 primary missions in 2011, 1122 were excluded. Of the 15,749 L&S missions, 12,333 patients had a NACA score < 4, leading to an over triage rate of 78 %; 561 missions out of 12,137 missions without L&S had a NACA score > 3, leading to an under triage rate of 4.6 %. Sensitivity was 86 % (95 % confidence interval: 85.6-86.4 %), specificity 48 % (47.4-48.6 %), positive predictive value 21.7 % (21.2-22.2 %), and negative predictive value 95.4 % (95.2-95.6 %). The rates of over triage and under triage in our CBD are 78 and 4.6 % respectively. The lack of consistent or universal metrics is perhaps the most important limitation in dispatch accuracy research. This is mainly due to the large heterogeneity of dispatch systems and prehospital emergency system.

  9. [The prehospital use of antibiotics in military operations].

    PubMed

    Rump, A

    2012-03-01

    War wounds usually show abundant devitalized tissue and often contain foreign material (environmental matter, shrapnels, and bullets). Thus, they are particularly prone to infection. Moreover, evacuation to a medical treatment facility and surgical debridement are often delayed due to tactical constraints. Thus, the early administration of an antibiotic on the ground in a prehospital setting seems justified to slow bacterial growth and the development of early infection. However, antibiotics are never a substitute for surgical treatment. The mix of microorganisms expected in war wounds is highly variable and determines the choice of the antibacterial agent. In a prehospital setting and in the absence of medical or paramedical personnel, the antibiotic must be administered orally (combat pill pack). In view of the antibacterial activity as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmaceutical properties, a combination of a fluoroquinolone active against Pseudomonas and a lincomycine with a high oral bioavailability at high doses seems to be a rational choice (ciprofloxacine 750 mg or alternatively levofloxacine 500 mg+clindamycine 600 mg tablets). If oral administration is excluded (unconsciousness, penetrating abdominal trauma, shock), the parenteral administration will be delayed until the patient has been taken in charge by medical or paramedical personnel. In that case, the intravenous administration of an association of an ureidopenicilline with antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas and a ß-lactamase-inhibitor at high doses could be a rational choice (piperacilline 4 g+tazobactam 0.5 g) (Tazocilline®). An antibiotic treatment beyond the time of surgery may become necessary in individual patients depending on the local features of the wound and should be prescribed by the medical officer in charge of the patient on a case-by-case basis.

  10. Prehospital trauma care education for first responders in India.

    PubMed

    Aekka, Apoorva; Abraham, Rohit; Hollis, Michael; Boudiab, Elizabeth; Laput, Gieric; Purohit, Harshadha; Kumar, Richa; Vyas, Arpita; Basson, Marc; Vyas, Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    A major factor contributing to global trauma mortality and morbidity is the lack of effective prehospital trauma services in developing settings. We developed a 2-d training course for nondoctor first responders featuring high-fidelity simulation and video-assisted debriefing, self-directed learning videos, and native language instruction. A pilot session was conducted in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Eighteen local instructors were recruited to train 48 layperson first responders in 10 essential subjects. Didactic sessions of 15-20 min consisting of self-directed learning videos were followed by 30-40 min skill sessions featuring high-fidelity simulation, and concluded with 15-20 min video-debriefing periods. Changes in competence were evaluated using pretraining and posttraining surveys. Results demonstrated that statistically significant competence increases in all areas of trauma management assessed: airway (t[46] = 7.30, P < 0.000), hemorrhage (t[46] = 9.96, P < 0.000), fractures (t[46] = 9.22, P < 0.000), cervical spine injury (t[46] = 12.12, P = 0.000), chest injury (t[46] = 7.84, P < 0.000), IV line placement (t[46] = 4.36, P < 0.000), extrication (t[46] = 2.81, P < 0.005), scene assessment (t[46] = 7.06, P < 0.000), triage (t[46] = 5.92, P < 0.000), and communication (t[46] = 5.56, P < 0.000). Highest increases in competence were observed in cervical spine injury and hemorrhage management, with lowest increases in IV line placement and extrication. Results suggest this approach may be effective in imparting prehospital trauma management concepts to layperson first responders. This study highlights an innovative educational avenue through which trauma management capacity can be enhanced in developing settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypertonic enhancement of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals: Ca2+ independence and role of integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashani, A. H.; Chen, B. M.; Grinnell, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    Hyperosmotic solutions cause markedly enhanced spontaneous quantal release of neurotransmitter from many nerve terminals. The mechanism of this enhancement is unknown. We have investigated this phenomenon at the frog neuromuscular junction with the aim of determining the degree to which it resembles the modulation of release by stretch, which has been shown to be mediated by mechanical tension on integrins.The hypertonicity enhancement, like the stretch effect, does not require Ca2+ influx or release from internal stores, although internal release may contribute to the effect. The hypertonicity effect is sharply reduced (but not eliminated) by peptides containing the RGD sequence, which compete with native ligands for integrin bonds.There is co-variance in the magnitude of the stretch and osmotic effects; that is, individual terminals exhibiting a large stretch effect also show strong enhancement by hypertonicity, and vice versa. The stretch and osmotic enhancements also can partially occlude each other.There remain some clear-cut differences between osmotic and stretch forms of modulation: the larger range of enhancement by hypertonic solutions, the relative lack of effect of osmolarity on evoked release, and the reported higher temperature sensitivity of osmotic enhancement. Nevertheless, our data strongly implicate integrins in a significant fraction of the osmotic enhancement, possibly acting via the same mechanism as stretch modulation.

  12. Comparison of intranasal hypertonic dead sea saline spray and intranasal aqueous triamcinolone spray in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cordray, Scott; Harjo, Jim B; Miner, Linda

    2005-07-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids are well known to be efficacious in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Nasal irrigation with saline, including hypertonic saline, has long been recommended for the treatment of sinonasal disease, and it has been shown to have a positive effect on the physiology of the nasal mucosa. Until now, no study of the clinical efficacy of intranasal hypertonic Dead Sea saline as a monotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinitis has been reported. We conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of intranasal hypertonic Dead Sea saline spray and intranasal aqueous triamcinolone spray in 15 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Results were based on a 7-day regimen. Based on Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores, clinically and statistically significant (p < 0.0001) improvements were seen in both active-treatment groups; as expected, the corticosteroid spray was the more effective of the two treatments. No significant improvement occurred in the control group. Our preliminary results not only confirm the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroid therapy in moderate-to-severe allergic rhinitis, they also suggest that the Dead Sea saline solution can be an effective alternative in mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis, particularly with respect to nasal and eye symptoms. The hypertonicity of the Dead Sea solution may have a positive effect on the physiology of the nasal mucosa by improving mucociliary clearance. In addition, the dominant cation in the Dead Sea solution--magnesium--probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects on the nasal mucosa and on the systemic immune response.

  13. Analysis of central opioid receptor subtype antagonism of hypotonic and hypertonic saline intake in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, R J; Glass, M J; Koch, J E

    1995-01-01

    Intake of either hypotonic or hypertonic saline solutions is modulated in part by the endogenous opioid system. Morphine and selective mu and delta opioid agonists increase saline intake, while general opioid antagonists reduce saline intake in rats. The present study evaluated whether intracerebroventricular administration of general (naltrexone) and selective mu (beta-funaltrexamine, 5-20 micrograms), mu, (naloxonazine, 50 micrograms), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine, 5-20 micrograms), delta (naltrindole, 20 micrograms), or delta 1 (DALCE, 40 micrograms) opioid receptor subtype antagonists altered water intake and either hypotonic (0.6%) or hypertonic (1.7%) saline intake in water-deprived (24 h) rats over a 3-h time course in a two-bottle choice test. Whereas peripheral naltrexone (0.5-2.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced water intake and hypertonic saline intake, central naltrexone (1-50 micrograms) significantly reduced water intake and hypotonic saline intake. Water intake was significantly reduced following mu and kappa receptor antagonism, but not following mu 1, delta, or delta 1 receptor antagonism. In contrast, neither hypotonic nor hypertonic saline intake was significantly altered by any selective antagonist. These data are discussed in terms of opioid receptor subtype control over saline intake relative to the animal's hydrational state and the roles of palatability and/or salt appetite.

  14. Resuscitation with a Bolus of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran Improves Renal Function Following Hemorrhage in Conscious Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-28

    is well-known that infusions of hypertonic salt solutions induce a diuresis and a natriuresis - this occurred in both the control as well as the...pressure), neither pigs (18) nor humans (19-21) responded with an excessive diuresis which would exacerbate hypovolemia. Sondeen et al -- 9 Although it

  15. Effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Percário, Sandro; Ribeiro, Rubens Fernando Gonçalves; Cavalcante, Lainy Carollyne da Costa; Monteiro, Andrew Moraes; Couteiro, Rodrigo Paracampo; Rodrigues, Ivone Aline da Silva; Santos, Hellen Aparecida Geyer Dos

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Twenty five male rats (Wistar) underwent right nephrectomy and were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of renal ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during kidney ischemia; Hypertonic saline solution group (HSS) treated with hypertonic saline solution (4ml/kg); remote ischemic perconditioning + Hypertonic saline solution group (Per+HSS) with both treatments. After reperfusion, blood samples were collected for BUN and creatinine serum levels analyzes. TBARS were evaluated in plasma and renal tissue to assess oxidative stress. Kidney histopathological examination were performed. Per+HSS group showed a lower degree of renal dysfunction in relation to I/R group, whereas the technique of remote ischemic perconditioning isolated or associated with saline solution significantly reduced oxidative stress and histological damage. Remote ischemic perconditioning associated or not to saline solution promoted reduction of acute renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

  16. Osmolyte and Na+ transport balances of rat hepatocytes as a function of hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Wehner, F; Tinel, H

    2000-11-01

    The initial event in the regulatory volume increase (RVI) of rat hepatocytes is an influx of Na+ that is then exchanged for K+ via stimulation of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). In this study, we analysed the activation pattern of the Na+ transporters underlying RVI as a function of the degree of hypertonic stress. In confluent primary cultures, four hypertonic conditions were tested (changes from 300 to 327, 360, 400 or 450 mosmol/l) and the activities of Na+ conductance, Na+/H+ antiport, Na+-K+-2Cl- symport and Na+/K+-ATPase were quantified using intracellular microelectrodes, microfluorometry and time-dependent, furosemide- or ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, respectively. Neither Na+ conductance nor Na+-K+-2Cl- symport responded to 327 mosmol/A. At 360, 400 and 450 mosmol/l, uptake via these transporters would lead to increases of cell Na+ by 33.0, 49.0 and 49.0 and by 4.5, 10.4 and 9.2 mmol/l per 10 min, respectively. In contrast, Na+/H+ antiport exhibited 65% of its maximal activation already at 327 mosmol/l. At the four osmolarities tested, this transporter would augment cell Na+ by 6.9, 8.9, 9.8 and 10.6 mmol/l per 10 min. The sums of Na+ import were consistent with the amounts of Na+ exported via Na+/K+-ATPase plus the actual increases of cell Na+ (21.2, 58.5, 63.6 and 68.3 mmol/l per 10 min and 2.2, 4.0, 6.3 and 8.2 mmol/l, respectively). In addition, these elevations of cell Na+ plus the increases of cell K+ (via Na+/K+-ATPase) that amounted to 5.0, 6.5, 17.5 and 18.4 mmol/l were consistent with the increases of intracellular osmotic (cationic) activity of 2.5, 11.5, 21.0 and 28.5 mmol/l, respectively, computed from RVI data. It is concluded that the principle of rat hepatocyte RVI, i.e. an initial uptake of Na+ that is then exchanged for K+ via Na+/K+-ATPase, is realized over the entire range of 9-50% hypertonicity tested. The set-point for the activation of RVI clearly lies below 327 mosmol/l. Na+/H+ antiport is the most sensitive Na+ importer

  17. Intracellular Hypertonicity Is Responsible for Water Flux Associated with Na+/Glucose Cotransport

    PubMed Central

    Charron, François M.; Blanchard, Maxime G.; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Detection of a significant transmembrane water flux immediately after cotransporter stimulation is the experimental basis for the controversial hypothesis of secondary active water transport involving a proposed stoichiometry for the human Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) of two Na+, one glucose, and 264 water molecules. Volumetric measurements of Xenopus laevis oocytes coexpressing human SGLT1 and aquaporin can be used to detect osmotic gradients with high sensitivity. Adding 2 mM of the substrate α-methyl-glucose (αMG) created mild extracellular hypertonicity and generated a large cotransport current with minimal cell volume changes. After 20, 40, and 60 s of cotransport, the return to sugar-free, isotonic conditions was accompanied by measurable cell swelling averaging 0.051, 0.061, and 0.077 nl/s, respectively. These water fluxes are consistent with internal hypertonicities of 1.5, 1.7, and 2.2 mOsm for these cotransport periods. In the absence of aquaporin, the measured hypertonicites were 4.6, 5.0, and 5.3 mOsm for the same cotransport periods Cotransport-dependent water fluxes, previously assumed to be water cotransport, could be largely explained by hypertonicities of such amplitudes. Using intracellular Na+ injection and Na+-selective electrode, the intracellular diffusion coefficient for Na+ was estimated at 0.29 ± 0.03 × 10−5 cm2 s−1. Using the effect of intracellular αMG injection on the SGLT1-mediated outward current, the intracellular diffusion coefficient of αMG was estimated at 0.15 ± 0.01 × 10−5 cm2 s−1. Although these intracellular diffusion coefficients are much lower than in free aqueous solution, a diffusion model for a single solute in an oocyte would require a diffusion coefficient three times lower than estimated to explain the local osmolyte accumulation that was experimentally detected. This suggests that either the diffusion coefficients were overestimated, possibly due to the presence of convection, or the diffusion in

  18. Our experience in the treatment of burn shock by hypertonic lactated saline solution.

    PubMed

    Belba, M

    2005-06-30

    Hypertonic salt solutions have for many years been known to be effective in the treatment of burn shock. Rapid infusion of a high concentration of sodium (250 mEq/l) produces positive effects by reducing fluid shifts, decreasing tissue oedema, and causing fewer attendant complications. This study presents data on 20 patients with severe burns who were resuscitated with hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) solution. The resuscitation regime used was that proposed in the USA and subsequently also in Europe. The fluid formula is based only on calculating fluid requirements for the first hour of therapy. Further adjustments of fluid requirements are based mainly on urine output. During the first hour of fluid therapy the amount of HLS given (ml) is 0.5 x percentage TBSA x kg body weight. This regime is recommended for resuscitation both of children, taking into consideration that urine output should be 1 ml/kg body weight/h, and of adults and the elderly, in whom an amount of 35 ml of urine per h is considered optimal and reflects sufficient vital organ perfusion. In order to control the administration of fluid volumes, we calculated fluid and sodium balances. Fluid load was 2.3 ml/kg/%; sodium load, 0.6 mEq/kg/%; net fluid accumulation, 20-30 ml/kg; and sodium retention, 56 %, associated with high natriuresis. We observed a high volume load in the first hour and in the first four hours of therapy, which regressed after lower fluid loads. During resuscitation the clinical and laboratory criteria were maintained within acceptable limits. Our clinical experience indicates that during burn shock resuscitation with HLS solution, the amount of fluid can be reduced, compared to conventional formula. Early administration of high sodium and fluid loads in the first four hours may decrease the total fluid load in the first 24 hours post-burn. A hypertonic regime requires careful observation and calculations. Resuscitation with HLS solution is a valuable regime in the treatment of

  19. Elemental distribution in striated muscle and the effects of hypertonicity: Electron probe analysis of cryo sections

    PubMed Central

    Somlyo, AV; Shuman, H; Somlyo, AP

    1977-01-01

    A method of rapid freezing in supercooled Freon 22 (monochlorodifluoromethane) followed by cryoultramicrotomy is described and shown to yield ultrathin sections in which both the cellular ultrastructure and the distribution of diffusible ions across the cell membrane are preserved and intracellular compartmentalization of diffusabler ions can be quantitated. Quantitative electron probe analysis (Shuman, H., A.V. Somlyo, and A.P. Somlyo. 1976. Ultramicros. 1:317-339.) of freeze-dried ultrathin cryto sections was found to provide a valid measure of the composition of cells and cellular organelles and was used to determine the ionic composition of the in situ terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the distribution of CI in skeletal muscle, and the effects of hypertonic solutions on the subcellular composition if striated muscle. There was no evidence of sequestered CI in the terminal cisternae of resting muscles, although calcium (66mmol/kg dry wt +/- 4.6 SE) was detected. The values of [C1](i) determined with small (50-100 nm) diameter probes over cytoplasm excluding organelles over nuclei or terminal cisternae were not significantly different. Mitochondria partially excluded C1, with a cytoplasmic/ mitochondrial Ci ratio of 2.4 +/- 0.88 SD. The elemental concentrations (mmol/kg dry wt +/- SD) of muscle fibers measured with 0.5-9-μm diameter electron probes in normal frog striated muscle were: P, 302 +/- 4.3; S, 189 +/- 2.9;C1, 24 +/- 1.1;K, 404 +/- 4.3, and Mg, 39 +/- 2.1. It is concluded that: (a) in normal muscle the "excess CI" measured with previous bulk chemical analyses and flux studies is not compartmentalized in the SR or in other cellular organelles, and (b) the cytoplasmic C1 in low [K](0) solutions exceeds that predicted by a passive electrochemical distribution. Hypertonic 2.2 X NaCl, 2.5 X sucrose, or 2.2 X Na isethionate produced: (a) swollen vacuoles, frequently paired, adjacent to the Z lines and containing significantly higher than

  20. Membrane potential stabilization in amphibian skeletal muscle fibres in hypertonic solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ferenczi, Emily A; Fraser, James A; Chawla, Sangeeta; Skepper, Jeremy N; Schwiening, Christof J; Huang, Christopher L-H

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated membrane transport mechanisms influencing relative changes in cell volume (V) and resting membrane potential (Em) following osmotic challenge in amphibian skeletal muscle fibres. It demonstrated a stabilization of Em despite cell shrinkage, which was attributable to elevation of intracellular [Cl−] above electrochemical equilibrium through Na+–Cl− and Na+−K+−2Cl− cotransporter action following exposures to extracellular hypertonicity. Fibre volumes (V) determined by confocal microscope xz-scanning of cutaneous pectoris muscle fibres varied linearly with [1/extracellular osmolarity], showing insignificant volume corrections, in fibres studied in Cl−-free, normal and Na+-free Ringer solutions and in the presence of bumetanide, chlorothiazide and ouabain. The observed volume changes following increases in extracellular tonicity were compared with microelectrode measurements of steady-state resting potentials (Em). Fibres in isotonic Cl−-free, normal and Na+-free Ringer solutions showed similar Em values consistent with previously reported permeability ratios PNa/PK(0.03–0.05) and PCl/PK (∼2.0) and intracellular [Na+], [K+] and [Cl−]. Increased extracellular osmolarities produced hyperpolarizing shifts in Em in fibres studied in Cl−-free Ringer solution consistent with the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation. In contrast, fibres exposed to hypertonic Ringer solutions of normal ionic composition showed no such Em shifts, suggesting a Cl−-dependent stabilization of membrane potential. This stabilization of Em was abolished by withdrawing extracellular Na+ or by the combined presence of the Na+–Cl− cotransporter (NCC) inhibitor chlorothiazide (10 μm) and the Na+−K+−2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC) inhibitor bumetanide (10 μm), or the Na+−K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain (1 or 10 μm) during alterations in extracellular osmolarity. Application of such agents after such increases in tonicity only produced a

  1. Oral hypertonic electrolyte-glucose/mosapride complex solution for resuscitation of burn shock in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Quan; Chai, Jiake; Hu, Sen; Zhou, Guoyong; Sheng, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oral feeding of an electrolyte glucose mosapride solution for resuscitation in dogs with shock after a 35% TBSA full-thickness burn and the effect of mosapride on gastric emptying time. Eighteen male Beagle dogs were randomly divided into intravenous isotonic solution group, intragastric hypertonic solution group, and mosapride group after they were subjected to a 35% TBSA full-thickness flame injury. In intravenous isotonic solution group (I group), isotonic electrolyte glucose solution was given through vein with adoption of the Parkland formula. The resuscitation fluid in intragastric hypertonic solution group (H group) and mosapride group (M group) consisted of 1.8% NaCl and 5% glucose, the total fluid volume was one half of that for I group, and it was given in divided amount every 2 hours. Mosapride was added to the resuscitation fluid in mosapride group. Fluid replacement was begun 30 minutes after the injury in all the groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output index (CI), intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBI), blood volume (BV), serum sodium concentration, intestinal mucosal blood flow (IMBF), gastric emptying, and serum motilin levels were determined at different time points. The urinary output of all animals was measured immediately after burn upto 360 minutes postburn. CI, ITBI, BV, and IMBF were all decreased obviously after burn. In I group and M group, CI, ITBI, BV, and IMBF were increased gradually after resuscitation, and they were significantly higher than that of H group (P < .05). MAP in all three groups was lowered significantly and then gradually recovered, showing no significant difference among groups. The urinary output in M group was similar to that in I group (P > .05), and it was higher than that in H group (P < .05). Serum sodium level in H group and M group increased in varying degrees and were markedly higher compared with the I group (P < .05). Postburn gastric

  2. Pre-Hospital Intravenous Fluid is Associated with Increased Survival in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, David A.; Fabricant, Löic J.; Differding, Jerry; Diggs, Brian; Underwood, Samantha; De La Cruz, Dodie; Holcomb, John B.; Brasel, Karen J.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Fox, Erin E.; Alarcon, Louis H.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Phelan, Herb A.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Muskat, Peter; Myers, John G.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Wade, Charles E.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Schreiber, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Delivery of intravenous crystalloid fluids (IVF) remains a tradition-based priority during pre-hospital resuscitation of trauma patients. Hypotensive and targeted resuscitation algorithms have been shown to improve patient outcomes. We hypothesized that receiving any pre-hospital IVF is associated with increased survival in trauma patients compared to receiving no pre-hospital IVF. Methods Prospective data from ten Level 1 trauma centers were collected. Patient demographics, pre-hospital IVF volume, pre-hospital and Emergency Department vital signs, life-saving interventions, laboratory values, outcomes and complications were collected and analyzed. Patients who did or did not receive pre-hospital IVF were compared. Tests for non-parametric data were utilized to assess significant differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05). Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent influence of IVF on outcome and complications. Results The study population consisted of 1245 trauma patients; 45 were removed due to incomplete data; 84% (n=1009) received pre-hospital IVF, and 16% (n=191) did not. There was no difference between the groups with respect to gender, age, and Injury Severity Score. The on-scene systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in the IVF group (110 vs. 100 mmHg, p<0.04) and did not change significantly after IVF, measured at ED admission (110 vs. 105 mmHg, p=0.05). Hematocrit/hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and platelets were lower (p<0.05), and Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio and Partial Thromboplastin Time were higher (p<0.001) in the IVF group. The IVF group received a median fluid volume of 700ml (IQR: 300-1300). The Cox regression revealed that pre-hospital fluid administration was associated with increased survival, Hazard Ratio: 0.84 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.72, 0.98; p=0.03). Site differences in ISS and fluid volumes were demonstrated (p<0.001). Conclusions Pre-hospital IVF volumes commonly used by PROMMTT

  3. The mean prehospital machine; accurate prehospital non-invasive blood pressure measurement in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Muecke, Sandy; Bersten, Andrew; Plummer, John

    2010-06-01

    Non-invasive blood pressure recordings may be inaccurate in the critically ill patient and measurement difficulties are intensified in the prehospital setting. This may adversely impact upon outcomes for many critically ill patients, particularly those with traumatic brain injury and/or lengthy prehospital times. This study aimed to validate a non-invasive, oscillometric, ambulatory blood pressure measuring device, the Oscar 2, Model 222 (SunTech Medical, Morrisville, USA) during the ambulance transport of critically ill patients. We have previously shown that mean arterial blood pressures observed by Intensive Care Unit nurses from a patient monitor can be considered interchangeable with reference intra-arterial integrated mean pressures. In the current study, we compared non-invasive device mean pressures to intra-arterial pressures observed by retrieval nurses from the patient monitor, during the ambulance transportation of critically ill patients. Device performance was required to fulfil the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) protocol requirements. Additionally, linear mixed effects analyses and Bland-Altman comparisons were undertaken. For 157 measurements recorded from 23 patients, when the Oscar 2 did not indicate a measurement was associated with a fault, the device fulfilled the AAMI protocol requirements, with a mean error of -1.1 mmHg (standard deviation 7.8 mmHg), 95% confidence intervals (linear mixed effects analysis) -2.9, 0.8; P = 0.26. Bland-Altman plots indicated uniform agreement across a wide range of blood pressures. Sixteen percent of recordings were associated with a patient, environment, or device generated fault. When the Oscar 2 does not indicate a fault has occurred, clinicians may be confident the mean pressure, within acceptable limits, is accurate, even during ambulance motion, administration of high doses of vasopressors and mechanical ventilation. The Oscar 2 appears to be an accurate and rugged out

  4. Hypertonic stress induces VEGF production in human colon cancer cell line Caco-2: inhibitory role of autocrine PGE₂.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luciana B; Piva, Bruno; Diaz, Bruno L

    2011-01-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a major regulator of angiogenesis. VEGF expression is up regulated in response to micro-environmental cues related to poor blood supply such as hypoxia. However, regulation of VEGF expression in cancer cells is not limited to the stress response due to increased volume of the tumor mass. Lipid mediators in particular arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandin (PG)E₂ are regulators of VEGF expression and angiogenesis in colon cancer. In addition, increased osmolarity that is generated during colonic water absorption and feces consolidation seems to activate colon cancer cells and promote PGE₂ generation. Such physiological stimulation may provide signaling for cancer promotion. Here we investigated the effect of exposure to a hypertonic medium, to emulate colonic environment, on VEGF production by colon cancer cells. The role of concomitant PGE₂ generation and MAPK activation was addressed by specific pharmacological inhibition. Human colon cancer cell line Caco-2 exposed to a hypertonic environment responded with marked VEGF and PGE₂ production. VEGF production was inhibited by selective inhibitors of ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. To address the regulatory role of PGE₂ on VEGF production, Caco-2 cells were treated with cPLA₂ (ATK) and COX-2 (NS-398) inhibitors, that completely block PGE₂ generation. The Caco-2 cells were also treated with a non selective PGE₂ receptor antagonist. Each treatment significantly increased the hypertonic stress-induced VEGF production. Moreover, addition of PGE₂ or selective EP₂ receptor agonist to activated Caco-2 cells inhibited VEGF production. The autocrine inhibitory role for PGE₂ appears to be selective to hypertonic environment since VEGF production induced by exposure to CoCl₂ was decreased by inhibition of concomitant PGE₂ generation. Our results indicated that hypertonicity stimulates VEGF production in colon cancer cell lines. Also PGE₂ plays an inhibitory

  5. TRPV1 Activation Is Required for Hypertonicity-Stimulated Inflammatory Cytokine Release in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Fan; Reinach, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether hypertonic stress promotes increases in inflammatory cytokine release through transient receptor potential vanilloid channel type 1 (TRPV1) signaling pathway activation in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Methods. Hyperosmotic medium was prepared by supplementing isotonic Ringers solution with sucrose. Ca2+ signaling was measured in fura2-AM–loaded HCECs using a single-cell fluorescence imaging system. Western blot analysis evaluated the phosphorylation status of EGFR, ERK, p38 MAPK, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. ELISA assessed the effect of TRPV1 activation on the release of IL-6 and IL-8. Results. A 450 mOsm hypertonic stress elicited 2-fold Ca2+ transients that were suppressed by the TRPV1-selective antagonists capsazepine and JYL 1421. Such transients were enhanced by PGE2. Hypertonicity-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation was suppressed by preincubating HCECs with capsazepine, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) inhibitor TIMP-1, broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM 6001, heparin-bound (HB)-EGF inhibitor CRM 197, or EGFR inhibitor AG 1478. ERK and p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation after EGFR transactivation occurred in tonicity and in a time-dependent manner. Hypertonicity-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-8 releases were suppressed by exposure to capsazepine, AG 1478, ERK inhibitor PD 98059, p38 inhibitor SB 203580, or NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. Conclusions. Hypertonic stress–elicited TRPV1 channel stimulation mediates increases in a proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a chemoattractant IL-8 by eliciting EGFR transactivation, MAPK, and NF-κB activation. Selective drug modulation of either TRPV1 activity or its signaling mediators may yield a novel approach to suppressing inflammatory responses occurring in dry eye syndrome. PMID:20739465

  6. Cap-independent protein synthesis is enhanced by betaine under hypertonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicelli, Domenica; Arfilli, Valentina; Onofrillo, Carmine; Alfieri, Roberta R; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Brigotti, Maurizio

    2017-02-12

    Protein synthesis is one of the main cellular functions inhibited during hypertonic challenge. The subsequent accumulation of the compatible osmolyte betaine during the later adaptive response allows not only recovery of translation but also its stimulation. In this paper, we show that betaine modulates translation by enhancing the formation of cap-independent 48 S pre-initiation complexes, leaving cap-dependent 48 S pre-initiation complexes basically unchanged. In the presence of betaine, CrPV IRES- and sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2) 5'-UTR-driven translation is 2- and 1.5-fold stimulated in MCF7 cells, respectively. Thus, betaine could provide an advantage in translation of messengers coding for proteins implicated in the response of cells to different stressors, which are often recognized by ribosomal 40 S subunit through simplified cap-independent mechanisms.

  7. Studies on the pathogenesis of the early dumping syndrome induced by intraduodenal instillation of hypertonic glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Snook, J A; Wells, A D; Prytherch, D R; Evans, D H; Bloom, S R; Colin-Jones, D G

    1989-01-01

    A reaction indistinguishable from the early dumping syndrome was induced in four of nine normal volunteers by intraduodenal instillation of a hypertonic glucose meal. Tachycardia and marked peripheral vasodilatation were demonstrated in 'dumpers' by Doppler ultrasound measurements of the arterial blood flow signal. The dumping reaction was not detectably altered by the addition of guar to the meal. Plasma VIP concentration rose and plasma volume fell to a similar degree in 'dumpers' and 'non-dumpers', suggesting that neither event is an integral component of the dumping mechanism. In contrast, the rates of rise of blood glucose and enteroglucagon concentration were markedly greater in 'dumpers'. The results are inconsistent with the conventional explanation that the early dumping syndrome is caused by a large osmotic fluid shift, but are compatible with a mechanism involving an initial period of intestinal hypermotility. PMID:2693232

  8. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH) has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH), and 0.9% saline solution (as control) were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany), hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl), hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) or NaCl 0.9% (ISO) in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM) after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM) and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM), the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm]) and clotting time (CT, [s]). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate) after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP) and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU)/min]). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p < 0.01. Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native) to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  9. In vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Alexander A; Maschler, Stephanie; Schöchl, Herbert; Flöricke, Felix; Görlinger, Klaus; Zanger, Klaus; Kienbaum, Peter

    2011-02-10

    Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH) has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH), and 0.9% saline solution (as control) were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes, Fresenius Kabi, Germany), hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl), hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) or NaCl 0.9% (ISO) in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM) after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM) and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM), the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm]) and clotting time (CT, [s]). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate) after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP) and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU)/min]). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p < 0.01. Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native) to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40% dilution; p < 0.0001) and to 6.6 ± 3.4 mm (HT

  10. Isotonic and hypertonic saline droplet deposition in a human upper airway model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Kleinstreuer, Clement; Kim, Chong S

    2006-01-01

    The evaporative and hygroscopic effects and deposition of isotonic and hypertonic saline droplets have been simulated from the mouth to the first four generations of the tracheobronchial tree under laminar-transitional-turbulent inspiratory flow conditions. Specifically, the local water vapor transport, droplet evaporation rate, and deposition fractions are analyzed. The effects of inhalation flow rates, thermodynamic air properties and NaCl-droplet concentrations of interest are discussed as well. The validated computer simulation results indicate that the increase of NaCl-solute concentration, increase of inlet relative humidity, or decrease of inlet air temperature may reduce water evaporation and increase water condensation at saline droplet surfaces, resulting in higher droplet depositions due to the increasing particle diameter and density. However, solute concentrations below 10% may not have a very pronounced effect on droplet deposition in the human upper airways.

  11. Prehospital risk factors of mortality and impaired consciousness after severe traumatic brain injury: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Sophia; Delhumeau, Cecile; Zuercher, Mathias; Haller, Guy; Walder, Bernhard

    2014-01-07

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant health concern and a major burden for society. The period between trauma event and hospital admission in an emergency department (ED) could be a determinant for secondary brain injury and early survival. The aim was to investigate the relationship between prehospital factors associated with secondary brain injury (arterial hypotension, hypoxemia, hypothermia) and the outcomes of mortality and impaired consciousness of survivors at 14 days. A multicenter, prospective cohort study was performed in dedicated trauma centres of Switzerland. Adults with severe TBI (Abbreviated Injury Scale score of head region (HAIS) >3) were included. Main outcome measures were death and impaired consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤13) at 14 days. The associations between risk factors and outcome were assessed with univariate and multivariate regression models. 589 patients were included, median age was 55 years (IQR 33, 70). The median GCS in ED was 4 (IQR 3-14), with abnormal pupil reaction in 167 patients (29.2%). Median ISS was 25 (IQR 21, 34). Three hundred seven patients sustained their TBI from falls (52.1%) and 190 from a road traffic accidents (32.3%). Median time from Out-of-hospital Emergency Medical Service (OHEMS) departure on scene to arrival in ED was 50 minutes (IQR 37-72); 451 patients had a direct admission (76.6%). Prehospital hypotension was observed in 24 (4.1%) patients, hypoxemia in 73 (12.6%) patients and hypothermia in 146 (24.8%). Prehospital hypotension and hypothermia (apart of age and trauma severity) was associated with mortality. Prehospital hypoxemia (apart of trauma severity) was associated with impaired consciousness; indirect admission was a protective factor. Mortality and impaired consciousness at 14 days do not have the same prehospital risk factors; prehospital hypotension and hypothermia is associated with mortality, and prehospital hypoxemia with impaired consciousness.

  12. Medical pre-hospital management reduces mortality in severe blunt trauma: a prospective epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Severe blunt trauma is a leading cause of premature death and handicap. However, the benefit for the patient of pre-hospital management by emergency physicians remains controversial because it may delay admission to hospital. This study aimed to compare the impact of medical pre-hospital management performed by SMUR (Service Mobile d'Urgences et de Réanimation) with non-medical pre-hospital management provided by fire brigades (non-SMUR) on 30-day mortality. Methods The FIRST (French Intensive care Recorded in Severe Trauma) study is a multicenter cohort study on consecutive patients with severe blunt trauma requiring admission to university hospital intensive care units within the first 72 hours. Initial clinical status, pre-hospital life-sustaining treatments and Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were recorded. The main endpoint was 30-day mortality. Results Among 2,703 patients, 2,513 received medical pre-hospital management from SMUR, and 190 received basic pre-hospital management provided by fire brigades. SMUR patients presented a poorer initial clinical status and higher ISS and were admitted to hospital after a longer delay than non-SMUR patients. The crude 30-day mortality rate was comparable for SMUR and non-SMUR patients (17% and 15% respectively; P = 0.61). After adjustment for initial clinical status and ISS, SMUR care significantly reduced the risk of 30-day mortality (odds ratio (OR): 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.94, P = 0.03). Further adjustments for the delay to hospital admission only marginally affected these results. Conclusions This study suggests that SMUR management is associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality. The role of careful medical assessment and intensive pre-hospital life-sustaining treatments needs to be assessed in further studies. PMID:21251331

  13. Prehospital delay and time to reperfusion therapy in ST elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    George, Linsha; Ramamoorthy, Lakshmi; Satheesh, Santhosh; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Subrahmanyam, D. K. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite efforts aimed at reducing the prehospital delay and treatment delay, a considerable proportion of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) present late and receive the reperfusion therapy after unacceptably long time periods. This study aimed at finding out the patients' decision delay, prehospital delay, door-to-electrocardiography (ECG), door-to-needle, and door-to-primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) times and their determinants among STEMI patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 96 patients with STEMI admitted in a tertiary care center in South India. The data were collected using interview of the patients and review of records. The distribution of the data was assessed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and the comparisons of the patients' decision delay, prehospital delay, and time to start reperfusion therapy with the different variables were done using Mann–Whitney U-test or Kruskal–Wallis test based on the number of groups. Results: The mean (standard deviation) and median (range) age of the participants were 55 (11) years and 57 (51) years, respectively. The median patients' decision delay, prehospital delay, door-to-ECG, door-to-needle, and door-to-primary PCI times were 75, 290, 12, 75, 110 min, respectively. Significant factors associated (P < 0.05) with patients' decision delay were alcoholism, symptom progression, and attempt at symptom relief measures at home. Prehospital delay was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with domicile, difficulty in arranging money, prior consultation at study center, place of symptom onset, symptom interpretation, and mode of transportation. Conclusions: The prehospital delay time among the South Indian population is still unacceptably high. Public education, improving the systems of prehospital care, and measures to improve the patient flow and management in the emergency department are essentially required. The time taken to take ECG

  14. Use and implementation of standard operating procedures and checklists in prehospital emergency medicine: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chulin; Kan, Ting; Li, Shuang; Qiu, Chen; Gui, Li

    2016-12-01

    This review aimed to analyze published literature to introduce the use and implementation of standard operating procedures (SOPs) and checklists in prehospital emergency medicine and their impact on guideline adherence and patient outcome. An English literature search was carried out using the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Springer, Elsevier, and ProQuest databases. Original articles describing the use and implementation of SOPs or checklists in prehospital emergency medicine were included. Editorials, comments, letters, bulletins, news articles, conference abstracts, and notes were excluded from the analysis. Relevant information was extracted relating to application areas, development of SOPs/checklists, educational preparation and training regarding SOPs/checklists implementation, staff attitudes and the effects of SOPs/checklists use on guideline adherence and patient outcomes. The literature search found 2187 potentially relevant articles, which were narrowed down following an abstract review and a full text review. A final total of 13 studies were identified that described the use and implementation of SOPs (9 studies) and checklists (4 studies) in different areas of prehospital emergency medicine including prehospital management of patients with acute exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute coronary syndrome, prehospital airway management, medical documentation, Emergency Medical Services triage, and transportation of patients. The use and implementation of SOPs and checklists in prehospital emergency medicine have shown some benefits of improving guidelines adherence and patient outcomes in airway management, patient records, identification and triage, and other prehospital interventions. More research in this area is necessary to optimize the future use and implementation of SOPs and checklists to improve emergency personnel performance and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of short prehospital times on trauma center performance benchmarking: An ecologic study.

    PubMed

    Byrne, James P; Mann, N Clay; Hoeft, Christopher J; Buick, Jason; Karanicolas, Paul; Rizoli, Sandro; Hunt, John P; Nathens, Avery B

    2016-04-01

    Emergency medical service (EMS) prehospital times vary between regions, yet the impact of local prehospital times on trauma center (TC) performance is unknown. To inform external benchmarking efforts, we explored the impact of EMS prehospital times on the risk-adjusted rate of emergency department (ED) death and overall hospital mortality at urban TCs across the United States. We used a novel ecologic study design, linking EMS data from the National EMS Information System to TCs participating in the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) by destination zip code. This approach provided EMS times for populations of injured patients transported to TQIP centers. We defined the exposure of interest as the 90th percentile total prehospital time (PHT) for each TC. TCs were then stratified by PHT quartile. Analyses were limited to adult patients with severe blunt or penetrating trauma, transported directly by land to urban TQIP centers. Random-intercept multilevel modeling was used to evaluate the risk-adjusted relationship between PHT quartile and the outcomes of ED death and overall hospital mortality. During the study period, 119,740 patients met inclusion criteria at 113 TCs. ED death occurred in 1% of patients, and overall mortality was 7.2%. Across all centers, the median PHT was 61 minutes (interquartile range, 53-71 minutes). After risk adjustment, TCs in regions with the shortest quartile of PHTs (<53 minutes) had significantly greater odds of ED death compared with those with the longest PHTs (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.78). However, there was no association between PHT and overall TC mortality. At urban TCs, local EMS prehospital times are a significant predictor of ED death. However, no relationship exists between prehospital time and overall TC risk-adjusted mortality. Therefore, there is no evidence for the inclusion of EMS prehospital time in external benchmarking analyses.

  16. National Prehospital Evidence-Based Guidelines Strategy: A Summary for EMS Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Gaither, Joshua B; Bigham, Blair L; Myers, J Brent; Kupas, Douglas F; Spaite, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Multiple national organizations have recommended and supported a national investment to increase the scientific evidence available to guide patient care delivered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and incorporate that evidence directly into EMS systems. Ongoing efforts seek to develop, implement, and evaluate prehospital evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) using the National Model Process created by a multidisciplinary panel of experts convened by the Federal Interagency Committee on EMS (FICEMS) and the National EMS Advisory Council (NEMSAC). Yet, these and other EBG efforts have occurred in relative isolation, with limited direct collaboration between national projects, and have experienced challenges in implementation of individual guidelines. There is a need to develop sustainable relationships among stakeholders that facilitate a common vision that facilitates EBG efforts. Herein, we summarize a National Strategy on EBGs developed by the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) with involvement of 57 stakeholder organizations, and with the financial support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the EMS for Children program. The Strategy proposes seven action items that support collaborative efforts in advancing prehospital EBGs. The first proposed action is creation of a Prehospital Guidelines Consortium (PGC) representing national medical and EMS organizations that have an interest in prehospital EBGs and their benefits to patient outcomes. Other action items include promoting research that supports creation and evaluates the impact of EBGs, promoting the development of new EBGs through improved stakeholder collaboration, and improving education on evidence-based medicine for all prehospital providers. The Strategy intends to facilitate implementation of EBGs by improving guideline dissemination and incorporation into protocols, and seeks to establish standardized evaluation methods for prehospital EBGs. Finally, the Strategy

  17. Axial hypertonicity in Parkinson's disease: direct measurements of trunk and hip torque.

    PubMed

    Wright, W G; Gurfinkel, V S; Nutt, J; Horak, F B; Cordo, P J

    2007-11-01

    A cardinal feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) is muscle hypertonicity, i.e. rigidity. Little is known about the axial tone in PD or the relation of hypertonia to functional impairment. We quantified axial rigidity to assess its relation to motor symptoms as measured by UPDRS and determine whether rigidity is affected by levodopa treatment. Axial rigidity was measured in 12 PD and 14 age-matched controls by directly measuring torsional resistance of the longitudinal axis to twisting (+/-10 degrees ). Feet were rotated relative to fixed hips (Hip Tone) or feet and hips were rotated relative to fixed shoulders (Trunk Tone). To assess tonic activity only, low constant velocity rotation (1 degrees /s) and low acceleration (<12 degrees /s(2)) were used to avoid eliciting phasic sensorimotor responses. Subjects stood during testing without changing body orientation relative to gravity. Body parts fixed against rotation could translate laterally within the boundaries of normal postural sway, but could not rotate. PD OFF-medication had higher axial rigidity (p<0.05) in hips (5.07 N m) and trunk (5.30 N m) than controls (3.51 N m and 4.46 N m, respectively), which did not change with levodopa (p>0.10). Hip-to-trunk torque ratio was greater in PD than controls (p<0.05) and unchanged by levodopa (p=0.28). UPDRS scores were significantly correlated with hip rigidity for PD OFF-medication (r values=0.73, p<0.05). Torsional resistance to clockwise versus counter-clockwise axial rotation was more asymmetrical in PD than controls (p<0.05), however, there was no correspondence between direction of axial asymmetry and side of disease onset. In conclusion, these findings concerning hypertonicity may underlie functional impairments of posture and locomotion in PD. The absence of a levodopa effect on axial tone suggests that axial and appendicular tones are controlled by separate neural circuits.

  18. The renal stanniocalcin-1 gene is differentially regulated by hypertonicity and hypovolemia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jeffrey; Xiang, Fu-Li; Feng, Qingping; Wagner, Graham F

    2011-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) is made by kidney collecting duct cells for autocrine and paracrine targeting of nephron cell mitochondria. Here, the ligand stimulates respiratory uncoupling and calcium uniport activity. However, the underlying purpose of these actions and how the renal gene is regulated are poorly understood. In a previous study, we described the time-dependent, stimulatory effects of water deprivation on renal STC-1 mRNA levels in both rats and mice. In cortical kidney, STC-1 mRNA levels were increased 8-fold by 72h of water deprivation, whereas the gene response in outer and inner medulla was less pronounced (2-4 fold). Gene induction occurred equally in males and females and was accompanied by increased mitochondrial STC-1 protein levels. As water deprivation increases extracellular fluid (ECF) tonicity and at the same time reduces ECF volume, the present study examined the individual effects of hypertonicity and hypovolemia on renal gene activity in rats. Hypertonicity, whether induced by mannitol, glucose or NaCl, uniquely stimulated the cortical gene, to the extent that transcript levels were positively correlated with serum osmolality. This was in contrast to high dietary sodium, which had no bearing on cortical or medullary transcript levels. The situation was reversed in the case of hypovolemia. Inner medullary gene expression was uniquely induced by hypovolemia (low sodium diet or polyethylene glycol) such that transcript levels were positively correlated with hematocrit, while cortical gene activity was unaffected or reduced. Hence, the cortical and medullary genes proved to be differentially regulated by changing ECF tonicity and volume, respectively. The findings are therefore indicative of cortical and medullary STC-1 having separate roles in the renal control of ECF balance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The transport systems of Ventricaria ventricosa: hypotonic and hypertonic turgor regulation.

    PubMed

    Bisson, M A; Beilby, M J

    2002-11-01

    The time course of hypertonic and hypotonic turgor regulation was studied in Ventricaria (Valonia) using pressure probe and I/V(current-voltage) analysis. Of 11 cells, 9 exhibited hypertonic turgor regulation, ranging from 100% regulation in 150 min to 14% regulation (14% recovery of the decrease in turgor) in 314 min. Some cells began regulating immediately, others took up to 90 min to begin. The resting PD (potential difference) became more positive in most cells. The I/V characteristics became more nonlinear with high resistance between -150 and -20 mV and negative conductance region near -70 mV. Prolonged (16 sec) voltage clamps to negative levels (-100 to -150 mV) showed progressively more rapid current turn-off, but subsequent I/V characteristics were not affected. Clamping to +150 mV, however, abolished the high conductance between -50 and +100 mV to yield a uniform high resistance I/V characteristic, similar to that in high [K+]o. Decreasing illumination from 2.02 micromol sec(-1) m(-2) to 0.5 micromol sec(-1)1 m(-2) had a similar effect. Two out of a total of three cells exhibited hypotonic turgor regulation. Both cells started regulating within minutes and achieved near 50% regulation within 50 min. The PD became more negative. The I/V curves exhibited high resistance between +50 and +150 mV. The characteristics were similar to those in cells exposed to low [K+]o. Prolonged voltage clamps to both negative and positive levels showed slow current increase. Decreased illumination increased the membrane resistance.

  20. Suppression of ciliary movements by a hypertonic stress in the newt olfactory receptor neuron.

    PubMed

    Wakazono, Yoshihiko; Sakurai, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons isolated from the newt maintain a high activity of the ciliary beat. A cilium of neuron is so unique that only little is known about regulatory factors for its beat frequency. We examined the olfactory receptor neuron immersed in various extracellular media under the video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscope. The activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels by K(+) depolarization or by application of Ca(2+) to membrane-permeabilized olfactory cells did not affect the ciliary movement, suggesting that Ca(2+) influx through the cell membrane has no direct effect on the movement. However, when an extracellular medium contained NaCl or sucrose at concentrations only 30% higher than normal levels, ciliary movement was greatly and reversibly suppressed. In contrast, a hypotonic solution of such a solute did not change the ciliary movement. The hypertonic solutions had no effect when applied to permeabilized cells. Suction of the cell membrane with a patch pipette easily suppressed the ciliary movement in an isotonic medium. Application of positive pressure inside the cell through the same patch pipette eliminated the suppressive effect. From these findings, we concluded that the hypertonic stress suppressed the ciliary movement not by disabling the motor proteins, microtubules, or their associates in the cilia, but rather by modifying the chemical environment for the motor proteins. The ciliary motility of the olfactory receptor cell is directly sensitive to the external environment, namely, the air or water on the nasal epithelium, depending on lifestyle of the animal. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Centrally administered vasopressin cross-sensitizes rats to amphetamine and drinking hypertonic NaCl.

    PubMed

    McBride, Shawna M; Flynn, Francis W

    2007-09-01

    Prior sodium restriction cross-sensitizes rats to the psychomotor effects of amphetamines and vice versa. Repeated central injections of vasopressin (VP) induce a psychomotor sensitization similar to amphetamine sensitization and repeated sodium deficiency. Thus brain VP signaling may be a common mechanism involved in mediating these two motivational systems. In experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that rats previously sensitized to central VP would show enhanced psychomotor responses to amphetamine. Rats were administered saline, VP (50 ng), or amphetamine (1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg) on days 1 and 2, and given saline or amphetamine on day 3. Amphetamine produced psychomotor arousal in all groups. However, amphetamine on day 3 elicited a significantly greater psychomotor response in rats that had prior injections of amphetamine or VP than in rats previously treated with saline. In experiment 2, the hypothesis that prior experience with central VP would cross-sensitize rats to drinking hypertonic sodium (NaCl) solutions was tested. Rats were administered VP (50 ng) or saline for 3 days. On the fourth day, nondeprived rats were given access to 0.3 M NaCl and water for 1 h. Control and saline-treated rats only drank 1 ml of 0.3 M NaCl, but rats previously exposed to central VP drank significantly more hypertonic saline (4 ml). These results show that prior experience with central VP cross-sensitizes rats to the psychomotor stimulant effects of amphetamine and the ingestion of concentrated NaCl solutions. This pattern of cross-sensitization links central VP signaling, amphetamine, and sodium deficiency, and therefore it may play a role in the cross-sensitization between sodium appetite and amphetamines.

  2. Ultramicroscopic and biochemical changes in ram spermatozoa cryopreserved with trehalose-based hypertonic extenders.

    PubMed

    Aisen, E; Quintana, M; Medina, V; Morello, H; Venturino, A

    2005-06-01

    The ability of a range of extenders to cryopreserve ram spermatozoa was tested. The extenders were modified by the inclusion of citrate, Tris buffer, trehalose, and EDTA. Ejaculates from three Pampinta rams were evaluated and pooled at 30 degrees C. The semen was diluted to contain 1 x 10(9) cells/mL, cooled to 5 degrees C, loaded into 0.25-mL straws, frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen. Evaluation was based on the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS test), electron microscopy, and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation and reduced and total glutathione levels, all measured after thawing. The HOS test indicated that the percentage of intact plasma membranes after freezing and thawing was significantly higher for the hypertonic extender containing trehalose (T), compared with an extender containing trehalose+EDTA (TE) or an isotonic Tris extender (B) (p < 0.05). Membrane evaluation by ultramicroscopy also indicated better sperm cryopreservation in extender T compared with the others, and there was a significant reduction in the number of damaged membranes (27%, p < 0.0002). The level of reduced glutathione was significantly higher after sperm cryopreservation in either hypertonic diluent (T and TE) with respect to the isotonic extender B, immediately after thawing (12%) and after a 3-h post-thawing thermotolerance test at 37 degrees C (17%, p = 0.007). Total glutathione levels did not show statistical differences among the extenders. After 3h post-thawing incubation at 37 degrees C, lipid peroxide levels in spermatozoa were statistically lower for T than TE (35%) or isotonic extender B (44%) (p = 0.002). Taken together these results indicate a reduction in the oxidative stress provoked by freezing and thawing when semen is cryopreserved in extender T. The antioxidant properties of extender T may be related to its effectiveness in membrane cryopreservation.

  3. Axial hypertonicity in Parkinson’s disease: Direct measurements of trunk and hip torque

    PubMed Central

    Wright, W.G.; Gurfinkel, V.S.; Nutt, J.; Horak, F.B.; Cordo, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    A cardinal feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is muscle hypertonicity, i.e. rigidity. Little is known about the axial tone in PD or the relation of hypertonia to functional impairment. We quantified axial rigidity to assess its relation to motor symptoms as measured by UPDRS and determine whether rigidity is affected by levodopa treatment. Axial rigidity was measured in 12 PD and 14 age-matched controls by directly measuring torsional resistance of the longitudinal axis to twisting (±10°). Feet were rotated relative to fixed hips (Hip Tone) or feet and hips were rotated relative to fixed shoulders (Trunk Tone). To assess tonic activity only, low constant velocity rotation (1°/s) and low acceleration (<12°/s2) were used to avoid eliciting phasic sensorimotor responses. Subjects stood during testing without changing body orientation relative to gravity. Body parts fixed against rotation could translate laterally within the boundaries of normal postural sway, but could not rotate. PD OFF-medication had higher axial rigidity (p<0.05) in hips (5.07 Nm) and trunk (5.30 Nm) than controls (3.51 Nm and 4.46 Nm, respectively), which didn’t change with levodopa (p>0.10). Hip-to-trunk torque ratio was greater in PD than controls (p<0.05) and unchanged by levodopa (p=0.28). UPDRS scores were significantly correlated with hip rigidity for PD OFF-medication (r=0.73, p<0.05). Torsional resistance to clockwise versus counter-clockwise axial rotation was more asymmetrical in PD than controls (p<0.05), however, there was no correspondence between direction of axial asymmetry and side of disease onset. In conclusion, these findings concerning hypertonicity may underlie functional impairments of posture and locomotion in PD. The absence of a levodopa effect on axial tone suggests axial and appendicular tone are controlled by separate neural circuits. PMID:17692315

  4. A Descriptive Analysis of Prehospital Response to Hazardous Materials Events.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley J; Lohse, Christine M; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the overall frequency of hazardous materials (HazMat) events in the United States and the nature of prehospital care for those exposed. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) activations reported to a national EMS database. Analysis of the 2012 National EMS Information System (NEMSIS) Public Release Research Data Set v.2.2.1, containing EMS emergency response data submitted by 41 states, was conducted. Mandatory data elements E0207 (Type of Response Delay), E0208 (Type of Scene Delay), and E0209 (Type of Transport Delay) contained specific codes for HazMat events and were used to identify specific EMS activation records for subsequent analysis. Overlapping data elements were identified and combined in order to prevent duplicate entries. Descriptive analyses were generated from the NEMSIS Research Data Set. A total of 17,479,328 EMS activations were reported, of which 2,527 unique activations involved HazMat response. Mass-casualty incident was coded for 5.6% of activations. The most common level of prehospital care present on scene was Basic Life Support (BLS; 51.1%); 2.1% required aggressive Advanced Life Support (ALS) response. The most common locations for HazMat activations were homes (36.2%), streets or highways (26.3%), and health care facilities (11.6%). The primary symptoms observed by EMS personnel were pain (29.6%), breathing problems (12.2%), and change in responsiveness (9.6%). Two percent of HazMat activations involved cardiac arrest, with 21.7% occurring after EMS arrival. Delays in patient care included response delay, scene delay, and transport delay. Hazardous materials events are rare causes of EMS activation in the United States. The majority occur in non-industrial venues and involve two or fewer patients. Scene time frequently is delayed due to multiple barriers. Cardiac arrest is rare but occurred after EMS arrival in one-fifth of patients.

  5. Assessment of the Status of Prehospital Care in 13 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Katie; Mock, Charles; Joshipura, Manjul; Rubiano, Andres M.; Zakariah, Ahmed; Rivara, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Injury and other medical emergencies are becoming increasingly common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many to most of the deaths from these conditions occur outside of hospitals, necessitating the development of prehospital care. Prehospital capabilities are inadequately developed to meet the growing needs for emergency care in most LMICs. In order to better plan for development of prehospital care globally, this study sought to better understand the current status of prehospital care in a wide range of LMICs. Methods A survey was conducted of emergency medical services (EMS) leaders and other key informants in 13 LMICs in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Questions addressed methods of transport to hospital, training and certification of EMS providers, organization and funding of EMS systems, public access to prehospital care, and barriers to EMS development. Results Prehospital care capabilities varied significantly, but in general, were less developed in low-income countries and in rural areas, where utilization of formal emergency medical services was often very low. Commercial drivers, volunteers, and other bystanders provided a large proportion of prehospital transport and occasionally also provide first aid in many locations. Although taxes and mandatory motor vehicle insurance provided supplemental funds to EMS in 85% of the countries, the most frequently cited barriers to further development of prehospital care was inadequate funding (36% of barriers cited). The next most commonly sited barriers were lack of leadership within the system (18%) and lack of legislation setting standards (18%). Conclusions Expansion of prehospital care to currently under- or un-served areas, especially in low-income countries and in rural areas, could make use of the already existing networks of first responders, such as commercial drivers and lay persons. Efforts to increase their effectiveness, such as more widespread first aid training, and better

  6. Pre-hospital trauma care in road traffic accidents in kashan, iran.

    PubMed

    Paravar, Mohammad; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Salehi, Shayesteh; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Shojaee, Abolfazl; Akbari, Hossein; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Iran has one of the highest rates of road traffic accidents (RTAs) worldwide. Pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize many instances of traffic-related mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of pre-hospital care in patients who were injured in RTAs, admitted to hospital. The focus was mainly directed at evaluating pre-hospital trauma care provided in city streets and roads out of the city. This retrospective study was carried out on all trauma patients, transported by the emergency medical service (EMS) system, who were admitted to Kashan Shahid-Beheshti hospital during the period from March 2011 to March 2012. The patients' demographic data, location of accident, damaged organs, mechanism of injury, injury severity, pre-hospital times (response, scene, transport), pre-hospital interventions and outcomes, were extracted from the data registry and analyzed through descriptive statistics using SPSS 18 software. Findings of this study showed that, 75% of RTAs occurred on city streets (n = 1 251). Motor-car accidents were the most frequent mechanism of RTA on city streets (n = 525) (42%), while car rollover was the most frequent mechanism of RTA on roads out of the city (n = 155) (44.4%). The mean pre-hospital time intervals (min); response, scene, and transport for all patients were 6.6 ± 3.1, 10.7 ± 5 and 13 ± 9.8, respectively. The mean pre-hospital time intervals (response, scene, transport) in roads out of the city were higher than those in city streets. There was a significant difference (P = 0.04) in the mortality rates due to RTAs between city streets (n = 46) and roads out of the city (n = 32). In comparison with road traffic accidents on city streets, trauma patients in RTAs on roads out of the city have longer pre-hospital time intervals and more severe injuries; therefore, this group needs more pre-hospital resuscitation interventions.

  7. Low-cost improvements in prehospital trauma care in a Latin American city.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Risa, C; Mock, C N; Lojero-Wheatly, L; de la Cruz, O; Garcia, C; Canavati-Ayub, F; Jurkovich, G J

    2000-01-01

    Prehospital care is a critical component of efforts to lower trauma mortality. In less-developed countries, scarce resources dictate that any improvements in prehospital care must be low in cost. In one Latin American city, recent efforts to improve prehospital care have included an increase in the number of sites of ambulance dispatch from two to four and introduction of the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) course. The effect of increased dispatch sites was evaluated by comparing response times before and after completion of the change. The effect of PHTLS was evaluated by comparing prehospital treatment for the 3 months before initiation of the course (n = 361 trauma patients) and the 6 months after (n = 505). Response time decreased from a mean of 15.5 +/- 5.1 minutes, when there were two sites of dispatch, to 9.5 +/- 2.7 minutes, when there were four sites. Prehospital trauma care improved after initiation of the PHTLS course. For all trauma patients, use of cervical immobilization increased from 39 to 67%. For patients in respiratory distress, there were increases in the use of oropharyngeal airways (16-39%), in the use of suction (10-38%), and in the administration of oxygen (64-87%). For hypotensive patients, there was an increase in use of large-bore intravenous lines from 26 to 58%. The improved prehospital treatment did not increase the mean scene time (5.7 +/- 4.4 minutes before vs. 5.9 +/- 6.8 minutes after). The percent of patients transported who died in route decreased from 8.2% before the course to 4.7% after. These improvements required a minimal increase (16%) in the ambulance service budget. Increase in sites of dispatch and increased training in the form of the PHTLS course improved the process of pre-hospital care in this Latin American city and resulted in a decrease in prehospital deaths. These improvements were low cost and should be considered for use in other less developed countries.

  8. Prehospital fluid resuscitation in hypotensive trauma patients: do we need a tailored approach?

    PubMed

    Geeraedts, Leo M G; Pothof, Leonie A H; Caldwell, Erica; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S M; D'Amours, Scott K

    2015-01-01

    The ideal strategy for prehospital intravenous fluid resuscitation in trauma remains unclear. Fluid resuscitation may reverse shock but aggravate bleeding by raising blood pressure and haemodilution. We examined the effect of prehospital i.v. fluid on the physiologic status and need for blood transfusion in hypotensive trauma patients after their arrival in the emergency department (ED). Retrospective analysis of trauma patients (n=941) with field hypotension presenting to a level 1 trauma centre. Regression models were used to investigate associations between prehospital fluid volumes and shock index and blood transfusion respectively in the emergency department and mortality at 24h. A 1L increase of prehospital i.v. fluid was associated with a 7% decrease of shock index in the emergency department (p<0.001). Volumes of 0.5-1L and 1-2L were associated with reduced likelihood of shock as compared to volumes of 0-0.5L: OR 0.61 (p=0.03) and OR 0.54 (p=0.02), respectively. Volumes of 1-2L were also associated with an increased likelihood of receiving blood transfusion in ED: OR 3.27 (p<0.001). Patients who had received volumes of >2L have a much greater likelihood of receiving blood transfusion in ED: OR 9.92 (p<0.001). Mortality at 24h was not associated with prehospital i.v. fluids. In hypotensive trauma patients, prehospital i.v. fluids were associated with a reduction of likelihood of shock upon arrival in ED. However, volumes of >1L were associated with a markedly increased likelihood of receiving blood transfusion in ED. Therefore, decision making regarding prehospital i.v. fluid resuscitation is critical and may need to be tailored to the individual situation. Further research is needed to clarify whether a causal relationship exists between prehospital i.v. fluid volume and blood transfusion. Also, prospective trials on prehospital i.v. fluid resuscitation strategies in specific patient subgroups (e.g. traumatic brain injury and concomitant haemorrhage) are

  9. Mapping the use of simulation in prehospital care – a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High energy trauma is rare and, as a result, training of prehospital care providers often takes place during the real situation, with the patient as the object for the learning process. Such training could instead be carried out in the context of simulation, out of danger for both patients and personnel. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the development and foci of research on simulation in prehospital care practice. Methods An integrative literature review were used. Articles based on quantitative as well as qualitative research methods were included, resulting in a comprehensive overview of existing published research. For published articles to be included in the review, the focus of the article had to be prehospital care providers, in prehospital settings. Furthermore, included articles must target interventions that were carried out in a simulation context. Results The volume of published research is distributed between 1984- 2012 and across the regions North America, Europe, Oceania, Asia and Middle East. The simulation methods used were manikins, films, images or paper, live actors, animals and virtual reality. The staff categories focused upon were paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), medical doctors (MDs), nurse and fire fighters. The main topics of published research on simulation with prehospital care providers included: Intubation, Trauma care, Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), Ventilation and Triage. Conclusion Simulation were described as a positive training and education method for prehospital medical staff. It provides opportunities to train assessment, treatment and implementation of procedures and devices under realistic conditions. It is crucial that the staff are familiar with and trained on the identified topics, i.e., intubation, trauma care, CPR, ventilation and triage, which all, to a very large degree, constitute prehospital care. Simulation plays an integral role in this. The current state of

  10. Prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support for Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cournoyer, Alexis; Notebaert, Éric; Iseppon, Massimiliano; Cossette, Sylvie; Londei-Leduc, Luc; Lamarche, Yoan; Morris, Judy; Piette, Éric; Daoust, Raoul; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Sokoloff, Catalina; Cavayas, Yiorgos Alexandros; Paquet, Jean; Denault, André

    2017-06-24

    Out-of-hospital advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) has not consistently shown a positive impact on survival. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) could render prolonged on-site resuscitation (ACLS or basic cardiac life support [BCLS]) undesirable in selected cases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, in patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and in a subgroup of potential E-CPR candidates, the association between the addition of prehospital ACLS to BCLS and survival to hospital discharge, prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and delay from call to hospital arrival. This cohort study targets adult patients treated for OHCA between April 2010 and December 2015 in the city of Montreal, Canada. We defined potential E-CPR candidates using clinical criteria previously described in the literature (65 years of age or younger, initial shockable rhythm, absence of ROSC after 15 minutes of prehospital resuscitation, and emergency medical services-witnessed collapse or witnessed collapse with bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Associations were evaluated using multivariate regression models. A total of 7,134 patients with OHCA were included, 761 (10.7%) of whom survived to discharge. No independent association between survival to hospital discharge and the addition of prehospital ACLS to BCLS was found in either the entire cohort (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.05 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 0.84-1.32], p = 0.68) or among the 246 potential E-CPR candidates (AOR = 0.82 [95% CI = 0.36-1.84], p = 0.63). The addition of prehospital ACLS to BCLS was associated with a significant increase in the rate of prehospital ROSC in all patients experiencing OHCA (AOR = 3.92 [95% CI = 3.38-4.55], p < 0.001) and in potential E-CPR candidates (AOR = 3.48 [95% CI = 1. 76-6.88], p < 0.001) compared to isolated prehospital BCLS. Delay from call to hospital arrival was longer in the ACLS group than in the BCLS group

  11. [Prehospital trauma care training course. Integration of emergency physician and rescue services].

    PubMed

    Kopschina, C; Stangl, R

    2008-08-01

    With the emergence of a trauma network in the metropolitan area of Nuremberg, Germany, the question arose whether prehospital trauma management and emergency department management could be better integrated. A training scheme was designed for prehospital trauma care by the rescue services of the Workers' Samaritan Federation Germany (ASB), the Bavarian Red Cross, Maltese Ambulance, St. Johns Ambulance, representatives of the emergency physicians, and physicians of Rummelsberg Hospital. A detailed search of the international literature was done for all subjects regarding prehospital trauma management, and the American training systems (ITLS, PHTLS) were studied. The review was followed by a critical evaluation of the reality of on site-care, and the German and American systems were compared. A 2-day course with 6 sessions (accident place and kinetics, trauma investigation, pathologies, resuscitation, practical training, and evaluation) was developed, adapted from the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) algorithm. Special attention was given to the integration and position of the emergency physician in Germany, as well as to the defined authority of the rescue services. Conversion into practice was facilitated by teamwork. The course is free of charge to all rescue services and members of the concept group. With a qualified prehospital system that works smoothly with the ATLS concepts, improved prehospital care for trauma patients seems possible.

  12. Prehospital anaesthesia by a physician and paramedic critical care team in Southwest England.

    PubMed

    von Vopelius-Feldt, Johannes; Benger, Jonathan R

    2013-12-01

    Prehospital anaesthesia using rapid sequence induction (RSI) is carried out internationally and in the UK despite equivocal evidence of clinical benefit. It is a core skill of the prehospital critical care service established by the Great Western Ambulance Service NHS Trust (GWAS) in 2008. This retrospective analysis of the service's first 150 prehospital RSIs describes intubation success rates and complications, thereby contributing towards the ongoing debate on its role and safety. Within the GWAS critical care team, RSI is only carried out in the presence of a qualified physician and critical care paramedic (CCP). The role of the intubating practitioner is interchangeable between physician and CCP. Data were collected retrospectively from RSI audit forms and electronic patient monitor printouts. GWAS physician and CCP teams undertook 150 prehospital RSIs between June 2008 and August 2011. The intubation success rate was 82, 91 and 97% for the first, second and third attempts, respectively. Successful intubation on the first attempt was achieved in 58 (85%) and 64 (78%) patients for physicians and CCPs, respectively. RSI complications included hypoxaemia (10.2%), hypotension (9.7%) and bradycardia (1.3%). Prehospital RSI can be carried out safely, with intubation success rates and complications comparable with RSI in the emergency department. The variation in the intubation success rates between individual practitioners highlights the importance of ongoing performance monitoring, coupled with high standards of clinical governance and training.

  13. Prehospital management of evolving critical illness by the primary care provider.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Kerri A; Hosseinnezhad, Alireza; Ullah, Ashfaq; Vinagre, Yuka-Marie; Baker, Stephen P; Lilly, Craig M

    2013-10-01

    The factors that limit primary care providers (PCPs) from intervening for adults with evolving, acute, severe illness are less understood than the increasing frequency of management by acute care providers. Rates of prehospital patient management by a PCP and of communication with acute care teams were measured in a multicenter, cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted in all four of the adult medical ICUs of the three hospitals in central Massachusetts that provide tertiary care. Rates were measured for 390 critical care encounters, using a validated instrument to abstract the medical record and conduct telephone interviews. PCPs implemented prehospital management for eight episodes of acute illness among 300 encounters. Infrequent prehospital management by PCPs was attributed to their lack of awareness of the patient's evolving acute illness. Only 21% of PCPs were aware of the acute illness before their patient was admitted to an ICU, and 33% were not aware that their patient was in an ICU. Rates of PCP involvement were not appreciably different among provider groups or by patient age, sex, insurance status, hospital, ICU, or ICU staffing model. We identified lack of PCP awareness of patients' acute illness and high rates of PCP referral to acute care providers as the most frequent barriers to prehospital management of evolving acute illness. These findings suggest that implementing processes that encourage early patient-PCP communication and increase rates of prehospital management of infections and acute exacerbations of chronic diseases could reduce use of acute care services.

  14. Pre-hospital and initial management of head injury patients: An update.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Kowalski, Stephen; Arabi, Yaseen; Dash, Hari Hara

    2014-01-01

    Most of the bad outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are related to the presence of a high incidence of pre-hospital secondary brain insults. Therefore, knowledge of these variables and timely management of the disease at the pre-hospital period can significantly improve the outcome and decrease the mortality. The Brain Trauma Foundation guideline on "Prehospital Management" published in 2008 could provide the standardized protocols for the management of patients with TBI; however, this guideline has included the relevant papers up to 2006. A PubMed search for relevant clinical trials and reviews (from 1 January 2007 to 31 March 2013), which specifically discussed about the topic, was conducted. Based on the evidence, majority of the management strategies comprise of rapid correction of hypoxemia and hypotension, the two most important predictors for mortality. However, there is still a need to define the goals for the management of hypotension and inclusion of newer difficult airway carts as well as proper monitoring devices for ensuring better intubation and ventilatory management. Isotonic saline should be used as the first choice for fluid resuscitation. The pre-hospital hypothermia has more adverse effects; therefore, this should be avoided. Most of the management trials published after 2007 have focused mainly on the treatment as well as the prevention strategies for secondary brain injury. The results of these trials would be certainly adopted by new standardized guidelines and therefore may have a substantial impact on the pre-hospital management in patients with TBI.

  15. AAGBI: Safer pre-hospital anaesthesia 2017: Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Lockey, D J; Crewdson, K; Davies, G; Jenkins, B; Klein, J; Laird, C; Mahoney, P F; Nolan, J; Pountney, A; Shinde, S; Tighe, S; Russell, M Q; Price, J; Wright, C

    2017-03-01

    Pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia with oral tracheal intubation is the technique of choice for trauma patients who cannot maintain their airway or achieve adequate ventilation. It should be carried out as soon as safely possible, and performed to the same standards as in-hospital emergency anaesthesia. It should only be conducted within organisations with comprehensive clinical governance arrangements. Techniques should be straightforward, reproducible, as simple as possible and supported by the use of checklists. Monitoring and equipment should meet in-hospital anaesthesia standards. Practitioners need to be competent in the provision of in-hospital emergency anaesthesia and have supervised pre-hospital experience before carrying out pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia. Training programmes allowing the safe delivery of pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia by non-physicians do not currently exist in the UK. Where pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia skills are not available, oxygenation and ventilation should be maintained with the use of second-generation supraglottic airways in patients without airway reflexes, or basic airway manoeuvres and basic airway adjuncts in patients with intact airway reflexes. © 2017 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. [Dynamics of pre-hospital lethality in acute coronary insufficiency and myocardial infarct in Krasnoyarsk during 1963-1975].

    PubMed

    Opaleva-Stegantseva, V A; Rybkin, I A; Protopopova, A N; Litvintseva, G A; Ratovskaia, V I

    1978-05-01

    The data on the dynamics of prehospital mortality in acute coronary failure (ACF) and myocardial infarction (MI) depending on the improvement in medical service in the prehospital stage of treatment are presented. The research showed that prehospital mortality in ACF and MI accounts for 75% of the total mortality. Among deaths registered in the prehospital stage 73.7% were sudden. As the result of improvements in prehospital medical service due to the training of physicians of the emergency medical service, the organization of cardiologic emergency aid teams, clinico-pathologic conferences held at the emergency medical service stations, etc. extrahospital mortality dropped from 45.6% (1963) to 26.2% (1975) with simultaneous drop in total mortality from 61.9% (1963) to 37.4% (1975).

  17. Small volume resuscitation with 7.5% hypertonic saline, hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 solution and hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection reduced lung injury in endotoxin shock rats: comparison with saline.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gaofeng; Chi, Xinjin; Hei, Ziqing; Shen, Ning; Chen, Jinghui; Zhang, Wenhua; Li, Shangrong

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of small volume resuscitation with 7.5% hypertonic sodium chloride (HSS), hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 solution (HES), and hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection (HSH) on endotoxin shock rat lung. Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into 5 groups ,Group C (negative control group), Group E (lipopolysaccharide, LPS +4 ml/kg saline), Group HSS (LPS +4 ml/kg HSS), Group HES (LPS +4 ml/kg HES) and Group HSH (LPS +4 ml/kg HSH). Endotoxin shock model of rat was produced by injection with LPS. Then small volume resuscitation with different fluids was implemented in each group, respectively. Compared to Group C(negative control group), lung injury in the other four groups was increased. Compared to Group E(LPS +4 ml/kg normal saline), lung injury of Group HSS(LPS +4 ml/kg HSS), HES(LPS +4 ml/kg HES), and HSH (LPS +4 ml/kg HSH)was lessened. Compared to Group C, oxygenation index in Groups E, HSS, HES, and HSH were decreased (P < 0.01). Compared to Group E, oxygenation indexes in Groups HSS, HES, and HSH were significantly increased (P < 0.01). Data of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α of lung tissue had similar results. However, protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) concentration indicated contrary results. Small volume resuscitation with 7.5% hypertonic sodium chloride, hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 solution, and hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection could lessen lung injury caused by lipopolysaccharide. And this effect had relation to change of TNF-α and H(2)S. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Pre-hospital observation as an alternative to emergency hospitalisation].

    PubMed

    Jensvold, Morten; Seim, Arnfinn

    2014-09-30

    Pre-hospital observation beds in community care centres have for many years served as an alternative to hospitalisation in rural districts of Norway. The article presents the use of observation beds associated with the Fosen A&E centre. A retrospective review of records of patients who had contacted Fosen A&E centre during the period 21 August 2006-21 August 2009 was undertaken. Patient characteristics and clinical pathways were registered, including admissions to hospital or to an observation bed, as well as re-admissions. Ever since observation beds were first introduced, clear inclusion and exclusion criteria have been applied with regard to the allocation of patients to observation beds. Altogether 8027 patients had been in direct contact with an A&E doctor, and 2342 were admitted, of whom 77% to hospital and 23% to an observation bed. Of the 530 patients admitted to an observation bed, 55% were 70 years or older. Of these, 68% were discharged to their homes within 36 hours, 17% were transferred to hospital, and the remainder received further treatment in a local rehabilitation unit or nursing home. The rate of readmission to observation beds or hospital amounted to 4% among those who had been discharged after no more than three days, and 18% among those discharged after 3-28 days. A low number of readmissions may indicate that the use of observation beds is an alternative to hospitalisation.

  19. Safety Events in High Risk Prehospital Neonatal Calls.

    PubMed

    Duby, Rebecca; Hansen, Matt; Meckler, Garth; Skarica, Barbara; Lambert, William; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-08-31

    The objective of this study was to quantify and characterize patient safety events during high-risk neonatal transports in the prehospital setting. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all "lights and sirens" ambulance transports of neonates ≤30 days old over a four-year period in a metropolitan area. Each case was independently reviewed for potential patient safety events that may have occurred in clinical assessment and decision making, resuscitation, airway management, fluid or medication administration, procedures performed, and/or equipment used. Twenty-six patients ≤30 days old were transported by ambulance using lights and sirens during the four-year study period. Overall, safety events occurred in 19 patients and severe safety events (potentially causing permanent injury or harm, including death) occurred in ten. The incidence of safety events related to medication administrations was 90% (70% severe), resuscitation 64.7% (47.1% severe), procedures 64.7% (35.3% severe), fluid administration 50% (25% severe), clinical assessment and decision making 50% (30.8% severe), airway management 47.6% (28.6% severe), equipment use 25.5% (10.0% severe), and systems processes 19.2% (7.7% severe). High-risk neonatal calls are infrequent and prone to a high incidence of serious patient safety events.

  20. Trauma patient outcome after the Prehospital Trauma Life Support program.

    PubMed

    Ali, J; Adam, R U; Gana, T J; Williams, J I

    1997-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated a significant improvement in trauma patient outcome after the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program in Trinidad and Tobago. In January of 1992, a Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) program was also instituted. This study assessed trauma patient outcome after the PHTLS program. Morbidity (length of stay and degree of disability), mortality, injury severity score, mechanism of injury, age, and sex among all adult trauma patients transported by ambulance to the major trauma hospital were assessed between July of 1990 to December of 1991 (pre-PHTLS, n = 332) and January of 1994 to June of 1995 (post-PHTLS, n = 350). Age, sex distribution, percentage blunt injury, and injury severity score were similar for both groups. Mortality pre-PHTLS (15.7%) was greater than post-PHTLS (10.6%). Length of stay and disability were statistically significantly decreased post-PHTLS. Age, injury severity score, and mechanism of injury were positively correlated with mortality in both periods. The previously reported post-ATLS mortality was similar to the pre-PHTLS mortality. Post-PHTLS mortality and morbidity were significantly decreased, suggesting a positive impact of the PHTLS program on trauma patient outcome.

  1. Remote videolaryngoscopy skills training for pre-hospital personnel.

    PubMed

    Berg, Benjamin W; Beamis, Eileen K; Murray, W Bosseau; Boedeker, Ben H

    2009-01-01

    Videolaryngoscopy (VL) is a novel technology that can facilitate rapid acquisition of intubation skills with simultaneous teacher and learner visualization of laryngeal structures. Videolaryngoscopy improves laryngeal visualization, and improves intubation success in difficult airway management compared to standard direct laryngoscopy. First responders need enhanced airway management tools to improve intubation success rates in civilian pre-hospital and military battlefield settings. We evaluated feasibility and efficacy of a remote first responder videolaryngoscopy skills training paradigm using distance learning by VTC (256kb ISDN) with synchronous transmission of laryngoscopy images to a remotely located trainer. Airway visualization, intubation success rates, and intubation times documented feasibility and comparability of remote and face-to-face introductory familiarization and intubation training with the Storz-Berci videolaryngoscopy system. User acceptance was good. Remote training paradigms for advanced technology solutions such as videolaryngoscopy can accelerate the diffusion of life-saving new technologies, especially when there is limited access to specialized training. Videolaryngoscopy visualization and difficult airway intubation success rates were better than direct laryngoscopy.

  2. Prehospital Dextrose Extravasation Causing Forearm Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Matthew; Colella, M Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was found at home by paramedics to be hypoglycemic with altered mental status. She had multiple attempts at IV access and eventually a 22G IV was established and D50 was infused into her right forearm. Extravasation of the dextrose was noted after approximately 12 g of the medication was infused. She was given a dose of glucagon intramuscularly and her mental status improved. Shortly after her arrival to the emergency department, she was noted to have findings of compartment syndrome of her forearm at the site of the dextrose extravasation. She was evaluated by plastic surgery and taken to the operating room for emergent fasciotomy. She recovered well from the operation. D50 is well known to cause phlebitis and local skin necrosis as a complication. This case illustrates the danger of compartment syndrome after D50 extravasation. It is the first documented case of prehospital dextrose extravasation leading to compartment syndrome. There may be safer alternatives to D50 administration and providers must be acutely aware to monitor for D50 infusion complications.

  3. A model of prehospital trauma training for lay persons devised in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tiska, M; Adu-Ampofo, M; Boakye, G; Tuuli, L; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Over 300 commercial drivers attended a first aid and rescue course designed specifically for roadway trauma and geared to a low education level. The training programme has been evaluated twice at one and two year intervals by interviewing both trained and untrained drivers with regard to their experiences with injured persons. In conjunction with a review of prehospital care literature, lessons learnt from the evaluations were used in the revision of the training model. Results: Control of external haemorrhage was quickly learnt and used appropriately by the drivers. Areas identified needing emphasis in future trainings included consistent use of universal precautions and protection of airways in unconscious persons using the recovery position. Conclusion: In low income countries, prehospital trauma care for roadway casualties can be improved by training laypersons already involved in prehospital transport and care. Training should be locally devised, evidence based, educationally appropriate, and focus on practical demonstrations. PMID:14988361

  4. The internationalisation of prehospital education: a merging of ideologies between Australia and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B; Upchurch, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this project was to promote internationalisation of prehospital education collaboratively between students and teachers from EMS Education and Training, Montana, USA, and Monash University Centre for Ambulance and Paramedic Studies (MUCAPS), Victoria, Australia. The project required students and teachers to engage in a series of face to face lectures, which was reinforced through distance education strategies, such as online learning. The overall project aim was to establish an objective and descriptive view of the internationalisation of prehospital and community based emergency health education using e‐learning as the educational approach. A cross sectional survey design using paper based evaluation was adopted in this project. Results revealed a positive student reaction, with flexible pedagogical processes broadening student learning and facilitating an international dimension otherwise not achievable. Given the current state of globalisation, internationalisation has the capacity to improve educational standards, quality, student interactions and specific learning outcomes in prehospital education. PMID:16794111

  5. Incidence of desaturation during prehospital rapid sequence intubation in a physician-based helicopter emergency service.

    PubMed

    Nakstad, Anders Rostrup; Heimdal, Hans-Julius; Strand, Terje; Sandberg, Mårten

    2011-07-01

    Hypoxemia may occur during rapid sequence intubation (RSI). This study establishes the incidence of this adverse event in patients intubated by physicians in a helicopter emergency service in Norway. This was a prospective, observational study of all RSIs performed by helicopter emergency service physicians during a 12-month period. Hypoxemia was defined as a decrease in Spo(2) values to below 90% or a decrease of more than 10% if the initial Spo(2) was less than 90%. A total of 122 prehospital intubations were performed during the study period. Spo(2) data were available for 101 (82.8%) patients. Hypoxemia was present in 11 (10.9%) patients. Prehospital, RSI-related hypoxemia rates in this study are lower than reported rates in similar studies and are comparable with in-hospital rates. Prehospital RSI may accordingly be considered a safe procedure when performed by experienced physicians with appropriate field training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The internationalisation of prehospital education: a merging of ideologies between Australia and the USA.

    PubMed

    Williams, B; Upchurch, J

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this project was to promote internationalisation of prehospital education collaboratively between students and teachers from EMS Education and Training, Montana, USA, and Monash University Centre for Ambulance and Paramedic Studies (MUCAPS), Victoria, Australia. The project required students and teachers to engage in a series of face to face lectures, which was reinforced through distance education strategies, such as online learning. The overall project aim was to establish an objective and descriptive view of the internationalisation of prehospital and community based emergency health education using e-learning as the educational approach. A cross sectional survey design using paper based evaluation was adopted in this project. Results revealed a positive student reaction, with flexible pedagogical processes broadening student learning and facilitating an international dimension otherwise not achievable. Given the current state of globalisation, internationalisation has the capacity to improve educational standards, quality, student interactions and specific learning outcomes in prehospital education.

  7. Triage in the Tower of Babel: interpreter services for children in the prehospital setting.

    PubMed

    Tate, Ramsey C; Kelley, Maureen C

    2013-12-01

    Minority pediatric populations have higher rates of emergency medical services use than the general pediatric population, and prior studies have documented that limited-English proficiency patients are more likely to undergo invasive procedures, require more resources, and be admitted once they arrive in the emergency department. Furthermore, limited-English proficiency patients may be particularly vulnerable because of immigration or political concerns. In this case report, we describe an infant with breath-holding spells for whom a language barrier in the prehospital setting resulted in an escalation of care to the highest level of trauma team activation. This infant underwent unnecessary, costly, and harmful interventions because of a lack of interpreter services. In a discussion of the legal, ethical, and medical implications of this case, we conclude that further investigation into prehospital strategies for overcoming language barriers is required to provide optimal prehospital care for pediatric patients.

  8. [Pre-hospital management of patients with chest pain and/or dyspnoea of cardiac origin.

    PubMed

    Beygui, Farzin; Castren, Maaret; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Rosell-Ortiz, Fernando; Christ, Michael; Zeymer, Uwe; Huber, Kurt; Folke, Fredrik; Svensson, Leif; Bueno, Hector; Van't Hof, Arnoud; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Nibbe, Lutz; Charpentier, Sandrine; Swahn, Eva; Tubaro, Marco; Goldstein, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Chest pain and acute dyspnoea are frequent causes of emergency medical services activation. The pre-hospital management of these conditions is heterogeneous across different regions of the world and Europe, as a consequence of the variety of emergency medical services and absence of specific practical guidelines. This position paper focuses on the practical aspects of the pre-hospital treatment on board and transfer of patients taken in charge by emergency medical services for chest pain and dyspnoea of suspected cardiac aetiology after the initial assessment and diagnostic work-up. The objective of the paper is to provide guidance, based on evidence, where available, or on experts' opinions, for all emergency medical services' health providers involved in the pre-hospital management of acute cardiovascular care.

  9. [The influence of an isotonic solution containing benzalkonium chloride and a hypertonic seawater solution on the function of ciliary epithelium from the nasal cavity in vitro].

    PubMed

    Laberko, E L; Bogomil'sky, M R; Soldatsky, Yu L; Pogosova, I E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of an isotonic saline solution containing benzalconium chloride and of a hypertonic seawater solution on the function of ciliary epithelium in the nasal cavity in vitro. To this effect, we investigated the cytological material obtained from 35 children presenting with adenoid tissue hypertrophy. The tissue samples were taken from the nasal cavity by the standard method. A cellular biopsy obtained from each patient was distributed between three tubes that contained isotonic saline solution supplemented by benzalconium chloride (0.1 mg/ml), a hypertonic seawater solution, and a standard physiological saline solution. It was shown that the number of the viable cells in both isotonic solutions was statistically comparable and significantly higher than in the hypertonic solution (p<0.05). The ciliary beat frequency of the cells embedded in the two isotonic solutions was not significantly different but considerably exceeded that in the hypertonic seawater solution (p<0.05). Thus, the present study has demonstrated the absence of the ciliotoxic influence of isotonic saline solution containing benzalconium chloride at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml and the strong ciliotoxic effect of the hypertonic seawater solution. This finding gives reason to recommend isotonic solutions for the regular application whereas hypertonic solutions can be prescribed only during infectious and/or inflammatory ENT diseases.

  10. The early systemic and gastrointestinal oxygenation effects of hemorrhagic shock resuscitation with hypertonic saline and hypertonic saline 6% dextran-70: a comparative study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; do Nascimento, Paulo; Paiva Filho, Odilar; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Vane, Luiz Antonio; Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvão; Rodrigues, Geraldo Rolim

    2004-08-01

    The smaller volemic state from hypertonic (7.5%) saline (HS) solution administration in hemorrhagic shock can determine lesser systemic oxygen delivery and tissue oxygenation than conventional plasma expanders. In a model of hemorrhagic shock in dogs, we studied the systemic and gastrointestinal oxygenation effects of HS and hyperoncotic (6%) dextran-70 in combination with HS (HSD) solutions in comparison with lactated Ringer's (LR) and (6%) hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions. Forty-eight mongrel dogs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and subjected to splenectomy. A gastric air tonometer was placed in the stomach for intramucosal gastric CO(2) (Pgco(2)) determination and for the calculation of intramucosal pH (pHi): The dogs were hemorrhaged (42% of blood volume) to hold mean arterial blood pressure at 40-50 mm Hg over 30 min and were then resuscitated with LR (n = 12) in a 3:1 relation to removed blood volume; HS (n = 12), 6 mL/kg; HSD (n = 12), 6 mL/kg; and HES (mean molecular weight, 200 kDa; degree of substitution, 0.5) (n = 12) in a 1:1 relation to the removed blood volume. Hemodynamic, systemic, and gastric oxygenation variables were measured at baseline, after 30 min of hemorrhage, and 5, 60, and 120 min after intravascular fluid resuscitation. After fluid resuscitation, HS showed significantly lower arterial pH and mixed venous Po(2) and higher systemic oxygen uptake index and systemic oxygenation extraction than LR and HES (P < 0.05), whereas HSD showed significantly lower arterial pH than LR and HES (P < 0.05). Only HS and HSD did not return arterial pH and pHi to control levels (P < 0.05). In conclusion, all solutions improved systemic and gastrointestinal oxygenation after hemorrhagic shock in dogs. However, the HS solution showed the worst response in comparison to LR and HES solutions in relation to systemic oxygenation, whereas HSD showed intermediate values. HS and HSD solutions did not return regional oxygenation to control values.

  11. Accuracy of prehospital triage protocols in selecting severely injured patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Rein, Eveline A J; Houwert, R Marijn; Gunning, Amy C; Lichtveld, Rob A; Leenen, Luke P H; van Heijl, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Prehospital trauma triage ensures proper transport of patients at risk of severe injury to hospitals with an appropriate corresponding level of trauma care. Incorrect triage results in undertriage and overtriage. The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma recommends an undertriage rate below 5% and an overtriage rate below 50% for prehospital trauma triage protocols. To find the most accurate prehospital trauma triage protocol, a clear overview of all currently available protocols and corresponding outcomes is necessary. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current literature on all available prehospital trauma triage protocols and determine accuracy of protocol-based triage quality in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A search of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to identify all studies describing prehospital trauma triage protocols before November 2016. The search terms included "trauma," "trauma center," or "trauma system" combined with "triage," "undertriage," or "overtriage." All studies describing protocol-based triage quality were reviewed. To assess the quality of these type of studies, a new critical appraisal tool was developed. In this review, 21 articles were included with numbers of patients ranging from 130 to over 1 million. Significant predictors for severe injury were: vital signs, suspicion of certain anatomic injuries, mechanism of injury, and age. Sensitivity ranged from 10% to 100%; specificity from 9% to 100%. Nearly all protocols had a low sensitivity, thereby failing to identify severely injured patients. Additionally, the critical appraisal showed poor quality of the majority of included studies. This systematic review shows that nearly all protocols are incapable of identifying severely injured patients. Future studies of high methodological quality should be performed to improve prehospital trauma triage protocols. Systematic review, level III.

  12. Prehospital lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Christian B; Hänselmann, Anja; Posth, Stefan; Mikkelsen, Søren; Videbæk, Lars; Berg, Henrik

    2016-08-02

    An improved prehospital diagnostic accuracy of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema could potentially improve initial treatment, triage, and outcome. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility, time-use, and diagnostic accuracy of prehospital lung ultrasound (PLUS) for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. A prospective observational study was conducted in a prehospital setting. Patients were included if the physician based prehospital mobile emergency care unit was activated and one or more of the following two were present: respiratory rate >30/min., oxygen saturation <90 %. Exclusion criteria were: age <18 years, permanent mental disability or PLUS causing a delay in life-saving treatment or transportation. Following clinical assessment PLUS was performed and presence or absence of interstitial syndrome was registered. Audit by three physicians using predefined diagnostic criteria for cardiogenic pulmonary oedema was used as gold standard. A total of 40 patients were included in the study. Feasibility of PLUS was 100 % and median time used was 3 min. The gold standard diagnosed 18 (45.0 %) patients with cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. The diagnostic accuracy of PLUS for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema was: sensitivity 94.4 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 72.7-99.9 %), specificity 77.3 % (95 % CI 54.6-92.2 %), positive predictive value 77.3 % (95 % CI 54.6-92.2 %), negative predictive value 94.4 % (95 % CI 72.7-99.9 %). The sensitivity of PLUS is high, making it a potential tool for ruling-out cardiogenic pulmonary. The observed specificity was lower than what has been described in previous studies. Performed, as part of a physician based prehospital emergency service, PLUS seems fast and highly feasible in patients with respiratory failure. Due to its diagnostic accuracy, PLUS may have potential as a prehospital tool, especially to rule out cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.

  13. Anaesthesiologist-provided prehospital airway management in patients with traumatic brain injury: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Rognås, Leif; Hansen, Troels M; Kirkegaard, Hans; Tønnesen, Else

    2014-12-01

    Guidelines recommend that patients with brain trauma with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of less than 9 should have an airway established. Hypoxia, hypotension and hypertension as well as hypoventilation and hyperventilation may worsen outcome in these patients. The objectives were to investigate guideline adherence, reasons for nonadherence and the incidences of complications related to prehospital advanced airway management in patients with traumatic brain injury. We prospectively collected data from eight anaesthesiologist-staffed prehospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region according to the Utstein-style template. Among 1081 consecutive prehospital advanced airway management patients, we identified 54 with a traumatic brain injury and an initial GCS score of less than 9. Guideline adherence in terms of airway management was 92.6%. The reasons for nonadherence were the patient's condition, anticipated difficult airway management and short distance to the emergency department. Following rapid sequence intubation (RSI), 11.4% developed oxygen saturation below 90%, 9.1% had a first post-RSI systolic blood pressure below 90 mmHg and 48.9% had a first post-RSI systolic blood pressure below 120 mmHg. The incidence of hypertension following prehospital RSI was 4.5%. The incidence of postendotracheal intubation hyperventilation was as high as 71.1%. The guideline adherence was high. The incidences of post-RSI hypoxia and systolic blood pressure below 90 compare with the results reported from other physician-staffed prehospital services. The incidence of systolic blood pressure below 120 as well as that of hyperventilation following prehospital endotracheal intubation in patients with traumatic brain injury call for a change in our current practice.

  14. Prehospital management and identification of sepsis by emergency medical services: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lane, Daniel; Ichelson, Robbie I; Drennan, Ian R; Scales, Damon C

    2016-06-01

    To identify studies describing the accuracy of prehospital sepsis identification and to summarise results of studies of prehospital management of patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. We conducted a systematic review to retrieve studies that evaluated the prehospital identification or treatment of patients with sepsis by emergency medical services (EMS). Two authors extracted data describing the study characteristics, incidence of sepsis among EMS-transported patients, criteria used to identify sepsis and specific treatments provided to patients with sepsis. When possible, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of EMS provider diagnosis of sepsis. Our search identified no randomised controlled trials and 16 cohort studies. Eight studies described the identification of sepsis, seven described prehospital management or treatment of sepsis and one described both. The most common approach to the identification of sepsis involved applying systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria or a combination of vital signs, which had sensitivity ranging from 0.43 to 0.86 when used alone or combined with provider impression. Only four studies collected information required to calculate specificity (0.47-0.87). Meta-analysis was not performed owing to significant heterogeneity and an overall low quality of evidence. A few studies described prehospital sepsis treatment-most commonly intravenous fluid resuscitation. The evidence suggests that identification of sepsis in the prehospital setting by EMS providers is carried out with varied success, depending on the strategy used; however, high-quality studies are lacking. Relying on provider impression alone had poor sensitivity, but some moderate-quality evidence supporting structured screening for sepsis with vital signs criteria demonstrated modest sensitivity and specificity. Additional research to improve diagnostic accuracy and explore improvements in EMS management is needed. Published by the BMJ

  15. Pre-hospital antibiotic treatment and mortality caused by invasive meningococcal disease, adjusting for indication bias

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Milla, Emilio; Olalla, Julián; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Martos, Francisco; Matute-Cruz, Petra; Carmona-López, Guadalupe; Fornieles, Yolanda; Cayuela, Aurelio; García-Alegría, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background Mortality from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) has remained stable over the last thirty years and it is unclear whether pre-hospital antibiotherapy actually produces a decrease in this mortality. Our aim was to examine whether pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy reduces mortality from IMD, adjusting for indication bias. Methods A retrospective analysis was made of clinical reports of all patients (n = 848) diagnosed with IMD from 1995 to 2000 in Andalusia and the Canary Islands, Spain, and of the relationship between the use of pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy and mortality. Indication bias was controlled for by the propensity score technique, and a multivariate analysis was performed to determine the probability of each patient receiving antibiotics, according to the symptoms identified before admission. Data on in-hospital death, use of antibiotics and demographic variables were collected. A logistic regression analysis was then carried out, using death as the dependent variable, and pre-hospital antibiotic use, age, time from onset of symptoms to parenteral antibiotics and the propensity score as independent variables. Results Data were recorded on 848 patients, 49 (5.72%) of whom died. Of the total number of patients, 226 had received oral antibiotics before admission, mainly betalactams during the previous 48 hours. After adjusting the association between the use of antibiotics and death for age, time between onset of symptoms and in-hospital antibiotic treatment, pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy remained a significant protective factor (Odds Ratio for death 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.15–0.93). Conclusion Pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy appears to reduce IMD mortality. PMID:19344518

  16. EMS Adherence to a Pre-hospital Cervical Spine Clearance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Raynard J.; Miller, Kenneth; Langdorf, Mark I.; Johnson, David

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the degree of adherence to a cervical spine (c-spine) clearance protocol by pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel by both self-assessment and receiving hospital assessment, to describe deviations from the protocol, and to determine if the rate of compliance by paramedic self-assessment differed from receiving hospital assessment. Methods: A retrospective sample of pre-hospital (consecutive series) and receiving hospital (convenience sample) assessments of the compliance with and appropriateness of c-spine immobilization. The c-spine clearance protocol was implemented for Orange County EMS just prior to the April–November 1999 data collection period. Results: We collected 396 pre-hospital and 162 receiving hospital data forms. From the pre-hospital data sheet, the percentage deviation from the protocol was 4.0% (16/396). Only one out of 16 cases that did not comply with the protocol was due to over immobilization (0.2%). The remaining 15 cases were under immobilized, according to protocol. Nine of the under immobilized cases (66%) that should have been placed in c-spine precautions met physical assessment criteria in the protocol, while the other five cases met mechanism of injury criteria. The rate of deviations from protocol did not differ over time. The receiving hospital identified 8.0% (13/162; 6/l6 over immobilized, 7/16 under immobilized) of patients with deviations from the protocol; none was determined to have actual c-spine injury. Conclusion: The implementation of a pre-hospital c-spine clearance protocol in Orange County was associated with a moderate overall adherence rate (96% from the pre-hospital perspective, and 9250 from the hospital perspective. p = .08 for the two evaluation methods). Most patients who deviated from protocol were under immobilized. but no c-spine injuries were missed. The rate of over immobilization was better than previously reported, implying a saving of resources. PMID:20852696

  17. Availability and practice of bedside ultrasonography in emergency rooms and prehospital setting: a French survey.

    PubMed

    Bobbia, X; Hansel, N; Muller, L; Claret, P-G; Moreau, A; Genre Grandpierre, R; Chenaitia, H; Lefrant, J-Y; de La Coussaye, J-E

    2014-03-01

    The utility of bedside ultrasound (US) performed by emergency physicians has been proven for multiple purposes. There are no data about this technique in emergency departments (ED) in France. The primary objective is to determine the availability of ultrasound device (UD) in EDs and in prehospital settings in France. Minor objectives are to determine the number and type of UD, the most current applications of US and the factors correlated with availability of UDs in the setting of emergency medicine. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, multicenter survey from December 2010 to June 2011, including all EDs and prehospital units in France. A questionnaire was sent by e-mail. Non-responders were contacted by telephone with one recall. The response rate was 74% (327/440) for EDs and 73% (278/379) for prehospital units. A UD is available in 52% (171/327) (CI 95% [46; 58]) of EDs and in 9% (25/278) (CI 95% [5; 13]) of prehospital units. Among departments having no access to UDs, 29% of EDs and 12% of prehospital units have plans to implement emergency physician-performed US. The most common US applications are focused assessment with sonography for trauma and pleural exams. Availability of UDs in French public hospital EDs is 52% and 9% in prehospital units. Despite the progressive expansion of the technique over the last years, bedside ultrasonography is not yet completely integrated in the physical examination of the patient in an emergency situation in France. A reassessment will be required to confirm the current trend of expansion. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. When pressure is positive: a literature review of the prehospital use of continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Robertson, Nicole; Giddings, Coco

    2013-02-01

    Heart failure poses a significant burden of disease, resulting in 2,658 Australian deaths in 2008, and listed as an associated cause of death in a further 14,466 cases. Common in the hospital setting, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a non-invasive ventilation technique used to prevent airway collapse and manage acute pulmonary edema (APO). In the hospital setting, CPAP has been known to decrease the need for endotracheal intubation in patients with APO. Therefore the objective of this literature review was to identify the effectiveness of CPAP therapy in the prehospital environment. A review of selected electronic medical databases (Cochrane, Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL) was conducted from their commencement date through the end of May 2012. Inclusion criterion was any study type reporting the use of CPAP therapy in the prehospital environment, specifically in the treatment of heart failure and acute pulmonary edema. References of relevant articles were also reviewed. The literature search located 1,253 articles, 12 of which met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies found that the use of CPAP therapy in the prehospital environment is associated with reduced short-term mortality as well as reduced rates of endotracheal intubation. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy was also shown to improve patient vital signs during prehospital transport and reduce myocardial damage. The studies conducted of prehospital use of CPAP to manage APO have all demonstrated improvement in patient outcomes in the short term. Available evidence suggests that the use of CPAP therapy in the prehospital environment may be beneficial to patients with acute pulmonary edema as it can potentially decrease the need for endotracheal intubation, improve vital signs during transport to hospital, and improve short-term mortality.

  19. Sensory findings after stimulation of the thoracolumbar fascia with hypertonic saline suggest its contribution to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Andreas; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Magerl, Walter; Benrath, Justus; Klein, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-02-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline into deep tissues of the back (subcutis, muscle, or the surrounding fascia) can induce acute low back pain (LBP). So far, no study has analyzed differences in temporal, qualitative, and spatial pain characteristics originating from these tissues. The current study aimed to investigate the role of the thoracolumbar fascia as a potential source of LBP. In separate sessions, 12 healthy subjects received ultrasound-guided bolus injections of isotonic saline (0.9%) or hypertonic saline (5.8%) into the erector spinae muscle, the thoracolumbar fascia (posterior layer), and the overlying subcutis. Subjects were asked to rate pain intensity, duration, quality, and spatial extent. Pressure pain thresholds were determined pre and post injection. Injections of hypertonic saline into the fascia resulted in significantly larger area under the curve of pain intensity over time than injections into subcutis (P<0.01) or muscle (P<0.001), primarily based on longer pain durations and, to a lesser extent, on higher peak pain ratings. Pressure hyperalgesia was only induced by injection of hypertonic saline into muscle, but not fascia or subcutis. Pain radiation and pain affect evoked by fascia injection exceeded those of the muscle (P<0.01) and the subcutis significantly (P<0.05). Pain descriptors after fascia injection (burning, throbbing, and stinging) suggested innervation by both A- and C-fiber nociceptors. These findings show that the thoracolumbar fascia is the deep tissue of the back that is most sensitive to chemical stimulation, making it a prime candidate to contribute to nonspecific LBP but not to localized pressure hyperalgesia.

  20. Inflammatory activity modulation by hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline in a rat model of strangulated closed loop small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rasslan, Roberto; Utiyama, Edivaldo Massazo; Marques, Geraldo Magela Nogueira; Ferreira, Thiago Camargo; da Costa, Vitor Alves Pessoa; de Victo, Nathalia Cruz; Rasslan, Samir; Montero, Edna Frassonde Souza

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is an abdominal disease associated to mortality, especially if complicated with sepsis. Resuscitation increases survival, although controversies remain concerning to therapeutic strategy. To assess the effects of hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline on the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, Wistar rats underwent a laparotomy loop intestinal obstruction and ischemia. After 24 h, the intestinal segment was resected (IO) without any other treatment and resuscitation/pentoxifylline were administered according to the group: Ringer's lactate (RL); hypertonic saline (HS); pentoxifylline (PTX); Ringer's lactate with pentoxifylline (RL + PTX); hypertonic saline with pentoxifylline (HS + PTX) and the control group (CG) that was not submitted to ischemia and obstruction. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded 4 times, and euthanasia was done 3 h after the resuscitation to obtain lung tissue, for malondialdehyde (MDA) by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method, inflammatory cytokines were assessed using ELISA and NF-κΒ by Western blotting. The initial MAP levels were higher in the RL and HS groups than in the others; however, the last measurement was similar among all the groups. IL-1β, IL-6 and CINC-1 (Cytokine-Induced Neutrophil Chemoattractant-1) were lower in the HS, PTX and HS + PTX groups compared with the IO and RL groups. IL-10 was lower in the HS + PTX group than in the IO group. NF-κB in the HS, PTX and HS + PTX groups were lower than in the IO group; NF-κB in the HS + PTX group was lower than in the RL group. MDA in the lung was lower in the HS + PTX group compared with other groups. Hypertonic saline and pentoxifylline, both alone and in combination, attenuated oxidative stress and the activation of NF-κB, leading to a decrease in the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of hypertonic saline solution 7.2% on different hematological parameters in awake and anaesthetized ponies.

    PubMed

    Gasthuys, F; Messeman, C; De Moor, A

    1992-04-01

    The influence of hypertonic NaCl 7.2% infusion (4 ml/kg of body weight [BWT]) on plasma (PV) and blood (BV) volumes, sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), potassium (K) plasma concentrations, osmolality (Osm), total protein content (TP), packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell count (RBC) was studied in five standing and anaesthetized ponies (standard halothane anaesthesia). Arterial blood gases were followed in the anaesthetized ponies. Isotonic NaCl 0.9% (4 ml/kg of BWT) was used as a placebo in the standing ponies. Isotonic solution in the standing ponies induced few changes: only small decreases in K, TP, PCV and RBC were observed. Na, Cl and Osm increased significantly after the NaCl 7.2% infusions in the standing and anesthetized ponies. Significant decreases in PCV, RBC and TP after the administration of hypertonic solutions were determined and were in both groups clear indications of an occurring hemodilution although no significant increase in PV and BV could be demonstrated. An increase in diuresis characterized by numerous micturitions was observed in the standing ponies and during the recovery period after anaesthesia. Apparently, the occurring fluid shift towards the intravascular compartment was partly compensated by an increase in diuresis. The decreases in PCV, RBC and TP were less severe in the anaesthetized ponies compared to the changes observed in the standing ponies. Stress responses during anaesthesia might explain this finding. K increased abnormally at the end of anaesthesia, probably due to minimal muscle damage induced by the dorsal recumbent position. Arterial blood gases did not change after the administration of NaCl 7.2% solution during anaesthesia. No specific clinical side-effects related to the use of hypertonic solution could be observed in the standing and anaesthetized ponies. Further studies are necessary to investigate the effects of hypertonic NaCl solution in horses with a disturbed fluid balance (hypovolemia).

  2. Small-volume fluid resuscitation with hypertonic saline prevents inflammation but not mortality in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Soheyl; Zimmermann, Klaus; Szelényi, Zoltán; Hamar, János; Scheiflinger, Friedrich; Redl, Heinz; Junger, Wolfgang G

    2006-03-01

    Hemorrhage remains a primary cause of death in civilian and military trauma. Permissive hypotensive resuscitation is a possible approach to reduce bleeding in patients until they can be stabilized in an appropriate hospital setting. Small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic saline (HS) is of particular interest because it allows one to modulate the inflammatory response to hemorrhage and trauma. Here, we tested the utility of permissive hypotensive resuscitation with hypertonic fluids in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Animals were subjected to massive hemorrhage [mean arterial pressure (MAP) = 30 - 35 mmHg for 2 h until decompensation] and partially resuscitated with a bolus dose of 4 mL/kg of 7.5% NaCl (HS), hypertonic hydroxyl ethyl starch (HHES; hydroxyl ethyl starch + 7.5% NaCl), or normal saline (NS) followed by additional infusion of Ringer solution to maintain MAP at 40 to 45 mmHg for 40 min (hypotensive state). Finally, animals were fully resuscitated with Ringer solution and the heparinized shed blood. Hypotensive resuscitation with NS caused a significant increase in plasma interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-2, interferon gamma (IFNgamma), IL-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This increase was blocked by treatment with HS. HHES treatment significantly reduced the increase of IL-1beta and IL-2 but not that of the other cytokines studied. Despite the strong effects of HS and HHES on cytokine production, both treatments had little effect on plasma lactate, base excess (BE), white blood cell (WBC) count, myeloperoxidase (MPO) content, and the wet/dry weight ratio of the lungs. Moreover, on day 7 after shock, the survival rate in rats treated with HS was markedly, but not significantly, lower than that of NS-treated animals (47% vs. 63%, respectively). In summary, hypotensive resuscitation with hypertonic fluids reduces the inflammatory response but not lung tissue damage or mortality after severe hemorrhagic shock.

  3. Acute inhalation of hypertonic saline does not improve mucociliary clearance in all children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known of how mucociliary clearance (MCC) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and normal pulmonary function compares with healthy adults, or how an acute inhalation of 7% hypertonic saline (HS) aerosol affects MCC in these same children. Methods We compared MCC in 12 children with CF and normal pulmonary function after an acute inhalation of 0.12% saline (placebo), or HS, admixed with the radioisotope 99 mtechnetium sulfur colloid in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Mucociliary clearance on the placebo day in the children was also compared to MCC in 10 healthy, non-CF adults. Mucociliary clearance was quantified over a 90 min period, using gamma scintigraphy, and is reported as MCC at 60 min (MCC60) and 90 min (MCC90). Results Median [interquartile range] MCC60 and MCC90 in the children on the placebo visit were 15.4 [12.4-24.5]% and 19.3 [17.3-27.8%]%, respectively, which were similar to the adults with 17.8 [6.4-28.7]% and 29.6 [16.1-43.5]%, respectively. There was no significant improvement in MCC60 (2.2 [-6.2-11.8]%) or MCC90 (2.3 [-1.2-10.5]%) with HS, compared to placebo. In addition, 5/12 and 4/12 of the children showed a decrease in MCC60 and MCC90, respectively, after inhalation of HS. A post hoc subgroup analysis of the change in MCC90 after HS showed a significantly greater improvement in MCC in children with lower placebo MCC90 compared to those with higher placebo MCC90 (p = 0.045). Conclusions These data suggest that percent MCC varies significantly between children with CF lung disease and normal pulmonary functions, with some children demonstrating MCC values within the normal range and others showing MCC values that are below normal values. In addition, although MCC did not improve in all children after inhalation of HS, improvement did occur in children with relatively low MCC values after placebo. This finding suggests that acute inhalation of hypertonic saline may benefit a subset of children with low MCC

  4. Nebulized hypertonic saline and recombinant human DNase in the treatment of pulmonary atelectasis in newborns.

    PubMed

    Dilmen, Ugur; Karagol, Belma Saygili; Oguz, Serife Suna

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) treatment for resolution of persistent atelectasis in newborns. Forty newborns (38 preterms) who did not respond to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive either nebulized 3% HS solution (n = 20) or rhDNase (n = 20) between September 2007 and March 2008. Clinical parameters, oxygen saturation and radiological response (chest X-ray scoring) were analyzed before and after administration of 3% HS or rhDNase. The patients of the nebulized 3% HS solution group improved better chest X-ray scores parameters than the patients of the rhDNase group: chest X-ray scores were 5.1 ± 1.9 vs 4.8 ± 1.7 before treatment and 1.0 ± 0.8 vs 2.1 ± 1.4 after treatment (P < 0.001). Resolution time of atelectasis did not differ between the two groups after whole treatment but the percentage of atelectasis resolution after 3 days treatment were 90% (18/20) in the 3% HS group and 70% (14/20) in the rhDNase group. The patients in the 3% HS group improved better also in clinical parameters in comparison to the rhDNase treatment. The difference of oxygen saturation before and after the treatment was 4.6 ± 0.8 in 3% HS group in comparison to 2.6 ± 0.1 in the rhDNase group (P < 0.05). All serum sodium levels were normal in two groups before and after the treatment modalities. This is the first study on the usefulness of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution in treating newborns with pulmonary atelectasis. In addition, 3% HS solution was a more effective therapeutic option on the basis of clinical and radiological improvement compared to rhDNase treatment in newborns with pulmonary atelectasis. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Chondrogenic Effect of Intra-articular Hypertonic-Dextrose (Prolotherapy) in Severe Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Topol, Gastón Andrés; Podesta, Leandro Ariel; Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Giraldo, Marcia Mallma; Johnson, Lanny L; Grasso, Raul; Jamín, Alexis; Clark, Tom; Rabago, David

    2016-11-01

    Dextrose injection is reported to improve knee osteoarthritis (KOA)-related clinical outcomes, but its effect on articular cartilage is unknown. A chondrogenic effect of dextrose injection has been proposed. To assess biological and clinical effects of intra-articular hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in painful KOA. Case series with blinded arthroscopic evaluation before and after treatment. Physical medicine and day surgery practice. Symptomatic KOA for at least 6 months, arthroscopy-confirmed medial compartment exposed subchondral bone, and temporary pain relief with intra-articular lidocaine injection. Four to 6 monthly 10-mL intra-articular injections with 12.5% dextrose. Visual cartilage growth assessment of 9 standardized medial condyle zones in each of 6 participants by 3 arthroscopy readers masked to pre-/postinjection status (total 54 zones evaluated per reader); biopsy of a cartilage growth area posttreatment, evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Safranin-O stains, quantitative polarized light microscopy, and immunohistologic cartilage typing; self-reported knee specific quality of life using the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, 0-100 points). Six participants (1 female and 5 male) with median age of 71 years, WOMAC composite score of 57.5 points, and a 9-year pain duration received a median of 6 dextrose injections and follow-up arthroscopy at 7.75 months (range 4.5-9.5 months). In 19 of 54 zone comparisons, all 3 readers agreed that the posttreatment zone showed cartilage growth compared with the pretreatment zone. Biopsy specimens showed metabolically active cartilage with variable cellular organization, fiber parallelism, and cartilage typing patterns consistent with fibro- and hyaline-like cartilage. Compared with baseline status, the median WOMAC score improved 13 points (P = .013). Self-limited soreness after methylene blue instillation was noted. Positive clinical and chondrogenic effects were seen

  6. Local thermal stimulation relaxes hypertonic anal sphincter: evidence of somatoanal reflex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J K; Chiu, J H; Lin, J K

    1999-09-01

    Although it is generally believed that warm perineal baths reduce pain resulting from anal fissure, complicated hemorrhoids, or anal surgery, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Because hypertonicity of the internal anal sphincter contributes to increasing pain in these conditions, it has been postulated that warm perineal baths could help to relax the anal sphincter, hence reducing pain. It is our purpose to demonstrate response of the anal sphincter to local thermal stimulation via a somatoanal reflex. Continuous anorectal manometry tracings were obtained from 15 healthy volunteers, 22 patients with hemorrhoid, and 20 patients with anal fissure. Local thermal stimulation was achieved by applying a heat pad on the right infragluteal region (local area), and subsequently on the right first interphalangeal region (control area). Obvious response to local thermal stimulation was shown by 13.3 percent of volunteers, 36.4 percent of patients with hemorrhoid, and 60 percent of patients with fissure. Heat-sensitive patients who responded to local thermal stimulation were divided to two groups, those with ultraslow waves and those without ultraslow waves. In patients with ultraslow waves, the amplitude of ultraslow waves decreased significantly after local thermal stimulation, with amplitude before local thermal stimulation, (mean +/- standard deviation) 66.2 +/- 30.6 mmHg, and during local thermal stimulation, 43.2 +/- 22.3 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.003. By contrast, in patients without ultraslow waves, the tonic pressure measured before local thermal stimulation and during local thermal stimulation was 74.2 +/- 23.5 and 60.5 +/- 18.5 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.001. The response began at approximately three minutes after local thermal stimulation when the skin temperature was 42.1 +/- 0.3 degrees C. No anal response was observed when the heat pad was applied to the control area. The maximum resting pressure of the heat-sensitive patients was significantly higher than

  7. Slightly hypertonic saline and dextran-40 in resuscitation of methamphetamine burn patients.

    PubMed

    Juern, Jeremy; Peltier, George; Twomey, John

    2008-01-01

    The inherent danger of illegal manufacture of methamphetamine is explosion and fire with the "cookers" presenting to burn centers for treatment. Recent studies have shown that methamphetamine burn patients required resuscitation volumes two to three times that of the standard Parkland formula and experienced a higher mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to compare the fluid resuscitation requirements and other characteristics of our methamphetamine-positive burn patients with a control group of methamphetamine-negative burn patients. A retrospective study of burn patients with methamphetamine-positive urine toxicology screens was conducted from August 1996 to April 2005. The data collected were age, sex, %total body surface area (%TBSA) burn, urine toxicology screen result, length of stay (LOS), ventilator days, weight, urine output, and fluid requirement during the first 24 hours along with fluid type, survival, and hospital charges. Methamphetamine-positive patients were matched to controls for %TBSA, age, and sex. Eleven methamphetamine-positive burn patients were well matched with 11 methamphetamine-negative controls. There was no difference in intubation rate, ventilator days, LOS, and there were no deaths in either group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups for the ratio of the 24-hour fluid resuscitation requirement divided by the estimate from the Parkland formula. Hospital charges were similar for the two groups. The largest volume of fluid infused was lactated Ringers (LR) and the slightly hypertonic fluid combination of LR + 50 mEq sodium bicarbonate + 3.4 mmol potassium phosphate. Both groups also received a dextran-40 (Rheomacrodex) infusion. In contrast to previous studies, our experience with methamphetamine-positive burn patients shows that they did not have an increased initial fluid requirement, a longer LOS, more days on the ventilator, higher hospitalization charges nor an increased mortality rate. The only

  8. Generating chimeric mice from embryonic stem cells via vial coculturing or hypertonic microinjection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The generation of a fertile embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived or F0 (100 % coat color chimerism) mice is the final criterion in proving that the ESC is truly pluripotent. Many methods have been developed to produce chimeric mice. To date, the most popular methods for generating chimeric embryos is well sandwich aggregation between zona pellucida (ZP) removed (denuded) 2.5-day post-coitum (dpc) embryos and ESC clumps, or direct microinjection of ESCs into the cavity (blastocoel) of 3.5-dpc blastocysts. However, due to systemic limitations and the disadvantages of conventional microinjection, aggregation, and coculturing, two novel methods (vial coculturing and hypertonic microinjection) were developed in recent years at my laboratory.Coculturing 2.5-dpc denuded embryos with ESCs in 1.7-mL vials for ~3 h generates chimeras that have significantly high levels of chimerism (including 100 % coat color chimerism) and germline transmission. This method has significantly fewer instrumental and technological limitations than existing methods, and is an efficient, simple, inexpensive, and reproducible method for "mass production" of chimeric embryos. For laboratories without a microinjection system, this is the method of choice for generating chimeric embryos. Microinjecting ESCs into a subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos can generate germline-transmitted chimeras including 100 % coat color chimerism. However, this method is adopted rarely due to the very small and tight space between ZP and blastomeres. Using a laser pulse or Piezo-driven instrument/device to help introduce ESCs into the subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos demonstrates the superior efficiency in generating ESC-derived (F0) chimeras. Unfortunately, due to the need for an expensive instrument/device and extra fine skill, not many studies have used either method. Recently, ESCs injected into the large subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos in an injection medium containing 0.2-0.3 M sucrose very efficiently generated

  9. BET 2: Is prehospital focused abdominal ultrasound useful during triage at mass casualty incidents?

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    A short-cut review was carried out to determined whether the addition of prehospital focused abdominal ultrasound to triage protocols might reduce time to necessary surgery and reduce overall mortality. Thirty-five papers were found using the reported searches, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of those best papers are shown in table 2. It is concluded that although the feasibility of prehospital ultrasound in mass casualty incidents has been demonstrated, there is, as yet, no clear evidence of benefit as part of a triage protocol.

  10. Feasibility of prehospital teleconsultation in acute stroke--a pilot study in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Bergrath, Sebastian; Reich, Arno; Rossaint, Rolf; Rörtgen, Daniel; Gerber, Joachim; Fischermann, Harold; Beckers, Stefan K; Brokmann, Jörg C; Schulz, Jörg B; Leber, Claas; Fitzner, Christina; Skorning, Max

    2012-01-01

    Inter-hospital teleconsultation improves stroke care. To transfer this concept into the emergency medical service (EMS), the feasibility and effects of prehospital teleconsultation were investigated. Teleconsultation enabling audio communication, real-time video streaming, vital data and still picture transmission was conducted between an ambulance and a teleconsultation center. Pre-notification of the hospital was carried out with a 14-item stroke history checklist via e-mail-to-fax. Beside technical assessments possible influences on prehospital and initial in-hospital time intervals, prehospital diagnostic accuracy and the transfer of stroke specific data were investigated by comparing telemedically assisted prehospital care (telemedicine group) with local regular EMS care (control group). All prehospital stroke patients over a 5-month period were included during weekdays (7.30 a.m.-4.00 p.m.). In 3 of 18 missions partial dropouts of the system occurred; neurological co-evaluation via video transmission was conducted in 12 cases. The stroke checklist was transmitted in 14 cases (78%). Telemedicine group (n = 18) vs. control group (n = 47): Prehospital time intervals were comparable, but in both groups the door to brain imaging times were longer than recommended (median 59.5 vs. 57.5 min, p = 0.6447). The prehospital stroke diagnosis was confirmed in 61% vs. 67%, p = 0.8451. Medians of 14 (IQR 9) vs. 5 (IQR 2) stroke specific items were transferred in written form to the in-hospital setting, p<0.0001. In 3 of 10 vs. 5 of 27 patients with cerebral ischemia thrombolytics were administered, p = 0.655. Teleconsultation was feasible but technical performance and reliability have to be improved. The approach led to better stroke specific information; however, a superiority over regular EMS care was not found and in-hospital time intervals were unacceptably long in both groups. The feasibility of prehospital tele-stroke consultation has future

  11. Feasibility of Prehospital Teleconsultation in Acute Stroke – A Pilot Study in Clinical Routine

    PubMed Central

    Bergrath, Sebastian; Reich, Arno; Rossaint, Rolf; Rörtgen, Daniel; Gerber, Joachim; Fischermann, Harold; Beckers, Stefan K.; Brokmann, Jörg C.; Schulz, Jörg B.; Leber, Claas; Fitzner, Christina; Skorning, Max

    2012-01-01

    Background Inter-hospital teleconsultation improves stroke care. To transfer this concept into the emergency medical service (EMS), the feasibility and effects of prehospital teleconsultation were investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Teleconsultation enabling audio communication, real-time video streaming, vital data and still picture transmission was conducted between an ambulance and a teleconsultation center. Pre-notification of the hospital was carried out with a 14-item stroke history checklist via e-mail-to-fax. Beside technical assessments possible influences on prehospital and initial in-hospital time intervals, prehospital diagnostic accuracy and the transfer of stroke specific data were investigated by comparing telemedically assisted prehospital care (telemedicine group) with local regular EMS care (control group). All prehospital stroke patients over a 5-month period were included during weekdays (7.30 a.m. –4.00 p.m.). In 3 of 18 missions partial dropouts of the system occurred; neurological co-evaluation via video transmission was conducted in 12 cases. The stroke checklist was transmitted in 14 cases (78%). Telemedicine group (n = 18) vs. control group (n = 47): Prehospital time intervals were comparable, but in both groups the door to brain imaging times were longer than recommended (median 59.5 vs. 57.5 min, p = 0.6447). The prehospital stroke diagnosis was confirmed in 61% vs. 67%, p = 0.8451. Medians of 14 (IQR 9) vs. 5 (IQR 2) stroke specific items were transferred in written form to the in-hospital setting, p<0.0001. In 3 of 10 vs. 5 of 27 patients with cerebral ischemia thrombolytics were administered, p = 0.655. Conclusions Teleconsultation was feasible but technical performance and reliability have to be improved. The approach led to better stroke specific information; however, a superiority over regular EMS care was not found and in-hospital time intervals were unacceptably long in both groups. The feasibility

  12. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R.; Aisiku, Imoigele P.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  13. Accuracy of Prehospital Intravenous Fluid Volume Measurement by Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Coppler, Patrick J; Padmanabhan, Rajagopala; Martin-Gill, Christian; Callaway, Clifton W; Yealy, Donald M; Seymour, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Prehospital treatment protocols call for intravenous (IV) fluid for patients with shock, yet the measurement accuracy of administered fluid volume is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to assess the accuracy of documented and self-reported fluid volumes administered to medical patients by paramedics during prehospital care. We conducted a pilot, observational study nested within a parent cohort study of prehospital biomarkers in a single EMS agency transporting patients to a tertiary care hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania over 8 months. Among eligible nontrauma, noncardiac arrest patients, we studied the self-reported IV fluid volume on ED arrival by paramedics, documented fluid volume in the EMS record, and compared those to the mass-derived fluid volume. We quantified the absolute error between methods, and determined EMS transport times or initial prehospital systolic blood pressure had any effect on error. We enrolled 50 patients who received prehospital IV fluid and had mass-derived fluid volume measured at ED arrival. Of these, 21 (42%) patients had IV fluid volume subsequently documented in EMS records. The median mass-derived fluid volume was 393 mL [IQR: 264-618 mL]. Mass-derived volume was similar for subjects who did (386 mL, IQR: 271-642 mL) or did not (399 mL, IQR: 253-602) have documented fluid administration (p > 0.05). The median self-reported fluid volume was 250 mL [IQR: 150-500 mL] and did not differ by documentation (p > 0.05). The median absolute error comparing self-reported to mass-derived fluid volume was 109 mL [IQR: 41-205 mL], and less than 250 mL in more than 80% of subjects. The median absolute error comparing documented fluid to mass-derived fluid volume was 142 mL [IQR: 64-265 mL], and was less than 250 mL in 71% of subjects. No difference in absolute error for either self-reported or document fluid volumes were modified by transport time or prehospital systolic blood pressure. Prehospital IV fluid administration is

  14. Prehospital management and fluid resuscitation in hypotensive trauma patients admitted to Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Talving, Peep; Pålstedt, Joakim; Riddez, Louis

    2005-01-01

    Few previous studies have been conducted on the prehospital management of hypotensive trauma patients in Stockholm County. The aim of this study was to describe the prehospital management of hypotensive trauma patients admitted to the largest trauma center in Sweden, and to assess whether prehospital trauma life support (PHTLS) guidelines have been implemented regarding prehospital time intervals and fluid therapy. In addition, the effects of the age, type of injury, injury severity, prehospital time interval, blood pressure, and fluid therapy on outcome were investigated. This is a retrospective, descriptive study on consecutive, hypotensive trauma patients (systolic blood pressure < or = 90 mmHg on the scene of injury) admitted to Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, during 2001-2003. The reported values are medians with interquartile ranges. Basic demographics, prehospital time intervals and interventions, injury severity scores (ISS), type and volumes of prehospital fluid resuscitation, and 30-day mortality were abstracted. The effects of the patient's age, gender, prehospital time interval, type of injury, injury severity, on-scene and emergency department blood pressure, and resuscitation fluid volumes on mortality were analyzed using the exact logistic regression model. In 102 (71 male) adult patients (age > or = 15 years) recruited, the median age was 35.5 years (range: 27-55 years) and 77 patients (75%) had suffered blunt injury. The predominant trauma mechanisms were falls between levels (24%) and motor vehicle crashes (22%) with an ISS of 28.5 (range: 16-50). The on-scene time interval was 19 minutes (range: 12-24 minutes). Fluid therapy was initiated at the scene of injury in the majority of patients (73%) regardless of the type of injury (77 blunt [75%] / 25 penetrating [25%]) or injury severity (ISS: 0-20; 21-40; 41-75). Age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.04), male gender (OR = 3.2), ISS 21-40 (OR = 13.6), and ISS >40 (OR = 43.6) were the

  15. Post-war Kosovo: Part 1. Assessment of prehospital emergency services.

    PubMed

    Vanier, V K; VanRooyen, M J; Lis, J; Eliades, M J

    2001-01-01

    The United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) designated that the World Health Organization (WHO) develop health policy to assist in the recovery and rehabilitation of the post-war health system of Kosovo. As a critical part of the pre-policy evaluation, an assessment of current prehospital medical services was performed. This assessment identified a basic healthcare infrastructure upon which additional prehospital capabilities can be built, especially in communications, staffing, equipment, and transport services. To serve Kosovo properly in the future, it is recommended that capacity building must include the parallel development of emergency departments and specialty-trained physicians.

  16. TRPV4 mediates pain-related behavior induced by mild hypertonic stimuli in the presence of inflammatory mediator.

    PubMed

    Alessandri-Haber, Nicole; Joseph, Elizabeth; Dina, Olayinka A; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Levine, Jon D

    2005-11-01

    The ligand-gated ion channel, TRPV4, functions as a transducer of hypotonic stimuli in primary afferent nociceptive neurons and contributes to inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Hypertonic saline also stimulates primary afferent nociceptors and the injection of mild hypertonic saline (2-5%) is widely used as an experimental model of pain in humans. Therefore, we tested whether TRPV4 participates in the transduction of hypertonic stimuli. Intradermal injection of 2% (607 mOsm) or 10% (3,250 mOsm) saline solution in the hind paw of rats induced a concentration-dependent pain-related behavior, flinching. Sensitization with prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) caused a 7-fold increase in the number of flinches induced by 2% saline but failed to increase those caused by 10% saline. Spinal administration of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to TRPV4 caused a 46% decrease in the number of flinches induced by 2% saline, but there was no change in flinching induced by 10% saline. Similarly, only the nociceptive behavior caused by 2% saline was reduced in TRPV4(-/-) knockout mice. The TRPV4-mediated nociceptive behaviors induced by hyper- and hypotonic stimuli were dependent on Src tyrosine kinase. We suggest TRPV4 is a transducer in primary afferents that mediates nociceptive behavior induced by small increases or decreases in osmolarity. Such changes in osmolarity might contribute to pain in inflammatory and neuropathic states.

  17. Pre-hospital transfusion of packed red blood cells in 147 patients from a UK helicopter emergency medical service.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard M; de Sausmarez, Eleanor; McWhirter, Emily; Wareham, Gary; Nelson, Magnus; Matthies, Ashley; Hudson, Anthony; Curtis, Leigh; Russell, Malcolm Q

    2017-02-14

    Early transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC) has been associated with improved survival in patients with haemorrhagic shock. This study aims to describe the characteristics of patients receiving pre-hospital blood transfusion and evaluate their subsequent need for in-hospital transfusion and surgery. The decision to administer a pre-hospital PRBC transfusion was based on clinical judgment. All patients transfused pre-hospital PRBC between February 2013 and December 2014 were included. Pre-hospital and in-hospital records were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred forty-seven patients were included. 142 patients had traumatic injuries and 5 patients had haemorrhagic shock from a medical origin. Median Injury Severity Score was 30. 90% of patients receiving PRBC had an ISS of >15. Patients received a mean of 2.4(±1.1) units of PRBC in the pre-hospital phase. Median time from initial emergency call to hospital arrival was 114 min (IQR 103-140). There was significant improvement in systolic (p < 0.001), diastolic (p < 0.001) and mean arterial pressures (p < 0.001) with PRBC transfusion but there was no difference in HR (p = 0.961). Patients received PRBC significantly faster in the field than waiting until hospital arrival. At the receiving hospital 57% required an urgent surgical or interventional radiology procedure. At hospital arrival, patients had a mean lactate of 5.4(±4.4) mmol/L, pH of 6.9(±1.3) and base deficit of -8.1(±6.7). Mean initial serum adjusted calcium was 2.26(±0.29) mmol/L. 89% received further blood products in hospital. No transfusion complications or significant incidents occurred and 100% traceability was achieved. Pre-hospital transfusion of packed red cells has the potential to improvde outcome for trauma patients with major haemorrhage. The pre-hospital time for trauma patients can be several hours, suggesting transfusion needs to start in the pre-hospital phase. Hospital transfusion research suggests a 1:1 ratio

  18. Determinants of Success and Failure in Prehospital Endotracheal Intubation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Lucas A; Gallet, Charles G; Kolb, Logan J; Lohse, Christine M; Russi, Christopher S

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with successful endotracheal intubation (ETI) by a multisite emergency medical services (EMS) agency. We collected data from the electronic prehospital record for all ETI attempts made from January through May 2010 by paramedics and other EMS crew members at a single multistate agency. If documentation was incomplete, the study team contacted the paramedic. Paramedics use the current National Association of EMS Physicians definition of an ETI attempt (laryngoscope blade entering the mouth). We analyzed patient and EMS factors affecting ETI. During 12,527 emergent ambulance responses, 200 intubation attempts were made in 150 patients. Intubation was successful in 113 (75%). A crew with paramedics was more than three times as likely to achieve successful intubation as a paramedic/emergency medical technician-Basic crew (odds ratio [OR], 3.30; p=0.03). A small tube (≤7.0 inches) was associated with a more than 4-fold increased likelihood of successful ETI compared with a large tube (≥7.5 inches) (OR, 4.25; p=0.01). After adjustment for these features, compared with little or no view of the glottis, a partial or entire view of the glottis was associated with a nearly 13-fold (OR, 12.98; p=0.001) and a nearly 40-fold (OR, 39.78; p<0.001) increased likelihood of successful intubation, respectively. Successful ETI was more likely to be accomplished when a paramedic was partnered with another paramedic, when some or all of the glottis was visible and when a smaller endotracheal tube was used.

  19. Prehospital Blood Product Resuscitation for Trauma: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Iain M.; James, Robert H.; Dretzke, Janine; Midwinter, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Administration of high ratios of plasma to packed red blood cells is a routine practice for in-hospital trauma resuscitation. Military and civilian emergency teams are increasingly carrying prehospital blood products (PHBP) for trauma resuscitation. This study systematically reviewed the clinical literature to determine the extent to which the available evidence supports this practice. Methods: Bibliographic databases and other sources were searched to July 2015 using keywords and index terms related to the intervention, setting, and condition. Standard systematic review methodology aimed at minimizing bias was used for study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (protocol registration PROSPERO: CRD42014013794). Synthesis was mainly narrative with random effects model meta-analysis limited to mortality outcomes. Results: No prospective comparative or randomized studies were identified. Sixteen case series and 11 comparative studies were included in the review. Seven studies included mixed populations of trauma and non-trauma patients. Twenty-five of 27 studies provided only very low quality evidence. No association between PHBP and survival was found (OR for mortality: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.84–1.96, P = 0.24). A single study showed improved survival in the first 24 h. No consistent physiological or biochemical benefit was identified, nor was there evidence of reduced in-hospital transfusion requirements. Transfusion reactions were rare, suggesting the short-term safety of PHBP administration. Conclusions: While PHBP resuscitation appears logical, the clinical literature is limited, provides only poor quality evidence, and does not demonstrate improved outcomes. No conclusions as to efficacy can be drawn. The results of randomized controlled trials are awaited. PMID:26825635

  20. Comparison of three prehospital cervical spine protocols for missed injuries.

    PubMed

    Hong, Rick; Meenan, Molly; Prince, Erin; Murphy, Ronald; Tambussi, Caitlin; Rohrbach, Rick; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2014-07-01

    We wanted to compare 3 existing emergency medical services (EMS) immobilization protocols: the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS, mechanism-based); the Domeier protocol (parallels the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] criteria); and the Hankins' criteria (immobilization for patients <12 or >65 years, those with altered consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, distracting injury, or midline or paraspinal tenderness).To determine the proportion of patients who would require cervical immobilization per protocol and the number of missed cervical spine injuries, had each protocol been followed with 100% compliance. This was a cross-sectional study of patients ≥18 years transported by EMS post-traumatic mechanism to an inner city emergency department. Demographic and clinical/historical data obtained by physicians were recorded prior to radiologic imaging. Medical record review ascertained cervical spine injuries. Both physicians and EMS were blinded to the objective of the study. Of 498 participants, 58% were male and mean age was 48 years. The following participants would have required cervical spine immobilization based on the respective protocol: PHTLS, 95.4% (95% CI: 93.1-96.9%); Domeier, 68.7% (95% CI: 64.5-72.6%); Hankins, 81.5% (95% CI: 77.9-84.7%). There were 18 cervical spine injuries: 12 vertebral fractures, 2 subluxations/dislocations and 4 spinal cord injuries. Compliance with each of the 3 protocols would have led to appropriate cervical spine immobilization of all injured patients. In practice, 2 injuries were missed when the PHTLS criteria were mis-applied. Although physician-determined presence of cervical spine immobilization criteria cannot be generalized to the findings obtained by EMS personnel, our findings suggest that the mechanism-based PHTLS criteria may result in unnecessary cervical spine immobilization without apparent benefit to injured patients. PHTLS criteria may also be more difficult to implement due to

  1. Prehospital Identification of Stroke Subtypes in Chinese Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hai-Qiang; Wang, Jin-Chao; Sun, Yong-An; Lyu, Pu; Cui, Wei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhen, Zhi-Gang; Huang, Yi-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background: Differentiating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) from cerebral infarction as early as possible is vital for the timely initiation of different treatments. This study developed an applicable model for the ambulance system to differentiate stroke subtypes. Methods: From 26,163 patients initially screened over 4 years, this study comprised 1989 consecutive patients with potential first-ever acute stroke with sudden onset of the focal neurological deficit, conscious or not, and given ambulance transport for admission to two county hospitals in Yutian County of Hebei Province. All the patients underwent cranial computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging to confirm the final diagnosis based on stroke criteria. Correlation with stroke subtype clinical features was calculated and Bayes’ discriminant model was applied to discriminate stroke subtypes. Results: Among the 1989 patients, 797, 689, 109, and 394 received diagnoses of cerebral infarction, ICH, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and other forms of nonstroke, respectively. A history of atrial fibrillation, vomiting, and diabetes mellitus were associated with cerebral infarction, while vomiting, systolic blood pressure ≥180 mmHg, and age <65 years were more typical of ICH. For noncomatose stroke patients, Bayes’ discriminant model for stroke subtype yielded a combination of multiple items that provided 72.3% agreement in the test model and 79.3% in the validation model; for comatose patients, corresponding agreement rates were 75.4% and 73.5%. Conclusions: The model herein presented, with multiple parameters, can predict stroke subtypes with acceptable sensitivity and specificity before CT scanning, either in alert or comatose patients. This may facilitate prehospital management for patients with stroke. PMID:27098788

  2. Determinants of Success and Failure in Prehospital Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Lucas A.; Gallet, Charles G.; Kolb, Logan J.; Lohse, Christine M.; Russi, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to identify factors associated with successful endotracheal intubation (ETI) by a multisite emergency medical services (EMS) agency. Methods We collected data from the electronic prehospital record for all ETI attempts made from January through May 2010 by paramedics and other EMS crew members at a single multistate agency. If documentation was incomplete, the study team contacted the paramedic. Paramedics use the current National Association of EMS Physicians definition of an ETI attempt (laryngoscope blade entering the mouth). We analyzed patient and EMS factors affecting ETI. Results During 12,527 emergent ambulance responses, 200 intubation attempts were made in 150 patients. Intubation was successful in 113 (75%). A crew with paramedics was more than three times as likely to achieve successful intubation as a paramedic/emergency medical technician-Basic crew (odds ratio [OR], 3.30; p=0.03). A small tube (≤7.0 inches) was associated with a more than 4-fold increased likelihood of successful ETI compared with a large tube (≥7.5 inches) (OR, 4.25; p=0.01). After adjustment for these features, compared with little or no view of the glottis, a partial or entire view of the glottis was associated with a nearly 13-fold (OR, 12.98; p=0.001) and a nearly 40-fold (OR, 39.78; p<0.001) increased likelihood of successful intubation, respectively. Conclusion Successful ETI was more likely to be accomplished when a paramedic was partnered with another paramedic, when some or all of the glottis was visible and when a smaller endotracheal tube was used. PMID:27625734

  3. [Prehospital care to multiple victims with simulated trauma].

    PubMed

    Simões, Romeo Lages; Duarte Neto, Caio; Maciel, Gustavo Sasso Benso; Furtado, Tatiana Piotz; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão

    2012-01-01

    To assess the quality of prehospital care agencies conducted in Vitória, capital of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. We conducted a retrospective study in the archives of the League of Academic Surgery and Trauma Care of Espírito Santo (Lacates) regarding 40 victims of a simulated crash between a bus and two cars. The patients were treated by four teams: Military Fire Department of Espírito Santo, Samu 192, County Guard and Civil Defense. The performance of these teams was evaluated by Lacates, through analysis of a check-list with pre-established guidelines for each victim. The Fire Department of Espírito Santo (CBMES), which extricated victims, outlined the danger zones and carried out the screening by the method START, acted correctly in 92.5% of cases. The Samu 192 victims, which attended victims by the mnemonic method (ABCDE) in medical outposts, acted correctly in 92.5% of cases in the category Airway; 97.5% in breathing, 92.5% in circulation, 90% in Neurological Assessment, and 50% in the Exhibition and Environmental Control. The analysis showed that the ABCDE care was correct in 42.5% of cases. The transport of patients was performed correctly in 95% of cases. The County Guard secured the patency of the avenues for transportation of patients and Civil Defense successfully coordinated the work of teams involved in the command post. The triage and transport of victims have been performed satisfactorily. However, more attention should be given to exposure and hypothermia protection of victims, since this item compromised treatment.

  4. Critical Evaluation of Hypertonic and Hypotonic Solutions to Resuscitate Severely Burned Children: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Fred T.; Bowser, Bonny H.

    1979-01-01

    Children with thermal burns covering 30% or more of the body surface area were alternately resuscitated with either hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) or lactated Ringer's solution (LRS). Parameters sequentially measured and calculated included: 1) serum and urine electrolyte concentrations, 2) serum and urine osmolalities, 3) arterial blood gases, 4) total and fractional serum proteins, 5) blood urea nitrogen, complete blood count and blood sugar concentration, 6) changes in body weight, 7) sodium, potassium and water balance. The water load received by the HLS group was significantly less through 48 hours postburn (49% at 8 hours, 44% at 24 hours and 38% at 48 hours postburn). Although the HLS group received significantly more sodium than the LRS group, there was no difference in sodium balance at 48 hours postburn. This is explained by the fact that the HLS group, at 48 hours postburn, retained significantly less of the administered sodium load (69% vs. 83%). Positive water balance was significantly greater in the LR group for the first 48 hours postburn. This study suggests that current hypotonic fluid regimens for burn resuscitation contain water in excess of that required for proper resuscitation. Severely burned children may be safely and efficiently resuscitated with conventional salt loads and one-third less than usual water loads. PMID:36048

  5. Mannitol or hypertonic saline in the setting of traumatic brain injury: What have we learned?

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Myles Dustin; Oren-Grinberg, Achikam; Robinson, Timothy Matthew; Chen, Clark C.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intracranial hypertension, defined as an intracranial pressure (ICP) >20 mmHg for a period of more than 5 min, worsens neurologic outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). While several mechanisms contribute to poor outcome, impaired cerebral perfusion appears to be a highly significant common denominator. Management guidelines from the Brain Trauma Foundation recommend measuring ICP to guide therapy. In particular, hyperosmolar therapy, which includes mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS), is frequently administered to reduce ICP. Currently, mannitol (20%) is considered the gold standard hyperosmolar agent. However, HTS is increasingly used in this setting. This review sought to compare the efficacy of mannitol to HTS in severe TBI. Methods: The PubMed database was used to systematically search for articles comparing mannitol to HTS in severe TBI. The following medical subject headings were used: HTS, sodium lactate, mannitol, ICP, intracranial hypertension, and TBI. We included both prospective and retrospective randomized controlled studies of adult patients with intracranial hypertension as a result of severe TBI who received hyperosmolar therapy. Results: Out of 45 articles, seven articles were included in our review: 5 were prospective, randomized trials; one was a prospective, nonrandomized trial; and one was a retrospective, cohort study. Conclusions: While all seven studies found that both mannitol and HTS were effective in reducing ICP, there was heterogeneity with regard to which agent was most efficacious. PMID:26673517

  6. NFAT5 in cellular adaptation to hypertonic stress – regulations and functional significance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells-5 (NFAT5), also known as OREBP or TonEBP, is a member of the nuclear factors of the activated T cells family of transcription factors. It is also the only known tonicity-regulated transcription factor in mammals. NFAT5 was initially known for its role in the hypertonic kidney inner medulla for orchestrating a genetic program to restore the cellular homeostasis. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that NFAT5 might play a more diverse functional role, including a pivotal role in blood pressure regulation and the development of autoimmune diseases. Despite the growing significance of NFAT5 in physiology and diseases, our understanding of how its activity is regulated remains very limited. Furthermore, how changes in tonicities are converted into functional outputs via NFAT5 remains elusive. Therefore, this review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the functional roles of NFAT5 in osmotic stress adaptation and the signaling pathways that regulate its activity. PMID:23618372

  7. Repeated Dosing of 23.4% Hypertonic Saline for Refractory Intracranial Hypertension. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Alden K; Nau, Karen M; Miller, David A; Hanel, Ricardo A; Freeman, WD

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hypertonic saline (HTS) at a concentration of 23.4% is an emerging therapy for intracranial hypertension. Compared to mannitol which can be given as a single bolus or as repeated bolus dosing, little data exists regarding safety or efficacy of repeated dosing of 23.4% HTS. We report the first case of 16 doses of 23.4% HTS over a 5 day period in a patient with refractory intracranial hypertension. Case Report: A 43-year-old woman with Fisher 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus requiring an external ventricular drain developed global cerebral edema on computed tomography. Medically refractory intracranial hypertension ensued which required repeated dosing of 23.4% HTS. Reductions in intracranial pressure (ICP) occurred after each dose of 23.4% HTS. No central nervous system complications occurred. Anasarca was the only observed complication, which responded to furosemide diuresis. Conclusion: Repeated dosing of 23.4% HTS was effective in reducing ICP in a case of medically refractory intracranial hypertension without major systemic complications. Prospective studies should address the safety and efficacy of repeat dose 23.4% HTS on serum sodium, intracranial pressure, and complications. PMID:22518235

  8. The Role of Cell Swelling in Ischemic Renal Damage and the Protective Effect of Hypertonic Solute

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Jorge; DiBona, Donald R.; Beck, Clyde H.; Leaf, Alexander

    1972-01-01

    The failure of blood flow to return to the kidney following a transient period of ischemia has long been recognized. The cause of this “no-reflow” has been investigated in the rat after a transient period of total obstruction of the renal arteries. The vascular pattern of the kidneys as visualized with silicone rubber injection shows a diffuse patchy ischemia throughout the kidney, which persists after release of the obstructed renal artery. Electron microscopic studies of ischemic kidneys showed that all cellular elements were swollen and limiting the available vascular space. Functional studies revealed an increase in plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine after 1 hr or longer ischemic periods. The ischemia, cell swelling, “no-reflow,” and subsequent renal dysfunction occurring after obstruction to the renal arteries were corrected by the administration of hypertonic mannitol, but were unaffected by an equivalent expansion of the extracellular fluid volume either with isotonic saline or isotonic mannitol, showing that the osmotic effect was primary. The hypothesis is presented that ischemic swelling of cells may occlude small blood vessels so that recirculation does not resume even after the initial cause of the ischemia is no longer present; solutes which do not penetrate cell membranes are able to shrink swollen cells, increase the available vascular space and thus permit reflow of blood to the ischemic organ. Images PMID:5007042

  9. The role of cell swelling in ischemic renal damage and the protective effect of hypertonic solute.

    PubMed

    Flores, J; DiBona, D R; Beck, C H; Leaf, A

    1972-01-01

    The failure of blood flow to return to the kidney following a transient period of ischemia has long been recognized. The cause of this "no-reflow" has been investigated in the rat after a transient period of total obstruction of the renal arteries. The vascular pattern of the kidneys as visualized with silicone rubber injection shows a diffuse patchy ischemia throughout the kidney, which persists after release of the obstructed renal artery. Electron microscopic studies of ischemic kidneys showed that all cellular elements were swollen and limiting the available vascular space. Functional studies revealed an increase in plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine after 1 hr or longer ischemic periods. The ischemia, cell swelling, "no-reflow," and subsequent renal dysfunction occurring after obstruction to the renal arteries were corrected by the administration of hypertonic mannitol, but were unaffected by an equivalent expansion of the extracellular fluid volume either with isotonic saline or isotonic mannitol, showing that the osmotic effect was primary. The hypothesis is presented that ischemic swelling of cells may occlude small blood vessels so that recirculation does not resume even after the initial cause of the ischemia is no longer present; solutes which do not penetrate cell membranes are able to shrink swollen cells, increase the available vascular space and thus permit reflow of blood to the ischemic organ.

  10. A3 adenosine receptor inhibition improves the efficacy of hypertonic saline resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sumi, Yuka; Woehrle, Tobias; Chen, Yu; Hirsh, Mark I.; Junger, Wolfgang G.

    2011-01-01

    We reported previously that hypertonic saline (HS) treatment can prevent or upregulate the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) via A2a adenosine receptors (A2aR) or A3 adenosine receptors (A3R), respectively. A3R translocate to the cell surface upon PMN stimulation and thus HS promotes PMN responses under conditions of delayed HS treatment. Here we investigated if inhibition of A3R improves the protective effects of HS resuscitation in a mouse sepsis model. We found that HS nearly triples extracellular adenosine concentrations in whole blood and that inhibition of A3R with the selective antagonist MRS-1191 dose-dependently improves the inhibitory effect of HS. MRS-1191 at a concentration of 1 nM enhanced the inhibitory effect of HS and reduced stimulatory effects of delayed HS treatment. Using a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, we found that MRS-1191 reduces acute lung injury and PMN accumulation in lung tissue. While delayed HS treatment (4 ml/kg of 7.5 % NaCl) of mice 1 h after CLP aggravated PMN accumulation, lung tissue damage, and mortality 24 h after CLP, infusion of MRS-1191 (2 ng/kg body weight) combined with HS reduced these detrimental effects of delayed HS treatment. Our data thus show that A3 receptor antagonists can strengthen the beneficial effects of HS resuscitation by avoiding stimulatory side effects that result from delayed HS administration. PMID:20661181

  11. Cardiovascular effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solutions when injected into the liquor space of anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed

    Feldberg, W; Wei, E

    1979-05-01

    1 In cats anaesthetized with chloralose, hyper- and hypotonic solutions were injected into the cisterna magna (in 0.5 ml) or into a lateral cerebral ventricle (in 0.2 to 0.3 ml), with aqueduct cannulated to prevent the injected solution from entering the subarachnoid space, and the effects on blood pressure and heart rate were examined. 2 Cisternal injections of hyper- and hypotonic solutions of NaCl (0.51 M and 0.05 M), glucose (1.03 M and 0.10 M), or sucrose (1.02 M and 0.10 M), as well as distilled water produced a rise in arterial blood pressure with tachycardias. Isotonic solutions of NaCl, glucose or sucrose were ineffective. 3 Ventricular injections of the hypertonic NaCl solution, also produced a pressor response with tachycardia effects when injected in this way. 4 The pressor responses and the tachycardias occurred after bilateral vagotomy and resulted from a sympathetic discharge which, on cisternal injection, originated from structures reached from the subarachnoid space, and on ventricular injection, from structures in the ventricular walls, probably in the hypothalamus. 5 The stimuli responsible for the discharge, were, on cisternal injection, the changes in osmolarity and on ventricular injection, the sodium ions.

  12. [Effect of sodium cromoglycate on airway vascular leakage caused by hypertonic saline in the rat trachea].

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, I; Tamaoki, J; Takeda, Y; Konno, K

    1996-09-01

    The action of the anti-asthmatic drug sodium cromoglycate (SCG) on airway inflammation remains uncertain. Using Evans blue dye as a maker of plasma leakage, we studied the effect of SCG on neurogenic vascular extravasation evoked by hypertonic saline (HTS) in the rat trachea. Inhalation of HTS (5-15%) caused a concentration-dependent increase in plasma leakage, but inhaled 0.9% NaCl had no effect. Inhalation of SCG did not affect the baseline level of vascular permeability, but it inhibited the effect of HTS in a dose-dependent manner: plasma extravasation induced by 10% NaCl was significantly reduced by 2 minutes of inhalation of SCG at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/ml (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). SCG (10 mg/ml), also inhibited the changes in microvascular permeability caused by aerosols of substance P (10(-4) M), whereas it did not affect the responses to aerosols of platelet-activating factor (3 x 10(-4) M). A similar dose of SCG did not significantly alter microvascular leakage caused by 5% NaCl. However, phosphoramidon, a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase, potentiated the response to 5% NaCl, an effect that was inhibited by SCG (p < 0.05). These results suggest that SCG inhibits HTS-induced airway vascular permeability, presumably through a tachykinin-antagonist-like property, and that this inhibition is exaggerated when the activity of endogenous neutral endopeptidase is low.

  13. Osmoregulation in water-deprived rats drinking hypertonic saline: effect of area postrema lesions.

    PubMed

    Stricker, E M; Craver, C F; Curtis, K S; Peacock-Kinzig, K A; Sved, A F; Smith, J C

    2001-03-01

    Rats drank rapidly when 0.3 M NaCl was the only drinking fluid available after overnight water deprivation, consuming approximately 200 ml/24 h. Although such large intakes of this hypertonic solution initially elevated plasma osmolality, excretion of comparable volumes of urine more concentrated than 300 meq Na(+)/l ultimately appears to restore plasma osmolality to normal levels. Rats drank approximately 100 ml of 0.5 M NaCl after overnight water deprivation, but urine Na(+) concentration (U(Na)) did not increase sufficiently to achieve osmoregulation. When an injected salt load exacerbated the initial dehydration caused by water deprivation, rats increased U(Na) to void the injected load and did not significantly alter 24-h intake of 0.3 or 0.5 M NaCl. Rats with lesions of area postrema had much higher saline intakes and lower U(Na) than did intact control rats; nonetheless, they appeared to osmoregulate well while drinking 0.3 M NaCl but not while drinking 0.5 M NaCl. Detailed analyses of drinking behavior by intact rats suggest that individual bouts were terminated by some rapid postabsorptive consequence of the ingested NaCl load that inhibited further NaCl intake, not by a fixed intake volume or number of licks that temporarily satiated thirst.

  14. [Tolerance of two inhaled hypertonic saline solutions in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Máiz Carro, Luis; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena Maiz, Marta; Wagner Struwing, Carolin; Gabilondo Álvarez, Gustavo; Suárez Cortina, Lucrecia

    2012-02-04

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the tolerance of two inhaled hypertonic saline solutions (HS) in patients with cystic fibrosis. Eighty one cystic fibrosis (CF) patients (44 males; mean age 23.63 years) inhaled 5 ml of 7% inhaled HS solution and, in those patients who did not tolerate HS, we evaluated the tolerance of a 7% HS (at dose of 5 ml) added to 0.1% hyaluronic acid at least twenty-four hours later. Twenty one (26%) patients did not tolerate the HS solution immediately after its inhalation. Cough was the most common symptom. Patients over 18 years of age showed worse tolerance to HS than patients younger than 18 years of age. Those patients that did not tolerate HS had a worse lung function that the ones that showed good tolerance. Eighty-one percent of patients who did not tolerate the HS alone tolerated well the HS with hyaluronic acid. CF patients cannot tolerate inhaled HS immediately after nebulisation. Patients over 18 years and those with worse lung function tolerate HS worst. Hyaluronate acid added to 7% HS solution improves the tolerability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Muscular hypertonicity: a suspected contributor to rheumatological manifestations observed in ambulatory practice

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Kamat, Sona; Gajdosik, Richard; Ahmad, Naila; Aldag, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this retrospective study of non-inflammatory rheumatic disease patients was to investigate if the individuals clinically identified with muscular hypertonicity (MHT) had increased clinical manifestations compared with those of age- and gender-matched patients with the same disorders. Material and Methods The MHT status was clinically identified in the rheumatologist’s myofascial protocol examination as relatively increased passive resistance of relaxed muscle on a slow gentle stretch. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted on a pre-coded form, including symptom and physical examination features, serum assays, and medications. Results The 19 MHT cases complained of greater subjective stiffness (p=0.010) and tiredness (p=0.018) at initial encounters and increased aching pain (p=0.049) and were prescribed more (p=0.003) mild narcotic analgesics than the 19 comparison patients. The cases had higher (p=0.027) serum creatine kinase levels, and patients with diffuse MHT had greater frequency of heavy (30+pack-years) cigarette smoking (p=0.002) than comparison subjects. Narcotic usage was also greater in cases with diffuse involvement. Conclusion Non-inflammatory rheumatic disease patients with MHT had an overall similar profile as that of comparison patients but had greater musculoskeletal complaints, and those with diffuse involvement had greater narcotic usage. Further research, including quantitative measurements of muscle stiffness, are required to determine whether MHT is a documented entity associated with increased rheumatological manifestations. PMID:27708929

  16. Some Effects of Hypertonic Solutions on Contraction and Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Frog Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, A. M.; Godt, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    In frog fast skeletal muscle, we find a decline of twitch, tetanus, and maximum K and caffeine contracture tensions as tonicity of the bathing solution is increased. The decline of tension independent of the method of producing contraction indicates that the major effect of hypertonicity is directly on contractile tension probably because of the increased internal ionic strength. However, there is some apparent disruption of excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in solutions made three times the normal tonicity (3T solutions) since: (a) in 3T solutions tetanic and K contracture tensions decline to zero from a value near the average maximum caffeine contracture tension at this tonicity (10% of 1T tetanic tension). At this time, caffeine contractures of 10% of 1T tetanic tension can be elicited; (b) once the K contracture tension has declined, elevated [Ca++]o, 19.8 mM, restores K contracture tension to 13% of 1T tetanic tension. This probable disruption is not caused by changes in mechanical threshold since in 2T solutions the mechanical threshold is shifted by 12 mv in the hyperpolarizing direction. This is consistent with neutralization of fixed negative charges on the inside of the membrane. The repriming curve is also shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction in 2T solutions. Shifts of the repriming curve coupled with membrane depolarizations in 3T solutions (about 20 mv) may produce loss of repriming ability at the resting potential and disruption of E-C coupling. PMID:5415044

  17. Equiosmolar Solutions of Hypertonic Saline and Mannitol Do Not Impair Blood Coagulation During Elective Intracranial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Palazón, Joaquín; Fuentes-García, Diego; Doménech-Asensi, Paloma; Piqueras-Pérez, Claudio; Falcón-Araña, Luis; Burguillos-López, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of equiosmolar, equivolemic solutions of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and 20% mannitol on blood coagulation assessed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and standard coagulation tests during elective craniotomy. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 40 patients undergoing elective craniotomy were randomized to receive 5 mL/kg of either 20% mannitol or 3% HS for intraoperative brain relaxation. Fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count were simultaneously measured intraoperatively with ROTEM for EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM analysis. ROTEM parameters were: clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), maximum clot firmness (MCF), and α-angle. No significant differences between groups were found in ROTEM variables CT, CFT, MCF, α-angle (EXTEM and INTEM), and MCF (FIBTEM) nor standard coagulation tests. ROTEM parameters did not show changes after administration of hyperosmolar solutions relating to basal values, except for an increase of CFT EXTEM (118±28 vs. 128±26 s) and decrease of CT INTEM (160±18 vs. 148±15 s) with values within normal range. Significant decreases from baseline levels were observed for hematocrit (-7%), platelet count (-10%), and fibrinogen (-13%) after HS infusion, and hematocrit (-9%), platelet count (-13%), and fibrinogen (-9%) after mannitol infusion, but remaining normal. The use of 5 mL/kg of equiosmolar solutions of 3% HS and 20% mannitol applied to reach a brain relaxation during elective craniotomy does not induce coagulation impairment as evidenced by ROTEM and standard coagulation tests.

  18. The Effect of Hypertonic Media on Water Permeability of Frog Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ripoche, P.; Bourguet, J.; Parisi, M.

    1973-01-01

    The frog urinary bladder undergoes, in some conditions, a marked increase of its water permeability when incubated in hypertonic media. This increase was observed with various nonpermeant solutes. It seems to result from the shrinkage of an osmo-sensitive compartment of the tissue, probably the epithelial cells. Many similarities were found between this effect and the physiological increase in water permeability (hydrosmotic response) elicited by antidiuretic hormone (ADH): both were dependent on the physiological state of the animals, and although the response was slower after hyperosmolar than after hormonal challenge, the patterns of response were similar, and in both cases markedly dependent on bathing solution temperature. Norepinephrine and prostaglandin E1, which in this tissue reduce the hydrosmotic action of ADH, presumably by inhibiting the adenyl cylase also reduced the effect of hyperosmolarity. Conversely this effect was potentiated by incubation in the presence of oxytocin, exogenous cyclic AMP, and theophylline, conditions in which the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP is increased. These data demonstrate that the response to hyperosmolarity is elicited, at least partly, by mechanisms also involved in the physiological hydrosmotic response to ADH. PMID:4345637

  19. Prehospital trauma care systems: potential role toward reducing morbidities and mortalities from road traffic injuries in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeloye, Davies

    2012-12-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) and attendant fatalities on Nigerian roads have been on an increasing trend over the past three decades. Mortality from RTIs in Nigeria is estimated to be 162 deaths/100,000 population. This study aims to compare and identify best prehospital trauma care practices in Nigeria and some other African countries where prehospital services operate. A review of secondary data, grey literature, and pertinent published articles using a conceptual framework to assess: (1) policies; (2) structures; (3) first responders; (4) communication facilities; (5) transport and ambulance facilities, and (6) roadside emergency trauma units. There is no national prehospital trauma care system (PTCS) in Nigeria. The lack of a national emergency health policy is a factor in this absence. The Nigerian Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) mainly has been responsible for prehospital services. South Africa, Zambia, Kenya, and Ghana have improved prehospital services in Africa. Commercial drivers, laypersons, military, police, a centrally controlled communication network, and government ambulance services are feasible delivery models that can be incorporated into the Nigerian prehospital system. Prehospital trauma services have been useful in reducing morbidities and mortalities from traffic injuries, and appropriate implementation of this study's recommendations may reduce this burden in Nigeria.

  20. Prehospital intravenous fluid administration is associated with higher mortality in trauma patients: a National Trauma Data Bank analysis.

    PubMed

    Haut, Elliott R; Kalish, Brian T; Cotton, Bryan A; Efron, David T; Haider, Adil H; Stevens, Kent A; Kieninger, Alicia N; Cornwell, Edward E; Chang, David C

    2011-02-01

    Prehospital intravenous (IV) fluid administration is common in trauma patients, although little evidence supports this practice. We hypothesized that trauma patients who received prehospital IV fluids have higher mortality than trauma patients who did not receive IV fluids in the prehospital setting. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients from the National Trauma Data Bank. Multiple logistic regression was used with mortality as the primary outcome measure. We compared patients with versus without prehospital IV fluid administration, using patient demographics, mechanism, physiologic and anatomic injury severity, and other prehospital procedures as covariates. Subset analysis was performed based on mechanism (blunt/penetrating), hypotension, immediate surgery, severe head injury, and injury severity score. A total of 776,734 patients were studied. Approximately half (49.3%) received prehospital IV. Overall mortality was 4.6%. Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in patients receiving prehospital IV fluids (4.8% vs. 4.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that patients receiving IV fluids were significantly more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.17). The association was identified in nearly all subsets of trauma patients. It is especially marked in patients with penetrating mechanism (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08–1.45), hypotension (OR 1.44, 95% CI1.29–1.59), severe head injury (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.17–1.54), and patients undergoing immediate surgery (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.22–1.50). The harm associated with prehospital IV fluid administration is significant for victims of trauma. The routine use of prehospital IV fluid administration for all trauma patients should be discouraged.

  1. Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin 1-7 versus Hypertonic Sodium Chloride 7.5% Administration after Acute Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) plays an important role in renal circulation. Hemorrhagic shock (HS) may cause kidney circulation disturbance, and this study was designed to investigate the renal blood flow (RBF) response to Ang1-7 after HS. Methods. 27 male Wistar rats were subjected to blood withdrawal to reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 45 mmHg for 45 min. The animals were treated with saline (group 1), Ang1-7 (300 ng·kg−1 min−1), Ang1-7 in hypertonic sodium chloride 7.5% (group 3), and hypertonic solution alone (group 4). Results. MAP was increased in a time-related fashion (Ptime < 0.0001) in all groups; however, there was a tendency for the increase in MAP in response to hypertonic solution (P = 0.09). Ang1-7, hypertonic solution, or combination of both increased RBF in groups 2-4, and these were significantly different from saline group (P = 0.05); that is, Ang1-7 leads to a significant increase in RBF to 1.35 ± 0.25 mL/min compared with 0.55 ± 0.12 mL/min in saline group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although Ang1-7 administration unlike hypertonic solution could not elevate MAP after HS, it potentially could increase RBF similar to hypertonic solution. This suggested that Ang1-7 recovers RBF after HS when therapeutic opportunities of hypertonic solution are limited. PMID:27073699

  2. Analysis of Prehospital Documentation of Injury-Related Pain Assessment and Analgesic Administration on the Contemporary Battlefield.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Robert T; Reeves, Patrick T; Kotwal, Russ S; Mabry, Robert L; Robinson, John B; Butler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In addition to life-saving interventions, the assessment of pain and subsequent administration of analgesia are primary benchmarks for quality emergency medical services care which should be documented and analyzed. Analyze US combat casualty data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) with a primary focus on prehospital pain assessment, analgesic administration and documentation. Retrospective cohort study of battlefield prehospital and hospital casualty data were abstracted by DoDTR from available records from 1 September 2007 through 30 June 2011. Data included demographics; injury mechanism; prehospital and initial combat hospital pain assessment documented by standard 0-to-10 numeric rating scale; analgesics administered; and survival outcome. Records were available for 8,913 casualties (median ISS of 5 [IQR 2 to 10]; 98.7% survived). Prehospital analgesic administration was documented for 1,313 cases (15%). Prehospital pain assessment was recorded for 581 cases (7%; median pain score 6 [IQR 3 to 8]), hospital pain assessment was recorded for 5,007 cases (56%; median pain score5 [CI95% 3 to 8]), and 409 cases (5%) had both prehospital and hospital pain assessments that could be paired. In this paired group, 49.1% (201/409) had alleviation of pain evidenced by a decrease in pain score (median 4,, IQR 2 to 5); 23.5% (96/409) had worsening of pain evidenced by an increase in pain score (median 3, CI95 2.8 to 3.7, IQR 1 to 5); 27.4% (112/409) had no change; and the overall difference was an average decrease in pain score of 1.1 (median 0, IQR 0 to 3, p < 0.01). Time-series analysis showed modest increases in prehospital and hospital pain assessment documentation and prehospital analgesic documentation. Our study demonstrates that prehospital pain assessment, management, and documentation remain primary targets for performance improvement on the battlefield. Results of paired prehospital to hospital pain scores and time-series analysis demonstrate

  3. The development and features of the Spanish prehospital advanced triage method (META) for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Garijo Gonzalo, Gracia; Martinez Monzon, Carlos; Pelaez Corres, Nieves; Rodriguez Soler, Alberto; Turegano Fuentes, Fernando

    2016-04-29

    This text describes the process of development of the new Spanish Prehospital Advanced Triage Method (META) and explain its main features and contribution to prehospital triage systems in mass casualty incidents. The triage META is based in the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols, patient's anatomical injuries and mechanism of injury. It is a triage method with four stages including early identification of patients with severe trauma that would benefit from a rapid evacuation to a surgical facility and introduces a new patient flow by-passing the advanced medical post to improve evacuation. The stages of triage META are: I) Stabilization triage that classifies patients according to severity to set priorities for initial emergency treatment; II) Identifying patients requiring urgent surgical treatment, this is done at the same time than stage I and creates a new flow of patients with high priority for evacuation; III) Implementation of Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols to patients previously classified according to stablished priority; and IV) Evacuation triage, stablishing evacuation priorities in case of lacks of appropriate transport resources. The triage META is to be applied only by prehospital providers with advanced knowledge and training in advanced trauma life support care and has been designed to be implemented as prehospital procedure in mass casualty incidents (MCI).

  4. Prehospital Medical Documentation in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry: A Retrospective Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Nesbitt , DSc, PA-C, Amelia M. Duran-Stanton, PhD, PA-C, and Robert T. Gerhardt, MD, MPH, FACEP Background: Prehospital care of combat casualties is a...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Therien S. P., Nesbitt M. E., Duran-Stanton A. M., Gerhardt R. T., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  5. Effects of Crew Resource Management Training on Medical Errors in a Simulated Prehospital Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhart, Elliot D.

    2012-01-01

    This applied dissertation investigated the effect of crew resource management (CRM) training on medical errors in a simulated prehospital setting. Specific areas addressed by this program included situational awareness, decision making, task management, teamwork, and communication. This study is believed to be the first investigation of CRM…

  6. Prehospital airway management: high tech meets trauma: an air medical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death in the United States for those younger than 35 years and injuries sustained from trauma are a significant source of moderate to severe disability. The inability to establish, secure, or maintain a definitive airway is a major cause of preventable death and secondary injury due to inadequate oxygenation and ventilation. Prehospital airway management is an essential skill of any prehospital care provider. A critical component to providing excellent airway management is the ability of the provider to quickly establish endotracheal intubation without complications such as hypoxia, hyper/hypocapnea, or hypotension. These complications have been shown to cause increased morbidity and mortality, especially in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury. This article presents some of the challenges faced by flight nurses in the air medical environment and how Airlift Northwest has developed a structured, standardized approach to airway management both in training and it the prehospital setting. We will discuss the process improvements that lead to the implementation of video laryngoscopy as our first-line intubation tool. The ultimate goal of any air medical or prehospital emergency medical services program is to manage 100% of airways without complications, which will decrease morbidity and mortality, ultimately improving patient outcomes.

  7. Trauma in elderly people: access to the health system through pre-hospital care1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Hilderjane Carla; Pessoa, Renata de Lima; de Menezes, Rejane Maria Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to identify the prevalence of trauma in elderly people and how they accessed the health system through pre-hospital care. Method: documentary and retrospective study at a mobile emergency care service, using a sample of 400 elderly trauma victims selected through systematic random sampling. A form validated by experts was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied. The chi-square test was used to analyze the association between the variables. Results: Trauma was predominant among women (52.25%) and in the age range between 60 and 69 years (38.25%), average age 74.19 years (standard deviation±10.25). Among the mechanisms, falls (56.75%) and traffic accidents (31.25%) stood out, showing a significant relation with the pre-hospital care services (p<0.001). Circulation, airway opening, cervical control and immobilization actions were the most frequent and Basic Life Support Services (87.8%) were the most used, with trauma referral hospitals as the main destination (56.7%). Conclusion: trauma prevailed among women, victims of falls, who received pre-hospital care through basic life support services and actions and were transported to the trauma referral hospital. It is important to reorganize pre-hospital care, avoiding overcrowded hospitals and delivering better care to elderly trauma victims. PMID:27143543

  8. [Survey on the use of mannitol in prehospital care in Paris area].

    PubMed

    Duchateau, F X; Burnod, A; Chollet, C; Ricard-Hibon, A; Samain, E; Marty, J

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the use of mannitol in prehospital care in Paris area. Survey using telephone interviews. Emergency physicians on duty in the 37 emergency departments in charge of prehospital care in Paris area were called by one investigator. They were asked to answer a questionnaire about their own use of mannitol in the prehospital setting. Ninety-six questionnaires were recorded. Physicians were anaesthesiologists (9%) or emergency physicians (87%). In three departments, mannitol was not available in the ambulances. Thirty-five per cent (n = 34) reported no use of mannitol and 17% (n = 16) just once. Fourteen physicians (15%) did not want to use it. The reasons for not using mannitol were lack of knowledge about efficacy for five, need for previous brain imaging for seven or neurosurgeon's agreement before using mannitol for three. For those who had already used mannitol or were ready to use it, the main indication was increased intracranial pressure with clinical signs of brain herniation after severe brain injury for 92% of physicians. Thirty-one % reported not knowing the dose of mannitol, 33% having a memorandum immediately available and among those who answered the question, 63% gave a value compatible with guidelines. A significant percentage of physicians tacking part in the French prehospital care system, do not follow published guidelines on the use of mannitol. Actions improving implementation of those guidelines should be supported.

  9. Inadequate ventilation of patients with severe brain injury: a possible drawback to prehospital advanced trauma care?

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Sanson, Gianfranco; Nardi, Giuseppe; Michelutto, Vanni; Scian, Franca

    2003-12-01

    To assess the appropriateness of arterial carbon dioxide tension control in a group of 92 patients with traumatic brain injury who, despite receiving advanced prehospital care, showed no improved outcome in comparison with a group homogeneous but for a lower level of prehospital care. A retrospective registration of the early in-hospital arterial carbon dioxide tension of the patients intubated and ventilated on scene. Patients were excluded if the arterial carbon dioxide tension did not reflect prehospital ventilation or its alteration might have been intentional or unavoidable. Arterial carbon dioxide tension was normal (35-45 mmHg) in only six of the 16 suitable cases (37.5%), was elevated (>45 mmHg) in three cases (18.75%), low (25-35 mmHg) in five cases (31.25%), and extremely low (<25 mmHg) in two cases (12.5%). Potentially dangerous alterations in capnia occurred in the majority of patients analysed. The possible consequences and causes are discussed. Further studies are needed to assess the consequences of any deviation from ideal standards, and to set realistic standards of arterial carbon dioxide tension control during prehospital ventilation.

  10. Evaluation of battery-operated monitor/defibrillators used in prehospital care.

    PubMed

    Magliocchetti, T; Bennett, B; Jacobs, L M; Madigan, C

    1982-01-01

    During the past two decades, prehospital medical care has become more sophisticated, resulting in devices that are routinely used in the hospital being adapted for use in the field. One such device is the ECG machine, which has undergone extensive technological and performance modifications so it may better serve the large number of patients requiring electrocardiographic monitoring and cardioversion in stressed environments.

  11. Implementing an Innovative Prehospital Care Provider Training Course in Nine Cambodian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Jennifer A; Hattaway, Leonard (Bud) F; Socheat, Phan; Raingsey, Prak P; Strehlow, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in health outcomes nationally, many Cambodians continue to experience morbidity and mortality due to inadequate access to quality emergency medical services. Over recent decades, the Cambodian healthcare system and civil infrastructure have advanced markedly and now possess many of the components required to establish a well functioning emergency medical system. These components include enhanced access to emergency transportation through large scale road development efforts, widspread availability of emergency communication channels via the spread of cellphone and internet technology, and increased access to health services for poor patients through the implementation of health financing schemes. However, the system still lacks a number of key elements, one of which is trained prehospital care providers. Working in partnership with local providers, our team created an innovative, Cambodia-specific prehospital care provider training course to help fill this gap. Participants received training on prehospital care skills and knowledge most applicable to the Cambodian healthcare system, which was divided into four modules: Basic Prehospital Care Skills and Adult Medical Emergencies, Traumatic Emergencies, Obstetric Emergencies, and Neonatal/Pediatric Emergencies. The course was implemented in nine of Cambodia’s most populous provinces, concurrent with a number of overarching emergency medical service system improvement efforts. Overall, the course was administered to 1,083 Cambodian providers during a 27-month period, with 947 attending the entire course and passing the course completion exam.  PMID:27489749

  12. Prehospital Tourniquet Use in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Effect on Hemorrhage Control and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    autologous saphenous vein graft. The patient died of sepsis on postinjury day 11. Patient 6. A 22-year-old man sustained multiple fragment wounds to all...multiple fragment wounds to right upper ex- tremity. Brachial artery and vein were transected but contained in a hematoma. Prehospital Tourniquet and

  13. Implementing an Innovative Prehospital Care Provider Training Course in Nine Cambodian Provinces.

    PubMed

    Acker, Peter; Newberry, Jennifer A; Hattaway, Leonard Bud F; Socheat, Phan; Raingsey, Prak P; Strehlow, Matthew C

    2016-06-27

    Despite significant improvements in health outcomes nationally, many Cambodians continue to experience morbidity and mortality due to inadequate access to quality emergency medical services. Over recent decades, the Cambodian healthcare system and civil infrastructure have advanced markedly and now possess many of the components required to establish a well functioning emergency medical system. These components include enhanced access to emergency transportation through large scale road development efforts, widspread availability of emergency communication channels via the spread of cellphone and internet technology, and increased access to health services for poor patients through the implementation of health financing schemes. However, the system still lacks a number of key elements, one of which is trained prehospital care providers. Working in partnership with local providers, our team created an innovative, Cambodia-specific prehospital care provider training course to help fill this gap. Participants received training on prehospital care skills and knowledge most applicable to the Cambodian healthcare system, which was divided into four modules: Basic Prehospital Care Skills and Adult Medical Emergencies, Traumatic Emergencies, Obstetric Emergencies, and Neonatal/Pediatric Emergencies. The course was implemented in nine of Cambodia's most populous provinces, concurrent with a number of overarching emergency medical service system improvement efforts. Overall, the course was administered to 1,083 Cambodian providers during a 27-month period, with 947 attending the entire course and passing the course completion exam.

  14. Effects of Crew Resource Management Training on Medical Errors in a Simulated Prehospital Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhart, Elliot D.

    2012-01-01

    This applied dissertation investigated the effect of crew resource management (CRM) training on medical errors in a simulated prehospital setting. Specific areas addressed by this program included situational awareness, decision making, task management, teamwork, and communication. This study is believed to be the first investigation of CRM…

  15. Prehospital coagulation monitoring of resuscitation with point-of-care devices.

    PubMed

    Schött, Ulf

    2014-05-01

    A variety of point-of-care monitors for the measurement of hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood gas with electrolytes, and lactate can be used also in the prehospital setting for optimizing and individualizing trauma resuscitation. Point-of-care coagulation testing with activated prothrombin test, prothrombin test, and activated coagulation/clotting time tests is available for prehospital use. Although robust, battery driven, and easy to handle, many devices lack documentation for use in prehospital care. Some of the devices correspond poorly to corresponding laboratory analyses in acute trauma coagulopathy and at lower hematocrits. In trauma, viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography can rapidly detect acute trauma coagulopathy and give an overall dynamic picture of the hemostatic system and the interaction between its different components: coagulation activation, fibrin polymerization, fibrin platelet interactions within the clot, and fibrinolysis. Rotational thromboelastometry is shock resistant and has the potential to be used outside the hospital setting to guide individualized coagulation factor and blood component therapies. Sonoclot and Rheorox are two small viscoelastic instruments with one-channel options, but with less documentation. The point-of-care market for coagulation tests is quickly expanding, and new devices are introduced all the time. Still they should be better adopted to prehospital conditions, small, robust, battery charged, and rapid and use small sample volumes and whole blood.

  16. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Pre-hospital Medical Emergencies Early Warning Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimian, Abbasali; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz; Seyedin, Hesam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The number of requests for emergency medical services (EMSs) has increased during the past decade. However, most of the transports are not essential. Therefore, it seems crucial to develop an instrument to help EMS staff accurately identify patients who need pre-hospital care and transportation. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pre-hospital Medical Emergencies Early Warning Scale (Pre-MEWS). Materials and Methods: This mixed-method study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a qualitative content analysis study was conducted to identify the predictors of medical patients' need for pre-hospital EMS and transportation. In the second phase, the face and the content validity as well as the internal consistency of the scale were evaluated. Finally, the items of the scale were scored and scoring system was presented. Results: The final version of the scale contained 22 items and its total score ranged from 0 to 54. Conclusions: Pre-MEWS helps EMS staffs properly understand medical patients' conditions in pre-hospital environments and accurately identify their need for EMS and transportation. PMID:28515604

  17. The effectiveness of a 'Code Red' transfusion request policy initiated by pre-hospital physicians.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Anne E; Hunter-Dunn, Ceri; Lyon, Richard M; Lockey, David; Krogh, Charlotte L

    2016-01-01

    Major trauma is a leading cause of mortality and serious morbidity. Recent approaches to life-threatening traumatic haemorrhage have emphasized the importance of early blood product transfusion. We have implemented a pre-hospital transfusion request policy where a pre-hospital physician can request the presence of a major transfusion pack on arrival at the destination trauma centre. This study was performed to establish whether three simple criteria (1) suspicion or evidence of active haemorrhage (2) systolic BP<90 mmHg (3) failure of blood pressure to respond to an intravenous fluid bolus) which were used to activate a pre-hospital 'Code Red' transfusion request accurately identified seriously injured patients who required transfusion on arrival at hospital. Prospective evaluation of all pre-hospital 'Code Red' requests over a 30-month period (August 2008-May 2011) was performed for patients transported to a major trauma centre. Mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, hospital mortality, and use of blood products were recorded. Patients were followed up to hospital discharge. 176 'Code Red' activations were made in the study period. 129 patients were transported to the Trauma Centre. Mechanism of injury was penetrating trauma in 39 (30%) cases, road traffic collision in 58 (45%), falls in 18 (14%) and 'other' in 14 (10.8%). Complete data was available for 126 patients. Of the patients reaching hospital, 20 died in the emergency department or operating theatre, 22 died following admission and 84 survived to hospital discharge. Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 29.1. (range 0-66). Overall, 115 (91%) of the patients declared 'Code Red' pre-hospital received blood product transfusion after arrival in hospital. Eleven patients did not receive any blood products following hospital admission. In patients declared 'Code Red' pre-hospital, mean packed red blood cell transfusion in the first 24-h was 10.4 unit (95% CI 8.4-12.3 unit). The use of simple pre-hospital

  18. Prehospital and en route cricothyrotomy performed in the combat setting: a prospective, multicenter, observational study.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Ed B G; Ervin, Alicia T; Mabry, Robert L; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2014-01-01

    Airway compromise is the third most common cause of potentially preventable combat death. Surgical cricothyrotomy is an infrequently performed but lifesaving airway intervention. There are limited published data on prehospital cricothyrotomy in civilian or military settings. Our aim was to prospectively describe the survival rate and complications associated with cricothyrotomy performed in the military prehospital and en route setting. The Life-Saving Intervention (LSI) study is a prospective, institutional review board-approved, multicenter trial examining LSIs performed in the prehospital combat setting. We prospectively recorded LSIs performed on patients in theater who were transported to six combat hospitals. Trained site investigators evaluated patients on arrival and recorded demographics, vital signs, and LSIs performed. LSIs were predefined and include cricothyrotomies, chest tubes, intubations, tourniquets, and other procedures. From the large dataset, we analyzed patients who had a cricothyrotomy performed. Hospital outcomes were cross-referenced from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. Descriptive statistics or Wilcoxon test (nonparametric) were used for data comparisons; statistical significance was set at p<.05. The primary outcome was success of prehospital and en route cricothyrotomy. Of the 1,927 patients enrolled, 34 patients had a cricothyrotomy performed (1.8%). Median age was 24 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 22.5-25 years), 97% were men. Mechanisms of injury were blast (79%), penetrating (18%), and blunt force (3%), and 83% had major head, face, or neck injuries. Median Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) was 3 (IQR: 3-7.5) and four patients had GCS higher than 8. Cricothyrotomy was successful in 82% of cases. Reasons for failure included left main stem intubation (n=1), subcutaneous passage (n=1), and unsuccessful attempt (n=4). Five patients had a prehospital basic airway intervention. Unsuccessful endotracheal intubation preceded 15

  19. Prehospital Systolic Hypertension and Outcomes in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Connie; Govindarajan, Prasanthi

    2017-01-01

    Background It is well known that hematoma volume and expansion is associated with poor outcomes in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). The factors associated with hematoma volume and possible expansion include the use of anticoagulant medications, autoimmune or bacterial diseases that reduce platelet production, and genetic defects of Von Willebrand factor causing inhibition or reduction of platelet aggregation. However, little is known about the role of elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) on hematoma volume and its ultimate role on sICH when identified in the prehospital setting. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of elevated SBP among diagnosed sICH patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS), and to explore possible associations between prehospital elevated SBP and hematoma volume. Methods This is a hypothesis-generating study for which we used a retrospective observational design. The subjects included 243 adult patients who were seen and treated for sICH in an emergency department serving a county hospital in a large metropolitan city. Elevated SBP in the setting of sICH was defined as ≥140 mm Hg. A univariate analysis was performed to investigate associations between patient demographics, elevated SBP, and sICH characteristics with the pre-determined outcome of hematoma volume. We then performed a multivariable logistic regression model to determine if elevated prehospital SBP remained associated with hematoma volume. Results The number of subjects with a hospital-based diagnosis of sICH was 243. Of those, 193 (79%) were transported by an ambulance. Among those transported by ambulance, 180 (93%) had a documented prehospital SBP; out of those patients with a documented SBP, 173 (96%) showed an elevated SBP of ≥140 mm Hg, and 82 (46%) had a hematoma volume of ≥30 mL. Our univariate analysis showed that sICH patients with an elevated prehospital SBP of ≥140 mm Hg were associated with hematoma volume

  20. Heart rate variability as a triage tool in patients with trauma during prehospital helicopter transport.

    PubMed

    King, David R; Ogilvie, Michael P; Pereira, Bruno M T; Chang, Yuchiao; Manning, Ronald J; Conner, Jeffrey A; Schulman, Carl I; McKenney, Mark G; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2009-09-01

    Prehospital triage of patients with trauma is routinely challenging, but more so in mass casualty situations and military operations. The purpose of this study was to prospectively test whether heart rate variability (HRV) could be used as a triage tool during helicopter transport of civilian patients with trauma. After institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent, 75 patients with trauma requiring prehospital helicopter transport to our level I center (from December 2007 to November 2008) were prospectively instrumented with a 2-Channel SEER Light recorder (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). HRV was analyzed with a Mars Holter monitor system and proprietary software. SDNN (standard deviation [SD] of the normal-to-normal R-R interval), as an index of HRV, was correlated with prehospital trauma triage criteria, base deficit, seriousness of injury, operative interventions, outcome, and other data extracted from the patients' medical records. There were no interventions or medical decisions based on HRV. Data were excluded only if there was measurement artifact or technical problems with the recordings. The demographics were mean age 47 years, 63% men, 88% blunt, 25% traumatic brain injury, 9% mortality. Prehospital SDNN predicted patients with base excess < or = -6, those defined as seriously injured and benefiting from trauma center care, as well as patients requiring a life-saving procedure in the operating room. No other available data, including prehospital en-route vital signs, predicted any of these. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 80%, 75%, 33%, 96%, respectively, with and an overall accuracy of 76% for predicting a life-saving intervention in the operating room. This is the first demonstration that prehospital HRV (specifically SDNN) predicts base excess and operating room life-saving opportunities. HRV triages and discriminates severely injured patients better than routine trauma

  1. PHTLS ® (Prehospital Trauma Life Support) provider courses in Germany – who takes part and what do participants think about prehospital trauma care training?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to examine PHTLS Provider courses in Germany and to proof the assumption that formation of physicians and paramedics in prehospital trauma care can be optimized. Methods PHTLS participants were asked to fill out standardized questionnaires during their course preparation and directly after the course. There were some open questions regarding their professional background and closed questions concerning PHTLS itself. Further questions were to be answered on an analog scale in order to quantify subjective impressions of confidence, knowledge and also to describe individual levels of education and training. Results 247 questionnaires could be analyzed. Physicians noted significant (p < 0.001) more deficits in their professional training than paramedics. 80% of the paramedics affirmed to have had adequate training with respect to prehospital trauma care, all physicians claimed not to have had sufficient training for prehospital trauma care situations at Medical School. Physicians were statistically most significant dissatisfied then paramedics (p < 0.001). While most participants gave positive feedback, anesthetists were less convinced of PHTLS (p = 0.005), didn’t benefit as much as the rest (p = 0.004) and stated more often, that the course was of less value for their daily work (p = 0.03). After the course confidence increased remarkably and reached higher rates than before the course (p < 0.001). After PHTLS both groups showed similar ratings concerning the course concept indicating that PHTLS could equalize some training deficits and help to gain confidence and assurance in prehospital trauma situations. 90% of the paramedics and 100% of the physicians would recommend PHTLS. Physicians and especially anesthetists revised their opinions with regard to providing PHTLS at Medical School after having taken part in a PHTLS course. Conclusion The evaluation of PHTLS courses in Germany indicates the necessity for special prehospital

  2. PHTLS ® (Prehospital Trauma Life Support) provider courses in Germany - who takes part and what do participants think about prehospital trauma care training?

    PubMed

    Frank, Christian B; Wölfl, Christoph G; Hogan, Aidan; Suda, Arnold J; Gühring, Thorsten; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Münzberg, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine PHTLS Provider courses in Germany and to proof the assumption that formation of physicians and paramedics in prehospital trauma care can be optimized. PHTLS participants were asked to fill out standardized questionnaires during their course preparation and directly after the course. There were some open questions regarding their professional background and closed questions concerning PHTLS itself. Further questions were to be answered on an analog scale in order to quantify subjective impressions of confidence, knowledge and also to describe individual levels of education and training. 247 questionnaires could be analyzed. Physicians noted significant (p < 0.001) more deficits in their professional training than paramedics. 80% of the paramedics affirmed to have had adequate training with respect to prehospital trauma care, all physicians claimed not to have had sufficient training for prehospital trauma care situations at Medical School. Physicians were statistically most significant dissatisfied then paramedics (p < 0.001). While most participants gave positive feedback, anesthetists were less convinced of PHTLS (p = 0.005), didn't benefit as much as the rest (p = 0.004) and stated more often, that the course was of less value for their daily work (p = 0.03). After the course confidence increased remarkably and reached higher rates than before the course (p < 0.001). After PHTLS both groups showed similar ratings concerning the course concept indicating that PHTLS could equalize some training deficits and help to gain confidence and assurance in prehospital trauma situations. 90% of the paramedics and 100% of the physicians would recommend PHTLS. Physicians and especially anesthetists revised their opinions with regard to providing PHTLS at Medical School after having taken part in a PHTLS course. The evaluation of PHTLS courses in Germany indicates the necessity for special prehospital trauma care training. Paramedics and

  3. Pre-hospital critical care by anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Scandinavia: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, A J; Lossius, H M; Mikkelsen, S; Kurola, J; Castrén, M; Skogvoll, E

    2013-10-01

    All Scandinavian countries provide anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services. Little is known of the incidence of critical illness or injury attended by these services. We aimed to investigate anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Scandinavia with special emphasis on incidence and severity. This population-based, prospective study recorded activity in 16 anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden serving half of the Scandinavian population. We calculated population incidence of medical conditions, and the proportion of patients with severely deranged vital signs and/or receiving advanced therapy. Four thousand two hundred thirty-six alarm calls were recorded during 4 weeks. Two thousand two hundred fity-six alarms resulted in a patient encounter. The population incidence varied from 74.9 missions per 10,000 person-years (Denmark), followed by Finland with 14.6, Norway with 11, and Sweden with 5. Medical aetiology was most frequent (14.9 missions per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI: 14.2-15.8). Trauma was second (5.6 missions per 10,000 person-years, 95%CI: 5.12-6.09). Twenty-three per cent of patients had severely deranged vital functions, and advanced emergency medical procedures were performed in every four to twelve encounters (Denmark 8%, Sweden 15%, Norway 23%, and Finland 25%). The probability that the patient was physiologically deranged, received advanced medication, or procedure was 35%. Critical illness or injury occured at a rate of 25-30 per 10,000 person-years. The incidence of pre-hospital anaesthesiologist patient encounters in Scandinavia varies. Medical aetiology is most frequent. Almost one-quarter of patients presents with deranged vital functions requiring emergency measures. The Scandinavian pre-hospital population incidence of critical illness and injury is 25-30 per 10,000 person-years. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of the effect of hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol on the intraocular pressure in healthy normotensive dogs and the effect of hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch on the intraocular pressure in dogs with primary glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Volopich, Sabine; Mosing, Martina; Auer, Ulrike; Nell, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if intravenous hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch (7.5%/6%) (HES) could decrease the intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy normotensive dogs, and compare its effect with that of mannitol (20%) (experimental study). In addition, the potential IOP-lowering effect of hypertonic HES was evaluated in six dogs with primary glaucoma (clinical study). Experimental study: eight male ophthalmoscopically and clinically healthy Beagles were included in this study. The IOP of each dog was measured by applanation tonometry in both eyes to obtain control values at 10:00, 10:15, 10:30, 10:45, 11:00 a.m., and then every hour until 6:00 p.m. prior to the first treatment (control period). Each dog received, with at least 2-week intervals and in a random order, an intravenous (IV) infusion of 4 mL/kg hypertonic HES (1.2 g/kg NaCl; 0.96 g/kg HES) and 4 mL/kg mannitol 20% (1 g/kg) over a period of 15 min starting at 10:00 a.m. IOP was measured oculus uterque (OU) at the same time intervals as in the control study. The differences in IOP between the treatment groups and the baseline IOP (before the start of infusion), between oculus sinister (OS) and oculus dexter (OD) and between the same time points of all groups were determined with a Student's t-test for paired samples (P = 0.05). Clinical study: six dogs with primary glaucoma (representing seven eyes) received an IV infusion of 4 mL/kg hypertonic HES over a period of 15 min. IOP was measured before and 15 and 30 min after starting the infusion. Experimental study: no significant difference between IOP of both eyes was found. A significant decrease in IOP from baseline value was recorded at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after the start of mannitol infusion (mean amplitude in IOP decrease 3.21 mmHg; P < 0.05) and at 15 and 30 min in dogs treated with HES (mean amplitude in IOP decrease 2.43 mmHg; P < 0.05). At 120 and 180 min there was a significantly higher IOP (P < 0.05) in HES treatment group

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Prehospital and In-hospital Delay Times in Acute Stroke Care

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Foraker, Randi; Morris, Dexter L.; Rosamond, Wayne D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and summarize prehospital and in-hospital stroke evaluation and treatment delay times. We identified 123 unique peer-reviewed studies published from 1981 to 2007 of prehospital and in-hospital delay time for evaluation and treatment of patients with stroke, transient ischemic attack, or stroke-like symptoms. Based on studies of 65 different population groups, the weighted Poisson regression indicated a 6.0% annual decline (p<0.001) in hours/year for prehospital delay, defined from symptom onset to emergency department (ED) arrival. For in-hospital delay, the weighted Poisson regression models indicated no meaningful changes in delay time from ED arrival to ED evaluation (3.1%, p=0.49 based on 12 population groups). There was a 10.2% annual decline in hours/year from ED arrival to neurology evaluation or notification (p=0.23 based on 16 population groups) and a 10.7% annual decline in hours/year for delay time from ED arrival to initiation of computed tomography (p=0.11 based on 23 population groups). Only one study reported on times from arrival to computed tomography scan interpretation, two studies on arrival to drug administration, and no studies on arrival to transfer to an in-patient setting, precluding generalizations. Prehospital delay continues to contribute the largest proportion of delay time. The next decade provides opportunities to establish more effective community based interventions worldwide. It will be crucial to have effective stroke surveillance systems in place to better understand and improve both prehospital and in-hospital delays for acute stroke care. PMID:19659821

  6. Prehospital ketamine use by paramedics in the Australian Capital Territory: A 12 month retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Gregory J; Keene, Toby M; Ardlie, Rory M; Caldicott, David Ge; Stapleton, Stuart G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe prehospital use of ketamine by ACT Ambulance Service, and frequency of endotracheal intubation. This was a retrospective study of patients receiving prehospital ketamine between 1 January and 31 December 2013. Episodes were identified from the prehospital electronic patient care records, then linkage to ED records at two receiving hospitals. Demographics, dose, indication and occasions of intubation were analysed. A total of 163 episodes were identified; 10 of these were excluded because of lack of identifying data or missing records (age 1-97 years [mean: 43, standard deviation: 21.7], 56% men). Median total dose was 60 mg (interquartile range 70; 5-400 mg) in three doses (interquartile range 3; 1-14 mg). For patients with a weight recorded (63%), median dose was 0.73 mg/kg. Indications were analgesia 68%, agitation/combative 25%, rapid sequence intubation 5% and others 2%. A total of 26 patients were endotracheally intubated, 11 prehospital (seven as an intended rapid sequence intubation and four combative patients with return of spontaneous circulation) and 15 in the ED. Of ED intubations, 10 were trauma patients and five were drug ingestion related. Patients receiving ketamine for combativeness were more likely to be intubated than those receiving it for analgesia (25 vs 7.2%; odds ratio: 3.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 10.71). In those with a weight recorded, the mg/kg dose was not associated with subsequent intubation. Median dose for analgesia was comparable with other studies; dose for sedation was less than reported elsewhere. Intubation rate for patients receiving prehospital ketamine was 17%. Further study is recommended to assess the ED course of the non-intubated group of patients, and consideration should be given to non-weight-based methods of dose selection. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. Positive Coping: A Unique Characteristic to Pre-Hospital Emergency Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Abbas; Froutan, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction It is important to gain a thorough understanding of positive coping methods adopted by medical emergency personnel to manage stressful situations associated with accidents and emergencies. Thus, the purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of positive coping strategies used by emergency medical service providers. Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis method. The study participants included 28 pre-hospital emergency personnel selected from emergency medical service providers in bases located in different regions of the city of Mashhad, Iran, from April to November 2016. The purposive sampling method also was used in this study, which was continued until data saturation was reached. To collect the data, semistructured open interviews, observations, and field notes were used. Results Four categories and 10 subcategories were extracted from the data on the experiences of pre-hospital emergency personnel related to positive coping strategies. The four categories included work engagement, smart capability, positive feedback, and crisis pioneering. All the obtained categories had their own subcategories, which were determined based on their distinctly integrated properties. Conclusion The results of this study show that positive coping consists of several concepts used by medical emergency personnel, management of stressful situations, and ultimately quality of pre-hospital clinical services. Given the fact that efficient methods such as positive coping can prevent debilitating stress in an individual, pre-hospital emergency authorities should seek to build and strengthen “positive coping” characteristics in pre-hospital medical emergency personnel to deal with accidents, emergencies, and injuries through adopting regular and dynamic policies. PMID:28243409

  8. Limitations in Prehospital Communication Between Trauma Helicopter, Ambulance Services, and Dispatch Centers.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Annelieke Maria Karien; Giannakopoulos, Georgios; Franschman, Gaby; Christiaans, Herman; Bloemers, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Prehospital communication with Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is carried out in hectic situations. Proper communication among all medical personal is required to enhance collaboration, to provide the best care and enable shared situational awareness. The objective of this article was to give insight into current Dutch prehospital emergency care communication among all EMS and evaluate the usage of a new physician staffed helicopter EMS (P-HEMS) cancellation model. Trauma-related P-HEMS dispatches between November 1, 2014 and May 31, 2015 for the Lifeliner 1 were included; a random sample of 100 dispatches was generated. Tape recordings on all verbal prehospital communication between the dispatch center, EMS, and P-HEMS were transcribed and analyzed. Qualitative content analysis was performed, using open coding to code key messages. Ninety-two tape recordings were analyzed. The most frequent reason for P-HEMS dispatch was suspicion of brain injury (24%). The cancellation model was followed in 66%, overruled in 9%, and not applicable in 25%. The main reason for not adhering to the model was hemodynamic stability. In 5% of P-HEMS dispatches, a complete ABCD (airway, breathing, circulation, disability) methodology was used for handover, in 9% a complete Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation technique, in 2% a complete Mechanism-Injuries-Signs-Treatment method was used. The other handovers were incomplete. Prehospital handover between EMS on-scene and P-HEMS often entails insufficient information. The cancellation model for P-HEMS is frequently used and promotes adequate information transfer. To increase joined decision-making, more patient and situational information needs to be handed over. Standardization of prehospital trauma handovers will facilitate this and improve trauma patient's outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenteral midazolam is superior to diazepam for treatment of prehospital seizures.

    PubMed

    Clemency, Brian M; Ott, Jamie A; Tanski, Christopher T; Bart, Joseph A; Lindstrom, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Diazepam and midazolam are commonly used by paramedics to treat seizures. A period of drug scarcity was used as an opportunity to compare their effectiveness in treating prehospital seizures. A retrospective chart review of a single, large, commercial agency during a 29-month period was performed. The period included alternating shortages of both medications. Ambulances were stocked with either diazepam or midazolam based on availability of the drugs. Adult patients who received at least 1 parenteral dose of diazepam or midazolam for treatment of seizures were included. The regional prehospital protocol recommended 5 mg intravenous (IV) diazepam, 5 mg intramuscular (IM) diazepam, 5 mg IM midazolam, or 2.5 mg IV midazolam. Medication effectiveness was compared with respect to the primary end point: cessation of seizure without repeat seizure during the prehospital encounter. A total of 440 study subjects received 577 administrations of diazepam or midazolam and met the study criteria. The subjects were 52% male, with a mean age of 48 (range 18-94) years. A total of 237 subjects received 329 doses of diazepam, 64 (27%) were treated with first-dose IM. A total of 203 subjects received 248 doses of midazolam; 71 (35%) were treated with first-dose IM. Seizure stopped and did not recur in 49% of subjects after parenteral diazepam and 65% of subjects after parenteral midazolam (p = 0.002). Diazepam and midazolam exhibited similar first dose success for IV administration (58 vs. 62%; p = 0.294). Age, gender, seizure history, hypoglycemia, the presence of trauma, time to first administration, prehospital contact time, and frequency of IM administration were similar between groups. For parenteral administration, midazolam demonstrated superior first-dose seizure suppression. This study demonstrates how periods of drug scarcity can be utilized to study prehospital medication effectiveness.

  10. Effective pre-hospital care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tatsuma; Fukuda-Ohashi, Naoko; Doi, Kent; Matsubara, Takehiro; Yahagi, Naoki

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between pre-hospital care and the prognosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by respiratory disease is unclear. This study aimed to assess the impact of pre-hospital care on the prognosis of OHCA caused by respiratory disease. In a nationwide, population-based, observational study, we enrolled 121,081 adults aged ≥18 years who experienced OHCA from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. The primary endpoint was favourable neurological outcomes. Of the 120,256 eligible adult OHCA patients, 7,071 (5.9%) experienced OHCA caused by respiratory disease. Of these 7,071 patients, 3,911 (55.3%) received no cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 2,403 (34.0%) received chest-compression-only CPR, and 757 (10.7%) received conventional CPR by a bystander. There was no significant difference between the three types of bystander CPR with regard to the neurological outcome (no CPR: OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.39-1.24, p=0.1951; chest-compression-only CPR: OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.37-1.29, p=0.2295; and conventional CPR: as a reference). Pre-hospital administration of epinephrine (OR 0.37, 95%CI 0.13-0.85, p=0.0170) and the implementation of advanced airway management (OR 0.32, 95%CI 0.19-0.52, p<0.0001) were associated with poor neurological outcomes. Even in OHCA caused by respiratory disease, not only pre-hospital epinephrine administration but also pre-hospital advanced airway management and rescue breathing in bystander CPR may not be critical. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Expertise of German paramedics concerning the prehospital treatment of patients with spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Kreinest, M; Goller, S; Gliwitzky, B; Grützner, P A; Küffer, M; Häske, D; Papathanassiou, V; Münzberg, M

    2017-06-01

    Spinal immobilization is a standard procedure in emergency medicine. Increasing awareness of complications associated with immobilization of trauma patients leads to controversial discussions in the literature. Current guidelines require to include considerations of accident mechanism, an assessment of the patient's condition and an examination of the spine in the decision-making process if immobilization of the spine should be performed. This requires sound knowledge of assessing these parameters. The aim of the current study is to analyze German paramedics' subjective uncertainty in terms of their prehospital assessment and treatment of patients suffering from spine injuries. Over a period of 17 months participants in a trauma course were asked to complete a standardized anonymous questionnaire about subjective uncertainty of prehospital assessment and management of spinal trauma before participation in that course. Questions about the frequency of application of different immobilization tools and skills training on spinal immobilization were also asked. A total of 465 paramedics were surveyed. The participants did not indicate any uncertainty about the prehospital diagnosis and treatment of spinal injuries. The feeling of confidence was significantly greater in participants who had already attended another course on structured trauma care before. The participants agreed with the statements that standardized algorithms facilitate teamwork and that there is a need for a protocol for the prehospital treatment of spinal injuries. Paramedics do not feel uncertain about the prehospital assessment and treatment of spinal injuries. The feeling of confidence in participants who had already attended a course on the treatment of trauma patients before was significantly higher.

  12. Cost-effectiveness and benefit of alternatives to improve training for prehospital trauma care in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Risa, Carlos; Mock, Charles; Herrera-Escamilla, Alejandro J; Contreras, Ismael; Vargas, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    In Latin America, there is a preponderance of prehospital trauma deaths. However, scarce resources mandate that any improvements in prehospital medical care must be cost-effective. This study sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of several approaches to improving training for personnel in three ambulance services in Mexico. In Monterrey, training was augmented with PreHospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) at a cost of [US] dollar 150 per medic trained. In San Pedro, training was augmented with Basic Trauma Life Support (BTLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), and a locally designed airway management course, at a cost of dollar 400 per medic. Process and outcome of trauma care were assessed before and after the training of these medics and at a control site. The training was effective for both intervention services, with increases in basic airway maneuvers for patients in respiratory distress in Monterrey (16% before versus 39% after) and San Pedro (14% versus 64%). The role of endotrachal intubation for patients with respiratory distress increased only in San Pedro (5% versus 46%), in which the most intensive Advanced Life Support (ALS) training had been provided. However, mortality decreased only in Monterrey, where it had been the highest (8.2% before versus 4.7% after) and where the simplest and lowest cost interventions were implemented. There was no change in process or outcome in the control site. This study highlights the importance of assuring uniform, basic training for all prehospital providers. This is a more cost-effective approach than is higher-cost ALS training for improving prehospital trauma care in environments such as Latin America.

  13. Prediction of thrombolytic therapy after stroke-bypass transportation: the Maria Prehospital Stroke Scale score.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Naoshi; Yamada, Koji; Ono, Hajime; Kumai, Junichiro; Tsumura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Kazunari; Nozaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Takumi, Ichiro; Nikaido, Hirofumi; Katabami, Tuyoshi; Ueda, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Iwai, Ryosei; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Shigeno, Taku

    2013-05-01

    There is no prehospital stratification tool specifically for predicting thrombolytic therapy after transportation. We developed a new prehospital scale named the Maria Prehospital Stroke Scale (MPSS) by modifying the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale. Our objective is to evaluate its utility in a citywide bypass transportation protocol for intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). In the MPSS, facial droop, arm drift, and speech disturbance are tested by emergency medical technicians (EMTs). Facial droop is graded as normal (0) or abnormal (1), and the other 2 items are graded in 3 levels as normal (0), not severe (1), and severe (2). Thus, the total MPSS score ranges from 0 to 5. The predictive value of MPSS for thrombolytic therapy after bypass transportation was evaluated in 1057 patients. The MPSS scored by EMTs was significantly correlated with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score in the emergency room (Spearman rho = .67, P = .000). The onset-to-door time was significantly longer with a low MPSS score (analysis of variance, F5,4.21 = .001). The rate of thrombolytic therapy was increased when the MPSS score increased from 0 to 5: 0%, 4.1%, 8.8%, 13.0%, 20.3%, and 31.5%, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the correct diagnosis of stroke and prediction of IV tPA therapy were calculated as .737 (95% confidence interval [CI]: .688-.786) and .689 (95% CI: .645-.732), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the MPSS score and the detection-to-door time were independent predictors of tPA use after transportation. The MPSS is a novel prehospital stratification tool for the prediction of thrombolytic therapy after transportation. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Prehospital Transport Use for Trauma Patients in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani; Oranmore-Brown, Rae; Hopkins, Kathryn L; White, Emily E; Mulla, Yacob F; Seidenberg, Phil

    2016-12-01

    Despite an increasing burden of injuries, prehospital transport systems remain underdeveloped in many low- and middle-income countries. Little information exists on the use of prehospital services for trauma patients in Zambia. A prospective, observational study of trauma presentations was undertaken for 6 months in Lusaka, Zambia, to establish the epidemiology and outcomes of injury in the region. In addition to demographics and mechanism of injury, data were collected on prehospital transport as well as inpatient resources utilization. Trained study personnel gathered data on trauma presentations 24 h a day. Statistical analysis was conducted using SAS 9.3 from a Microsoft(®) Access database. 3498 trauma patients were enrolled in the study on arrival to University Teaching Hospital (UTH). 3264 patients had a transport means recorded (95.3 %). Two-thirds (66 %) arrived within 6 h of injury, and 23 % arrived within the first hour after injury. A majority arrived by private vehicle (53.4 %) or public transport (37.7 %); only 5.9 % were transported by public or private ambulance. Of those arriving within the first hour after injury, 69.1 % came by private car, 24.6 % by public transport and 3.1 % by ambulance. There was a small statistical increase in Kampala Trauma Score II among ambulance arrivals. Trauma patient use a variety of transport methods to get to UTH. A majority of patients use no formal ambulance transport. Despite this fact, a majority arrives within 6 h of injury but receive no formal prehospital care. An integrated, multilayered prehospital care and transport system may be the most effective approach for Zambia.

  15. Customer care. Patient satisfaction in the prehospital setting.

    PubMed

    Doering, G T

    1998-09-01

    The focus of the study was to prioritize six emergency medical service treatment factors in terms of their impact upon patient satisfaction in the prehospital setting. The six treatment areas analyzed were: EMS response time; medical care provided on scene; explanation of care by the provider; the provider's ability to reduce patient anxiety; the provider's ability to meet the patient's non-medical needs; and the level of courtesy/politeness shown by the EMS provider toward the patient. Telephone interviews were conducted with both patients and bystanders to obtain their perception of how well the system met their needs. The study analyzed how the six issues were rated and then evaluated the impact an individual's low score in a category had on that person's overall rating of the service provided. The overall satisfaction rating is not a calculated score, but an overall score specified by the respondent. The effect each issue had on the respondent's overall rating was determined by averaging the overall ratings for a category's low scorers, averaging the overall ratings for high scorers and then measuring the difference. Results of the study indicate that the factor with the greatest negative impact on patient satisfaction came from a perceived lack of crew courtesy and politeness. Respondents who indicated a fair to poor score in this category decreased their overall score by 60.2%. Ratings in other categories yielded the following results: When respondents rated the response time as fair to poor, their average overall rating showed an 18.4% decrease. When respondents rated the quality of medical care as fair to poor, their average overall rating showed a decrease of 22.6%. When the crew's ability to explain what was happening to the patient was rated as fair to poor, the average overall score dropped 33.6%. When the EMT's and medic's ability to reduce the patient's anxiety was rated fair to poor, average overall score declined by 32.6%. Finally, when the crew

  16. Comparison of Three Prehospital Cervical Spine Protocols for Missed Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rick; Meenan, Molly; Prince, Erin; Murphy, Ronald; Tambussi, Caitlin; Rohrbach, Rick; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We wanted to compare 3 existing emergency medical services (EMS) immobilization protocols: the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS, mechanism-based); the Domeier protocol (parallels the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] criteria); and the Hankins’ criteria (immobilization for patients <12 or >65 years, those with altered consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, distracting injury, or midline or paraspinal tenderness).To determine the proportion of patients who would require cervical immobilization per protocol and the number of missed cervical spine injuries, had each protocol been followed with 100% compliance. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of patients ≥18 years transported by EMS post-traumatic mechanism to an inner city emergency department. Demographic and clinical/historical data obtained by physicians were recorded prior to radiologic imaging. Medical record review ascertained cervical spine injuries. Both physicians and EMS were blinded to the objective of the study. Results Of 498 participants, 58% were male and mean age was 48 years. The following participants would have required cervical spine immobilization based on the respective protocol: PHTLS, 95.4% (95% CI: 93.1–96.9%); Domeier, 68.7% (95% CI: 64.5–72.6%); Hankins, 81.5% (95% CI: 77.9–84.7%). There were 18 cervical spine injuries: 12 vertebral fractures, 2 subluxations/dislocations and 4 spinal cord injuries. Compliance with each of the 3 protocols would have led to appropriate cervical spine immobilization of all injured patients. In practice, 2 injuries were missed when the PHTLS criteria were mis-applied. Conclusion Although physician-determined presence of cervical spine immobilization criteria cannot be generalized to the findings obtained by EMS personnel, our findings suggest that the mechanism-based PHTLS criteria may result in unnecessary cervical spine immobilization without apparent benefit to injured patients. PHTLS criteria

  17. Intraosseous access EZ-IO in a prehospital emergency service.

    PubMed

    Torres, Francisco; Galán, Maria Dolores; Alonso, Maria del Mar; Suárez, Rosa; Camacho, Carmen; Almagro, Veronica

    2013-09-01

    Several scientific and professional associations have made reports and recommendations to regulate the use of intraosseous (IO) access as an alternative to conventional intravenous access (IA) in emergency situations when IA cannot be obtained. It has been well documented that IO access is safe and effective for fluid resuscitation, drug delivery, and blood collection. IO access is attainable in all age groups. The objective of this prospective study was to test the use of a semi-automatic IO infusion system (EZ-IO) as an alternative to vascular access in critical patients treated in a prehospital emergency setting. This prospective, cross-sectional study included patients who required immediate peripheral vascular access. This study was performed by reviewing clinical records and through a questionnaire (created by and for nurses who perform the insertion with the EZ-IO). During the study period we identified 107 patients who underwent EZ-IO insertion (114 insertions were performed). Patients were predominantly male (66%) and middle aged (mean age 56 years; range 3-94). Overall, insertion was performed via the proximal tibia (49.4%) distal tibia (25.2%), radius (14.9%), and humerus (10.5%). During the study period, 14 insertions were performed in 2007, 44 in 2008, and 56 in 2009. A majority of patients (50.9%) had medical cardiac arrest, (25.4%) were injured trauma patients, and 12.3% had traumatic cardiac arrest. All patients were transported to a hospital with 2 sites of peripheral vascular access. The first site of access in these patients was IO (100% of cases) and the second site (in 79% of cases) was peripheral intravenous access. All EZ-IO insertions were achieved within 30 seconds and were successful upon the first attempt. The use of the EZ-IO provides a quick (100% performed within 30 seconds), easy, and reliable alternative to conventional venous access in critically ill patients. Traditional peripheral venous access requires a minimal preparation that

  18. Motor vehicle crash severity estimations by physicians and prehospital personnel.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Nathan; Colwell, Christopher; Douglass, Erica; Hopkins, Emily; Haukoos, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether emergency physicians (EPs) and prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) personnel differ in their assessment of motor vehicle crash (MVC) severity and the potential for serious injury when viewing crash scene photographs. Attending and resident EPs, paramedics, and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) from a single emergency medicine system used a web-based survey platform to rate the severity of 100 crash photographs on a 10-point Likert scale (Crash Score) and the potential for serious injury on a 0-100% scale (Injury Score). Serious injury was defined as skull fracture or intracranial bleeding, spine fracture or spinal cord injury, intrathoracic or intraabdominal injury, or long bone fracture. Crash and Injury Scores were stratified into EP and paramedic/EMT (EMS) groups and the mean score was calculated for each photo. Spearman rank correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and Bland-Altman plots were constructed to assess agreement. Secondary analyses were performed after categorizing data into quartiles based on participants' estimations of MVC severity. A total of 54 attending and 53 resident EPs, 156 paramedics, and 34 EMTs were invited to participate in the survey. Of these, 39 (72%) attending and 46 (87%) resident EPs, 107 (69%) paramedics, and 17 (50%) EMTs completed the survey. A total of 183 (88%) surveys were completed in full. The overall Crash Score correlation coefficient between EPs and EMS was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.97-0.99). The Crash Score correlation coefficients for each quartile were 0.86 (0.57-0.97), 0.93 (0.85-0.96), 0.58 (0.16-0.85), and 0.88 (0.66-0.97), respectively. The overall Injury Score correlation coefficient between EPs and EMS was 0.98 (0.88-0.97). The Injury Score correlation coefficients for each quartile were 0.94 (0.48-0.91), 0.76 (0.50-0.92), 0.80 (0.69-1.00), and 0.94 (0.57-0.97), respectively. Although overall agreement between EPs and EMS personnel was excellent, differences in

  19. Prehospital Use of Magnesium Sulfate as Neuroprotection in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Saver, Jeffrey L.; Starkman, Sidney; Eckstein, Marc; Stratton, Samuel J.; Pratt, Franklin D.; Hamilton, Scott; Conwit, Robin; Liebeskind, David S.; Sung, Gene; Kramer, Ian; Moreau, Gary; Goldweber, Robert; Sanossian, Nerses

    2016-01-01

    -group differences were noted with respect to mortality (15.4% in the magnesium group and 15.5% in the placebo group, P = 0.95) or all serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Prehospital initiation of magnesium sulfate therapy was safe and allowed the start of therapy within 2 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms, but it did not improve disability outcomes at 90 days. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; FAST-MAG ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00059332.) PMID:25651247

  20. Prehospital use of magnesium sulfate as neuroprotection in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Saver, Jeffrey L; Starkman, Sidney; Eckstein, Marc; Stratton, Samuel J; Pratt, Franklin D; Hamilton, Scott; Conwit, Robin; Liebeskind, David S; Sung, Gene; Kramer, Ian; Moreau, Gary; Goldweber, Robert; Sanossian, Nerses

    2015-02-05

    mortality (15.4% in the magnesium group and 15.5% in the placebo group, P=0.95) or all serious adverse events. Prehospital initiation of magnesium sulfate therapy was safe and allowed the start of therapy within 2 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms, but it did not improve disability outcomes at 90 days. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; FAST-MAG ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00059332.).

  1. Hypertonicity-induced transmitter release at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions is partly mediated by integrins and cAMP/protein kinase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Grinnell, Alan D.; Kidokoro, Yoshiaki

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of quantal transmitter release increases upon application of hypertonic solutions. This effect bypasses the Ca(2+) triggering step, but requires the presence of key molecules involved in vesicle fusion, and hence could be a useful tool for dissecting the molecular process of vesicle fusion. We have examined the hypertonicity response at neuromuscular junctions of Drosophila embryos in Ca(2+)-free saline. Relative to wild-type, the response induced by puff application of hypertonic solution was enhanced in a mutant, dunce, in which the cAMP level is elevated, or in wild-type embryos treated with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, while protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors decreased it. The response was also smaller in a mutant, DC0, which lacks the major subunit of PKA. Thus the cAMP/PKA cascade is involved in the hypertonicity response. Peptides containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), which inhibit binding of integrins to natural ligands, reduced the response, whereas a peptide containing the non-binding sequence Arg-Gly-Glu (RGE) did not. A reduced response persisted in a mutant, myospheroid, which expresses no integrins, and the response in DC0 was unaffected by RGD peptides. These data indicate that there are at lease two components in the hypertonicity response: one that is integrin mediated and involves the cAMP/PKA cascade, and another that is not integrin mediated and does not involve the cAMP/PKA cascade.

  2. K(+) channels of squid giant axons open by an osmotic stress in hypertonic solutions containing nonelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kukita, Fumio

    2011-08-01

    In hypertonic solutions made by adding nonelectrolytes, K(+) channels of squid giant axons opened at usual asymmetrical K(+) concentrations in two different time courses; an initial instantaneous activation (I (IN)) and a sigmoidal activation typical of a delayed rectifier K(+) channel (I (D)). The current-voltage relation curve for I (IN) was fitted well with Goldman equation described with a periaxonal K(+) concentration at the membrane potential above -10 mV. Using the activation-voltage curve obtained from tail currents, K(+) channels for I (IN) are confirmed to activate at the membrane potential that is lower by 50 mV than those for I (D). Both I (IN) and I (D) closed similarly at the holding potential below -100 mV. The logarithm of I (IN)/I (D) was linearly related with the osmolarity for various nonelectrolytes. Solute inaccessible volumes obtained from the slope increased with the nonelectrolyte size from 15 to 85 water molecules. K(+) channels representing I (D) were blocked by open channel blocker tetra-butyl ammonium (TBA) more efficiently than in the absence of I (IN), which was explained by the mechanism that K(+) channels for I (D) were first converted to those for I (IN) by the osmotic pressure and then blocked. So K(+) channels for I (IN) were suggested to be derived from the delayed rectifier K(+) channels. Therefore, the osmotic pressure is suggested to exert delayed-rectifier K(+) channels to open in shrinking rather hydrophilic flexible parts outside the pore than the pore itself, which is compatible with the recent structure of open K(+) channel pore.

  3. Median preoptic nucleus mediates the cardiovascular recovery induced by hypertonic saline in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Nathalia Oda; Naves, Lara Marques; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos Luiz; Freiria-Oliveira, André Henrique; Colombari, Eduardo; Rosa, Daniel Alves; Reis, Angela Adamski da Silva; Ianzer, Danielle; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Changes in plasma osmolarity, through central and peripheral osmoreceptors, activate the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) that modulates autonomic and neuroendocrine adjustments. The present study sought to determine the participation of MnPO in the cardiovascular recovery induced by hypertonic saline infusion (HSI) in rats submitted to hemorrhagic shock. The recordings of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) were carried out on male Wistar rats (250-300 g). Hemorrhagic shock was induced by blood withdrawal over 20 min until the MAP values of approximately 60 mmHg were attained. The nanoinjection (100 nL) of GABAA agonist (Muscimol 4 mM; experimental group (EXP)) or isotonic saline (NaCl 150 mM; control (CONT)) into MnPO was performed 2 min prior to intravenous overload of sodium through HSI (3 M NaCl, 1.8 mL/kg, b.wt.). Hemorrhagic shock reduced the MAP in control (62 ± 1.1 mmHg) and EXP (61 ± 0.4 mmHg) equipotently. The inhibition of MnPO impaired MAP (CONT: 104 ± 4.2 versus EXP: 60 ± 6.2 mmHg) and RVC (CONT: 6.4 ± 11.4 versus EXP: -53.5 ± 10.0) recovery 10 min after HSI. The overall results in this study demonstrated, for the first time, that the MnPO plays an essential role in the HSI induced resuscitation during hypovolemic hemorrhagic shock.

  4. Advances toward the Elucidation of Hypertonic Saline Effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Michon, Anne-Laure; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Chiron, Raphaël; Lamy, Brigitte; Marchandin, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nebulized hypertonic saline (HTS) has beneficial effects including reducing pulmonary exacerbations in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. Several mechanisms may explain these effects but antimicrobial activity of NaCl remains largely unexplored. We aimed to measure the antimicrobial effect of NaCl on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the respiratory tract in CF patients. Methods NaCl minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for strains characterized for mucoidy, antimicrobial resistance, and ability to form biofilm using 0,9% to 15% NaCl solutions. NaCl effects on biofilm formation, preformed biofilm, and mobility were evaluated. Kinetics of antimicrobial effects was studied. Results The growth of all isolates (n = 85) from 34 patients was inhibited by 6% NaCl solution. A 10% concentration had a bactericidal activity on 90% of the isolates. Mucoid and multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates displayed lower MICs compared to non-mucoid and to non-MDR isolates, respectively. Time-kill kinetics showed that NaCl exhibited a rapid, dose and growth phase dependent bactericidal effect. Three percent or more of NaCl inhibited biofilm formation for 69% of strongly adherent isolates. A dose-dependent decrease of preformed biofilm viability and an inhibitory activity on bacterial motility were observed. Conclusions NaCl inhibited the growth of all isolates and killed 38% of tested isolates within concentration range currently used in therapeutics. Our results suggest that anti-pseudomonal activity is another mechanism of action of HTS to add to those already established. Clinical trials are needed to compare diverse HTS conditions of use (rhythm, dose and mode of delivery) to obtain efficient and optimized anti-P. aeruginosa effects. More generally, NaCl effect on other opportunistic pathogens as well as on global microbiotae recovered during polymicrobial diseases warrants further investigations. PMID

  5. Synovitis induced by joint lavage with hypertonic saline solutions in healthy dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Achard, Damien; Francoz, David; Desrochers, André; Girard, Christiane; Piché, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single joint lavage with 7.2% or 15% hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) on the tarsocrural joints of healthy calves. The tarsi of 10 calves were randomly lavaged with 7.2% HSS, 15% HSS, or isotonic saline. Synovial fluid samples were collected aseptically on days 1 (before joint lavage), 2, 3, 4, and 8 for complete cytological analysis. Lameness, joint swelling, and pain were recorded daily. Calves were euthanized on day 8 for gross and histological analyses of synovial membranes and articular cartilage. Synovitis was evaluated using a scoring system reflecting inflammatory changes in synovial membranes. Joints irrigated with HSS were more distended and painful compared with isotonic control joints. Swelling decreased consistently in the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS, whereas it remained unchanged in joints lavaged with 15% HSS. Slight to moderate lameness was observed in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS. In comparison to isotonic saline joints, total protein concentration was significantly increased on day 2 and 3 for the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS (P ≤ 0.01) and on days 2, 3, and 4 in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS (P ≤ 0.0006). Gross and histological findings revealed that synovitis was more severe in the joints lavaged with 15% HSS but variable in the joints lavaged with 7.2% HSS. No significant differences were observed for the articular cartilage. Fifteen percent HSS is not recommended for joint lavage. Although irrigation with 7.2% HSS may induce a variable synovitis, it was found appropriate for joint lavage. Its effects on septic joints remain undetermined. PMID:23024450

  6. Salt Appetite Is Reduced by a Single Experience of Drinking Hypertonic Saline in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Michael P.; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  7. Intracarotid hypertonic sodium chloride differentially modulates sympathetic nerve activity to the heart and kidney

    PubMed Central

    Frithiof, Robert; Xing, Tao; McKinley, Michael J.; May, Clive N.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertonic NaCl infused into the carotid arteries increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and changes sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via cerebral mechanisms. We hypothesized that elevated sodium levels in the blood supply to the brain would induce differential responses in renal and cardiac SNA via sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured renal and cardiac SNA simultaneously in conscious sheep during intracarotid infusions of NaCl (1.2 M), sorbitol (2.4 M), or urea (2.4 M) at 1 ml/min for 4 min into each carotid. Intracarotid NaCl significantly increased MAP (91 ± 2 to 97 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) without changing heart rate (HR). Intracarotid NaCl was associated with no change in cardiac SNA (11 ± 5.0%), but a significant inhibition of renal SNA (−32.5 ± 6.4%, P < 0.05). Neither intracarotid sorbitol nor urea changed MAP, HR, central venous pressure, cardiac SNA, and renal SNA. The changes in MAP and renal SNA were completely abolished by microinjection of the GABA agonist muscimol (5 mM, 500 nl each side) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Infusion of intracarotid NaCl for 20 min stimulated a larger increase in water intake (1,100 ± 75 ml) than intracarotid sorbitol (683 ± 125 ml) or intracarotid urea (0 ml). These results demonstrate that acute increases in blood sodium levels cause a decrease in renal SNA, but no change in cardiac SNA in conscious sheep. These effects are mediated by cerebral sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier that are more responsive to changes in sodium concentration than osmolality. The renal sympathoinhibitory effects of sodium are mediated via a pathway that synapses in the PVN. PMID:24523342

  8. NEBULIZED HYPERTONIC SALINE ATTENUATES ACUTE LUNG INJURY FOLLOWING TRAUMA AND HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    Wohlauer, M.; Moore, E.E.; Silliman, C.C.; Fragoso, M.; Gamboni, F.; Harr, J.; Accurso, F.; Wright, F.; Haenel, J.; Fullerton, D.; Banerjee, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that aerosolized inhaled HTS given at the onset of resuscitation will decrease acute lung injury (ALI) following hemorrhagic shock by inhibiting the release of epithelial derived pro-inflammatory mediators. Design Animal study Setting Animal care facility procedure room in a medical center. Subjects Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions Rats underwent hemorrhagic shock followed by 2 hrs of resuscitation and one hour of observation. In the study group, nebulized HTS was delivered at the end of the shock period and after 1 hr and 2 hr of resuscitation. Measurements and Main Results Shock provoked ALI, which was attenuated with inhaled HTS (1.56 ± 0.2 vs. 0.95 ± 0.3 mg protein/ml BALF, Shock vs. Shock +HTS, p<0.01). Nebulized HTS reduced inflammation (CINC-1 accumulation in BAL fluid 5999 ± 1267 vs. 3342 ± 859 pg/ml, Shock vs. Shock +HTS, p=0.006). Additionally, nebulized HTS inhibited MMP-13 accumulation in the BALF (1513 ± 337 pg/ml BALF vs. 230 ± 19 pg/ml, Shock vs. Shock + HTS, p=0.009) and pretreatment with an MMP-13 inhibitor was sufficient to attenuate postinjury ALI (1.42 ± 0.09 vs. 0.77 ± 0.23 mg/ml BAL protein, Shock vs. Shock + MMP-13 Inhibitor CL-82198, p=0.002). Conclusion Inhaled hypertonic saline attenuates postshock acute lung injury by exerting an anti-inflammatory effect on the pulmonary epithelium, suggesting a new clinical strategy to treat ALI/ARDS. PMID:22732292

  9. Chronic physiological increases in cortisol inhibit the vasopressin response to hypertonicity in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Papanek, P E; Raff, H

    1994-11-01

    Chronic increases in cortisol inhibit basal plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP). Acute pretreatment with cortisol inhibits the large increase in AVP during hypotension or hypoxia but does not inhibit the modest increase in AVP in response to hypertonic saline (HS). We evaluated the effect of a chronic increase in cortisol (physiological range) on the acute AVP response to HS. Five male dogs received a continuous infusion of either vehicle or cortisol (65 mg/day) for 7 days. The AVP response to HS (0.2 mmol.kg-1.min-1 for 30 min) was tested before infusion, on days 1, 4, and 7 of chronic infusion, and 2 days after the infusion was discontinued. Plasma cortisol increased significantly from 1.0 +/- 0.2 micrograms/dl to an average over the 7 days of infusion of 5.0 +/- 0.2 micrograms/dl, and basal plasma AVP was significantly decreased during cortisol infusion. The increase in plasma Na and osmolality during HS was unaffected by chronic infusion. HS resulted in an increase in AVP from 3.5 +/- 0.2 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 pg/ml before cortisol infusion. After 7 days of cortisol, the AVP response to HS (from 2.6 +/- 0.1 to 3.9 +/- 0.7 pg/ml) was significantly attenuated. Sustained, physiological increases in cortisol significantly inhibited osmotically stimulated AVP release. The decrease in AVP during hypercortisolism and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone in patients with adrenal insufficiency appear to be due to an inhibitory effect of cortisol on the osmotic sensitivity of the AVP control system.

  10. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1β Regulates Urinary Concentration and Response to Hypertonicity.

    PubMed

    Aboudehen, Karam; Noureddine, Lama; Cobo-Stark, Patricia; Avdulov, Svetlana; Farahani, Shayan; Gearhart, Micah D; Bichet, Daniel G; Pontoglio, Marco; Patel, Vishal; Igarashi, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) is essential for normal kidney development and function. Inactivation of HNF-1β in mouse kidney tubules leads to early-onset cyst formation and postnatal lethality. Here, we used Pkhd1/Cre mice to delete HNF-1β specifically in renal collecting ducts (CDs). CD-specific HNF-1β mutant mice survived long term and developed slowly progressive cystic kidney disease, renal fibrosis, and hydronephrosis. Compared with wild-type littermates, HNF-1β mutant mice exhibited polyuria and polydipsia. Before the development of significant renal structural abnormalities, mutant mice exhibited low urine osmolality at baseline and after water restriction and administration of desmopressin. However, mutant and wild-type mice had similar plasma vasopressin and solute excretion levels. HNF-1β mutant kidneys showed increased expression of aquaporin-2 mRNA but mislocalized expression of aquaporin-2 protein in the cytoplasm of CD cells. Mutant kidneys also had decreased expression of the UT-A urea transporter and collectrin, which is involved in apical membrane vesicle trafficking. Treatment of HNF-1β mutant mIMCD3 cells with hypertonic NaCl inhibited the induction of osmoregulated genes, including Nr1h4, which encodes the transcription factor FXR that is required for maximal urinary concentration. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing experiments revealed HNF-1β binding to the Nr1h4 promoter in wild-type kidneys, and immunoblot analysis revealed downregulated expression of FXR in HNF-1β mutant kidneys. These findings reveal a novel role of HNF-1β in osmoregulation and identify multiple mechanisms, whereby mutations of HNF-1β produce defects in urinary concentration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. High flow therapy versus hypertonic saline in bronchiolitis: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bueno Campaña, Mercedes; Olivares Ortiz, Jorge; Notario Muñoz, Cristina; Rupérez Lucas, Marta; Fernández Rincón, Adelaida; Patiño Hernández, Olga; Calvo Rey, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    To demonstrate that heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) is superior to inhaled hypertonic saline solution (HSS) in improving respiratory distress in moderate bronchiolitis. In addition, it could improve comfort and reduce length of hospital stay (LOS) and admission to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Randomised Clinical Trial from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2012. Two urban secondary (no PICU available) paediatric hospitalisation units. Hospitalised children aged up to 6 months with moderate acute bronchiolitis (Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument, RDAI ≥4). Patients were randomised to HHHFNC or HSS. All of them received epinephrine as bronchodilator. Primary outcome was difference in mean Respiratory Assessment Change Score (RACS) between both groups measured in six previously defined consecutive moments. Secondary outcomes were difference in mean comfort scores in this period, LOS and rate of PICU admission. Seventy-five previously healthy patients were enrolled. Mean age was 2.4 months (95% CI 2.04 to 2.76). 43 were allocated to HSS group and 32 in HHHFNC. Data of 1 patient were lost, and 8 changed group over the study period. Intention-to-treat principle was applied. There were no significant differences in mean RACS and mean comfort scores between groups at the evaluation points. Median LOS or PICU admission rate were similar in both groups. No adverse events were observed. HHHFNC was not superior to HSS in treatment of moderate acute bronchiolitis with respect to severity and comfort scores, LOS or PICU admission rate. NCT01873144. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in the emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Florin, Todd A; Shaw, Kathy N; Kittick, Marlena; Yakscoe, Stephen; Zorc, Joseph J

    2014-07-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is the most frequent lower respiratory tract infection in infants, yet there are no effective therapies available. Current evidence is unclear about the role of hypertonic saline (HS) for the acute treatment of bronchiolitis. To determine whether nebulized 3% HS compared with normal saline (NS) improves respiratory distress in infants with bronchiolitis not responding to standard treatments in the emergency department. A randomized clinical trial with blinding of investigators, health care providers, and parents was conducted at a single urban pediatric ED. The participants included children aged 2 to less than 24 months with their first episode of bronchiolitis and a Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score of 4 to 15 after nasal suctioning and a trial of nebulized albuterol. Patients were randomized to receive either nebulized 3% HS (HS group) or NS (NS group). The primary outcome was change in respiratory distress at 1 hour after the intervention, as measured by the Respiratory Assessment Change Score (a decrease indicates improvement). Secondary outcomes included vital signs, oxygen saturation, hospitalization, physician clinical impression, parental assessment, and adverse events. The 31 patients enrolled in each treatment arm had similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. At 1 hour after the intervention, the HS group demonstrated significantly less improvement in the median Respiratory Assessment Change Score compared with the NS group (HS, -1 [interquartile range, -5 to 1] vs. NS, -5 [interquartile range, -6 to -2]; P = .01). There were no significant differences in heart rate, oxygen saturation, hospitalization rate, or other outcomes. There were no adverse events. Infants with bronchiolitis and persistent respiratory distress after standard treatment in the emergency department had less improvement after receiving 3% HS compared with those who received NS. Based on these results and the existing evidence

  13. Effect of hypertonic NaCl-starch-solution on oedema of different pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Koch, T; Neuhof, H; Kohler, P; Duncker, H P; Buse, A; van Ackern, K

    1994-02-01

    Small volumes of hypertonic NaCl-solutions have been proven to restore haemodynamics in hypovolemic shock patients. Topic of this study was to investigate whether bolus application of 7.5% NaCl-6.5% starch-solution (HSS) apart from its relevance in shock might be an effective therapy in oedema. Considering differential therapeutic aspects, the volume effects of 7.2 ml HSS were tested in three types of oedema: hydrostatic oedema induced by venous congestion (n = 6), oedema caused by bradykinin injection (n = 6), and proteinase-induced oedema (n = 6). The arterial, venous pressure and weight changes indicating volume shifts between intra- and extravascular space were continuously monitored in 36 isolated perfused rabbit hindlimbs. Oedema formation was induced corresponding to a weight gain of 18-20 g. Subsequently 7.2 ml HSS were injected into the extracorporeal circulation system containing 200 ml cell free, isoosmotic perfusate. Six experiments of each oedema group without HSS-application served as controls. 75-100% of oedema formation could be remobilised via bolus application of HSS within 5 min in all types of oedema. A persisting weight reduction was detectable in the hydrostatic and bradykinin oedema, whereas in the elastase oedema the initial weight loss was followed by a regain of weight up to 180% of initial oedema formation at 120 min after HSS-application. The results show that, due to the osmotic gradient induced by bolus application of HSS, the hydrostatic and bradykinin oedema can be permanently remobilised, whereas the therapeutic effect during proteinase oedema is only short-lasting due to an irreversible damage of barrier function.

  14. Comparison of 3% and 7.5% Hypertonic Saline in Resuscitation After Traumatic Hypovolemic Shock.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Ren, Hui-Qin; Zhao, Qing-Bo; Wu, You-Liang; Qiao, Zhuo-Yi

    2015-03-01

    Hypertonic saline solutions (HSSs) (7.5%) are useful in the resuscitation of patients with hypovolemic shock because they provide immediate intravascular volume expansion via the delivery of a small volume of fluid, improving cardiac function. However, the effects of using 3% HSS in hypovolemic shock resuscitation are not well known. This study was designed to compare the effects of and complications associated with 3% HSS, 7.5% HSS, and standard fluid in resuscitation. In total, 294 severe trauma patients were enrolled from December 2008 to February 2012 and subjected to a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Individual patients were treated with 3% HSS (250 mL), 7.5% HSS (250 mL), or lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) (250 mL). Mean arterial pressure, blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored and recorded before fluid infusion and at 10, 30, 45, and 60 min after infusion, and the incidence of complications and survival rate were analyzed. The results indicate that 3% and 7.5% HSSs rapidly restored mean arterial pressure and led to the requirement of an approximately 50% lower total fluid volume compared with the LRS group (P < 0.001). However, a single bolus of 7.5% HSS resulted in an increase in heart rate (mean of 127 beats/min) at 10 min after the start of resuscitation. Higher rates of arrhythmia and hypernatremia were noted in the 7.5% HSS group, whereas higher risks of renal failure (P< 0.001), coagulopathy (P < 0.001), and pulmonary edema (P < 0.001) were observed in the LRS group. Neither severe electrolyte disturbance nor anaphylaxis was observed in the HSS groups. It is notable that 3% HSS had similar effects on resuscitation because both the 7.5% HSS and LRS groups but resulted in a lower occurrence of complications. This study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of 3% HSS in the resuscitation of patients with hypovolemic shock.

  15. Duration of action of hypertonic saline on mucociliary clearance in the normal lung

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J.; Fuller, F.; Balcazar, J. R.; Zeman, K. L.; Duckworth, H.; Donn, K. H.; O'Riordan, T. G.; Boucher, R. C.; Donaldson, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of hypertonic saline (HS) acutely enhances mucociliary clearance (MC) in both health and disease. In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), repeated use of HS causes a sustained improvement in MC as well as clinical benefit. The pharmacodynamic duration of activity on MC may be an important determinant of its therapeutic potential in other airways diseases. Before moving toward testing the clinical benefits of HS for non-CF indications, we sought to assess the duration of pharmacodynamic effects of HS in healthy subjects by performing radiotracer clearance studies at baseline, 30-min post-HS administration, and 4-h post-HS administration. Indeed, acceleration of MC was observed when measured 30 min after HS inhalation. This acceleration was most pronounced in the first 30 min after inhaling the radiotracer in the central lung region (mean Ave30Clr = 15.5 vs. 8.6% for 30-min post-HS treatment vs. mean baseline, respectively, P < 0.005), suggesting that acute HS effects were greatest in the larger bronchial airways. In contrast, when MC was measured 4 h after HS administration, all indices of central lung region MC were slower than at baseline: Ave30Clr = 5.9% vs. 8.6% (P = 0.10); Ave90Clr = 12.4% vs. 16.8% (P < 0.05); clearance through 3 h = 29.4 vs. 43.7% (P < 0.002); and clearance through 6 h = 39.4 vs. 50.2% (P < 0.02). This apparent slowing of MC in healthy subjects 4-h post-HS administration may reflect depletion of airway mucus following acute HS administration. PMID:25911685

  16. Effects of hypertonic saline vs normal saline in lactate depuration after cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Atehortúa-López, Luis Horacio; Mendoza-Franco, Ray; Escobar-Serna, José Fernando; Urrego, Luis Alejandro; Alzate, Fernando; Jaimes, Fabian

    2017-03-11

    The postoperative care of patients exposed to cardiac surgery frequently require a thorough reanimation with intravenous fluids but crystalloid solutions like normal saline may increase the interstitial edema, and also it is well known that fluid overload increases mortality. To compare the effect of 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) with 0.9% normal saline (NS) in the lactate depuration and the hemodynamic response of patients during the first day after on-pump cardiovascular surgery. Patients who were 18 years of age and older with coronary artery disease and/or heart valve disease, and who went to bypass surgery and/or cardiac valve replacement were included and randomly allocated to receive 4mL/kg of HS or NS intravenously for 30min once were admitted to the ICU. We measured lactate, arterial blood gases, HR, CVP and PWP on 0, 6, 12 and 24h after being admitted to the ICU. The analysis was carried out with an intention-to-treat principle. A total of 494 patients were evaluated and 102 were included and assigned to the HS groups (51 patients) or NS (51 patients). Participants' average age was 59±14 years and 59.8% were men. We did not observe any statistically significant difference between two groups in the lactate depuration or in any of the secondary outcomes. Our study failed to show better lactate depuration using a dose of HS, and did not evidence a higher incidence of adverse effects in the HS group. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension.

  18. Furosemide continuous rate infusion diluted with 5% dextrose in water or hypertonic saline in normal adult dogs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Adin, D; Atkins, C; Papich, M; DeFrancesco, T; Griffiths, E; Penteado, M; Kurtz, K; Klein, A

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term safety and diuretic efficacy of furosemide constant rate infusion (CRI) diluted with 5% dextrose in water (D5W) compared to dilution with 2.4% hypertonic saline in healthy dogs. Six healthy dogs. Dogs were studied in a randomized, blinded, crossover manner. Furosemide 3.3mg/kg was diluted to 2.2mg/mL with either 1.5mL/kg D5W for the DEX method or with 1.0mL/kg D5W and 0.5mL/kg of 7.2% hypertonic saline for the H-SAL method. After a 0.66mg/kg furosemide IV bolus, the infusion rate was 0.3 mL/kg/hr for 5 h such that both methods delivered 0.66 mg/kg/hr (total 3.3mg/kg) furosemide in equal volume for the study duration. Urine output, water intake, central venous pressure (CVP), physical parameters, furosemide concentrations, blood and urine electrolytes, and urine aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) were evaluated. Measured variables were not different between methods but showed changes over time consistent with diuresis. Mean CVP decreased over time similarly for both methods. Plasma furosemide and urine concentrations were stable and not different between methods. Both furosemide CRI methods showed an increase in the UAldo:C, however, the rise was greater for DEX than for H-SAL. Diuresis was similar for both furosemide CRI methods; however, the H-SAL method induced less renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation than the DEX method. The absence of intravascular volume expansion based on CVP suggests that dilution of a furosemide CRI with 2.4% hypertonic saline may be well tolerated in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystalloid vs. hypertonic crystalloid-colloid solutions for induction of mild therapeutic hypothermia after experimental cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Miclescu, Adriana; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Wiklund, Lars

    2013-02-01

    To compare cerebral and hemodynamic consequences of different volumes of cold acetated Ringer's solution or cold hypertonic saline dextran administered in order to achieve mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest (CA) in a pig model of experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Using an experimental pig model of 12 min CA (followed by 8 min CPR or no resuscitation) we compared four groups of piglets: a control group, a normothermic group and two groups with different solutions administered for induction of hypothermia. The control group of 5 piglets underwent 12 min CA without subsequent CPR, after which the brain of the animals was removed immediately. After restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) the resuscitated piglets were randomized into a normothermic group (NT group=10), and two hypothermic groups that received cold infusions of either 30 mL/kg acetated Ringer's solution (Much fluid group, M, n=10) or 3mL/kg hypertonic saline dextran solution (Less fluid group, L, n=10), respectively, administered during 30 min. Additional external cooling with ice packs was used in hypothermic groups. Sixty or 180min after ROSC the experiment was terminated. Immediately after arrest the brain was removed for histological analyses. The median time to reach the target core temperature of 34 °C after ROSC was 51.5±7.8 min in L group and 48.8±8.6 min in M group. Less cerebral tissue content of water (p<0.001), sodium (p<0.0001), potassium (p<0.0001) and less central venous pressure (CVP) at 5 and 15 min after ROSC were demonstrated in L group. Increased brain damage was demonstrated over time in NT group (p<0.001). Less neurologic damage and BBB disruptions (albumin leakage) was observed at 180min in M group in comparison with both NT and L groups (p<0.001). No statistical differences were observed between the hypothermic groups in the time to achieve mild hypothermia. Although inclusion of cold hypertonic crystalloid-colloidal solutions in the early resuscitation

  20. Inhaled hypertonic saline in infants and children younger than 6 years with cystic fibrosis: the ISIS randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ratjen, Felix; Brumback, Lyndia; Daniel, Stephen; Rowbotham, Ron; McNamara, Sharon; Johnson, Robin; Kronmal, Richard; Davis, Stephanie D

    2012-06-06

    Inhaled hypertonic saline is recommended as therapy for patients 6 years or older with cystic fibrosis (CF), but its efficacy has never been evaluated in patients younger than 6 years with CF. To determine if hypertonic saline reduces the rate of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations in patients younger than 6 years with CF. The Infant Study of Inhaled Saline in Cystic Fibrosis (ISIS), a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 2009 to October 2011 at 30 CF care centers in the United States and Canada. Participants were aged 4 to 60 months and had an established diagnosis of CF. A total of 344 patients were assessed for eligibility; 321 participants were randomized; 29 (9%) withdrew prematurely. The active treatment group (n = 158) received 7% hypertonic saline and the control group (n = 163) received 0.9% isotonic saline, nebulized twice daily for 48 weeks. Both groups received albuterol or levalbuterol prior to each study drug dose. Rate during the 48-week treatment period of protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbations treated with oral, inhaled, or intravenous antibiotics. The mean pulmonary exacerbation rate (events per person-year) was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.0-2.5) in the active treatment group and 2.3 (95% CI, 2.1-2.6) in the control group; the adjusted rate ratio was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84-1.15). Among participants with pulmonary exacerbations, the mean number of total antibiotic treatment days for a pulmonary exacerbation was 60 (95% CI, 49-70) in the active treatment group and 52 (95% CI, 43-61) in the control group. There was no significant difference in secondary end points including height, weight, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, cough, or respiratory symptom scores. Infant pulmonary function testing performed as an exploratory outcome in a subgroup (n = 73, with acceptable measurements at 2 visits in 45 participants) did not demonstrate significant differences between groups except for the mean change in forced

  1. Induction of the high-affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport system XAG- by hypertonic stress in the renal epithelial cell line NBL-1.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Martinez, A; Felipe, A; Nicholson, B; Casado, J; Pastor-Anglada, M; McGivan, J

    1995-01-01

    The high-affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transport system XAG- is induced (threefold increase in Vmax. with no change in Km) by hypertonicity in the renal epithelial cell line NBL-1. This effect is dependent on protein synthesis and glycosylation and is accompanied by an increase in EAAC1 mRNA levels. Other Na(+)-dependent transport systems in this cell line do not respond to hypertonic stress. In contrast to recent findings [Ruiz-Montasell, Gomez-Angelats, Casado, Felipe, McGivan and Pastor-Anglada (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91, 9569-9573] showing that increased system A activity after hyperosmotic shock results from induction of a regulatory protein, this is the first demonstration that hypertonicity may increase the expression of the gene for an amino acid transport protein itself. Images Figure 4 PMID:7654212

  2. Incidence of difficult airway situations during prehospital airway management by emergency physicians--a retrospective analysis of 692 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Nils; Piegeler, Tobias; Brueesch, Martin; Sulser, Simon; Haas, Thorsten; Mueller, Stefan M; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2015-05-01

    In the prehospital setting, advanced airway management is challenging as it is frequently affected by facial trauma, pharyngeal obstruction or limited access to the patient and/or the patient's airway. Therefore, incidence of prehospital difficult airway management is likely to be higher compared to the in-hospital setting and success rates of advanced airway management range between 80 and 99%. 3961 patients treated by an emergency physician in Zurich, Switzerland were included in this retrospective analysis in order to determine the incidence of a difficult airway along with potential circumstantial risk factors like gender, necessity of CPR, NACA score, GCS, use and type of muscle relaxant and use of hypnotic drugs. 692 patients underwent advanced prehospital airway management. Seven patients were excluded due to incomplete or incongruent documentation, resulting in 685 patients included in the statistical analysis. Difficult intubation was recorded in 22 patients, representing an incidence of a difficult airway of 3.2%. Of these 22 patients, 15 patients were intubated successfully, whereas seven patients (1%) had to be ventilated with a bag valve mask during the whole procedure. In this physician-led service one out of five prehospital patients requires airway management. Incidence of advanced prehospital difficult airway management is 3.2% and eventual success rate is 99%, if performed by trained emergency physicians. A total of 1% of all prehospital intubation attempts failed and alternative airway device was necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prehospital trauma care reduces mortality. Ten-year results from a time-cohort and trauma audit study in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Blunt implementation of Western trauma system models is not feasible in low-resource communities with long prehospital transit times. The aims of the study were to evaluate to which extent a low-cost prehospital trauma system reduces trauma deaths where prehospital transit times are long, and to identify specific life support interventions that contributed to survival. Methods In the study period from 1997 to 2006, 2,788 patients injured by land mines, war, and traffic accidents were managed by a chain-of-survival trauma system where non-graduate paramedics were the key care providers. The study was conducted with a time-period cohort design. Results 37% of the study patients had serious injuries with Injury Severity Score ≥ 9. The mean prehospital transport time was 2.5 hours (95% CI 1.9 - 3.2). During the ten-year study period trauma mortality was reduced from 17% (95% CI 15 -19) to 4% (95% CI 3.5 - 5), survival especially improving in major trauma victims. In most patients with airway problems, in chest injured, and in patients with external hemorrhage, simple life support measures were sufficient to improve physiological severity indicators. Conclusion In case of long prehospital transit times simple life support measures by paramedics and lay first responders reduce trauma mortality in major injuries. Delegating life-saving skills to paramedics and lay people is a key factor for efficient prehospital trauma systems in low-resource communities. PMID:22304808

  4. Selective tonicity-induced expression of the neutral amino-acid transporter SNAT2 in oligodendrocytes in rat brain following systemic hypertonicity.

    PubMed

    Maallem, S; Mutin, M; González-González, I M; Zafra, F; Tappaz, M L

    2008-04-22

    Sodium-coupled neutral amino-acid transporter member 2 (SNAT2) belongs to the family of neutral amino-acid transporters. SNAT2 is encoded by the gene Slc38a2, whose expression was reported to increase in vitro in fibroblasts, endothelial and renal cells exposed to a hypertonic medium. SNAT2 tonicity-induced expression brings about cellular accumulation of amino-acid, which contributes to osmoadaptation to hypertonicity. Since brain osmoadaptation is observed in relationship to neurological disorders resulting from pathological osmotic imbalances in blood plasma, we have investigated, through immunocytochemistry, SNAT2 expression in brain of rats subjected to systemic hypertonicity. Following prolonged systemic hypertonicity (24 h), small, strongly immunolabeled elements were observed that were not present in sham-treated animals. They were evenly distributed in the gray matter, with a lower density in the forebrain and a higher density in the brain stem. However the highest density by far was observed in white matter, where they were frequently aligned in chain-like rows. These observations suggested an oligodendrocyte location that was further established by double immunofluorescent labeling, using the oligodendrocyte phenotypic markers 2'-3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'phosphodiesterase and carbonic anhydrase II. SNAT2-positive elements were found associated with oligodendrocyte cell bodies, while oligodendrocyte processes were devoid of labeling. A quantitative analysis performed in the cerebral cortex indicated that virtually all SNAT2-positive elements were associated with oligodendrocyte cell bodies and conversely that the overwhelming majority of oligodendrocytes showed SNAT2 immunolabeling. The tonicity-induced expression of SNAT2 was not observed following acute systemic hypertonicity (6 h). Our results suggest that the osmoadaptation of brain oligodendrocytes to hypertonicity relies upon amino-acid accumulation through the tonicity-induced expression of SNAT2

  5. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Blanchard, Ian E; Doig, Christopher J; Ghali, William A

    2012-10-03

    Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7-8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based on US data may not be appropriate in a

  6. Prehospital and en route analgesic use in the combat setting: a prospectively designed, multicenter, observational study.

    PubMed

    Petz, Lawrence N; Tyner, Stuart; Barnard, Ed; Ervin, Alicia; Mora, Alex; Clifford, John; Fowler, Marcie; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2015-03-01

    Combat injuries result in acute, severe pain. Early use of analgesia after injury is known to be beneficial. Studies on prehospital analgesia in combat are limited and no prospectively designed study has reported the use of analgesics in the prehospital and en route care setting. Our objective was to describe the current use of prehospital analgesia in the combat setting. This prospectively designed, multicenter, observational, prehospital combat study was undertaken at medical treatment facilities (MTF) in Afghanistan between October 2012 and September 2013. It formed part of a larger study aimed at describing the use of lifesaving interventions in combat. On arrival at the MTF, trained on-site investigators enrolled eligible patients and completed standardized data capture forms, which included the name, dose, and route of administration of all prehospital analgesics, and the type of provider who administered the drug. Physiological data were retrospectively ascribed as soon as practicable. The study was prospectively approved by the Brooke Army Medical Center institutional review board. Data were collected on 228 patients, with 305 analgesia administrations recorded. The predominant mechanism of injury was blast (50%), followed by penetrating (41%), and blunt (9%). The most common analgesic used was ketamine, followed by morphine. A combination of analgesics was given to 29% of patients; the most common combination was ketamine and morphine. Intravenous delivery was the most commonly used route (55%). Patients transported by the UK Medical Emergency Response Team (MERT) or U.S. Air Medical Evacuation (Dust-off) team were more likely to receive ketamine than those evacuated by U.S. Pararescue Jumpers (Pedro). Patients transported by Medical Emergency Response Team or Pedro were more likely to receive more than 1 drug. Patients who received only ketamine had a higher pulse rate (p<0.005) and lower systolic blood pressure (p=0.01) than other groups, and patients

  7. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. Methods The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. Results There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7–8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. Conclusions The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based

  8. Does prehospital fluid administration impact core body temperature and coagulation functions in combat casualties?

    PubMed

    Farkash, Uri; Lynn, Mauricio; Scope, Alon; Maor, Ron; Turchin, Nickolai; Sverdlik, Borris; Eldad, Arieh

    2002-03-01

    Administration of large amounts of fluids to trauma patients, in the absence of surgical control, may increase bleeding, cause hypothermia and coagulopathy which may worsen the bleeding and increase morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to examine the impact of prehospital fluid administration to military combat casualties on core body temperature and coagulation functions. Prospective data were collected on all cases of moderately (9 < or = ISS < or = 14) and severely (ISS > or = 16) injured victims wounded in South Lebanon, treated by Israeli military physicians and evacuated to hospitals in Israel, over a two-year period. Data regarding prehospital phase of injury (timetables, amount of fluids) and upon hospital arrival (initial core body temperature, prothrombin time [PT], partial thromboplastin time [PTT]) were examined for monotonic relation using Spearman's non-parametric test. Fifty-three moderately injured and 31 severely injured patients were included in the study. The average evacuation time for the moderately injured group was 109.3 +/- 44.8 min, and for the severely injured 100.3 +/- 38.4 min (P value=NS). The mean volume of fluids administered was 2.39 +/- 1.52 and 2.49 +/- 1.47 l, respectively (P=NS). No statistical correlation was found between core body temperature, PT or PTT, measured upon hospital arrival, and prehospital fluid treatment. In addition, no correlation was found between core body temperature on hospital arrival and prehospital time, or between prehospital fluid volumes and prehospital time. The mean core body temperature of the moderately injured patients was 36.8 degrees C, and that of severely injured was 35.8 degrees C (P=0.026). With proper control of blood loss and avoidance of excessive fluid administration, moderately and severely injured combat casualties in 'low intensity conflict' in South Lebanon can be resuscitated with fluid volumes that do not result in a coagulation deficit or hypothermia. The core body

  9. Improving prehospital trauma care in Rwanda through continuous quality improvement: an interrupted time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Scott, John W; Nyinawankusi, Jeanne D'Arc; Enumah, Samuel; Maine, Rebecca; Uwitonze, Eric; Hu, Yihan; Kabagema, Ignace; Byiringiro, Jean Claude; Riviello, Robert; Jayaraman, Sudha

    2017-07-01

    Injury is a major cause of premature death and disability in East Africa, and high-quality pre-hospital care is essential for optimal trauma outcomes. The Rwandan pre-hospital emergency care service (SAMU) uses an electronic database to evaluate and optimize pre-hospital care through a continuous quality improvement programme (CQIP), beginning March 2014. The SAMU database was used to assess pre-hospital quality metrics including supplementary oxygen for hypoxia (O2), intravenous fluids for hypotension (IVF), cervical collar placement for head injuries (c-collar), and either splinting (splint) or administration of pain medications (pain) for long bone fractures. Targets of >90% were set for each metric and daily team meetings and monthly feedback sessions were implemented to address opportunities for improvement. These five pre-hospital quality metrics were assessed monthly before and after implementation of the CQIP. Met and unmet needs for O2, IVF, and c-collar were combined into a summative monthly SAMU Trauma Quality Scores (STQ score). An interrupted time series linear regression model compared the STQ score during 14 months before the CQIP implementation to the first 14 months after. During the 29-month study period 3,822 patients met study criteria. 1,028 patients needed one or more of the five studied interventions during the study period. All five endpoints had a significant increase between the pre-CQI and post-CQI periods (p<0.05 for all), and all five achieved a post-CQI average of at least 90% completion. The monthly composite STQ scores ranged from 76.5 to 97.9 pre-CQI, but tightened to 86.1-98.7 during the post-CQI period. Interrupted time series analysis of the STQ score showed that CQI programme led to both an immediate improvement of +6.1% (p=0.017) and sustained monthly improvements in care delivery-improving at a rate of 0.7% per month (p=0.028). The SAMU experience demonstrates the utility of a responsive, data-driven quality improvement

  10. Exclusion of context knowledge in the development of prehospital guidelines: results produced by realistic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Magnus Andersson; Suserud, Bjorn-Ove; Jonsson, Anders; Henricson, Maria

    2013-06-22

    Prehospital work is accomplished using guidelines and protocols, but there is evidence suggesting that compliance with guidelines is sometimes low in the prehospital setting. The reason for the poor compliance is not known. The objective of this study was to describe how guidelines and protocols are used in the prehospital context. This was a single-case study with realistic evaluation as a methodological framework. The study took place in an ambulance organization in Sweden. The data collection was divided into four phases, where phase one consisted of a literature screening and selection of a theoretical framework. In phase two, semi-structured interviews with the ambulance organization's stakeholders, responsible for the development and implementation of guidelines, were performed. The third phase, observations, comprised 30 participants from both a rural and an urban ambulance station. In the last phase, two focus group interviews were performed. A template analysis style of documents, interviews and observation protocols was used. The development of guidelines took place using an informal consensus approach, where no party from the end users was represented. The development process resulted in guidelines with an insufficiently adapted format for the prehospital context. At local level, there was a conscious implementation strategy with lectures and manikin simulation. The physical format of the guidelines was the main obstacle to explicit use. Due to the format, the ambulance personnel feel they have to learn the content of the guidelines by heart. Explicit use of the guidelines in the assessment of patients was uncommon. Many ambulance personnel developed homemade guidelines in both electronic and paper format. The ambulance personnel in the study generally took a positive view of working with guidelines and protocols and they regarded them as indispensable in prehospital care, but an improved format was requested by both representatives of the organization

  11. Exclusion of context knowledge in the development of prehospital guidelines: results produced by realistic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prehospital work is accomplished using guidelines and protocols, but there is evidence suggesting that compliance with guidelines is sometimes low in the prehospital setting. The reason for the poor compliance is not known. The objective of this study was to describe how guidelines and protocols are used in the prehospital context. Methods This was a single-case study with realistic evaluation as a methodological framework. The study took place in an ambulance organization in Sweden. The data collection was divided into four phases, where phase one consisted of a literature screening and selection of a theoretical framework. In phase two, semi-structured interviews with the ambulance organization's stakeholders, responsible for the development and implementation of guidelines, were performed. The third phase, observations, comprised 30 participants from both a rural and an urban ambulance station. In the last phase, two focus group interviews were performed. A template analysis style of documents, interviews and observation protocols was used. Results The development of guidelines took place using an informal consensus approach, where no party from the end users was represented. The development process resulted in guidelines with an insufficiently adapted format for the prehospital context. At local level, there was a conscious implementation strategy with lectures and manikin simulation. The physical format of the guidelines was the main obstacle to explicit use. Due to the format, the ambulance personnel feel they have to learn the content of the guidelines by heart. Explicit use of the guidelines in the assessment of patients was uncommon. Many ambulance personnel developed homemade guidelines in both electronic and paper format. The ambulance personnel in the study generally took a positive view of working with guidelines and protocols and they regarded them as indispensable in prehospital care, but an improved format was requested by both

  12. [Incidence of sudden death cases in acute coronary insufficiency and acute myocardial infarction at the pre-hospital stage in Krasnoyarsk].

    PubMed

    Opaleva-Stegantseva, V A; Ivanov, A G; Gavrilina, I A; Khar'kov, E I; Ratovskaia, V I

    1986-05-01

    The impact of improvements in prehospital cardiologic service on total and prehospital mortality associated with acute coronary insufficiency (ACI) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the causes of fatal outcomes is illustrated by a study based on the acute myocardial infarction register involving populations from two city districts between 20 and 69 years of age. Prehospital mortality caused by ACI and AMI is shown to decline with the progress of cardiologic care. The decline is attributed to reduced incidence of some causes of death, such as heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Sudden coronary death (85.1%) remains the principal cause of prehospital mortality.

  13. Pre-hospital trauma care resources for road traffic injuries in a middle-income country--a province based study on need and access in Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghparast Bidgoli, Hassan; Bogg, Lennart; Hasselberg, Marie

    2011-09-01

    Access to pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize many of traffic related mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries with high rate of traffic deaths such as Iran. The aim of this study was to assess if the distribution of pre-hospital trauma care facilities reflect the burden of road traffic injury and mortality in different provinces in Iran. This national cross-sectional study is based on ecological data on road traffic mortality (RTM), road traffic injuries (RTIs) and pre-hospital trauma facilities for all 30 provinces in Iran in 2006. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients were used to describe the distributions of RTM/RTIs and pre-hospital trauma care facilities across provinces. Spearman rank-order correlation was performed to assess the relationship between RTM/RTI and pre-hospital trauma care facilities. RTM and RTIs as well as pre-hospital trauma care facilities were distributed unequally between different provinces. There was no significant association between the rate of RTM and RTIs and the number of pre-hospital trauma care facilities across the country. The distribution of pre-hospital trauma care facilities does not reflect the needs in terms of RTM and RTIs for different provinces. These results suggest that traffic related mortality and morbidity could be reduced if the needs in terms of RTM and RTIs were taken into consideration when distributing pre-hospital trauma care facilities between the provinces. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Antagonism Inhibits Bronchoconstriction in Respose to Hypertonic Saline Inhalation in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kazani, Shamsah; Sadeh, Jonathan; Bunga, Sreedhar; Wechsler, Michael E; Israel, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    Background In asthma, cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) play varying roles in the bronchomotor response to multiple provocative stimuli. The contribution of CysLTs on the airway's response to hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation in asthma is unknown. Whether polymorphisms in the leukotriene biosynthetic pathway affect the contribution of CysLTs to this response is also unknown. Methods In a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study, mild and moderate asymptomatic asthmatics underwent inhaled 3% HS challenge by doubling the duration of nebulization (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 min) two hours after one dose of montelukast (a CysLT receptor 1 [CysLTR1] antagonist) or placebo, and after three week courses. We examined the effect of the leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S) polymorphism (A-444C) on the efficacy of montelukast against HS inhalation in an exploratory manner. Results In 37 subjects, two hours after administration of montelukast, the mean provocative dose of HS required to cause a 20% drop in FEV1 (HS-PD20) increased by 59% (9.17 after placebo vs. 14.55 ml after montelukast, p = 0.0154). Three weeks of cysLTR1 antagonism increased the HS-PD20 by 84% (10.97 vs. 20.21 ml, p = 0.0002). Three weeks of CysLTR1 antagonism appeared to produce greater effects on blocking bronchial hyper responsiveness (two hour vs. three week HS-PD20 values 14.55 vs. 20.21 ml respectively, p = 0.0898). We did not observe an effect of the LTC4S polymorphism on the response to CysLTR1 antagonism in this cohort. Conclusions A significant proportion of HS-induced bronchoconstriction is mediated by release of leukotrienes as evidenced by substantial acute inhibition with a CysLTR1 antagonist. There was a trend toward greater inhibition of bronchial responsiveness with three weeks of therapy as opposed to acute CysLTR1 antagonism. PMID:21169002

  15. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are protected against acetic acid, but not hydrochloric acid, by hypertonicity.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Ross, T

    2009-06-01

    Chapman et al. (B. Chapman, N. Jensen, T Ross, and M. B. Cole, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:5165-5172, 2006) demonstrated that an increased NaCl concentration prolongs survival of Escherichia coli O157 SERL 2 in a broth model simulating the aqueous phase of a food dressing or sauce containing acetic acid. We examined the responses of five other E. coli strains and four Salmonella enterica strains to increasing concentrations of NaCl under conditions of lethal acidity and observed that the average "lag" time prior to inactivation decreases in the presence of hydrochloric acid but not in the presence of acetic acid. For E. coli in the presence of acetic acid, the lag time increased with increasing NaCl concentrations up to 2 to 4% at pH 4.0, up to 4 to 6% at pH 3.8, and up to 4 to 7% (wt/wt of water) NaCl at pH 3.6. Salmonella was inactivated more rapidly by combined acetic acid and NaCl stresses than E. coli, but increasing NaCl concentrations still decreased the lag time prior to inactivation in the presence of acetic acid; at pH 4.0 up to 1 to 4% NaCl was protective, and at pH 3.8 up to 1 to 2% NaCl delayed the onset of inactivation. Sublethal injury kinetics suggest that this complex response is a balance between the lethal effects of acetic acid, against which NaCl is apparently protective, and the lethal effects of the NaCl itself. Compared against 3% NaCl, 10% (wt/wt of water) sucrose with 0.5% NaCl (which has similar osmotic potential) was found to be equally protective against adverse acetic acid conditions. We propose that hypertonicity may directly affect the rate of diffusion of acetic acid into cells and hence cell survival.

  16. Ad Libitum Fluid Intake and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Hypertonic Saline, or Deionized Water Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Scott; Miller, Kevin C.; Albrecht, Jay; Garden-Robinson, Julie; Blodgett-Salafia, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adding sodium (Na+) to drinks improves rehydration and ad libitum fluid consumption. Clinicians (∼25%) use pickle juice (PJ) to treat cramping. Scientists warn against PJ ingestion, fearing it will cause rapid plasma volume restoration and thereby decrease thirst and delay rehydration. Advice about drinking PJ has been developed but never tested. Objective: To determine if drinking small volumes of PJ, hypertonic saline (HS), or deionized water (DIW) affects ad libitum DIW ingestion, plasma variables, or perceptual indicators. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen, euhydrated (urine specific gravity ≤ 1.01) men (age = 22 ± 2 years, height = 178 ± 6 cm, mass = 82.9 ± 8.4 kg). Intervention(s): Participants completed 3 testing days (≥72 hours between days). After a 30-minute rest, a blood sample was collected. Participants completed 60 minutes of hard exercise (temperature = 36 ± 2°C, relative humidity = 16 ± 1%). Postexercise, they rested for 30 minutes; had a blood sample collected; rated thirst, fullness, and nausea; and ingested 83 ± 8 mL of PJ, HS, or DIW. They rated drink palatability (100-mm visual analog scale) and were allowed to drink DIW ad libitum for 60 minutes. Blood samples and thirst, fullness, and nausea ratings (100-mm visual analog scales) were collected at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes posttreatment drink ingestion. Main Outcome Measure(s): Ad libitum DIW volume, percentage change in plasma volume, plasma osmolality (OSMp,) plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]p), and thirst, fullness, nausea, and palatability ratings. Results: Participants consumed more DIW ad libitum after HS (708.03 ± 371.03 mL) than after DIW (532.99 ± 337.14 mL, P < .05). Ad libitum DIW ingested after PJ (700.35 ± 366.15 mL) was similar to that after HS and DIW (P > .05). Plasma sodium concentration, OSMp, percentage change in plasma volume, thirst, fullness, and nausea did not differ among treatment drinks

  17. Thermogenesis induced by intravenous infusion of hypertonic solutions in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Akiko; Osaka, Toshimasa; Inoue, Shuji; Kimura, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Intravenous administration of 20-60 % glucose, 3.2-9.7 % NaCl or 20 % mannitol solutions (1.66 ml kg−1) for 5 min increased oxygen consumption in urethane-anaesthetized rats, whereas administration of physiological saline had no effect. Administration of 7.7-18.3 % urea slightly increased the oxyg