Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter; Brugger, Hermann
Core temperature (T core) measurement is the only diagnostic tool to accurately assess the severity of hypothermia. International recommendations for management of accidental hypothermia encourage T core measurement for triage, treatment, and transport decisions, but they also recognize that lack of equipment may be a limiting factor, particularly in the field. The aim of this nonsystematic review is to highlight the importance of field measurement of T core and to provide practical guidance for clinicians on pre-hospital temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. Clinicians should recognize the difference between alternative measurement locations and available thermometers, tailoring their decision to the purpose of the measurement (i.e., intermittent vs. continual measurement), and the impact on management decisions. The importance of T core measurement in therapeutic hypothermia protocols during early cooling and monitoring of target temperature is discussed.
Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V.; Wartenberg, Katja E.
The earliest recorded application of therapeutic hypothermia in medicine spans about 5000 years; however, its use has become widespread since 2002, following the demonstration of both safety and efficacy of regimens requiring only a mild (32°C-35°C) degree of cooling after cardiac arrest. We review the mechanisms by which hypothermia confers neuroprotection as well as its physiological effects by body system and its associated risks. With regard to clinical applications, we present evidence on the role of hypothermia in traumatic brain injury, intracranial pressure elevation, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, spinal cord injury, hepatic encephalopathy, and neonatal peripartum encephalopathy. Based on the current knowledge and areas undergoing or in need of further exploration, we feel that therapeutic hypothermia holds promise in the treatment of patients with various forms of neurologic injury; however, additional quality studies are needed before its true role is fully known. PMID:24982721
Kampmeyer, Mitch; Callaway, Clifton
Research over the last decade has supported the use of cold intravenous (IV) fluid as a method for initiating therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest resuscitation. However, prehospital care programs employing this treatment have encountered various difficulties. Barriers to prehospital induced hypothermia (IH) protocols include the lack of effective or economically reasonable methods to maintain cold saline in the field. Validation of a simple method could allow agencies to equip numerous rigs with cold saline. The aim of this study was to determine whether a standard commercial cooler can maintain two 1-L normal saline solution (NSS) bags below 4 degrees C in three different environments. Environments simulating those of an ambulance compartment were created for the experiment. NSS temperatures were continuously recorded inside a standard commercial cooler under one of three scenarios: ambient room temperature (25 degrees C) without ice packs, ambient room temperature with ice packs, and 50 degrees C ambient temperature with ice packs. Four trials under each condition were performed. In a room-temperature environment without ice packs, the NSS warmed to 4 degrees C in a mean interval of 1 hour 21 minutes. Using room temperature with ice packs, the NSS warmed to 4 degrees C in a mean interval of 29 hours 53 minutes. In a constant hot environment of 50 degrees C, the NSS warmed to 4 degrees C in a mean interval of 10 hours 50 minutes. A significant difference was found between the three environments (log-rank = 17.90, df = 2, p = 0.0001). Prehospital refrigeration devices are needed for current and future IH protocols. Low-technology methods in the form of a cooler and ice packs can provide cold saline storage for longer than a full 24-hour shift in a room-temperature ambulance. In extremely hot conditions, 4 degrees C NSS can be maintained for nearly 11 hours using this method. This model exhibits an economical, easily deployable cold saline storage unit.
Lin, Michelle P; Sanossian, Nerses; Liebeskind, David S
Despite significant quality improvement efforts to streamline in-hospital acute stroke care in the conventional model, there remain inherent layers of treatment delays, which could be eliminated with prehospital diagnostics and therapeutics administered in a mobile stroke unit. Early diagnosis using Telestroke and neuroimaging while in the ambulance may enable targeted routing to hospitals with specialized care, which will likely improve patient outcomes. Key clinical trials in Telestroke, mobile stroke units with prehospital neuroimaging capability, prehospital ultrasound and co-administration of various classes of neuroprotectives, antiplatelets and antithrombin agents with intravenous thrombolysis are discussed in this article. PMID:26308602
Vanlandingham, Sean C; Kurz, Michael C; Wang, Henry E
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an important treatment for post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Despite its widespread practice, only limited data describe the thermodynamic aspects of heat transfer during TH. This paper reviews the principles of human body heat balance and provides a conceptual model for characterizing heat exchange during TH. The model may provide a framework for computer simulation for improving training in or clinical methods of TH.
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a serious condition affecting newborn infants which can result in death and disability. There is now strong clinical evidence that moderate post-asphyxial total body cooling or hypothermia in full term neonates results in long-term neuroprotection, allowing us to proclaim this innovative therapy as “standard of care.” The treatment is a time-critical emergency and should be started within 6 hours after the insult. Such requires optimal collaboration among local hospitals, transport teams and the closest neonatal intensive care unit. The technique is only safe when applied according to published clinical trial protocols, and with admission of these patients to a neonatal intensive care unit. Future studies should be aimed at optimizing the onset, duration, and depth of hypothermia. Combination of hypothermia and drugs may further improve neuroprotection in asphyxiated full term neonates. PMID:24753900
Lampe, Joshua W.; Becker, Lance B.
Historically, hypothermia was induced prior to surgery to enable procedures with prolonged ischemia, such as open heart surgery and organ transplant. Within the past decade, the efficacy of hypothermia to treat emergency cases of ongoing ischemia such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest has been studied. Although the exact role of ischemia/reperfusion is unclear clinically, hypothermia holds significant promise for improving outcomes for patients suffering from reperfusion after ischemia. Research has elucidated two distinct windows of opportunity for clinical use of hypothermia. In the early intra-ischemia window, hypothermia modulates abnormal cellular free radical production, poor calcium management, and poor pH management. In the more delayed post-reperfusion window, hypothermia modulates the downstream necrotic, apoptotic, and inflammatory pathways that cause delayed cell death. Improved cooling and monitoring technologies are required to realize the full potential of this therapy. Herein we discuss the current state of clinical practice, clinical trials, recommendations for cooling, and ongoing research on therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20854174
Introduction Hypothermia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma patients and poses a challenge in pre-hospital treatment. The aim of this study was to identify equipment to prevent, diagnose, and treat hypothermia in Norwegian pre-hospital services. Method In the period of April-August 2011, we conducted a survey of 42 respondents representing a total of 543 pre-hospital units, which included all the national ground ambulance services, the fixed wing and helicopter air ambulance service, and the national search and rescue service. The survey explored available insulation materials, active warming devices, and the presence of protocols describing wrapping methods, temperature monitoring, and the use of warm i.v. fluids. Results Throughout the services, hospital duvets, cotton blankets and plastic “bubble-wrap” were the most common insulation materials. Active warming devices were to a small degree available in vehicle ambulances (14%) and the fixed wing ambulance service (44%) but were more common in the helicopter services (58-70%). Suitable thermometers for diagnosing hypothermia were lacking in the vehicle ambulance services (12%). Protocols describing how to insulate patients were present for 73% of vehicle ambulances and 70% of Search and Rescue helicopters. The minority of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (42%) and Fixed Wing (22%) units was reported to have such protocols. Conclusion The most common equipment types to treat and prevent hypothermia in Norwegian pre-hospital services are duvets, plastic “bubble wrap”, and cotton blankets. Active external heating devices and suitable thermometers are not available in most vehicle ambulance units. PMID:23938145
Klauke, Nora; Gräff, Ingo; Fleischer, Andreas; Boehm, Olaf; Guttenthaler, Vera; Baumgarten, Georg; Meybohm, Patrick; Wittmann, Maria
Objectives Prehospital hypothermia is defined as a core temperature <36.0°C and has been shown to be an independent risk factor for early death in patients with trauma. In a retrospective study, a possible correlation between the body temperature at the time of admission to the emergency room and subsequent in-hospital transfusion requirements and the in-hospital mortality rate was explored. Setting This is a retrospective single-centre study at a primary care hospital in Germany. Participants 15 895 patients were included in this study. Patients were classified by admission temperature and transfusion rate. Excluded were ambulant patients and patients with missing data. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome values were length of stay (LOS) in days, in-hospital mortality, the transferred amount of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and admission to an intensive care unit. Secondary influencing variables were the patient's age and the Glasgow Coma Scale. Results In 22.85% of the patients, hypothermia was documented. Hypothermic patients died earlier in the course of their hospital stay than non-hypothermic patients (p<0.001). The administration of 1–3 PRBC increased the LOS significantly (p<0.001) and transfused patients had an increased risk of death (p<0.001). Prehospital hypothermia could be an independent risk factor for mortality (adjusted OR 8.521; p=0.001) and increases the relative risk for transfusion by factor 2.0 (OR 2.007; p=0.002). Conclusions Low body temperature at hospital admission is associated with a higher risk of transfusion and death. Hence, a greater awareness of prehospital temperature management should be established. PMID:27029772
Organ injury caused by ischaemia and anoxia during prolonged cardiac arrest is compounded by reperfusion injury that occurs when spontaneous circulation is restored. Mild hypothermia (32-35 degrees C) is neuroprotective through several mechanisms, including suppression of apoptosis, reduced production of excitotoxins and free radicals, and anti-inflammatory actions. Experimental studies show that hypothermia is more effective the earlier it is started after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Two randomised clinical trials show improved survival and neurological outcome in adults who remained comatose after initial resuscitation from prehospital VF cardiac arrest, and who were cooled after ROSC. Different strategies can be used to induce hypothermia. Optimal timing of therapeutic hypothermia for cardiac ischaemia is unknown. In patients who failed to respond to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intra-arrest cooling using ice-cold intravenous (i.v.) fluid improved the chance of survival. Recently, fasudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor, was reported to prevent cerebral ischaemia in vivo by increasing cerebral blood flow and inhibiting inflammatory responses. In future, two different kinds of protective therapies, BCL-2 overexpression and hypothermia,will both inhibit aspects of apoptotic cell death cascades, and that combination treatment can prolong the temporal "therapeutic window" for gene therapy.
Leão, Rodrigo Nazário; Ávila, Paulo; Cavaco, Raquel; Germano, Nuno; Bento, Luís
Objective The determination of coma patient prognosis after cardiac arrest has clinical, ethical and social implications. Neurological examination, imaging and biochemical markers are helpful tools accepted as reliable in predicting recovery. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, these data need to be reconfirmed. In this study, we attempted to determine the validity of different markers, which can be used in the detection of patients with poor prognosis under hypothermia. Methods Data from adult patients admitted to our intensive care unit for a hypothermia protocol after cardiac arrest were recorded prospectively to generate a descriptive and analytical study analyzing the relationship between clinical, neurophysiological, imaging and biochemical parameters with 6-month outcomes defined according to the Cerebral Performance Categories scale (good 1-2, poor 3-5). Neuron-specific enolase was collected at 72 hours. Imaging and neurophysiologic exams were carried out in the 24 hours after the rewarming period. Results Sixty-seven patients were included in the study, of which 12 had good neurological outcomes. Ventricular fibrillation and electroencephalographic theta activity were associated with increased likelihood of survival and improved neurological outcomes. Patients who had more rapid cooling (mean time of 163 versus 312 minutes), hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging or neuron-specific enolase > 58ng/mL had poor neurological outcomes (p < 0.05). Conclusion Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging and neuron-specific enolase were strong predictors of poor neurological outcomes. Although there is the belief that early achievement of target temperature improves neurological prognoses, in our study, there were increased mortality and worse neurological outcomes with earlier target-temperature achievement. PMID:26761469
Scantling, Dane; Frank, Brian; Pontell, Mathew E; Medinilla, Sandra
Only limited clinical scenarios are grounds for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. Its use in traumatic cardiac arrests, including those from lightning strikes, is not well studied. Nonshockable cardiac arrest rhythms have only recently been included in resuscitation guidelines. We report a case of full neurological recovery with therapeutic hypothermia after a lightning-induced pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest in an 18-year-old woman. We also review the important pathophysiology of lightning-induced cardiac arrest and neurologic sequelae, elaborate upon the mechanism of therapeutic hypothermia, and add case-based evidence in favor of the use of targeted temperature management in lightning-induced cardiac arrest.
García Iriarte, Antxon; Sáenz Mendía, Raquel; Marín Fernández, Blanca
A deep understanding about the causes and situations which predispose a patient to hypothermia can prevent its progression and the emergence of complications which present life-threatening risks and can lead to irreversible organ deterioration. The distinct degrees of hypothermia require a diagnosis and a distinct therapeutic treatment which share common pillars based on: the need to employ general measures which counterarrest the deterioration of those organs caused by heat loss; and the use of internal or external reheating methods which vary due to the degree of hypothermia and the hemodynamic stability of the patient. In moderate or severe cases, a nurse's role, as one who collaborates in patient treatment, requires paying special attention to strict monitoring of vital constants, neurological, metabolic and cardio-respiratory signs, as well as collaborating in various therapeutic procedures. As a nursing diagnosis, hypothermia refers to those situations in which a nurse's professional competence capacitates he/she to carry out actions which resolve that prejudicial situation a patient faces.
Wang, Chih-Hung; Chen, Nai-Chuan; Tsai, Min-Shan; Yu, Ping-Hsun; Wang, An-Yi; Chang, Wei-Tien; Huang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Wen-Jone
Abstract Current guidelines recommend a period of moderate therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for comatose patients after cardiac arrest to improve clinical outcomes. However, in-vitro studies have reported platelet dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy, results that might discourage clinicians from applying TH in clinical practice. We aimed to quantify the risks of hemorrhage observed in clinical studies. Medline and Embase were searched from inception to October 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing patients undergoing TH with controls were selected, irrespective of the indications for TH. There were no restrictions for language, population, or publication year. Data on study characteristics, which included patients, details of intervention, and outcome measures, were extracted. Forty-three trials that included 7528 patients were identified from 2692 potentially relevant references. Any hemorrhage was designated as the primary outcome and was reported in 28 studies. The pooled results showed no significant increase in hemorrhage risk associated with TH (risk difference [RD] 0.005; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.001–0.011; I2, 0%). Among secondary outcomes, patients undergoing TH were found to have increased risk of thrombocytopenia (RD 0.109; 95% CI 0.038–0.179; I2 57.3%) and transfusion requirements (RD 0.021; 95% CI 0.003–0.040; I2 0%). The meta-regression analysis indicated that prolonged duration of cooling may be associated with increased risk of hemorrhage. TH was not associated with increased risk of hemorrhage despite the increased risk of thrombocytopenia and transfusion requirements. Clinicians should cautiously assess each patient's risk-benefit profile before applying TH. PMID:26632746
Hong, Ji Man; Lee, Jin Soo; Song, Hee-Jung; Jeong, Hye Seon; Jung, Hae-Sun; Choi, Huimahn Alex; Lee, Kiwon
Therapeutic hypothermia improves outcomes in experimental stroke models, especially after ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the clinical and radiological effects of therapeutic hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke patients after recanalization. A prospective cohort study at 2 stroke centers was performed. We enrolled patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation with an initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale≥10 who had successful recanalization (≥thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia, 2b). Patients at center A underwent a mild hypothermia (34.5°C) protocol, which included mechanical ventilation, and 48-hour hypothermia and 48-hour rewarming. Patients at center B were treated according to the guidelines without hypothermia. Cerebral edema, hemorrhagic transformation, good outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale, ≤2), mortality, and safety profiles were compared. Potential variables at baseline and during the therapy were analyzed to evaluate for independent predictors of good outcome. The hypothermia group (n=39) had less cerebral edema (P=0.001), hemorrhagic transformation (P=0.016), and better outcome (P=0.017) compared with the normothermia group (n=36). Mortality, hemicraniectomy rate, and medical complications were not statistically different. After adjustment for potential confounders, therapeutic hypothermia (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-8.9; P=0.047) and distal occlusion (odds ratio, 7.3; 95% confidence interval; 1.3-40.3; P=0.022) were the independent predictors for good outcome. Absence of cerebral edema (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18.2; P=0.006) and no medical complications (odds ratio, 9.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-39.9; P=0.003) were also independent predictors for good outcome during the therapy. In patients with ischemic stroke, after successful recanalization, therapeutic hypothermia may reduce risk of cerebral edema and hemorrhagic transformation, and lead to improved
Román Fernández, A; López Álvarez, A; Barreiro Canosa, J L; Varela García, O; Fossati Puertas, S; Pereira Tamayo, J Á
Therapeutic hypothermia is an effective treatment for neurological protection after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and may also be beneficial for in-hospital cardiac arrest. Its use is limited in post-surgical patients due to the risk of specific complications, particularly bleeding. There are significant differences among previous publications regarding the time to reach the target temperature and the duration of therapy, so the optimal strategy is not yet established. We present the case of a patient who suffered a perioperative cardiac arrest related to a pericardial tamponade, and who underwent therapeutic hypothermia for 48h.
Löf, Susanna; Sandström, Agneta; Engström, Asa
This paper is a report of a study describing the experiences of relatives when someone they care for survived a cardiac arrest and was treated with therapeutic hypothermia in an intensive care unit. Witnessing a family member suffering a cardiac arrest is a traumatic event for relatives. Relatives constitute an important support for critically ill patients. It is suggested that therapeutic hypothermia improves the outcome for patients who survive cardiac arrest. Qualitative personal interviews were conducted during 2009 with eight relatives of patients who had survived cardiac arrest and been treated with therapeutic hypothermia. The interview texts were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in three themes and eight categories. Relatives described the event of the cardiac arrest as frightening. Seeing the patient connected to tubes and equipment induced a feeling of unreality; the patient was experienced as cold, lifeless and hard to recognize. The relatives faced an anxiety-filled future not knowing what the outcome for their relative would be. Relatives supported each other during this the difficult time, and kept hoping that the patient would survive injury. Seeing a patient who has had a cardiac arrest and received therapeutic hypothermia is extremely demanding for relatives, as the patient seems to be lifeless. Relatives need to know what is happening on a continual basis during the patient's entire stay in hospital and even afterwards, and they need to be given opportunities to discuss their own situation and worries.
Alan, David; Vejvoda, Jiri; Honek, Jakub; Veselka, Josef
In spite of many years of development and implementation of pre-hospital advanced life support programmes, the survival rate of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) used to be very poor. Neurologic injury from cerebral hypoxia is the most common cause of death in patients with OHCA. In the past two decades, post-resuscitation care has developed many new concepts aimed at improving the neurological outcome and survival rate of patients after cardiac arrest. Systematic post-cardiac arrest care after the return of spontaneous circulation, including induced mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in selected patients, is aimed at significantly improving rates of long-term neurologically intact survival. This review summarises the history and current knowledge in the field of mild TH after OHCA. PMID:27695505
Kerber, Richard E
Reducing body temperature to 33 °C in patients who have been resuscitated from cardiac arrest but who remain comatose can ameliorate anoxic encephalopathy and improve recovery. Experimental animal studies have suggested that cooling to 33 °C also aids the resuscitative process itself, facilitating the resumption of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The mechanism of cooling benefit is probably the reduction of metabolic demand of most organs, and reduced production of toxic metabolites and reactive oxygen species. External cooling by application of ice or pads through which cold water circulates is effective but requires up to 8 hours to achieve the target temperature of 33 °C. Our goal was to develop a faster method of cooling that could be initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In anesthetized swine, we induced ventricular fibrillation by passing alternating current down an electrode catheter in the right ventricle. We then ventilated the animals' lungs with liquid perfluorocarbons (PFCs), a technique known as total liquid ventilation (TLV). Perfluorocarbons are oxygen-carrying modules; we pre-oxygenated the PFCs by bubbling 100% O(2) through the solution for 2 minutes before use, and pre-cooled the PFCs to -15 °C. The cold oxygenated PFCs reduced pulmonary artery temperature (a surrogate for myocardial temperature) to 33 °C in about 6 minutes. Using this technique we achieved ROSC in 8 of 11 (82%) animals given TLV versus 3 of 11 (27%) control animals receiving conventional CPR without PFCs (P<0.05). We also compared the cold TLV technique with the administration of intravenous iced saline to achieve hypothermia. Both the cold TLV and cold saline techniques produced rapid hypothermia, but we could achieve ROSC in only 2 of 8 (25%) animals given cold saline versus 7 of 8 (88%) given cold TLV. This result is likely due to the rise in right atrial pressure and corresponding reduction in coronary perfusion pressure caused by volume loading with IV saline
Scantling, Dane; Klonoski, Emily; Valentino, Dominic J
Therapeutic hypothermia is an important and successful treatment that has been endorsed only in specific clinical settings of cardiac arrest. Inclusion criteria thus far have not embraced drug-induced cardiac arrest, but clinical evidence has been mounting that therapeutic hypothermia may be beneficial in such cases. A 59-year-old man who experienced a cocaine-induced cardiac arrest had a full neurological recovery after use of therapeutic hypothermia. The relevant pathophysiology of cocaine-induced cardiac arrest is reviewed, the mechanism and history of therapeutic hypothermia are discussed, and the clinical evidence recommending the use of therapeutic hypothermia in cocaine-induced cardiac arrest is reinforced.
Alva, Norma; Palomeque, Jesús
Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the level necessary to maintain bodily functions. The decrease in temperature may disrupt some physiological systems of the body, including alterations in microcirculation and reduction of oxygen supply to tissues. The lack of oxygen can induce the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen free radicals (RONS), followed by oxidative stress, and finally, apoptosis and/or necrosis. Furthermore, since the hypothermia is inevitably followed by a rewarming process, we should also consider its effects. Despite hypothermia and rewarming inducing injury, many benefits of hypothermia have been demonstrated when used to preserve brain, cardiac, hepatic, and intestinal function against ischemic injury. This review gives an overview of the effects of hypothermia and rewarming on the oxidant/antioxidant balance and provides hypothesis for the role of reactive oxygen species in therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:24363826
Gunn, Alistair J.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Barks, John D.; Thoresen, Marianne; Wassink, Guido; Bennet, Laura
Acute post-asphyxial encephalopathy around the time of birth remains a major cause of death and disability. The possibility that hypothermia may be able to prevent or lessen asphyxial brain injury is a “dream revisited”. In this review, a historical perspective is provided from the first reported use of therapeutic hypothermia for brain injuries in antiquity, to the present day. The first uncontrolled trials of cooling for resuscitation were reported more than 50 years ago. The seminal insight that led to the modern revival of studies of neuroprotection was that after profound asphyxia, many brain cells show initial recovery from the insult during a short “latent” phase, typically lasting approximately 6 h, only to die hours to days later after a “secondary” deterioration characterized by seizures, cytotoxic edema, and progressive failure of cerebral oxidative metabolism. Studies designed around this conceptual framework showed that mild hypothermia initiated as early as possible before the onset of secondary deterioration, and continued for a sufficient duration to allow the secondary deterioration to resolve, is associated with potent, long-lasting neuroprotection. There is now compelling evidence from randomized controlled trials that mild induced hypothermia significantly improves intact survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes to mid-childhood. PMID:27673420
Faridar, Alireza; Bershad, Eric M.; Emiru, Tenbit; Iaizzo, Paul A.; Suarez, Jose I.; Divani, Afshin A.
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is considered to improve survival with favorable neurological outcome in the case of global cerebral ischemia after cardiac arrest and perinatal asphyxia. The efficacy of hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), however, is not well studied. Induction of TH typically requires a multimodal approach, including the use of both pharmacological agents and physical techniques. To date, clinical outcomes for patients with either AIS or TBI who received TH have yielded conflicting results; thus, no adequate therapeutic consensus has been reached. Nevertheless, it seems that by determining optimal TH parameters and also appropriate applications, cooling therapy still has the potential to become a valuable neuroprotective intervention. Among the various methods for hypothermia induction, intravascular cooling (IVC) may have the most promise in the awake patient in terms of clinical outcomes. Currently, the IVC method has the capability of more rapid target temperature attainment and more precise control of temperature. However, this technique requires expertise in endovascular surgery that can preclude its application in the field and/or in most emergency settings. It is very likely that combining neuroprotective strategies will yield better outcomes than utilizing a single approach. PMID:22207862
Shellhaas, Renée A; Ng, Chee M; Dillon, Christina H; Barks, John D E; Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha
Phenobarbital is the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures. Many neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are treated with therapeutic hypothermia, and about 40% have clinical seizures. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy who undergo therapeutic hypothermia. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics, taking into account maturational changes. Level 3 neonatal ICU. Infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and suspected seizures, all treated with phenobarbital. Some of these infants also received treatment with therapeutic hypothermia. None. A retrospective cohort study of 39 infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with phenobarbital (20 were treated with therapeutic hypothermia and 19 were not). Data on phenobarbital plasma concentrations were collected in 39 subjects with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with or without therapeutic hypothermia. Using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital were developed with a total of 164 plasma concentrations. A one-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics. The clearance of phenobarbital was linearly related to body weight and matured with increasing age with a maturation half-life of 22.1 days. Therapeutic hypothermia did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenobarbital. Therapeutic hypothermia does not influence the clearance of phenobarbital after accounting for weight and age. Standard phenobarbital dosing is appropriate for the initial treatment of seizures in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia.
Cold weather can affect your body in different ways. You can get frostbite, which is an injury to the ... Anyone who spends much time outdoors in cold weather can get hypothermia. You can also get it ...
Turk, Elisabeth E
Hypothermia refers to a situation where there is a drop in body core temperature below 35 degrees C. It is a potentially fatal condition. In forensic medicine and pathology, cases of hypothermia often pose a special challenge to experts because of their complex nature, and the often absent or nonspecific nature of morphological findings. The scene of the incident may raise suspicions of a crime initially, due to phenomena such as terminal burrowing behavior and paradoxical undressing. An element of hypothermia often contributes to the cause of death in drug- and alcohol-related fatalities, in the homeless, in immersion deaths, in accidents and in cases of abuse or neglect, making the condition extremely relevant to forensic medical specialists. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the pathophysiological aspects of hypothermia and to illustrate different aspects relevant to forensic medical casework.
Dufner, Matthias C.; Andre, Florian; Stiepak, Jan; Zelniker, Thomas; Chorianopoulos, Emmanuel; Preusch, Michael; Katus, Hugo A.
Background Patients admitted to the hospital after primarily successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are at a very high risk for neurologic deficits and death. Targeted temperature management (TTM) for mild therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve survival compared to standard treatment. Acute cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction (MI), are a major cause for cardiac arrest (CA) in patients who undergo CPR. Recent findings have demonstrated the importance and impact of the leukocyte response following acute MI. Methods In this retrospective, single center study we enrolled 169 patients with CA due to non-traumatic causes and primarily successful CPR. A total of 111 subjects (66%) underwent TTM aiming for a target temperature of 32–34 °C. Results Analysis of 30 day follow up showed a significantly improved survival of all patients who received TTM compared to patients without hypothermia (P=0.0001). Furthermore TTM was an independent variable of good neurological outcome after 6 months (P=0.0030). Therapeutic hypothermia was found to be beneficial independent of differences in age and sex between both groups. While a higher rate of pneumonia was observed with TTM, this diagnosis had no additional impact on survival or neurological outcome. The beneficial effect on mortality remained significant in patients with the diagnosis of an acute cardiac event (P=0.0145). Next, we evaluated the kinetics of leukocytes in this group over the course of 7 days after CA. At presentation, patients showed a mean level of 16.5±6.7 of leukocytes per microliter. While this level stayed stable in the group of patients without hypothermia, patients who received TTM showed a significant decline of leukocyte levels resulting in significantly lower numbers of leukocytes on days 3 and 5 after CPR. Interestingly, these differences in leukocyte counts remained beyond the time period of TTM while C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were suppressed only during
Moffatt, Samuel Edwin
Hypovolaemic shock that results through traumatically inflicted haemorrhage can have disastrous consequences for the victim. Initially the body can compensate for lost circulating volume, but as haemorrhage continues compensatory mechanisms fail and the patient's condition worsens significantly. Hypovolaemia results in the lethal triad, a combination of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy, three factors that are interlinked and serve to worsen each other. The lethal triad is a form of vicious cycle, which unless broken will result in death. This report will focus on the role of hypothermia (a third of the lethal triad) in trauma, examining literature to assess how prehospital temperature control can impact on the trauma patient. Spontaneous hypothermia following trauma has severely deleterious consequences for the trauma victim; however, both active warming of patients and clinically induced hypothermia can produce particularly positive results and improve patient outcome. Possible coagulopathic side effects of clinically induced hypothermia may be corrected with topical haemostatic agents, with the benefits of an extended golden hour given by clinically induced hypothermia far outweighing these risks. Active warming of patients, to prevent spontaneous trauma induced hypothermia, is currently the only viable method currently available to improve patient outcome. This method is easy to implement requiring simple protocols and contributes significantly to interrupting the lethal triad. However, the future of trauma care appears to lie with clinically induced therapeutic hypothermia. This new treatment provides optimism that in the future the number of deaths resulting from catastrophic haemorrhaging may be significantly lessened.
Moler, F.W.; Silverstein, F.S.; Holubkov, R.; Slomine, B.S.; Christensen, J.R.; Nadkarni, V.M.; Meert, K.L.; Browning, B.; Pemberton, V.L.; Page, K.; Gildea, M.R.; Scholefield, B.R.; Shankaran, S.; Hutchison, J.S.; Berger, J.T.; Ofori-Amanfo, G.; Newth, C.J.L.; Topjian, A.; Bennett, K.S.; Koch, J.D.; Pham, N.; Chanani, N.K.; Pineda, J.A.; Harrison, R.; Dalton, H.J.; Alten, J.; Schleien, C.L.; Goodman, D.M.; Zimmerman, J.J.; Bhalala, U.S.; Schwarz, A.J.; Porter, M.B.; Shah, S.; Fink, E.L.; McQuillen, P.; Wu, T.; Skellett, S.; Thomas, N.J.; Nowak, J.E.; Baines, P.B.; Pappachan, J.; Mathur, M.; Lloyd, E.; van der Jagt, E.W.; Dobyns, E.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Sanders, R.C.; Clark, A.E.; Dean, J.M.
BACKGROUND Targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adults and children after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; however, data on temperature management after in-hospital cardiac arrest are limited. METHODS In a trial conducted at 37 children’s hospitals, we compared two temperature interventions in children who had had in-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose children older than 48 hours and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a score of 70 or higher on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II, on which scores range from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients who had had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before the cardiac arrest. RESULTS The trial was terminated because of futility after 329 patients had undergone randomization. Among the 257 patients who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest and who could be evaluated, the rate of the primary efficacy outcome did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (36% [48 of 133 patients] and 39% [48 of 124 patients], respectively; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.27; P = 0.63). Among 317 patients who could be evaluated for change in neurobehavioral function, the change in VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between the groups (P = 0.70). Among 327 patients who could be evaluated for 1-year survival, the rate of 1-year survival did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (49% [81 of 166 patients] and 46% [74 of 161 patients], respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34; P = 0.56). The incidences of blood-product use
Moler, Frank W; Silverstein, Faye S; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Meert, Kathleen L; Browning, Brittan; Pemberton, Victoria L; Page, Kent; Gildea, Marianne R; Scholefield, Barnaby R; Shankaran, Seetha; Hutchison, Jamie S; Berger, John T; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Newth, Christopher J L; Topjian, Alexis; Bennett, Kimberly S; Koch, Joshua D; Pham, Nga; Chanani, Nikhil K; Pineda, Jose A; Harrison, Rick; Dalton, Heidi J; Alten, Jeffrey; Schleien, Charles L; Goodman, Denise M; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Bhalala, Utpal S; Schwarz, Adam J; Porter, Melissa B; Shah, Samir; Fink, Ericka L; McQuillen, Patrick; Wu, Theodore; Skellett, Sophie; Thomas, Neal J; Nowak, Jeffrey E; Baines, Paul B; Pappachan, John; Mathur, Mudit; Lloyd, Eric; van der Jagt, Elise W; Dobyns, Emily L; Meyer, Michael T; Sanders, Ronald C; Clark, Amy E; Dean, J Michael
Targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adults and children after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; however, data on temperature management after in-hospital cardiac arrest are limited. In a trial conducted at 37 children's hospitals, we compared two temperature interventions in children who had had in-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose children older than 48 hours and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a score of 70 or higher on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II, on which scores range from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients who had had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before the cardiac arrest. The trial was terminated because of futility after 329 patients had undergone randomization. Among the 257 patients who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest and who could be evaluated, the rate of the primary efficacy outcome did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (36% [48 of 133 patients] and 39% [48 of 124 patients], respectively; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.27; P=0.63). Among 317 patients who could be evaluated for change in neurobehavioral function, the change in VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.70). Among 327 patients who could be evaluated for 1-year survival, the rate of 1-year survival did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (49% [81 of 166 patients] and 46% [74 of 161 patients], respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34; P=0.56). The incidences of blood-product use, infection, and serious adverse
Jinka, Tulasi R; Combs, Velva M; Drew, Kelly L
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves prognosis after cardiac arrest; however, thermoregulatory responses such as shivering complicate cooling. Hibernators exhibit a profound and safe reversible hypothermia without any cardiovascular side effects by lowering the shivering threshold at low ambient temperatures (Ta). Activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) in the central nervous system (CNS) induces hibernation in hibernating species and a hibernation-like state in rats, principally by attenuating thermogenesis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that targeted activation of the central A1AR combined with a lower Ta would provide a means of managing core body temperature (Tb) below 37 °C for therapeutic purposes. We targeted the A1AR within the CNS by combining systemic delivery of the A1AR agonist (6)N-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) with 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT), a nonspecific adenosine receptor antagonist that does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier. Results show that CHA (1 mg/kg) and 8-SPT (25 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally every 4 h for 20 h at a Ta of 16 °C, induce and maintain the Tb between 29 and 31 °C for 24 h in both naïve rats and rats subjected to asphyxial cardiac arrest for 8 min. Faster and more stable hypothermia was achieved by continuous infusion of CHA delivered subcutaneously via minipumps. Animals subjected to cardiac arrest and cooled by CHA survived better and showed less neuronal cell death than normothermic control animals. Central A1AR activation in combination with a thermal gradient shows promise as a novel and effective pharmacological adjunct for inducing safe and reversible targeted temperature management.
Jehle, Dietrich; Meyer, Michael; Gemme, Seth
Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to clearly benefit comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. It is reasonable to postulate that if therapeutic hypothermia is beneficial for the neurological injury of cardiac arrest, then it may have a role in the treatment of near-hanging suffocation injuries. We report a retrospective series of 2 patients who received mild therapeutic hypothermia for their comatose state after a near-hanging injury. The exclusionary criteria and protocols that we use for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest were used. After at least 24 hours of mild therapeutic hypothermia, both patients had a complete return of neurological function, with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 15 at the time of discharge from the hospital. These data, taken with other case series, suggest that therapeutic hypothermia may be beneficial for comatose survivors of near-hanging.
Zhou, Jiangquan; Poloyac, Samuel M.
Introduction Therapeutic hypothermia is being employed, clinically based, on its neuro-protective benefits. Both critical illness and therapeutic hypothermia significantly affect drug disposition, potentially contributing to drug-therapy and drug-disease interaction. Currently, there is limited written information of the known alterations in drug concentration and response during mild hypothermia treatment and there is a limited understanding of the specific mechanisms that underlie alterations in drug concentrations and the potential clinical importance of these changes. Areas covered A systemic review of the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on drug metabolism, disposition, and response is provided. Specifically, the clinical and preclinical evidence of the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on blood flow, specific hepatic metabolism pathways, transporter, renal excretion, pharmacodynamics and rewarming effect are reviewed. Expert Opinion Available evidence demonstrates that mild hypothermia decreases the clearance of a variety of drugs with apparently little change in drug protein binding. Recent evidence suggests that the magnitude of the change is elimination route specific. Further research is needed to determine the impact of these alterations on both drug concentration and response in order to optimize the hypothermia therapy in this vulnerable patient population. PMID:21473710
Gaieski, David F; Fuchs, Barry; Carr, Brendan G; Merchant, Raina; Kolansky, Daniel M; Abella, Benjamin S; Becker, Lance B; Maguire, Cheryl; Whitehawk, Michael; Levine, Joshua; Goyal, Munish
Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains unacceptably low. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the most efficacious treatment option available for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. However, clearly delineated instructions for how to induce, maintain, and conclude TH have not been published in a codified format. We assembled 11 clinicians from the University of Pennsylvania Schools of Medicine and Nursing for a day-long moderated discussion to review our institution's TH protocol and reach consensus on a step-by-step management plan of the comatose survivor of OHCA. We attempted to systematically work our way through the existing University of Pennsylvania TH protocol. The goal was to address critical decisions at each stage of care of the post-arrest patient, including whom to cool, how to cool, how long to cool, how to rewarm, neuroprognostication, and other fundamental aspects of patient management. We made every effort to include relevant scientific evidence with appropriate citations. However, given the paucity of data in certain areas, we have relied heavily on expert opinion. We present a step-by-step management plan for incorporation of TH in the care of the comatose survivor of OHCA, which can be adapted to a variety of clinical settings with diverse resources. This article is intended to supplement current care provided by health care providers and should be adopted in concert with current standards of post-arrest and intensive care unit care.
Argibay-Lago, Ana; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Ferrer-Sala, Nuria; Prieto-Robles, Cristina; Hernanz-del Río, Alexandre; Castro-Rebollo, Pedro
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to minimize neurological damage in patients surviving sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is scarcity of data evaluating the nursing workload in these patients. The objective of the study is to assess the workload of nurses whilst treating patients undergoing TH after SCA. A 43-month prospective-retrospective comparative cohort study was designed. Patients admitted to intensive care unit, for recovered SCA and persistent coma, were included. A comparison was made using the baseline characteristics, medical management, in-hospital mortality, and nursing workload during the first 96hours using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28); Nursing Activities Score (NAS); and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) scales among patients who received TH and those who did not. A total 46 patients were included: 26 in the TH group and 20 in the Non-TH group. Regarding baseline characteristics and management, the TH group presented higher prevalence of smoking habit (69 vs. 25%, p=0.012), out-of-hospital SCA (96 vs. 55%, p<0.001), and the performance of coronary angiography (96 vs. 65%, p=0.014) compared with the non-TH group. No differences were observed in the nursing workload, assessed by TISS 28, NAS or NEMS scales, or in-hospital mortality. In this study performance of TH in SCA survivors is not associated with an increase in nursing workload. The installation of a TH program does not require the use of more nursing resources in terms of workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
de Bourmont, Sophie; Demory, Didier; Durand-Gasselin, Jacques; Donati, Stéphane Y; Arnal, Jean-Michel; Corno, Gaelle; Michelet, Pierre
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is part of the treatment strategy for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest (CA). The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficiency and the safety of a noninvasive and affordable cooling procedure applied to all types of CA in an ICU. This was a retrospective, observational, monocenter study. In all patients remaining unconscious after CA, irrespective of their initial cardiac rhythm, TH was induced with a rapid intravenous infusion of 30 ml/kg ice-cold (4°C) saline fluid associated with external surface cooling involving ice packs and wet sheets. The body temperature was maintained between 32 and 34°C during 24 h using external surface cooling only. The patients were then passively rewarmed. Of 200 eligible patients, 145 were treated by TH; 104 patients completed the 24-h TH treatment. The primary cause of noninclusion or secondary exclusion was severe hemodynamic impairment. From induction, the median time to reach the target temperature was 167 min (47-300 min). During the protocol, 24 patients did not remain within the targeted temperature range. Adverse events included hypokalemia (44%), severe arrhythmia (13.8%), bleeding (4.8%), and seizure (1.4%). All patients presented hyperglycemia. The oxygen partial pressure to oxygen fractional concentration (PaO2/FiO2) ratio remained constant after initiation and throughout the procedure, even in patients with poor systolic function. This noninvasive TH procedure seems efficient and safe in all patients remaining comatose after CA. Thanks to its simplicity, it could allow prehospital cooling to reach the target temperature more rapidly.
Hackenhaar, Fernanda S.; Medeiros, Tássia M.; Heemann, Fernanda M.; Behling, Camile S.; Putti, Jordana S.; Mahl, Camila D.; Verona, Cleber; da Silva, Ana Carolina A.; Guerra, Maria C.; Gonçalves, Carlos A. S.; Oliveira, Vanessa M.; Riveiro, Diego F. M.; Vieira, Silvia R. R.
After cardiac arrest, organ damage consequent to ischemia-reperfusion has been attributed to oxidative stress. Mild therapeutic hypothermia has been applied to reduce this damage, and it may reduce oxidative damage as well. This study aimed to compare oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in patients treated with controlled normothermia versus mild therapeutic hypothermia during postcardiac arrest syndrome. The sample consisted of 31 patients under controlled normothermia (36°C) and 11 patients treated with 24 h mild therapeutic hypothermia (33°C), victims of in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Parameters were assessed at 6, 12, 36, and 72 h after cardiac arrest in the central venous blood samples. Hypothermic and normothermic patients had similar S100B levels, a biomarker of brain injury. Xanthine oxidase activity is similar between hypothermic and normothermic patients; however, it decreases posthypothermia treatment. Xanthine oxidase activity is positively correlated with lactate and S100B and inversely correlated with pH, calcium, and sodium levels. Hypothermia reduces malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, markers of oxidative damage. Concomitantly, hypothermia increases the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase while decreasing the activity of serum paraoxonase-1. These findings suggest that mild therapeutic hypothermia reduces oxidative damage and alters antioxidant defenses in postcardiac arrest patients. PMID:28553435
Mrelashvili, Anna; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Shimotake, Thomas K.; Glass, Hannah C.
The large randomized, controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) excluded neonates with congenital disorders. The objective of this study was to report our experience using hypothermia in neonates with signs of HIE and a syndromic disorder or brain anomaly. Subjects were identified from a database of neonates admitted to the Neuro-Intensive Care Nursery at University of California, San Francisco. Of 169 patients fulfilling criteria for hypothermia, eight (5%) had a syndromic disorder, and were cooled as per guidelines for non-syndromic neonates. Perinatal characteristics of infants with and without syndromic disorder were not significantly different. Overall outcome was poor: 38% had evidence of acute HI injury, 3 subjects died, two survivors had low developmental quotient (DQ 25). The risk versus benefit of therapeutic hypothermia for HIE among neonates with congenital brain malformations or syndromic diagnoses is uncertain. PMID:25762585
Witcher, Robert; Dzierba, Amy L.; Kim, Catherine; Smithburger, Pamela L.; Kane-Gill, Sandra L.
Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves survival and neurologic function in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Many medications used to support TH have altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during this treatment. It is unknown if or at what frequency the medications used during TH cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac arrest and treated with TH from January 2009 to June 2012 at two urban, university-affiliated, tertiary-care medical centres. Medications commonly used during TH were screened for association with significant ADRs (grade 3 or greater per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) using three published ADR detection instruments. Results: A total of 229 patients were included, the majority being males with median age of 62 presenting with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in pulseless electrical activity or asystole. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. There were 670 possible ADRs and 69 probable ADRs identified. Of the 670 possible ADRs, propofol, fentanyl, and acetaminophen were the most common drugs associated with ADRs. Whereas fentanyl, insulin, and propofol were the most common drugs associated with a probable ADR. Patients were managed with TH for a median of 22 hours, with 38% of patients surviving to hospital discharge. Conclusions: Patients undergoing TH after cardiac arrest frequently experience possible adverse reactions associated with medications and the corresponding laboratory abnormalities are significant. There is a need for judicious use and close monitoring of drugs in the setting of TH until recommendations for dose adjustments are available to help prevent ADRs.
Purkayastha, Jayashree; Lewis, Leslie Edward; Bhat, Ramesh Y; Anusha, K M
Therapeutic hypothermia is well known for neuroprotection in asphyxiated neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The authors aimed to study the feasibility and safety of therapeutic hypothermia and short term outcome in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Total 31 neonates with moderate to severe HIE were enrolled in the study. Continuous temperature recording was noted in 31 neonates; 17 neonates were studied prospectively while 14 neonates were studied retrospectively. Rectal temperature was monitored in 31 neonates and maintained between 33 and 34 °C by switching off the warmer and using ice packs. Reusable ice packs were used which were inexpensive. Therapeutic hypothermia was maintained for 72 h and babies were then rewarmed 0.5 °C every hour. Therapeutic hypothermia was feasible and inexpensive. There was no major complication during the study. MRI was done in 17 neonates; 52 % were found to have normal MRI at the end of first week. Among the study neonates (n = 31) 64.5 % were neurologically normal at the time of discharge. To conclude, therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in a low resource setting and is a safe way of neuroprotection. Short term outcome was also favourable in these neonates.
Kulstad, Christine E.; Holt, Shannon C.; Abrahamsen, Aaron A.; Lovell, Elise O.
Objectives: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome in patients resuscitated after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) from ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT). We evaluated the effects of using a TH protocol in a large community hospital emergency department (ED) for all patients with neurological impairment after resuscitated OHCA regardless of presenting rhythm. We hypothesized improved mortality and neurological outcomes without increased complication rates. Methods: Our TH protocol entails cooling to 33°C for 24 hours with an endovascular catheter. We studied patients treated with this protocol from November 2006 to November 2008. All non-pregnant, unresponsive adult patients resuscitated from any initial rhythm were included. Exclusion criteria were initial hypotension or temperature less than 30°C, trauma, primary intracranial event, and coagulopathy. Control patients treated during the 12 months before the institution of our TH protocol met the same inclusion and exclusion criteria. We recorded survival to hospital discharge, neurological status at discharge, and rates of bleeding, sepsis, pneumonia, renal failure, and dysrhythmias in the first 72 hours of treatment. Results: Mortality rates were 71.1% (95% CI, 56–86%) for 38 patients treated with TH and 72.3% (95% CI 59–86%) for 47 controls. In the TH group, 8% of patients (95% CI, 0–17%) had a good neurological outcome on discharge, compared to 0 (95% CI 0–8%) in the control group. In 17 patients with VF/VT treated with TH, mortality was 47% (95% CI 21–74%) and 18% (95% CI 0–38%) had good neurological outcome; in 9 control patients with VF/VT, mortality was 67% (95% CI 28–100%), and 0% (95% CI 0–30%) had good neurological outcome. The groups were well-matched with respect to sex and age. Complication rates were similar or favored the TH group. Conclusion: Instituting a TH protocol for OHCA patients with any
Manasia, Roshan Jan Muhammad; Husain, Shahid Javed; Hooda, Khairunnissa; Imran, Mehrunnissa; Bailey, Carolyn
The purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of an evidence-based therapeutic hypothermia protocol in adult post-cardiac arrest (CA) patients in a university hospital in Pakistan. Cardiac arrest has a deleterious effect on neurological function, and survival is associated with significant morbidity. The International Liaison Committee of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and the American Heart Association recommend the use of mild hypothermia in post-CA victims to mitigate brain injury caused by anoxia. In Pakistan, the survival rate in CA victims is poor. At present, there are no hospitals in the country that use the evidence-based hypothermia intervention in adult post-CA victims. This pilot project of therapeutic hypothermia in adult post-CA patients was implemented in a university hospital in Pakistan by a clinical nurse specialist in collaboration with the cardiopulmonary resuscitation committee and the nursing leadership of the hospital. Various clinical nurse specialist competencies and roles were used to address the 3 spheres of influence: patient, nurses, and system, while executing an evidence-based hypothermia protocol. Process and outcome indicators were monitored to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of hypothermia intervention in this setting. The hypothermia protocol was successfully implemented in 3 adult post-CA patients using cost-effective measures. All 3 patients were extubated within 72 hours after CA, and 2 patients were discharged home with good neurological outcome. Adoption of an evidence-based hypothermia protocol for adult CA patients is feasible in the intensive care setting of a university hospital in Pakistan. The process used in the project can serve as a road map to other hospitals in resource-limited countries such as Pakistan that are motivated to improve post-CA outcomes. This experience reveals that advanced practice nurses can be instrumental in translation of evidence into practice in a healthcare system in
Background Although therapeutic hypothermia for neuroprotection has been in use for over half a century but its use has been controversial in absence of proper guidelines. However for over two decades there has been revived interest in mild therapeutic hypothermia (32 - 34°C) for neuroprotection. Case A 17 year-old female tourist was rescued from sea. She received cardio-pulmonary resuscitation for about 16 minutes. But she had sustained significant neurological insult as a result of hypoxic brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia was added to her regime of neuroprotection in intensive care unit, and her neurological status improved in just 8 hours with full correction of her coma score by day 4. PMID:20062680
Wusthoff, Courtney J.; Dlugos, Dennis J.; Gutierrez-Colina, Ana; Wang, Anne; Cook, Noah; Donnelly, Maureen; Clancy, Robert; Abend, Nicholas S.
Electrographic seizures are common in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but detailed data are not available regarding seizure incidence during therapeutic hypothermia. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the incidence and timing of electrographic seizures in term neonates undergoing whole-body therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy as detected by conventional full-array electroencephalography for 72 hours of therapeutic hypothermia and 24 hours of normothermia. Clinical and electroencephalography data were collected from 26 consecutive neonates. Electroencephalograms were reviewed by 2 pediatric neurophysiologists. Electrographic seizures occurred in 17 of 26 (65%) patients. Seizures were entirely nonconvulsive in 8 of 17 (47%), status epilepticus occurred in 4 of 17 (23%), and seizure onset was in the first 48 hours in 13 of 17 (76%) patients. Electrographic seizures were common, were often nonconvulsive, and had onset over a broad range of times in the first days of life. PMID:21447810
Wusthoff, Courtney J; Dlugos, Dennis J; Gutierrez-Colina, Ana; Wang, Anne; Cook, Noah; Donnelly, Maureen; Clancy, Robert; Abend, Nicholas S
Electrographic seizures are common in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but detailed data are not available regarding seizure incidence during therapeutic hypothermia. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the incidence and timing of electrographic seizures in term neonates undergoing whole-body therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy as detected by conventional full-array electroencephalography for 72 hours of therapeutic hypothermia and 24 hours of normothermia. Clinical and electroencephalography data were collected from 26 consecutive neonates. Electroencephalograms were reviewed by 2 pediatric neurophysiologists. Electrographic seizures occurred in 17 of 26 (65%) patients. Seizures were entirely nonconvulsive in 8 of 17 (47%), status epilepticus occurred in 4 of 17 (23%), and seizure onset was in the first 48 hours in 13 of 17 (76%) patients. Electrographic seizures were common, were often nonconvulsive, and had onset over a broad range of times in the first days of life.
Laptook, Abbot R; Kilbride, Howard; Shepherd, Edward; McDonald, Scott A; Shankaran, Seetha; Truog, William; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D
Therapeutic hypothermia improves the survival and neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with newborn encephalopathy of a hypoxic-ischemic origin. The NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) Whole Body Cooling trial used the Cincinnati Sub-Zero Blanketrol II to achieve therapeutic hypothermia. The Blanketrol III is now available and provides additional cooling modes that may result in better temperature control. This report is a retrospective comparison of infants undergoing hypothermia using two different cooling modes of the Blanketrol device. Infants from the NRN trial were cooled with the Blanketrol II using the Automatic control mode (B2 cohort) and were compared with infants from two new NRN centers that adopted the NRN protocol and used the Blanketrol III in a gradient mode (B3 cohort). The primary outcome was the percent time the esophageal temperature stayed between 33°C and 34°C (target 33.5°C) during maintenance of hypothermia. Cohorts had similar birth weight, gestational age, and level of encephalopathy at the initiation of therapy. Baseline esophageal temperature differed between groups (36.6°C ± 1.0°C for B2 vs. 33.9°C ± 1.2°C for B3, p<0.0001) reflecting the practice of passive cooling during transport prior to initiation of active device cooling in the B3 cohort. This difference prevented comparison of temperatures during induction of hypothermia. During maintenance of hypothermia the mean and standard deviation of the percent time between 33°C and 34°C was similar for B2 compared to B3 cohorts (94.8% ± 0.1% vs. 95.8% ± 0.1%, respectively). Both the automatic and gradient control modes of the Blanketrol devices appear comparable in maintaining esophageal temperature within the target range during maintenance of therapeutic hypothermia.
Jatti, Kumar; Prasad, Neeraj
Therapeutic hypothermia has been used for neuroprotection following cardiac arrest presenting with ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation regardless of underlying cause. Long QT syndrome is a cause for polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and we know that therapeutic hypothermia increases the QT interval. We managed a 27-year-old woman, who was 10 weeks post-partum, who collapsed secondary to ventricular fibrillation at home. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started with successful resuscitation after a rescue shock from paramedics. On hospital admission, her computerised tomography head, computerised tomography pulmonary angiogram and echocardiography did not show any abnormality. Her baseline electrocardiogram showed prolonged QTc interval of 504 ms without ischaemic changes. After intubation and ventilation, she was treated with therapeutic hypothermia for 48 h. She had a further episode of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia requiring rescue shock just prior to starting therapeutic hypothermia in hospital. No dysrhythmias occurred during therapeutic hypothermia, although the QTc further increased. After stopping the therapeutic hypothermia, she had two further ventricular tachycardia episodes. After commencement of beta blockers, she remained free of arrhythmias, and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted, she has recovered without any neurological deficit. Ventricular dysrhythmias caused by prolongation of the QT interval during or after therapeutic hypothermia are not well understood. There has been a report of a patient also having ventricular dysrhythmia 2 h after re-warming post therapeutic hypothermia and also a report of arrhythmia free period during therapeutic hypothermia in a long QT syndrome patient; both these features are present in our patient. Re-warming is not usually known to cause any arrhythmias; however, it could be a problem in those with long QT syndrome. Whether therapeutic hypothermia has
Wang, Jiaqiong; Pearse, Damien D.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major health problem and is associated with a diversity of neurological symptoms. Pathophysiologically, dysfunction after SCI results from the culmination of tissue damage produced both by the primary insult and a range of secondary injury mechanisms. The application of hypothermia has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective after SCI in both experimental and human studies. The myriad of protective mechanisms of hypothermia include the slowing down of metabolism, decreasing free radical generation, inhibiting excitotoxicity and apoptosis, ameliorating inflammation, preserving the blood spinal cord barrier, inhibiting astrogliosis, promoting angiogenesis, as well as decreasing axonal damage and encouraging neurogenesis. Hypothermia has also been combined with other interventions, such as antioxidants, anesthetics, alkalinization and cell transplantation for additional benefit. Although a large body of work has reported on the effectiveness of hypothermia as a neuroprotective approach after SCI and its application has been translated to the clinic, a number of questions still remain regarding its use, including the identification of hypothermia’s therapeutic window, optimal duration and the most appropriate rewarming rate. In addition, it is necessary to investigate the neuroprotective effect of combining therapeutic hypothermia with other treatment strategies for putative synergies, particularly those involving neurorepair. PMID:26213924
Browning, Brittan; Page, Kent E; Kuhn, Renee L; DiLiberto, Mary Ann; Deschenes, Jendar; Taillie, Eileen; Tomanio, Elyse; Holubkov, Richard; Dean, J Michael; Moler, Frank W; Meert, Kathleen; Pemberton, Victoria L
To understand factors affecting nurses' attitudes toward the Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials and association with approach/consent rates. Cross-sectional survey of pediatric/cardiac intensive care nurses' perceptions of the trials. Study was conducted at 16 of 38 self-selected study sites. Pediatric and cardiac intensive care nurses. The primary outcome was the proportion of nurses with positive perceptions, as defined by agree or strongly agree with the statement "I am happy to take care of a Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest patient". Associations between perceptions and study approach/consent rates were also explored. Of 2,241 nurses invited, 1,387 (62%) completed the survey and 77% reported positive perceptions of the trials. Nurses, who felt positively about the scientific question, the study team, and training received, were more likely to have positive perceptions of the trials (p < 0.001). Nurses who had previously cared for a research patient had significantly more positive perceptions of Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest compared with those who had not (79% vs 54%; p < 0.001). Of the 754 nurses who cared for a Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest patient, 82% had positive perceptions, despite 86% reporting it required more work. Sixty-nine percent believed that hypothermia reduces brain injury and mortality; sites had lower consent rates when their nurses believed that hypothermia was beneficial. Institution-specific approach rates were positively correlated with nurses' perceptions of institutional support for the trial (r = 0.54; p = 0.04), ICU support (r = 0.61; p = 0.02), and the importance of conducting the trial in children (r = 0.61; p = 0.01). The majority of nurses had positive perceptions of the Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Institutional, colleague, and study team support and training were contributing factors. Despite
Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Qing-Ming; Zhao, Shen; Lin, Shi-Rong; Chen, Feng
Good neurological outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) is hard to achieve for clinicians. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that therapeutic mild hypothermia is beneficial. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of therapeutic mild hypothermia in patients successfully resuscitated from CA using a meta-analysis. We searched the MEDLINE (1966 to April 2012), OVID (1980 to April 2012), EMBASE (1980 to April 2012), Chinese bio-medical literature & retrieval system (CBM) (1978 to April 2012), Chinese medical current contents (CMCC) (1995 to April 2012), and Chinese medical academic conference (CMAC) (1994 to April 2012). Studies were included if 1) the study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT); 2) the study population included patients successfully resuscitated from CA, and received either standard post-resuscitation care with normothermia or mild hypothermia; 3) the study provided data on good neurologic outcome and survival to hospital discharge. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to pool the effect. The study included four RCTs with a total of 417 patients successfully resuscitated from CA. Compared to standard post-resuscitation care with normothermia, patients in the hypothermia group were more likely to have good neurologic outcome (RR=1.43, 95% CI 1.14-1.80, P=0.002) and were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (RR=1.32, 95% CI 1.08-1.63, P=0.008). There was no significant difference in adverse events between the normothermia and hypothermia groups (P>0.05), nor heterogeneity and publication bias. Therapeutic mild hypothermia improves neurologic outcome and survival in patients successfully resuscitated from CA.
Sadaka, Farid; Doerr, Danielle; Hindia, Jiggar; Lee, K Philip; Logan, William
Therapeutic Hypothermia (TH) is the only therapeutic intervention proven to significantly improve survival and neurologic outcome in comatose postcardiac arrest patients and is now considered standard of care. When we discuss prognostication with regard to comatose survivors postcardiac arrest, we should look for tools that are both reliable and accurate and that achieve a false-positive rate (FPR) equal to or very closely approaching zero. We retrospectively reviewed data that were prospectively collected on all cardiac arrest patients admitted to our ICU. Continuous electroencephalogram (cEEG) monitoring was performed as part of our protocol for therapeutic hypothermia in comatose postcardiac arrest patients. The primary outcome measure was the best score on hospital discharge on the 5-point Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance category (CPC) scores. A total of 58 patients were included in this study. Twenty five (43%) patients had a good neurologic outcome (CPC score of 1-2). Three (5.2%) patients had nonconvulsive status epilepticus, all of whom had poor outcome (CPC = 5). Seventeen (29%) patients had burst suppression (BS); all had poor outcome. Both nonconvuslsive seizures (NCS) and BS had a specificity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84%-100%), positive predictive values of 100% (95% CI, 31%-100%), and 100% (95% CI, 77%-100%), respectively. Both NCS and BS had FPRs of zero (95% CI, 0.0-0.69, and 0.0-0.23, respectively). In comatose postcardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia, EEG during the maintenance and rewarming phase of hypothermia can contribute to prediction of neurologic outcome. Pending large multicenter prospective studies evaluating the role of cEEG in prognostication, our study adds to the existing evidence that cEEG can play a potential role in prediction of outcome in postcardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lamb, Jessica A; Rajput, Padmesh S; Lyden, Patrick D
Hypothermia is the most potent protective therapy available for cerebral ischemia. In experimental models, cooling the brain even a single degree Celsius alters outcome after global and focal ischemia. Difficulties translating therapeutic hypothermia to patients with stroke or after cardiac arrest include: uncertainty as to the optimal treatment duration; best target-depth temperature; and longest time delay after which therapeutic hypothermia won't benefit. Recent results from human clinical trials suggest that cooling with surface methods provides insufficient cooling speed or control over target temperature. Available animal models incorporate surface cooling methods that are slow, and do not allow for precise control of the target temperature. To address this need, we developed a rapid, simple, inexpensive model for inducing hypothermia using a perivascular implanted closed-loop cooling circuit. The method allows precise control of the target temperature. Using this method, target temperature for therapeutic hypothermia was reached within 13±1.07min (Mean±SE). Once at target, the temperature was maintained within 0.09°C for 4h. This method will allow future experiments to determine under what conditions therapeutic hypothermia is effective, determine the optimal relationship among delay, duration, and depth, and provide the research community with a new model for conducting further research into mechanistic questions underlying the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sisa, Claudia; Turroni, Silvia; Amici, Roberto; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco; Cerri, Matteo
Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures. This allows the gut microbiome to provide the host with metabolites, which are essential to keep the host immunological and metabolic homeostasis during hibernation. The emerging role of the gut microbiota in the hibernation process suggests the importance of maintaining a mutualistic gut microbiota configuration in the application of therapeutic hypothermia as well as in the development of new strategy such as the use of synthetic torpor in humans. The possible utilization of tailored probiotics to mold the gut ecosystem during therapeutic hypothermia can also be taken into consideration as new therapeutic strategy. PMID:28210076
Sisa, Claudia; Turroni, Silvia; Amici, Roberto; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco; Cerri, Matteo
Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures. This allows the gut microbiome to provide the host with metabolites, which are essential to keep the host immunological and metabolic homeostasis during hibernation. The emerging role of the gut microbiota in the hibernation process suggests the importance of maintaining a mutualistic gut microbiota configuration in the application of therapeutic hypothermia as well as in the development of new strategy such as the use of synthetic torpor in humans. The possible utilization of tailored probiotics to mold the gut ecosystem during therapeutic hypothermia can also be taken into consideration as new therapeutic strategy.
Lyden, Patrick D; Hemmen, Thomas M; Grotta, James; Rapp, Karen; Raman, Rema
Therapeutic hypothermia improves neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. Although supported by preclinical evidence, therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke remains under study. In the Intravascular Cooling in the Treatment of Stroke (ICTuS) trial, awake stroke patients were successfully cooled using an endovascular cooling catheter and a novel antishivering regimen. In the ICTuS-L study, the combination of endovascular hypothermia and thrombolysis proved feasible; while hypothermia was associated with no increased risk of bleeding complications, there was an increased association with pneumonia. Despite efforts to expedite, cooling began on average six-hours after stroke onset. We designed a novel Phase 2/3 trial to further test the safety of combined thrombolysis and endovascular hypothermia and to determine if the combination shows superiority compared with thrombolysis alone. ICTuS 2 (n = 400) will assess four hypotheses, and if milestones are met, ICTuS 3 (n = 1200) will begin as a seamless continuation for a total sample of 1600 patients. The ICTuS 2 milestones include (1) target temperature reached within six-hours of symptom onset; (2) no increased risk of pneumonia; (3) no increase in signs/symptoms of fluid overload due to chilled saline infusions; and (4) sufficient recruitment to complete the trial on time. The ICTuS 2/3 protocol contains novel features - based on the previous ICTuS and ICTuS-L trials - designed to achieve these milestones. Innovations include scrupulous pneumonia surveillance, intravenous chilled saline immediately after randomization to induce rapid cooling, and a requirement for catheter placement within two-hours of thrombolysis. An Investigational Device Exemption has been obtained and an initial group of sites initiated. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.
Zhao, Heng; Steinberg, Gary
Although many studies have shown the great potential of induced hypothermia in stroke treatment, we recognize that there are limitations to the protective effects of hypothermia even in the laboratory. Here, we review our experiments on the protective effects of mild-to-moderate hypothermia in rats. Focal ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion for 1 to 2 hours combined with permanent or transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. We compared the effects of mild (33°C) and moderate (30°C) hypothermia, evaluated therapeutic time windows, and studied the underlying mechanisms. On review, our findings revealed that the protective effects of induced mild hypothermia (33°C) were limited, and the therapeutic time window of even moderate hypothermia (30°C) was very short in our specific models, although this limitation might be due to the relatively brief periods of hypothermia used. In addition, we found that hypothermia reduced brain injury by preserving Akt activity, PTEN phosphorylation and εPKC activity, while inhibiting ROS production, and δPKC activity. PMID:21876846
Himmelseher, S; Werner, C
We aimed to explore current practices in use of therapeutic hypothermia after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in intensive care of adults. Questionnaires were sent to anaesthesia department chairs in German hospitals with neurosurgical care in January 2004 with a survey focussing on cooling procedures, temperature measurement, depth and duration of hypothermia, and rewarming after therapy. 99 (67%) questionnaires on TBI and 95 (64%) on SAH could be analysed. Hypothermia was used in 39% after TBI and 18% after SAH. Its aims were neuroprotection in approximately 45% and control of refractory intracranial hypertension in approximately 50%. However, in most cases (69% TBI, 59% SAH) hypothermia was used in less than a quarter of patients treated. A criterion for hypothermia was severe disease in approximately 40% and refractory intracranial hypertension in approximately 50%. Temperatures were targeted to 36-34 degrees C in 77% after TBI and 88% after SAH. In more than 80%, bladder temperatures were measured. For induction of hypothermia, surface cooling was applied in approximately 90%. The duration of hypothermia was 24-48 h in 62% after TBI and 29% after SAH. Cooling was orientated at the intracranial pressure (ICP) in 31% after TBI and 47% after SAH, and was used for more than 48 h in approximately 25%. After hypothermia was stopped, a rewarming rate of 0.5 degrees C/h was applied in 38% after TBI and 53% after SAH. In approximately 35%, rewarming was orientated at the ICP, and in 33% after TBI and 24% after SAH, it was performed over 24 h. After SAH, spontaneous rewarming was used in 24%. Therapeutic hypothermia is used in 39% after TBI and 18% after SAH in the intensive care of German anaesthesia departments. There is no standard in management, and there is wide variation in practices of duration of cooling and rewarming. For patients' benefit, evidence-based recommendations on therapeutic hypothermia should be published by the
Rothstein, Ted Laurence
The loss of the N20 component on testing median somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) has been established as the most reliable indicator of unfavorable prognosis in post-cardiopulmonary arrest patients. With the intervention of therapeutic hypothermia in the management of patients who remain comatose following cardiopulmonary arrest that association is now in dispute. Abandoning SSEP as a key prognostic indicator of neurologic outcome would be a serious loss and cannot be justified.
Background: Worldwide, a significant proportion of infants needing therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxia-ischaemia are transported to a higher-level facility for neonatal intensive care. They pose technical challenges to transport teams in cooling them. Concerns exist about the efficacy of passive cooling in neonatal transport to achieve a neurotherapeutic temprature. Servo-controlled cooling in the standard of care on the neonatal unit. The key question is whether the same standard of care in the neonatal unit can be safely used for therapeutic hypothermia during transport of neonates with suspected hypoxia-ischaemia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional survey of United Kingdom (UK) neonatal transport services (n=21) was performed annually from 2011-2014 with a 100% response. The survey ascertained information about service provision and the method of cooling used during transport. Results: In 2011, all UK neonatal transport services provided therapeutic hypothermia during transport. Servo-control cooling machines were used by only 6 of the 21 teams (30%) while passive cooling was used by 15 of the 21 (70%) teams. In 2012 9 of the 21 teams (43%) were using servo-control. By 2014 the number of teams using servo-control cooling had more than doubled to 15 of the 21 (62%) services. Teams have done this through modification of transport trolleys and dedicated ambulances. Conclusion: Servo-controlled cooling in neonatal transport is becoming more common in the UK. The question remains whether it should be endorsed as a standard of care. Some teams continue to passively cool neonates with hypoxia-ischaemia during transport. This article reviews the drivers, current evidence, safety and processes involved in provision of therapeutic hypothermia during neonatal transport to enable teams to decide what would be the right option for them. PMID:26180694
Avery, Kathleen Ryan; O'Brien, Molly; Pierce, Carol Daddio; Gazarian, Priscilla K
Therapeutic hypothermia has become a widely accepted intervention that is improving neurological outcomes following return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. This intervention is highly complex but infrequently used, and prompt implementation of the many steps involved, especially achieving the target body temperature, can be difficult. A checklist was introduced to guide nurses in implementing the therapeutic hypothermia protocol during the different phases of the intervention (initiation, maintenance, rewarming, and normothermia) in an intensive care unit. An interprofessional committee began by developing the protocol, a template for an order set, and a shivering algorithm. At first, implementation of the protocol was inconsistent, and a lack of clarity and urgency in managing patients during the different phases of the protocol was apparent. The nursing checklist has provided all of the intensive care nurses with an easy-to-follow reference to facilitate compliance with the required steps in the protocol for therapeutic hypothermia. Observations of practice and feedback from nursing staff in all units confirm the utility of the checklist. Use of the checklist has helped reduce the time from admission to the unit to reaching the target temperature and the time from admission to continuous electroencephalographic monitoring in the cardiac intensive care unit. Evaluation of patients' outcomes as related to compliance with the protocol interventions is ongoing.
Moler, Frank W.; Silverstein, Faye S.; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S.; Christensen, James R.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Clark, Amy E.; Browning, Brittan; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Page, Kent; Shankaran, Seetha; Hutchison, Jamie S.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Bennett, Kimberly S.; Berger, John T.; Topjian, Alexis; Pineda, Jose A.; Koch, Joshua D.; Schleien, Charles L.; Dalton, Heidi J.; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Goodman, Denise M.; Fink, Ericka L.; McQuillen, Patrick; Zimmerman, Jerry J.; Thomas, Neal J.; van der Jagt, Elise W.; Porter, Melissa B.; Meyer, Michael T.; Harrison, Rick; Pham, Nga; Schwarz, Adam J.; Nowak, Jeffrey E.; Alten, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Derek S.; Bhalala, Utpal S.; Lidsky, Karen; Lloyd, Eric; Mathur, Mudit; Shah, Samir; Wu, Theodore; Theodorou, Andreas A.; Sanders, Ronald C.; Dean, J. Michael
Background Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended for comatose adults after witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but data about this intervention in children are limited. Methods We conducted this trial of two targeted temperature interventions at 38 children’s hospitals involving children who remained unconscious after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose patients who were older than 2 days and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II), score of 70 or higher (on a scale from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients with a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest. Results A total of 295 patients underwent randomization. Among the 260 patients with data that could be evaluated and who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest, there was no significant difference in the primary outcome between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (20% vs. 12%; relative likelihood, 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 2.76; P = 0.14). Among all the patients with data that could be evaluated, the change in the VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months was not significantly different (P = 0.13) and 1-year survival was similar (38% in the hypothermia group vs. 29% in the normothermia group; relative likelihood, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.79; P = 0.13). The groups had similar incidences of infection and serious arrhythmias, as well as similar use of blood products and 28-day mortality. Conclusions In comatose children who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, therapeutic hypothermia, as compared with therapeutic normothermia, did not confer a significant benefit in survival with a
Moler, Frank W; Silverstein, Faye S; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Meert, Kathleen L; Clark, Amy E; Browning, Brittan; Pemberton, Victoria L; Page, Kent; Shankaran, Seetha; Hutchison, Jamie S; Newth, Christopher J L; Bennett, Kimberly S; Berger, John T; Topjian, Alexis; Pineda, Jose A; Koch, Joshua D; Schleien, Charles L; Dalton, Heidi J; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Goodman, Denise M; Fink, Ericka L; McQuillen, Patrick; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Thomas, Neal J; van der Jagt, Elise W; Porter, Melissa B; Meyer, Michael T; Harrison, Rick; Pham, Nga; Schwarz, Adam J; Nowak, Jeffrey E; Alten, Jeffrey; Wheeler, Derek S; Bhalala, Utpal S; Lidsky, Karen; Lloyd, Eric; Mathur, Mudit; Shah, Samir; Wu, Theodore; Theodorou, Andreas A; Sanders, Ronald C; Dean, J Michael
Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended for comatose adults after witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but data about this intervention in children are limited. We conducted this trial of two targeted temperature interventions at 38 children's hospitals involving children who remained unconscious after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose patients who were older than 2 days and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II), score of 70 or higher (on a scale from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients with a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest. A total of 295 patients underwent randomization. Among the 260 patients with data that could be evaluated and who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest, there was no significant difference in the primary outcome between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (20% vs. 12%; relative likelihood, 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 2.76; P=0.14). Among all the patients with data that could be evaluated, the change in the VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months was not significantly different (P=0.13) and 1-year survival was similar (38% in the hypothermia group vs. 29% in the normothermia group; relative likelihood, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.79; P=0.13). The groups had similar incidences of infection and serious arrhythmias, as well as similar use of blood products and 28-day mortality. In comatose children who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, therapeutic hypothermia, as compared with therapeutic normothermia, did not confer a significant benefit in survival with a good functional outcome at 1 year. (Funded by
Merchant, Raina M; Abella, Benjamin S; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Soar, Jasmeet; Ong, Marcus E H; Schmidt, Gregory A; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L
Although therapeutic hypothermia for cardiac arrest survivors has been shown to improve neurologically intact survival, optimal methods to ensure controlled induction and maintenance of cooling are not clearly established. Precise temperature control is important to evaluate because unintentional overcooling below the consensus target range of 32-34 degrees C may place the patient at risk for serious complications. We sought to measure the prevalence of overcooling (<32 degrees C) in postarrest survivors receiving primarily noninvasive cooling. Retrospective chart review of postarrest patients. Three large teaching hospitals. Cardiac arrest survivors receiving therapeutic hypothermia. Charts were reviewed if primarily surface cooling was used with a target temperature goal between 32 degrees C and 34 degrees C. Of the 32 cases reviewed, overcooling lasting for >1 hr was identified as follows: 20 of 32 patients (63%) reached temperatures of <32 degrees C, 9 of 32 (28%) reached temperatures of <31 degrees C, and 4 of 32 (13%) reached temperatures of <30 degrees C. Of those with overcooling of <32 degrees C, 6 of 20 (30%) survived to hospital discharge, whereas of those without overcooling, 7 of 12 (58%) survived to hospital discharge (p = not significant). The majority of the cases reviewed demonstrated unintentional overcooling below target temperature. Improved mechanisms for temperature control are required to prevent potentially deleterious complications of more profound hypothermia.
Muniraman, Hemananda; Gardner, Danielle; Skinner, Jane; Paweletz, Anna; Vayalakkad, Anitha; Chee, Ying Hui; Clifford, Clare; Sanka, Sunil; Venkatesh, Vidheya; Curley, Anna; Victor, Suresh; Turner, Mark A; Clarke, Paul
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is now provided as standard care to infants with moderate-severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The role of TH in limiting neuronal injury is well recognized, but its effect on hepatic injury which occurs frequently in neonatal HIE is not known. Our objective was to characterize biomarkers of liver injury and function in the setting of neonatal HIE and to describe whether HIE severity and provision of TH influence these hepatic biomarkers. We performed a multicenter retrospective study and compared hepatic biomarkers obtained during the first postnatal week, according to the severity of HIE and whether treated with TH. Of a total of 361 infants with HIE, 223 (62%) received TH and 138 (38%) were managed at normal temperature. Most hepatic biomarkers and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with the severity of HIE (p < 0.001). Infants treated with TH had lower peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations (p = 0.025) and a delay in reaching peak CRP concentration (p < 0.001). We observed a significant association between the clinical grade of HIE and biomarkers of liver metabolism and function. Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with delayed CRP responses and with lower ALT concentrations and so may have the potential to modulate hepatic injury. What is Known: • Ischemic hepatic injury occurs frequently as a part of multiorgan dysfunction in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). • The neuroprotective role of therapeutic hypothermia in management of infants with HIE is well recognized, but the potential hepato-protective effects of hypothermia are unclear. What is New/What this study adds: • Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with lower alanine aminotransferase and albumin concentrations and a delayed C-reactive protein (CRP) response and so may have the potential to modulate hepatic injury. • An elevated CRP concentration during the first postnatal week may be regarded as
Mahfooz, Naeem; Weinstock, Arie; Afzal, Bushra; Noor, Mariam; Lowy, David Vargas; Farooq, Osman; Finnegan, Sarah G; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan
Continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) is an important diagnostic and prognostic tool in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. The optimal duration of continuous video-EEG during whole-body hypothermia is not known. We conducted a retrospective study of 35 neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing whole-body hypothermia with continuous video-EEG. EEG ictal changes were detected in 9/35 infants (26%). Of these 9 infants, the seizures were initially observed within 30 minutes of EEG monitoring in 6 (67%), within 24 hours in 2 (22%), and during rewarming in 1 infant (11%). No new seizures were detected between 24-72 hours of therapeutic hypothermia. Background suppression was detected in 14 infants (40%) by 24 hours. In neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing therapeutic hypothermia, continuous video-EEG has the highest diagnostic yield within the first 24 hours and during the rewarming phase. In the absence of prior seizures or antiepileptic therapy, limiting continuous video-EEG to these periods in resource-limited settings may reduce cost during therapeutic hypothermia.
Fluher, Jure; Markota, Andrej; Stožer, Andraž; Sinkovič, Andreja
Cold fluid infusions can be used to induce mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Fluid temperature higher than 4°C can increase the volume of fluid needed, prolong the induction phase of hypothermia and thus contribute to complications. We performed a laboratory experiment with two objectives. The first objective was to analyze the effect of wrapping fluid bags in ice packs on the increase of fluid temperature with time in bags exposed to ambient conditions. The second objective was to quantify the effect of insulating venous tubing and adjusting flow rate on fluid temperature increase from bag to the level of an intravenous cannula during a simulated infusion. The temperature of fluid in bags wrapped in ice packs was significantly lower compared to controls at all time points during the 120 minutes observation. The temperature increase from the bag to the level of intravenous cannula was significantly lower for insulated tubing at all infusion rates (median temperature differences between bag and intravenous cannula were: 8.9, 4.8, 4.0, and 3.1°C, for non-insulated and 5.9, 3.05, 1.1, and 0.3°C, for insulated tubing, at infusion rates 10, 30, 60, and 100 mL/minute, respectively). The results from this study could potentially be used to decrease the volume of fluid infused when inducing mild hypothermia with an infusion of cold fluids. PMID:26614854
Fluher, Jure; Markota, Andrej; Stožer, Andraž; Sinkovič, Andreja
Cold fluid infusions can be used to induce mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Fluid temperature higher than 4°C can increase the volume of fluid needed, prolong the induction phase of hypothermia and thus contribute to complications. We performed a laboratory experiment with two objectives. The first objective was to analyze the effect of wrapping fluid bags in ice packs on the increase of fluid temperature with time in bags exposed to ambient conditions. The second objective was to quantify the effect of insulating venous tubing and adjusting flow rate on fluid temperature increase from bag to the level of an intravenous cannula during a simulated infusion. The temperature of fluid in bags wrapped in ice packs was significantly lower compared to controls at all time points during the 120 minutes observation. The temperature increase from the bag to the level of intravenous cannula was significantly lower for insulated tubing at all infusion rates (median temperature differences between bag and intravenous cannula were: 8.9, 4.8, 4.0, and 3.1°C, for non-insulated and 5.9, 3.05, 1.1, and 0.3°C, for insulated tubing, at infusion rates 10, 30, 60, and 100 mL/minute, respectively). The results from this study could potentially be used to decrease the volume of fluid infused when inducing mild hypothermia with an infusion of cold fluids.
Nordmark, Johanna; Johansson, Jakob; Sandberg, Dan; Granstam, Sven-Olof; Huzevka, Tibor; Covaciu, Lucian; Mörtberg, Erik; Rubertsson, Sten
To study haemodynamic effects and changes in intravascular volume during hypothermia treatment, induced by ice-cold fluids and maintained by ice-packs followed by rewarming in patients after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. In 24 patients following successful restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), hypothermia was induced with infusion of 4 degrees C normal saline and maintained with ice-packs for 26 h after ROSC. This was followed by passive rewarming. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at 12, 24 and 48 h after ROSC to evaluate ejection fraction and intravascular volume status. Central venous pressure (CVP), central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO(2)) and serum lactate were measured. Fluid balance was calculated. Twelve hours after ROSC, two separate raters independently estimated that 10 and 13 out of 23 patients had a decreased intravascular volume using transthoracic echocardiography. After 24 and 48 h this number had increased further to 14 and 13 out of 19 patients and 13 and 12 out of 21 patients. Calculated fluid balance was positive (4000 ml the day 1 and 2500 ml day 2). There was no difference in ejection fraction between the recording time points. Serum lactate and ScvO(2) were in the normal range when echocardiography exams were performed. CVP did not alter over time. Our results support the hypothesis that inducing hypothermia following cardiac arrest, using cold intravenous fluid infusion does not cause serious haemodynamic side effects. Serial transthoracic echocardiographic estimation of intravascular volume suggests that many patients are hypovolaemic during therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming in spite of a positive fluid balance.
Holena, Daniel N; Tolstoy, Nikolai S; Mills, Angela M; Fox, Adam D; Levine, Joshua M
A comatose 23-year-old woman with acute liver failure due to an overdose of acetaminophen had indications of intracranial hypertension and underwent liver transplantation. Her level of arousal did not improve, and on postoperative day 1, clinical signs of cerebral herniation became apparent. An intracranial pressure monitor was placed, and intracranial hypertension was documented. Elevations in intracranial pressure persisted despite maximal osmotherapy, and therapeutic hypothermia was started. Normalization of intracranial pressure was rapid. Findings on neurological examination improved and the patient was discharged from the hospital with no neurological impairment.
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is now considered a standard in tertiary NICUs. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is an important adjunct to this therapy and is gaining acceptance for use on the neonatal population. It can be easily incorporated into practice with appropriate education and training. Current publications are lacking regarding nursing care of neonatal patients undergoing th with the use of aEEG. This article presents a broad educational program as well as novel teaching tool for neonatal nurses caring for this population.
Usach, Irina; Sakopoulos, Andreas; Razavi, Hossein
Therapeutic hypothermia is indicated in a number of traumatic brain injuries as well as for cardiovascular shock (Warner DS, James ML, Laskowitz, et al. Translational research in acute central nervous system injury: lessons learned and the future. JAMA Neurol 2014;71:1311-1318), but it has been limited in its application to acute ischemic stroke. We present the case of a 65-year-old woman with a clinical cerebrovascular accident following a right carotid endarterectomy who was treated with a 24-hr hypothermia protocol and had a full recovery. The hypothermia protocol utilized on this patient and a review of the literature surrounding hypothermia in the setting of ischemic stroke are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Urquieta, Emmanuel; Jye Poi, Mun; Varon, Joseph; Lin, Peter H
This article has been officially retracted. The senior author, Emmanuel Urquieta, of the article entitled, "Reversal of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Endovascular Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Hyperbaric Oxygen and Therapeutic Hypothermia," has requesed that the article, published online ahead of print (DOI: 10.1089/ther.2015.0025), be retracted because he discovered one of his coauthors mistakenly submitted the same article to the Journal of Vascular Surgery due to a miscommunication between them. The editorial leadership of Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management agree that the article must be retracted as a matter of proper scientific publishing protocol whereby an article may not be simultaneously submitted to two journals. The Editors commend Dr. Urquieta for willingly bringing this situation to their attention. Dr. Urquieta and his coauthors sincerely apologize to the Editors and the readership of Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management.
Pinto, Priya; Brown, Tartania; Khilkin, Michael; Chuang, Elizabeth
To compare the clinical outcomes of patients who did and did not receive palliative care consultation among those who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and underwent therapeutic hypothermia. We identified patients at a single academic medical center who had undergone therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between 2009 and 2013. We performed a retrospective chart review for demographic data, hospital and critical care length of stay, and clinical outcomes of care. We reviewed the charts of 62 patients, of which 35 (56%) received a palliative care consultation and 27 (44%) did not. Palliative care consultation occurred an average of 8.3 days after admission. Patients receiving palliative care consultation were more likely to have a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order placed (odds ratio: 2.3, P < .001). The mean length of stay in the hospital was similar for patients seen by palliative care or not (16.7 vs 17.1 days, P = .90). Intensive care length of stay was also similar (11.3 vs 12.6 days, P = .55). Palliative care consultation was underutilized and utilized late in this cohort. Palliative consultation was associated with DNR orders but did not affect measures of utilization such as hospital and intensive care length of stay.
Noirhomme, Quentin; Lehembre, Rémy; Lugo, Zulay Del Rosario; Lesenfants, Damien; Luxen, André; Laureys, Steven; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O
Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between reviewers. Automated EEG analysis may help quantify the brain damage. Forty-six comatose patients in therapeutic hypothermia, after cardiac arrest, were included in the study. EEG background was quantified with burst-suppression ratio (BSR) and approximate entropy, both used to monitor anesthesia. Reactivity was detected through change in the power spectrum of signal before and after stimulation. Automatic results obtained almost perfect agreement (discontinuity) to substantial agreement (background reactivity) with a visual score from EEG-certified neurologists. Burst-suppression ratio was more suited to distinguish continuous EEG background from burst-suppression than approximate entropy in this specific population. Automatic EEG background and reactivity measures were significantly related to good and poor outcome. We conclude that quantitative EEG measurements can provide promising information regarding current state of the patient and clinical outcome, but further work is needed before routine application in a clinical setting.
Ruknuddeen, Mohammed Ishaq; Ramadoss, Rajaram; Rajajee, V.; Grzeskowiak, Luke E.; Rajagopalan, Ram E.
Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) may improve neurological outcome in comatose patients following out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The reliability of clinical prediction of neurological outcome following TH remains unclear. In particular, there is very limited data on survival and predictors of neurological outcome following TH for OHCA from resource-constrained settings in general and South Asia in specific. Objective: The objective was to identify factors predicting unfavorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge in comatose survivors of OHCA treated with hypothermia. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: Urban 200-bed hospital in Chennai, India. Methods: Predictors of unfavorable neurological outcome (cerebral performance category score [3–5]) at hospital discharge were evaluated among patients admitted between January 2006 and December 2012 following OHCA treated with TH. Hypothermia was induced with cold intravenous saline bolus, ice packs and cold-water spray with bedside fan. Predictors of unfavorable neurological outcome were examined through multivariate exact logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 121 patients were included with 106/121 (87%) experiencing the unfavorable neurological outcome. Independent predictors of unfavorable neurological outcome included: Status myoclonus <24 h (odds ratio [OR] 21.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.89-Infinite), absent brainstem reflexes (OR 50.09, 6.55-Infinite), and motor response worse than flexion on day 3 (OR 99.41, 12.21-Infinite). All 3 variables had 100% specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusion: Status myoclonus within 24 h, absence of brainstem reflexes and motor response worse than flexion on day 3 reliably predict unfavorable neurological outcome in comatose patients with OHCA treated with TH. PMID:26195855
Zhu, Junchao; Wang, Bing; Lee, Jeong-Hoo; Armstrong, Jillian S.; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Bhalala, Utpal S.; Martin, Lee J.; Koehler, Raymond C.; Yang, Zeng-Jin
The severity of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia and the delay in initiating therapeutic hypothermia limit the efficacy of hypothermia. After hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal piglets, the arachidonic acid metabolite, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), has been found to contribute to oxidative stress at 3 hours of reoxygenation and to eventual neurodegeneration. We tested whether early administration of a 20-HETE-synthesis inhibitor after reoxygenation augments neuroprotection with 3-hour delayed hypothermia. In two hypothermic groups, whole body cooling from 38.5 to 34°C was initiated 3 hours after hypoxia-ischemia. Rewarming occurred from 20 to 24 hours; then anesthesia was discontinued. One hypothermic group received a 20-HETE inhibitor at 5 minutes after reoxygenation. A sham-operated group and another hypoxia-ischemia group remained normothermic. At 10 days of recovery, resuscitated piglets with delayed hypothermia alone had significantly greater viable neuronal density in putamen, caudate nucleus, sensorimotor cortex, CA3 hippocampus, and thalamus than did piglets with normothermic recovery, but the values remained less than those in the sham-operated group. In piglets administered the 20-HETE inhibitor before hypothermia, the density of viable neurons in putamen, cortex, and thalamus was significantly greater than in the group with hypothermia alone. Cytochrome P450 4A, which can synthesize 20-HETE, was expressed in piglet neurons in these regions. We conclude that early treatment with a 20-HETE inhibitor enhances the therapeutic benefit of delayed hypothermia in protecting neurons in brain regions known to be particularly vulnerable to hypoxia-ischemia in term newborns. PMID:25721266
Koo, Elliot; Sheldon, R Ann; Lee, Byong Sop; Vexler, Zinaida S; Ferriero, Donna M
BackgroundTherapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the standard of care for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but it is not fully protective in the clinical setting. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may cause white matter injury (WMI), leading to neurological and cognitive dysfunction.MethodsP9 mice were subjected to HI as previously described. Pups underwent 3.5 h of systemic hypothermia or normothermia. Cresyl violet and Perl's iron staining for histopathological scoring of brain sections was completed blindly on all brains. Immunocytochemical (ICC) staining for myelin basic protein (MBP), microglia (Iba1), and astrocytes (glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)) was performed on adjacent sections. Volumetric measurements of MBP coverage were used for quantitative analysis of white matter.ResultsTH provided neuroprotection by injury scoring for the entire group (n=44; P<0.0002). ICC analysis of a subset of brains showed that the lateral caudate was protected from WMI (P<0.05). Analysis revealed decreased GFAP and Iba1 staining in hippocampal regions, mostly CA2/CA3. GFAP and Iba1 directly correlated with injury scores of normothermic brains.ConclusionTH reduced injury, and qualitative data suggest that hippocampus and lateral caudate are protected from HI. Mildly injured brains may better show the benefits of TH. Overall, these data indicate regional differences in WMI susceptibility and inflammation in a P9 murine HI model.
Kim, John J; Buchbinder, Nathan; Ammanuel, Simon; Kim, Robert; Moore, Erika; O’Donnell, Neil; Lee, Jennifer K; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Acharya, Soumyadipta; Allen, Robert H; Lee, Ryan W; Johnston, Michael V
Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%–50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors. Using a piglet model, we confirmed that our device fits the specific parameters of therapeutic hypothermia, lowering the body temperature to 33.5°C with a 1°C margin of error. After the therapeutic hypothermia treatment, warming is regulated by adjusting the amount of water added and the location of baby inside the device. Our invention uniquely limits the amount of electricity required to power and operate the device compared with current expensive and high-tech devices available in the United States. Our device costs a maximum of 40 dollars and is simple enough to be used in neonatal intensive care units in developing countries. PMID:23319871
Kim, John J; Buchbinder, Nathan; Ammanuel, Simon; Kim, Robert; Moore, Erika; O'Donnell, Neil; Lee, Jennifer K; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Acharya, Soumyadipta; Allen, Robert H; Lee, Ryan W; Johnston, Michael V
Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%-50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors. Using a piglet model, we confirmed that our device fits the specific parameters of therapeutic hypothermia, lowering the body temperature to 33.5°C with a 1°C margin of error. After the therapeutic hypothermia treatment, warming is regulated by adjusting the amount of water added and the location of baby inside the device. Our invention uniquely limits the amount of electricity required to power and operate the device compared with current expensive and high-tech devices available in the United States. Our device costs a maximum of 40 dollars and is simple enough to be used in neonatal intensive care units in developing countries.
Objective To determine whether therapeutic hypothermia after hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia during intervention. Design A meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed-effect model. Risk ratios, risk differences, and 95% confidence intervals, were measured. Data sources Studies identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, previous reviews, and abstracts from onset to August, 2016. Review methods Reports that compared therapeutic hypothermia with normal care for neonates with HIE and that included data on safety or cardiac arrhythmia, which is of interest to patients and clinicians, were selected. Results We found seven trials, encompassing 1322 infants that included information on safety or cardiac arrhythmia during intervention. Therapeutic hypothermia considerably increased the combined rate of cardiac arrhythmia in the seven trials (risk ratio 2.42, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 4.76. p = 0.01; risk difference 0.02, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04) during intervention. Conclusions In infants with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, therapeutic hypothermia is associated with a consistent increase in cardiac arrhythmia during intervention. PMID:28273115
Marik, Paul E; Varon, Joseph
Therapeutic hypothermia has been reported to improve the neurologic outcome of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The use of therapeutic hypothermia in patients who have had an acute ischemic-hypoxic brain injury after a suicidal intoxication has not been previously reported. We present the case of a young woman who presented comatose to our emergency department after attempting suicide by ingesting diazepam and a bottle of antifreeze (ethylene-glycol). Despite aggressive supportive care, the patient progressed to what appeared to be clinical brain death. At this point, the patient was managed with therapeutic hypothermia for 36 hours. The patient awoke within 48 hours of rewarming and made a complete and full neurologic recovery. In conclusion, this case has important implications in the management of patients who have had an acute ischemichypoxic brain injury. Inappropriately labeling such patients as "brain dead" will result in the failure to institute therapeutic hypothermia and other advanced neuroprotective interventions in patients who could be salvaged with a good neurologic outcome.
An automatic control system of brain temperature by air-surface cooling was developed for therapeutic hypothermia, which is increasingly recommended for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest and neonatal asphyxia in several guidelines pertinent to resuscitation. Currently, water-surface cooling is the most widespread cooling method in therapeutic hypothermia. However, it requires large electric power for precise control and also needs water-cooling blankets which have potential for compression of patients by its own weight and for water leakage in ICU. Air-surface cooling does not have such problems and is more suitable for clinical use than water-surface cooling, because air has lower specific heat and density as well as the impossibility of the contamination in ICU by its leakage. In the present system, brain temperature of patients is automatically controlled by suitable adjustment of the temperature of the air blowing into the cooling blankets. This adjustment is carried out by the regulation of mixing cool and warm air using proportional control valves. The computer in the developed control apparatus suitably calculates the air temperature and rotation angle of the valves every sampling time on the basis of the optimal-adaptive control algorithm. Thus, the proposed system actualizes automatic control of brain temperature by the inputting only the clinically desired temperature of brain. The control performance of the suggested system was verified by the examination using the mannequin in substitution for an adult patient. In the result, the control error of the head temperature of the mannequin was 0.12 °C on average in spite of the lack of the production capacity of warm air after the re-warming period. Thus, this system serves as a model for the clinically applied system.
Forni, Allison A; Rocchio, Megan A; Szumita, Paul M; Anger, Kevin E; Avery, Kathleen Ryan; Scirica, Benjamin M
Alterations in metabolic function during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) decrease responsiveness to insulin and increase the risk of hyperglycemia. Glycemic control is associated with improved outcomes in selected patients; however, glycemic management strategies during TH are not defined. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the glycemic metrics and IV insulin administration in critically ill patients during the cooling and rewarming phases of TH. Data from 37 patients who received at least 6h of therapeutic hypothermia for cardiac arrest between January 2007 and January 2010 were retrospectively evaluated, 14 (37.8%) of whom had diabetes. The mean blood glucose was 9.16±3.22mmol/L and 6.54±2.45mmol/L; p<0.01 during cooling and rewarming, respectively. Twelve (32.4%) patients experienced at least one hypoglycemic event, defined as a blood glucose <4mmol/L. Nineteen (51.4%) patients experienced at least one hyperglycemic event, defined as a blood glucose >11.11mmol/L and 15 (40.5%) patients received IV insulin therapy. Patients on IV insulin had a higher incidence of diabetes (9 vs. 5; p<0.05), higher admission blood glucose (13.89±6.13 vs. 11.03±4.65mmol/L; p=0.11), and a higher incidence of hyperglycemia (14 vs. 2; p<0.01) and hypoglycemia (8 vs. 4; p<0.05). Of the patients on IV insulin, mean insulin requirements during cooling and rewarming were 15.2±16.1 and 7±12.5units/h, respectively. TH is commonly associated with hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and the use of IV insulin therapy. Further research is needed to determine optimal glycemic management strategies to prevent hyper- and hypoglycemia in patients during the different phases of TH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sabir, Hemmen; Osredkar, Damjan; Maes, Elke; Wood, Thomas; Thoresen, Marianne
Background Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is standard treatment following perinatal asphyxia in newborn infants. Experimentally, TH is neuroprotective after moderate hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in seven-day-old (P7) rats. However, TH is not neuroprotective after severe HI. After a moderate HI insult in newborn brain injury models, the anesthetic gas xenon (Xe) doubles TH neuroprotection. The aim of this study was to examine whether combining Xe and TH is neuroprotective as applied in a P7 rat model of severe HI. Design/Methods 120 P7 rat pups underwent a severe HI insult; unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia (8% O2 for 150min at experimental normothermia (NT-37: Trectal 37°C). Surviving pups were randomised to immediate NT-37 for 5h (n = 36), immediate TH-32: Trectal 32°C for 5h (n = 25) or immediate TH-32 plus 50% inhaled Xe for 5h (n = 24). Pups were sacrificed after one week of survival. Relative area loss of the ligated hemisphere was measured, and neurons in the subventricular zone of this injured hemisphere were counted, to quantify brain damage. Results Following the HI insult, median (interquartile range, IQR) hemispheric brain area loss was similar in all groups: 63.5% (55.5–75.0) for NT-37 group, 65.0% (57.0–65.0) for TH-32 group, and 66.5% (59.0–72.0) for TH-32+Xe50% group (not significant). Correspondingly, there was no difference in neuronal cell count (NeuN marker) in the subventricular zone across the three treatment groups. Conclusions Immediate therapeutic hypothermia with or without additional 50% inhaled Xe, does not provide neuroprotection one week after severe HI brain injury in the P7 neonatal rat. This model aims to mimic the clinical situation in severely asphyxiated neonates and treatment these newborns remains an ongoing challenge. PMID:27253085
Miyamoto, Kenji; Kozu, Seiki; Arakawa, Akiko; Tsuboi, Tatsuo; Hirao, Jun-Ichi; Ono, Kazuyuki; Arisaka, Osamu
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis confined to the brainstem is associated with poor prognosis. We describe a case of a 10-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in the brainstem that developed after influenza A infection. A 10-year-old boy presented with fever and prolonged disturbance of consciousness and was admitted to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the midbrain, with T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images, suggested acute disseminated encephalomyelitis accompanied by a brainstem lesion. Lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis and increased protein content, including myelin basic protein, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulin G, all suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Treatments such as methylprednisolone pulse therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, and therapeutic hypothermia were performed. Although the patient presented with anisocoria with increased intracranial pressure monitoring during hypothermia, prompt therapy with d-mannitol and dopamine was effective. Our case results suggest that hypothermia could be included in the choice of therapy for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with brainstem lesions.
Kagawa, Eisuke; Inoue, Ichiro; Kawagoe, Takuji; Ishihara, Masaharu; Shimatani, Yuji; Kurisu, Satoshi; Nakama, Yasuharu; Dai, Kazuoki; Otani, Takayuki; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Morimoto, Yoshimasa; Ejiri, Kentaro; Oda, Nozomu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the time interval from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation (CPA-ROSC) in cardiac arrest patients and the types of patients who will benefit from therapeutic hypothermia. Four hundred witnessed adult comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac etiology were enrolled in the study. The favorable neurological outcome was defined as category 1 or 2 on the five-point Pittsburgh cerebral performance scale at the time of hospital discharge. A matching process based on the propensity score was performed to equalize potential prognostic factors in the hypothermia and normothermia groups, and to formulate a balanced 1:1 matched cohort study. The rate of favorable neurological outcome was higher (P < 0.05) in the hypothermia group (n = 110) than in the normothermia group in patients with CPA-ROSC of 15 to 20 minutes (64% vs. 17%), 20 to 25 minutes (70% vs. 8%), 25 to 30 minutes (50% vs. 7%), 35 to 40 minutes (27% vs. 0%) and 40 to 45 minutes (29% vs. 2%). A similar association was observed in a propensity-matched cohort, but the differences were not significant. There was no significant difference in the rate of favorable neurological outcome between the hypothermia-matched group and the normothermia-matched group. In the patients whose CPA-ROSC was greater than 15 minutes, however, the rate of favorable neurological outcome was higher in the hypothermia-matched group than in the normothermia-matched group (27% vs. 4%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the CPA-ROSC was an independent predictor of favorable neurological outcome (every 1 minute: odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.85 to 0.92, P < 0.001). The CPA-ROSC is an independent predictor of neurological outcome. Therapeutic hypothermia is more beneficial in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest with CPA-ROSC greater than 15 minutes.
Demirgan, Serdar; Erkalp, Kerem; Sevdi, M Salih; Aydogmus, Meltem Turkay; Kutbay, Numan; Firincioglu, Aydin; Ozalp, Ali; Alagol, Aysin
Hypothermia has been used in cardiac surgery for many years for neuroprotection. Mild hypothermia (MH) [body temperature (BT) kept at 32-35°C] has been shown to reduce both mortality and poor neurological outcome in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study investigated whether patients who were expected to benefit neurologically from therapeutic hypothermia (TH) also had improved cardiac function. The study included 30 patients who developed in-hospital cardiac arrest between September 17, 2012, and September 20, 2013, and had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) following successful CPR. Patient BTs were cooled to 33°C using intravascular heat change. Basal BT, systolic artery pressure (SAP), diastolic artery pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, central venous pressure, cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI), extravascular lung water index (ELWI), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) were measured at 36°C, 35°C, 34°C and 33°C during cooling. BT was held at 33°C for 24 hours prior to rewarming. Rewarming was conducted 0.25°C/h. During rewarming, measurements were repeated at 33°C, 34°C, 35°C and 36°C. A final measurement was performed once patients spontaneously returned to basal BT. We compared cooling and rewarming cardiac measurements at the same BTs. SAP values during rewarming (34°C, 35°C and 36°C) were lower than during cooling (P < 0.05). DAP values during rewarming (basal temperature, 34°C, 35°C and 36°C) were lower than during cooling. MAP values during rewarming (34°C, 35°C and 36°C) were lower than during cooling (P < 0.05). CO and CI values were higher during rewarming than during cooling. GEDI and ELWI did not differ during cooling and rewarming. SVRI values during rewarming (34°C, 35°C, 36°C and basal temperature) were lower than during cooling (P < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing cardiac
Background Hypothermia has been used in cardiac surgery for many years for neuroprotection. Mild hypothermia (MH) [body temperature (BT) kept at 32–35°C] has been shown to reduce both mortality and poor neurological outcome in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study investigated whether patients who were expected to benefit neurologically from therapeutic hypothermia (TH) also had improved cardiac function. Methods The study included 30 patients who developed in-hospital cardiac arrest between September 17, 2012, and September 20, 2013, and had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) following successful CPR. Patient BTs were cooled to 33°C using intravascular heat change. Basal BT, systolic artery pressure (SAP), diastolic artery pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, central venous pressure, cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI), extravascular lung water index (ELWI), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) were measured at 36°C, 35°C, 34°C and 33°C during cooling. BT was held at 33°C for 24 hours prior to rewarming. Rewarming was conducted 0.25°C/h. During rewarming, measurements were repeated at 33°C, 34°C, 35°C and 36°C. A final measurement was performed once patients spontaneously returned to basal BT. We compared cooling and rewarming cardiac measurements at the same BTs. Results SAP values during rewarming (34°C, 35°C and 36°C) were lower than during cooling (P < 0.05). DAP values during rewarming (basal temperature, 34°C, 35°C and 36°C) were lower than during cooling. MAP values during rewarming (34°C, 35°C and 36°C) were lower than during cooling (P < 0.05). CO and CI values were higher during rewarming than during cooling. GEDI and ELWI did not differ during cooling and rewarming. SVRI values during rewarming (34°C, 35°C, 36°C and basal temperature) were lower than during cooling (P < 0.05). Conclusions To our knowledge
Gasparetto, Nicola; Scarpa, Daniele; Rossi, Sandra; Persona, Paolo; Martano, Luigi; Bianchin, Andrea; Castioni, Carlo Alberto; Ori, Carlo; Iliceto, Sabino; Cacciavillani, Luisa
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is one of three interventions that have demonstrated to improve patients' neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the 2010 resuscitation guidelines on TH implementation in various Italian Intensive Care Units (ICU). A structured questionnaire was submitted to Italian ICU. The questionnaire was addressed to determine the procedures of TH in each ICU or, on the contrary, the reason for not employing the therapy. We obtained complete information from 770 of 847 Italian ICU (91%). Out of 405 Units included in the analysis only 223 (55.1%) reported to use TH in comatose patients after return of spontaneous circulation. The trend of TH implementation shows a stable increase, particularly after 2006 but there is no evident acceleration after the strong indication of the 2010 guidelines. There was a rise of about 3.4 times in the number of Italian ICU using TH as compared to the 2007 survey (an increase of 68% per year). One hundred and eighty-two (44.9%) units did not use TH mainly because of lack of equipment, economic issues or the conviction of the difficulty of execution. TH is still under-used in Italy (55.1%) even though the therapy is strongly recommended in the 2010 guidelines. However, the increase in the adoption of hypothermia has been significant in the past 5 years (68%/years) and the awareness of the efficacy is almost consolidated among intensivists, being logistic problems the leading cause for non-adoption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaieski, David F; Neumar, Robert W; Fuchs, Barry; Abella, Benjamin S; Kolansky, Daniel; Delfin, Gail; Leary, Marion; Goyal, Munish
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has revolutionized the management of comatose post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) patients. The 2008 ILCOR/AHA Consensus Statement for the treatment of PCAS suggests that goal-directed therapy, targeting mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO(2)), should be employed to normalize oxygen delivery. However, the optimal PCAS haemodynamic management strategy has not been defined and few objective data exist to guide clinicians. To describe the haemodynamic strategies used in TH implementation studies. A Medline search (time period, 3/2002 to 3/2010) was performed using the terms cardiac arrest and hypothermia, induced, then limited post-search to implementation studies of TH in comatose adults. The identified studies were examined for explicit definitions of the following terms: MAP; systolic blood pressure (SBP), CVP, ScvO(2), pulmonary artery catheter (PAC), echocardiogram (ECHO), lactate, and volume status. Forty-four implementation studies were identified and 43% (19/44) of them mentioned haemodynamics in any fashion. At least one haemodynamic goal was specifically defined in 16/44 (36%). The median number defined was 4 (range 1-6); individual goals as follows: MAP, 13/44 (30%); SBP, 3/44 (7%); CVP, 5/44 (11%); ScvO(2), 4/44 (9%); PAC, 7/44 (16%); ECHO, 7/44 (16%); lactate, 5/44 (11%); and volume status, 8/44 (18%). Specific haemodynamic goals are defined in a minority of published TH implementation studies. Given the volatile haemodynamics of the PCAS and lack of consensus on an optimal resuscitation strategy, explicit description of haemodynamic goals should be provided in future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arnaez, Juan; García-Alix, Alfredo; Arca, Gemma; Valverde, Eva; Caserío, Sonia; Moral, M Teresa; Benavente-Fernández, Isabel; Lubián-López, Simón
There are no data on the incidence of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and the implementation of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Spain. This is a cross-sectional, national study, performed using an on-line questionnaire targeting level III neonatal care units in Spain. Participants were requested to provide data of all newborns ≥ 35 weeks of gestational age diagnosed with moderate-severe HIE over a two year-period (2012-2013), and of the implementation of TH up to June 2015. All (90) contacted hospitals participated. HIE incidence rate was 0.77/1000 live newborns (95% CI 0.72 - 0.83). During 2012-2013, 86% of the newborns diagnosed with moderate-severe HIE received TH (active or passive). Active TH was increasingly used, from 78% in 2012 to 85% in 2013 (P=.01). Of the 14% that did not receive TH, it was mainly due to a delay in the diagnosis or inter-hospital transfer, and to the fact that the treatment was not offered. More than half (57%) were born in hospitals where TH was not provided, and passive hypothermia was used for inter-hospital patient transfer, and in 39% of the cases by inappropriately trained personnel. By June 2015, 57 out of 90 centres had implemented TH, of which 54 performed whole-body TH (using servo-controlled devices). The geographical distribution of centres with active TH, and the number of newborn that received TH, was heterogeneous. The incidence of moderate-severe HIE is homogeneous across Spanish territory. Significant progress is being made in the implementation of TH, however it is necessary to increase the availability of active TH between Autonomous Communities, to improve early diagnosis, and to guarantee high quality patient transfer to referral centres. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Lin, Shuying; Rhodes, Philip G; Cai, Zhengwei
To investigate whether whole body hypothermia after neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) could broaden the therapeutic window of intranasal treatment of IGF-1 (iN-IGF-1), postnatal day 7 rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation, followed by 8% oxygen inhalation for 2h. After HI, one group of pups were returned to their dams and kept at room temperature (24.5±0.2°C). A second group of pups were subjected to whole body hypothermia in a cool environment (21.5±0.3°C) for 2 or 4h before being returned to their dams. Two doses of 50 μg recombinant human IGF-1 were administered intranasally at a 1h interval starting at 0, 2 or 4h after hypothermia. Hypothermia decreased the rectal temperature of pups by 4.5°C as compared to those kept at room temperature. While hypothermia or iN-IGF-1 administered 2h after HI alone did not provide neuroprotection, the combined treatment of hypothermia with iN-IGF-1 significantly protected the neonatal rat brain from HI injury. Hypothermia treatment extended the therapeutic window of IGF-1 to 6h after HI. The extended IGF-1 therapeutic window by hypothermia was associated with decreases in infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and activation of microglia/macrophages and with attenuation of NF-κB activation in the ipsilateral hemisphere following HI.
Lin, Shuying; Rhodes, Philip G.; Cai, Zhengwei
To investigate whether whole body hypothermia after neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) could broaden the therapeutic window of intranasal treatment of IGF-1 (iN-IGF-1), postnatal day 7 rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation, followed by 8% oxygen inhalation for 2 h. After HI, one group of pups were returned to their dams and kept at room temperature (24.5±0.2°C). A second group of pups were subjected to whole body hypothermia in a cool environment (21.5±0.3°C) for 2 or 4 h before being returned to their dams. Two doses of 50 μg recombinant human IGF-1 were administered intranasally at a 1 h interval starting at 0, 2 or 4 h after hypothermia. Hypothermia decreased the rectal temperature of pups by 4.5°C as compared to those kept at room temperature. While hypothermia or iN-IGF-1 administered 2 h after HI alone did not provide neuroprotection, the combined treatment of hypothermia with iN-IGF-1 significantly protected the neonatal rat brain from HI injury. Hypothermia treatment extended the therapeutic window of IGF-1 to 6 h after HI. The extended IGF-1 therapeutic window by hypothermia was associated with decreases in infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and activation of microglia/macrophages and with attenuation of NF-κB activation in the ipsilateral hemisphere following HI. PMID:21316352
Sijens, Paul E; Wischniowsky, Katharina; Ter Horst, Hendrik J
The purpose of this study was to correlate brain metabolism assessed shortly after therapeutic hyperthermia by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with neurodevelopmental outcome. At the age of 6.0±1.8days, brain metabolites of 35 term asphyxiated newborns, treated with therapeutic hypothermia, were quantified by multivoxel proton MRS of a volume cranial to the corpus callosum, containing both gray and white matter. At the age of 30months the Bayley Scale of Infant Development-III was performed. Infants that died had lower gray matter NAA levels than infants that survived (P=0.005). In surviving infants (28 of 35) there was a trend of negative correlation between gray matter choline levels and gross motor outcome (r=-0.45). In the white matter, choline correlated negatively with fine motor skills (r=-0.40), and creatine positively with gross motor skills (r=0.58, P=0.02). There was no relationship between lactate levels and outcome. MRS of asphyxiated neonates treated by therapeutic hypothermia can serve as predictor of outcome. Unlike previously reported associations in untreated asphyxiates, lactate levels had no relationship with outcome, which indicates that one of the working mechanisms of therapeutic hypothermia is reduction of the metabolic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martínez de Zabarte Fernández, José M; Laliena Aznar, Sara; Corella Aznar, Elena; Cuadrado Piqueras, Laura; Oliván del Cacho, María J; Pinillos Pisón, Raquel
Therapeutic hypothermia is the current standard treatment in newborns with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, changing the outcome of these children. It is considered a safe technique with almost no side effects. A possible adverse side event is subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is an acute self-limiting panniculitis that develops during the first weeks of life. We report a case of a newborn at term suffering hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with a generalized multiform erythematous rash and firm and indurated plaques over the back, buttocks and extremities on his 12th day of life after being treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Histopathological study after skin punchbiopsy confirmed the suspicion of subcutaneous fat necrosis. The infant developed asymptomatic moderate hypercalcaemia within the first month of life, which was treated with intravenous fluids and diuretics. Serum calcium levels decreased and normalized in 3 months, with progressive disappearance of skin lesions.
therapeutic hypothermia in a swine model of blast- induced traumatic brain injury with associated hemorrhagic shock PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...A novel method for inducing therapeutic hypothermia in a swine model of blast- induced traumatic brain injury with associated hemorrhagic shock 5b...becomes available, the investigators will add a third arm to the study consisting of blast injury plus hemorrhagic shock. 15. SUBJECT TERMS
Miyauchi, Takashi; Wei, Enoch P.
Abstract Repetitive brain injury, particularly that occurring with sporting-related injuries, has recently garnered increased attention in both the clinical and public settings. In the laboratory, we have demonstrated the adverse axonal and vascular consequences of repetitive brain injury and have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia and/or FK506 exerted protective effects after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when administered within a specific time frame, suggesting a range of therapeutic modalities to prevent a dramatic exacerbation. In this communication, we revisit the utility of targeted therapeutic intervention to seek the minimal level of hypothermia needed to achieve protection while probing the role of oxygen radicals and their therapeutic targeting. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to repetitive mTBI by impact acceleration injury. Mild hypothermia (35°C, group 2), superoxide dismutase (group 3), and Tempol (group 4) were employed as therapeutic interventions administered 1 h after the repetitive mTBI. To assess vascular function, cerebral vascular reactivity to acetylcholine was evaluated 3 and 4 h after the repetitive mTBI, whereas to detect the burden of axonal damage, amyloid precursor protein (APP) density in the medullospinal junction was measured. Whereas complete impairment of vascular reactivity was observed in group 1 (without intervention), significant preservation of vascular reactivity was found in the other groups. Similarly, whereas remarkable increase in the APP-positive axon was observed in group 1, there were no significant increases in the other groups. Collectively, these findings indicate that even mild hypothermia or the blunting free radical damage, even when performed in a delayed period, is protective in repetitive mTBI. PMID:24341607
Shellhaas, Renée A.; Ng, Chee M; Dillon, Christina H.; Barks, John D.E.; Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha
Objective Phenobarbital is the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures. Many neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and about 40% have clinical seizures. Little is known about pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with HIE who undergo TH. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TH on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics, taking into account maturational changes. Setting Level 3 neonatal intensive care unit. Patients Infants with HIE and suspected seizures, all treated with phenobarbital. Some of these infant also received treatment with TH. Interventions None. Design A retrospective cohort study of 39 infants with HIE treated with phenobarbital (20 were treated with TH and 19 were not). Measurements and main results Data were collected on phenobarbital plasma concentrations on 39 subjects with HIE with or without TH. Using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital were developed with a total of 164 plasma concentrations. A one-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics. The clearance (CL) of phenobarbital was linearly related to body weight and matured with increasing age with a maturation half-life of 22.1 days. TH did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenobarbital. Conclusions TH does not influence the CL of phenobarbital after accounting for weight and age. Standard phenobarbital dosing is appropriate for initial treatment of seizures in neonates with HIE treated with TH. PMID:23254984
Dehaes, Mathieu; Aggarwal, Alpna; Lin, Pei-Yi; Rosa Fortuno, C; Fenoglio, Angela; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Soul, Janet S; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Grant, P Ellen
Pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are associated with complex changes of blood flow and metabolism. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is effective in reducing the extent of brain injury, but it remains uncertain how TH affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. Ten neonates undergoing TH for HIE and seventeen healthy controls were recruited from the NICU and the well baby nursery, respectively. A combination of frequency domain near infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) systems was used to non-invasively measure cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic variables at the bedside. Results showed that cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i) and CBF indices (CBFi) in neonates with HIE during TH were significantly lower than post-TH and age-matched control values. Also, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) were significantly higher in neonates with HIE during TH compared with age-matched control neonates. Post-TH CBV was significantly decreased compared with values during TH whereas SO2 remained unchanged after the therapy. Thus, FDNIRS-DCS can provide information complimentary to SO2 and can assess individual cerebral metabolic responses to TH. Combined FDNIRS-DCS parameters improve the understanding of the underlying physiology and have the potential to serve as bedside biomarkers of treatment response and optimization.
Zeiler, F A; Gillman, L M; Teitelbaum, J; West, M
Background. Tromethamine (THAM) has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP). Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI) receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.
Holubkov, Richard; Clark, Amy E.; Moler, Frank W.; Slomine, Beth S.; Christensen, James R.; Silverstein, Faye S.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Pollack, Murray M.; Dean, J. Michael
Objectives The THAPCA trials will determine if therapeutic hypothermia improves survival with good neurobehavioral outcome, as assessed by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition (VABS-II), in children resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the in-hospital and out-of-hospital settings. We describe the innovative efficacy outcome selection process during THAPCA protocol development. Design Consensus assessment of potential outcomes and evaluation timepoints. Methods We evaluated practical and technical advantages of several follow-up timepoints and continuous/categorical outcome variants. Simulations estimated power assuming varying hypothermia benefit on mortality and on neurobehavioral function among survivors. Results Twelve months post-arrest was selected as the optimal assessment timepoint for pragmatic and clinical reasons. Change in VABS-II from pre-arrest level, measured as quasi-continuous with death and vegetative status being worst possible levels, yielded optimal statistical power. However, clinicians preferred simpler multicategorical or binary outcomes due to easier interpretability, and favored outcomes based solely on post-arrest status, due to concerns about accurate parental assessment of pre-arrest status and differing clinical impact of a given VABS-II change depending on pre-arrest status. Simulations found only modest power loss from categorizing or dichotomizing quasi-continuous outcomes, due to high expected mortality. The primary outcome selected was survival with 12-month VABS-II no less than two standard deviations below a reference population mean (70 points), necessarily evaluated only among children with pre-arrest VABS-II ≥ 70. Two secondary efficacy outcomes, twelve-month survival and quasi-continuous VABS-II change from pre-arrest level, will be evaluated among all randomized children including those with compromised function pre-arrest. Conclusions Extensive discussion of optimal efficacy assessment timing, and of the
Kontio, Terhi; Salo, Ari; Kantola, Teemu; Toivonen, Lauri; Skrifvars, Markus B
The prognosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to intoxication is dismal. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are widely used in the treatment of depression, but possess significant cardiotoxicity, and are one of the most common medications used in suicide attempts worldwide. TCA poisoning can cause hypotension, seizures, and cardiac conduction disturbances, which can lead to life-threatening arrhythmia. Current guidelines recommend mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for unconscious survivors of OHCA, but hypothermia treatment itself can cause disturbances in cardiac conduction, which could aggravate the effect of TCAs on cardiac conduction. We report the successful use of TH in a 19-year-old woman who was resuscitated from ventricular tachycardia after intentional ingestion of amitriptyline and venlafaxine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The cardiac arrest was witnessed, but no bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed. The initial rhythm was ventricular tachycardia with no detectable pulse. Three defibrillations, magnesium sulfate, and sodium bicarbonate were given and her trachea was intubated, after which return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in 26 minutes. After ROSC, she had seizures and was sedated with propofol. Out-of-hospital TH was initiated with 1500 mL of cold Ringer's acetate. An infusion of norepinephrine was initiated for low blood pressure. On arrival at the university hospital, she was unconscious and had dilated pupils. She was tachycardic with a body temperature of 33.5°C. She was transferred to the intensive care unit and TH was maintained with invasive cooling. During the TH treatment, she did not experience any serious cardiac arrhythmia, transthoracic echocardiogram was normal, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) returned to normal. The patient was extubated 45 hours after the cardiac arrest. After the extubation, she was alert and cooperative, but slightly delusional. She was
Salinas, Pablo; Lopez-de-Sa, Esteban; Pena-Conde, Laura; Viana-Tejedor, Ana; Rey-Blas, Juan Ramon; Armada, Eduardo; Lopez-Sendon, Jose Luis
To assess the safety of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) concerning arrhythmias we analyzed serial electrocardiograms (ECG) during TH. All patients recovered from a cardiac arrest with Glasgow < 9 at admission were treated with induced mild TH to 32-34 °C. TH was obtained with cool fluid infusion or a specific intravascular device. Twelve-lead ECG before, during, and after TH, as well as ECG telemetry data was recorded in all patients. From a total of 54 patients admitted with cardiac arrest during the study period, 47 patients had the 3 ECG and telemetry data available. ECG analysis was blinded and performed with manual caliper by two independent cardiologists from blinded copies of original ECG, recorded at 25 mm/s and 10 mm/mV. Coronary care unit staff analyzed ECG telemetry for rhythm disturbances. Variables measured in ECG were rhythm, RR, PR, QT and corrected QT (QTc by Bazett formula, measured in lead v2) intervals, QRS duration, presence of Osborn's J wave and U wave, as well as ST segment displacement and T wave amplitude in leads II, v2 and v5. Heart rate went down an average of 19 bpm during hypothermia and increased again 16 bpm with rewarming (P < 0.0005, both). There was a non-significant prolongation of the PR interval during TH and a significant decrease with rewarming (P = 0.041). QRS duration significantly prolonged (P = 0.041) with TH and shortened back (P < 0.005) with rewarming. QTc interval presented a mean prolongation of 58 ms (P < 0.005) during TH and a significant shortening with rewarming of 22.2 ms (P = 0.017). Osborn or J wave was found in 21.3% of the patients. New arrhythmias occurred in 38.3% of the patients. Most frequent arrhythmia was non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (19.1%), followed by severe bradycardia or paced rhythm (10.6%), accelerated nodal rhythm (8.5%) and atrial fibrillation (6.4%). No life threatening arrhythmias (sustained ventricular tachycardia, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation
Salinas, Pablo; Lopez-de-Sa, Esteban; Pena-Conde, Laura; Viana-Tejedor, Ana; Rey-Blas, Juan Ramon; Armada, Eduardo; Lopez-Sendon, Jose Luis
AIM: To assess the safety of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) concerning arrhythmias we analyzed serial electrocardiograms (ECG) during TH. METHODS: All patients recovered from a cardiac arrest with Glasgow < 9 at admission were treated with induced mild TH to 32-34 °C. TH was obtained with cool fluid infusion or a specific intravascular device. Twelve-lead ECG before, during, and after TH, as well as ECG telemetry data was recorded in all patients. From a total of 54 patients admitted with cardiac arrest during the study period, 47 patients had the 3 ECG and telemetry data available. ECG analysis was blinded and performed with manual caliper by two independent cardiologists from blinded copies of original ECG, recorded at 25 mm/s and 10 mm/mV. Coronary care unit staff analyzed ECG telemetry for rhythm disturbances. Variables measured in ECG were rhythm, RR, PR, QT and corrected QT (QTc by Bazett formula, measured in lead v2) intervals, QRS duration, presence of Osborn’s J wave and U wave, as well as ST segment displacement and T wave amplitude in leads II, v2 and v5. RESULTS: Heart rate went down an average of 19 bpm during hypothermia and increased again 16 bpm with rewarming (P < 0.0005, both). There was a non-significant prolongation of the PR interval during TH and a significant decrease with rewarming (P = 0.041). QRS duration significantly prolonged (P = 0.041) with TH and shortened back (P < 0.005) with rewarming. QTc interval presented a mean prolongation of 58 ms (P < 0.005) during TH and a significant shortening with rewarming of 22.2 ms (P = 0.017). Osborn or J wave was found in 21.3% of the patients. New arrhythmias occurred in 38.3% of the patients. Most frequent arrhythmia was non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (19.1%), followed by severe bradycardia or paced rhythm (10.6%), accelerated nodal rhythm (8.5%) and atrial fibrillation (6.4%). No life threatening arrhythmias (sustained ventricular tachycardia, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or
Buttram, Sandra D W; Au, Alicia K; Koch, Joshua; Lidsky, Karen; McBain, Kristin; O'Brien, Nicole; Zielinski, Brandon A; Bell, Michael J
Pediatric refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a neurological emergency with significant morbidity and mortality, which lacks consensus regarding diagnosis and treatment(s). Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an effective treatment for RSE in preclinical models and small series. In addition, TH is a standard care for adults after cardiac arrest and neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The purpose of this study was to identify the feasibility of a study of pediatric RSE within a research group (Pediatric Neurocritical Care Research Group [PNCRG]). Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions at seven centers were prospectively screened from October 2012 to July 2013 for RSE. Experts within the PNCRG estimated that clinicians would be unwilling to enroll a child, unless the child required at least two different antiepileptic medications and a continuous infusion of another antiepileptic medication with ongoing electrographic seizure activity for ≥2 hours after continuous infusion initiation. Data for children meeting the above inclusion criteria were collected, including the etiology of RSE, history of epilepsy, and maximum dose of continuous antiepileptic infusions. There were 8113 PICU admissions over a cumulative 52 months (October 2012-July 2013) at seven centers. Of these, 69 (0.85%) children met inclusion criteria. Twenty children were excluded due to acute diagnoses affected by TH, contraindications to TH, or lack of commitment to aggressive therapies. Sixteen patients had seizure cessation within 2 hours, resulting in 33 patients who had inadequate seizure control after 2 hours and a continuous antiepileptic infusion. Midazolam (21/33, 64%) and pentobarbital (5/33, 15%) were the most common infusions with a wide maximum dose range. More than one infusion was required for seizure control in four patients. There are substantial numbers of subjects at clinical sites within the PNCRG with RSE that would meet the proposed inclusion criteria for a
Storm, Christian; Steffen, Ingo; Schefold, Joerg C; Krueger, Anne; Oppert, Michael; Jörres, Achim; Hasper, Dietrich
Introduction Persistent coma is a common finding after cardiac arrest and has profound ethical and economic implications. Evidence suggests that therapeutic hypothermia improves neurological outcome in these patients. In this analysis, we investigate whether therapeutic hypothermia influences the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and ventilator time in patients surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods A prospective observational study with historical controls was conducted at our medical ICU. Fifty-two consecutive patients (median age 62.6 years, 43 males, 34 ventricular fibrillation) submitted to therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were included. They were compared with a historical cohort (n = 74, median age 63.8 years, 53 males, 43 ventricular fibrillation) treated in the era prior to hypothermia treatment. All patients received the same standard of care. Neurological outcome was assessed using the Pittsburgh cerebral performance category (CPC) score. Univariate analyses and multiple regression models were used. Results In survivors, therapeutic hypothermia and baseline disease severity (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II] score) were both found to significantly influence ICU stay and ventilator time (all P < 0.01). ICU stay was shorter in survivors receiving therapeutic hypothermia (median 14 days [interquartile range (IQR) 8 to 26] versus 21 days [IQR 15 to 30] in the control group; P = 0.017). ICU length of stay and time on ventilator were prolonged in patients with CPC 3 or 4 compared with patients with CPC 1 or 2 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.034, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed improved probability for 1-year survival in the hypothermia group compared with the controls (log-rank test P = 0.013). Conclusion Therapeutic hypothermia was found to significantly shorten ICU stay and time of mechanical ventilation in survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Moreover, profound
Souto Moura, T; Aguiar Rosa, S; Germano, N; Cavaco, R; Sequeira, T; Alves, M; Papoila, A L; Bento, L
Invasive cardiac monitoring using thermodilution methods such as PiCCO® is widely used in critically ill patients and provides a wide range of hemodynamic variables, including cardiac output (CO). However, in post-cardiac arrest patients subjected to therapeutic hypothermia, the low body temperature possibly could interfere with the technique. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (ECHO) has long proved its accuracy in estimating CO, and is not influenced by temperature changes. To assess the accuracy of PiCCO® in measuring CO in patients under therapeutic hypothermia, compared with ECHO. Thirty paired COECHO/COPiCCO measurements were analyzed in 15 patients subjected to hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Eighteen paired measurements were obtained at under 36°C and 12 at ≥36°C. A value of 0.5l/min was considered the maximum accepted difference between the COECHO and COPiCCO values. Under conditions of normothermia (≥36°C), the mean difference between COECHO and COPiCCO was 0.030 l/min, with limits of agreement (-0.22, 0.28) - all of the measurements differing by less than 0.5 l/min. In situations of hypothermia (<36°C), the mean difference in CO measurements was -0.426 l/min, with limits of agreement (-1.60, 0.75), and only 44% (8/18) of the paired measurements fell within the interval (-0.5, 0.5). The calculated temperature cut-off point maximizing specificity was 35.95°C: above this temperature, specificity was 100%, with a false-positive rate of 0%. The results clearly show clinically relevant discordance between COECHO and COPiCCO at temperatures of <36°C, demonstrating the inaccuracy of PiCCO® for cardiac output measurements in hypothermic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Cassia, Guilherme; Morneault, Linda; Saint-Martin, Christine; Sant’Anna, Guilherme
Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the cerebral perfusion of the basal ganglia in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) receiving hypothermia using dynamic color Doppler sonography (CDS) and investigate for any correlation between these measurements and survival. Methods Head ultrasound (HUS) was performed with a 9S4 MHz sector transducer in HIE infants submitted to hypothermia as part of their routine care. Measurements of cerebral perfusion intensity (CPI) with an 11LW4 MHz linear array transducer were performed to obtain static images and DICOM color Doppler videos of the blood flow in the basal ganglia area. Clinical and radiological data were evaluated retrospectively. The video images were analyzed by two radiologists using dedicated software, which allows automatic quantification of color Doppler data from a region of interest (ROI) by dynamically assessing color pixels and flow velocity during the heart cycle. CPI is expressed in cm/sec and is calculated by multiplying the mean velocity of all pixels divided by the area of the ROI. Three videos of 3 seconds each were obtained of the ROI, in the coronal plane, and used to calculate the CPI. Data are presented as mean ± SEM or median (quartiles). Results A total of 28 infants were included in this study: 16 male, 12 female. HUS was performed within the first 48 hours of therapeutic hypothermia treatment. CPI values were significantly higher in the seven non-survivors when compared to survivors (0.226±0.221 vs. 0.111±0.082 cm/sec; P=0.02). Conclusions Increased perfusion intensity of the basal ganglia area within the first 48 of therapeutic hypothermia treatment was associated with poor outcome in neonates with HIE. PMID:27942470
Gueret, Renaud M; Bailitz, John M; Sahni, Ashima S; Tulaimat, Aiman
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves the outcome of comatose patients suffering an out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) with shockable rhythm and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Evidence supporting its use in other circumstances is weak and the adoption of TH remains limited. Describe the development and implementation of a TH program at an urban public hospital and report outcomes of out-of-hospital and in-hospital SCA and important quality measures. The protocol was developed at 464-bed urban public hospital. We assembled historical and prospective samples of patients suffering an SCA. We measured the neurologic outcome of patients at the time of hospital discharge who underwent TH after SCA. We compared outcomes and important quality measures (duration of arrest, time to cooling, and time to target temperature) to existing literature. We determined reasons for not using TH in patients with in-hospital SCA. We described the development of our TH program and the challenges we faced implementing it. Of 45 patients treated with TH after SCA, 23 (51%) survived to discharge, 14 (31%) with good neurologic outcomes. In comparison to historical controls, TH did not improve outcome of in-hospital SCA. SCA from a shockable rhythm was associated with the best outcome. The time from return of spontaneous circulation to initiation of TH was consistently within 8 h. Despite logistical and financial constraints, we were able to rapidly implement a TH program with quality and outcomes similar to published data. TH did not improve outcomes for patients with an in-hospital SCA. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Helsmoortel, A; Schmitt, E; Hascoët, J-M; Jellimann, J-M; Hamon, I
Moderate hypothermia therapy (HT) after perinatal asphyxia of the newborn has clearly demonstrated its efficacy in reducing both mortality and long-term neurosensory sequelae. HT has now been introduced in many developed countries as a standard of care for term infants meeting the entry criteria for therapeutic cooling. However, this new therapy is only effective in case of an acute perinatal hypoxic-ischemic event. Since a number of potentially deleterious complications have been described during cooling, a strict evaluation of the newborn's status is mandatory. To help clinicians reliably select newborns who may benefit from HT, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is today strongly recommended. The indication criteria for cooling include aEEG in addition to delivery history, Apgar score, cord pH and lactates, and neurological scoring for encephalopathy. We report a clinical case of a term baby girl, considered for HT in our unit, because of a clinical feature of severe neonatal encephalopathy, metabolic acidosis on cord pH, and a history of fetal distress on fetal heart rate monitoring. However, despite all these criteria, her early aEEG, like her classic EEG, showed no signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). She was then denied HT and her early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam showed no signs of HIE but typical features of a metabolic disorder (Zellweger-like syndrome). Thanks to the HT strict protocols, including early aEEG and MRI exam, the right diagnosis was rapidly made and the hypothesis of a hypoxic-ischemic event during delivery was finally ruled out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wood, Thomas; Osredkar, Damjan; Puchades, Maja; Maes, Elke; Falck, Mari; Flatebø, Torun; Walløe, Lars; Sabir, Hemmen; Thoresen, Marianne
Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is standard care for moderate and severe neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), the leading cause of permanent brain injury in term newborns. However, the optimal temperature for HT is still unknown, and few preclinical studies have compared multiple HT treatment temperatures. Additionally, HT may not benefit infants with severe encephalopathy. In a neonatal rat model of unilateral hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), the effect of five different HT temperatures was investigated after either moderate or severe injury. At postnatal-day seven, rat pups underwent moderate or severe HI followed by 5 h at normothermia (37 °C), or one of five HT temperatures: 33.5 °C, 32 °C, 30 °C, 26 °C, and 18 °C. One week after treatment, neuropathological analysis of hemispheric and hippocampal area loss, and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neuron count, was performed. After moderate injury, a significant reduction in hemispheric and hippocampal loss on the injured side, and preservation of CA1 pyramidal neurons, was seen in the 33.5 °C, 32 °C, and 30 °C groups. Cooling below 33.5 °C did not provide additional neuroprotection. Regardless of treatment temperature, HT was not neuroprotective in the severe HI model. Based on these findings, and previous experience translating preclinical studies into clinical application, we propose that milder cooling should be considered for future clinical trials. PMID:26997257
Kovács, Eniko; Jenei, Zsigmond; Horváth, Anikó; Gellér, László; Szilágyi, Szabolcs; Király, Akos; Molnár, Levente; Sótonyi, Péter; Merkely, Béla; Zima, Endre
Therapeutic use of hypothermia has come to the frontline in the past decade again in the prevention and in mitigation of neurologic impairment. The application of hypothermia is considered as a successful therapeutic measure not just in neuro- or cardiac surgery, but also in states causing brain injury or damage. According to our present knowledge this is the only proven therapeutic tool, which improves the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest, decreasing the oxygen demand of the brain. Besides influencing the nervous system, hypothermia influences the function of the whole organ system. Beside its beneficial effects, it has many side-effects, which may be harmful to the patient. Before using it for a therapeutic purpose, it is very important to be familiar with the physiology and complications of hypothermia, to know, how to prevent and treat its side-effects. The purpose of this article is to summarize the physiologic and pathophysiologic effects of hypothermia.
Larsson, Ing-Marie; Wallin, Ewa; Rubertsson, Sten
Hypothermia treatment with cold intravenous infusion and ice packs after cardiac arrest has been described and used in clinical practice. We hypothesised that with this method a target temperature of 32-34 degrees C could be achieved and maintained during treatment and that rewarming could be controlled. Thirty-eight patients treated with hypothermia after cardiac arrest were included in this prospective observational study. The patients were cooled with 4 degrees C intravenous saline infusion combined with ice packs applied in the groins, axillae, and along the neck. Hypothermia treatment was maintained for 26 h after cardiac arrest. It was estimated that passive rewarming would occur over a period of 8h. Body temperature was monitored continuously and recorded every 15 min up to 44 h after cardiac arrest. All patients reached the target temperature interval of 32-34 degrees C within 279+/-185 min from cardiac arrest and 216+/-177 min from induction of cooling. In nine patients the temperature dropped to below 32 degrees C during a period of 15 min up to 2.5h, with the lowest (nadir) temperature of 31.3 degrees C in one of the patients. The target temperature was maintained by periodically applying ice packs on the patients. Passive rewarming started 26 h after cardiac arrest and continued for 8+/-3h. Rebound hyperthermia (>38 degrees C) occurred in eight patients 44 h after cardiac arrest. Intravenous cold saline infusion combined with ice packs is effective in inducing and maintaining therapeutic hypothermia, with good temperature control even during rewarming. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benz-Woerner, Jakobea; Delodder, Frederik; Benz, Romedi; Cueni-Villoz, Nadine; Feihl, François; Rossetti, Andrea O; Liaudet, Lucas; Oddo, Mauro
Therapeutic temperature modulation is recommended after cardiac arrest (CA). However, body temperature (BT) regulation has not been extensively studied in this setting. We investigated BT variation in CA patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and analyzed its impact on outcome. A prospective cohort of comatose CA patients treated with TH (32-34°C, 24h) at the medical/surgical intensive care unit of the Lausanne University Hospital was studied. Spontaneous BT was recorded on hospital admission. The following variables were measured during and after TH: time to target temperature (TTT=time from hospital admission to induced BT target <34°C), cooling rate (spontaneous BT-induced BT target/TTT) and time of passive rewarming to normothermia. Associations of spontaneous and induced BT with in-hospital mortality were examined. A total of 177 patients (median age 61 years; median time to ROSC 25 min) were studied. Non-survivors (N=90, 51%) had lower spontaneous admission BT than survivors (median 34.5 [interquartile range 33.7-35.9]°C vs. 35.1 [34.4-35.8]°C, p=0.04). Accordingly, time to target temperature was shorter among non-survivors (200 [25-363]min vs. 270 [158-375]min, p=0.03); however, when adjusting for admission BT, cooling rates were comparable between the two outcome groups (0.4 [0.2-0.5]°C/h vs. 0.3 [0.2-0.4]°C/h, p=0.65). Longer duration of passive rewarming (600 [464-744]min vs. 479 [360-600]min, p<0.001) was associated with mortality. Lower spontaneous admission BT and longer time of passive rewarming were associated with in-hospital mortality after CA and TH. Impaired thermoregulation may be an important physiologic determinant of post-resuscitation disease and CA prognosis. When assessing the benefit of early cooling on outcome, future trials should adjust for patient admission temperature and use the cooling rate rather than the time to target temperature. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saunderson, Christopher E D; Chowdhary, Amrit; Brogan, Richard A; Batin, Phillip D; Gale, Christopher P
Mild hypothermia has been shown to improve neurological outcome and reduce mortality following out of hospital cardiac arrest. In animal models the application of hypothermia with induced coronary occlusion has demonstrated a reduction in infarct size. Consequently, hypothermia has been proposed as a treatment, in addition to Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, there is incomplete understanding of the mechanism and magnitude of the protective effect of hypothermia on the myocardium, and limited outcome data. We undertook a structured literature review of therapeutic hypothermia as adjuvant to PPCI for acute STEMI. We examined the feasibility, safety, impact on infarct size and the resultant effect on major adverse cardiac events and mortality. There were 13 studies between 1946 and 2016. With the exception of one study, therapeutic hypothermia for STEMI was reported to be feasible and safe, and its only demonstrable benefit was a modest reduction in post-infarct heart failure events. Evidence to date, however, is from small clinical trials and in an era of low early mortality following PPCI for STEMI, demonstrating a mortality benefit will be challenging. Post-myocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction is a more frequent, alternative clinical outcome and therefore any intervention that mitigates this warrants further investigation.
Thelen, Brian J.; Bapuraj, Jayapalli R.; Burns, Joseph W.; Swenson, Aaron W.; Christensen, Mary K.; Wiggins, Stephanie A.; Barks, John D.E.
Objective: We evaluated the utility of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) and regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for short-term outcome prediction in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Methods: Neonates with HIE were monitored with dual-channel aEEG, bilateral cerebral NIRS, and systemic NIRS throughout cooling and rewarming. The short-term outcome measure was a composite of neurologic examination and brain MRI scores at 7 to 10 days. Multiple regression models were developed to assess NIRS and aEEG recorded during the 6 hours before rewarming and the 6-hour rewarming period as predictors of short-term outcome. Results: Twenty-one infants, mean gestational age 38.8 ± 1.6 weeks, median 10-minute Apgar score 4 (range 0–8), and mean initial pH 6.92 ± 0.19, were enrolled. Before rewarming, the most parsimonious model included 4 parameters (adjusted R2 = 0.59; p = 0.006): lower values of systemic rSO2 variability (p = 0.004), aEEG bandwidth variability (p = 0.019), and mean aEEG upper margin (p = 0.006), combined with higher mean aEEG bandwidth (worse discontinuity; p = 0.013), predicted worse short-term outcome. During rewarming, lower systemic rSO2 variability (p = 0.007) and depressed aEEG lower margin (p = 0.034) were associated with worse outcome (model-adjusted R2 = 0.49; p = 0.005). Cerebral NIRS data did not contribute to either model. Conclusions: During day 3 of cooling and during rewarming, loss of physiologic variability (by systemic NIRS) and invariant, discontinuous aEEG patterns predict poor short-term outcome in neonates with HIE. These parameters, but not cerebral NIRS, may be useful to identify infants suitable for studies of adjuvant neuroprotective therapies or modification of the duration of cooling and/or rewarming. PMID:23771483
Chava, Raghuram; Zviman, Menekhem; Raghavan, Madhavan Srinivas; Halperin, Henry; Maqbool, Farhan; Geocadin, Romergryko; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Rosen, Benjamin A; Tandri, Harikrishna
Early induction of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA); however, currently no reliable methods exist to initiate cooling. We investigated the effect of high flow transnasal dry air on brain and body temperatures in adult porcine animals. Adult porcine animals (n = 23) under general anesthesia were subject to high flow of transnasal dry air. Mouth was kept open to create a unidirectional airflow, in through the nostrils and out through the mouth. Brain, internal jugular, and aortic temperatures were recorded. The effect of varying airflow rate and the air humidity (0% or 100%) on the temperature profiles were recorded. The degree of brain cooling was measured as the differential temperature from baseline. A 10-minute exposure of high flow dry air caused rapid cooling of brain and gradual cooling of the jugular and the aortic temperatures in all animals. The degree of brain cooling was flow dependent and significantly higher at higher airflow rates (0.8°C ± 0.3°C, 1.03°C ± 0.6°C, and 1.3°C ± 0.7°C for 20, 40, and 80 L, respectively, p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Air temperature had minimal effect on the brain cooling over 10 minutes with similar decrease in temperature at 4°C and 30°C. At a constant flow rate (40 LPM) and temperature, the degree of cooling over 10 minutes during dry air exposure was significantly higher compared to humid air (100% saturation) (1.22°C ± 0.35°C vs. 0.21°C ± 0.12°C, p < 0.001). High flow transnasal dry air causes flow dependent cooling of the brain and the core temperatures in intubated porcine animals. The mechanism of cooling appears to be evaporation of nasal mucus as cooling is mitigated by humidifying the air. This mechanism may be exploited to initiate TH in CA.
Tsuda, Kennosuke; Mukai, Takeo; Iwata, Sachiko; Shibasaki, Jun; Tokuhisa, Takuya; Ioroi, Tomoaki; Sano, Hiroyuki; Yutaka, Nanae; Takahashi, Akihito; Takeuchi, Akihito; Takenouchi, Toshiki; Araki, Yuko; Sobajima, Hisanori; Tamura, Masanori; Hosono, Shigeharu; Nabetani, Makoto; Iwata, Osuke; Adachi, Hiroyuki; Aiba, Satoru; Akiyoshi, Shinnosuke; Amizuka, Takasuke; Aoki, Mikihiro; Arai, Hirokazu; Arai, Junichi; Asanuma, Hideomi; Baba, Atsushi; Bonno, Motoki; Daimon, Yusuke; Egashira, Tomoko; Fukuhara, Rie; Fukushima, Naoki; Futamura, Masahide; Harada, Sayaka; Hattori, Tsukasa; Henmi, Nobuhide; Hiroma, Takehiko; Hisano, Tadashi; Ieda, Kuniko; Iida, Koichi; Iijima, Shigeo; Imai, Ken; Imamura, Takashi; Inoue, Shinkai; Ishiguro, Akio; Suzuki, Keiji; Ishii, Tsutomu; Ito, Takashi; Iwai, Masanori; Iwataki, Shinnichiro; Jinnai, Wataru; Kai, Akihiko; Kanbe, Taro; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Kanda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Masatoshi; Kawase, Akihiko; Kawato, Hitoshi; Kida, Yoshikazu; Kihara, Minako; Kitano, Hiroyuki; Kishigami, Makoto; Shibata, Naoaki; Kito, Osamu; Kobayashi, Akira; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kokubo, Minoru; Kondo, Masatoshi; Konishi, Eri; Kugo, Masaki; Kouwaki, Masanori; Kumagai, Takeshi; Kusaka, Takashi; Kusuda, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoki; Maede, Yoshinobu; Maji, Tomoaki; Makiya, Tomoko; Maruyama, Kennichi; Masunaga, Ken; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Naoko; Mima, Aya; Minagawa, Kyoko; Minosaki, Yoshihiro; Minowa, Hideki; Miura, Mazumi; Miyata, Masafumi; Miyazono, Yayoi; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Mori, Kazuhiro; Morioka, Ichiro; Morisawa, Takeshi; Nagaya, Ken; Nagayama, Yoshihisa; Naito, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakamura, Makoto; Nakao, Atsushi; Nakao, Hideto; Nakazawa, Yusuke; Nishimura, Yutaka; Nishizaki, Naoto; Nosaka, Kazuhiko; Nozaki, Masatoshi; Ochiai, Masayuki; Ohashi, Atsushi; Ohki, Shigeru; Omori, Isaku; Osone, Yoshiteru; Saito, Junko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Sato, Yoshitake; Seki, Kazuo; Shirakawa, Yoshitsugu; Shiro, Hiroyuki; Suzumura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Ritsuko; Takahata, Yasushi; Taki, Atsuko; Tanaka, Taihei; Tateishi, Itaru; Tsunei, Mikio; Usuda, Touhei; Yada, Yukari; Yamamoto, Junko; Yamamoto, Masahito; Yoda, Hitoshi; Yokoi, Akiko; Yoshida, Shinobu; Yoshida, Taketoshi; Yoshida, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Kayo
Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended for moderate and severe neonatal encephalopathy, but is being applied to a wider range of neonates than originally envisaged. To examine the clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia, data collected during the first 3 years (2012–2014) of the Baby Cooling Registry of Japan were analysed. Of 485 cooled neonates, 96.5% were ≥36 weeks gestation and 99.4% weighed ≥1,800 g. Severe acidosis (pH < 7 or base deficit ≥16 mmol/L) was present in 68.9%, and 96.7% required resuscitation for >10 min. Stage II/III encephalopathy was evident in 88.3%; hypotonia, seizures and abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram were observed in the majority of the remainder. In-hospital mortality was 2.7%; 90.7% were discharged home. Apgar scores and severity of acidosis/encephalopathy did not change over time. The time to reach the target temperature was shorter in 2014 than in 2012. The proportion undergoing whole-body cooling rose from 45.4% to 81.6%, while selective head cooling fell over time. Mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation and requirement for tube feeding at discharge remained unchanged. Adherence to standard cooling protocols was high throughout, with a consistent trend towards cooling being achieved more promptly. The mortality rate of cooled neonates was considerably lower than that reported in previous studies. PMID:28051172
Tsuda, Kennosuke; Mukai, Takeo; Iwata, Sachiko; Shibasaki, Jun; Tokuhisa, Takuya; Ioroi, Tomoaki; Sano, Hiroyuki; Yutaka, Nanae; Takahashi, Akihito; Takeuchi, Akihito; Takenouchi, Toshiki; Araki, Yuko; Sobajima, Hisanori; Tamura, Masanori; Hosono, Shigeharu; Nabetani, Makoto; Iwata, Osuke
Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended for moderate and severe neonatal encephalopathy, but is being applied to a wider range of neonates than originally envisaged. To examine the clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia, data collected during the first 3 years (2012-2014) of the Baby Cooling Registry of Japan were analysed. Of 485 cooled neonates, 96.5% were ≥36 weeks gestation and 99.4% weighed ≥1,800 g. Severe acidosis (pH < 7 or base deficit ≥16 mmol/L) was present in 68.9%, and 96.7% required resuscitation for >10 min. Stage II/III encephalopathy was evident in 88.3%; hypotonia, seizures and abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram were observed in the majority of the remainder. In-hospital mortality was 2.7%; 90.7% were discharged home. Apgar scores and severity of acidosis/encephalopathy did not change over time. The time to reach the target temperature was shorter in 2014 than in 2012. The proportion undergoing whole-body cooling rose from 45.4% to 81.6%, while selective head cooling fell over time. Mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation and requirement for tube feeding at discharge remained unchanged. Adherence to standard cooling protocols was high throughout, with a consistent trend towards cooling being achieved more promptly. The mortality rate of cooled neonates was considerably lower than that reported in previous studies.
Parker, Braden; Wesselhoff, Kelly; Lyons, Neal; Kulstad, Erik
Therapeutic hypothermia or targeted temperature management has been used after cardiac arrest to improve neurological outcomes and mortality. However, a side effect of temperature modulation is a centrally mediated shivering response. The Columbia Anti-Shivering Protocol sets up a systematic method of intravenous (IV) and oral medication escalation to suppress this response and preserve the benefits of this therapy. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who began shivering after therapeutic hypothermia for cardiac arrest, leading to a persistent rise in core temperature despite adequate sedation. He was also found to have gastric contents similar to coffee grounds through nasogastric tube suction. The shivering was effectively suppressed and the rising core temperature plateaued using rectal acetaminophen and buspirone administered by means of a novel device, the Macy Catheter. Also, when used in conjunction with other protocol-driven medications, the patient was able to achieve a core temperature of 33°C. The Macy Catheter appears to be a useful approach to rectally administer buspirone and acetaminophen, using an easy-to-place, nonsterile atraumatic device that requires no radiographic confirmation of placement. PMID:26807775
Barrett, Robert D.; Bennet, Laura; Blood, Arlin B.; Wassink, Guido
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cerebral hypoperfusion after asphyxia and induced hypothermia is associated with reduced circulating nitrite levels as an index of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. The preterm fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation (103-104 days, term = 147 days) received 25-minute umbilical cord occlusion, followed by mild whole-body cooling from 30 minutes to 72 hours after occlusion. Occlusion and induced hypothermia were independently associated with reduced carotid vascular conductance (CaVC) from 2 to 72 hours, and with transiently suppressed plasma nitrite levels at 6 hours. There was a significant within-subjects correlation (r 2 = 0.33, P = .002) between CaVC and plasma nitrite values in the first 24 hours after occlusion but not after sham occlusion. These findings suggest that in preterm fetal sheep, changes in NOS activity are an important mediator of changes in carotid vascular tone in the early recovery phase after asphyxia and may help mediate some of the vascular effects of induced hypothermia. PMID:24740991
The effect of mild therapeutic hypothermia on good neurological recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest according to location of return of spontaneous circulation: a nationwide observational study.
Bae, Kwang Soo; Shin, Sang Do; Ro, Young Sun; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Eui Jung; Lee, Yu Jin; Suh, Gil Joon; Kwak, Young Ho
Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) has been known to be associated with good neurological recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (P-ROSC) is associated with better hospital outcomes than ROSC at emergency department (ED-ROSC). The study aims to examine the association between MTH by location of ROSC and good neurological recovery after OHCA. Adult OHCA cases with presumed cardiac etiology who survived to hospital admission were collected from a nationwide cardiac registry between 2008 and 2013. MTH was defined as a case receiving hypothermia procedure regardless of procedure method. Primary outcome was good neurological recovery with cerebral performance category score of 1 and 2. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed adjusting for potential confounders with an interaction term between MTH and location of ROSC to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among 11,158 patients survived to admission, good neurological recovery was 23.6% (399/1691) in MTH vs. 15.0% (1400/9316) in non-MTH (p<0.001), and 58.2% (1074/1864) in P-ROSC vs. 7.9% (725/9161) in ED-ROSC (p<0.001). There was a significant association between MTH and good neurological recovery (AOR=1.32, 95% CI=1.11-1.57). In the interaction model, AOR of MTH and interaction effect with P-ROSC and ED-ROSC was 0.78 (0.58-2.70) and 1.68 (1.34-1.98), respectively. MTH was significantly associated with good neurological recovery among OHCA survivors. In the interaction model, MTH showed significant benefits in patient group with ROSC at ED, not in P-ROSC group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feketa, Viktor V; Marrelli, Sean P
Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as a remarkably effective method of neuroprotection from ischemia and is being increasingly used in clinics. Accordingly, it is also a subject of considerable attention from a basic scientific research perspective. One of the fundamental problems, with which current studies are concerned, is the optimal method of inducing hypothermia. This review seeks to provide a broad theoretical framework for approaching this problem, and to discuss how a novel promising strategy of pharmacological modulation of the thermosensitive ion channels fits into this framework. Various physical, anatomical, physiological and molecular aspects of thermoregulation, which provide the foundation for this text, have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed exhaustively here. Instead, the first part of the current review, which may be helpful for a broader readership outside of thermoregulation research, will build on this existing knowledge to outline possible opportunities and research directions aimed at controlling body temperature. The second part, aimed at a more specialist audience, will highlight the conceptual advantages and practical limitations of novel molecular agents targeting thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in achieving this goal. Two particularly promising members of this channel family, namely TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), will be discussed in greater detail.
Feketa, Viktor V; Marrelli, Sean P
Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as a remarkably effective method of neuroprotection from ischemia and is being increasingly used in clinics. Accordingly, it is also a subject of considerable attention from a basic scientific research perspective. One of the fundamental problems, with which current studies are concerned, is the optimal method of inducing hypothermia. This review seeks to provide a broad theoretical framework for approaching this problem, and to discuss how a novel promising strategy of pharmacological modulation of the thermosensitive ion channels fits into this framework. Various physical, anatomical, physiological and molecular aspects of thermoregulation, which provide the foundation for this text, have been comprehensively reviewed and will not be discussed exhaustively here. Instead, the first part of the current review, which may be helpful for a broader readership outside of thermoregulation research, will build on this existing knowledge to outline possible opportunities and research directions aimed at controlling body temperature. The second part, aimed at a more specialist audience, will highlight the conceptual advantages and practical limitations of novel molecular agents targeting thermosensitive Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in achieving this goal. Two particularly promising members of this channel family, namely TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), will be discussed in greater detail. PMID:27227027
Novain, Michaël; Cattet, Florian; Plattier, Rémi; Nefzaoui, Mohamed; Hyvernat, Hervé; Raguin, Olivier; Kaidomar, Michel; Kerever, Sébastien; Ichai, Carole
Aims Lactate reflects hypoxic insult in many conditions and is considered as a prognosis factor. But, after cardiac arrest, its interest is still debated. Our study aimed to assess the prognosis value of lactate in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Methods This retrospective observational study included out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia in four ICUs. Lactate levels were compared at different times during the first 24 hours according to outcome at ICU discharge and to the type of death (multiorgan or neurologic failure). Results Two hundred and seventy-two patients were included, 89 good outcome and 183 poor outcome. In the latter group, 171 patients died, from multiorgan failure in 30% and neurologic failure in 70%. Lactate levels were higher in the poor compared to the good outcome patients at admission (5.4 (3.3–9.4) vs. 2.2 (1.5–3.6) mmol/L; p<0.01), 12 hours (2.5 (1.6–4.7) vs. 1.4 (1.0–2.2) mmol/L; p<0.01) and 24 hours (1.8 (1.1–2.8) vs. 1.3 (0.9–2.1) mmol/L; p<0.01). Patients succumbing from multiorgan failure exhibited higher lactate levels compared to those dying from neurologic failure at admission (7.9 (3.9–12.0) vs. 5.2 (3.3–8.8) mmol/L; p<0.01), H12 (4.9 (2.1–8.9) vs. 2.2 (1.4–3.4) mmol/L; p<0.01) and H24 (3.3 (1.8–5.5) vs. 1.4 (1.1–2.5) mmol/L; p<0.01). Initial lactate levels showed an increasing proportion of poor outcome from the first to fourth quartile. Conclusions After out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated with therapeutic hypothermia, lactate levels during the first 24 hours seem linked with ICU outcome. Patients dying from multiorgan failure exhibit higher initial lactate concentrations than patients succumbing from neurological failure. PMID:28282398
Sendelbach, Sue; Hearst, Mary O; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Unger, Barbara T; Mooney, Michael R
To assess differences in cerebral performance category (CPC) in patients who received therapeutic hypothermia post cardiac arrest by time to initiation, time to target temperature, and duration of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). A secondary data analysis was conducted using hospital-specific data from the international cardiac arrest registry (INTCAR) database. The analytic sample included 172 adult patients who experienced an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and were treated in one Midwestern hospital. Measures included time from arrest to ROSC, arrest to TH, arrest to target temperature, and length of time target temperature was maintained. CPC was assessed at three points: transfer from ICU, discharge from hospital, and post discharge follow-up. Average age was 63.6 years and 74.4% of subjects were male. Subjects had TH initiation a mean of 94.4 min (SD 81.6) after cardiac arrest and reached target temperature after 309.0 min (SD 151.0). In adjusted models, the odds of a poor neurological outcome increased with each 5 min delay in initiating TH at transfer from ICU (OR=1.06, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.10). Similar results were seen for neurological outcomes at hospital discharge (OR=1.06, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.11) and post-discharge follow-up (OR=1.08, 95% C.I. 1.03-1.13). Additionally the odds of a poor neurological outcome increased for every 30 min delay in time to target temperature at post-discharge follow-up (OR=1.17, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.36). In adults undergoing TH post cardiac arrest, delay in initiation of TH and reaching target temperature differentiated poor versus good neurologic outcomes. Randomized trials assessing the range of current recommended guidelines for TH should be conducted to establish optimal treatment protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weihs, Wolfgang; Schratter, Alexandra; Sterz, Fritz; Janata, Andreas; Högler, Sandra; Holzer, Michael; Losert, Udo M; Herkner, Harald; Behringer, Wilhelm
Mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest should be induced as soon as possible. There is a need for improved feasibility and efficacy of surface cooling in ambulances. We investigated which and how much area of the body surface should be covered to guarantee a sufficient cooling rate. Each of five adult, human-sized pigs (88-105kg) was randomly cooled in three phases with pads that covered different areas of the body surface corresponding to humans (100% or 30% [thorax and abdomen] or 7% [neck]). The goal was to quickly lower brain temperature (Tbr) from 38 to 33°C within a maximum of 120min. Linear regression analysis was used to test the association between cooling efficacy and surface area. Data are presented as mean±standard deviation. The 100% and 30% cooling pads decreased the pigs' Tbr from 38 to 33°C within 33±7min (8.2±1.6°C/h) and 92±24min (3.6±1.1°C/h). The 7% achieved a final Tbr of 35.8±0.7°C after 120min (1.1±0.4°C/h). The 30% and 7% cooling surface areas achieved 37±11% and 15±7% of the cooling rate compared to the 100% cooling pads. For every additional percent of surface area cooled, the cooling rate increased linearly by 0.07°C/h (95% CI 0.05-0.09, p=0.001). No skin lesions were observed. The cooling pads were effective and safe for rapid induction of mild hypothermia in adult, human-sized pigs, depending on the percentage of body surface area covered. Covering only the neck, chest, and abdomen might achieve satisfactory cooling rates. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and severe disability worldwide with 1,000,000 hospital admissions per annum throughout the European Union. Therapeutic hypothermia to reduce intracranial hypertension may improve patient outcome but key issues are length of hypothermia treatment and speed of re-warming. A recent meta-analysis showed improved outcome when hypothermia was continued for between 48 hours and 5 days and patients were re-warmed slowly (1°C/4 hours). Previous experience with cooling also appears to be important if complications, which may outweigh the benefits of hypothermia, are to be avoided. Methods/design This is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial examining the effects of hypothermia 32-35°C, titrated to reduce intracranial pressure <20 mmHg, on morbidity and mortality 6 months after traumatic brain injury. The study aims to recruit 1800 patients over 41 months. Enrolment started in April 2010. Participants are randomised to either standard care or standard care with titrated therapeutic hypothermia. Hypothermia is initiated with 20-30 ml/kg of intravenous, refrigerated 0.9% saline and maintained using each centre's usual cooling technique. There is a guideline for detection and treatment of shivering in the intervention group. Hypothermia is maintained for at least 48 hours in the treatment group and continued for as long as is necessary to maintain intracranial pressure <20 mmHg. Intracranial hypertension is defined as an intracranial pressure >20 mmHg in accordance with the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines, 2007. Discussion The Eurotherm3235Trial is the most important clinical trial in critical care ever conceived by European intensive care medicine, because it was launched and funded by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and will be the largest non-commercial randomised controlled trial due to the substantial number of centres required to deliver the target number of patients. It
Andrews, Peter J D; Sinclair, Helen Louise; Battison, Claire G; Polderman, Kees H; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mascia, Luciana; Harris, Bridget A; Murray, Gordon D; Stocchetti, Nino; Menon, David K; Shakur, Haleema; De Backer, Daniel
Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and severe disability worldwide with 1,000,000 hospital admissions per annum throughout the European Union.Therapeutic hypothermia to reduce intracranial hypertension may improve patient outcome but key issues are length of hypothermia treatment and speed of re-warming. A recent meta-analysis showed improved outcome when hypothermia was continued for between 48 hours and 5 days and patients were re-warmed slowly (1 °C/4 hours). Previous experience with cooling also appears to be important if complications, which may outweigh the benefits of hypothermia, are to be avoided. This is a pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial examining the effects of hypothermia 32-35 °C, titrated to reduce intracranial pressure <20 mmHg, on morbidity and mortality 6 months after traumatic brain injury. The study aims to recruit 1800 patients over 41 months. Enrolment started in April 2010.Participants are randomised to either standard care or standard care with titrated therapeutic hypothermia. Hypothermia is initiated with 20-30 ml/kg of intravenous, refrigerated 0.9% saline and maintained using each centre's usual cooling technique. There is a guideline for detection and treatment of shivering in the intervention group. Hypothermia is maintained for at least 48 hours in the treatment group and continued for as long as is necessary to maintain intracranial pressure <20 mmHg. Intracranial hypertension is defined as an intracranial pressure >20 mmHg in accordance with the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines, 2007. The Eurotherm3235Trial is the most important clinical trial in critical care ever conceived by European intensive care medicine, because it was launched and funded by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and will be the largest non-commercial randomised controlled trial due to the substantial number of centres required to deliver the target number of patients. It represents a new and fundamental step for
Harhash, Ahmed; Gussak, Ihor; Cassuto, James; Winters, Stephen L
Hypothermia is associated with the development of J waves. However, little is known about the impact of these electrocardiogram (ECG) findings on the development of ventricular arrhythmias and patient outcomes during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) postresuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We investigated the prevalence of J waves in OHCA patients prior to and during TH. Additionally, we explored the incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and in-hospital mortality for patients with and without J waves either at baseline, during TH, or both. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who suffered OHCA and underwent TH (goal temperature of 32-34°C). Fifty-nine patients were stratified dependent upon the presence of or the development of J waves on surface ECGs. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression modeling were used to assess the population differences and mortality, respectively, between patients who developed J waves during TH and those who did not. There was no difference in the development of in-hospital atrial or ventricular arrhythmias between patients with J waves present during TH (16%) and those without (17.6%, P = 0.834). Compared to patients without J waves at baseline and during TH, those with J waves present both at baseline and during TH had significantly worse survival (hazard ratio = 12.42, P = 0.046). While J waves are common ECG findings during TH in patients resuscitated from OHCA, our study demonstrated an increase in mortality for patients with J waves present both at baseline and during TH. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Arnaez, Juan; García-Alix, Alfredo; Arca, Gemma; Caserío, Sonia; Valverde, Eva; Moral, M Teresa; Benavente-Fernández, Isabel; Lubián-López, Simón
Data on the incidence of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the first 6 hours of life together with the implementation of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) are relevant to delineate actions to achieve the lowest rates of neonatal mortality, morbidity, and long-term impact on health associated with HIE. This is population-based national survey study, including newborns ≥35 weeks of gestation with moderate-to-severe HIE from all level III neonatal care units, to provide the incidence of HIE for the period 2012-2013, and the implementation of TH up to June 2015 in Spain. Incidence rate was 0.77 per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval 0.72-0.83). By June 2015, 63% (57/90) of the units had implemented TH; 95% of them performed servo-controlled whole-body TH. For the 2-year period, 86% of the newborns diagnosed with moderate-to-severe HIE received TH. Active TH increased in use from 78% in 2012 to 85% in 2013 (p = 0.01). The main reasons for not cooling were a delay in the diagnosis (31/682) and the fact that the treatment was not offered (20/682). Interhospital patient transfer was performed using passive hypothermia, by appropriately trained personnel in 61% of centers. Eighteen percent of newborns with moderate or severe HIE died, without significant differences between the 2 years. Up-to-date knowledge of the national coverage of neonatal care of infants with HIE in developed countries is a prerequisite to reducing the load of HIE in this area and to facilitating coordinated, eliminate investigation.
Islam, Shahed; Hampton-Till, James; MohdNazri, Shah; Watson, Noel; Gudde, Ellie; Gudde, Tom; Kelly, Paul A; Tang, Kare H; Davies, John R; Keeble, Thomas R
Patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are routinely treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to restore blood flow in the occluded artery to reduce infarct size (IS). However, there is evidence to suggest that the restoration of blood flow can cause further damage to the myocardium through reperfusion injury (RI). Recent research in this area has focused on minimizing damage to the myocardium caused by RI. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of coronary artery occlusion in reducing IS caused by RI if instituted early in an ischemic myocardium. Data in humans are less convincing to date, although exploratory analyses suggest that there is significant clinical benefit in reducing IS if TH can be administered at the earliest recognition of ischemia in anterior myocardial infarction. The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre is the first UK center to have participated in administering TH in conscious patients presenting with STEMI as part of the COOL-AMI case series study. In this article, we outline our experience of efficiently integrating conscious TH into our primary percutaneous intervention program to achieve 18 minutes of cooling duration before reperfusion, with no significant increase in door-to-balloon times, in the setting of the clinical trial.
Islam, Shahed; Hampton-Till, James; MohdNazri, Shah; Watson, Noel; Gudde, Ellie; Gudde, Tom; Kelly, Paul A.; Tang, Kare H.
Patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are routinely treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to restore blood flow in the occluded artery to reduce infarct size (IS). However, there is evidence to suggest that the restoration of blood flow can cause further damage to the myocardium through reperfusion injury (RI). Recent research in this area has focused on minimizing damage to the myocardium caused by RI. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of coronary artery occlusion in reducing IS caused by RI if instituted early in an ischemic myocardium. Data in humans are less convincing to date, although exploratory analyses suggest that there is significant clinical benefit in reducing IS if TH can be administered at the earliest recognition of ischemia in anterior myocardial infarction. The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre is the first UK center to have participated in administering TH in conscious patients presenting with STEMI as part of the COOL-AMI case series study. In this article, we outline our experience of efficiently integrating conscious TH into our primary percutaneous intervention program to achieve 18 minutes of cooling duration before reperfusion, with no significant increase in door-to-balloon times, in the setting of the clinical trial. PMID:26154447
Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Kelen, Dorottya; Faulkner, Stuart; Broad, Kevin D; Chandrasekaran, Manigandan; Kerenyi, Áron; Kato, Takenori; Bainbridge, Alan; Golay, Xavier; Sullivan, Mark; Kramer, Boris W; Robertson, Nicola J
Inflammatory cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The influence of hypothermia (HT) on cytokines after HI is unclear. Our aim was to assess in a piglet asphyxia model, under normothermic (NT) and HT conditions: (i) the evolution of serum cytokines over 48 h and (ii) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine levels at 48 h; (iii) serum pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine profile over 48 h and (iv) relation between brain injury measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and brain TUNEL positive cells with serum cytokines, serum pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines and CSF cytokines. Newborn piglets were randomized to NT (n = 5) or HT (n = 6) lasting 2-26 h after HI. Serum samples were obtained 4-6 h before, during and at 6-12 h intervals after HI; CSF was obtained at 48 h. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, -4, -6, -8, -10 and TNF-α were measured and pro/anti-inflammatory status compared between groups. White matter and thalamic voxel lactate/N-acetyl aspartate (Lac/NAA) (a measure of both oxidative metabolism and neuronal loss) were acquired at baseline, after HI and at 24 and 36 h. Lac/NAA was reduced at 36 h with HT compared to NT (p = 0.013 basal ganglia and p = 0.033 white matter). HT showed lower serum TNF-α from baseline to 12 h (p < 0.05). Time-matched (acquired within 5 h of each other) serum cytokine and MRS showed correlations between Lac/NAA and serum IL-1β and IL-10 (all p < 0.01). The pro/anti-inflammatory ratios IL-1β/IL-10, IL-6/IL-10, IL-4/IL-10 and IL-8/IL-10 were similar in NT and HT groups until 36 h (24 h for IL-6/IL-10); after this, 36 h pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios in the serum were higher in HT compared to NT (p < 0.05), indicating a pro-inflammatory cytokine surge after rewarming in the HT group. In the CSF at 48 h, IL-8 was lower in the HT group (p < 0.05). At 48 h, CSF TNF-α correlated with Lac/NAA (p = 0.02) and CSF IL-8 correlated with
Isenberg, Derek L; Pasirstein, Michael J
Mild therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve neurologic outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest. Therapeutic hypothermia should be started as soon as return of spontaneous circulation occurs. However, saline is difficult to keep chilled in the prehospital environment. We sought to determine whether a cooler and ice packs could keep saline cold under prehospital conditions. In phase 1 of the experiment, two 1000-mL bags of prechilled 0.9% normal saline were placed in a cooler with 3 ice packs. An additional bag of 1000-mL 0.9% normal saline remained outside the cooler as a control. Over 9 consecutive days, we measured the ambient air temperature and the temperature of each bag of saline every 4 hours. In phase 2 of the experiment, the cooler was kept sealed, and the temperature of the saline was measured after 24 hours. The mean temperatures over 24 hours ranged as follows: ambient temperature, 24°C to 27.2°C; bottom bag, 0.6°C to 3.5°C; top bag, 1.4°C to 5.7°C; and control bag, 9.8°C to 26.8°C. A t test was used to compare the chilled saline against the control bag. Statistical significance (P < .05) was achieved at all times. In phase 2 of the experiment, after 24 hours, 100% of the bottom bags and 93% of the top bags were less than 6°C. Our data demonstrate that saline can be kept chilled in ambulances for 24 hours using ice packs and coolers. The estimated cost is less than $50.00 per ambulance. Using coolers and ice packs is an inexpensive way for emergency medical service agencies to initiate prehospital hypothermia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Storm, Christian; Danne, Oliver; Ueland, Per Magne; Leithner, Christoph; Hasper, Dietrich; Schroeder, Tim
Objective Choline is related to phospholipid metabolism and is a marker for global ischaemia with a small reference range in healthy volunteers. The aim of our study was to characterize the early kinetics of plasma free choline in patients after cardiac arrest. Additionally, we investigated the potential of plasma free choline to predict neurological outcome. Methods Twenty patients admitted to our medical intensive care unit were included in this prospective, observational trial. All patients were enrolled between May 2010 and May 2011. They received post cardiac arrest treatment including mild therapeutic hypothermia which was initiated with a combination of cold fluid and a feedback surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Sixteen blood samples per patient were analysed for plasma free choline levels within the first week after resuscitation. Choline was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results Most patients showed elevated choline levels on admission (median 14.8 µmol/L; interquartile range; IQR 9.9-20.1) which subsequently decreased. 48 hours after cardiac arrest choline levels in all patients reached subnormal levels at a median of 4.0 µmol/L (IQR 3-4.9; p = 0.001). Subsequently, choline levels normalized within seven days. There was no significant difference in choline levels when groups were analyzed in relation to neurological outcome. Conclusions Our data indicate a choline deficiency in the early postresucitation phase. This could potentially result in impaired cell membrane recovery. The detailed characterization of the early choline time course may aid in planning of choline supplementation trials. In a limited number of patients, choline was not promising as a biomarker for outcome prediction. PMID:24098804
Shein, Steven L.; Reynolds, Thomas Q.; Gedela, Satyanarayana; Kochanek, Patrick M.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a common indication for neurocritical care and can be refractory to standard measures. Refractory SE (RSE) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Unconventional therapies may be utilized in certain cases, including therapeutic hypothermia (TH), bumetanide, and the ketogenic diet. However, the literature describing the use of such therapies in RSE is limited. Details of a case of TH for RSE in an infant with malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy were obtained from the medical record. A 4-month-old child developed SE that was refractory to treatment with concurrent midazolam, phenobarbital, fosphenytoin, topiramate, levetiracetam, folinic acid, and pyridoxal-5-phosphate. This led to progressive implementation of three unconventional therapies: TH, bumetanide, and the ketogentic diet. Electrographic seizures ceased for the entirety of a 43-hour period of TH with a target rectal temperature of 33.0°C–34.0°C. No adverse effects of hypothermia were noted other than a single episode of asymptomatic hypokalemia. Seizures recurred 10 hours after rewarming was begun and did not abate with reinstitution of hypothermia. No effect was seen with administration of bumetanide. Seizures were controlled long-term within 48 hours of institution of the ketogenic diet. TH and the ketogenic diet may be effective for treating RSE in children. PMID:23667778
Weaver, Matthew D; Rittenberger, Jon C; Patterson, P Daniel; McEntire, Serina J; Corcos, Alain C; Ziembicki, Jenny A; Hostler, David
Hypothermia has been associated with increased mortality in burn patients. We sought to characterize the body temperature of burn patients transported directly to a burn center by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel and identify the factors independently associated with hypothermia. We utilized prospective data collected by a statewide trauma registry to carry out a nested case-control study of burn patients transported by EMS directly to an accredited burn center between 2000 and 2011. Temperature at hospital admission ≤36.5°C was defined as hypothermia. We utilized registry data abstracted from prehospital care reports and hospital records in building a multivariable regression model to identify the factors associated with hypothermia. Forty-two percent of the sample was hypothermic. Burns of 20-39% total body surface area (TBSA) (OR 1.44; 1.17-1.79) and ≥40% TBSA (OR 2.39; 1.57-3.64) were associated with hypothermia. Hypothermia was also associated with age > 60 (OR 1.50; 1.30-1.74), polytrauma (OR 1.58; 1.19-2.09), prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale <8 (OR 2.01; 1.46-2.78), and extrication (OR 1.49; 1.30-1.71). Hypothermia was also more common in the winter months (OR 1.54; 1.33-1.79) and less prevalent in patients weighing over 90 kg (OR 0.63; 0.46-0.88). A substantial proportion of burn patients demonstrate hypothermia at hospital arrival. Risk factors for hypothermia are readily identifiable by prehospital providers. Maintenance of normothermia should be stressed during prehospital care.
Death from exposure to cold has been recognised for thousands of years but hypothermia as a clinical condition was not generally recognised until the mid-20th century and then only in extreme conditions such as immersion in cold water or snow. In the UK, hypothermia in less extreme conditions was not generally recognised until the 1960s. Recognition of hypothermia required the temperature to be measured and this did not become a clinical tool until the late 1800s and it was not used routinely until the early 1900s. Although John Hunter and James Curry did some physiological experiments in the 1700s, detailed physiological experiments were not done until the early 20th century and the use of therapeutic hypothermia for malignancy and in anaesthesia in the 1930s and 1940s provided more impetus for investigating the physiology of hypothermia in humans and familiarising the medical profession with measuring core temperatures. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
on risk factors.329,538,539,303,93 Safe experimental investigations of hypothermia in hurman volunteers terminate cooling at 350C. This precludes...clinical experiments and surgically induced hypothermia. 423 a195 ,19 3 13 ,202 ,543 ,19 7 ,84 ,175 ,227 ,10 1,443 yward measured his own esophageal...the periphery and core. L9 For example, hypothermic patients experience major afterdrops when frostbitten extremities are thawed prematurely
Saver, Jeffrey L.; Starkman, Sidney; Lees, Kennedy R.; Endres, Matthias
Brain cells die rapidly after stroke and any effective treatment must start as early as possible. In clinical routine, the tight time–outcome relationship continues to be the major limitation of therapeutic approaches: thrombolysis rates remain low across many countries, with most patients being treated at the late end of the therapeutic window. In addition, there is no neuroprotective therapy available, but some maintain that this concept may be valid if administered very early after stroke. Recent innovations have opened new perspectives for stroke diagnosis and treatment before the patient arrives at the hospital. These include stroke recognition by dispatchers and paramedics, mobile telemedicine for remote clinical examination and imaging, and integration of CT scanners and point-of-care laboratories in ambulances. Several clinical trials are now being performed in the prehospital setting testing prehospital delivery of neuroprotective, antihypertensive, and thrombolytic therapy. We hypothesize that these new approaches in prehospital stroke care will not only shorten time to treatment and improve outcome but will also facilitate hyperacute stroke research by increasing the number of study participants within an ultra-early time window. The potentials, pitfalls, and promises of advanced prehospital stroke care and research are discussed in this review. PMID:23897876
Chung, Sung Phil; Song, Feng-Qing; Yu, Tao; Weng, Yinlun; Sun, Shijie; Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun
This study is to compare the effect of the δ-opioid receptor agonist, D-Ala(2)-D-Leu(5) enkephalin (DADLE) with normothermic control and therapeutic hypothermia on post resuscitation myocardial function and 72-h survival in a rat model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced in 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 8 min of untreated VF, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed for 8 min before defibrillation. Animals were randomized to three groups of five: (a) normothermia; (b) hypothermia (32 °C); and (c) normothermia with DADLE intravenous infusion (1 mg/kg h(-1)). Hypothermia and drug infusion were started after successful defibrillation. Myocardial functions, including cardiac output (CO), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and myocardial performance index (MPI) were measured echocardiographically together with duration of survival. The 72-h survival was significantly greater in the hypothermic group than in both DADLE and normothermic group (p = 0.02). However, the survival time of the DADLE treated animals was significantly longer than that of the normothermia group (51.8 ± 18.9 vs 18.8 ± 10.1h, p < 0.01). DADLE group showed significantly better CO (PR 60 min, p = 0.049), better LVEF (PR 60 min, p = 0.044; PR 240 min, p < 0.001) and lower MPI (PR 60 min, p = 0.043; PR 240 min, p = 0.045) than normothermic group. Hypothermia group also showed significantly better CO (PR 60m in, p = 0.044; PR 240 min, p = 0.007), better LVEF (PR 60 min, p = 0.001; PR 240 min, p < 0.001) and lower MPI (PR 60 min, p = 0.003; PR 240 min, p = 0.012) than the normothermic group. DADLE attenuated post resuscitation myocardial dysfunction and increased short term survival time. However, the 72-h survival in the DADLE group was less than that in the hypothermia group. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Ji, Yabin; Hu, Yafang; Wu, Yongming; Ji, Zhong; Song, Wei; Wang, Shengnan; Pan, Suyue
Intracarotid cold saline infusion (ICSI) protects against ischemic stroke not only due to the resulting hypothermia, but also as a result of the cerebral artery flushing. To assess the relative benefit of hypothermia and cerebral artery flushing in neuroprotection, hypothermic and normothermic saline infusions were administrated over a serial time points after the initiation of reperfusion in a rat ischemia model. Ischemic strokes were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 115) by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 2 hours using an intraluminal filament. In the hypothermic groups, the brain temperature was lowered to 33-34°C for 20 minutes by ICSI at three time points (0, 1, and 2 hours) after reperfusion. Correspondingly, in the normothermic groups, the brain temperature was maintained at normal levels during intracarotid normothermic saline infusion (INSI) for 20 minutes at the same time points. After 48-hour reperfusion, infarct sizes and brain water contents were determined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and the dry-wet weight method, respectively. Levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100beta, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Neurological deficits were also evaluated. Immediate infusion after the onset of reperfusion (0 hour) did not result in significant difference for reductions of infarct sizes, neurological deficits or S100beta serum levels between ICSI and INSI groups, compared with the non-infusion group. However, brain water content and NSE serum level were significantly lower in the ICSI group than the non-infusion group. When the infusions were started 1 hour after reperfusion, both ICSI and INSI infusions still reduced the infarct sizes, but only ICSI significantly decreased the brain water content, neurological deficits and S100beta serum level. All therapeutic effects of INSI disappeared when infusions were started 2 hours after reperfusion
Nogueira, Adriano Barreto; Annen, Eva; Boss, Oliver; Farokhzad, Faraneh; Sikorski, Christopher; Keller, Emanuela
To assess whether circadian patterns of temperature correlate with further values of intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe brain injury treated with hypothermia. We retrospectively analyzed temperature values in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with hypothermia by endovascular cooling. The circadian patterns of temperature were correlated with the mean ICP across the following day (ICP24). We analyzed data from 17 days of monitoring of three subarachnoid hemorrhage patients that underwent aneurysm coiling, sedation and hypothermia due to refractory intracranial hypertension and/or cerebral vasospasm. ICP24 ranged from 11.5 ± 3.1 to 24.2 ± 6.2 mmHg. The ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal period (18:00-6:00) and the preceding diurnal period (6:00-18:00) [temperature variability (TV)] ranged from 0.274 to 1.97. Regression analysis showed that TV correlated with ICP24 (Pearson correlation = -0.861, adjusted R square = 0.725, p < 0.001), and that ICP24 = 6 (4-TV) mmHg or, for 80% prediction interval, [Formula: see text] mmHg. The results indicate that the occurrence of ICP24 higher than 20 mmHg is unlikely after a day with TV ≥1.0. TV correlates with further ICP during hypothermia regardless the strict range that temperature is maintained. Further studies with larger series could clarify whether intracranial hypertension in severe brain injury can be predicted by analysis of oscillation patterns of autonomic parameters across a period of 24 h or its harmonics.
Miclescu, Adriana; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Wiklund, Lars
To compare cerebral and hemodynamic consequences of different volumes of cold acetated Ringer's solution or cold hypertonic saline dextran administered in order to achieve mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest (CA) in a pig model of experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Using an experimental pig model of 12 min CA (followed by 8 min CPR or no resuscitation) we compared four groups of piglets: a control group, a normothermic group and two groups with different solutions administered for induction of hypothermia. The control group of 5 piglets underwent 12 min CA without subsequent CPR, after which the brain of the animals was removed immediately. After restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) the resuscitated piglets were randomized into a normothermic group (NT group=10), and two hypothermic groups that received cold infusions of either 30 mL/kg acetated Ringer's solution (Much fluid group, M, n=10) or 3mL/kg hypertonic saline dextran solution (Less fluid group, L, n=10), respectively, administered during 30 min. Additional external cooling with ice packs was used in hypothermic groups. Sixty or 180min after ROSC the experiment was terminated. Immediately after arrest the brain was removed for histological analyses. The median time to reach the target core temperature of 34 °C after ROSC was 51.5±7.8 min in L group and 48.8±8.6 min in M group. Less cerebral tissue content of water (p<0.001), sodium (p<0.0001), potassium (p<0.0001) and less central venous pressure (CVP) at 5 and 15 min after ROSC were demonstrated in L group. Increased brain damage was demonstrated over time in NT group (p<0.001). Less neurologic damage and BBB disruptions (albumin leakage) was observed at 180min in M group in comparison with both NT and L groups (p<0.001). No statistical differences were observed between the hypothermic groups in the time to achieve mild hypothermia. Although inclusion of cold hypertonic crystalloid-colloidal solutions in the early resuscitation
Gap junction modifier rotigaptide decreases the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia by enhancing conduction velocity and suppressing discordant alternans during therapeutic hypothermia in isolated rabbit hearts.
Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Jiunn-Cherng; Hung, Chen-Ying; Li, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Shien-Fong; Yeh, Hung-I; Huang, Jin-Long; Lo, Chu-Pin; Haugan, Ketil; Larsen, Bjarne D; Wu, Tsu-Juey
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) may increase the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias by decreasing ventricular conduction velocity (CV) and facilitating arrhythmogenic spatially discordant alternans (SDA). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that rotigaptide, a gap junction enhancer, can increase ventricular CV, delay the onset of SDA, and decrease the susceptibility to pacing-induced ventricular fibrillation (PIVF) during TH. Langendorff-perfused isolated rabbit hearts were subjected to 30-minute moderate hypothermia (33°C) followed by 20-minute treatment with rotigaptide (300 nM, n = 8) or vehicle (n = 5). The same protocol was also performed at severe hypothermia (30°C; n = 8 for rotigaptide, n = 5 for vehicle). Using an optical mapping system, epicardial CV and SDA threshold were evaluated by S1 pacing. Ventricular fibrillation inducibility was evaluated by burst pacing for 30 seconds at the shortest pacing cycle length (PCL) that achieved 1:1 ventricular capture. Rotigaptide increased ventricular CV during 33°C (PCL 300 ms, from 76 ± 6 cm/s to 84 ± 7 cm/s, P = .039) and 30°C (PCL 300 ms, from 62 ± 6 cm/s to 68 ± 4 cm/s, P = .008). Rotigaptide decreased action potential duration dispersion at 33°C (P = .01) and 30°C (P = .035). During 30°C, SDA thresholds (P = .042) and incidence of premature ventricular complexes (P = .025) were decreased by rotigaptide. PIVF inducibility was decreased by rotigaptide at 33°C (P = .039) and 30°C (P = .042). Rotigaptide did not change connexin43 expressions and distributions during hypothermia. Rotigaptide protects the hearts against ventricular arrhythmias by increasing ventricular CV, delaying the onset of SDA, and reducing repolarization heterogeneity during TH. Enhancing cell-to-cell coupling by rotigaptide might be a novel approach to prevent ventricular arrhythmias during TH. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rhodes, Jonathan; Andrews, Peter J.D.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of disability and death and a huge economic burden throughout the world. Much of the morbidity associated with TBI is attributed to secondary brain injuries resulting in hypoxia and ischemia after the initial trauma. Intracranial hypertension and decreased partial brain oxygen tension (PbtO2) are targeted as potentially avoidable causes of morbidity. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) may be an effective intervention to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP), but could also affect cerebral blood flow (CBF). This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 17 patients admitted to the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. Patients with an ICP >20 mmHg refractory to initial therapy were randomized to standard care or standard care and TH (intervention group) titrated between 32°C and 35°C to reduce ICP. ICP and PbtO2 were measured using the Licox system and core temperature was recorded through rectal thermometer. Data were analyzed at the hour before cooling, the first hour at target temperature, 2 consecutive hours at target temperature, and after 6 hours of hypothermia. There was a mean decrease in ICP of 4.3±1.6 mmHg (p<0.04) from 15.7 to 11.4 mmHg, from precooling to the first epoch of hypothermia in the intervention group (n=9) that was not seen in the control group (n=8). A decrease in ICP was maintained throughout all time periods. There was a mean decrease in PbtO2 of 7.8±3.1 mmHg (p<0.05) from 30.2 to 22.4 mmHg, from precooling to stable hypothermia, which was not seen in the control group. This research supports others in demonstrating a decrease in ICP with temperature, which could facilitate a reduction in the use of hyperosmolar agents or other stage II interventions. The decrease in PbtO2 is not below the suggested treatment threshold of 20 mmHg, but might indicate a decrease in CBF. PMID:26060880
Gagne-Loranger, Maude; Sheppard, Megan; Ali, Nabeel; Saint-Martin, Christine; Wintermark, Pia
The aim of this article was to describe the severity of brain injury and/or mortality in a cohort of newborns referred for therapeutic hypothermia, in relation to the degree of encephalopathy on admission, and to especially look at the ones with initial mild encephalopathy. Term newborns with perinatal depression referred to our neonatal intensive care unit for possible hypothermia treatment from 2008 to 2012 were enrolled prospectively. The modified Sarnat score on admission was correlated with severity of brain injury on brain imaging and/or autopsy. A total of 215 newborns were referred for possible cooling. Sixty percent (128/215) were cooled. Most of the not-cooled newborns with an available brain magnetic resonance imaging (85% = 50/59) had an initial mild encephalopathy, and 40% (20/50) developed brain injury. Some cooled newborns had an initial mild encephalopathy (12% = 13/108); only 31% (4/13) developed brain injury. Our results demonstrated that several newborns with an initial mild encephalopathy developed subsequent brain injury, especially when they were not cooled. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Saho, S. Bamba
Presents a unit on the body's response to hypothermia. Includes activities in which students measure the amount of heat absorbed by a white piece of cloth and a black piece of the same material, use cooperative-learning techniques to design a graphic organizer that explains metabolic responses to cold stress, and study the effect of temperature on…
Saho, S. Bamba
Presents a unit on the body's response to hypothermia. Includes activities in which students measure the amount of heat absorbed by a white piece of cloth and a black piece of the same material, use cooperative-learning techniques to design a graphic organizer that explains metabolic responses to cold stress, and study the effect of temperature on…
Skranes, Janne Helen; Løhaugen, Gro; Schumacher, Eva Margrethe; Osredkar, Damjan; Server, Andres; Cowan, Frances Mary; Stiris, Tom; Fugelseth, Drude; Thoresen, Marianne
To examine whether using an amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) severity pattern as an entry criterion for therapeutic hypothermia better selects infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and to assess the time-to-normal trace for aEEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion load as 24-month outcome predictors. Forty-seven infants meeting Norwegian therapeutic hypothermia guidelines were enrolled prospectively. Eight-channel EEG/aEEG was recorded from 6 hours until after rewarming, and read after discharge. Neonatal MRI brain scans were scored for summated (range 0-11) regional lesion load. A poor outcome at 2 years was defined as death or a Bayley Scales of Infant-Toddler Development cognitive or motor composite score of <85 or severe hearing or visual loss. Three severity groups were defined from the initial aEEG; continuous normal voltage (CNV; n = 15), discontinuous normal voltage (DNV; n = 18), and a severe aEEG voltage pattern (SEVP; n = 14). Any seizure occurrence was 7% CNV, 50% DNV, and 100% SEVP. Infants with SEVP with poor vs good outcome had a significantly longer median (IQR) time-to-normal trace: 58 hours (9-79) vs 18 hours (12-19) and higher MRI lesion load: 10 (3-10) vs 2 (1-5). A poor outcome was noted in 3 of 15 infants with CNV, 4 of 18 infants with DNV, and 8 of 14 infants with SEVP. Using multiple stepwise linear regression analyses including only infants with abnormal aEEG (DNV and SEVP), MRI lesion load significantly predicted cognitive and motor scores. For the SEVP group alone, time-to-normal trace was a stronger outcome predictor than MRI score. No variable predicted outcome in infants with CNV. Selection of infants with encephalopathy for therapeutic hypothermia after perinatal asphyxia may be improved by including only infants with an early moderate or severely depressed background aEEG trace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cilio, Maria Roberta; Ferriero, Donna M.
summary Neuroprotection is a major health care priority, given the enormous burden of human suffering and financial cost caused by perinatal brain damage. With the advent of hypothermia as therapy for term hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy, there is hope for repair and protection of the brain after a profound neonatal insult. However, it is clear from the published clinical trials and animal studies that hypothermia alone will not provide complete protection or stimulate the repair that is necessary for normal neurodevelopmental outcome. This review critically discusses drugs used to treat seizures after hypoxia–ischemia in the neonate with attention to evidence of possible synergies for therapy. In addition, other agents such as xenon, N-acetylcysteine, erythropoietin, melatonin and cannabinoids are discussed as future potential therapeutic agents that might augment protection from hypothermia. Finally, compounds that might damage the developing brain or counteract the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia are discussed. PMID:20207600
Pestel, Gunther J; Kurz, Andrea
Perioperative hypothermia triples the incidence of adverse myocardial outcomes in high-risk patients; it significantly increases blood loss and augments allogeneic transfusion requirements. Even mild hypothermia increases the incidence of surgical wound infection following colon resection and therefore the duration of hospitalization. Hypothermia adversely affects antibody- and cell-mediated immune defenses, as well as the oxygen availability in the peripheral wound tissues. Mild perioperative hypothermia changes the kinetics and action of various anesthetic and paralyzing agents, increases thermal discomfort, and is associated with delayed postanesthetic recovery. On the other hand however, therapeutic hypothermia may be an interesting approach in various settings. Lowering core temperature to 32-34 degrees C may reduce cell injury by suppressing excitotoxins and oxygen radicals, stabilizing cell membranes, and reducing the number of abnormal electrical depolarizations. Evidence in animals indicates that even mild hypothermia provides substantial protection against cerebral ischemia and myocardial infarction. Mild hypothermia has been shown to improve outcome after cardiac arrest in humans. Randomized trials are in progress to evaluate the potential benefits of mild hypothermia during aneurysm clipping and after stroke or acute myocardial infarction. This article reviews recent publications in the field of accidental as well as therapeutic hypothermia, and tries to assess what evidence is available at the present time.
Ning, Jiaolin; Mo, Liwen; Yi, Bin; Gu, Jianteng; Lu, Kaizhi; Zhou, Yaying; Lai, Xinan; Zhao, Hailin; Ma, Daqing
Severe blast limb trauma (BLT) induces distant multiple-organ injuries. In the current study, the authors determined whether whole-body hypothermia (WH) and its optimal duration (if any) afford protection to the local limb damage and distant lung, liver, and kidney injuries after BLT in rats. Rats with BLT, created by using chartaceous electricity detonators, were randomly treated with WH for 30 min, 60 min, 3 h, and 6 h (n = 12/group). Rectal temperature and arterial blood pressure were monitored throughout. Blood and lung, liver, and kidney tissue samples were harvested for measuring tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10, myeloperoxidase activity, hydrogen sulfide, and biomarkers of oxidative stress at 6 h after BLT. The pathologic lung injury and the water content of the lungs, liver, and kidneys and blast limb tissue were assessed. Unlike WH for 30 min, WH for 60 min reduced lung water content, lung myeloperoxidase activity, and kidney myeloperoxidase activity by 10, 39, and 28% (all P < 0.05), respectively. WH for 3 h attenuated distant vital organs and local traumatic limb damage and reduced myeloperoxidase activity, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentration, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels by up to 49% (all P < 0.01). Likewise, WH for 6 h also provided protection to such injured organs but increased blood loss from traumatic limb. Results of this study indicated that WH may provide protection for distant organs and local traumatic limb after blast trauma, which warrants further study.
Rothstein, Ted L
Rational medical management of patients who remain comatose following cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) due to anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy depends upon the early identification of those with a hopeless prognosis - regardless of how aggressively they are managed. Conversely, it is mandatory that we recognize those patients with the potential to recover in order to institute aggressive therapeutic measures. The bilateral absence of the N20 Cortical Somatosensory Evoked Potential has been identified as the most reliable predictor of an unfavorable prognosis in normothermic patients. Two randomized trials have determined that mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH) delivered immediately after CPR improves neurologic outcomes. TH has now become the standard of care in the management of patients with cardio-pulmonary arrest. Eight studies targeting patients who were comatose following CPR, treated with TH, and using SSEP as an outcome predictor are reviewed. There is only one patient treated with TH who appears to have fully recovered following cardiac arrest who was initially found to have bilateral absent cortical potentials. This opinion paper will address whether the criteria that placed reliance upon SSEP to predict unfavorable outcome in post cardio-pulmonary arrest patients after receiving TH, still apply.
Akhtarshomar, Sadegh; Saied, Alireza; Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad
Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of delayed hypothermia on spinal cord injuries in rats. In addition, the effect of methylprednisolone on therapeutic window of hypothermia was evaluated. Overview of Literature Several studies have demonstrated that early hypothermia is the most effective neuroprotective modality. However, delayed hypothermia seems to be more practical for patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries. A combination of hypothermia and other neuroprotective methods, such as using methylprednisolone, may help extend the therapeutic window of hypothermia. Methods One hundred and twenty male rats were categorized into six groups. The rats in five groups were subjected to spinal cord injury using the weight drop method, followed by treatment, consisting of early hypothermia, late hypothermia, late hypothermia plus methylprednisolone, or methylprednisolone only. Biochemical tests including catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide level were evaluated in the injured spinal cord. Behavioral functions of the hind limb were evaluated by Basso-Battle-Bresnaham locomotor rating scale and tail-flick tests. Results Functional and biochemical evaluation showed both early and late hypothermia had significant neuroprotective effects. The treated groups did not differ significantly from one another in the behavioral tests. Hypothermia had better biochemical results compared to methylprednisolone. Also, methylprednisolone was shown to extend the therapeutic window of delayed hypothermia. Conclusions Hypothermia showed a significant neuroprotective effect, which can be improved with further studies optimizing the duration of hypothermia and the rewarming period. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of the delayed hypothermia can be extended by methylprednisolone. PMID:25705328
Terman, Samuel W; Hume, Benjamin; Meurer, William J; Silbergleit, Robert
Objective To compare short- and long-term neurological outcomes in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) presenting with non-shockable (nSR) versus shockable (SR) initial rhythms. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting ED and ICU of an academic hospital. Patients One hundred twenty-three consecutive post-OHCA adults (57 nSR, 67 SR) treated with therapeutic hypothermia between 2006 and 2012. Measurements and Main Results Data were collected from electronic health records. Neurological outcomes were dichotomized by Cerebral Performance Category at discharge and 6-12 month follow-up and analyzed via multivariable logistic regressions. Groups were similar, except nSR patients were more likely to have a history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.01), be dialysis-dependent (p = 0.01), and not have bystander CPR (p = 0.05). At discharge, 3/57 (5%) patients with nSR versus 28/66 (42%) with SR had a favorable outcome (unadjusted OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.02-0.3; adjusted OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03-0. 4). At follow-up, 4/55 (7%) versus 29/60 (48%) of patients with nSR and SR respectively had a favorable CPC (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.03-0.3; adjusted OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.09-0.3). Among those surviving hospitalization, neurological outcome was more likely at long-term follow-up than at hospital discharge for both groups (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.7; adjusted 2.9, 1.4-6.2). No significant interaction between changes in neurological status over time and presenting rhythm was seen (p=0.93). Conclusions These data indicate an association between initial nSR and significantly worse short- and long-term outcomes in patients treated with MTH. Among survivors, neurological status significantly improved over time for all patients and SR patients, and tended to improve over time for the small number of nSR patients who survived beyond hospitalization. No significant interaction between changes in neurological status over time and presenting rhythm
Rizzo, Julie A; Burgess, Pamela; Cartie, Richard J; Prasad, Balakrishna M
Therapeutic hypothermia has been proposed to be beneficial in an array of human pathologies including cardiac arrest, stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and hemorrhagic shock. Burn depth progression is multifactorial but inflammation plays a large role. Because hypothermia is known to reduce inflammation, we hypothesized that moderate hypothermia will decrease burn depth progression. We used a second-degree 15% total body surface area thermal injury model in rats. Burn depth was assessed by histology of biopsy sections. Moderate hypothermia in the range of 31-33°C was applied for 4h immediately after burn and in a delayed fashion, starting 2h after burn. In order to gain insight into the beneficial effects of hypothermia, we analyzed global gene expression in the burned skin. Immediate hypothermia decreased burn depth progression at 6h post injury, and this protective effect was sustained for at least 24h. Burn depth was 18% lower in rats subjected to immediate hypothermia compared to control rats at both 6 and 24h post injury. Rats in the delayed hypothermia group did not show any significant decrease in burn depth at 6h, but had 23% lower burn depth than controls at 24h. Increased expression of several skin-protective genes such as CCL4, CCL6 and CXCL13 and decreased expression of tissue remodeling genes such as matrix metalloprotease-9 were discovered in the skin biopsy samples of rats subjected to immediate hypothermia. Systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression in a rodent model and up-regulation of skin-protective genes and down-regulation of detrimental tissue remodeling genes by hypothermia may contribute to its beneficial effects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bednar, Frantisek; Kroupa, Josef; Ondrakova, Martina; Osmancik, Pavel; Kopa, Milos; Motovska, Zuzana
Survivors after cardiac arrest (CA) due to AMI undergo PCI and then receive dual antiplatelet therapy. Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) is recommended for unconscious patients after CA to improve neurological outcomes. MTH can attenuate the effectiveness of P2Y12 inhibitors by reducing gastrointestinal absorption and metabolic activation. The combined effect of these conditions on the efficacy of P2Y12 inhibitors is unknown. We compared the antiplatelet efficacies of new P2Y12 inhibitors in AMI patients after CA treated with MTH. Forty patients after CA for AMI treated with MTH and received one P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor) were enrolled in a prospective observational single-center study. Platelet inhibition was measured by VASP (PRI) on days 1, 2, and 3 after drug administration. In-hospital clinical data and 1-year survival data were obtained. The proportion of patients with ineffective platelet inhibition (PRI > 50 %, high on-treatment platelet reactivity) for clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor was 77 vs. 19 vs. 1 % on day 1; 77 vs. 17 vs. 0 % on day 2; and 85 vs. 6 vs. 0 % on day 3 (P < 0.001). The platelet inhibition was significantly worse in clopidogrel group than in prasugrel or ticagrelor group. Prasugrel and ticagrelor are very effective for platelet inhibition in patients treated with MTH after CA due to AMI, but clopidogrel is not. Using prasugrel or ticagrelor seems to be a more suitable option in this high-risk group of acute patients.
Patel, Shyama D.; Pierce, Leslie; Ciardiello, Amber; Hutton, Alexandra; Paskewitz, Samuel; Aronowitz, Eric; Voss, Henning U.; Moore, Holly; Vannucci, Susan J.
Background Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of morbidity in survivors. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the only available intervention, but the protection is incomplete. Preclinical studies of HIE/TH in the rodent have relied on the postnatal day (P) 7 rat whose brain approximates a 32–36 week gestation infant, less relevant for these studies. We propose that HIE and TH in the term-equivalent P10 rat will be more translational. Methods P10–11 rat pups were subjected to unilateral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and 4 hours recovery in normothermic (N) or hypothermic (TH) conditions. Brain damage was assessed longitudinally at 24 hours, 2 and 12 weeks. Motor function was assessed with the beam walk; recognition memory was measured by novel object recognition. Results Neuroprotection with TH was apparent at 2 and 12 weeks in both moderately and severely damaged animals. TH improved motor function in moderate, but not severe damage. Impaired object recognition occurred with severe damage with no evidence of protection of TH. Conclusion This adaptation of the immature rat model of HI provides a reproducible platform to further study HIE/TH in which individual animals are followed longitudinally to provide a useful translational preclinical model. PMID:25996893
... Hypothermia is often caused by exposure to cold weather or immersion in a cold body of water. ... Minn. Feb. 25, 2015. Frostbite and hypothermia. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office. http://www.crh.noaa. ...
Don, Creighton W.; Longstreth, WT; Maynard, Charles; Olsufka, Michele; Nichol, Graham; Ray, Todd; Kupchik, Nicole; Deem, Steven; Copass, Michael K.; Cobb, Leonard A.; Kim, Francis
Objective This study evaluated whether implementation of a therapeutic hypothermia (TH) protocol upon arrival in a community hospital improved survival and neurologic outcomes in patients initially found to have ventricular fibrillation (VF), pulseless electrical activity (PEA), or asystole and then successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest Design and Setting This is a retrospective study of patients who presented after implementation of a TH-protocol compared to those who presented before the protocol was implemented at Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Patients We evaluated 491 consecutive adults with out-of-hospital, non-traumatic cardiac arrest who presented between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004. Interventions An active cooling TH-protocol using ice packs, cooling blankets, or cooling pads to achieve a temperature of 32–34 °C was initiated on November 18, 2002 for unconscious patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Measurements Demographics and outcomes were obtained from medical records and an emergency medical database. The primary outcomes were survival and favorable neurologic outcome at discharge associated with the TH-protocol. An adjusted analysis was performed using a multivariate regression. Main results During the TH-period, 204 patients were brought to emergency department; of these, 132 (65%) ultimately achieved temperatures of less than 34 °C. Of the 72 patients who did not achieve goal temperatures: 40 (20%) died in the emergency department or shortly after being admitted to the hospital, 15 (7%) regained consciousness, 4 (2%) had contraindications 13 (6%) had temperature increase or did not have documented use of the TH protocol. In the prior period, none of the 287 patients received active cooling. Patients admitted in the TH-period had a mean esophageal temperature of 34.1°C during the first 12 hours compared to 35.2°C in the pre-TH period (p<0.01). Survival to hospital discharge improved in TH
Choi, Sae Won; Shin, Sang Do; Ro, Young Sun; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Eui Jung; Ahn, Ki Ok
The use of mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with shockable rhythms is recommended and widely used. However, it is unclear whether TH is associated with better outcomes in non-shockable rhythms. This is a retrospective observational study using a national OHCA cohort database composed of emergency medical services (EMS) and hospital data. We included adult EMS-treated OHCA patients of presumed cardiac etiology who were admitted to the hospital during Jan. 2008 to Dec. 2013. Patients without hospital outcome data were excluded. The primary outcome was good neurological outcome at discharge; secondary outcome was survival to discharge. The primary exposure was TH. We compared outcomes between TH and non-TH groups using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for individual and Utstein factors. Interactions of initial ECG rhythm and witnessed status on the effect of TH on outcomes were tested. There were 11,256 patients in the final analysis. TH was performed in 1703 patients (15.1%). Neurological outcome was better in TH (23.5%) than non-TH (15.0%) (Adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.48). The effect of TH on the odds for good neurological outcome was highest in the witnessed PEA group (Adjusted OR=3.91, 95% CI 1.87-8.14). Survival to discharge was significantly higher in the TH group (55.1%) than non-TH (35.9%) (Adjusted OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.56-2.00). In a nationwide observational study, TH is associated with better neurological outcome and higher survival to discharge. The effect of TH is greatest in witnessed OHCA patients with PEA as the initial ECG rhythm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oh, Tae Gwan; Cha, Won Chul; Jo, Ik Joon; Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Dong Woo
We aimed to summarize the therapeutic hypothermia (TH) protocols used in emergency departments (EDs) in Korea and to investigate the differences between level 1 and 2 centers. The chief residents from 56 EDs were given a structured survey containing questions on the indications for TH, methods for TH induction, maintaining, and finalizing TH treatments. The participants were divided into 2 groups based on their work place (level 1 vs. level 2 centers). We received 36 responses to the survey. The majority of the participants (94.4%) reported that they routinely used TH. An average of 5.9 (standard deviation, 3.4) and 3.3 (standard deviation, 2.9) TH procedures were performed monthly in level 1 and 2 centers, respectively (P=0.01). The majority of level 1 and 2 centers (80.0% and 73.1%, respectively) had written TH protocols. Rectal (50.0%) and esophageal probes (38.9%) were most commonly used to monitor the patients' body temperatures. Midazolam (80.6%) and remifentanyl (47.2%) were the most commonly used sedatives. For TH induction, external cooling devices (77.8%) and cold saline infusion (66.1%) were predominant. Between level 1 and 2 centers, only the number of TH, the usage of remifentanyl, and application of external cooling device showed significant differences (P<0.05). Our study summarizes the TH protocols used in 36 EDs. The majority of study participants performed TH using a written protocol. We observed small number of differences in TH induction and maintenance methods between level 1 and 2 centers.
Kim, Won Young; Giberson, Tyler A; Uber, Amy; Berg, Katherine; Cocchi, Michael N; Donnino, Michael W
Previous reports have shown that prolonged duration of resuscitation efforts in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with poor neurologic outcome. This concept has recently been questioned with advancements in post-cardiac arrest care including the use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). The aim of this study was to determine the rate of good neurologic outcome based on the duration of resuscitation efforts in OHCA patients treated with TH. This prospective, observational, study was conducted between January 2008 and September 2012. Inclusion criteria consisted of adult non-traumatic OHCA patients who were comatose after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and received TH. The primary endpoint was good neurologic outcome defined as a cerebral performance category score of 1 or 2. Downtime was calculated as the length of time between the patient being recognized as pulseless and ROSC. 105 patients were treated with TH and 19 were excluded due to unknown downtime, leaving 86 patients for analysis. The median downtime was 18.5 (10.0-32.3)min and 33 patients (38.0%) had a good neurologic outcome. When downtime was divided into four groups (≤10min, 11-20min, 21-30min, >30min), good neurologic outcomes were 62.5%, 37%, 25%, and 21.7%, respectively (p=0.02). However, even with downtime >20min, 22.9% had a good neurologic outcome, and this percentage increased to 37.5% in patients with an initial shockable rhythm. Although longer downtime is associated with worse outcome in OHCA patients, we found that comatose patients who have been successfully resuscitated and treated with TH have neurologically intact survival rates of 23% even with downtime >20min. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Won Young; Giberson, Tyler A.; Uber, Amy; Berg, Katherine; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.
Background Previous reports have shown that prolonged duration of resuscitation efforts in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with poor neurologic outcome. This concept has recently been questioned with advancements in post-cardiac arrest care including the use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). The aim of this study was to determine the rate of good neurologic outcome based on the duration of resuscitation efforts in OHCA patients treated with TH. Methods This prospective, observational, study was conducted between January 2008 and September 2012. Inclusion criteria consisted of adult non-traumatic OHCA patients who were comatose after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and received TH. The primary endpoint was good neurologic outcome defined as a cerebral performance category score of 1 or 2. Downtime was calculated as the length of time between the patient being recognized as pulseless and ROSC. Results 105 patients were treated with TH and 19 were excluded due to unknown downtime, leaving 86 patients for analysis. The median downtime was 18.5 (10.0–32.3) minutes and 33 patients (38.0%) had a good neurologic outcome. When downtime was divided into four groups (≤10 min, 11-20 min, 21-30 min, > 30 min), good neurologic outcomes were 62.5%, 37%, 25%, and 21.7%, respectively (p=0.02). However, even with downtime >20 minutes, 22.9% had a good neurologic outcome, and this percentage increased to 37.5% in patients with an initial shockable rhythm. Conclusions Although longer downtime is associated with worse outcome in OHCA patients, we found that comatose patients who have been successfully resuscitated and treated with TH have neurologically intact survival rates of 23% even with downtime > 20 minutes. PMID:24746783
Bashaw, Marie A
The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.
Tohme, Sophia; Delhumeau, Cecile; Zuercher, Mathias; Haller, Guy; Walder, Bernhard
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant health concern and a major burden for society. The period between trauma event and hospital admission in an emergency department (ED) could be a determinant for secondary brain injury and early survival. The aim was to investigate the relationship between prehospital factors associated with secondary brain injury (arterial hypotension, hypoxemia, hypothermia) and the outcomes of mortality and impaired consciousness of survivors at 14 days. A multicenter, prospective cohort study was performed in dedicated trauma centres of Switzerland. Adults with severe TBI (Abbreviated Injury Scale score of head region (HAIS) >3) were included. Main outcome measures were death and impaired consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤13) at 14 days. The associations between risk factors and outcome were assessed with univariate and multivariate regression models. 589 patients were included, median age was 55 years (IQR 33, 70). The median GCS in ED was 4 (IQR 3-14), with abnormal pupil reaction in 167 patients (29.2%). Median ISS was 25 (IQR 21, 34). Three hundred seven patients sustained their TBI from falls (52.1%) and 190 from a road traffic accidents (32.3%). Median time from Out-of-hospital Emergency Medical Service (OHEMS) departure on scene to arrival in ED was 50 minutes (IQR 37-72); 451 patients had a direct admission (76.6%). Prehospital hypotension was observed in 24 (4.1%) patients, hypoxemia in 73 (12.6%) patients and hypothermia in 146 (24.8%). Prehospital hypotension and hypothermia (apart of age and trauma severity) was associated with mortality. Prehospital hypoxemia (apart of trauma severity) was associated with impaired consciousness; indirect admission was a protective factor. Mortality and impaired consciousness at 14 days do not have the same prehospital risk factors; prehospital hypotension and hypothermia is associated with mortality, and prehospital hypoxemia with impaired consciousness.
Nevalainen, Päivi; Lauronen, Leena; Metsäranta, Marjo; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Ahtola, Eero; Vanhatalo, Sampsa
Treatment with therapeutic hypothermia has challenged the use of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in predicting outcomes after perinatal asphyxia. In this study, we assessed the feasibility and gain of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) during hypothermia. This retrospective study comprised neonates from 35 + 6 to 42 + 2 gestational weeks and treated for asphyxia or hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy at Helsinki University Hospital between 14 February 2007 and 23 December 2009. This period was partly before the introduction of routine therapeutic hypothermia, which enabled us to include normothermic neonates who would these days receive hypothermia treatment. We analysed SEPs from 47 asphyxiated neonates and compared the results between 23 normothermic and 24 hypothermic neonates. Our data showed that hypothermia led to SEP latencies lengthening by a few milliseconds, but the essential gain for predicting outcomes by SEPs was preserved during hypothermia. Of the 24 hypothermic neonates, bilaterally absent SEPs were associated with poor outcome in 2/2 neonates, normal SEPs were associated with good outcomes in 13/15 neonates and 5/7 neonates with unilaterally absent or grossly delayed SEPs had a poor outcome. Our findings indicated that SEPs were a reliable tool for evaluating the somatosensory system in asphyxiated neonates in both normothermic and hypothermic conditions. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Noc, Marko; Lang, Irene; Holzer, Michael; Clemmensen, Peter; Jensen, Ulf; Metzler, Bernhard; James, Stefan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Omerovic, Elmir; Koul, Sasha; Engblom, Henrik; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Östlund, Ollie; Wallentin, Lars; Klos, Bradley; Harnek, Jan; Olivecrona, Göran K
In the randomized rapid intravascular cooling in myocardial infarction as adjunctive to percutaneous coronary intervention (RAPID MI-ICE) and rapid endovascular catheter core cooling combined with cold saline as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction CHILL-MI studies, hypothermia was rapidly induced in conscious patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by a combination of cold saline and endovascular cooling. Twenty patients in RAPID MI-ICE and 120 in CHILL-MI with large STEMIs, scheduled for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within <6 hours after symptom onset were randomized to hypothermia induced by rapid infusion of 600-2000 mL cold saline combined with endovascular cooling or standard of care. Hypothermia was initiated before PCI and continued for 1-3 hours after reperfusion aiming at a target temperature of 33°C. The primary endpoint was myocardial infarct size (IS) as a percentage of myocardium at risk (IS/MaR) assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 4±2 days. Patients randomized to hypothermia treatment achieved a mean core body temperature of 34.7°C before reperfusion. Although significance was not achieved in CHILL-MI, in the pooled analysis IS/MaR was reduced in the hypothermia group, relative reduction (RR) 15% (40.5, 28.0-57.6 vs. 46.6, 36.8-63.8, p=0.046, median, interquartile range [IQR]). IS/MaR was predominantly reduced in early anterior STEMI (0-4h) in the hypothermia group, RR=31% (40.5, 28.8-51.9 vs. 59.0, 45.0-67.8, p=0.01, median, IQR). There was no mortality in either group. The incidence of heart failure was reduced in the hypothermia group (2 vs. 11, p=0.009). Patients with large MaR (>30% of the left ventricle) exhibited significantly reduced IS/MaR in the hypothermia group (40.5, 27.0-57.6 vs. 55.1, 41.1-64.4, median, IQR; hypothermia n=42 vs. control n=37, p=0.03), while patients with MaR<30% did not show effect of hypothermia (35
Weuster, Matthias; Mommsen, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Mohr, Juliane; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Flohé, Sascha; Fröhlich, Matthias; Keibl, Claudia; Seekamp, Andreas; van Griensven, Martijn; Witte, Ingo
Background. The deterioration of hemodynamics instantly endangers the patients' life after polytrauma. As accidental hypothermia frequently occurs in polytrauma, therapeutic hypothermia still displays an ambivalent role as the impact on the cardiopulmonary function is not yet fully understood. Methods. We have previously established a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, penetrating abdominal trauma, and hemorrhagic shock. Therapeutic hypothermia (34°C) was induced for 3 hours. We documented cardiovascular parameters and basic respiratory parameters. Pigs were euthanized after 15.5 hours. Results. Our polytrauma porcine model displayed sufficient trauma impact. Resuscitation showed adequate restoration of hemodynamics. Induced hypothermia had neither harmful nor major positive effects on the animals' hemodynamics. Though heart rate significantly decreased and mixed venous oxygen saturation significantly increased during therapeutic hypothermia. Mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and wedge pressure showed no significant differences comparing normothermic trauma and hypothermic trauma pigs during hypothermia. Conclusions. Induced hypothermia after polytrauma is feasible. No major harmful effects on hemodynamics were observed. Therapeutic hypothermia revealed hints for tissue protective impact. But the chosen length for therapeutic hypothermia was too short. Nevertheless, therapeutic hypothermia might be a useful tool for intensive care after polytrauma. Future studies should extend therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:26170533
Markgraf, C G; Clifton, G L; Moody, M R
The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic window for hypothermia treatment following experimental brain injury by measuring edema formation and functional outcome. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was produced in anesthetized rats by using cortical impact injury. Edema was measured in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres by subtracting dry weight from wet weight, and neurological function was assessed using a battery of behavioral tests 24 hours after TBI. In injured rats, it was found that brain water levels were elevated at I hour postinjury, compared with those in sham-injured control animals, and that edema peaked at 24 hours and remained elevated for 4 days. Hypothermia (3 hours at 30 degrees C) induced either immediately after TBI or 60 minutes after TBI significantly reduced early neurological deficits. Delay of treatment by 90 or 120 minutes postinjury did not result in this neurological protection. Immediate administration of hypothermia also significantly decreased the peak magnitude of edema at 24 hours and 48 hours postinjury, compared with that in normothermic injured control animals. When delayed by 90 minutes, hypothermia did not affect the pattern of edema formation. When hypothermia was administered immediately or 60 minutes after TBI, injured rats showed an improvement in functional outcome and a decrease in edema. Delayed hypothermia treatment had no effect on functional outcome or on edema.
Tupone, Domenico; Cetas, Justin S.; Morrison, Shaun F.
The positive outcome that hypothermia contributes to brain and cardiac protection following ischemia has stimulated research in the development of pharmacological approaches to induce a hypothermic/hypometabolic state. Pharmacological manipulation of central autonomic thermoregulatory circuits could represent a potential target for the induction of a hypothermic state. Here we present a brief description of the CNS thermoregulatory centers and how the manipulation of these circuits can be useful in the treatment of pathological conditions such as stroke or brain hemorrhage. PMID:27333659
Bennett, Brad L; Holcomb, John B
For centuries, cold and wet weather has affected military combat operations leading to tremendous loss of manpower caused by cold-weather-related injuries including trench foot, frostbite, and hypothermia. The initial battlefield management of hypothermia in military personnel had not advanced significantly following many wars and conflicts until 2006. The aim of this review is to: 1) provide an overview of trauma-induced hypothermia (TIH); 2) highlight the Department of Defense strategy for the implementation of a hypothermia clinical management program for battlefield (prehospital) casualties; 3) highlight the research and development of the Hypothermia Prevention and Management Kit (HPMK) as the preferred field rewarming system for battlefield TIH; and 4) emphasize how the HPMK can be easily transitioned to the civilian sector for active rewarming of both accidental and TIH patients. The HPMK is ideal for those working in civilian Emergency Medical Services and austere prehospital care environments. This kit is a low cost, lightweight, small dimension commercial product that can provide effective passive management or active rewarming for both accidental (primary) and trauma-induced (secondary) hypothermia patients. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paulikas, Cynthia A
Hypothermia is one of the most common complications experienced by surgical patients. Better postoperative patient outcomes are achieved when normothermia is maintained. Perioperative nurses should understand how to maintain normothermia, the causes of hypothermia, and adverse patient outcomes that result from hypothermia. Nursing interventions to help prevent hypothermia can be implemented during each phase of perioperative care.
Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S
Therapeutic hypothermia reduces cerebral injury and improves the neurological outcome secondary to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. It has been indicated for asphyxiated full-term or near-term newborn infants with clinical signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). A search was performed for articles on therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with perinatal asphyxia in PubMed; the authors chose those considered most significant. There are two therapeutic hypothermia methods: selective head cooling and total body cooling. The target body temperature is 34.5 °C for selective head cooling and 33.5 °C for total body cooling. Temperatures lower than 32 °C are less neuroprotective, and temperatures below 30 °C are very dangerous, with severe complications. Therapeutic hypothermia must start within the first 6h after birth, as studies have shown that this represents the therapeutic window for the hypoxic-ischemic event. Therapy must be maintained for 72 h, with very strict control of the newborn's body temperature. It has been shown that therapeutic hypothermia is effective in reducing neurologic impairment, especially in full-term or near-term newborns with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Therapeutic hypothermia is a neuroprotective technique indicated for newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Filgueiras-Rama, David; Calvo, Conrado J; Salvador-Montañés, Óscar; Cádenas, Rosalía; Ruiz-Cantador, Jose; Armada, Eduardo; Rey, Juan Ramón; Merino, J L; Peinado, Rafael; Pérez-Castellano, Nicasio; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Quintanilla, Jorge G; Jiménez, Santiago; Castells, Francisco; Chorro, Francisco J; López-Sendón, J L; Berenfeld, Omer; Jalife, José; López de Sá, Esteban; Millet, José
Early prognosis in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) is unreliable, especially in patients undergoing mild hypothermia. We aimed at developing a reliable risk-score to enable early prediction of cerebral performance and survival. Sixty-one out of 239 consecutive patients undergoing mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest, with eventual return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and comatose status on admission fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Background clinical variables, VF time and frequency domain fundamental variables were considered. The primary and secondary outcomes were a favorable neurological performance (FNP) during hospitalization and survival to hospital discharge, respectively. The predictive model was developed in a retrospective cohort (n = 32; September 2006-September 2011, 48.5 ± 10.5 months of follow-up) and further validated in a prospective cohort (n = 29; October 2011-July 2013, 5 ± 1.8 months of follow-up). FNP was present in 16 (50.0%) and 21 patients (72.4%) in the retrospective and prospective cohorts, respectively. Seventeen (53.1%) and 21 patients (72.4%), respectively, survived to hospital discharge. Both outcomes were significantly associated (p < 0.001). Retrospective multivariate analysis provided a prediction model (sensitivity = 0.94, specificity = 1) that included spectral dominant frequency, derived power density and peak ratios between high and low frequency bands, and the number of shocks delivered before ROSC. Validation on the prospective cohort showed sensitivity = 0.88 and specificity = 0.91. A model-derived risk-score properly predicted 93% of FNP. Testing the model on follow-up showed a c-statistic ≥ 0.89. A spectral analysis-based model reliably correlates time-dependent VF spectral changes with acute cerebral injury in comatose survivors undergoing mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Filgueiras-Rama, David; Calvo, Conrado J.; Salvador-Montañés, Óscar; Cádenas, Rosalía; Ruiz-Cantador, Jose; Armada, Eduardo; Rey, Juan Ramón; Merino, J.L.; Peinado, Rafael; Pérez-Castellano, Nicasio; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Quintanilla, Jorge G.; Jiménez, Santiago; Castells, Francisco; Chorro, Francisco J.; López-Sendón, J.L.; Berenfeld, Omer; Jalife, José; López de Sá, Esteban; Millet, José
Background Early prognosis in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) is unreliable, especially in patients undergoing mild hypothermia. We aimed at developing a reliable risk-score to enable early prediction of cerebral performance and survival. Methods Sixty-one out of 239 consecutive patients undergoing mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest, with eventual return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and comatose status on admission fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Background clinical variables, VF time and frequency domain fundamental variables were considered. The primary and secondary outcomes were a favorable neurological performance (FNP) during hospitalization and survival to hospital discharge, respectively. The predictive model was developed in a retrospective cohort (n=32; September 2006–September 2011, 48.5 ± 10.5 months of follow-up) and further validated in a prospective cohort (n = 29; October 2011–July 2013, 5 ± 1.8 months of follow-up). Results FNP was present in 16 (50.0%) and 21 patients (72.4%) in the retrospective and prospective cohorts, respectively. Seventeen (53.1%) and 21 patients (72.4%), respectively, survived to hospital discharge. Both outcomes were significantly associated (p < 0.001). Retrospective multivariate analysis provided a prediction model (sensitivity= 0.94, specificity = 1) that included spectral dominant frequency, derived power density and peak ratios between high and low frequency bands, and the number of shocks delivered before ROSC. Validation on the prospective cohort showed sensitivity = 0.88 and specificity = 0.91. A model-derived risk-score properly predicted 93% of FNP. Testing the model on follow-up showed a c-statistic ≥ 0.89. Conclusions A spectral analysis-based model reliably correlates time-dependent VF spectral changes with acute cerebral injury in comatose survivors undergoing mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest. PMID:25828128
Lo, Louise; Singer, Sylvia Titi; Vichinsky, Elliott
Hypothermia has been demonstrated to induce pancytopenia in animals, but whether this association exists in humans is unknown. The authors report the case of an 8-year-old girl in whom hypothermia (temperature 33 degrees C-35 degrees C) is the cause of pancytopenia. The patient developed thermoregulatory dysfunction subsequent to surgical resection of a craniopharyngioma. Her recurrent cytopenias could not be explained by any etiology except chronic hypothermia. The pancytopenia improved upon rewarming the patient to a temperature of 36 degrees C. This association between hypothermia and pancytopenia has rarely been reported in humans and may be underdiagnosed especially in cases of transient or milder presentations. The authors recommend careful hematologic monitoring of patients with thermoregulatory dysfunction.
Darocha, Tomasz; Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Jarosz, Anna; Sobczyk, Dorota; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sanak, Tomasz; Hymczak, Hubert; Kapelak, Bogusław; Drwiła, Rafał
Severe accidental hypothermia is a condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the years 2009–2012 the Polish National Statistics Department reported 1836 deaths due to exposure to excessive natural cold. The Severe Accidental Hypothermia Centre (CLHG, Centrum Leczenia Hipotermii Glebokiej) was set up in Krakow in 2013. It is a unit functioning within the structure of the Cardiac Surgery Clinic, established in order to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of patients in the advanced stages of severe hypothermia. Early identification of hypothermia, binding algorithm and coordination leading to extracorporeal rewarming, are the most important elements in the deep hypothermia management.
Burnsed, Jennifer; Quigg, Mark; Zanelli, Santina; Goodkin, Howard P
EEG is important in monitoring neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) during hypothermia therapy (HT). Although EEG is used to evaluate the severity of HIE and predict outcome, HT itself may affect EEG parameters. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether core body temperature (CBT) during the rewarming phase of HT in neonates with HIE changes quantified EEG parameters. Quantified EEG parameters were reviewed in 10 neonates with HIE treated with HT. Total power, 90% spectral edge frequency, the mean and lower border of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), and approximate entropy of the aEEG were calculated from 10-minute samples centered on CBT measurements. Patients were classified by clinical HIE severity and length of stay. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test interactions among CBT and EEG data. CBT had no significant effects on the quantified EEG parameters. The aEEG-average and lower border amplitudes were significantly lower in severe HIE. The aEEG-average was significantly more orderly in patients with longer length of stay, regardless of CBT. HIE severity and length of stay but not CBT affect quantified EEG. Findings suggest quantified EEG is reliable during HT. In addition, EEG may aid in predicting short-term outcome of neonates with HIE.
Kwon, Brian K; Mann, Cody; Sohn, Hong Moon; Hilibrand, Alan S; Phillips, Frank M; Wang, Jeffrey C; Fehlings, Michael G
Interest in systemic and local hypothermia extends back over many decades, and both have been investigated as potential neuroprotective interventions in a number of clinical settings, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, and both intracranial and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. The recent use of systemic hypothermia in an injured National Football League football player has focused a great deal of attention on the potential use of hypothermia in acute spinal cord injury. To provide spinal clinicians with an overview of the biological rationale for using hypothermia, the past studies and current clinical applications of hypothermia, and the basic science studies and clinical reports of the use of hypothermia in acute traumatic spinal cord injury. A review of the English literature on hypothermia was performed, starting with the original clinical description of the use of systemic hypothermia in 1940. Pertinent basic science and clinical articles were identified using PubMed and the bibliographies of the articles. Each article was reviewed to provide a concise description of hypothermia's biological rationale, current clinical applications, complications, and experience as a neuroprotective intervention in spinal cord injury. Hypothermia has a multitude of physiologic effects. From a neuroprotective standpoint, hypothermia slows basic enzymatic activity, reduces the cell's energy requirements, and thus maintains Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) concentrations. As such, systemic hypothermia has been shown to be neuroprotective in patients after cardiac arrest, although its benefit in other clinical settings such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, and intracranial aneurysm surgery has not been demonstrated. Animal studies of local and systemic hypothermia in traumatic spinal cord injury models have produced mixed results. Local hypothermia was actively studied in the 1970s in human acute traumatic spinal cord injury, but no case series of
Wegewijs, Michelle A.; Loonen, Anton J. M.; Beers, Erna
Objective Hypothermia is an adverse drug reaction (ADR) of antipsychotic drug (APD) use. Risk factors for hypothermia in ADP users are unknown. We studied which risk factors for hypothermia can be identified based on case reports. Method Case reports of hypothermia in APD-users found in PUBMED or EMBASE were searched for risk factors. The WHO international database for Adverse Drug Reactions was searched for reports of hypothermia and APD use. Results The literature search resulted in 32 articles containing 43 case reports. In the WHO database, 480 reports were registered of patients developing hypothermia during the use of APDs which almost equals the number of reports for hyperthermia associated with APD use (n = 524). Hypothermia risk seems to be increased in the first days following start or dose increase of APs. APs with strong 5-HT2 antagonism seem to be more involved in hypothermia; 55% of hypothermia reports are for atypical antipsychotics. Schizophrenia was the most prevalent diagnosis in the case reports. Conclusion Especially in admitted patients who are not able to control their own environment or physical status, frequent measurements of body temperature (with a thermometer that can measure low body temperatures) must be performed in order to detect developing hypothermia. PMID:17401555
Reinboth, Barbara S; Köster, Christian; Abberger, Hanna; Prager, Sebastian; Bendix, Ivo; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Herz, Josephine
Hypothermia treatment (HT) is the only formally endorsed treatment recommended for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). However, its success in protecting against brain injury is limited with a number to treat of 7-8. The identification of the target mechanisms of HIE in combination with HT will help to explain ineffective therapy outcomes but also requires stable experimental models in order to establish further neuroprotective therapies. Despite clinical and experimental indications for an endogenous thermoregulatory response to HIE, the potential effects on HIE-induced brain injury have largely been neglected in pre-clinical studies. In the present study we analyzed gray and white matter injury and neurobehavioral outcome in neonatal mice considering the endogenous thermoregulatory response during HIE combined with HT. HIE was induced in postnatal day (PND) 9 C57BL/6 mice through occlusion of the right common carotid artery followed by one hour of hypoxia. Hypoxia was performed at 8% or 10% oxygen (O2) at two different temperatures based on the nesting body core temperature. Using the model which mimics the clinical situation most closely, i.e. through maintenance of the nesting temperature during hypoxia we compared two mild HT protocols (rectal temperature difference 3°C for 4h), initiated either immediately after HIE or with delay of 2h. Injury was determined by histology, immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses at PND 16 and PND 51. Functional outcome was evaluated by Rota Rod, Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field and Novel Object Recognition testing at PND 30-PND 36 and PND 44-PND 50. We show that HIE modeling in neonatal mice is associated with a significant endogenous drop in body core temperature by 2°C resulting in profound neuroprotection, expressed by reduced neuropathological injury scores, reduced loss of neurons, axonal structures, myelin and decreased astrogliosis. Immediately applied post-hypoxic HT revealed slight advantages over a delayed
Shaefi, Shahzad; Mittel, Aaron M.; Hyam, Jonathan A.; Boone, M. Dustin; Chen, Clark C.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide health concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the United States, severe TBI is managed according to recommendations set forth in 2007 by the Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF), which were based on relatively low quality clinical trials. These guidelines prescribed the use of hypothermia for the management of TBI. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of hypothermia for TBI have since been conducted. Despite this new literature, there is ongoing controversy surrounding the use of hypothermia for the management of severe TBI. Methods: We searched the PubMed database for all RCTs of hypothermia for TBI since 2007 with the intent to review the methodology outcomes of these trials. Furthermore, we aimed to develop evidence-based, expert opinions based on these recent studies. Results: We identified 8 RCTs of therapeutic hypothermia published since 2007 that focused on changes in neurologic outcomes or mortality in patients with severe TBI. The majority of these trials did not identify improvement with the use of hypothermia, though there were subgroups of patients that may have benefited from hypothermia. Differences in methodology prevented direct comparison between studies. Conclusions: A growing body of literature disfavors the use of hypothermia for the management of severe TBI. In general, empiric hypothermia for severe TBI should be avoided. However, based on the results of recent trials, there may be some patients, such as those in Asian centers or with focal neurologic injury, who may benefit from hypothermia. PMID:28168089
Kumar, Senthil; Wong, Peng Foo; Melling, Andrew Christian; Leaper, David John
Perioperative hypothermia is common and adversely affects clinical outcomes due to its effect on a range of homeostatic functions. Many of these adverse consequences are preventable by the use of warming techniques. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant published articles on perioperative hypothermia and warming. The databases searched include MEDLINE (1966 to February 2005), EMBASE (1974 to February 2005), CINAHL, the Cochrane library and the health technology assessment database. Reference lists of key articles were also searched. The primary beneficial effects of warming are mediated through increased blood flow and oxygen tension at tissue level. Reduction in wound infection, blood loss and perioperative pain with warming is promising. However, more evidence from good-quality prospective randomised controlled trials is needed to evaluate the role of warming in improving overall morbidity, mortality and hospital stay as well as to clarify its role as an adjunct to resuscitation and during the pre-hospital transport phase of critically ill patients. Awareness of the risks of perioperative hypothermia is the key to prevention. Achieving normothermia throughout the patient's journey is a worthwhile goal in surgical patients.
Pitt, E; Pusponegoro, A
Current system: Hospitals of varying standards are widespread but have no system of emergency ambulance or patient retrieval. Indonesia's only public emergency ambulance service, 118, is based in five of the biggest cities and is leading the way in paramedic training and prehospital care. Challenges and developments: There are many challenges faced including the culture of acceptance, vast geographical areas, traffic, inadequate numbers of ambulances, and access to quality training resources. Recently there have been a number of encouraging developments including setting up of a disaster response brigade, better provision of ambulances, and development of paramedic training. Conclusions: An integrated national regionalised hospital and prehospital system may seem fantastic but with the enthusiasm of those involved and perhaps some help from countries with access to training resources it may not be an unrealistic goal. PMID:15662073
Hegarty, Josephine; Walsh, Ella; Burton, Aileen; Murphy, Sheila; O'gorman, Fionuala; McPolin, Gráinne
Inadvertent hypothermia can have significant consequences in the perioperative setting. Knowing how to recognize and manage inadvertent hypothermia is an important aspect of perioperative nursing. A quantitative, descriptive study was conducted at an annual perioperative nursing conference to evaluate nurses' knowledge regarding the prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Significant variations in responses regarding definitions of hypothermia and normothermia were noted. In addition, nurses identified a plethora of factors that prevent them from maintaining normothermia in their patients. These factors mandate a need for educational interventions and the adoption of practice guidelines in the clinical area.
Schweitzer, Wolf; Thali, Michael; Giugni, Giannina; Winklhofer, Sebastian
Fatal hypothermia has been associated with pulmonary edema. With postmortem full body computed tomography scanning (PMCT), the lungs can also be examined for CT attenuation. In fatal hypothermia cases low CT attenuation appeared to prevail in the lungs. We compared 14 cases of fatal hypothermia with an age-sex matched control group. Additionally, 4 cases of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning were examined. Furthermore, 10 test cases were examined to test predictability based on PMCT. Two readers measured CT attenuation on four different axial slices across the lungs (blinded to case group and other reader's results). Hypothermia was associated with statistically significantly lower lung PMCT attenuation and lower lung weights than controls, and there was a dose-effect relationship at an environmental temperature cutoff of 2 °C. CO poisoning yielded low pulmonary attenuation but higher lung weights. General model based prediction yielded a 94% probability for fatal hypothermia deaths and a 21% probability for non-hypothermia deaths in the test group. Increased breathing rate is known to accompany both CO poisoning and hypothermia, so this could partly explain the low PMCT lung attenuation due to an oxygen dissociation curve left shift. A more marked distension in fatal hypothermia, compared to CO poisoning, indicates that further, possibly different mechanisms, are involved in these cases. Increased dead space and increased stiffness to deflation (but not inflation) appear to be effects of inhaling cold air (but not CO) that may explain the difference in low PMCT attenuation seen in hypothermia cases.
Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Chun, Rosaleen; Brown, Ross; Simons, Richard K.
Hypothermia has profound effects on every system in the body, causing an overall slowing of enzymatic reactions and reduced metabolic requirements. Hypothermic, acutely injured patients with multisystem trauma have adverse outcomes when compared with normothermic control patients. Trauma patients are inherently predisposed to hypothermia from a variety of intrinsic and iatrogenic causes. Coagulation and cardiac sequelae are the most pertinent physiological concerns. Hypothermia and coagulopathy often mandate a simplified approach to complex surgical problems. A modification of traditional classification systems of hypothermia, applicable to trauma patients is suggested. There are few controlled investigations, but clinical opinion strongly supports the active prevention of hypothermia in the acutely traumatized patient. Preventive measures are simple and inexpensive, but the active reversal of hypothermia is much more complicated, often invasive and controversial. The ideal method of rewarming is unclear but must be individualized to the patient and is institution specific. An algorithm reflecting newer approaches to traumatic injury and technical advances in equipment and techniques is suggested. Conversely, hypothermia has selected clinical benefits when appropriately used in cases of trauma. Severe hypothermia has allowed remarkable survivals in the course of accidental circulatory arrest. The selective application of mild hypothermia in severe traumatic brain injury is an area with promise. Deliberate circulatory arrest with hypothermic cerebral protection has also been used for seemingly unrepairable injuries and is the focus of ongoing research. PMID:10526517
Hostler, David; Zhou, Jiangquan; Tortorici, Michael A.; Bies, Robert R.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Empey, Philip E.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Callaway, Clifton W.
The clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia has been rapidly expanding due to evidence of neuroprotection. However, the effect of hypothermia on specific pathways of drug elimination in humans is relatively unknown. To gain insight into the potential effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism and disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam as a probe for CYP3A4/5 activity during mild hypothermia in human volunteers. A second objective of this work was to determine whether benzodiazepines and magnesium administered intravenously would facilitate the induction of hypothermia. Subjects were enrolled in a randomized crossover study, which included two mild hypothermia groups (4°C saline infusions and 4°C saline + magnesium) and two normothermia groups (37°C saline infusions and 37°C saline + magnesium). The lowest temperatures achieved in the 4°C saline + magnesium and 4°C saline infusions were 35.4 ± 0.4 and 35.8 ± 0.3°C, respectively. A significant decrease in the formation clearance of the major metabolite 1′-hydroxymidazolam was observed during the 4°C saline + magnesium compared with that in the 37°C saline group (p < 0.05). Population pharmacokinetic modeling identified a significant relationship between temperature and clearance and intercompartmental clearance for midazolam. This model predicted that midazolam clearance decreases 11.1% for each degree Celsius reduction in core temperature from 36.5°C. Midazolam with magnesium facilitated the induction of hypothermia, but shivering was minimally suppressed. These data provided proof of concept that even mild and short-duration changes in body temperature significantly affect midazolam metabolism. Future studies in patients who receive lower levels and a longer duration of hypothermia are warranted. PMID:20164112
Hostler, David; Zhou, Jiangquan; Tortorici, Michael A; Bies, Robert R; Rittenberger, Jon C; Empey, Philip E; Kochanek, Patrick M; Callaway, Clifton W; Poloyac, Samuel M
The clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia has been rapidly expanding due to evidence of neuroprotection. However, the effect of hypothermia on specific pathways of drug elimination in humans is relatively unknown. To gain insight into the potential effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism and disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam as a probe for CYP3A4/5 activity during mild hypothermia in human volunteers. A second objective of this work was to determine whether benzodiazepines and magnesium administered intravenously would facilitate the induction of hypothermia. Subjects were enrolled in a randomized crossover study, which included two mild hypothermia groups (4 degrees C saline infusions and 4 degrees C saline + magnesium) and two normothermia groups (37 degrees C saline infusions and 37 degrees C saline + magnesium). The lowest temperatures achieved in the 4 degrees C saline + magnesium and 4 degrees C saline infusions were 35.4 +/- 0.4 and 35.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C, respectively. A significant decrease in the formation clearance of the major metabolite 1'-hydroxymidazolam was observed during the 4 degrees C saline + magnesium compared with that in the 37 degrees C saline group (p < 0.05). Population pharmacokinetic modeling identified a significant relationship between temperature and clearance and intercompartmental clearance for midazolam. This model predicted that midazolam clearance decreases 11.1% for each degree Celsius reduction in core temperature from 36.5 degrees C. Midazolam with magnesium facilitated the induction of hypothermia, but shivering was minimally suppressed. These data provided proof of concept that even mild and short-duration changes in body temperature significantly affect midazolam metabolism. Future studies in patients who receive lower levels and a longer duration of hypothermia are warranted.
Madhok, Jai; Wu, Dan; Xiong, Wei; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Jia, Xiaofeng
Temperature fluctuations significantly impact neurological injuries in intensive care units. As the benefits of therapeutic hypothermia continue to unfold, many of these discoveries are generated by studies in animal models undergoing experimental procedures under the influence of anesthetics. We studied the effect of induced hypothermia on neural electrophysiological signals of an uninjured brain in a rodent model while under isoflurane. Fourteen rats were divided into 2 groups (n=7 each), on the basis of electrode placement at either frontal-occipital or primary somatosensory cortical locations. Neural signals were recorded during normothermia (T=36.5 to 37.5°C), mild hypothermia (T=32 to 34°C), and hyperthermia (T=38.5 to 39.5°C). The burst-suppression ratio was used to evaluate electroencephalography (EEG), and amplitude-latency analysis was used to assess somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs). Hypothermia was characterized by an increased burst-suppression ratio (mean±SD) of 0.58±0.06 in hypothermia versus 0.16±0.13 in normothermia, P<0.001 in frontal-occipital; and 0.30±0.13 in hypothermia versus 0.04±0.04 in normothermia, P=0.006 in somatosensory. There was potentiation of SSEP (2.89±1.24 times the normothermic baseline in hypothermia, P=0.02) and prolonged peak latency (N10: 10.8±0.4 ms in hypothermia vs. 9.1±0.3 ms in normothermia; P15: 16.2±0.8 ms in hypothermia vs. 13.7±0.6 ms in normothermia; P<0.001), whereas hyperthermia was primarily marked by shorter peak latencies (N10: 8.6±0.2 ms, P15: 12.6±0.4 m; P<0.001). In the absence of brain injury in a rodent model, hypothermia induces significant increase to the SSEP amplitude while increasing SSEP latency. Hypothermia also suppressed EEGs at different regions of the brain by different degrees. The changes to SSEP and EEG are both reversible with subsequent rewarming.
Chowdhury, Tumul; Kowalski, Stephen; Arabi, Yaseen; Dash, Hari Hara
Most of the bad outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are related to the presence of a high incidence of pre-hospital secondary brain insults. Therefore, knowledge of these variables and timely management of the disease at the pre-hospital period can significantly improve the outcome and decrease the mortality. The Brain Trauma Foundation guideline on "Prehospital Management" published in 2008 could provide the standardized protocols for the management of patients with TBI; however, this guideline has included the relevant papers up to 2006. A PubMed search for relevant clinical trials and reviews (from 1 January 2007 to 31 March 2013), which specifically discussed about the topic, was conducted. Based on the evidence, majority of the management strategies comprise of rapid correction of hypoxemia and hypotension, the two most important predictors for mortality. However, there is still a need to define the goals for the management of hypotension and inclusion of newer difficult airway carts as well as proper monitoring devices for ensuring better intubation and ventilatory management. Isotonic saline should be used as the first choice for fluid resuscitation. The pre-hospital hypothermia has more adverse effects; therefore, this should be avoided. Most of the management trials published after 2007 have focused mainly on the treatment as well as the prevention strategies for secondary brain injury. The results of these trials would be certainly adopted by new standardized guidelines and therefore may have a substantial impact on the pre-hospital management in patients with TBI.
Williamson, Kelvin; Ramesh, Ramaiah; Grabinsky, Andreas
Prehospital trauma care developed over the last decades parallel in many countries. Most of the prehospital emergency medical systems relied on input or experiences from military medicine and were often modeled after the existing military procedures. Some systems were initially developed with the trauma patient in mind, while other systems were tailored for medical, especially cardiovascular, emergencies. The key components to successful prehospital trauma care are the well-known ABCs of trauma care: Airway, Breathing, Circulation. Establishing and securing the airway, ventilation, fluid resuscitation, and in addition, the quick transport to the best-suited trauma center represent the pillars of trauma care in the field. While ABC in trauma care has neither been challenged nor changed, new techniques, tools and procedures have been developed to make it easier for the prehospital provider to achieve these goals in the prehospital setting and thus improve the outcome of trauma patients. PMID:22096773
Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Chew, David; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Pek, Pin Pin; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng
Prehospital emergency care in Singapore has taken shape over almost a century. What began as a hospital-based ambulance service intended to ferry medical cases was later complemented by an ambulance service under the Singapore Fire Brigade to transport trauma cases. The two ambulance services would later combine and come under the Singapore Civil Defence Force. The development of prehospital care systems in island city-state Singapore faces unique challenges as a result of its land area and population density. This article defines aspects of prehospital trauma care in Singapore. It outlines key historical milestones and current initiatives in service, training, and research. It makes propositions for the future direction of trauma care in Singapore. The progress Singapore has made given her circumstances may serve as lessons for the future development of prehospital trauma systems in similar environments. Key words: Singapore; trauma; prehospital emergency care; emergency medical services.
Therapeutic hypothermia for out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation survivors: a feasibility study comparing time to achieve target core temperature using conventional conductive cooling versus combined conductive plus pericranial convective cooling.
Wass, C Thomas; White, Roger D; Schroeder, Darrell R; Mirzoyev, Sultan A; Warfield, Karen T
Mild to moderate therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to improve survival and neurologic outcome, as well as to reduce healthcare costs in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with ventricular fibrillation. Accordingly, the American Heart Association has categorized this as a Class IB intervention. The therapeutic window for initiating TH is narrow, and thus, achieving target temperature expeditiously is of paramount importance to improve postresuscitative neurologic outcome. The present investigation is a feasibility study designed to assess the practicality and efficacy of including pericranial cooling in our postresuscitative TH protocol. Specifically, we compared time required to achieve target temperature (33°C) using our present standard of TH care (ie, conductive body cooling, conventional TH group) versus combined conductive body cooling plus convective (forced-air) head and neck cooling (combined TH group). Adult patients who experienced OHCA were included in the study provided TH could be initiated within 4 hours of resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation. Patients enrolled in both groups were cooled using the servo-controlled Arctic Sun conductive cooling system (Medivance, Inc, Louisville, CO). However, patients enrolled in the combined TH group also received forced-air pericranial cooling with an ambient temperature of approximately 13°C. In all cases, the target core (bladder) temperature was 33°C. The primary endpoint (ie, time required to achieve a core temperature of 33°C) was analyzed as a continuous variable and compared between groups using the rank sum test, whereas categorical variables were compared between groups using the chi-square test. Cardiac intensive care unit at a major tertiary care teaching center in Rochester, MN. Adult patients who experienced OHCA were included in the study. Patients enrolled in both groups were cooled using the servo-controlled Arctic Sun conductive cooling system
Avellanas, M L; Ricart, A; Botella, J; Mengelle, F; Soteras, I; Veres, T; Vidal, M
Accidental hypothermia is an environmental condition with basic principles of classification and resuscitation that apply to mountain, sea or urban scenarios. Along with coagulopathy and acidosis, hypothermia belongs to the lethal triad of trauma victims requiring critical care. A customized healthcare chain is involved in its management, extending from on site assistance to intensive care, cardiac surgery and/or the extracorporeal circulation protocols. A good classification of the degree of hypothermia preceding admission contributes to improve management and avoids inappropriate referrals between hospitals. The most important issue is to admit hypothermia victims in asystolia or ventricular fibrillation to those hospitals equipped with the medical technology which these special clinical scenarios require. This study attempts to establish the foundations for optimum management of accidental hypothermia from first emergency care on site to treatment in hospital including, resuscitation and rewarming with extracorporeal circulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.
Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.
Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.
Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.
Becker, Lance B [Chicago, IL; Hoek, Terry Vanden [Chicago, IL; Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL
Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.
Jones, Jerrilyn; Lawner, Benjamin J
Prehospital care providers are tasked with the delivery of time-sensitive care, and emergency medical services (EMS) systems must match patients to appropriate clinical resources. Modern systems are uniquely positioned to recognize and treat patients with sepsis. Interventions such as administration of intravenous fluid and transporting patients to the appropriate level of definitive care are linked to improved patient outcomes. As EMS systems refine their protocols for the recognition and stabilization of patients with suspected or presumed sepsis, EMS providers need to be educated about the spectrum of sepsis-related presentations and treatment strategies need to be standardized.
Hypothermia is not and should not be a prevalent feature of diving, yet many divers become extremely cold and uncomfortable during their work. It is not difficult to provide adequate insulation to protect the torso but if movement and dexterity are to be maintained, the extremities will inevitably suffer. Free swimming divers are limited by duration in cold (5 degrees C), shallow (10 m) water. Six hours is a typical maximum before both core cooling and extremity pain or dysfunction pose a threat. Habituation to cold may be observed in some divers. Surface supplied or bell supported divers, relying on supplementary hot water, need between 500 and 3500 Watts to preserve comfort over the range 10 to 300 m depth. Deep diving, using oxyhelium gas mixtures, can result in high respiratory convective losses in excess of 300 Watts. Heat exchangers are used to prevent damage to the tract. There have been a number of cases where hypothermia has been implicated in the cause of death in diving accidents, but generally the reason is not lack of physiological knowledge but equipment failure and inadequate contingency. Recent developments in diver protection have focused on electrically heated hand wear to preserve performance and prevent the risk of non freezing injury in a relatively inactive diver.
Wilson, Mark H; Habig, Karel; Wright, Christopher; Hughes, Amy; Davies, Gareth; Imray, Chirstopher H E
Pre-hospital care is emergency medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. It traditionally incorporated a breadth of care from bystander resuscitation to statutory emergency medical services treatment and transfer. New concepts of care including community paramedicine, novel roles such as emergency care practitioners, and physician delivered pre-hospital emergency medicine are re-defining the scope of pre-hospital care. For severely ill or injured patients, acting quickly in the pre-hospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions greatly affecting outcomes. The transfer of skills and procedures from hospital care to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies, challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations requires management that is tailored to the patient's clinical need and setting. Pre-hospital clinicians should be generalists with a broad understanding of medical, surgical, and trauma pathologies, who will often work from locally developed standard operating procedures, but who are able to revert to core principles. Pre-hospital emergency medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management skills (especially in major incidents, which have their own set of management principles). Traditionally, research into the hyper-acute phase (the first hour) of disease has been difficult, largely because physicians are rarely present and issues of consent, transport expediency, and resourcing of research. However, the pre-hospital phase is acknowledged as a crucial period, when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neuronal and cardiac tissue can be prevented. The development of pre-hospital emergency medicine into a sub-specialty in its own right should bring focus to this period of care.
Andrews, Peter J D; Sinclair, H Louise; Rodriguez, Aryelly; Harris, Bridget A; Battison, Claire G; Rhodes, Jonathan K J; Murray, Gordon D
In patients with traumatic brain injury, hypothermia can reduce intracranial hypertension. The benefit of hypothermia on functional outcome is unclear. We randomly assigned adults with an intracranial pressure of more than 20 mm Hg despite stage 1 treatments (including mechanical ventilation and sedation management) to standard care (control group) or hypothermia (32 to 35°C) plus standard care. In the control group, stage 2 treatments (e.g., osmotherapy) were added as needed to control intracranial pressure. In the hypothermia group, stage 2 treatments were added only if hypothermia failed to control intracranial pressure. In both groups, stage 3 treatments (barbiturates and decompressive craniectomy) were used if all stage 2 treatments failed to control intracranial pressure. The primary outcome was the score on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E; range, 1 to 8, with lower scores indicating a worse functional outcome) at 6 months. The treatment effect was estimated with ordinal logistic regression adjusted for prespecified prognostic factors and expressed as a common odds ratio (with an odds ratio <1.0 favoring hypothermia). We enrolled 387 patients at 47 centers in 18 countries from November 2009 through October 2014, at which time recruitment was suspended owing to safety concerns. Stage 3 treatments were required to control intracranial pressure in 54% of the patients in the control group and in 44% of the patients in the hypothermia group. The adjusted common odds ratio for the GOS-E score was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.30; P=0.04), indicating a worse outcome in the hypothermia group than in the control group. A favorable outcome (GOS-E score of 5 to 8, indicating moderate disability or good recovery) occurred in 26% of the patients in the hypothermia group and in 37% of the patients in the control group (P=0.03). In patients with an intracranial pressure of more than 20 mm Hg after traumatic brain injury, therapeutic hypothermia plus
Mohr, Juliane; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Hildebrand, Frank; Flohé, Sascha; Frink, Michael; Witte, Ingo; Weuster, Matthias; Fröhlich, Matthias; van Griensven, Martijn; Keibl, Claudia; Mommsen, Philipp
Accidental hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy represent the lethal triad in severely injured patients. Therapeutic hypothermia however is commonly used in transplantations, cardiac and neurosurgical surgery, or after cardiac arrest. However, the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on the coagulation system following multiple trauma need to be elucidated. In a porcine model of multiple trauma including blunt chest injury, liver laceration, and hemorrhagic shock followed by fluid resuscitation, the influence of therapeutic hypothermia on coagulation was evaluated. A total of 40 pigs were randomly assigned to sham (only anesthesia) or trauma groups receiving either hypothermia or normothermia. Each group consisted of 10 pigs. Analyzed parameters were cell count (red blood cells, platelets), pH, prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen concentration, and analysis with ROTEM and Multiplate. Trauma and consecutive fluid resuscitation resulted in impaired coagulation parameters (cell count, pH, PT, fibrinogen, ROTEM, and platelet function). During hypothermia, coagulation parameters measured at 37°C, such as PT, fibrinogen, thrombelastometry measurements, and platelet function, showed no significant differences between normothermic and hypothermic animals in both trauma groups. Additional analyses of thrombelastometry at 34°C during hypothermia showed significant differences for clotting time and clot formation time but not for maximum clot firmness. We were not able to detect macroscopic or petechial bleeding in both trauma groups. Based on the results of the present study we suggest that mild hypothermia can be safely performed after stabilization following major trauma. Mild hypothermia has effects on the coagulation system but does not aggravate trauma-induced coagulopathy in our model. Before hypothermic treatment can be performed in the clinical setting, additional experiments with prolonged and deeper hypothermia to exclude detrimental effects are required.
Li, Minheng; Miao, Peng; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao
Hypothermia can unintentionally occur in daily life, e.g., in cardiovascular surgery or applied as therapeutics in the neurosciences critical care unit. So far, the temperature-induced spatiotemporal responses of the neural function have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the functional change in cerebral blood flow (CBF), accompanied with neuronal activation, by laser speckle imaging (LSI) during hypothermia. Laser speckle images from Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8, male) were acquired under normothermia (37°C) and moderate hypothermia (32°C). For each animal, 10 trials of electrical hindpaw stimulation were delivered under both temperatures. Using registered laser speckle contrast analysis and temporal clustering analysis (TCA), we found a delayed response peak and a prolonged response window under hypothermia. Hypothermia also decreased the activation area and the amplitude of the peak CBF. The combination of LSI and TCA is a high-resolution functional imaging method to investigate the spatiotemporal neurovascular coupling in both normal and pathological brain functions.
Atkins, Coleen M.; Bramlett, Helen M.
Abstract For the past 20 years, various laboratories throughout the world have shown that mild to moderate levels of hypothermia lead to neuroprotection and improved functional outcome in various models of brain and spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the potential neuroprotective effects of profound hypothermia during and following central nervous system (CNS) injury have long been recognized, more recent studies have described clinically feasible strategies for protecting the brain and spinal cord using hypothermia following a variety of CNS insults. In some cases, only a one or two degree decrease in brain or core temperature can be effective in protecting the CNS from injury. Alternatively, raising brain temperature only a couple of degrees above normothermia levels worsens outcome in a variety of injury models. Based on these data, resurgence has occurred in the potential use of therapeutic hypothermia in experimental and clinical settings. The study of therapeutic hypothermia is now an international area of investigation with scientists and clinicians from every part of the world contributing to this important, promising therapeutic intervention. This paper reviews the experimental data obtained in animal models of brain and SCI demonstrating the benefits of mild to moderate hypothermia. These studies have provided critical data for the translation of this therapy to the clinical arena. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of mild hypothermia are also summarized. PMID:19245308
Vardon, Fanny; Mrozek, Ségolène; Geeraerts, Thomas; Fourcade, Olivier
Hypothermia, along with acidosis and coagulopathy, is part of the lethal triad that worsen the prognosis of severe trauma patients. While accidental hypothermia is easy to identify by a simple measurement, it is no less pernicious if it is not detected or treated in the initial phase of patient care. It is a multifactorial process and is a factor of mortality in severe trauma cases. The consequences of hypothermia are many: it modifies myocardial contractions and may induce arrhythmias; it contributes to trauma-induced coagulopathy; from an immunological point of view, it diminishes inflammatory response and increases the chance of pneumonia in the patient; it inhibits the elimination of anaesthetic drugs and can complicate the calculation of dosing requirements; and it leads to an over-estimation of coagulation factor activities. This review will detail the pathophysiological consequences of hypothermia, as well as the most recent principle recommendations in dealing with it.
Niquet, Jerome; Gezalian, Michael; Baldwin, Roger; Wasterlain, Claude G
Pharmacoresistance develops quickly during repetitive seizures, and refractory status epilepticus (RSE) remains a therapeutic challenge. The outcome of RSE is poor, with high mortality and morbidity. New treatments are needed. Deep hypothermia (20°C) is used clinically during reconstructive cardiac surgery and neurosurgery, and has proved safe and effective in those indications. We tested the hypothesis that deep hypothermia reduces RSE and its long-term consequences. We used a model of SE induced by lithium and pilocarpine and refractory to midazolam. Several EEG measures were recorded in both hypothermic (n = 17) and normothermic (n = 20) animals. Neuronal injury (by Fluoro-Jade B), cell-mediated inflammation, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) (by immunohistochemistry) were studied 48 h following SE onset. Normothermic rats in RSE seized for 4.1 ± 1.1 h, and at 48 h they displayed extensive neuronal injury in many brain regions, including hippocampus, dentate gyrus, amygdala, entorhinal and pyriform cortices, thalamus, caudate/putamen, and the frontoparietal neocortex. Deep hypothermia (20°C) of 30 min duration terminated RSE within 12 min of initiation of hypothermia, reduced EEG power and seizure activity upon rewarming, and eliminated SE-induced neuronal injury in most animals. Normothermic rats showed widespread breakdown of the BBB, and extensive macrophage infiltration in areas of neuronal injury, which were completely absent in animals treated with hypothermia. These results suggest that deep hypothermia may open a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of RSE and for the prevention of its long-term consequences.
1990 Thesis/" Perioperative Hypothermia: Incidence and Prevention CRodney L. Fisher AFIT Student at: Columbia University AFIT/CI/CIA 90-120 AFT/I/I...Civilian Institution Programs DTIC CTELECTE 0 36 UNCLASSIFIFD 4 PERIOPERATIVE HYPOTHERMIA: INCIDENCE AND PREVENTION By Rodney L. Fisher, CAPT., USAF...Availability Codes Avall and/or Dit Special ABSTRACT Perioperative thermal regulation is discussed. A retrospective audit was conducted to identify the
Villet, Outi M.; Ge, Ming; Sekhar, Laigam N.; Corson, Marshall A.; Tylee, Tracy S.; Fan, Lu-Ping; Yao, Lin; Zhu, Chun; Olson, Aaron K.; Buroker, Norman E.; Xu, Cheng-Su; Anderson, David L.; Soh, Yong-Kian; Wang, Elise; Chen, Shi-Han; Portman, Michael A.
Many therapeutic hypothermia recommendations have been reported, but the information supporting them is sparse, and reveals a need for the data of target therapeutic hypothermia (TTH) from well-controlled experiments. The core temperature ≤35°C is considered as hypothermia, and 29°C is a cooling injury threshold in pig heart in vivo. Thus, an optimal protective hypothermia (OPH) should be in the range 29–35°C. This study was conducted with a pig cardiopulmonary bypass preparation to decrease the core temperature to 29–35°C range at 20 minutes before and 60 minutes during heart arrest. The left ventricular (LV) developed pressure, maximum of the first derivative of LV (dP/dtmax), cardiac power, heart rate, cardiac output, and myocardial velocity (Vmax) were recorded continuously via an LV pressure catheter and an aortic flow probe. At 20 minutes of off-pump during reperfusion after 60 minutes arrest, 17 hypothermic hearts showed that the recovery of Vmax and dP/dtmax established sigmoid curves that consisted of two plateaus: a good recovery plateau at 29–30.5°C, the function recovered to baseline level (BL) (Vmax=118.4%±3.9% of BL, LV dP/dtmax=120.7%±3.1% of BL, n=6); another poor recovery plateau at 34–35°C (Vmax=60.2%±2.8% of BL, LV dP/dtmax=28.0%±5.9% of BL, p<0.05, n=6; ), which are similar to the four normothermia arrest (37°C) hearts (Vmax=55.9%±4.8% of BL, LV dP/dtmax=24.5%±2.1% of BL, n=4). The 32–32.5°C arrest hearts showed moderate recovery (n=5). A point of inflection (around 30.5–31°C) existed at the edge of a good recovery plateau followed by a steep slope. The point presented an OPH that should be the TTH. The results are concordant with data in the mammalian hearts, suggesting that the TTH should be initiated to cool core temperature at 31°C. PMID:25514569
Guilliams, Kristin; Rosen, Max; Buttram, Sandra; Zempel, John; Pineda, Jose; Miller, Barbara; Shoykhet, Michael
Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a life-threatening emergency, demonstrating, by definition, significant pharmacoresistance. We describe five cases of pediatric RSE treated with mild hypothermia. Retrospective chart review was performed of records of children who received hypothermia for RSE at two tertiary-care pediatric hospitals between 2009 and 2012. Five children with RSE received mild hypothermia (32-35°C). Hypothermia reduced seizure burden during and after treatment in all cases. Prior to initiation of hypothermia, four children (80%) received pentobarbital infusions to treat RSE, but relapsed after pentobarbital discontinuation. No child relapsed after treatment with hypothermia. One child died after redirection of care. Remaining four children were discharged. This is the largest pediatric case series reporting treatment of RSE with mild hypothermia. Hypothermia decreased seizure burden during and after pediatric RSE and may prevent RSE relapse. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.
Guilliams, Kristin; Rosen, Max; Buttram, Sandra; Zempel, John; Pineda, Jose; Miller, Barbara; Shoykhet, Michael
SUMMARY Purpose Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a life-threatening emergency, demonstrating, by definition, significant pharmacoresistance. We describe five cases of pediatric RSE treated with mild hypothermia. Methods Retrospective chart review was performed of records of children who received hypothermia for RSE at two tertiary-care pediatric hospitals between 2009 and 2012. Key Findings Five children with RSE received mild hypothermia (32–35°C). Hypothermia reduced seizure burden during and after treatment in all cases. Prior to initiation of hypothermia, four children (80%) received pentobarbital infusions to treat RSE, but relapsed after pentobarbital discontinuation. No child relapsed after treatment with hypothermia. One child died after redirection of care. Remaining four children were discharged. Significance This is the largest pediatric case series reporting treatment of RSE with mild hypothermia. Hypothermia decreased seizure burden during and after pediatric RSE and may prevent RSE relapse. PMID:23906244
Inadvertent perianesthetic hypothermia is one of the most common complications in anesthesia of dogs and cats. Hypothermia during anesthesia can lead to altered pharmacokinetics of anesthetic and analgesic drugs, dysfunction of organ systems, increased patient susceptibility to infection, reduced wound healing, altered coagulation, hypotension, and delayed recovery. An understanding of the pathophysiology, complications, and techniques to minimize hypothermia during anesthesia can help veterinarians optimize care of patients. This article provides an overview of inadvertent perianesthetic hypothermia.
Heuer, Matthias; Lefering, Rolf; Touma, Alexander; Schoeneberg, Carsten; Keitel, Judith; Lendemans, Sven
Background. Prehospital volume therapy remains widely used after trauma, while evidence regarding its disadvantages is growing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the volume administered in a prehospital setting as an independent risk factor for mortality. Material and Methods. Patients who met the following criteria were analyzed retrospectively: Injury Severity Score = 16, primary admission (between 2002 and 2010), and age = 16 years. The following data had to be available: volume administered (including packed red cells), blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, therapeutic measures, and laboratory results. Following a univariate analysis, independent risk factors for mortality after trauma were investigated using a multivariate regression analysis. Results. A collective of 7,641 patients met the inclusion criteria, showing that increasing volumes administered in a prehospital setting were an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio: 1.34). This tendency was even more pronounced in patients without severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (odds ratio: 2.71), while the opposite tendency was observed in patients with TBI. Conclusions. Prehospital volume therapy in patients without severe TBI represents an independent risk factor for mortality. In such cases, respiratory and circulatory conditions should be stabilized during permissive hypotension, and patient transfer should not be delayed. PMID:25949995
Case history number 97: Core rewarming by peritoneal irrigation in accidental hypothermia with cacdiac arrest. Anesth Analg 1966; 56:574-577. 85. Lint-n...Intractable ventricular fibrillation associated with profound accidental hypothermia - Successful treatment with ;irtial cardiopulmonary bypass . N Engl...5 B. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPOTHERMIC DIVER ................ 6 C. FIELD TREATMENT OF HYPOTHERMIA. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 D
Farkash, Uri; Lynn, Mauricio; Scope, Alon; Maor, Ron; Turchin, Nickolai; Sverdlik, Borris; Eldad, Arieh
Administration of large amounts of fluids to trauma patients, in the absence of surgical control, may increase bleeding, cause hypothermia and coagulopathy which may worsen the bleeding and increase morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to examine the impact of prehospital fluid administration to military combat casualties on core body temperature and coagulation functions. Prospective data were collected on all cases of moderately (9 < or = ISS < or = 14) and severely (ISS > or = 16) injured victims wounded in South Lebanon, treated by Israeli military physicians and evacuated to hospitals in Israel, over a two-year period. Data regarding prehospital phase of injury (timetables, amount of fluids) and upon hospital arrival (initial core body temperature, prothrombin time [PT], partial thromboplastin time [PTT]) were examined for monotonic relation using Spearman's non-parametric test. Fifty-three moderately injured and 31 severely injured patients were included in the study. The average evacuation time for the moderately injured group was 109.3 +/- 44.8 min, and for the severely injured 100.3 +/- 38.4 min (P value=NS). The mean volume of fluids administered was 2.39 +/- 1.52 and 2.49 +/- 1.47 l, respectively (P=NS). No statistical correlation was found between core body temperature, PT or PTT, measured upon hospital arrival, and prehospital fluid treatment. In addition, no correlation was found between core body temperature on hospital arrival and prehospital time, or between prehospital fluid volumes and prehospital time. The mean core body temperature of the moderately injured patients was 36.8 degrees C, and that of severely injured was 35.8 degrees C (P=0.026). With proper control of blood loss and avoidance of excessive fluid administration, moderately and severely injured combat casualties in 'low intensity conflict' in South Lebanon can be resuscitated with fluid volumes that do not result in a coagulation deficit or hypothermia. The core body
Lemmon, Monica E; Boss, Renee D; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Foster-Barber, Audrey; Barkovich, A James; Glass, Hannah C
This study aimed to characterize the circumstances of death in encephalopathic neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Patients who died after or during treatment with therapeutic hypothermia between 2007-2014 were identified. Patient circumstance of death was characterized using an established paradigm. Thirty-one of 229 patients died (14%) at a median of 3 days of life. Most who died were severely encephalopathic on examination (90%) and had severely abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings (87%). All those who had magnetic resonance images (n = 13) had evidence of moderate-severe brain injury; 6 had near-total brain injury. Cooling was discontinued prematurely in 61% of patients. Most patients (90%) were physiologically stable at the time of death; 81% died following elective extubation for quality of life considerations. Three patients (10%) died following withholding or removal of artificial hydration and nutrition. Characterization of death in additional cohorts is needed to identify differences in decision making practices over time and between centers.
Gregersen, Maren; Lee, Deok Hee; Gabatto, Pablo; Bickler, Philip E
Mild hypothermia (33°C-34°C) after cerebral ischemia in intact animals or ischemia-like conditions in vitro reduces neuron death. However, it is now clear that more profound hypothermia or delayed hypothermia may not provide significant protection. To further define the limitations of hypothermia after cerebral ischemia, we used hippocampal slice cultures to examine the effects of various degrees, durations, and delays of hypothermia on neuron death after an ischemia-like insult. Organotypic cultures of the hippocampus from 7- to 8 day-old rat pups were cooled to 32°C, 23°C, 17°C, or 4°C immediately or after a 2-4 hour delay from an injurious insult of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Cell death in CA1, CA3 and dentate regions of the cultures was assessed 24 hours later with SYTOX(®) or propidium iodide, both of which are fluorescent markers labeling damaged cells. OGD caused extensive cell death in CA1, CA3, and dentate regions of the hippocampal cultures. Hypothermia (32°C, 23°C and 17°C) for 4-6 hours immediately after OGD was protective at 24 hours, but when hypothermia was applied for longer periods or delayed after OGD, no protection or increased death was seen. Ultra-profound hypothermia (4°C) increased cell death in all cell areas of the hippocampus even when after a milder insult of only hypoxia. In an in vitro model of recovery after an ischemia-like insult, mild to profound hypothermia is protective only when applied without delay and for limited periods of time (6-8 hours). Longer durations of hypothermia, or delayed application of the hypothermia can increase neuron death. These findings may have implications for clinical uses of therapeutic hypothermia after hypoxic or ischemic insults, and suggest that further work is needed to elucidate the limitations of hypothermia as a protective treatment after ischemic stress.
Hemmen, Thomas M; Raman, Rema; Guluma, Kama Z; Meyer, Brett C; Gomes, Joao A; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Wijman, Christine A; Rapp, Karen S; Grotta, James C; Lyden, Patrick D
groups died within 90 days (nonsignificant). Pneumonia occurred in 14 patients in the hypothermia and in 3 of the normothermia groups (P=0.001). The pneumonia rate did not significantly adversely affect 3 month modified Rankin Scale score (P=0.32). This study demonstrates the feasibility and preliminary safety of combining endovascular hypothermia after stroke with intravenous thrombolysis. Pneumonia was more frequent after hypothermia, but further studies are needed to determine its effect on patient outcome and whether it can be prevented. A definitive efficacy trial is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke.
Part of a series of home literacy readers with conversational text and sketches, this booklet depicts the subarctic Alaskan environment where cold makes extreme demands on body metabolism. Body temperature must be maintained above 80F (26.7C). A condition of too little body-heat is termed hypo- ('deficit') thermia ('heat'). Hypothermia is the…
Part of a series of home literacy readers with conversational text and sketches, this booklet depicts the subarctic Alaskan environment where cold makes extreme demands on body metabolism. Body temperature must be maintained above 80F (26.7C). A condition of too little body-heat is termed hypo- ('deficit') thermia ('heat'). Hypothermia is the…
Tran, Sherri; Chen, Shangbin; Liu, Ran R; Xie, Yicheng; Murphy, Timothy H
We studied the acute (up to 2 hours after reperfusion) effects of localized cortical hypothermia on ischemia-induced dendritic structural damage. Moderate (31°C) and deep (22°C) hypothermia delays, but does not block the onset of dendritic blebbing or spine loss during global ischemia in mouse in vivo. Hypothermic treatment promoted more consistent recovery of dendritic structure and spines during reperfusion. These results suggest that those using therapeutic hypothermia will need to consider that it does not spare neurons from structural changes that are the result of ischemia, but hypothermia may interact with mechanisms that control the onset of damage and recovery during reperfusion. PMID:22167237
Sosnowski, Przemysław; Mikrut, Kinga; Krauss, Hanna
This review focuses on the physiological responses and pathophysiological changes induced by hypothermia. Normal body function depends on its ability to maintain thermal homeostasis. The human body can be divided arbitrarily into two thermal compartments: a core compartment (trunk and head), with precisely regulated temperature around 37°C, and a peripheral compartment (skin and extremities) with less strictly controlled temperature, and lower than the core temperature. Thermoregulatory processes occur in three phases: afferent thermal sensing, central regulation, mainly by the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, and efferent response. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses including cutaneous vasoconstriction, shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis, and behavioral changes. Alterations of body temperature associated with impaired thermoregulation, decreased heat production or increased heat loss can lead to hypothermia. Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature below 35ºC, and may be classified according to the origin as accidental (e.g. caused by exposure to a cold environment, drugs, or illness) or intentional (i.e. therapeutic), or by the degree of hypothermia as mild, moderate or severe. Classification by temperature is not universal. Lowering of body temperature disrupts the physiological processes at the molecular, cellular and system level, but hypothermia induced prior to cardiosurgical or neurosurgical procedures, by the decrease in tissue oxygen demand, can reduce the risk of cerebral or cardiac ischemic damage. Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended as a clinical procedure in situations characterized by ischemia, such as cardiac arrest, stroke and brain injuries.
Lee, Jennifer K.; Wang, Bing; Reyes, Michael; Armstrong, Jillian S.; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Santos, Polan T.; Lee, Jeong-Hoo; Koehler, Raymond C.; Martin, Lee J.
Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in neonates. We previously showed that cortical neuron and white matter apoptosis are promoted by hypothermia and early rewarming in a piglet model of HI. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be one of the potential mediators of this cell death. Here, neonatal piglets underwent HI or sham surgery followed by 29 hours of normothermia, 2 hours of normothermia+27 hours of hypothermia or 18 hours of hypothermia+rewarming. Piglets recovered for 29 hours. Immunohistochemistry for endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling-1 protein (ERN1), a marker of UPR activation, was used to determine the ratios of ERN1+ macroglia and neurons in the motor subcortical white matter and cerebral cortex. The ERN1+ macroglia were immunophenotyped as oligodendrocytes and astrocytes by immunofluorescent co-labeling. Temperature (p=0.046) and HI (p<0.001) independently affected the ratio of ERN1+ macroglia. In sham piglets, sustained hypothermia (p=0.011) and rewarming (p=0.004) increased the ERN1+ macroglia ratio above that in normothermia. HI prior to hypothermia diminished the UPR. Ratios of ERN1+ macroglia correlated to white matter apoptotic profile counts in shams (r=0.472; p=0.026), thereby associating UPR activation with white matter apoptosis during hypothermia and rewarming. Accordingly, macroglial cell counts decreased in shams that received sustained hypothermia (p=0.009) or rewarming (p=0.007) compared to those in normothermic shams. HI prior to hypothermia neutralized the macroglial cell loss. Neither HI nor temperature affected ERN1+ neuron ratios. In summary, delayed hypothermia and rewarming activate the macroglial UPR, which is associated with white matter apoptosis. HI may decrease the macroglial endoplasmic reticulum stress response after hypothermia and rewarming. PMID:27622292
Jacobs, Susan E; Morley, Colin J; Inder, Terrie E; Stewart, Michael J; Smith, Katherine R; McNamara, Patrick J; Wright, Ian M R; Kirpalani, Haresh M; Darlow, Brian A; Doyle, Lex W
To determine the effectiveness and safety of moderate whole-body hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy born in hospitals with and without newborn intensive care facilities or complicated hypothermia equipment. Multicenter, international, randomized controlled trial. Neonatal intensive care units in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States (N = 28) from February 2001 through July 2007. Newborns of 35 weeks' gestation or more, with indicators of peripartum hypoxia-ischemia and moderate to severe clinical encephalopathy, randomly allocated to hypothermia (n = 110) or standard care (n = 111). Whole-body hypothermia to 33.5°C for 72 hours or standard care (37°C). Infants who received hypothermia were treated at ambient environmental temperature by turning off the radiant warmer and then applying refrigerated gel packs to maintain rectal temperature at 33°C to 34°C. Death or major sensorineural disability at 2 years of age. Therapeutic hypothermia reduced the risk of death or major sensorineural disability at 2 years of age: 55 of 107 infants (51.4%) in the hypothermia group and 67 of 101 infants (66.3%) in the control group died or had a major sensorineural disability at 2 years (risk ratio, 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.98]; P = .03). The mortality rate decreased, and the survival rate free of any sensorineural disability increased. Adverse effects of hypothermia were minimal. Whole-body hypothermia is effective and appears to be safe when commenced within 6 hours of birth at the hospital of birth in term and near-term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This simple method of hypothermia could be used within strict protocols with appropriate training on correct diagnosis and application of hypothermia in nontertiary neonatal settings while awaiting retrieval and transport to the regional neonatal intensive care unit. anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12606000036516.
Meyer, S; Grundmann, U; Reinert, J; Gortner, L
Life-threatening pediatric emergencies are relatively rare in the prehospital setting; therefore, the treating emergency physician may not always be familiar with and well trained in these situations. However, pediatric emergencies require early recognition and initiation of specific diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to prevent further complications. Treatment of pediatric emergencies follows current recommendations as detailed in published international guidelines. The aim of this review is to provide specific information with regard to respiratory, cardiac and neurological medical emergencies commnly encountered in children in the prehospital setting. It is not the aim of this review article to provide specific guidance with regard to a variety of surgical emergencies. Due to improved treatment modalities the emergency medical team may also be confronted with acutely ill children with very severe and complex underlying clinical syndromes (e.g. complex cardiac malformations and syndromic genetic disorders). This article also provides specific information with regard to treatment of this susceptible and vulnerable patient cohort.
Iwata, Osuke; Nabetani, Makoto; Takenouchi, Toshiki; Iwaibara, Takayuki; Iwata, Sachiko; Tamura, Masanori
Therapeutic hypothermia is now recommended as a standard of care for neonatal encephalopathy. Although adherence to standard cooling protocols used in the phase-III trials is essential, empiric approaches have prevailed in Japan. To elucidate the gap between the standard cooling methods and the current practice in Japan. In July 2010, a questionnaire regarding the practice of neonatal encephalopathy was mailed to clinical leads of registered neonatal intensive care units. 56.2% of the units were incapable of offering therapeutic hypothermia because of the reasons such as the shortage of human/medical resources (85.1%) and limited number of cases (21.1%). Eighty-nine centres provided therapeutic hypothermia using either selective-head cooling (88.8%) or whole-body cooling (11.2%). Various target temperatures and cooling durations were used; 20.2% of the units cooled infants without using purpose-built equipments, whereas 14.6% did not continuously monitor the body temperature. Only 43.8% of the units provided therapeutic hypothermia. Even in centres where hypothermia was offered, adherence to the standard protocols was extremely poor. To secure the safety and efficacy, further promotion of the standard cooling protocols is required; an efficient cooling centre network has to be established by optimizing the work forth distribution and transportation system. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Goedeke, Jan; Apelt, Nadja; Kamler, Markus
Hypothermia is increasingly used as a therapeutic strategy in a diversity of clinical scenarios. Its impact on mammalian physiology, particularly on the microcirculatory changes of critical organ systems, are, however, incompletely understood. Close examination of the literature reveals a marked paucity of small animal models of rapid systemic hypothermia. All published models introduce important microvascular confounders by investigating either local cooling processes or using anaesthetised animals. Here we present the first rapid systemic hypothermia model in an awake hamster. We developed a waterstream cooled copper tube system for standardized systemic temperature control. With this novel system core body temperature (Tc) in 14 awake animals could be precisely stabilised at temperatures of 30°C and 18°C (7 animals, respectively) within 10-20 min. Rewarming was achieved over 10-15 min. Tolerance of the procedure was excellent. Hamsters did not show any behavioural changes in the mild hypothermia group. In the deep hypothermia group 6 of 7 animals regained normal behaviour within 2-11 hs. As hypothermia was induced in dorsal skinfold chamber bearing animals this model seems suitable for investigation of microcirculatory purposes.Advantages over previously established experimental hypothermia models are significant. Amongst these, the possibility of visualization of microcirculation, the lack of microcirculation confounding factors such as anaesthetic drugs, the ability for precise Tc control and rapid induction of hypothermia are prominent.
The human body strives at maintaining homeostasis within fairly tight regulated mechanisms that control vital regulators such as core body temperature, mechanisms of metabolism and endocrine function. While a wide range of medical conditions can influence thermoregulation the most common source of temperature loss in trauma patients includes: exposure (environmental, as well as cavitary), the administration of i.v. fluids, and anaesthesia/loss of shivering mechanisms, and blood loss per se. Loss of temperature can be classified either according to the aetiology (i.e. accidental/spontaneous versus trauma/haemorrhage-induced temperature loss), or according to an unintended, accidental induction in contrast to a medically intended therapeutic hypothermia. Hypothermia occurs infrequently (prevalence<10% of all injured), but more often (30-50%) in the severely injured. Hypothermia usually come together with and may aggravate acidosis and coagulopathy (the "lethal triad of trauma"), which again may be associated with a high mortality. However, recent studies disagree in the independent predictive role of hypothermia and mortality. Prevention of hypothermia is imperative through all phases of trauma care and must be an interest among all team members. Hypothermia in the trauma setting has attracted focus in the past from a pathophysiological, preventive and prognostic perspective; yet recent focus has shifted towards the potential for using hypothermia for pre-emptive and cellular protective purposes. This paper gives a brief update on some of the clinically relevant aspects of hypothermia in the injured patient.
Schafermeyer, R W
Prehospital curriculum development is a time-consuming, yet essential, component of emergency medical technician and paramedic education. Over the past several years, much has changed within the EMS system and with the approach to educating the prehospital care provider. Learning is defined as a permanent change in behavior that comes about as a result of a planned experience. This planned experience must include learning objectives that incorporate assessment of presenting signs and symptoms and demonstrate the prehospital care providers' psychomotor skills in providing prehospital care based on that assessment.
Beedle, Susan E; Phillips, Amy; Wiggins, Shirley; Struwe, Leeza
Unplanned perioperative hypothermia is a common surgical risk. Unplanned hypothermia is defined as a body temperature below 36° C (96.8° F) during any phase of the perioperative period. Perioperative nurses at a Midwestern tertiary pediatric hospital developed an evidence-based clinical practice guideline (CPG) designed to maintain normothermia for the pediatric surgical population. This CPG outlined standard thermoregulation nursing interventions and required the consistent use of a temporal artery thermometer. A test of this CPG before full implementation established a baseline incidence of unplanned hypothermia at 16.3% (n = 80). The purpose of this study was to measure the rate of perioperative hypothermia in children after implementing the evidence-based CPG. The study results demonstrated that the CPG, guiding research-based nursing practice, consistently prevented unplanned hypothermia. The incidence rate of unplanned perioperative hypothermia after CPG implementation was 1.84% (n = 1,196).
Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H. )
The role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate radiation-induced hypothermia, suggesting that radiation-induced hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin.
Jacobs, Pe; Grabinsky, A
Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts.
Jacobs, PE; Grabinsky, A
Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts. PMID:24741499
Udy, Andrew A; Ziegenfuss, Marc D; Fraser, John F
A 52-year-old woman presented with severe accidental hypothermia associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after a polypharmacy overdose. Deep hypothermia developed while she lay unconscious, with a split-system air-conditioning unit rapidly cooling the confined area of her bedroom. Despite the need for lengthy resuscitative efforts at the scene and in hospital, she went on to a full neurological recovery. The neuroprotective role of accidental hypothermia is reviewed, as are the guidelines for resuscitation in this setting. We conclude that hypothermia must be considered even in unlikely circumstances, such as the Queensland summer, when ambient temperatures are high.
Mokrushin, Anatoly A; Pavlinova, Larisa I; Borovikov, Sergey E
Hypothermia is a known approach in the treatment of neurological pathologies. Mild hypothermia enhances the therapeutic window for application of medicines, while deep hypothermia is often accompanied by complications, including problems in the recovery of brain functions. The purpose of present study was to investigate the functioning of glutamate ionotropic receptors in brain slices cooled with different rates during mild, moderate and deep hypothermia. Using a system of gradual cooling combined with electrophysiological recordings in slices, we have shown that synaptic activity mediated by the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat olfactory cortex was strongly dependent on the rate of lowering the temperature. High cooling rate caused a progressive decrease in glutamate receptor activity in brain slices during gradual cooling from mild to deep hypothermia. On the contrary, low cooling rate slightly changed the synaptic responses in deep hypothermia. The short-term potentiation may be induced in slices by electric tetanization at 16 °C in this case. Hence, low cooling rate promoted preservation of neuronal activity and plasticity in the brain tissue.
Elting, Jan Willem; Naalt, Joukje van der; Fock, Johanna Maria
Hypothermia can reduce seizure frequency in animal models of status epilepticus, and its effectiveness in human status epilepticus has been reported occasionally. We report an infant with hemimegalencephaly who presented with generalized status epilepticus. After high dose intravenous drug therapy, this converted to focal status epilepticus in the right occipital region. A sudden cessation of all seizure activity was found to coincide with accidental hypothermia. After application of mild continuous hypothermia, a marked reduction of seizure frequency occurred, which allowed reduction of intravenous drug doses and discharge from the IC unit. Ultimately, hemispherectomy was needed to achieve long term seizure control. The therapeutic effect of hypothermia should be further investigated in patients with refractory status epilepticus. When used in combination with anti-epileptic drugs, seizure control may be achieved at lower doses. Hypothermia may obviate the need for potentially dangerous barbiturate therapy. This case demonstrates that even a mild degree of hypothermia (+/-36 degrees C) can be remarkably effective. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lewis, Sharon R; Evans, David Jw; Butler, Andrew R; Schofield-Robinson, Oliver J; Alderson, Phil
Hypothermia has been used in the treatment of brain injury for many years. Encouraging results from small trials and laboratory studies led to renewed interest in the area and some larger trials. To determine the effect of mild hypothermia for traumatic brain injury (TBI) on mortality, long-term functional outcomes and complications. We ran and incorporated studies from database searches to 21 March 2016. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase Classic+Embase (OvidSP), PubMed, ISI Web of science (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S & CPSI-SSH), clinical trials registers, and screened reference lists. We also re-ran these searches pre-publication in June 2017; the result from this search is presented in 'Studies awaiting classification'. We included randomised controlled trials of participants with closed TBI requiring hospitalisation who were treated with hypothermia to a maximum of 35 ºC for at least 12 consecutive hours. Treatment with hypothermia was compared to maintenance with normothermia (36.5 to 38 ºC). Two review authors assessed data on mortality, unfavourable outcomes according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale, and pneumonia. We included 37 eligible trials with a total of 3110 randomised participants; nine of these were new studies since the last update (2009) and five studies had been previously excluded but were re-assessed and included during the 2017 update. We identified two ongoing studies from searches of clinical trials registers and database searches and two studies await classification.Studies included both adults and children with TBI. Most studies commenced treatment immediately on admission to hospital or after craniotomies and all treatment was maintained for at least 24 hours. Thirty-three studies reported data for mortality, 31 studies reported data for unfavourable outcomes (death, vegetative state or severe disability
Billeter, Adrian T; Hellmann, Jason; Roberts, Henry; Druen, Devin; Gardner, Sarah A; Sarojini, Harshini; Galandiuk, Susan; Chien, Sufan; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Spite, Matthew; Polk, Hiram C
Therapeutic hypothermia is commonly used to improve neurological outcomes in patients after cardiac arrest. However, therapeutic hypothermia increases sepsis risk and unintentional hypothermia in surgical patients increases infectious complications. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms by which hypothermia dysregulates innate immunity are incompletely understood. We found that exposure of human monocytes to cold (32°C) potentiated LPS-induced production of TNF and IL-6, while blunting IL-10 production. This dysregulation was associated with increased expression of microRNA-155 (miR-155), which potentiates Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by negatively regulating Ship1 and Socs1. Indeed, Ship1 and Socs1 were suppressed at 32°C and miR-155 antagomirs increased Ship1 and Socs1 and reversed the alterations in cytokine production in cold-exposed monocytes. In contrast, miR-155 mimics phenocopied the effects of cold exposure, reducing Ship1 and Socs1 and altering TNF and IL-10 production. In a murine model of LPS-induced peritonitis, cold exposure potentiated hypothermia and decreased survival (10 vs. 50%; P < 0.05), effects that were associated with increased miR-155, suppression of Ship1 and Socs1, and alterations in TNF and IL-10. Importantly, miR-155-deficiency reduced hypothermia and improved survival (78 vs. 32%, P < 0.05), which was associated with increased Ship1, Socs1, and IL-10. These results establish a causal role of miR-155 in the dysregulation of the inflammatory response to hypothermia.
Suehiro, Eiichi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Fujita, Motoki; Kaneko, Tadashi; Oda, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Susumu; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu
A multicenter randomized controlled trial of patients with severe traumatic brain injury who received therapeutic hypothermia or fever control was performed from 2002 to 2008 in Japan (BHYPO). There was no difference in the therapeutic effect on traumatic brain injury between the two groups. The efficacy of hypothermia treatment and the objective of the treatment were reexamined based on a secondary analysis of the BHYPO trial in 135 patients (88 treated with therapeutic hypothermia and 47 with fever control). This analysis was performed to examine clinical outcomes according to the CT classification of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank on admission. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale and mortality at 6 months after injury. Good recovery and moderate disability were defined as favorable outcomes. Favorable outcomes in young patients (≤50 years old) with evacuated mass lesions significantly increased from 33.3% with fever control to 77.8% with therapeutic hypothermia. Patients with diffuse injury III who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia, however, had significantly higher mortality than patients treated with fever control. It was difficult to control intracranial pressure with hypothermia for patients with diffuse injury III, but hypothermia was effective for young patients with an evacuated mass lesion.
Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R.; Aisiku, Imoigele P.
Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928
Rundgren, Malin; Engström, Martin
Hypothermia may be accidental or therapeutic. Therapeutic hypothermia is increasingly used as treatment for various conditions, e.g., neuroprotection after cardiac arrest. Hypothermia leads to an impairment of the coagulation system, but the degree of impairment has been difficult to determine. Most studies have been performed on plasma instead of whole blood. We therefore evaluated whole blood investigating the effects of hypothermia on the coagulation system over a wide range of temperatures (25-40 degrees C). Blood was drawn from six healthy volunteers into citrated test tubes. Samples were then placed in water baths with temperatures ranging from 25 to 40 degrees C for 30 min before the coagulation system was studied using rotational thromboelastometry. A contact activator (Ellagic acid) was used for initiation of coagulation. Clotting time, clot formation time, alpha angle, and maximum clot strength were measured. All tests were run for 60 min and they were performed at the same temperature as the temperature in the water bath. Coagulation was increasingly impaired with decreasing temperatures in the temperature range studied. All variables measured were significantly impaired in a stepwise pattern (P < 0.0001). Evaluation using a whole blood analysis shows that hypothermia progressively impairs the coagulation system.
Lo, Thomas Pang; Cho, Kyoung-Suok; Garg, Maneesh Sen; Lynch, Michael Patrick; Marcillo, Alexander Eduardo; Koivisto, Denise Leigh; Stagg, Monica; Abril, Rosa Marie; Patel, Samik; Dietrich, W Dalton; Pearse, Damien Daniel
Hypothermia has been employed during the past 30 years as a therapeutic modality for spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models and in humans. With our newly developed rat cervical model of contusive SCI, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of transient systemic hypothermia (beginning 5 minutes post-injury for 4 hours, 33 degrees C) with gradual rewarming (1 degrees C per hour) for the preservation of tissue and the prevention of injury-induced functional loss. A moderate cervical displacement SCI was performed in female Fischer rats, and behavior was assessed for 8 weeks. Histologically, the application of hypothermia after SCI resulted in significant increases in normal-appearing white matter (31% increase) and gray matter (38% increase) volumes, greater preservation (four-fold) of neurons immediately rostral and caudal to the injury epicenter, and enhanced sparing of axonal connections from retrogradely traced reticulospinal neurons (127% increase) compared with normothermic controls. Functionally, a faster rate of recovery in open field locomotor ability (BBB score, weeks 1-3) and improved forelimb strength, as measured by both weight-supported hanging (43% increase) and grip strength (25% increase), were obtained after hypothermia. The current study demonstrates that mild systemic hypothermia is effective for retarding tissue damage and reducing neurological deficits following a clinically relevant contusive cervical SCI.
Polderman, K H
Multi-centred studies in patients who remain comatose after cardiac arrest and also in newborn babies with perinatal asphyxia have clearly demonstrated that mild hypothermia (32-34 degrees C) can improve neurological outcome after post-anoxic injury. This represents a highly promising development in the field of neurocritical care. This review discusses the place of mild therapeutic hypothermia in the overall therapeutic strategy for cardiac arrest patients. Cooling should not be viewed in isolation but in the context of a 'treatment bundle,' which together can significantly improve outcome after cardiac arrest. Favourable outcomes of 50-60% are now routinely achieved in many centres in patients with witnessed arrest and an initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. These results have been achieved by combining a number of therapeutic strategies, including early and effective resuscitation with greater emphasis on continuing chest compressions throughout various procedures (including resumption of compressions immediately after defibrillation even if rhythm has been restored) as well as prevention of hypoxia and hypotension in all stages following restoration of spontaneous circulation. Regarding the use of hypothermia, early induction and proper management of side-effects are the key elements of successful implementation. Treatment should include the rapid infusion of 1500-3000 mL of cold fluids to induce hypothermia and prevent hypovolaemia and hypotension. Educational activities to increase awareness and acceptance of new therapeutic options and European Resuscitation Council guidelines are urgently required.
Pietsch, A P; Lindenblatt, N; Klar, E
Mild perioperative hypothermia is a common complication of anesthesia and surgery associated with several adverse effects including impaired wound healing and more frequently leads to wound infections. Perioperative hypothermia affects the hemostasis and various immune functions and therefore interferes with the initial phases of the wound healing process. Furthermore, perioperative hypothermia contributes to wound complications by inhibition of deposition of collagen and prolongation of postoperative catabolism. Wound complications prolong hospitalization and substantially increase medical costs. Thus, maintaining normothermia perioperatively is essential to reduce the number of wound complications.
... not possible, get the person out of the wind and use a blanket to provide insulation from ... protect your body. These include: Mittens (not gloves) Wind-proof, water-resistant, many-layered clothing Two pairs ...
... abdominal cavity (peritoneal cavity). Staying warm in cold weather Before you or your children step out into cold air, remember the advice that follows with the simple acronym COLD — cover, overexertion, layers, dry: Cover. Wear a hat or other protective covering ...
Tooley, James R; Satas, Saulius; Porter, Helen; Silver, Ian A; Thoresen, Marianne
Hypothermia is potentially therapeutic in the management of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, not all studies have shown a neuroprotective effect. It is suggested that the stress of unsedated hypothermia may interfere with neuroprotection. We propose that selective head cooling (SHC) combined with mild total-body hypothermia during anesthesia enhances local neuroprotection while minimizing the occurrence of systemic side effects and stress associated with unsedated whole-body cooling. Our objective was to determine whether SHC combined with mild total-body hypothermia while anesthetized for a period of 24 hours reduces cerebral damage in our piglet survival model of global hypoxia-ischemia. Eighteen anesthetized piglets received a 45-minute global hypoxic-ischemic insult. The pigs were randomized either to remain normothermic or to receive SHC. We found that the severity of the hypoxic-ischemic insult was similar in the SHC versus the normothermic group, and that the mean neurology scores at 30 and 48 hours and neuropathology scores were significantly better in the SHC group versus the normothermic group. We conclude that selective head cooling combined with mild systemic hypothermia and anesthesia is neuroprotective when started immediately after the insult in our piglet model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
midwifery . In Massachusetts, the Board of Registration in Nursing is authorized to establish conditions and regulations for nursing practice in the...because as a registered nurse, she could orly practice midwifery after complying with the Prehospital Nursing 41 Board’s rules and regulations regarding...standards for the practice of Certified Nurse Practitioner and Nurse Midwifery (Md. Health Occu. Code Ann. §8-306 & §§8-601-603, 1991). Prehospital nursing
Briese, G L
One of the major questions confronting prehospital care services today concerns determining the appropriate level of training for EMS personnel that will provide the most cost effective systems. Unfortunately there are no studies which assess this problem. Various communities have modified or expanded the roles of prehospital personnel beyond the traditional training of EMTs and paramedics. Continuing education and skills maintenance are ongoing problems faced by all EMS systems, which have been addressed in various ways by individual locales.
Bazley, Faith A.; Pashai, Nikta; Kerr, Candace L.
Local and general hypothermia are used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as other neurological traumas. While hypothermia is known to provide significant therapeutic benefits due to its neuroprotective nature, it is unclear how the treatment may affect healthy tissues or whether it may cause undesired temperature changes in areas of the body that are not the targets of treatment. We performed 2-hour moderate general hypothermia (32°C core) or local hypothermia (30°C spinal cord) on rats that had received either a moderate contusive SCI or laminectomy (control) while monitoring temperatures at three sites: the core, spinal cord, and cortex. First, we identified that injured rats that received general hypothermia exhibited larger temperature drops at the spinal cord (−3.65°C, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] −3.72, −3.58) and cortex (−3.64°C, CIs −3.73, −3.55) than uninjured rats (spinal cord: −3.17°C, CIs −3.24, −3.10; cortex: −3.26°C, CIs −3.34, −3.17). This was found due to elevated baseline temperatures in the injured group, which could be due to inflammation. Second, both general hypothermia and local hypothermia caused a significant reduction in the cortical temperature (−3.64°C and −1.18°C, respectively), although local hypothermia caused a significantly lower drop in cortical temperature than general hypothermia (p<0.001). Lastly, the rates of rewarming of the cord were not significantly different among the methods or injury groups that were tested; the mean rate of rewarming was 0.13±0.1°C/min. In conclusion, local hypothermia may be more suitable for longer durations of hypothermia treatment for SCI to reduce temperature changes in healthy tissues, including the cortex. PMID:25019643
Bazley, Faith A; Pashai, Nikta; Kerr, Candace L; All, Angelo H
Local and general hypothermia are used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as other neurological traumas. While hypothermia is known to provide significant therapeutic benefits due to its neuroprotective nature, it is unclear how the treatment may affect healthy tissues or whether it may cause undesired temperature changes in areas of the body that are not the targets of treatment. We performed 2-hour moderate general hypothermia (32°C core) or local hypothermia (30°C spinal cord) on rats that had received either a moderate contusive SCI or laminectomy (control) while monitoring temperatures at three sites: the core, spinal cord, and cortex. First, we identified that injured rats that received general hypothermia exhibited larger temperature drops at the spinal cord (-3.65°C, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] -3.72, -3.58) and cortex (-3.64°C, CIs -3.73, -3.55) than uninjured rats (spinal cord: -3.17°C, CIs -3.24, -3.10; cortex: -3.26°C, CIs -3.34, -3.17). This was found due to elevated baseline temperatures in the injured group, which could be due to inflammation. Second, both general hypothermia and local hypothermia caused a significant reduction in the cortical temperature (-3.64°C and -1.18°C, respectively), although local hypothermia caused a significantly lower drop in cortical temperature than general hypothermia (p<0.001). Lastly, the rates of rewarming of the cord were not significantly different among the methods or injury groups that were tested; the mean rate of rewarming was 0.13±0.1°C/min. In conclusion, local hypothermia may be more suitable for longer durations of hypothermia treatment for SCI to reduce temperature changes in healthy tissues, including the cortex.
Wang, B; Armstrong, J S; Reyes, M; Kulikowicz, E; Lee, J-H; Spicer, D; Bhalala, U; Yang, Z-J; Koehler, R C; Martin, L J; Lee, J K
Therapeutic hypothermia is widely used to treat neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injuries. However, potentially deleterious effects of delaying the induction of hypothermia and of rewarming on white matter injury remain unclear. We used a piglet model of HI to assess the effects of delayed hypothermia and rewarming on white matter apoptosis. Piglets underwent HI injury or sham surgery followed by normothermic or hypothermic recovery at 2h. Hypothermic groups were divided into those with no rewarming, slow rewarming at 0.5°C/h, or rapid rewarming at 4°C/h. Apoptotic cells in the subcortical white matter of the motor gyrus, corpus callosum, lateral olfactory tract, and internal capsule at 29h were identified morphologically and counted by hematoxylin & eosin staining. Cell death was verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. White matter neurons were also counted, and apoptotic cells were immunophenotyped with the oligodendrocyte marker 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Hypothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming increased apoptosis in the subcortical white matter relative to normothermia (p<0.05). The number of white matter neurons was not lower in groups with more apoptosis after hypothermia or rapid rewarming, indicating that the apoptosis occurred among glial cells. Hypothermic piglets had more apoptosis in the lateral olfactory tract than those that were rewarmed (p<0.05). The promotion of apoptosis by hypothermia and rewarming in these regions was independent of HI. In the corpus callosum, HI piglets had more apoptosis than shams after normothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming (p<0.05). Many apoptotic cells were myelinating oligodendrocytes identified by CNPase positivity. Our results indicate that delaying the induction of hypothermia and rewarming are associated with white matter apoptosis in a piglet model of HI; in some regions these temperature effects are
Wang, Bing; Armstrong, Jillian S.; Reyes, Michael; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Lee, Jeong-Hoo; Spicer, Dawn; Bhalala, Utpal; Yang, Zeng-Jin; Koehler, Raymond C.; Martin, Lee J.; Lee, Jennifer K.
Therapeutic hypothermia is widely used to treat neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injuries. However, potentially deleterious effects of delaying the induction of hypothermia and of rewarming on white matter injury remain unclear. We used a piglet model of HI to assess the effects of delayed hypothermia and rewarming on white matter apoptosis. Piglets underwent HI injury or sham surgery followed by normothermic or hypothermic recovery at 2 h. Hypothermic groups were divided into those with no rewarming, slow rewarming at 0.5°C/h, or rapid rewarming at 4°C/h. Apoptotic cells in the subcortical white matter of the motor gyrus, corpus callosum, lateral olfactory tract, and internal capsule at 29 h were identified morphologically and counted by hematoxylin & eosin staining. Cell death was verified by TUNEL assay. White matter neurons were also counted, and apoptotic cells were immunophenotyped with the oligodendrocyte marker 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Hypothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming increased apoptosis in the subcortical white matter relative to normothermia (p<0.05). The number of white matter neurons was not lower in groups with more apoptosis after hypothermia or rapid rewarming, indicating that the apoptosis occurred among glial cells. Hypothermic piglets had more apoptosis in the lateral olfactory tract than those that were rewarmed (p<0.05). The promotion of apoptosis by hypothermia and rewarming in these regions was independent of HI. In the corpus callosum, HI piglets had more apoptosis than shams after normothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming (p<0.05). Many apoptotic cells were myelinating oligodendrocytes identified by CNPase positivity. Our results indicate that delaying the induction of hypothermia and rewarming are associated with white matter apoptosis in a piglet model of HI; in some regions these temperature effects are independent of HI. Vulnerable cells include myelinating
Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Giampietri, Matteo; Fiorentini, Erika; Bartalena, Laura; Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Ciampi, Mariella; Boldrini, Antonio; Ghirri, Paolo
Birth asphyxia is a cause of neonatal death or adverse neurological sequelae. Biomarkers can be useful to clinicians in order to optimize intensive care management and communication of prognosis to parents. During perinatal adverse events, increased cortisol secretion is due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. We aimed to investigate if cortisol variations during therapeutic hypothermia are associated with neurodevelopmental outcome. We compared 18 cases (neonates with birth asphyxia) with 18 controls (healthy term newborns) and confirmed increased serum cortisol concentrations following the peri-partum adverse event. Among cases, we stratified patients according to neurological outcome at 18 months (group A - good; group B - adverse) and found that after 24 h of therapeutic hypothermia serum cortisol concentration was significantly lower in group A vs group B (28.7 ng/mL vs 344 ng/mL, *p = 0.01). In group B serum, cortisol concentration decreased more gradually during therapeutic hypothermia. We conclude that monitoring serum cortisol concentration during neonatal therapeutic hypothermia can add information to clinical evaluation of neonates with birth asphyxia; cortisol values after the first 24 h of hypothermia can be a biomarker associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of age.
Henriksson, O; Björnstig, U; Saveman, B-I; Lundgren, P J
The aim of this study was to survey the current equipment used for prevention, treatment and monitoring of accidental hypothermia in Swedish pre-hospital services. A questionnaire was sent to all road ambulance services (AS), the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS), the national helicopter search and rescue service (SAR) and the municipal rescue services (RS) in Sweden to determine the availability of insulation, active warming, fluid heating, and low-reading thermometers. The response rate was 77% (n = 255). All units carried woollen or polyester blankets for basic insulation. Specific windproof insulation materials were common in the HEMS, SAR and RS units but only present in about half of the AS units. Active warming equipment was present in all the SAR units, but only in about two-thirds of the HEMS units and about one-third of the AS units. About half of the RS units had the ability to provide a heated tent or container. Low-reading thermometers were present in less than half of the AS and HEMS units and were non-existent in the SAR units. Pre-warmed intravenous fluids were carried by almost all of the AS units and half of the HEMS units but infusion heaters were absent in most units. Basic insulation capabilities are well established in the Swedish pre-hospital services. Specific wind and waterproof insulation materials, active warming devices, low-reading thermometers and IV fluid heating systems are less common. We suggest the development and implementation of national guidelines on accidental hypothermia that include basic recommendations on equipment requirements. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pelster, Theresa; Pax, Anja; Horn, Wiebke; Schmidt-Schweda, Stephan; Unsöld, Bernhard W.; Seidler, Tim; Wagner, Stephan; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Maier, Lars S.
Post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction is a common phenomenon after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and contributes to hemodynamic instability and low survival rates after cardiac arrest. Mild hypothermia for 24 h after ROSC has been shown to significantly improve neurologic recovery and survival rates. In the present study we investigate the influence of therapeutic hypothermia on hemodynamic parameters in resuscitated patients and on contractility in failing human myocardium. We analyzed hemodynamic data from 200 cardiac arrest survivors during the hypothermia period. The initial LVEF was 32.6 ± 1.2% indicating a significantly impaired LV function. During hypothermia induction, the infusion rate of epinephrine could be significantly reduced from 9.1 ± 1.3 μg/min [arrival intensive care unit (ICU) 35.4°C] to 4.6 ± 1.0 μg/min (34°C) and 2.8 ± 0.5 μg/min (33°C). The dobutamine and norepinephrine application rates were not changed significantly. The mean arterial blood pressure remained stable. The mean heart rate significantly decreased from 91.8 ± 1.7 bpm (arrival ICU) to 77.3 ± 1.5 bpm (34°C) and 70.3 ± 1.4 bpm (33°C). In vitro we investigated the effect of hypothermia on isolated ventricular muscle strips from explanted failing human hearts. With decreasing temperature, the contractility increased to a maximum of 168 ± 23% at 27°C (n = 16, P < 0.05). Positive inotropic response to hypothermia was accompanied by moderately increased rapid cooling contractures as a measure of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content, but can be elicited even when the SR Ca2+ release is blocked in the presence of ryanodine. Contraction and relaxation kinetics are prolonged with hypothermia, indicating increased Ca2+ sensitivity as the main mechanism responsible for inotropy. In conclusion, mild hypothermia stabilizes hemodynamics in cardiac arrest survivors which might contribute to improved survival rates in these patients
Young, V Leroy; Watson, Marla E
While inadvertent perioperative hypothermia has received serious attention in many surgical specialties, few discussions of hypothermia have been published in the plastic surgery literature. This article reviews the physiology of thermoregulation, describes how both general and regional anesthesia alter the normal thermoregulatory mechanisms, indicates risk factors particularly associated with hypothermia, and discusses the most effective current methods for maintaining normothermia. Hypothermia is typically defined as a core body temperature of =36 degrees C (=96.8 degrees F), though patient outcomes are reportedly better when a temperature of >/=36.5 degrees C is maintained. Unless preventive measures are instituted, inadvertent hypothermia occurs in 50% to 90% of surgical patients, even those undergoing relatively short procedures lasting one to one-and-a-half hours. During either general or regional anesthesia, a patient's natural behavioral and autonomic responses to cold are unavailable or impaired, and the combination of general and neuraxial anesthesia produces the highest risk for inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Unless hypothermia is prevented, the restoration of normothermia can take more than 4 hours once anesthesia is stopped. Consequences of hypothermia are serious and affect surgical outcomes in plastic surgery patients. Potential complications include morbid cardiac events, coagulation disorders and blood loss, increased incidence of surgical wound infection, postoperative shivering, longer hospital stays, and increased costs associated with surgery. Measures for preventing hypothermia are emphasized in this article, especially those proven most effective in prospective and controlled clinical studies. Perhaps the most important step in maintaining normothermia is to prewarm patients in the preoperative area with forced-air heating systems. Intraoperative warming with forced-air and fluid warming are also essential. Other strategies
Blanco, D; García-Alix, A; Valverde, E; Tenorio, V; Vento, M; Cabañas, F
Standardisation of hypothermia as a treatment for perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is supported by current scientific evidence. The following document was prepared by the authors on request of the Spanish Society of Neonatology and is intended to be a guide for the proper implementation of this therapy. We discuss the difficulties that may arise when moving from the strict framework of clinical trials to clinical daily care: early recognition of clinical encephalopathy, inclusion and exclusion criteria, hypothermia during transport, type of hypothermia (selective head or systemic cooling) and side effects of therapy. The availability of hypothermia therapy has changed the prognosis of children with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and our choices of therapeutic support. In this sense, it is especially important to be aware of the changes in the predictive value of the neurological examination and the electroencephalographic recording in cooled infants. In order to improve neuroprotection with hypothermia we need earlier recognition of to recognise earlier the infants that may benefit from cooling. Biomarkers of brain injury could help us in the selection of these patients. Every single infant treated with hypothermia must be included in a follow up program in order to assess neurodevelopmental outcome.
Perlman, Ryan; Callum, Jeannie; Laflamme, Claude; Tien, Homer; Nascimento, Barto; Beckett, Andrew; Alam, Asim
Hypothermia is present in up to two-thirds of patients with severe injury, although it is often disregarded during the initial resuscitation. Studies have revealed that hypothermia is associated with mortality in a large percentage of trauma cases when the patient's temperature is below 32 °C. Risk factors include the severity of injury, wet clothing, low transport unit temperature, use of anesthesia, and prolonged surgery. Fortunately, associated coagulation disorders have been shown to completely resolve with aggressive warming. Selected passive and active warming techniques can be applied in damage control resuscitation. While treatment guidelines exist for acidosis and bleeding, there is no evidence-based approach to managing hypothermia in trauma patients. We synthesized a goal-directed algorithm for warming the severely injured patient that can be directly incorporated into current Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines. This involves the early use of warming blankets and removal of wet clothing in the prehospital phase followed by aggressive rewarming on arrival at the hospital if the patient's injuries require damage control therapy. Future research in hypothermia management should concentrate on applying this treatment algorithm and should evaluate its influence on patient outcomes. This treatment strategy may help to reduce blood loss and improve morbidity and mortality in this population of patients.
Xu, Binbin; Jacquir, Sabir; Laurent, Gabriel; Binczak, Stéphane; Pont, Oriol; Yahia, Hussein
The neurological damage after cardiac arrest presents a huge challenge for hospital discharge. Therapeutic hypothermia (34 °C - 32 °C) has shown its benefits in reducing cerebral oxygen demand and improving neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest. However, it can have many adverse effects, among them cardiac arrhythmia generation which represents an important part (up to 34%, according different clinical studies). A monolayer cardiac culture is prepared with cardiomyocytes from a newborn rat, directly on a multi-electrode array, which allows the acquisition of the extracellular potential of the culture. The temperature range is 37 °C - 30 °C-37 °C, representing the cooling and rewarming process of therapeutic hypothermia. Experiments showed that at 35 °C, the acquired signals are characterized by period-doubling phenomenon, compared with signals at other temperatures. Spiral waves, commonly considered to be a sign of cardiac arrhythmia, are observed in the reconstructed activation map. With an approach from nonlinear dynamics, phase space reconstruction, it is shown that at 35 °C, the trajectories of these signals formed a spatial bifurcation, even trifurcation. Another transit point is found between 30 °C-33 °C, which agreed with other clinical studies that induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest should not fall below 32 °C. The process of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest can be represented by a pitchfork bifurcation type process, which could explain the different ratios of arrhythmia among the adverse effects after this therapy. This nonlinear dynamic suggests that a variable speed of cooling/rewarming, especially when passing 35 °C, would help to decrease the ratio of post-hypothermia arrhythmia and then improve the hospital output.
Goldberg, Scott A; Rojanasarntikul, Dhanadol; Jagoda, Andrew
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of death and disability, particularly in younger populations. The prehospital evaluation and management of TBI is a vital link between insult and definitive care and can have dramatic implications for subsequent morbidity. Following a TBI the brain is at high risk for further ischemic injury, with prehospital interventions targeted at reducing this secondary injury while optimizing cerebral physiology. In the following chapter we discuss the prehospital assessment and management of the brain-injured patient. The initial evaluation and physical examination are discussed with a focus on interpretation of specific physical examination findings and interpretation of vital signs. We evaluate patient management strategies including indications for advanced airway management, oxygenation, ventilation, and fluid resuscitation, as well as prehospital strategies for the management of suspected or impending cerebral herniation including hyperventilation and brain-directed hyperosmolar therapy. Transport decisions including the role of triage models and trauma centers are discussed. Finally, future directions in the prehospital management of traumatic brain injury are explored. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schauer, Steven G; April, Michael D; Cunningham, Cord W; Long, Adrianna N; Carter, Robert
Surgical cricothyrotomy remains the only definitive airway management modality for the tactical setting recommended by Tactical Combat Casualty Care guidelines. Some units have fielded commercial cricothyrotomy kits to assist Combat Medics with surgical cricothyrotomy. To our knowledge, no previous publications report data on the use of these kits in combat settings. This series reports the the use of two kits in four patients in the prehospital combat setting. Using the Department of Defense Trauma Registry and the Prehospital Trauma Registry, we identified four cases of patients who underwent prehospital cricothyrotomy with the use of commercial kits. In the first two cases, a Medic successfully used a North American Rescue CricKit (NARCK) to obtain a surgical airway in a Servicemember with multiple amputations from an improvised explosive device explosion. In case 3, the Medic unsuccessfully used an H&H Medical kit to attempt placement of a surgical airway in a Servicemember shot in the head by small arms fire. A second attempt to place a surgical airway using a NARCK was successful. In case 4, a Soldier sustained a gunshot wound to the chest. A Medic described fluid in the airway precluding bag-valve-mask ventilation; the Medic attempted to place a surgical airway with the H&H kit without success. Four cases of prehospital surgical airway cannulation on the battlefield demonstrated three successful uses of prehospital cricothyrotomy kits. Further research should focus on determining which kits may be most useful in the combat setting. 2017.
Guluma, Kama Z; Oh, Haeryong; Yu, Sung-Wook; Meyer, Brett C; Rapp, Karen; Lyden, Patrick D
Pilot studies of hypothermia for stroke suggest a potential benefit in humans. We sought to test whether hypothermia decreases post-ischemic edema using CT scans from a pilot trial of endovascular hypothermia for stroke. Eighteen patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent therapeutic hypothermia (target = 33 degrees C) for 12 or 24 h followed by a 12-h controlled re-warm using an endovascular system. CT scans obtained at baseline, 36-48 h (right after cooling and re-warming) and 30 days were digitized, intracranial compartment volumes measured using a validated stereological technique, and the calculated change in CSF volume between the three time-points were used as an estimate of edema formation in each patient. Patients were grouped retrospectively for analysis based on whether they cooled effectively (i.e., to a temperature nadir of less than 34.5 degrees C within 8 h) or not. Eleven patients were cooled partially or not at all, and seven were effectively cooled. Baseline demographics and compartment volumes and densities were similar in both groups. At 36-48 h, the total CSF volume had significantly decreased in the not-cooled group compared to the cooled group (P < 0.05), with no significant difference in mean volume of ischemia between them (73 +/- 73 ml vs. 54 +/- 59 ml, respectively), suggesting an ameliorative effect of hypothermia on acute edema formation. At 30 days, the difference in CSF volumes had resolved, and infarct volumes (73 +/- 71 ml vs. 84 +/- 102 ml, respectively) and functional outcomes were comparable. Endovascular hypothermia decreases acute post-ischemic cerebral edema. A larger trial is warranted to determine if it affects final infarct volume and outcome in stroke.
Oualil, H; Nejjari, S; Bourkadi, J E; Iraqi, G
Hypothermia - an adverse reaction of drug use potentially severe - requires an early diagnosis and an adapted management. We report the first case, to our knowledge of hypothermia due to anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Simões, Romeo Lages; Duarte Neto, Caio; Maciel, Gustavo Sasso Benso; Furtado, Tatiana Piotz; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão
To assess the quality of prehospital care agencies conducted in Vitória, capital of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. We conducted a retrospective study in the archives of the League of Academic Surgery and Trauma Care of Espírito Santo (Lacates) regarding 40 victims of a simulated crash between a bus and two cars. The patients were treated by four teams: Military Fire Department of Espírito Santo, Samu 192, County Guard and Civil Defense. The performance of these teams was evaluated by Lacates, through analysis of a check-list with pre-established guidelines for each victim. The Fire Department of Espírito Santo (CBMES), which extricated victims, outlined the danger zones and carried out the screening by the method START, acted correctly in 92.5% of cases. The Samu 192 victims, which attended victims by the mnemonic method (ABCDE) in medical outposts, acted correctly in 92.5% of cases in the category Airway; 97.5% in breathing, 92.5% in circulation, 90% in Neurological Assessment, and 50% in the Exhibition and Environmental Control. The analysis showed that the ABCDE care was correct in 42.5% of cases. The transport of patients was performed correctly in 95% of cases. The County Guard secured the patency of the avenues for transportation of patients and Civil Defense successfully coordinated the work of teams involved in the command post. The triage and transport of victims have been performed satisfactorily. However, more attention should be given to exposure and hypothermia protection of victims, since this item compromised treatment.
Lo, C B; Lai, K K; Mak, K P
A quick and efficient prehospital emergency response depends on immediate ambulance dispatch, patient assessment, triage, and transport to hospital. During 1999, the Ambulance Command of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department responded to 484,923 calls, which corresponds to 1329 calls each day. Cooperation between the Fire Services Department and the Hospital Authority exists at the levels of professional training of emergency medical personnel, quality assurance, and a coordinated disaster response. In response to the incident at the Hong Kong International Airport in the summer of 1999, when an aircraft overturned during landing, the pre-set quota system was implemented to send patients to designated accident and emergency departments. Furthermore, the 'first crew at the scene' model has been adopted, whereby the command is established and triage process started by the first ambulance crew members to reach the scene. The development of emergency protocols should be accompanied by good field-to-hospital and interhospital communication, the upgrading of decision-making skills, a good monitoring and auditing structure, and commitment to training and skills maintenance.
Walters, James H; Morley, Peter T; Nolan, Jerry P
To update a comprehensive systematic review of the use of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest that was undertaken initially as part of the 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science. The specific question addressed was: 'in post-cardiac arrest patients with a return of spontaneous circulation, does the induction of mild hypothermia improve morbidity or mortality when compared with usual care?' Pubmed was searched using ("heart arrest" or "cardiopulmonary resuscitation") AND "hypothermia, induced" using 'Clinical Queries' search strategy; EmBASE was searched using (heart arrest) OR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) AND hypothermia; The Cochrane database of systematic reviews; ECC EndNote Library for "hypothermia" in abstract OR title. Excluded were animal studies, reviews and editorials, surveys of implementation, analytical models, reports of single cases, pre-arrest or during arrest cooling and group where the intervention was not hypothermia alone. 77 studies met the criteria for further review. Of these, four were meta-analyses (LOE 1); seven were randomised controlled trials (LOE 1), although six of these were from the same set of patients; nine were non-randomised, concurrent controls (LOE 2); 15 were trials with retrospective controls (LOE 3); 40 had no controls (LOE 4); and one was extrapolated from a non-cardiac arrest group (LOE 5). There is evidence supporting the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve neurological outcome in patients who remain comatose following the return of spontaneous circulation after a cardiac arrest; however, much of the evidence is from low-level, observational studies. Of seven randomised controlled trials, six use data from the same patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Espinera, Alyssa; Lee, Jin Hwan; Ji, Xiaoya; Wei, Ling; Dix, Thomas A; Yu, Shan Ping
Neonatal brain trauma is linked to higher risks of mortality and neurological disability. The use of mild to moderate hypothermia has shown promising potential against brain injuries induced by stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in various experimental models and in clinical trials. Conventional methods of physical cooling, however, are difficult to use in acute treatments and in induction of regulated hypothermia. In addition, general anesthesia is usually required to mitigate the negative effects of shivering during physical cooling. Our recent investigations demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefits of pharmacologically induced hypothermia (PIH) using the neurotensin receptor (NTR) agonist HPI201 (formerly known as ABS201) in stroke and TBI models of adult rodents. The present investigation explored the brain protective effects of HPI201 in a P14 rat pediatric model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact. When administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, HPI201 induced dose-dependent reduction of body and brain temperature. A 6-h hypothermic treatment, providing an overall 2-3°C reduction of brain and body temperature, showed significant effect of attenuating the contusion volume versus TBI controls. Attenuation occurs whether hypothermia is initiated 15min or 2h after TBI. No shivering response was seen in HPI201-treated animals. HPI201 treatment also reduced TUNEL-positive and TUNEL/NeuN-colabeled cells in the contusion area and peri-injury regions. TBI-induced blood-brain barrier damage was attenuated by HPI201 treatment, evaluated using the Evans Blue assay. HPI201 significantly decreased MMP-9 levels and caspase-3 activation, both of which are pro-apototic, while it increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression in the peri-contusion region. In addition, HPI201 prevented the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. In sensorimotor activity assessments, rats in the HPI201
Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Sasser, Scott M; Wallis, Lee A
Prehospital care constitutes an important link in the continuum of emergency care and confers a survival benefit to injured and ill persons. As development of acute and emergency care in sub-Saharan Africa expands, there is a strong need to improve the delivery of prehospital care to help relieve the overwhelming regional morbidity and mortality attributable to time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. Effective research is integral to prehospital care development, as it helps quantify the need for prehospital care and tests effective solutions. Unfortunately, there is limited consensus guiding such research in the low-resource nations of sub-Saharan Africa that face unique challenges. This article aims to assimilate the current pertinent literature to demonstrate research success stories and challenges, and ultimately to build on previous efforts to establish prehospital research priorities for sub-Saharan Africa. Region-specific obstacles hindering prehospital research include the lack of epidemiologic data on emergency conditions, the underdevelopment of in-hospital emergency care, confusing prehospital terminology, poorly defined prehospital research priorities, the lack of qualified local prehospital researchers, and a poor understanding of local prehospital care systems. Solutions are offered to overcome each challenge by building on previous recommendations, by proposing new guiding principles, and by identifying areas where further consensus-building is needed. These guiding principles and suggestions are designed to steer discussions and output from future global health meetings targeted at improving prehospital research and development in sub-Saharan Africa.
Booth, A; Steel, A; Klein, J
Major trauma is a leading cause of death and disability in the UK, particularly in the young. Pre-hospital emergency medicine (PHEM) involves provision of immediate medical care to critically ill and injured patients, across all age ranges, often in environments that may be remote and are not only physically challenging but also limited in terms of time and resources. PHEM is now a GMC-recognised subspecialty of anaesthesia or emergency medicine and the first recognised training program in the UK commenced in August 2012. This article discusses subspeciality development in PHEM, the competency based framework for training in PHEM, and the provision of pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia.
Mattu, Amal; Lawner, Benjamin
The evolution of prehospital treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure has in some ways come full circle: rather than emphasizing a battery of new pharmacotherapies, out-of-hospital providers have a renewed focus on aggressive use of nitrates, optimization of airway support, and rapid transport. The use of furosemide and morphine has become de-emphasized, and a flurry of research activity and excitement revolves around the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Further research will clarify the role of bronchodilators and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the prehospital setting.
Godfrey, P D; Henning, J D
Commercial filming of patients in the hospital and now the prehospital environment is becoming increasingly common. Television programmes that focus on medical emergencies with real footage of events remain highly successful and can make compelling viewing for both medical professionals and the general public alike. Recently several commentators have questioned the ethical aspects of filming in hospital emergency departments, and noted the lack of available evidence. This article reviews commercial filming and its impact in the prehospital environment and examines the ethical implications and current guidance in this unique setting. PMID:18029523
Legriel, Stephane; Lemiale, Virginie; Schenck, Maleka; Chelly, Jonathan; Laurent, Virginie; Daviaud, Fabrice; Srairi, Mohamed; Hamdi, Aicha; Geri, Guillaume; Rossignol, Thomas; Hilly-Ginoux, Julia; Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Louart, Benjamin; Malissin, Isabelle; Mongardon, Nicolas; Planquette, Benjamin; Thirion, Marina; Merceron, Sybille; Canet, Emmanuel; Pico, Fernando; Tran-Dinh, Yves-Roger; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Azoulay, Elie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Cariou, Alain
Background Convulsive status epilepticus often results in permanent neurologic impairment. We evaluated the effect of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcomes in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. Methods In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 270 critically ill patients with convulsive status epilepticus who were receiving mechanical ventilation to hypothermia (32 to 34°C for 24 hours) in addition to standard care or to standard care alone; 268 patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was a good functional outcome at 90 days, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5 (range, 1 to 5, with 1 representing death and 5 representing no or minimal neurologic deficit). The main secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, progression to electroencephalographically (EEG) confirmed status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus on day 1, "super-refractory" status epilepticus (resistant to general anesthesia), and functional sequelae on day 90. Results A GOS score of 5 occurred in 67 of 138 patients (49%) in the hypothermia group and in 56 of 130 (43%) in the control group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.99; P=0.43). The rate of progression to EEG-confirmed status epilepticus on the first day was lower in the hypothermia group than in the control group (11% vs. 22%; odds ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.79; P=0.009), but there were no significant differences between groups in the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were more frequent in the hypothermia group than in the control group. Conclusions In this trial, induced hypothermia added to standard care was not associated with significantly better 90-day outcomes than standard care alone in patients with convulsive status epilepticus. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; HYBERNATUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01359332 .).
Anderson, Kacey B; Poloyac, Samuel M; Kochanek, Patrick M; Empey, Philip E
Targeted temperature management (TTM) has been shown to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) patients and in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). TTM has also been associated with adverse drug events in the critically ill patient due to its effect on drug pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs). We aim to evaluate the current literature on the effect of TTM on drug PKs and PDs following CA. MEDLINE/PubMed databases were searched for publications, which include the MeSH terms hypothermia, drug metabolism, drug transport, P450, critical care, cardiac arrest, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics between July 2006 and October 2015. Twenty-three studies were included in this review. The studies demonstrate that hypothermia impacts PK parameters and increases concentrations of cytochrome-P450-metabolized drugs in the cooling and rewarming phase. Furthermore, the current data demonstrate a combined effect of CA and hypothermia on drug PK. Importantly, these effects can last greater than 4-5 days post-treatment. Limited evidence suggests hypothermia-mediated changes in the Phase II metabolism and the Phase III transport of drugs. Hypothermia also has been shown to potentially decrease the effect of specific drugs at the receptor level. Therapeutic hypothermia, as commonly deployed/applied during TTM, alters PK, and elevates concentrations of several commonly used medications. Hypothermia-mediated effects are an important factor when dosing and monitoring patients undergoing TTM treatment.
Feketa, Viktor V.; Marrelli, Sean P.
Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising new strategy for neuroprotection. However, the methods for safe and effective hypothermia induction in conscious patients are lacking. The current study explored the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) channel activation by the agonist carvacrol as a potential hypothermic strategy. It was found that carvacrol lowers core temperature after intraperitoneal and intravenous administration in mice and rats. However, the hypothermic effect at safe doses was modest, while higher intravenous doses of carvacrol induced a pronounced drop in blood pressure and substantial toxicity. Experiments on the mechanism of the hypothermic effect in mice revealed that it was associated with a decrease in whole-body heat generation, but not with a change in cold-seeking behaviors. In addition, the hypothermic effect was lost at cold ambient temperature. Our findings suggest that although TRPV3 agonism induces hypothermia in rodents, it may have a limited potential as a novel pharmacological method for induction of hypothermia in conscious patients due to suboptimal effectiveness and high toxicity. PMID:26528923
Jussila, Kirsi; Rissanen, Sirkka; Parkkola, Kai; Anttonen Hannu
Prehospital maritime transportation in northern areas sets high demands on hypothermia prevention. To prevent body cooling and hypothermia of seriously-ill or injured casualties during transportation, casualty coverings must provide adequate thermal insulation and protection against cold, wind, moisture, and water splashes. The aim of this study was to determine the thermal protective properties of different types of casualty coverings and to evaluate which would be adequate for use under difficult maritime conditions (cold, high wind speed, and water splashes). In addition, the study evaluated the need for thermal protection of a casualty and verified the optimum system for maritime casualty transportation. The study consisted of two parts: (1) the definition and comparison of the thermal protective properties of different casualty coverings in a laboratory; and (2) the evaluation of the chosen optimum protective covering for maritime prehospital transportation. The thermal insulations of ten different casualty coverings were measured according to the European standard for sleeping bags (EN 13537) using a thermal manikin in a climate chamber (-5°C) with wind speeds of 0.3 m/s and 4.0 m/s, and during moisture simulations. The second phase consisted of measurements of skin and core temperatures, air temperature, and relative humidity inside the clothing of four male test subjects during authentic maritime prehospital transportation in a partially-covered motor boat. Wind (4 m/s) decreased the total thermal insulation of coverings by 11%-45%. The decrement of thermal insulation due to the added moisture inside the coverings was the lowest (approximately 22%-29%) when a waterproof reflective sheet inside blankets or bubble wrap was used, whereas vapor-tight rescue bags and bubble wrap provide the most protection against external water splashes. During authentic maritime transportation lasting 30 minutes, mean skin temperature decreased on average by 0.5°C when a
Yoon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Mun Chul; Park, Jae Woo; Yang, Min A; Lee, Cheon Beom; Sun, In O; Lee, Kwang Young
Hypothermia, defined as an unintentional decline in the core body temperature to below 35℃, is a life-threatening condition. Patients with malnutrition and diabetes mellitus as well as those of advanced age are at high risk for accidental hypothermia. Due to the high mortality rates of accidental hypothermia, proper management is critical for the wellbeing of patients. Accidental hypothermia was reported to be associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in over 40% of cases. Although the pathogenesis remains to be elucidated, vasoconstriction and ischemia in the kidney were considered to be the main mechanisms involved. Cases of AKI associated with hypothermia have been reported worldwide, but there have been few reports of hypothermia-induced AKI in Korea. Here, we present a case of hypothermia-induced AKI that was treated successfully with rewarming and supportive care.
Morgan, Matthew; Schwartz, Liliana; Duflou, Johan
Death due to accidental primary hypothermia in cold climates is relatively common, with previous case series reflecting this. In contrast, hypothermia-related death as a result of an underlying medical cause, such as a brain tumor, is rare. The literature clearly illustrates a theoretical causal relationship between brain neoplasms and hypothermia through the infiltration of the hypothalamus; however, the number of reported cases is minimal. Two cases are presented where autopsy confirmed hypothermia as the cause of death with both cases revealing widespread glioblastoma multiforme in the brain. Both decedents were elderly with a number of comorbidities identified during autopsy that could explain death; however, hypothermia was deemed the most likely cause. It is proposed that both decedents died of hypothermia as a result of the tumor's effect on thermoregulation. These cases underline the importance of forensic pathologists to be aware of the relationship between brain tumors and hypothermia and to not dismiss death as being due to other disease processes.
Military medical revolution: Prehospital combat casualty care Lorne H. Blackbourne, MD, David G. Baer, PhD, Brian J. Eastridge, MD, Bijan Kheirabadi...sur- vival for patients with combat-related traumatic injuries. J Trauma. 2009;66(suppl 4):S69 S76. 33. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M, Cantrell J, Oetjen
Beca, John; McSharry, Brent; Erickson, Simon; Yung, Michael; Schibler, Andreas; Slater, Anthony; Wilkins, Barry; Singhal, Ash; Williams, Gary; Sherring, Claire; Butt, Warwick
To perform a pilot study to assess the feasibility of performing a phase III trial of therapeutic hypothermia started early and continued for at least 72 hours in children with severe traumatic brain injury. Multicenter prospective randomized controlled phase II trial. All eight of the PICUs in Australia and New Zealand and one in Canada. Children 1-15 years old with severe traumatic brain injury and who could be randomized within 6 hours of injury. The control group had strict normothermia to a temperature of 36-37°C for 72 hours. The intervention group had therapeutic hypothermia to a temperature of 32-33°C for 72 hours followed by slow rewarming at a rate compatible with maintaining intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure. Of 764 children admitted to PICU with traumatic brain injury, 92 (12%) were eligible and 55 (7.2%) were recruited. There were five major protocol violations (9%): three related to recruitment and consent processes and two to incorrect temperature management. Rewarming took a median of 21.5 hours (16-35 hr) and was performed without compromise in the cerebral perfusion pressure. There was no increase in any complications, including infections, bleeding, and arrhythmias. There was no difference in outcomes 12 months after injury; in the therapeutic hypothermia group, four (17%) had a bad outcome (pediatric cerebral performance category, 4-6) and three (13%) died, whereas in the normothermia group, three (12%) had a bad outcome and one (4%) died. Early therapeutic hypothermia in children with severe traumatic brain injury does not improve outcome and should not be used outside a clinical trial. Recruitment rates were lower and outcomes were better than expected. Conventional randomized controlled trials in children with severe traumatic brain injury are unlikely to be feasible. A large international trials group and alternative approaches to trial design will be required to further inform practice.
Asif, Mir J.; Exline, Matthew C.
Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas produced as a byproduct of organic waste and many industrial processes. Hydrogen sulfide exposure symptoms may vary from mild (dizziness, headaches, nausea) to severe lactic acidosis via its inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, leading to cardiac arrhythmias and death. Treatment is generally supportive. We report the case of a patient presenting with cardiac arrest secondary to hydrogen sulfide exposure treated with both hyperbaric oxygen therapy and therapeutic hypothermia with great improvement in neurologic function. PMID:22004989
Avery, Carol E.; Pestle, Ruth E.
Interviewed 381 older adults participating in Area Agency on Aging meal programs in Florida. Found that only 10 percent were aware of dangers of accidental hypothermia. Many low-income elderly are vulnerable to cold because of poorly insulated homes, inadequate heating, and lack of warm clothing. States need initiatives to increase comfort levels…
Avery, Carol E.; Pestle, Ruth E.
Interviewed 381 older adults participating in Area Agency on Aging meal programs in Florida. Found that only 10 percent were aware of dangers of accidental hypothermia. Many low-income elderly are vulnerable to cold because of poorly insulated homes, inadequate heating, and lack of warm clothing. States need initiatives to increase comfort levels…
Abelsson, Anna; Lindwall, Lillemor
Ethics and dignity in prehospital emergency care are important due to vulnerability and suffering. Patients can lose control of their body and encounter unfamiliar faces in an emergency situation. To describe what specialist ambulance nurse students experienced as preserved and humiliated dignity in prehospital emergency care. The study had a qualitative approach. Data were collected by Flanagan's critical incident technique. The participants were 26 specialist ambulance nurse students who described two critical incidents of preserved and humiliated dignity, from prehospital emergency care. Data consist of 52 critical incidents and were analyzed with interpretive content analysis. Ethical considerations: The study followed the ethical principles in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The result showed how human dignity in prehospital emergency care can be preserved by the ambulance nurse being there for the patient. The ambulance nurses meet the patient in the patient's world and make professional decisions. The ambulance nurse respects the patient's will and protects the patient's body from the gaze of others. Humiliated dignity was described through the ambulance nurse abandoning the patient and by healthcare professionals failing, disrespecting, and ignoring the patient. It is a unique situation when a nurse meets a patient face to face in a critical life or death moment. The discussion describes courage and the ethical vision to see another human. Dignity was preserved when the ambulance nurse showed respect and protected the patient in prehospital emergency care. The ambulance nurse students' ethical obligation results in the courage to see when a patient's dignity is in jeopardy of being humiliated. Humiliated dignity occurs when patients are ignored and left unprotected. This ethical dilemma affects the ambulance nurse students badly due to the fact that the morals and attitudes of ambulance nurses are reflected in their actions toward the patient.
Shaikh, Henna; Boudes, Elodie; Khoja, Zehra; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia
Background Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns. Design/Methods Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns. Results Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns. Conclusions These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery. PMID:25996847
Tu, Yue; Miao, Xiao-mei; Yi, Tai-long; Chen, Xu-yi; Sun, Hong-tao; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Zhang, Sai
Bloodletting at Jing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting at Jing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inflammatory response were lessened. These findings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting at Jing points (20 μL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:27482221
Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K
To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. This is an updated version of the original Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(4):425-445. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Payvar, Saeed; Orlandi, Cesare; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Elkayam, Uri; Ouyang, John; Casscells, S Ward; Gheorghiade, Mihai
The use of aggressive treatments and the modification of current treatment in patients with heart failure (HF) relies heavily on the assessment of disease severity using prognostic markers. However, many such markers are unavailable in routine clinical practice, and others have little prognostic value. This study tested the hypothesis that low body temperature could predict short-term survival after discharge in patients hospitalized for HF. Data from the Acute and Chronic Therapeutic Impact of a Vasopressin Antagonist in Congestive Heart Failure (ACTIV in CHF) trial, which randomized 319 patients hospitalized for HF to receive placebo or tolvaptan, were retrospectively analyzed. Hypothermia was defined a priori as an oral body temperature <35.8 degrees C at randomization. Cox regression was used to analyze survival within a 60-day follow-up period. Hypothermia was observed in 32 patients (10%). Mortality rates at 60 days after discharge were 6.3% (20 of 319) overall, 9.4% (3 of 32) in hypothermic patients, and 5.9% (17 of 287) in nonhypothermic patients. Hypothermia was a strong multivariate predictor of mortality; hypothermic patients were 3.9 times more likely to die within 60 days than nonhypothermic patients (95% confidence interval 1.002 to 15.16, p = 0.0497) after adjustment for treatment group, age, and other confounders. Hypothermia was associated with such indicators of low cardiac output as an elevated blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, narrow pulse pressure, and a reduced ejection fraction. In conclusion, hypothermia appears to be a strong predictor of mortality in patients with HF.
Ma, Marek; Matthews, Brian T.; Lampe, Joshua W.; Meaney, David F.; Shofer, Frances S.; Neumar, Robert W.
A prospective, multicenter, randomized trial did not demonstrate improved outcomes in severe traumatic brain injured patients treated with mild hypothermia (Clifton, et al., 2001). However, the mean time to target temperature was over 8 hours and patient inclusion was based on Glasgow Coma Scale score so brain pathology was likely diverse. There remains significant interest in the benefits of hypothermia after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and, in particular, traumatic axonal injury (TAI), which is believed to significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality of TBI patients. The long-term beneficial effect of mild hypothermia on TAI has not been established. To address this issue, we developed an in vivo rat optic nerve stretch model of TAI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral optic nerve stretch at 6, 7 or 8 mm piston displacement. The increased number of axonal swellings and bulbs immunopositive for non-phosphorylated neurofilament (SMI-32) seen four days after injury was statistically significant after 8 mm displacement. Ultrastructural analysis 2 weeks after 8 mm displacement revealed a 45.0% decrease (p<0.0001) in myelinated axonal density in the optic nerve core. There was loss of axons regardless of axon size. Immediate post-injury hypothermia (32°C) for 3 hours reduced axonal degeneration in the core (p=0.027). There was no differential protection based on axon size. These results support further clinical investigation of temporally optimized therapeutic hypothermia after traumatic brain injury. PMID:18977220
Filippov, V P; Evgushchenko, G V; Gedymin, L E; Sidirova, N F
The aim of the work was to assess the value of biopsy techniques for fibrobronchoscopy under local anesthesia in patients with pulmonary pathology at the prehospital level. It included 706 subjects with lobular, segmental or diffuse lesions in the lungs of specific (tuberculosis), non-specific (pneumonia, exogenous alveolitis), and other origin. All known methods of endobronchial biopsy were employed (bronchoalveolar lavage or liquid lung biopsy, tissue biopsy, transbronchial biopsy, brush biopsy, puncture and aspiration biopsy) with subsequent cytomorphological and bacteriological studies of bioptates. Diagnostic efficiency of direct biopsy was estimated at 97%, transbronchial biopsy at 5-90% depending on nosological form of lung disease, brush and puncture biopsy 20-50 and 6% respectively. Reversible complications occurred in 1.4% and were resolved by therapeutic methods. Cost effectiveness of prehospital instrumental examination of patients with pulmonary pathology is 10 times the intrahospital one.
van den Broek, M P H; Groenendaal, F; Toet, M C; van Straaten, H L M; van Hasselt, J G C; Huitema, A D R; de Vries, L S; Egberts, A C G; Rademaker, C M A
Therapeutic hypothermia can influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, the discipline which is called thermopharmacology. We studied the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in asphyxiated neonates, and the clinical efficacy and the effect of phenobarbital on the continuous amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in a prospective study. Data were obtained from the prospective SHIVER study, performed in two of the ten Dutch level III neonatal intensive care units. Phenobarbital data were collected between 2008 and 2010. Newborns were eligible for inclusion if they had a gestational age of at least 36 weeks and presented with perinatal asphyxia and encephalopathy. According to protocol in both hospitals an intravenous (repeated) loading dose of phenobarbital 20 mg/kg divided in 1-2 doses was administered if seizures occurred or were suspected before or during the hypothermic phase. Phenobarbital plasma concentrations were measured in plasma using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. aEEG was monitored continuously. A one-compartmental population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was developed using a multi-level Markov transition model. No (clinically relevant) effect of moderate therapeutic hypothermia on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics could be identified. The observed responsiveness was 66%. While we still advise an initial loading dose of 20 mg/kg, clinicians should not be reluctant to administer an additional dose of 10-20 mg/kg. An additional dose should be given before switching to a second-line anticonvulsant drug. Based on our pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model, administration of phenobarbital under hypothermia seems to reduce the transition rate from a continuous normal voltage (CNV) to discontinuous normal voltage aEEG background level in hypothermic asphyxiated newborns, which may be attributed to the additional neuroprotection of phenobarbital in infants with a CNV pattern.
Liu, Shimin; Chen, Jiang-Fan
Although therapeutic hypothermia and metabolic suppression have shown robust neuroprotection in experimental brain ischemia, systemic complications have limited their use in treating acute stroke patients. The core temperature and basic metabolic rate are tightly regulated and maintained in a very stable level in mammals. Simply lowering body temperature or metabolic rate is actually a brutal therapy that may cause more systemic as well as regional problems other than providing protection. These problems are commonly seen in hypothermia and barbiturate coma. The main innovative concept of this review is to propose thermogenically optimal and synergistic reduction of core temperature and metabolic rate in therapeutic hypometabothermia using novel and clinically practical approaches. When metabolism and body temperature are reduced in a systematically synergistic manner, the outcome will be maximal protection and safe recovery, which happen in natural process, such as in hibernation, daily torpor and estivation. PMID:24179563
Brown, Joshua B; Guyette, Francis X; Neal, Matthew D; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Daley, Brian J; Harbrecht, Brian G; Miller, Richard S; Phelan, Herb A; Adams, Peter W; Early, Barbara J; Peitzman, Andrew B; Billiar, Timothy R; Sperry, Jason L
Hemorrhage and trauma induced coagulopathy remain major drivers of early preventable mortality in military and civilian trauma. Interest in the use of prehospital plasma in hemorrhaging patients as a primary resuscitation agent has grown recently. Trauma center-based damage control resuscitation using early and aggressive plasma transfusion has consistently demonstrated improved outcomes in hemorrhaging patients. Additionally, plasma has been shown to have several favorable immunomodulatory effects. Preliminary evidence with prehospital plasma transfusion has demonstrated feasibility and improved short-term outcomes. Applying state-of-the-art resuscitation strategies to the civilian prehospital arena is compelling. We describe here the rationale, design, and challenges of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial. The primary objective is to determine the effect of prehospital plasma transfusion during air medical transport on 30-day mortality in patients at risk for traumatic hemorrhage. This study is a multicenter cluster randomized clinical trial. The trial will enroll trauma patients with profound hypotension (SBP ≤ 70 mmHg) or hypotension (SBP 71-90 mmHg) and tachycardia (HR ≥ 108 bpm) from six level I trauma center air medical transport programs. The trial will also explore the effects of prehospital plasma transfusion on the coagulation and inflammatory response following injury. The trial will be conducted under exception for informed consent for emergency research with an investigational new drug approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration utilizing a multipronged community consultation process. It is one of three ongoing Department of Defense-funded trials aimed at expanding our understanding of the optimal therapeutic approaches to coagulopathy in the hemorrhaging trauma patient.
Frischknecht Christensen, Erika; Berlac, Peter Anthony; Nielsen, Henrik; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo
Aim of database The aim of the Danish quality database for prehospital emergency medical services (QEMS) is to assess, monitor, and improve the quality of prehospital emergency medical service care in the entire prehospital patient pathway. The aim of this review is to describe the design and the implementation of QEMS. Study population The study population consists of all “112 patient contacts” defined as emergency patients, where the entrance to health care is a 112 call forwarded to one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers in Denmark since January 1, 2014. Estimated annual number of included “112 patients” is 300,000–350,000. Main variables We defined nine quality indicators and the following variables: time stamps for emergency calls received at one of the five regional emergency medical coordination centers, dispatch of prehospital unit(s), arrival of first prehospital unit, arrival of first supplemental prehospital unit, and mission completion. Finally, professional level and type of the prehospital resource dispatched to an incident and end-of-mission status (mission completed by phone, on scene, or admission to hospital) are registered. Descriptive data Descriptive data included age, region, and Danish Index for Emergency Care including urgency level. Conclusion QEMS is a new database under establishment and is expected to provide the basis for quality improvement in the prehospital setting and in the entire patient care pathway, for example, by providing prehospital data for research and other quality databases. PMID:27843347
Robertson-Steel, I; Edwards, S; Gough, M
This article seeks to discover and recognize the importance of clinical governance within a new and emerging quality National Health Service (NHS) system. It evaluates the present state of prehospital care and recommends how change, via clinical governance, can ensure a paradigm shift from its currently fragmented state to a seamless ongoing patient care episode. Furthermore, it identifies the drivers of a quality revolution, examines the monitoring and supervision of quality care, and evaluates the role of evidence-based practice. A frank and open view of immediate care doctors is presented, with recommendations to improve the quality of skill delivery and reduce the disparity that exists. Finally, it reviews the current problems with pre-hospital care and projects a future course for quality and patient care excellence. PMID:11383428
Samokhvallov, I M; Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Seleznev, A B
The problem of temporary hemorrhage control is one of the most important issues of modern war surgery and surgery of trauma. It is a review of literature devoted to prehospital care in extremity major vascular injuries, embraced up-to-date domestic materials as well as the modern foreign papers in this area. The most important historical landmarks of temporary hemorrhage control system are considered. We paid special attention to the most usable methods and means of hemorrhage control which are utilized at the modern time: pressure bandages, tourniquets, local haemostatic agents. The comprehensive analysis of the contamporary haemostatic means concerning U.S. Army has done. The experience of foreign colleagues in development of prehospital care for the injured, creation and progress of new haemostatic methods, application of temporary hemorrhage control system is analyzed.
Maheshwari, Alok; Mehrotra, Avanti; Gupta, Anoop K; Thakur, Ranjan K
Cardiac disease is the most common cause of death in the United States, and sudden cardiac arrest frequently claims the lives of men and women during their most productive years. It is believed that much better survival rates can be achieved for victims of cardiac arrest through optimizing the "chain of survival" as described by the American Heart Association. The relative and incremental benefit of full prehospital ACLS over basic life support and defibrillation is unproven, however. This is an important issue in this era of cost containment. Some of the ongoing studies including the OPALS study may clarify the cost effectiveness and relative efficacy of rapid defibrillation and full ACLS programs for victims of prehospital cardiac arrest .
Cone, David C; Brooke Lerner, E; Band, Roger A; Renjilian, Chris; Bobrow, Bentley J; Crawford Mechem, C; Carter, Alix J E; Kupas, Douglas F; Spaite, Daniel W
This article summarizes the discussions of the emergency medical services (EMS) breakout session at the June 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." The group focused on prehospital issues such as the identification of patients by EMS personnel, protocol-driven destination selection, bypassing closer nondesignated centers to transport patients directly to more distant designated specialty centers, and the modes of transport to be used as they relate to the regionalization of emergency care. It is our hope that the proposed research agenda will be advanced in a way that begins to rigorously approach the unanswered research questions and that these answers, in turn, will lead to an evidence-based, cohesive, comprehensive, and more uniform set of guidelines that govern the delivery and practice of prehospital emergency care.
Marcillo , AE, Yezierski, RP (1998) Systemically administered interleukin (IL-10) attenuates injury induced inflammation and is neuroprotective following...CASTRO, M, CRICENO, C, GOMEZ, F, MARCILLO , AE, YEZIERSKI, RP, and DIETRICH, WD (1998) Systemically administered interleukin-10 (IL-10) attenuates
Fernández-Meré, L A; Alvarez-Blanco, M
Hypothermia (body temperature under 36°C) is the thermal disorder most frequently found in surgical patients, but should be avoided as a means of reducing morbidity and costs. Temperature should be considered as a vital sign and all staff involved in the care of surgical patients must be aware that it has to be maintained within normal limits. Maintaining body temperature is the result, as in any other system, of the balance between heat production and heat loss. Temperature regulation takes place through a system of positive and negative feedback in the central nervous system, being developed in three phases: thermal afferent, central regulation and efferent response. Prevention is the best way to ensure a normal temperature. The active warming of the patient during surgery is mandatory. Using warm air is the most effective, simple and cheap way to prevent and treat hypothermia.
Nussey, S. S.; Ang, V. T.; Jenkins, J. S.
We describe a 30 year old man who developed chronic adipsic hypernatraemia and hypothermia following a subarachnoid haemorrhage from an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal. Hypothermia was demonstrated over 4 years with loss of the ability to control heat conservation despite body temperatures as low as 30 degrees C. He failed to experience thirst despite plasma sodium concentrations of up to 187 nmol/l and plasma osmolalities of up to 397 mOsm/kg. The slope of the plasma vasopressin-plasma osmolality curve indicated loss of the osmoreceptor. There was an absent vasopressin response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia but a normal response to apomorphine. The apomorphine-stimulated immunoreactive vasopressin was shown to behave identically to the synthetic peptide on HPLC and was bioactive. PMID:3774677
Roudsari, Bahman S; Nathens, Avery B; Cameron, Peter; Civil, Ian; Gruen, Russel L; Koepsell, Thomas D; Lecky, Fiona E; Lefering, Rolf L; Liberman, Moishe; Mock, Charles N; Oestern, Hans-Jörg; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Waydhas, Christian; Rivara, Frederick P
Given the recent emphasis on developing prehospital trauma care globally, we embarked upon a multicentre study to compare trauma patients' outcome within and between countries with technician-operated advanced life support (ALS) and physician-operated (Doc-ALS) emergency medical service (EMS) systems. These environments represent the continuum of prehospital care in high income countries with more advanced prehospital trauma care systems. Five countries with ALS-EMS system and four countries with Doc-ALS EMS system provided us with de-identified patient-level data from their national or local trauma registries. Generalised linear latent and mixed models was used in order to compare emergency department (ED) shock rate (systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90mmHg) and early trauma fatality rate (i.e. death during the first 24h after hospital arrival) between ALS and Doc-ALS EMS systems. Logistic regression was used to compare outcomes of interest among different countries, accounting for within-system correlation in patient outcomes. After adjustment for patient age, sex, type and mechanism of injury, injury severity score and SBP at scene, the ED shock rate did not vary significantly between Doc-ALS and ALS systems (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.73-1.91). However, the early trauma fatality rate was significantly lower in Doc-ALS EMS systems compared with ALS EMS systems (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.91). Furthermore, we found a considerable heterogeneity in patient outcomes among countries even with similar type of EMS systems. These findings suggest that prehospital trauma care systems that dispatch a physician to the scene may be associated with lower early trauma fatality rates, but not necessarily with significantly better outcomes on other clinical measures. The reasons for these findings deserve further studies.
Kimbrough, Doris R.
Even when air and water are at the same temperature, water will "feel" distinctly colder to us. This difference is due to the much higher heat capacity of water than of air. Offered here is an interesting life science application of water's high heat capacity and its serious implications for the maintenance of body temperature and the prevention of hypothermia in warm-blooded animals.
Adams, J G; Arnold, R; Siminoff, L; Wolfson, A B
To assess the range of ethical conflicts that confront prehospital care providers. Convenience sample, from October 1989 to January 1990. An urban advanced life support emergency medical service that transports approximately 3,000 patients per month. Six hundred seven paramedic responses were analyzed by a single observer. An ethical conflict was identified when the paramedic faced a dilemma about what "ought to be done" and the paramedic's values conflicted or potentially conflicted with the patient's. Cases with potential ethical consequence were brought to experts in medical ethics and epidemiology for further analysis and classification. Ethical conflicts arose in 14.4% of paramedic responses (88 of 607 cases). Twenty-seven percent of the conflicts involved issues of informed consent, such as refusal of treatment or transport, conflicts of hospital destination, treatment of minors, and consent for research. Difficulties regarding the duty of the paramedics, usually under threatening circumstances, accounted for 19% of the dilemmas encountered. Requests for limitation of resuscitation accounted for 14%. Other circumstances that presented ethical conflicts involved questions of patient competence (17%), resource allocation (10%), confidentiality (8%), truth telling (3%), and training (1%). The data demonstrate a range of ethical conflicts in the prehospital setting and point to areas in which policy needs to be developed. The data also can be used in a prehospital ethics curriculum for paramedics and physicians. Because case sampling was not strictly random, absolute conclusions should not be drawn regarding the frequency of the dilemmas.
Walter, S; Grunwald, I Q; Fassbender, K
The management of acute stroke patients suffers from several major problems in the daily clinical routine. In order to achieve optimal treatment a complex diagnostic work-up and rapid initiation of therapy are necessary; however, most patients arrive at hospital too late for any type of acute stroke treatment, although all forms of treatment are highly time-dependent according to the generally accepted "time is brain" concept. Recently, two randomized clinical trials demonstrated the feasibility of prehospital stroke diagnostic work-up and treatment. This was accomplished by use of a specialized ambulance, equipped with computed tomography for multimodal imaging and a point-of-care laboratory system. In both trials the results demonstrated a clear superiority of the prehospital treatment group with a significant reduction of treatment times, significantly increased number of patients treated within the first 60 min after symptom onset and an optimized triage to the correct target hospital. Currently, mobile stroke units are in operation in various countries and should lead to an improvement in stroke treatment; nevertheless, intensive research is still needed to analyze the best framework settings for prehospital stroke management.
Gordon, Christopher J; McMahon, Beth; Richelson, Elliott; Padnos, Beth; Katz, Laurence
The potential use of hypothermia as a therapeutic treatment for stroke and other pathological insults has prompted the search for drugs that can lower core temperature. Ideally, a drug is needed that reduces the set-point for control of core temperature (T(c)) and thereby induces a regulated reduction in T(c). To this end, a neurotensin analog (NT77) that crosses the blood brain barrier and induces hypothermia was assessed for its effects on the set-point for temperature regulation in the Sprague-Dawley rat by measuring behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses. Following surgical implanation of radiotransmitters to monitor T(c), rats were placed in a temperature gradient and allowed to select from a range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) while T(c) was monitored by radiotelemetry. There was an abrupt decrease in selected T(a) from 29 to 16 degrees C and a concomitant reduction in T(c) from 37.4 to 34.0 degrees C 1 hr after IP injection of 5.0 mg/kg NT77. Selected T(a) and T(c) then recovered to control levels by 1.5 hr and 4 hr, respectively. Oxygen consumption (M) and heat loss (H) were measured in telemetered rats housed in a direct calorimeter maintained at a T(a) of 23.5 degrees C. Injection of NT77 initially led to a reduction in M, little change in H, and marked decrease in T(c). H initially rose but decreased around the time of the maximal decrease in T(c). Overall, NT77 appears to induce a regulated hypothermic response because the decrease in T(c) was preceded by a reduction in heat production, no change in heat loss, and preference for cold T(a)'s. Inducing a regulated hypothermic response with drugs such as NT77 may be an important therapy for ischemic disease and other insults.
Rovegno, Maximiliano; Valenzuela, José Luis; Mellado, Patricio; Andresen, Max
The use of hypothermia after cardiac arrest caused by ventricular fibrillation is a standard clinical practice, however its use for neuroprotection has been extended to other conditions. We report a 23-year-old male with intracranial hypertension secondary to a parenchymal hematoma associated to acute hydrocephalus. An arterial malformation was found and embolized. Due to persistent intracranial hypertension, moderate hypothermia with a target temperature of 33°C was started. After 12 hours of hypothermia, intracranial pressure was controlled. After 13 days of hypothermia a definitive control of intracranial pressure was achieved. The patient was discharged 40 days after admission, remains with a mild hemiparesia and is reassuming his university studies.
Jeong, Han-Yeong; Chang, Jun-Young; Yum, Kyu Sun; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Heon; Yeo, Min-Ju; Bae, Hee-Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Lee, Kiwon
Background and Purpose The use of decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) for the treatment of malignant cerebral edema can decrease mortality rates. However, this benefit is not sufficient to justify its use in elderly patients. We investigated the effects of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on safety, feasibility, and functional outcomes in elderly patients with malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts. Methods Elderly patients 60 years of age and older with infarcts affecting more than two-thirds of the MCA territory were included. Patients who could not receive DHC were treated with TH. Hypothermia was started within 72 hours of symptom onset and was maintained for a minimum of 72 hours with a target temperature of 33°C. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months following treatment and complications of TH were used as functional outcomes. Results Eleven patients with a median age of 76 years and a median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 18 were treated with TH. The median time from symptom onset to initiation of TH was 30.3±23.0 hours and TH was maintained for a median of 76.7±57.1 hours. Shivering (100%) and electrolyte imbalance (82%) were frequent complications. Two patients died (18%). The mean mRS score 3 months following treatment was 4.9±0.8. Conclusions Our results suggest that extended use of hypothermia is safe and feasible for elderly patients with large hemispheric infarctions. Hypothermia may be considered as a therapeutic alternative to DHC in elderly individuals. Further studies are required to validate our findings. PMID:27488978
Akamatsu, Tomohisa; Dai, Hongmei; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Oka, Akira; Itoh, Masayuki
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains a serious burden in neonatal care. Hypothermia provides a good outcome in some babies with HIE. Here, we investigated the biological mechanisms of its neuroprotective effect and sought for a new therapeutic target. We made neonatal HIE rats and subjected some of them to hypothermia at 28°C for 3 hours. We pathologically confirmed the efficacy of hypothermia against the neonatal HIE brain. To clarify the molecular mechanism of hypothermia's efficacy, we analyzed mRNA expression, immunoassay, and pathology in the brain with or without HIE and/or hypothermia. We selected from these analyses 12 molecules with possible neuroprotective effects. After identification of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) as a therapeutic target candidate, we examined the efficacy of an anti-LOX-1 neutralizing antibody in neonatal HIE rats. Administration of an anti-LOX-1 neutralizing antibody reduced infarction area, brain edema, and apoptotic cell death to a degree comparable with hypothermia. Protection from those pathological conditions was considered part of the therapeutic mechanism of hypothermia. The efficacy of administering anti-LOX-1 neutralizing antibody was similar to that of hypothermia. LOX-1 is a promising therapeutic target in neonatal HIE, and the inhibition of LOX-1 may become a novel treatment for babies who have experienced asphyxia.
Ichinose, Mari; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Iriyama, Takayuki; Imada, Shinya; Seyama, Takahiro; Toshimitsu, Masatake; Asou, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a major form of brain injury among preterm infants, which is characterized by extensive loss and dysfunction of premyelinating oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs) induced by hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Therapeutic hypothermia, which is a standard treatment for term infants with HI encephalopathy, is not indicated for preterm infants because its safety and effect have not been established. Here we investigate the effectiveness and mechanism of hypothermia for the inhibition of pre-OLs damage in PVL. For in vivo studies, 6-day-old rats underwent left carotid artery ligation, followed by exposure to 6% oxygen for 1 hr under hypothermic or normothermic conditions. The loss of myelin basic protein (MBP) was inhibited by hypothermia. For in vitro studies, primary pre-OLs cultures were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) under normothermic or hypothermic conditions, and dorsal root ganglion neurons were subsequently added. Hypothermia inhibited apoptosis of pre-OLs, and, despite specific downregulation of 21.5- and 17-kDa MBP mRNA expression during hypothermia, recovery of the expression after OGD was superior compared with normothermia. OGD caused disarrangement of MBP distribution, decreased the levels of phosphorylated 21.5-kDa MBP, and disturbed the capacity to contact with neurons, all of which were restored by hypothermia. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 during and after OGD significantly reduced the protective effects of hypothermia on apoptosis and myelination, respectively. These data suggest that phosphorylated exon 2-containing (21.5- and possibly 17-kDa) MBP isoforms may play critical roles in myelination and that hypothermia attenuates apoptosis and preserves the contact between OLs and neurons via ERK1/2 phosphorylation.
2008; 12(Suppll): Sl-52. 10. Care CoTCC: Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines. November I, 2010. Available at http://www.naemt.org/Libraries/ PHTLS ...Prehospital Trauma Life Support Committee, Arilerican College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. PHTLS : Prehospital Trauma Life Support. Ed 6. St
Cao, Zhijuan; Balasubramanian, Adithya; Marrelli, Sean P
Traditional methods of therapeutic hypothermia show promise for neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), however, with limitations. We examined effectiveness and specificity of pharmacological hypothermia (PH) by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonism in the treatment of focal cerebral I/R. Core temperature (T(core)) was measured after subcutaneous infusion of TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in conscious C57BL/6 WT and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Acute measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion were measured before and after DHC treatment. Focal cerebral I/R (1 h ischemia + 24 h reperfusion) was induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Hypothermia (>8 h) was initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion by DHC infusion (osmotic pump). Neurofunction (behavioral testing) and infarct volume (TTC staining) were measured at 24 h. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) produced a stable drop in T(core) (33°C) in naive and I/R mouse models but not in TRPV1 KO mice. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) had no measurable effect on HR and cerebral perfusion but produced a slight transient drop in MAP (<6 mmHg). In stroke mice, DHC infusion produced hypothermia, decreased infarct volume by 87%, and improved neurofunctional score. The hypothermic and neuroprotective effects of DHC were absent in TRPV1 KO mice or mice maintained normothermic with heat support. PH via TRPV1 agonist appears to be a well-tolerated and effective method for promoting mild hypothermia in the conscious mouse. Furthermore, TRPV1 agonism produces effective hypothermia in I/R mice and significantly improves outcome when initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion.
Hunter, Christopher L; Silvestri, Salvatore; Ralls, George; Stone, Amanda; Walker, Ayanna; Papa, Linda
To determine the utility of a prehospital sepsis screening protocol utilizing systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2). We conducted a prospective cohort study among sepsis alerts activated by emergency medical services during a 12 month period after the initiation of a new sepsis screening protocol utilizing ≥2 SIRS criteria and ETCO2 levels of ≤25 mmHg in patients with suspected infection. The outcomes of those that met all criteria of the protocol were compared to those that did not. The main outcome was the diagnosis of sepsis and severe sepsis. Secondary outcomes included mortality and in-hospital lactate levels. Of 330 sepsis alerts activated, 183 met all protocol criteria and 147 did not. Sepsis alerts that followed the protocol were more frequently diagnosed with sepsis (78% vs 43%, P < .001) and severe sepsis (47% vs 7%, P < .001), and had a higher mortality (11% vs 5%, P = .036). Low ETCO2 levels were the strongest predictor of sepsis (area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00; P < .001), severe sepsis (AUC 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.86; P < .001), and mortality (AUC 0.70, 95% CI 0.57-0.83; P = .005) among all prehospital variables. Sepsis alerts that followed the protocol had a sensitivity of 90% (95% CI 81-95%), a specificity of 58% (95% CI 52-65%), and a negative predictive value of 93% (95% CI 87-97%) for severe sepsis. There were significant associations between prehospital ETCO2 and serum bicarbonate levels (r = 0.415, P < .001), anion gap (r = -0.322, P < .001), and lactate (r = -0.394, P < .001). A prehospital screening protocol utilizing SIRS criteria and ETCO2 predicts sepsis and severe sepsis, which could potentially decrease time to therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Girisgin, Abdullah Sadik; Kalkan, Erdal; Ergin, Mehmet; Keskin, Fatih; Dundar, Zerrin Defne; Kebapcioglu, Sedat; Kocak, Sedat; Cander, Basar
Background: Experimental approaches have been promising with the use of therapeutic hypothermia after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) whereas clinical data have not supported its efficacy. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether using selective deeper brain cooling correlates with a more neuroprotective effect on Intracranial Pressure (ICP) increments following TBI in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (mean weight = 300 g; n = 25) were subjected to brain injury using a modified Marmarou method. Immediately after the onset of TBI, rats were randomized into three groups. Selective brain cooling was applied around the head using ice packages. Intracranial Temperature (ICT) and ICP were continuously measured at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes and recorded for all groups. Group 1 (n = 5) was normothermia and was assigned as the control group. Group 2 (n = 10) received moderate hypothermia with a target ICT of between 32°C - 33°C and Group 3 (n = 10) was given a deeper hypothermia with a target ICT of below 32°C. Results: All subjects reached the target ICT by the 30th minute of hypothermia induction. The ICT was significantly different in Group 2 compared to Group 1 only at the 120th minute (P = 0.017), while ICP was significantly lower starting from the 30th minute (P = 0.015). The ICT was significantly lower in Group 3 compared to Groups 1 and 2 starting from the 30th minute (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). The ICP was significantly lower in Group 3 compared to Group 1 starting from 30th minute (P = 0.001); however, a significant difference in ICP between Group 3 and Group 2 was observed only at the 180th minute (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that selective brain cooling is an effective method of decreasing ICP in rats; however, the deeper hypothermia caused a greater decrease in ICP three hours after hypothermia induction. PMID:26023335
Central nervous system (CNS) damage is often associated with robust body temperature changes, such as hypothermia and delayed hyperthermia. Hypothermia is one of the most common body temperature changes to CNS insults in rodents and is often associated with improved outcome. Alth...
Clark, Kenneth Howard; Stoppacher, Robert
For more than 100 years since their initial description, gastric mucosal petechial hemorrhages have been discovered at autopsy in cases where environmental hypothermia was determined to be the cause of death. Although these lesions are frequently seen in deaths caused by environmental hypothermia, they can also be seen in cases where hypothermia is not implicated; however, this has been seldom described. We present a series of autopsy cases where hypothermia has been conclusively ruled out as a cause of death, in which Wischnewsky lesions are found. In all of these cases, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was determined to be the proximate cause of death, as confirmed through clinical history, laboratory analysis, and absence of other anatomic or toxicological findings. We provide a mechanism of Wischnewsky lesion formation and how that mechanism relates to both hypothermia and ketoacidosis. Our data show that gastric mucosal petechial hemorrhages are not specific for hypothermia-related deaths, and are likely indicative of a state in which hypothermia and DKA have a common underlying pathophysiology, most likely a coagulopathy. Our data also illustrate that in autopsy cases where Wischnewsky lesions are found, DKA should be seriously considered as the underlying cause of death, particularly in the absence of indications of environmental hypothermia.
Zonnenberg, Cherryl; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M; Ramlal, Dharmindredew; Blom, Jan Dirk
Hypothermia is a rare, but potentially fatal adverse effect of antipsychotic drug (APD) use. Although the opposite condition, hyperthermia, has been researched extensively in the context of the malignant antipsychotic syndrome, little is known about hypothermia due to APDs. This study aimed to review the literature on hypothermia in the context of APD use, and formulate implications for research and clinical care. A systematic search was made in PubMed and Ovid Medline. The literature search yielded 433 articles, including 57 original case descriptions of hypothermia developed during APD use with non-toxic plasma levels. All cases together indicate that the risk of developing hypothermia is highest during the 7 days following initiation, or increase in dosage, of APDs, especially in the presence of additional predisposing factors, such as advanced age, exposure to cold, adjuvant use of benzodiazepines, and (subclinical) hypothyroidism. In addition, data derived from drug-monitoring agencies suggest that the prevalence of APD-related hypothermia is at least 10 times higher than suggested by the literature. We conclude that health-care professionals need to monitor the body temperature of patients starting with (an increased dose of) APDs for a duration of 7-10 days to prevent hypothermia, especially in the presence of multiple risk factors. Moreover, systematic studies are needed to establish the actual prevalence of APD-related hypothermia as well as the relative risk for individual APDs.
Central nervous system (CNS) damage is often associated with robust body temperature changes, such as hypothermia and delayed hyperthermia. Hypothermia is one of the most common body temperature changes to CNS insults in rodents and is often associated with improved outcome. Alth...
Tsai, Li-Kai; Chen, Chien-Lin; Tsai, Yi-Chieh; Ting, Chen-Hung; Chien, Yin-Hsio; Lee, Ni-Chong; Hwu, Wuh-Liang
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by a deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of intermittent transient hypothermia in a mouse model of SMA. SMA mice were exposed to ice for 50 s to achieve transient hypothermia (below 25°C) daily beginning on postnatal day 1. Neonatal SMA mice (Smn(-/-)SMN2(+/-)) who received daily transient hypothermia exhibited reduced motor neuron degeneration and muscle atrophy and preserved the architecture of neuromuscular junction when compared with untreated controls at day 8 post-treatment. Daily hypothermia also prolonged the lifespan, increased body weight and improved motor coordination in SMA mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that transient hypothermia led to an increase in SMN transcript and protein levels in the spinal cord and brain. In in vitro studies using an SMN knockdown motor neuron-like cell-line, transient hypothermia increased intracellular SMN protein expression and length of neurites, confirming the direct effect of hypothermia on motor neurons. These data indicate that the efficacy of intermittent transient hypothermia in improving outcome in an SMA mouse model may be mediated, in part, via an upregulation of SMN levels in the motor neurons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ostojić, Z S; Ilić, T V; Vesković, S M; Andjus, P R
wave discharges, registered during the spontaneous rewarming from deep hypothermia, were completely prevented by CGP 35348. These findings show that systemic hypothermia should definitely be regarded as a marker of GABAB receptor activation. Moreover, the results of this study clearly show that initial mild temperature decrease should be considered as strong absence-provoking factor. Hypothermia-induced nonconvulsive seizures also highlight the importance of continuous EEG monitoring in children undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Since every change in peripheral or systemic temperature ultimately must be perceived by preoptic region of the anterior hypothalamus as the primary thermoregulatory and sleep-inducing center, the preoptic thermosensitive neurons in general and warm-sensitive neurons in particular, simply have to be regarded as the most probable candidate for connected thermoregulatory and absence generating mechanisms. Therefore, additional studies are needed to confirm their potential role in the generation and propagation of absence seizures. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, YiQing; Shangguan, Yu; Barks, John D.E.; Silverstein, Faye S.
The NaKCl cotransporter NKCC1 facilitates intraneuronal chloride accumulation in the developing brain. Bumetanide, a clinically available diuretic, inhibits this chloride transporter, and augments the antiepileptic effects of phenobarbital in neonatal rodents. In a neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model, elicited by right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8% O2 exposure in 7-day-old(P7) rats, phenobarbital(PB) increases the neuroprotective efficacy of hypothermia. We evaluated whether bumetanide influenced the neuroprotective efficacy of combination treatment with PB and hypothermia(HT). P7 rats underwent HI lesioning; 15 min later, all received PB (30 mg/kg). 10 min later, half received bumetanide (10 mg/kg, PB-HT+BUM) and half received saline (PB-HT+SAL). One hour after HI, all were cooled (30°C, 3h). Contralateral forepaw sensorimotor function and brain damage were evaluated 1 to 4 weeks later. Forepaw functional measures were close to normal in the PB-HT+BUM group, while deficits persisted in PB-HT+SAL controls; there were corresponding reductions in right cerebral hemisphere damage (at P35, % damage: PB-HT+BUM, 21±16 versus 38±20 in controls). These results provide evidence that NKCC1 inhibition amplifies phenobarbital bioactivity in the immature brain, and suggest that co-administration of phenobarbital and bumetanide may represent a clinically feasible therapy to augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia in asphyxiated neonates. PMID:22398701
Lee, Chien-Chang; Wang, Hsuan-Mao; Chou, Tzung-Hsin; Wu, Meng-Che; Hsueh, Kuang-Lung; Chen, Shyr-Chyr
Background Therapeutic hypothermia during operation decreases postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation. We sought to determine the most appropriate duration of hypothermia, and whether hypothermia affects the expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Methods 80 male BALB/c mice weighing 25–30 g are randomized into one of five groups: adhesion model with infusion of 15°C saline for 15 minutes (A); 30 minutes (B); 45 minute (C); adhesion model without infusion of cold saline (D); and sham operation without infusion of cold saline (E). Adhesion scores and tPA levels in the peritoneum fluid levels were analyzed on postoperative days 1, 7, and 14. Results On day 14, the cold saline infusion groups (A, B, and C) had lower adhesion scores than the without infusion of cold saline group (D). However, only group B (cold saline infusion for 30 minutes) had a significantly lower adhesion scores than group D. Also, group B was found to have 3.4 fold, 2.3 fold, and 2.2 fold higher levels of tPA than group D on days 1, 7, and 14 respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that cold saline infusion for 30 minutes was the optimum duration to decrease postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation. The decrease in the adhesion formations could be partly due to an increase in the level of tPA. PMID:27583464
Kida, Kotaro; Shirozu, Kazuhiro; Yu, Binglan; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito
Background Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although nitric oxide prevents organ injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion, role of nitric oxide during TH after CPR remains unclear. Here, we examined the impact of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis on the beneficial effects of hypothermia after CA/CPR. We also examined whether or not inhaled nitric oxide during hypothermia further improves outcomes after CA/CPR in mice treated with TH. Methods Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3−/−) were subjected to CA at 37°C and then resuscitated with chest compression. Body temperature was maintained at 37°C (normothermia) or reduced to 33°C (TH) for 24 hours after resuscitation. Mice breathed air or air mixed with nitric oxide at 10, 20, 40, 60, or 80 ppm during hypothermia. To evaluate brain injury and cerebral blood flow, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in WT mice after CA/CPR. Results Hypothermia up-regulated the NOS3-dependent signaling in the brain (n=6–7). Deficiency of NOS3 abolished the beneficial effects of hypothermia after CA/CPR (n=5–6). Breathing nitric oxide at 40 ppm improved survival rate in hypothermia-treated NOS3−/− mice (n=6) after CA/CPR compared to NOS3−/− mice that were treated with hypothermia alone (n=6, P<0.05). Breathing nitric oxide at 40 (n=9) or 60 (n=9) ppm markedly improved survival rates in TH-treated WT mice (n=51) (both P<0.05 vs TH-treated WT mice). Inhaled nitric oxide during TH (n=7) prevented brain injury compared to TH alone (n=7) without affecting cerebral blood flow after CA/CPR (n=6). Conclusions NOS3 is required for the beneficial effects of TH. Inhaled nitric oxide during TH remains beneficial and further improves outcomes after CA/CPR. Nitric oxide breathing exerts protective effects after CA/CPR even when TH is ineffective due to impaired endogenous nitric oxide production
Empey, Philip E.; Miller, Tricia M.; Philbrick, Ashley H.; Melick, John; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Poloyac, Samuel M.
Objectives Therapeutic hypothermia is widely-employed for neuroprotection after cardiac arrest(CA). However, concern regarding elevated drug concentrations during hypothermia and increased adverse drug reaction risk complicates concurrent pharmacotherapy. Many commonly used medications in critically ill patients rely on the cytochrome P450(CYP) 3A isoform for their elimination. Therefore, our study objectives were to determine the effect of mild hypothermia on the in vivo pharmacokinetics of fentanyl and midazolam, two clinically-relevant CYP3A substrates, after CA and to investigate the mechanisms of these alterations. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled study Setting University research laboratory Subjects Thirty two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats Interventions An asphyxial CA rat model was used and mild hypothermia(33 °C) was induced 1h post injury by surface cooling and continued for 10 hours to mimic the prolonged clinical application of hypothermia accompanied by intensive care interventions. Fentanyl and midazolam were independently administered by intravenous infusion and plasma and brain concentrations were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Cyp3a2 protein expression was measured and a Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic analysis was performed at 37°C and 33°C using control rat microsomes. Measurements and Main Results Mild hypothermia decreased the systemic clearance of both fentanyl (61.5±11.5 to 48.9±8.95 mL/min/kg;p < 0.05) and midazolam (89.2±12.5 to 73.6±12.1 mL/min/kg;p < 0.05) after CA. The elevated systemic concentrations did not lead to parallel increased brain exposures of either drug. Mechanistically, no differences in Cyp3a2 expression was observed, but the in vitro metabolism of both drugs was decreased at 33 °C versus 37 °C through reductions in enzyme metabolic capacity rather than substrate affinity. Conclusions Mild hypothermia reduces the systemic clearances of fentanyl and
Hemmen, Thomas M; Raman, Rema; Guluma, Kama Z; Meyer, Brett C; Gomes, Joao A; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Wijman, Christine A; Rapp, Karen S; Grotta, James C; Lyden, Patrick D
of combining endovascular hypothermia after stroke with intravenous thrombolysis. Pneumonia was more frequent after hypothermia, but further studies are needed to determine its effect on patient outcome and whether it can be prevented. A definitive efficacy trial is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke. PMID:20724711
Davis, Matthew T; Dukelow, Adam; McLeod, Shelley; Rodriguez, Severo; Lewell, Michael
The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) can capture valuable information in the prehospital setting. By the time patients are assessed by an emergency department (ED) physician, their symptoms and any ECG changes may have resolved. We sought to determine whether the prehospital electrocardiogram (pECG) could influence ED management and how often the pECG was available to and reviewed by the ED physician. A retrospective medical record review was conducted on a random sample of patients ≥ 18 years who had a prehospital 12-lead ECG and were transported to one of two tertiary care centres. Data were recorded onto a standardized data extraction tool. Three investigators independently compared the pECG to the first ECG obtained in the ED after patient arrival at the hospital. Any abnormalities not present on the ED ECG were adjudicated to ascertain whether they had the potential to change ED management. Of 115 ambulance runs selected, 47 had no pECG attached to the ambulance call record (ACR) and another 5 were excluded (one ST elevation myocardial infarction, one cardiac arrest, three ACR missing). Of the 63 pECGs reviewed, 16 (25%) showed changes not apparent on the initial ED ECG (κ = 0.83; 95% CI 0.74-0.93), of which 12 had differences that might influence ED management (κ = 0.76; 95% CI 0.72-0.82). Only one hospital record contained a copy of the pECG, despite the current protocol that paramedics print two copies of the pECG on arrival in the ED (one copy for the ACR and one to be handed to the medical personnel). None of 110 ED charts documented that the pECG was reviewed by the ED physician. The pECG has the potential to influence ED management. Improvement in paramedic and physician documentation and a formal pECG handover process appear necessary.
Witkowski, Wojciech; Maj, Jakub
The paper is a review of pathophysiology and management of perioperative hypothermia. The advanced methods of rewarming, such as passive and active: external and core used in clinic allow for efficient management ant prophylactics of hypothermia. Thermotherapy with use of infrared ceiling heaters CTS and mobile MTC as well as Infutherm system applying by authors are desirable and even indispensable in contemporary equipment of surgery clinics, cardiovascular surgery clinics and burn centers. The ideal rewarming method should be safe and enable fast, reliable and predictable warming or rewarming. The clinical parameter to determine the efficacy of rewarming is the change of core temperature. There is no doubt that active warming with forced-air warmers (Warm Touch 5700 and Bair Hugger 500) or radiative heaters (IR-A:Hydrosun 500, IR-C radiation: CTC X, MTC) is more effective than use of standard, passive insulation hospital blankets or convectional heaters. Actually the forced-air warmers are counted to be more useful in cardiovascular surgery hypothermia management, because of fast rate core temperature rise and faster rise in mean skin temperature compared to the control group. CTC X and MTC Aragona radiative heaters are useful in burn management being the most effective when the distance of heater from the patient body is less than 80 cm. The observation of 60 consecutive extensive burns leads to conclusion that long-lasting dressings in burn patients when the whole body is not covered and protected, can be performed safely only in conditions excluding heat losses and core temperature drop. While the cold intravenous fluids may significantly contribute to the temperature drop depending on the volume infused, the use of fluids warming systems as well as external heat application is absolutely indicated to improve the heat balance of the patient body.
Pannen, B H J
For a long time the significance of perioperative accidental hypothermia was overlooked. The possible undesirable effects of a relatively small reduction in the body core temperature of 1.5-2.0 degrees C were generally unknown and the treatment options were limited. The unfavourable climatic conditions in the operation room favour heat loss and simultaneously, there is considerable disturbance of temperature regulation through general as well as spinal anaesthesia. In many studies it has now been shown that the resulting decrease in body temperature can have a negative effect on immune function, coagulation, the cardiovascular system and recovery behaviour. Heat loss in the perioperative phase should, therefore, be minimised by effective insulation. Nevertheless, a negative heat balance can often only be avoided by an additional heat treatment of the body surface which ideally should be initiated in the preoperative phase. If large volumes must be infused, an important additional measure is to prewarm these solutions. This is the only way in which the objective, to avoid a fall in body temperature to below 36 degrees C in the perioperative phase and the possible subsequent negative effects on the course of events, can be reached. The incidence of perioperative hypothermia is often underestimated so that in this phase a reduction in body core temperature of more than 2 degrees C will occur in more than 50% of patients if no special measures are undertaken. In addition, the undesirable effects of such a reduction in core temperature were barely known and even only a few years ago there were hardly any possibilities for reliable prevention or effective treatment. Therefore, in this article the causes of perioperative hypothermia will initially be described. In the second section the possible negative consequences of a reduction in body core temperature will be presented and in the last section the resulting consequences for the practice will be discussed.
Lu, Xiaoye; Ma, Linhao; Sun, Shijie; Xu, Jeifeng; Zhu, Changqing; Tang, Wanchun
To investigate the optimal rewarming rate following therapeutic hypothermia in a rate model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Both clinical and laboratory studies have demonstrated that mild therapeutic hypothermia following cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves myocardial and neurologic outcomes of cardiac arrest. However, the optimal rewarming strategy following therapeutic hypothermia remains to be explored. Prospective randomized controlled experimental study. University-affiliated research institution. Twenty-three healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized: 1) normothermia group (control), 2) rewarming rate at 2°C/hr, 3) rewarming rate at 1°C/hr, and 4) rewarming rate at 0.5°C/hr. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and untreated for 8 minutes, and defibrillation was attempted after 8 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. For the 2, 1, and 0.5°C/hr groups, rapid cooling was started at the beginning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. On reaching the target cooling temperature of 33°C ± 0.2°C, the temperature was maintained with the aid of a cooling blanket until 4 hours after resuscitation. Rewarming was then initiated at the rate of 2.0, 1.0, or 0.5°C/hr, respectively, until the body temperature reached 37°C ±0.2°C. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and postresuscitation of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours for the measurements of blood gas and serum biomarkers. Blood temperature significantly decreased in the hypothermic groups from cardiopulmonary resuscitation to postresuscitation 4 hours. Significantly better cardiac output, ejection fraction, myocardial performance index, reduced neurologic deficit scores, and longer duration of survival were observed in the 1 and 0.5°C/hr groups. The increased serum concentration of troponin I, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α was partly attenuated in the 1 and 0.5°C/hr groups when compared with the control and 2°C/hr groups. This study demonstrated that
Wallace, David J.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; Angus, Derek C.; Martin-Gill, Christian; Callaway, Clifton W.; Rea, Thomas D.; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kurland, Kristen; Seymour, Christopher W.
Objective Estimates of prehospital transport times are an important part of emergency care system research and planning; however the accuracy of these estimates is unknown. We examined the accuracy of three estimation methods against observed transport times in a large cohort of prehospital patient transports. Methods We performed a validation study using prehospital records in King County, Washington and southwestern Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2006 and 2005 to 2011, respectively. We generated transport time estimates using three methods: linear arc distance, Google Maps and ArcGIS Network Analyst. We assessed estimation error, defined as the absolute difference between observed and estimated transport time, and the proportion of estimated times that were within specified error thresholds. Based on the primary results, we then tested whether a regression estimate that incorporated population density, time-of-day and season could improve accuracy. Finally, we compared hospital catchment areas using each method with a fixed drive time. Results We analyzed 29,935 prehospital transports to 44 hospitals. The mean absolute error was 4.8 minutes (± 7.3) using linear arc, 3.5 minutes (± 5.4) using Google Maps and 4.4 minutes (± 5.7) using ArcGIS. All pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (p<0.01). Estimation accuracy was lower for each method among transports more than twenty minutes (mean absolute error was 12.7 minutes (± 11.7) for linear arc, 9.8 minutes (± 10.5) for Google Maps and 11.6 minutes (± 10.9) for ArcGIS). Estimates were within five minutes of observed transport time for 79% of linear arc estimates, 86.6% of Google Maps estimates and 81.3% of ArcGIS estimates. The regression-based approach did not substantially improve estimation. There were large differences in hospital catchment areas estimated by each method. Conclusion We showed that route-based transport time estimates demonstrate moderate accuracy. These methods can be valuable for
Wallace, David J; Kahn, Jeremy M; Angus, Derek C; Martin-Gill, Christian; Callaway, Clifton W; Rea, Thomas D; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kurland, Kristen; Seymour, Christopher W
Estimates of prehospital transport times are an important part of emergency care system research and planning; however, the accuracy of these estimates is unknown. The authors examined the accuracy of three estimation methods against observed transport times in a large cohort of prehospital patient transports. This was a validation study using prehospital records in King County, Washington, and southwestern Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2006 and 2005 to 2011, respectively. Transport time estimates were generated using three methods: linear arc distance, Google Maps, and ArcGIS Network Analyst. Estimation error, defined as the absolute difference between observed and estimated transport time, was assessed, as well as the proportion of estimated times that were within specified error thresholds. Based on the primary results, a regression estimate was used that incorporated population density, time of day, and season to assess improved accuracy. Finally, hospital catchment areas were compared using each method with a fixed drive time. The authors analyzed 29,935 prehospital transports to 44 hospitals. The mean (± standard deviation [±SD]) absolute error was 4.8 (±7.3) minutes using linear arc, 3.5 (±5.4) minutes using Google Maps, and 4.4 (±5.7) minutes using ArcGIS. All pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Estimation accuracy was lower for each method among transports more than 20 minutes (mean [±SD] absolute error was 12.7 [±11.7] minutes for linear arc, 9.8 [±10.5] minutes for Google Maps, and 11.6 [±10.9] minutes for ArcGIS). Estimates were within 5 minutes of observed transport time for 79% of linear arc estimates, 86.6% of Google Maps estimates, and 81.3% of ArcGIS estimates. The regression-based approach did not substantially improve estimation. There were large differences in hospital catchment areas estimated by each method. Route-based transport time estimates demonstrate moderate accuracy. These methods can be valuable
1. Ventilation (VE) in unanaesthetized hypothermic animals remains tightly coupled to oxygen consumption (VO2) such that VE/VO2 remains constant despite changes in body temperature. 2. Ventilatory responses to hypoxia would suggest that, relative to metabolic rate, the gain of the respiratory system is unaltered in hypothermic animals. 3. Future studies should exercise care to ensure that the method applied in inducing hypothermia does not complicate ventilatory control and that the ability of the species to hibernate is taken into consideration.
Lilla, Nadine; Rinne, Christoph; Weiland, Judith; Linsenmann, Thomas; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Westermaier, Thomas
Metabolic exhaustion in ischemic tissue is the basis for a detrimental cascade of cell damage. In the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a sequence of global and focal ischemia occurs, threatening brain tissue to undergo ischemic damage. This study was conducted to investigate whether early therapy with moderate hypothermia can offer neuroprotection after experimental SAH. 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH and treated by active cooling (34° C) or served as controls by continuous maintenance of normothermia (37.0° C). Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intracranial pressure (ICP) and local cerebral blood flow (CBF) over both hemispheres were continuously measured. Neurological assessment was performed 24 hours later. Hippocampal damage was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Caspase-3 staining. By a slight increase of MABP in the cooling phase and a significant reduction of ICP, hypothermia improved cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in the first 60 minutes after SAH. Accordingly, a trend to increased CBF was observed during this period. The rate of injured neurons was significantly reduced in hypothermia-treated animals compared to normothermic controls. The results of this series cannot finally answer whether this form of treatment permanently attenuates or only delays ischemic damage. In the latter case, slowing down metabolic exhaustion by hypothermia may still be a valuable treatment during this state of ischemic brain damage and prolong the therapeutic window for possible causal treatments of the acute perfusion deficit. Therefore, it may be useful as a first-tier therapy in suspected SAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kumar, Matthew M; Goldberg, Andrew D; Kashiouris, Markos; Keenan, Lawrence R; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Afessa, Bekele; Johnson, Larry D; Atkinson, John L D; Nayagam, Vedha
Delay in instituting neuroprotective measures after cardiac arrest increases death and decreases neuronal recovery. Current hypothermia methods are slow, ineffective, unreliable, or highly invasive. We report the feasibility of rapid hypothermia induction in swine through augmented heat extraction from the lungs. Twenty-four domestic crossbred pigs (weight, 50-55kg) were ventilated with room air. Intraparenchymal brain temperature and core temperatures from pulmonary artery, lower esophagus, bladder, rectum, nasopharynx, and tympanum were recorded. In eight animals, ventilation was switched to cooled helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) and perfluorocarbon (PFC) aerosol and continued for 90min or until target brain temperature of 32°C was reached. Eight animals received body-surface cooling with water-circulating blankets; eight control animals continued to be ventilated with room air. Brain and core temperatures declined rapidly with cooled heliox-PFC ventilation. The brain reached target temperature within the study period (mean [SD], 66 [7.6]min) in only the transpulmonary cooling group. Cardiopulmonary functions and poststudy histopathological examination of the lungs were normal. Transpulmonary cooling is novel, rapid, minimally invasive, and an effective technique to induce therapeutic hypothermia. High thermal conductivity of helium and vaporization of PFC produces rapid cooling of alveolar gases. The thinness and large surface area of alveolar membrane facilitate rapid cooling of the pulmonary circulation. Because of differences in thermogenesis, blood flow, insulation, and exposure to the external environment, the brain cools at a different rate than other organs. Transpulmonary hypothermia was significantly faster than body surface cooling in reaching target brain temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abstract: Hypothermia is a key symptom of sepsis and the mechanism(s) leading to hypothermia during sepsis is largely unknown. To investigate a potential mechanism and find an effective treatment for hypothermia in sepsis, we induced hypothermia in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LP...
Abstract: Hypothermia is a key symptom of sepsis and the mechanism(s) leading to hypothermia during sepsis is largely unknown. To investigate a potential mechanism and find an effective treatment for hypothermia in sepsis, we induced hypothermia in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LP...
Gui, Li; Gu, Shen; Lu, Feng; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Ling
In Shanghai, prehospital emergency medical services are provided by the public Ambulance Services. The 60th anniversary of the local Ambulance Services is a good opportunity to provide an overview of the current trends in prehospital emergency medical care in Shanghai. In this report, the features of Shanghai prehospital emergency medical care are described, as well as the Shanghai model of purely prehospital emergency medical care, including the communications and dispatch system, ambulance depots and ambulances, and prehospital rescue teams. Responses to major incidents including public health emergencies and natural disasters are also discussed, with the intention of highlighting future directions in emergency medical services, as well as the influence of international trends in emergency patient care. Although Shanghai has the most advanced dispatch system in China (equipped with a Global Positioning System, Global Information System, and more) and can be expanded quickly in case of mass casualty incidents, there is, as yet, no uniform Emergency Medical Service (EMS) dispatching for the entire city. Nor are there certifications, degrees, or special continuing education programs available for EMS dispatchers. Although there are more and more ambulance depots spread all over Shanghai, the city struggles with inadequate prehospital emergency caregivers, because every ambulance has to be staffed with a qualified Emergency Physician, and there are also recruitment problems for ambulance physicians. Although faced with many challenges, substantial progress is expected in Shanghai prehospital emergency care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thundyil, John; Pavlovski, Dale; Hsieh, Yu-Hsuan; Gelderblom, Mathias; Magnus, Tim; Fairlie, David P; Arumugam, Thiruma V
The concept of 'salvageble penumbra' has prompted both scientists and physicians to explore various neuroprotective approaches that could be beneficial during stroke therapy. Unfortunately, most of them have proved ineffective in targeting multiple cellular death cascades incited within the ischemic penumbra. Hypothermia has been shown to be capable of addressing this problem to some extent. Although many studies have shown that hypothermia targets several cellular processes, its effects on innate immune receptor-mediated apoptotic death still remain unclear. Moreover, whether inhibiting the signaling of innate immune receptors like complement anaphylatoxin C5a receptor (CD88) plays a role in this hypothermic neuroprotection still need to be deciphered. Using various types of ischemic insults in different neuronal cells, we confirm that hypothermia does indeed attenuate apoptotic neuronal cell death in vitro and this effect can be further enhanced by pharmacologically blocking or knocking out CD88. Thus, our study raises a promising therapeutic possibility of adding CD88 antagonists along with hypothermia to improve stroke outcomes.
Candela, Serena; Dito, Raffaele; Casolla, Barbara; Silvestri, Emanuele; Sette, Giuliano; Filippi, Federico; Taurino, Maurizio; Brancadoro, Domitilla; Orzi, Francesco
Background CEA is associated with peri-operative risk of brain ischemia, due both to emboli production caused by manipulation of the plaque and to potentially noxious reduction of cerebral blood flow by carotid clamping. Mild hypothermia (34–35°C) is probably the most effective approach to protect brain from ischemic insult. It is therefore a substantial hypothesis that hypothermia lowers the risk of ischemic brain damage potentially associated with CEA. Purpose of the study is to test whether systemic endovascular cooling to a target of 34.5–35°C, initiated before and maintained during CEA, is feasible and safe. Methods The study was carried out in 7 consecutive patients referred to the Vascular Surgery Unit and judged eligible for CEA. Cooling was initiated 60–90 min before CEA, by endovascular approach (Zoll system). The target temperature was maintained during CEA, followed by passive, controlled rewarming (0.4°C/h). The whole procedure was carried out under anesthesia. Results All the patients enrolled had no adverse events. Two patients exhibited a transient bradycardia (heart rate 30 beats/min). There were no significant differences in the clinical status, laboratory and physiological data measured before and after CEA. Conclusions Systemic cooling to 34.5–35.0°C, initiated before and maintained during carotid clamping, is feasible and safe. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02629653 PMID:27058874
Candela, Serena; Dito, Raffaele; Casolla, Barbara; Silvestri, Emanuele; Sette, Giuliano; Filippi, Federico; Taurino, Maurizio; Brancadoro, Domitilla; Orzi, Francesco
CEA is associated with peri-operative risk of brain ischemia, due both to emboli production caused by manipulation of the plaque and to potentially noxious reduction of cerebral blood flow by carotid clamping. Mild hypothermia (34-35°C) is probably the most effective approach to protect brain from ischemic insult. It is therefore a substantial hypothesis that hypothermia lowers the risk of ischemic brain damage potentially associated with CEA. Purpose of the study is to test whether systemic endovascular cooling to a target of 34.5-35°C, initiated before and maintained during CEA, is feasible and safe. The study was carried out in 7 consecutive patients referred to the Vascular Surgery Unit and judged eligible for CEA. Cooling was initiated 60-90 min before CEA, by endovascular approach (Zoll system). The target temperature was maintained during CEA, followed by passive, controlled rewarming (0.4°C/h). The whole procedure was carried out under anesthesia. All the patients enrolled had no adverse events. Two patients exhibited a transient bradycardia (heart rate 30 beats/min). There were no significant differences in the clinical status, laboratory and physiological data measured before and after CEA. Systemic cooling to 34.5-35.0°C, initiated before and maintained during carotid clamping, is feasible and safe. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02629653.
Clark, Darren L; Colbourne, Frederick
Hypothermia reduces cell death and promotes recovery in models of cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage and trauma. Clinical studies report significant benefit for treating cardiac arrest and studies are investigating hypothermia for stroke and related conditions. Both local (head) and generalized hypothermia have been used. However, selective brain cooling has fewer side effects than systemic cooling. In this study, we developed a method to induce local (hemispheric) brain hypothermia in rats. The method involves using a small metal coil implanted between the Temporalis muscle and adjacent skull. This coil is then cooled by flushing it with cold water. In our first experiment, we tested whether this method induces focal brain hypothermia in anesthetized rats. Brain temperature was assessed in the ipsilateral cortex and striatum, and contralateral striatum, while body temperature was kept normothermic. Focal, ipsilateral cooling was successfully produced, while the other locations remained normothermic. In the second experiment, we implanted the coil, and brain and body temperature telemetry probes. The coil was connected via overhead swivel to a cold-water source. Brain hypothermia was produced for 24 h, while body temperature remained normothermic. A third experiment measured brain and body temperature along with heart rate and blood pressure. Brain cooling was produced for 24 h without significant alterations in pressure, heart rate or body temperature. In summary, our simple method allows for focal brain hypothermia to be safely induced in anesthetized or conscious rats, and is, therefore, ideally suited to stroke and trauma studies.
Lim, Cathy; Duflou, Johan
Fatal hypothermia is well known to occur in cold climates, with previous case series reflecting this. However, hypothermia can also occur in temperate climates. This case series describes the features and circumstances surrounding hypothermia-related deaths in Sydney, Australia. The files of hypothermia-related deaths were reviewed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Glebe between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2005 via a search of electronic autopsy records. Twenty-four cases of fatal hypothermia were found. Many of the deaths occurred in winter (46%). The mean age was 76 years (range 56-92), with a female predominance (63%). Risk factors for hypothermia were identified in 58%. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 22 (range 15-33). Nineteen cases (79%) were found indoors. Four decedents were found naked, four were dressed in minimal amounts of clothing, and paradoxical undressing was found in seven cases. Pathological findings included gastric erosions (79%), and patchy reddish brown discoloration over large joints (75%). The majority of cases had significant pre-existing natural disease processes. Out of 18 cases where toxicology was performed, alcohol was detected in four cases, while other psychotropic agents were present in four deaths. No illicit drugs were detected. This study shows that fatal hypothermia, a significant public health problem, is not limited to cold climates. Forensic pathologists in Australia need to be aware of this condition, and not dismiss death as due to natural disease processes.
Flores-Maldonado, A; Medina-Escobedo, C E; Ríos-Rodríguez, H M; Fernández-Domínguez, R
Bacterial destruction caused by free radicals, which are synthesized by neutrophils in the presence of oxygen, depends on adequate tissue perfusion. Mild perioperative hypothermia causes vasoconstriction, reducing nutrient and oxygen supply to wounds and increasing frequency of surgical wound infection. However, the causal role of hypothermia in surgical wound infection is the subject of controversy. The present work proposes the hypothesis that mild perioperative hypothermia is associated with infection of the surgical wound. A prospective cohort of 290 surgical patients was studied in a second-level hospital; 261 (90%) of the patients concluded the follow-up. The relationship of hypothermia and of other confounding factors, such as diabetes mellitus, antibiotic treatment, and wound drains with infection outcome was evaluated. One physician, blinded to patient hypothermia, gathered the data. Surgical wound infection was defined as the surgeon's diagnosis with positive culture. Twenty subjects (7.6%) showed infection of surgical wound; 18 (11.5%) of 156 hypothermics and two (2%) 105 normothermics (p = 0.004). Hypothermia proved to be a significant independent risk of infection with relative risk of 6.3 (p = 0.01). Mild perioperative hypothermia is associated with infection of the surgical wound and its prevention is therefore justified.
Frisch, Nicholas B; Pepper, Andrew M; Rooney, Edward; Silverton, Craig
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common and successful orthopedic procedures, and as their frequency continues to increase substantially, the focus on limiting perioperative complications heightens. Intraoperative normothermia is recommended to minimize additional complications, but limited evidence exists regarding the effect of hypothermia on orthopedic patients. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of perioperative hypothermia in the setting of TKA and THA, and to evaluate its impact on complications and outcomes. The clinical records of 2580 consecutive patients who underwent TKA or THA at a single institution between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013 were reviewed. After excluding patients with complex or revision procedures, a total of 2397 patients comprised the study population. Patient demographic data, surgery-specific data, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and 30-day readmission were recorded. Patients with a mean intraoperative temperature less than 36°C were identified as hypothermic. Statistical analysis evaluated associations with hypothermia and the effect on complications and outcomes. The incidence of mean intraoperative hypothermia was 37%, 43.9%, and 32.6% for arthroplasty, THA, and TKA, respectively. General anesthesia was significantly associated with hypothermia (P<.001). Women and THA patients were at higher risk for hypothermia. In the arthroplasty and THA cohorts, longer operating room time and re-warmer use were associated with hypothermia (P=.010). Overall, hypothermia was associated with increased estimated blood loss, but no increase in associated transfusion was demonstrated (P=.006). Hypothermia was not associated with postoperative complications. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):56-63.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Frisch, Nicholas B; Pepper, Andrew M; Jildeh, Toufic R; Shaw, Jonathan; Guthrie, Trent; Silverton, Craig
Hip fractures are common orthopedic injuries and are associated with significant morbidity/mortality. Intraoperative normothermia is recommended by national guidelines to minimize additional morbidity/mortality, but limited evidence exists regarding hypothermia's effect on orthopedic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of intraoperative hypothermia in patients with operatively treated hip fractures and evaluate its effect on complications and outcomes. Retrospective chart review was performed on clinical records from 1541 consecutive patients who sustained a hip fracture and underwent operative fixation at the authors' institution between January 2005 and October 2013. A total of 1525 patients were included for analysis, excluding those with injuries requiring additional surgical intervention. Patient demographic data, surgery-specific data, postoperative complications, length of stay, and 30-day readmission were recorded. Patients with a mean intraoperative temperature less than 36°C were identified as hypothermic. Statistical analysis with univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling evaluated associations with hypothermia and effect on complications/outcomes. The incidence of intraoperative hypothermia in operatively treated hip fractures was 17.0%. Hypothermia was associated with an increase in the rate of deep surgical-site infection (odds ratio, 3.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-9.14; P=.022). Lower body mass index and increasing age demonstrated increased association with hypothermia (P=.004 and P=.005, respectively). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first and largest study analyzing the effect of intraoperative hypothermia in orthopedic patients. In patients with hip fractures, the study's findings confirm evidence found in other surgical specialties that hypothermia may be associated with an increased risk of deep surgical-site infection and that lower body mass index and increasing age are risk factors
Horst, K; Eschbach, D; Pfeifer, R; Relja, B; Sassen, M; Steinfeldt, T; Wulf, H; Vogt, N; Frink, M; Ruchholtz, S; Pape, H C; Hildebrand, F
Hypothermia has been discussed as playing a role in improving the early phase of systemic inflammation. However, information on the impact of hypothermia on the local inflammatory response is sparse. We therefore investigated the kinetics of local and systemic inflammation in the late posttraumatic phase after induction of hypothermia in an established porcine long-term model of combined trauma. Male pigs (35 ± 5kg) were mechanically ventilated and monitored over the study period of 48 h. Combined trauma included tibia fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration and pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock (MAP < 30 ± 5 mmHg for 90 min). After resuscitation, hypothermia (33°C) was induced for a period of 12 h (HT-T group) with subsequent re-warming over a period of 10 h. The NT-T group was kept normothermic. Systemic and local (fracture hematoma) cytokine levels (IL-6, -8, -10) and alarmins (HMGB1, HSP70) were measured via ELISA. Severe signs of shock as well as systemic and local increases of pro-inflammatory mediators were observed in both trauma groups. In general the local increase of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediator levels was significantly higher and prolonged compared to systemic concentrations. Induction of hypothermia resulted in a significantly prolonged elevation of both systemic and local HMGB1 levels at 48 h compared to the NT-T group. Correspondingly, local IL-6 levels demonstrated a significantly prolonged increase in the HT-T group at 48 h. A prolonged inflammatory response might reduce the well-described protective effects on organ and immune function observed in the early phase after hypothermia induction. Furthermore, local immune response also seems to be affected. Future studies should aim to investigate the use of therapeutic hypothermia at different degrees and duration of application.
Bijleveld, Yuma A; Mathôt, Ron A A; van der Lee, Johanna H; Groenendaal, Floris; Dijk, Peter H; van Heijst, Arno; Simons, Sinno H P; Dijkman, Koen P; van Straaten, Henrica L M; Rijken, Monique; Zonnenberg, Inge A; Cools, Filip; Zecic, Alexandra; Nuytemans, Debbie H G M; van Kaam, Anton H; de Haan, Timo R
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of amoxicillin in asphyxiated newborns undergoing moderate hypothermia were quantified using prospective data (N=125). The population PK was described by a 2-compartment model with a priori birthweight (BW) based allometric scaling. Significant correlations were observed between clearance (Cl) and postnatal age (PNA), gestational age (GA), body temperature (TEMP), and urine output (UO). For a typical patient with GA 40 weeks, BW 3000 g, 2 days PNA (i.e. TEMP 33.5°C), and normal UO, Cl was 0.26 L/h (inter-individual variability (IIV) 41.9%) and volume of distribution of the central compartment was 0.34 L/kg (IIV of 114.6%). For this patient Cl increased to 0.41 L/h at PNA 5 days and TEMP 37.0°C. The respective contributions of both covariates were 23% and 27%. Based on Monte Carlo simulations we recommend 50 and 75 mg/kg/24h amoxicillin in 3 doses for patients with GA 36-37 and 38-42 weeks, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Ali, J; Adam, R U; Gana, T J; Bedaysie, H; Williams, J I
Improvement in trauma patient outcome has been demonstrated after the implementation of the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) program in Trinidad and Tobago. This study was aimed at identifying prehospital care factors that may explain this improvement. All patients transferred by ambulance to the major trauma referral hospital had assessment of airway control, oxygen use, cervical (C)-spine control, and hemorrhage control, as well as splinting of extremities during pre-PHTLS (July of 1990 to December of 1991; n = 332) and post-PHTLS periods (January of 1994 to June of 1995; n = 350). Pre-PHTLS data were compared with post-PHTLS data by chi 2 analysis with a p value < or = 0.05 being considered statistically significant. The frequency (%) increased in the post-PHTLS period for airway control (10 vs. 99.7%), C-spine control (2.1 vs. 89.4%), splinting of extremities (22 vs. 60.6%), hemorrhage control (16 vs. 96.9%), and oxygen use (6.6 vs. 89.5%) when no specific problem was identified. When a specific problem was identified in these areas, the post-PHTLS percentage also increased for airway control (16.2 vs. 100%), C-spine control (25 vs. 100%), splinting of extremities (33.9 vs. 100%), hemorrhage control (18 vs. 100%), and oxygen use (43.2 vs. 98.9%). Prehospital trauma care has changed after the introduction of the PHTLS program as indicated by more frequent airway control, use of oxygen, control of cervical (C)-spine and hemorrhage, as well as splinting of fractures. This finding was evident not only as a routine but particularly when a specific related problem was identified. This change in prehospital care could be responsible for the improved trauma patient outcome after PHTLS.
Tempel, G. E.; Musacchia, X. J.; Jones, S. B.
Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, red blood cell and plasma volumes, and relative distribution of cardiac output were made on hibernating and hypothermic adult male and female golden hamsters weighing 120-140 g to study the mechanisms underlying the elimination or marked depression of renal function in hibernation and hypothermia. The results suggest that the elimination or marked depression in renal function reported in hibernation and hypothermia may partly be explained by alterations in cardiovascular system function. Renal perfusion pressure which decreases nearly 60% in both hibernation and hypothermia and a decrease in plasma volume of roughly 35% in the hypothermic animal might both be expected to markedly alter glomerular function.
In the present study, a thermoelectric system controlled by a microcontroller is developed to induce renal hypothermia. Temperature value was managed by 8-byte microcontroller, PIC16F877, and was programmed using microcontroller MPASM package. In order to ensure hypothermia in the kidney 1-4 modules and sensors perceiving temperature of the area can be selected. Temperature values are arranged proportionately for the selected area and the determined temperature values can be monitored from an Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen. The temperature range of the system is between -50 and +50 degrees C. Renal hypothermia system was tried under in vivo conditions on the kidney of a dog.
Alderson, Phil; Campbell, Gillian; Smith, Andrew F; Warttig, Sheryl; Nicholson, Amanda; Lewis, Sharon R
Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia occurs because of interference with normal temperature regulation by anaesthetic drugs and exposure of skin for prolonged periods. A number of different interventions have been proposed to maintain body temperature by reducing heat loss. Thermal insulation, such as extra layers of insulating material or reflective blankets, should reduce heat loss through convection and radiation and potentially help avoid hypothermia. To assess the effects of pre- or intraoperative thermal insulation, or both, in preventing perioperative hypothermia and its complications during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE, OvidSP (1956 to 4 February 2014), EMBASE, OvidSP (1982 to 4 February 2014), ISI Web of Science (1950 to 4 February 2014), and CINAHL, EBSCOhost (1980 to 4 February 2014), and reference lists of articles. We also searched Current Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov. Randomized controlled trials of thermal insulation compared to standard care or other interventions aiming to maintain normothermia. Two authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias for each included study, with a third author checking details. We contacted some authors to ask for additional details. We only collected adverse events if reported in the trials. We included 22 trials, with 16 trials providing data for some analyses. The trials varied widely in the type of patients and operations, the timing and measurement of temperature, and particularly in the types of co-interventions used. The risk of bias was largely unclear, but with a high risk of performance bias in most studies and a low risk of attrition bias. The largest comparison of extra insulation versus standard care had five trials with 353 patients at the end of surgery and showed a weighted mean difference (WMD) of 0.12 ºC (95% CI -0.07 to 0.31; low quality evidence). Comparing extra insulation
Holcomb, John B; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Greene, Thomas J; Fox, Erin E; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri N; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E
Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets, and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from January to November 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs, whereas the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high-risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared with patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. Twenty-five thousand one hundred eighteen trauma patients were admitted, 2,341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1,058 (45%) met the highest-risk criteria. Five hundred eighty-five of 1,058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and Glasgow Coma Scale (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, whereas median Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 hours (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 hours (12.6% vs 8.9%), and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). Twenty-four percent of eligible patients received a PHT. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs, and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality
Hu, Peter; Galvagno, Samuel M; Sen, Ayan; Dutton, Richard; Jordan, Sean; Floccare, Douglas; Handley, Christopher; Shackelford, Stacy; Pasley, Jason; Mackenzie, Colin
In most trauma registries, prehospital trauma data are often missing or unreliable because of the difficult dual task consigned to prehospital providers of recording vital signs and simultaneously resuscitating patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the analysis of continuous vital signs acquired automatically, without prehospital provider input, improves vital signs data quality, captures more extreme values that might be missed with conventional human data recording, and changes Trauma Injury Severity Scores compared with retrospectively compiled prehospital trauma registry data. A statewide vital signs collection network in 6 medevac helicopters was deployed for prehospital vital signs acquisition using a locally built vital signs data recorder (VSDR) to capture continuous vital signs from the patient monitor onto a memory card. VSDR vital signs data were assessed by 3 raters, and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to test interrater reliability. Agreement between VSDR and trauma registry data was compared with the methods of Altman and Bland including corresponding calculations for precision and bias. Automated prehospital continuous VSDR data were collected in 177 patients. There was good agreement between the first recorded vital signs from the VSDR and the trauma registry value. Significant differences were observed between the highest and lowest heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and pulse oximeter from the VSDR and the trauma registry data (P< .001). Trauma Injury Severity Scores changed in 12 patients (7%) when using data from the VSDR. Real-time continuous vital signs monitoring and data acquisition can identify dynamic prehospital changes, which may be missed compared with vital signs recorded manually during distinct prehospital intervals. In the future, the use of automated vital signs trending may improve the quality of data reported for inclusion in trauma registries. These data may be used to develop
Bobinger, Tobias; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Kopp, Markus; Kurka, Natalia; Arnold, Martin; Heider, Stefan; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin
To investigate the diagnostic yield of prehospital ECG monitoring provided by emergency medical services in the case of suspected stroke. Consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted to our tertiary stroke center via emergency medical services and with available prehospital ECG were prospectively included during a 12-month study period. We assessed prehospital ECG recordings and compared the results to regular 12-lead ECG on admission and after continuous ECG monitoring at the stroke unit. Overall, 259 patients with prehospital ECG recording were included in the study (90.3% ischemic stroke, 9.7% intracerebral hemorrhage). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was detected in 25.1% of patients, second-degree or greater atrioventricular block in 5.4%, significant ST-segment elevation in 5.0%, and ventricular ectopy in 9.7%. In 18 patients, a diagnosis of new-onset AF with direct clinical consequences for the evaluation and secondary prevention of stroke was established by the prehospital recordings. In 2 patients, the AF episodes were limited to the prehospital period and were not detected by ECG on admission or during subsequent monitoring at the stroke unit. Of 126 patients (48.6%) with relevant abnormalities in the prehospital ECG, 16.7% received medical antiarrhythmic therapy during transport to the hospital, and 6.4% were transferred to a cardiology unit within the first 24 hours in the hospital. In a selected cohort of patients with stroke, the in-field recordings of the ECG detected a relevant rate of cardiac arrhythmia. The results can add to the in-hospital evaluation and should be considered in prehospital care of acute stroke. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ghardashi, Fatemeh; Izadi, Ahmad Reza; Ravangard, Ramin; Mirhashemi, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba
Context Pre-hospital care plays a vital role in saving trauma patients. Objectives This study aims to review studies conducted on the pre-hospital emergency status in Iran. Data Sources Data were sourced from Iranian electronic databases, including SID, IranMedex, IranDoc, Magiran, and non-Iranian electronic databases, such as Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, available data and statistics for the country were used. Data Selection All Persian-language articles published in Iranian scientific journals and related English-language articles published in Iranian and non-Iranian journals indexed on valid sites for September 2005 - 2014 were systematically reviewed. Data Extraction To review the selected articles, a data extraction form developed by the researchers as per the study’s objective was adopted. The articles were examined under two categories: structure and function of pre-hospital emergency. Results A total of 19 articles were selected, including six descriptive studies (42%), four descriptive-analytical studies (21%), five review articles (16%), two qualitative studies (10.5%), and two interventional (experimental) studies (10.5%). In addition, of these, 14 articles (73.5%) had been published in the English language. The focus of these selected articles were experts (31.5%), bases of emergency medical services (26%), injured (16%), data reviews (16%), and employees (10.5%). A majority of the studies (68%) investigated pre-hospital emergency functions and 32% reviewed the pre-hospital emergency structure. Conclusions The number of studies conducted on pre-hospital emergency services in Iran is limited. To promote public health, consideration of prevention areas, processes to provide pre-hospital emergency services, policymaking, foresight, systemic view, comprehensive research programs and roadmaps, and assessments of research needs in pre-hospital emergency seem necessary. PMID:27626016
Skulec, R; Truhlár, A; Ostádal, P; Telekes, P; Knor, J; Tichácek, M; Cerný, V; Seblová, J
Induction of mild therapeutic hypothermia early after return of spontaneous circulation improves prognosis of cardiac arrest survivors. Rapid cooling of the patients and correct maintainance of the target therapeutic temperature followed by controlled slow rewarming can be achieved by several noninvasive and invasive methods of various efficacy. Elementary and the most frequently used methods are surface cooling via ice-packs and rapid intravenous administration of cold crystaloids. Mattress cooling systems and facilities for endovascular cathether-cooling are more sophisticated, manageable and ensure more precise titration of therapeutic temperature. Cooling caps and helmets leading to selective head cooling can be used as the complementary techniques. Several other methods are too instrumentation-intensive, too invasive or investigated in animal experiments only. Anyway, near future may bring a rapid development of new effective and safe cooling systems.
Leanne Moon Young; Choudhary, Rishabh; Xiaofeng Jia
Cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the most prominent causes of morbidity and mortality in adults. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a recommended treatment to improve survival and functional outcome following CA, however, it is unclear what degree of TH is most beneficial. It has been suggested that TH of 33°C provides no survival or outcome benefits over TH of 36°C. Additionally, there is a lack of verified objective quantitative prognostic tools for comatose CA patients under TH. In this study, we calculated three quantitative markers of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) to examine their potential to track recovery in the early period following CA under graded TH. A total of 16 rats were randomly divided among 4 temperature groups (n=4/group): normothermia (N0, 36.5-37.5°C), hypothermia 1 (H1, 30-32°C), hypothermia 2 (H2, 32-34°C) and hypothermia 3 (H3, 34-36°C). All rats underwent a 15min baseline SSEP recording followed by 9min asphyxial-CA, resulting in severe cerebral injury, and immediate temperature management following resuscitation for 6 hours. SSEP recordings were maintained in 15 min intervals from 30min-4hrs after resuscitation. The N10 amplitude, N10 latency and quantitative SSEP phase space area (qSSEP-PSA) were calculated for the early recovery period and normalized to their respective baselines. Functional recovery was determined by the neurological deficit scale (NDS). N10 amplitude was significantly larger in H1, H2 and H3 compared to N0. N10 latency was significantly longer in H1 than all temperature groups and all hypothermia groups had significantly longer latencies than N0. qSSEP-PSA had significantly better recovery in H1 and H2 than N0. Animals with good outcome (72hr NDS>50) had better recovery of all markers. N10 amplitude was significantly correlated with N10 latency and qSSEP-PSA. The results importantly demonstrate that quantified SSEPs have the potential to objectively track recovery following CA with graded TH.
Zhao, Hailin; Mitchell, Sian; Koumpa, Stefania; Cui, Yushi Tracy; Lian, Qingquan; Hagberg, Henrik; Johnson, Mark R; Takata, Masao; Ma, Daqing
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a major cause of mortality and disability in the newborn. The authors investigated the protective effects of argon combined with hypothermia on neonatal rat hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. In in vitro studies, rat cortical neuronal cell cultures were challenged by oxygen and glucose deprivation for 90 min and exposed to 70% Ar or N2 with 5% CO2 balanced with O2, at 33°C for 2 h. Neuronal phospho-Akt, heme oxygenase-1 and phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β expression, and cell death were assessed. In in vivo studies, neonatal rats were subjected to unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia (8% O2 balanced with N2 and CO2) for 90 min. They were exposed to 70% Ar or N2 balanced with oxygen at 33°, 35°, and 37°C for 2 h. Brain injury was assessed at 24 h or 4 weeks after treatment. In in vitro studies, argon-hypothermia treatment increased phospho-Akt and heme oxygenase-1 expression and significantly reduced the phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β Tyr-216 expression, cytochrome C release, and cell death in oxygen-glucose deprivation-exposed cortical neurons. In in vivo studies, argon-hypothermia treatment decreased hypoxia/ischemia-induced brain infarct size (n = 10) and both caspase-3 and nuclear factor-κB activation in the cortex and hippocampus. It also reduced hippocampal astrocyte activation and proliferation. Inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway through LY294002 attenuated cerebral protection conferred by argon-hypothermia treatment (n = 8). Argon combined with hypothermia provides neuroprotection against cerebral hypoxia-ischemia damage in neonatal rats, which could serve as a new therapeutic strategy against hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
Bogert, Nicolai V.; Werner, Isabella; Kornberger, Angela; Meybohm, Patrick; Moritz, Anton; Keller, Till; Stock, Ulrich A.; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres
Patients with risks of ischemic injury, e.g. during circulatory arrest in cardiac surgery, or after resuscitation are subjected to therapeutic hypothermia. For aortic surgery, the body is traditionally cooled down to 18 °C and then rewarmed to body temperature. The role of hypothermia and the subsequent rewarming process on leukocyte-endothelial interactions and expression of junctional-adhesion-molecules is not clarified yet. Thus, we investigated in an in-vitro model the influence of temperature modulation during activation and transendothelial migration of leukocytes through human endothelial cells. Additionally, we investigated the expression of JAMs in the rewarming phase. Exposure to low temperatures alone during transmigration scarcely affects leukocyte extravasation, whereas hypothermia during treatment and transendothelial migration improves leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Rewarming causes a significant up-regulation of transmigration with falling temperatures. JAM-A is significantly modulated during rewarming. Our data suggest that transendothelial migration of leukocytes is not only modulated by cell-activation itself. Activation temperatures and the rewarming process are essential. Continued hypothermia significantly inhibits transendothelial migration, whereas the rewarming process enhances transmigration strongly. The expression of JAMs, especially JAM-A, is strongly modulated during the rewarming process. Endothelial protection prior to warm reperfusion and mild hypothermic conditions reducing the difference between hypothermia and rewarming temperatures should be considered. PMID:26912257
Brown, Joshua B.; Lerner, E. Brooke; Sperry, Jason L.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Guyette, Francis X.
Background Trauma activation level is determined by prehospital criteria. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) recommends trauma activation criteria; however, their accuracy may be limited. Prehospital lactate has shown promise in predicting trauma center resource requirements. Our objective was to investigate the added value of incorporating prehospital lactate in an algorithm to designate trauma activation level. Methods Air medical trauma patients undergoing prehospital lactate measurement were included. Algorithms using ACS activation criteria (ACS) and ACS activation criteria plus prehospital lactate (ACS+LAC) to designate trauma activation level were compared. Test characteristics and net reclassification improvement (NRI), which evaluates reclassification of patients among risk categories with additional predictive variables, were calculated. Algorithms were compared to predict trauma center need (TCN) defined as >1unit of blood in the ED; spinal cord injury; advanced airway; thoracotomy or pericardiocentesis; ICP monitoring; emergent operative or interventional radiology procedure; or death. Results There were 6,347 patients included. Twenty-eight percent had TCN. The ACS+LAC algorithm upgraded 256 patients and downgraded 548 patients compared to the ACS algorithm. The ACS+LAC algorithm versus ACS algorithm had a NRI of 0.058 (95%CI 0.044, 0.071; p<0.01), with an event NRI of −0.5% and non-event NRI of 6.2%. When weighted to favor changes in under-triage, the ACS+LAC still had a favorable overall reclassification (wNRI 0.041; 95%CI 0.028, 0.054; p=0.01). The ACS+LAC algorithm increased PPV, NPV, and accuracy. Over-triage was reduced 7.2%, while under-triage only increased 0.7%. The area under the curve (AUC) was significantly higher for the ACS+LAC algorithm (0.79 vs. 0.76, p<0.01). Conclusions The ACS+LAC algorithm reclassified patients to more appropriate levels of trauma activation when compared to the ACS algorithm. This overall benefit is achieved
Lynch, Susan; Dixon, Jacqueline; Leary, Donna
Maintaining normothermia is important for patient safety, positive surgical outcomes, and increased patient satisfaction. Causes of unplanned hypothermia in the OR include cold room temperatures, the effects of anesthesia, cold IV and irrigation fluids, skin and wound exposure, and patient risk factors. Nurses at Riddle Memorial Hospital in Media, Pennsylvania, performed a quality improvement project to evaluate the effectiveness of using warm blankets, warm irrigation fluids, or forced-air warming on perioperative patients to maintain their core temperature during the perioperative experience. Results of the project showed that 75% of patients who received forced-air warming perioperatively had temperatures that reached or were maintained at 36° C (96.8° F) or higher within 15 minutes after leaving the OR.
Gorelik, Natalia; Daneman, Alan; Epelman, Monica
Background To retrospectively determine the prevalence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) using head ultrasound (HUS) and MRI, and to compare the incidence of IVH in term babies with HIE treated by therapeutic hypothermia versus those managed conventionally. Methods A total of 61 term neonates from two institutions were diagnosed with HIE shortly after birth. Thirty infants from one institution were treated with whole body hypothermia. These infants had to satisfy the entry criteria for the neonatal hypothermia protocol of the institution. Thirty-one neonates underwent conventional treatment at the second institution. At that time, hypothermia was not yet a standard of care at that institution. All the neonates underwent HUS in their first 23 days of life. The 54 survivors also underwent MRI. The imaging studies were all reviewed for IVH. Results Amongst the 30 babies, who received whole body hypothermia, there were 18 males and 12 females, the mean birth weight was 3.5 kg (2.5 to 5.2 kg), and the HUS study was performed within 14.8 to 41 hours of life. The group of 31 infants treated conventionally was comprised of 12 boys and 19 girls, the infants had an average birth weight of 3.3 kg (2.3 to 4.2 kg), and they underwent HUS 1 to 23 days after birth, with only five children being older than 1 week at the time of the imaging studies. Four of the 61 infants (7%) were diagnosed with IVH on HUS. Three were confirmed with MRI. The fourth case showed a bilateral enlarged choroid plexus on HUS, but IVH could not be confirmed with MRI, as the infant did not survive. In the group of neonates treated with hypothermia, there were three cases (10%) of IVH, whereas in the group managed conventionally, IVH occurred in one infant (3%). Conclusions Our study shows that IVH remains uncommon in term infants with HIE. IVH was more prevalent in the group treated with hypothermia. PMID:27942469
Safdari, Reza; Shoshtarian Malak, Jaleh; Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Danesh Shahraki, Azimeh
To demonstrate an architecture to automate the prehospital emergency process to categorize the specialized care according to the situation at the right time for reducing the patient mortality and morbidity. Prehospital emergency process were analyzed using existing prehospital management systems, frameworks and the extracted process were modeled using sequence diagram in Rational Rose software. System main agents were identified and modeled via component diagram, considering the main system actors and by logically dividing business functionalities, finally the conceptual architecture for prehospital emergency management was proposed. The proposed architecture was simulated using Anylogic simulation software. Anylogic Agent Model, State Chart and Process Model were used to model the system. Multi agent systems (MAS) had a great success in distributed, complex and dynamic problem solving environments, and utilizing autonomous agents provides intelligent decision making capabilities. The proposed architecture presents prehospital management operations. The main identified agents are: EMS Center, Ambulance, Traffic Station, Healthcare Provider, Patient, Consultation Center, National Medical Record System and quality of service monitoring agent. In a critical condition like prehospital emergency we are coping with sophisticated processes like ambulance navigation health care provider and service assignment, consultation, recalling patients past medical history through a centralized EHR system and monitoring healthcare quality in a real-time manner. The main advantage of our work has been the multi agent system utilization. Our Future work will include proposed architecture implementation and evaluation of its impact on patient quality care improvement.
Salihefendic, Nizama; Zildzic, Muharem; Ahmetagic, Sead
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a form of acute life threatening respiratory failure. In daily practice there is difficulty in diagnostic and therapeutic management of Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We observed delay in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients with clinical signs for the presence of severe respiratory disorders. Finding timely evidence of the presence the clinical signs of threatening ARDS and underlying diseases like influenza A/H1N1 during prehospital period in early stage of disease it is possible introduce early adequate treatment: high flow oxygen, fluid replacement and pharmacological and antiviral therapy. This measure can reduce high mortality in patients who develop ARDS. It is important to improve diagnostic criteria for a precise definition of ARDS and transfer it in practice of emergency and family medicine, microbiology, intensive care units, hospital departments of infectious and respiratory diseases. In this article we underlined the key elements of the new definition of ARDS, diagnostic criteria and the importance of early diagnosis in prehospital period following clinical feature and course (a presence of severe dyspnea) by adding chest x-ray and laboratory investigations.
Joux, Julien; Olindo, Stéphane; Girard-Claudon, Annette; Chausson, Nicolas; Saint-Vil, Martine; Signate, Aissatou; Edimonana, Mireille; Jeannin, Severine; Aveillan, Mathieu; Cabre, Philippe; Smadja, Didier
Narrow therapeutic window is a major cause of thrombolysis exclusion in acute ischemic stroke. Whether prehospital medicalization increases t-PA treatment rate is investigated in the present study. Intrahospital processing times and t-PA treatment were analyzed in stroke patients calling within 6h and admitted in our stoke unit. Patients transferred by our mobile medical team (SAMU) and by Fire Department (FD) paramedics were compared. 193 (61.6%) SAMU patients and 120 (38.4%) FD patients were included within 30 months. Clinical characteristics and onset-to-call intervals were similar in the two groups. Mean door-to-imaging delay was deeply reduced in the SAMU group (52 vs. 159 min, p<0.0001) and was <25 min in 50% of SAMU patients and 14% of FD patients (p<0.0001). SAMU management was the only independent factor of early imaging (p=0.0006). t-PA administration rate was higher in SAMU group than in FD group (42% vs. 28%, p=0.04). Proportion of patients with delayed therapeutic window was higher in FD group than in SAMU group (38% vs. 26%, p<0.0001). Prehospital transfer medicalization promotes emergency room bypass, direct radiology room admission and high thrombolysis rate in acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kozár, Marek; Javorka, Kamil; Javorka, Michal; Matasová, Katarína; Zibolen, Mirko
The aim of the study was to determine changes of oxygenation and cardiovascular parameters during body temperature recovery in newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Three full-term newborns treated by whole-body hypothermia according to TOBY trial were included in the study. They were cooled to body temperature of 33.5 °C for 72 hours, thereafter gradual rewarming was initiated. During rewarming period following parameters were measured: heart rate and heart rate variability, blood pressure, core body temperature, blood oxygen saturation, cerebral and splanchnic tissue oxygenation. In one of the infants Doppler sonography examination of truncus coeliacus and arteria mesenterica superior was performed to assess blood flow in these arteries. During rewarming period the heart rate increased, whereas blood pressure tended to decrease. It was observed ascending trend in parameters of heart rate variability (MSSD and total spectral power) due to increasing spectral activity in LF and also HF bands. Blood oxygen saturation and cerebral tissue oxygenation remained stable, but significant decrease of splanchnic tissue oxygenation was noticed. This finding corresponded to Doppler sonography parameters in arteria mesenterica superior. Therapeutic hypothermia and subsequent rewarming in newborns influenced cardiovascular regulation (blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability). Body temperature recovery was accompanied by reduction in splanchnic oxygenation and blood flow in superior mesenteric artery. Body temperature recovery in neonates led to changes in autonomic cardiovascular regulation resulting in redistribution of blood flow to vital organs. Reduction of blood flow to splanchnic organs during heating is a finding that has not been described yet. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Robich, Michael P.; Hagberg, Robert; Schermerhorn, Marc L.; Pomposelli, Frank B.; Nilson, Michael C.; Gendron, Michelle L.; Sellke, Frank W.; Rodriguez, Roberto
Background Nitinol is an alloy that serves as the base for numerous medical devices, including the GORE TAG Thoracic Endoprosthesis (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) thoracic aortic graft device. Given the increasing use of therapeutic hypothermia used during the placement these devices and in post– cardiac arrest situations, we sought to understand the impact of hypothermia on this device. Methods Five 34-mm TAG devices were deployed in a temperature-controlled chamber at 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°, and 37°C (25 total devices). A halographic measurement device was used to measure radial expansive force and normalized to the force at 37°C. Three 34-mm TAG devices were similarly deployed in a temperature-controlled water bath at each of the above temperatures. A laser micrometer was utilized to measure deployed diameter. Results A statistically significant decrease in expansive force at 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C of 65%, 46%, and 6%, respectively, was noted. A statistically significant decrease in radial diameter at 20°C and 25°C of 17% and 11%, respectively, was noted. Although a 9% difference was noted at 30°C, it was not significant. Conclusions The nitinol-based TAG device shows marked decreases in radial expansive force and deployed diameter at temperatures at or below 30°C. Surgeons should be aware of the potential implications of placing nitinol-based endoprostheses in hypothermic conditions. In addition, all health care providers should be aware of the changes that occur in nitinol-based endoprostheses during therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:22385821
McKinnon, K. D.
A pilot study of prehospital analgesia with 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen was undertaken in patients experiencing severe pain from various sources. Under the supervision of an ambulance attendant N2O/O2 was administered through a face mask held by the patient and connected to a portable regulator/tank unit. Two types of units were evaluated -- Entonox (with premixed N2O and O2) and Nitronox (with separate cylinders of N2O and O2, the gases being mixed at the time of administration). Of the 72 patients 69 obtained worthwhile analgesia (marked or partial relief of pain) during treatment in the field or in the ambulance. There were no serious side effects, and those that did occur reflected N2O's expected action (e.g., giddiness). N2O/O2 is thus considered a safe and effective analgesic, suitable for use by ambulance personnel. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7306895
Boyington, T; Williams, D
After a brief outline of past developments in the training of ambulance personnel, this paper traces the adoption in the UK of Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) courses from the US. The 1991 World Student Games in Sheffield, UK led to liaison between training staff from South Yorkshire Metropolitan Ambulance and Paramedic Service (SYMAPS) and from Western New York Medical Training Institute. As a result, the trauma care policy of SYMAPS was altered from aiming to stabilise the patient at the scene of the accident to emphasising rapid and thorough assessment, packaging and transport. This is a resume of the scope of the PHTLS provider course. The course concentrates on the principles of PHTLS for the multisystems trauma victim.
Kornhall, Daniel K; Martens-Nielsen, Julie
Avalanche accidents are frequently lethal events with an overall mortality of 23%. Mortality increases dramatically to 50% in instances of complete burial. With modern day dense networks of ambulance services and rescue helicopters, health workers often become involved during the early stages of avalanche rescue. Historically, some of the most devastating avalanche accidents have involved military personnel. Armed forces are frequently deployed to mountain regions in order to train for mountain warfare or as part of ongoing conflicts. Furthermore, military units are frequently called to assist civilian organised rescue in avalanche rescue operations. It is therefore important that clinicians associated with units operating in mountain regions have an understanding of, the medical management of avalanche victims, and of the preceding rescue phase. The ensuing review of the available literature aims to describe the pathophysiology particular to avalanche victims and to outline a structured approach to the search, rescue and prehospital medical management.
Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A
Care of the combat casualty with spinal column or spinal cord injury has not been previously described, particularly in regards to spinal immobilization. The ultimate goal of spinal immobilization in the combat casualty is to first ``do no further harm'' and then provide a stable, painless spine and an optimal neurologic recovery. The protocol for treatment of the combat casualty with suspected spinal column or spinal cord injury from the battlefield to final arrival at a definitive treatment center is discussed, and the special considerations for medical evacuation off the battlefield and for aeromedical transport are delineated. Selective prehospital spine immobilization, which involves spinal immobilization with backboard, semi-rigid cervical collar, lateral supports, and straps or tape, is recommended if there is suspicion of spinal column or spinal cord injury in the combat casualty and when conditions and resources permit. The authors do not recommend spinal immobilization for the combat casualty with isolated penetrating trauma.
Goldstein, Marc B.
Discusses the problem of hypothermia and specific factors that put older adults at risk. Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of an educationally oriented prevention program. Data suggested the information presented through community education was effective. (Author/JAC)
Warttig, Sheryl; Alderson, Phil; Campbell, Gillian; Smith, Andrew F
Inadvertent postoperative hypothermia (a drop in core body temperature to below 36°C) occurs as an effect of surgery when anaesthetic drugs and exposure of the skin for long periods of time during surgery result in interference with normal temperature regulation. Once hypothermia has occurred, it is important that patients are rewarmed promptly to minimise potential complications. Several different interventions are available for rewarming patients. To estimate the effectiveness of treating inadvertent perioperative hypothermia through postoperative interventions to decrease heat loss and apply passive and active warming systems in adult patients who have undergone surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) (1956 to 21 February 2014), EMBASE (Ovid SP) (1982 to 21 February 2014), the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1950 to 21 February 2014) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EBSCO host (1980 to 21 February 2014), as well as reference lists of articles. We also searched www.controlled-trials.com and www.clincialtrials.gov. Randomized controlled trials of postoperative warming interventions aiming to reverse hypothermia compared with control or with each other. Three review authors identified studies for inclusion in this review. One review author extracted data and completed risk of bias assessments; two review authors checked the details. Meta-analysis was conducted when appropriate by using standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 11 trials with 699 participants. Ten trials provided data for analysis. Trials varied in the numbers and types of participants included and in the types of surgery performed. Most trials were at high or unclear risk of bias because of inappropriate or unclear randomization procedures, and because blinding of assessors and participants generally was
Ebinger, Martin; Lindenlaub, Sascha; Kunz, Alexander; Rozanski, Michal; Waldschmidt, Carolin; Weber, Joachim E; Wendt, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin; Kellner, Philipp A; Kaczmarek, Sabina; Endres, Matthias; Audebert, Heinrich J
In acute ischemic stroke, time from symptom onset to intervention is a decisive prognostic factor. In order to reduce this time, prehospital thrombolysis at the emergency site would be preferable. However, apart from neurological expertise and laboratory investigations a computed tomography (CT) scan is necessary to exclude hemorrhagic stroke prior to thrombolysis. Therefore, a specialized ambulance equipped with a CT scanner and point-of-care laboratory was designed and constructed. Further, a new stroke identifying interview algorithm was developed and implemented in the Berlin emergency medical services. Since February 2011 the identification of suspected stroke in the dispatch center of the Berlin Fire Brigade prompts the deployment of this ambulance, a stroke emergency mobile (STEMO). On arrival, a neurologist, experienced in stroke care and with additional training in emergency medicine, takes a neurological examination. If stroke is suspected a CT scan excludes intracranial hemorrhage. The CT-scans are telemetrically transmitted to the neuroradiologist on-call. If coagulation status of the patient is normal and patient's medical history reveals no contraindication, prehospital thrombolysis is applied according to current guidelines (intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, iv rtPA, alteplase, Actilyse). Thereafter patients are transported to the nearest hospital with a certified stroke unit for further treatment and assessment of strokeaetiology. After a pilot-phase, weeks were randomized into blocks either with or without STEMO care. Primary end-point of this study is time from alarm to the initiation of thrombolysis. We hypothesized that alarm-to-treatment time can be reduced by at least 20 min compared to regular care.
Ebinger, Martin; Lindenlaub, Sascha; Kunz, Alexander; Rozanski, Michal; Waldschmidt, Carolin; Weber, Joachim E.; Wendt, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin; Kellner, Philipp A.; Kaczmarek, Sabina; Endres, Matthias; Audebert, Heinrich J.
In acute ischemic stroke, time from symptom onset to intervention is a decisive prognostic factor. In order to reduce this time, prehospital thrombolysis at the emergency site would be preferable. However, apart from neurological expertise and laboratory investigations a computed tomography (CT) scan is necessary to exclude hemorrhagic stroke prior to thrombolysis. Therefore, a specialized ambulance equipped with a CT scanner and point-of-care laboratory was designed and constructed. Further, a new stroke identifying interview algorithm was developed and implemented in the Berlin emergency medical services. Since February 2011 the identification of suspected stroke in the dispatch center of the Berlin Fire Brigade prompts the deployment of this ambulance, a stroke emergency mobile (STEMO). On arrival, a neurologist, experienced in stroke care and with additional training in emergency medicine, takes a neurological examination. If stroke is suspected a CT scan excludes intracranial hemorrhage. The CT-scans are telemetrically transmitted to the neuroradiologist on-call. If coagulation status of the patient is normal and patient's medical history reveals no contraindication, prehospital thrombolysis is applied according to current guidelines (intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, iv rtPA, alteplase, Actilyse). Thereafter patients are transported to the nearest hospital with a certified stroke unit for further treatment and assessment of strokeaetiology. After a pilot-phase, weeks were randomized into blocks either with or without STEMO care. Primary end-point of this study is time from alarm to the initiation of thrombolysis. We hypothesized that alarm-to-treatment time can be reduced by at least 20 min compared to regular care. PMID:24300505
Foulis, A K
There is a recognised but poorly understood association between hypothermia and acute pancreatitis. A histological study of the pancreas was made in eight patients with accidental hypothermia who had evidence of pancreatitis at necropsy. From an analysis of the patterns of parenchymal necrosis in the pancreas it was thought that there were at least three possible mechanisms for the relation between hypothermia and pancreatitis. Firstly, that ischaemic pancreatitis may result from the "microcirculatory shock" of hypothermia. Secondly, that both hypothermia and pancreatitis may be secondary to alcohol abuse: and finally, that severe pancreatitis may be the primary disease and that hypothermia results from the patients' social circumstances. Images PMID:7142433
Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K
To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bhalala, Utpal S.; Appachi, Elumalai; Mumtaz, Muhammad Ali
Many known risk factors for adverse cardiovascular and neurological outcomes in children with congenital heart defects (CHD) are not modifiable; however, the temperature and blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), are two risk factors, which may be altered in an attempt to improve long-term neurological outcomes. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, traditionally used for aortic arch repair, has been associated with short-term and long-term neurologic sequelae. Therefore, there is a rising interest in using moderate hypothermia with selective antegrade cerebral blood flow on CPB during aortic arch repair. Rewarming from moderate-to-deep hypothermia has been shown to be associated with neuronal injury, neuroinflammation, and loss of cerebrovascular autoregulation. A significantly lesser degree of rewarming is required following mild (33–35°C) hypothermia as compared with moderate (28–32°C), deep (21–27°C), and profound (less than 20°C) hypothermia. Therefore, we believe that mild hypothermia is associated with a lower risk of rewarming-induced neurologic injury. We hypothesize that mild hypothermia with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion during CPB for neonatal aortic arch repair would be associated with improved neurologic outcome. PMID:27734011
Kaldırım, Ümit; Akyıldız, Faruk; Bilgiç, Serkan; Koca, Kenan; Poyrazoğlu, Yavuz; Uysal, Ozgür Selim; Turğut, Hasan; Türkkan, Selim; Erşen, Ömer; Topal, Turgut; Ozkan, Huseyin
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothermia (H) on skeletal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in muscle, and measureing immunohistochemical-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) staining of skeletal muscle. Materials and Methods Eighteen Wistar Albino rats were divided randomly into three groups (sham, IR, hypothermia) (n=6). The sham group had all procedures without the IR period. The lower right extremity of rats in the IR and hypothermia groups was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia and 22 hours of reperfusion by applying a clamp on the common iliac artery and a rubber-band at the level of the lesser trochanter under general anesthesia. Rats in the hypothermia group underwent 4 hours of hypothermia during the first four hours of reperfusion in addition to a 2-hour ischemia and 22-hour reperfusion period. All rats were sacrificed at end of the IR period using a high dose of anesthesia. The tibialis anterior muscles were preserved. Immunohistochemical iNOS staining was performed, and MDA, SOD, GSH-Px, NO, and IL-1β were measured in the muscle. Results The level of MDA, NO, and IL-1β in muscle was increased in the IR group compared with that in the sham group, but these parameters were decreased in the hypothermia group compared with the IR group. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px in muscle were decreased in the IR group; however, these parameters were increased in the hypothermia group. The score and intensity of iNOS staining of skeletal muscle was dens in IR group, mild in hypothermia group, and weak in sham group. Conclusion The present study has shown that hypothermia reduced IR injury in the skeletal muscle by decreasing the levels of MDA, NO, and IL-1β, and increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-Px. In addition, hypothermia attenuated the score and intensity of i
Paal, Peter; Gordon, Les; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Brodmann Maeder, Monika; Putzer, Gabriel; Walpoth, Beat; Wanscher, Michael; Brown, Doug; Holzer, Michael; Broessner, Gregor; Brugger, Hermann
This paper provides an up-to-date review of the management and outcome of accidental hypothermia patients with and without cardiac arrest. The authors reviewed the relevant literature in their specialist field. Summaries were merged, discussed and approved to produce this narrative review. The hospital use of minimally-invasive rewarming for non-arrested, otherwise healthy, patients with primary hypothermia and stable vital signs has the potential to substantially decrease morbidity and mortality for these patients. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has revolutionised the management of hypothermic cardiac arrest, with survival rates approaching 100 % in some cases. Hypothermic patients with risk factors for imminent cardiac arrest (temperature <28 °C, ventricular arrhythmia, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg), and those who have already arrested, should be transferred directly to an ECLS-centre. Cardiac arrest patients should receive continuous cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during transfer. If prolonged transport is required or terrain is difficult, mechanical CPR can be helpful. Delayed or intermittent CPR may be appropriate in hypothermic arrest when continuous CPR is impossible. Modern post-resuscitation care should be implemented following hypothermic arrest. Structured protocols should be in place to optimise pre-hospital triage, transport and treatment as well as in-hospital management, including detailed criteria and protocols for the use of ECLS and post-resuscitation care. Based on new evidence, additional clinical experience and clearer management guidelines and documentation, the treatment of accidental hypothermia has been refined. ECLS has substantially improved survival and is the treatment of choice in the patient with unstable circulation or cardiac arrest.
Boller, Manuel; Lampe, Joshua W.; Katz, Joseph M.; Barbut, Denise; Becker, Lance B.
Aim In patients with cardiopulmonary arrest, brain cooling may improve neurological outcome, especially if applied prior to or during early reperfusion. Thus it is important to develop feasible cooling methods for pre-hospital use. This study examines cerebral and compartmental thermokinetic properties of nasopharyngeal cooling during various blood flow states. Methods Ten swine (40 ± 4 kg) were anesthetized, intubated and monitored. Temperature was deter mined in the frontal lobe of the brain, in the aorta, and in the rectum. After the preparatory phase the cooling device (RhinoChill™ system), which produces evaporative cooling in the nasopharyngeal area, was activated for 60 min. The thermokinetic response was evaluated during stable anaesthesia (NF, n = 3); during untreated cardiopulmonary arrest (ZF, n = 3); during CPR (LF, n = 4). Results Effective brain cooling was achieved in all groups with a median cerebral temperature decrease of −4.7 °C for NF, −4.3 °C for ZF and −3.4 °C for LF after 60 min. The initial brain cooling rate however was fastest in NF, followed by LF, and was slowest in ZF; the median brain temperature decrease from baseline after 15 min of cooling was −2.48 °C for NF, −0.12 °C for ZF, and −0.93 °C for LF, respectively. A median aortic temperature change of −2.76 °C for NF, −0.97 for LF and +1.1 °C for ZF after 60 min indicated preferential brain cooling in all groups. Conclusion While nasopharyngeal cooling in swine is effective at producing preferential cerebral hypothermia in various blood flow states, initial brain cooling is most efficient with normal circulation. PMID:20538402
Olives, Travis D; Nystrom, Paul C; Cole, Jon B; Dodd, Kenneth W; Ho, Jeffrey D
Profound agitation in the prehospital setting confers substantial risk to patients and providers. Optimal chemical sedation in this setting remains unclear. The goal of this study was to describe intubation rates among profoundly agitated patients treated with prehospital ketamine and to characterize clinically significant outcomes of a prehospital ketamine protocol. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who received prehospital ketamine, per a predefined protocol, for control of profound agitation and who subsequently were transported to an urban Level 1 trauma center from May 1, 2010 through August 31, 2013. Identified records were reviewed for basic ambulance run information, subject characteristics, ketamine dosing, and rate of intubation. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance run data were matched to hospital-based electronic medical records. Clinically significant outcomes are characterized, including unadjusted and adjusted rates of intubation. Overall, ketamine was administered 227 times in the prehospital setting with 135 cases meeting study criteria of use of ketamine for treatment of agitation. Endotracheal intubation was undertaken for 63% (85/135) of patients, including attempted prehospital intubation in four cases. Male gender and late night arrival were associated with intubation in univariate analyses (χ2=12.02; P=.001 and χ2=5.34; P=.021, respectively). Neither ketamine dose, co-administration of additional sedating medications, nor evidence of ethanol (ETOH) or sympathomimetic ingestion was associated with intubation. The association between intubation and both male gender and late night emergency department (ED) arrival persisted in multivariate analysis. Neither higher dose (>5mg/kg) ketamine nor co-administration of midazolam or haloperidol was associated with intubation in logistic regression modeling of the 120 subjects with weights recorded. Two deaths were observed. Post-hoc analysis of intubation rates suggested a
Hernandez, Matthew C; Thiels, Cornelius A; Aho, Johnathon M; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Zielinski, Martin D; Stubbs, James A; Jenkins, Donald H; Zietlow, Scott P
Trauma-related hypotension and coagulopathy worsen secondary brain injury in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Early damage control resuscitation with blood products may mitigate hypotension and coagulopathy. Preliminary data suggest resuscitation with plasma in large animals improves neurologic function after TBI; however, data in humans are lacking. We retrospectively identified all patients with multiple injuries age >15 years with head injuries undergoing prehospital resuscitation with blood products at a single Level I trauma center from January 2002 to December 2013. Inclusion criteria were prehospital resuscitation with either packed red blood cells (pRBCs) or thawed plasma as sole colloid resuscitation. Patients who died in hospital and those using anticoagulants were excluded. Primary outcomes were Glasgow Outcomes Score Extended (GOSE) and Disability Rating Score (DRS) at dismissal and during follow-up. Of 76 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 53% (n = 40) received prehospital pRBCs and 47% (n = 36) received thawed plasma. Age, gender, injury severity or TBI severity, arrival laboratory values, and number of prehospital units were similar (all p > 0.05). Patients who received thawed plasma had an improved neurologic outcome compared to those receiving pRBCs (median GOSE 7 [7-8] vs. 5.5 [3-7], p < 0.001). Additionally, patients who received thawed plasma had improved functionality compared to pRBCs (median DRS 2 [1-3.5] vs. 9 [3-13], p < 0.001). Calculated GOSE and DRS scores during follow-up, median 6 [5-7] months, demonstrated increased function in those resuscitated with thawed plasma compared to pRBCs by both median GOSE (8 [7-8] vs. 6 [6-7], p < 0.001) and DRS (0 [0-1] vs. 4 [2-8], p < 0.001). In critically injured trauma patients with TBI, early resuscitation with thawed plasma is associated with improved neurologic and functional outcomes at discharge and during follow-up compared to pRBCs alone. These preliminary data support the
Nassar, Ahmad; Sharon-Granit, Yael; Azab, Abed N
Recent evidence suggests that inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of mental disorders and that psychotropic drugs exert various effects on brain inflammation. The administration of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) to mammals is associated with robust production of inflammatory mediators and pathological changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of four different psychotropic drugs on LPS-induced hypothermia and production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and phosphorylated-p65 (P-p65) levels in hypothalamus of LPS-treated rats. Rats were treated once daily with lithium (100mg/kg), carbamazepine (40mg/kg), haloperidol (2mg/kg), imipramine (20mg/kg) or vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) for 29 days. On day 29, rats were injected with LPS (1mg/kg) or saline. At 1.5h post LPS injection body temperature was measured, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected and their hypothalami were excised, homogenized and centrifuged. PGE2, TNF-α and nuclear P-p65 levels were determined by specific ELISA kits. We found that lithium, carbamazepine, haloperidol and imipramine significantly attenuated LPS-induced hypothermia, resembling the effect of classic anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover, lithium, carbamazepine, haloperidol and imipramine differently but significantly affected the levels of PGE2, TNF-α and P-p65 in plasma and hypothalamus of LPS-treated rats. The results suggest that psychotropic drugs attenuate LPS-induced hypothermia by reducing hypothalamic production of inflammatory constituents, particularly PGE2. The effects of psychotropic drugs on brain inflammation may contribute to their therapeutic mechanism but also to their toxicological profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sealy, W C
The current safety of operations on the heart requiring cardiopulmonary bypass occurred because of a series of step-by-step laboratory and clinical investigations that were compromises between the time needed for heart repair and the brain's requirement for oxygen. The first step, so clearly shown in a paper by Bigelow and associates in 1950, was the reduction of the brain's need for oxygen by surface cooling to 28 degrees to 32 degrees C, limited to this level by cardiac and pulmonary failure at levels lower than this. The six to eight minutes of circulatory arrest permitted time for repair of simple defects. This method was rapidly adopted by many surgeons. As low-flow pump oxygenators became available, blood cooling to 10 degrees to 20 degrees C was introduced. This increased the periods of circulatory arrest to 30 to 60 minutes, and also made still longer periods of bypass with the pump oxygenator possible. Hypothermia to reduce oxygen and metabolic requirements is still an important adjunct to bypass, even with the currently used efficient pump oxygenators. It remains the most important component of myocardial preservation, and has made possible the delay needed for transportation between the harvesting and the transplantation of organs.
Ary, M; Chesarek, W; Sorensen, S M; Lomax, P
Naltrexone, in relatively high doses, has been reported to cause a fall in body temperature in human ex-heroin addicts who had been abstinent for at least 6 weeks. The underlying mechanism of this hypothermic effect has been investigated in rats. The first consideration was that the temperature change was a reflection of delayed withdrawal but rats implanted with a morphine pellet 45 days earlier showed no significant change in temperature after a dose of naltrexone that caused marked withdrawal hypothermia in dependent rats implanted 3 days previously. A fall in core temperature was only induced in rats after doses of 80 and 160 mg/kg i.p. of naltrexone. Behavioral thermoregulatory studies revealed that the animals correct the falling body temperature by increased exposure to a radiant heat source indicating that the central thermostats had not been significantly affected by the drug. These data suggest that the major component in the hypothermic effect of naltrexone is activation of efferent heat loss pathways or peripheral heat loss mechanisms. Due to current suggestions that opiate receptors might represent the receptors for an endogenous transmitter the results are discussed in relation to this consideration. When compared to the sites and mechanism of action of opiates on thermoregulation the results with naltrexone lend little support to the hypothesis that the fall in temperature is due to displacement of an endogenous substance from central opiate receptors.
Siqueira, Venilton José; Taha, Murched Omar; Fagundes, Djalma José; Gomes, Paulo de Oliveira; Juliano, Yara; Bruzzadelli, Renata Marcon zanelatto; Caputto, Lucélia Rita Galdino
To compare hepatic lesions produced by two types of hypothermia; the systemic and the local or topic. Twenty dogs distributed in two groups were studied: the first submitted to local hypothermia and the second to systemic hypothermia. In all groups, biochemical dosages for alanina allytransferase (A.L.T.), aspartate aminotrasnferase (A.S.T.) and direct bilirubin (T.D.), conventional optical microscopy and electronic transmission microscopy were performed in times T0, Test, and T60, that is, before the hypothermia (T0), after temperature stabilization at 10 degrees lower than initial temperature (Test), and after sixty minutes of hypothermia (T60). The data analysis, both of the biochemical profile and of the microscopy showed that in the group of animals with selective hypothermia, the hepatic lesions were more intense when compared to the systemic hypothermia group. The selective hypothermia causes more lesions to the liver than the systemic.
Hetzler, Michael R
Damage control principles are well founded, well proven, and have been incorporated into many specialties of clinical care in both military and civilian practice. Theories regarding hemostatic and hypovolemic resuscitation and preventing the Lethal Triad have had profound effects on the survival of wounded during the present conflicts. As we continue to refine these practices, implementation of this theory should be extended to military prehospital providers. The impacts of damage control practices from those providing initial treatment could complete the continuity of care, prime patients for additional success, and affect overall morbidity and mortality. The basic tenets of damage control theory are easily transferred to the Role I provider in the field and may even address their unique requirements more appropriately. Understanding the working concept of damage control would improve decision-making skills in both therapeutics and evacuation while managing casualties in the uncontrolled environment of combat. Military prehospital damage control differs greatly from in-hospital use, in that the principles must incorporate both medical and tactical considerations for care of the wounded. Introducing damage control principles to established casualty care guidelines will recognize and unite an often underappreciated level of care into a successful practice.
Sawyer, Thomas W; Nelson, Peggy
Objective: The notion that cooling vesicant-exposed tissue may ameliorate or prevent resultant injury is not a novel concept. During both World Wars, studies were conducted that investigated this potential mode of therapy with sulfur mustard and seemed to conclude that there might be merit in pursuing this research direction. However, it does not appear that these studies were followed up vigorously, and the literature that describes this work is not readily accessible. In this report, we compare the toxicities of lewisite and sulfur mustard in vitro and in vivo and also provide an overview of historical and recent work on the effect of temperature on the toxicity of these vesicating chemical warfare agents.Methods: Tissue culture and animal studies were utilized to examine the effects of hypothermia on vesicant-induced toxicity. Results: Cytotoxicity was either significantly delayed (lewisite) or prevented (sulfur mustard) when cultures were maintained at 25°C. However, the effects of hypothermia on sulfur mustard–induced cell death were reversible when the cells were returned to 37°C. Despite these in vitro results, animal studies demonstrated that the therapeutic cooling of both mustard sulfur–exposed and lewisite-exposed skin resulted in dramatic and permanent protection against injury. Cooling also increased the therapeutic window in which drugs were effective against vesicant agents in tissue culture and lewisite-induced skin injury. Conclusions: The simple and noninvasive application of cooling measures may not only provide significant therapeutic relief to vesicant-exposed skin but also increase the therapeutic window in which medical countermeasures against vesicant agents are useful. PMID:18516227
Harmsen, Annelieke Maria Karien; Geeraedts, Leo Maria George; Giannakopoulos, Georgios Fredericus; Terra, Maartje; Christiaans, Herman M T; Mokkink, Lidwine Brigitta; Bloemers, Frank Willem
In the Netherlands prehospital trauma care is provided by emergency medical services (EMS) nurses. This care is extended by Physician staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (P-HEMS) for the more severely injured patient. Prehospital communication is a factor of influence on the identification of these patients and the dispatch of P-HEMS. Though prehospital communication it is often perceived to be incomplete and unstructured. To elucidated factors of influence on prehospital triage and the identification of the severely injured patient a Delphi study was performed. A three round modified Delphi study was designed to explore concepts amongst experts in prehospital trauma care. P-HEMS physicians/nurses, trauma surgeons, EMS nurses and dispatch center operators where asked to state their opinion regarding identification of the poly trauma patient, trauma patient characteristics, prehospital communication and prehospital handover. Seventy-one panellist completed all three rounds. For the first round seven cases and 13 theses were presented. From the answers/argumentation the second round was build, in which 68 theses had to be ranked within four principle themes: factors that influence prehospital communication, critical information for proper handover, factors influencing collaboration and how training/education can influence this. Out of these answers the third survey was build, focussing on determining the exact content of a prehospital trauma handover. The majority of the panellists agreed to a set of parameters resulting in a new model of inter-professional hand over regarding prehospital trauma patients. Exact identification of the poly trauma patient in need of care by P-HEMS is difficult though prehospital communication and the prehospital handover may be improved. The respondents report that prehospital communication needs to be unambiguous to improve trauma care. Consensus was reached on a set of ten parameters that should minimally be handed over with
Interest in early thrombolysis has prompted a study on the feasibility and time course of prehospital thrombolysis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in six centres in Belgium. Patients with clinically suspected AMI and with typical ECG changes presenting within 4 h after onset of pain were treated with 30 units of Anisoylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Activator Complex (APSAC, eminase) intravenously by a mobile intensive care unit (MICU). Sixty-two patients were included in the study and an AMI was confirmed in 60. The mean time (+/- 1 SD) from onset of pain to injection of APSAC was 95 +/- 47 min and the mean estimated time gain, calculated as the time difference between the arrival of the MICU at home and the arrival of the MICU at the emergency department, was 50 +/- 17 min. In the prehospital period four patients developed ventricular fibrillation and one cardiogenic shock. During hospital stay severe complications were observed in four patients. Two events were fatal, one diffuse haemorrhage and one septal rupture; two events were non fatal, one feasible and that an estimated time gain of 50 min can be obtained. Potential risks and benefits remain to be demonstrated in a large controlled clinical trial.
Rognås, Leif; Hansen, Troels Martin; Kirkegaard, Hans; Tønnesen, Else
We report prospectively recorded observational data from consecutive cases in which the attending pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologist considered performing pre-hospital advanced airway management but decided to withhold such interventions. Anaesthesiologists from eight pre-hospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region (a mixed rural and urban region with 1.27 million inhabitants) registered data from February 1st 2011 to October 31st 2012. Included were patients of all ages for whom pre-hospital advanced airway management were considered but not performed. The main objectives were to investigate (1) the pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists' reasons for considering performing pre-hospital advanced airway management in this group of patients (2) the pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists' reasons for not performing pre-hospital advanced airway management (3) the methods used to treat these patients (4) the incidence of complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management not being performed. We registered data from 1081 cases in which the pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists' considered performing pre-hospital advanced airway management. The anaesthesiologists decided to withhold pre-hospital advanced airway management in 32.1% of these cases (n = 347). In 75.1% of these cases (n = 257) pre-hospital advanced airway management were withheld because of the patient's condition and in 30.8% (n = 107) because of patient co-morbidity. The most frequently used alternative treatment was bag-mask ventilation, used in 82.7% of the cases (n = 287). Immediate complications related to the decision of not performing pre-hospital advanced airway management occurred in 0.6% of the cases (n = 2). We have illustrated the complexity of the critical decision-making associated with pre-hospital advanced airway management. This study is the first to identify the most common reasons why pre-hospital critical care
Hisamuddin, N A R Nik; Hamzah, M Shah; Holliman, C James
Once a very slowly developing country in a Southeast Asia region, Malaysia has undergone considerable change over the last 20 years after the government changed its focus from agriculture to developing more industry and technology. The well-known "Vision 2020," introduced by the late Prime Minister, set a target for the nation to be a developed country in the Asia region by the year 2020. As the economy and standard of living have improved, the demand from the public for a better health care system, in particular, emergency medical services (EMS), has increased. Despite the effort by the government to improve the health care system in Malaysia, EMS within the country are currently limited, best described as being in the "developing" phase. The Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, Civil Defense, and non-governmental organizations such as Red Crescent and St. John's Ambulance, provide the current ambulance services. At the present time, there are no uniform medical control or treatment protocols, communication systems, system management, training or education, or quality assurance policies. However, the recent development of and interest in an Emergency Medicine training program has gradually led to improved EMS and prehospital care.
Iyegha, Uroghupatei P; Greenberg, Joseph J; Mulier, Kristine E; Chipman, Jeffrey; George, Mark; Beilman, Greg J
We have previously demonstrated survival benefit to induced hypothermia in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock simulating an associated delay to definitive care. In the current study, we wished to evaluate the effects of environmental hypothermia in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock with the addition of polytrauma. Sixteen pigs were randomized to normothermic (39°C, n = 7) or hypothermic (34°C, n = 9) groups. The model included instrumentation, chest injury (captive bolt device), hemorrhage to systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ∼50 mmHg, and crush liver injury. Animals received limited fluid resuscitation for a 1-h period with goal SBP of greater than 80 mmHg and ice packs or warming blankets to achieve goal temperatures, followed by full resuscitation with goal SBP of greater than 90 mmHg, adequate urine output, and hemoglobin by protocol for 20 h. Survivors were observed for an additional 24 h with end points including mortality, markers of organ injury, and neurologic function. There were no differences in survival between the groups (mortality = 1/9, hypothermia group vs. 2/7, normothermia group, P = 0.39). Markers of organ injury were elevated in the hypothermia group at 24 h after injury but were identical between groups at the end of the experimental protocol (48 h after injury). There were no noted differences in neurologic function between the two groups. Environmental hypothermia in a model of polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock was not associated with worse outcomes.
Horn, E-P; Klar, E; Höcker, J; Bräuer, A; Bein, B; Wulf, H; Torossian, A
To improve perioperative quality and patient safety, the German S3 guideline should be consistently implemented to avoid perioperative hypothermia. Perioperative normothermia is a quality indicator and should be achieved by anesthesiologists and surgeons. To detect hypothermia early during the perioperative process, measuring body temperature should be started 1-2 h preoperatively. Patients should be actively warmed for 20-30 min before starting anesthesia. Prewarming is most effective and should be included in the preoperative process. Patients should be informed about the risks of perioperative hypothermia and members of the perioperative team should be educated. A standard operating procedure (SOP) to avoid hypothermia should be introduced in every operative unit. The incidence of postoperative hypothermia should be evaluated in operative patients every 3-6 months. The goals should be to measure body temperature in >80% of patients undergoing surgery and for >70% to exhibit a core temperature >36 °C at the end of surgery.
Bańka, Krzysztof; Teresiński, Grzegorz; Buszewicz, Grzegorz
The possibilities of using morphological markers of fatal hypothermia are limited; therefore, other diagnostic criteria of deaths from hypothermia are being researched. The initiation of protective mechanisms against adverse effects of low temperatures results in activation of hormonal systems and development of characteristic biochemical changes that can be impaired by alcohol intoxication. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of determinations of the profile of free fatty acid concentrations as potential markers of hypothermia-related deaths, particularly in intoxicated victims. The study group consisted of blood samples collected during autopsies of 23 victims of hypothermia. The control group included blood samples collected from 34 victims of sudden, violent deaths at the scene of an incident (hangings and traffic accidents) and 10 victims who died because of post-traumatic subdural hematomas with prolonged agony. The study and control groups were divided into three subgroups according to blood alcohol concentrations: 0.0-0.99; 1.0-2.99 and ≥3.0‰. Statistical analysis in the individual subgroups demonstrated significant increases in concentrations of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids (P<0.05), independent of blood ethanol concentration. Palmitic, stearic and oleic acids can be considered the potential markers of fatal hypothermia, including the cases of intoxicated individuals.
Liu, Kaiyin; Khan, Hajra; Geng, Xiaokun; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Yuchuan
Mild physical hypothermia after stroke has been associated with positive outcomes. Despite the well-studied beneficial effects of hypothermia in the treatment of stroke, lack of precise temperature control, intolerance for the patient, and immunosuppression are some of the reasons which limit its clinical translation. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia has been explored as a possible treatment option following stroke in animal models. Currently, there are eight classes of pharmacological agents/agonists with hypothermic effects affecting a multitude of systems including cannabinoid, opioid, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), neurotensin, thyroxine derivatives, dopamine, gas, and adenosine derivatives. Interestingly, drugs in the TRPV1, neurotensin, and thyroxine families have been shown to have effects in thermoregulatory control in decreasing the compensatory hypothermic response during cooling. This review will briefly present drugs in the eight classes by summarizing their proposed mechanisms of action as well as side effects. Reported thermoregulatory effects of the drugs will also be presented. This review offers the opinion that these agents may be useful in combination therapies with physical hypothermia to achieve faster and more stable temperature control in hypothermia.
Staab, D B; Sorensen, V J; Fath, J J; Raman, S B; Horst, H M; Obeid, F N
Ambient temperature-induced hypothermia noted in trauma patients is frequently accompanied by a bleeding diathesis despite "laboratory normal" coagulation values. To document this impression, the following experiment was conducted. Coagulation studies and platelet function studies were performed in ten minipigs during induced whole body hypothermia (40 degrees C to 34 degrees C) and rewarming. Cooling was achieved in 2 to 3 hours and rewarming took 4 to 5 hours. In addition, similar coagulation and platelet function studies were conducted on plasma samples from the same animals that were cooled and then rewarmed in a water bath. Platelet counts and function as measured by Sonoclot analysis and aggregation did not decrease significantly with hypothermia in either model. Plasma cooled in a water bath demonstrated abnormal PT and aPTT (p < 0.001). Whole body hypothermia demonstrated abnormal bleeding time and PT (p < 0.001). Ambient temperature-induced hypothermia produced significant coagulation defects in a porcine model. Some of the coagulation defects were most pronounced during rewarming.
Parker, Michael; Rodgers, Antony
Assessment and management of pain in pre-hospital care settings are important aspects of paramedic and clinical team roles. As emergency department waiting times and delays in paramedic-to-nurse handover increase, it becomes more and more vital that patients receive adequate pre-hospital pain relief. However, administration of analgesia can be inadequate and can result in patients experiencing oligoanalgesia, or under-treated pain. This article examines these issues along with the aetiology of trauma and the related socioeconomic background of traumatic injury. It reviews validated pain-assessment tools, outlines physiological responses to traumatic pain and discusses some of the misconceptions about the provision of effective analgesia in pre-hospital settings.
Tarpgaard, Mona; Hansen, Troels Martin; Rognås, Leif
Pre-hospital advanced airway management has been named one of the top-five research priorities in physician-provided pre-hospital critical care. Few studies have been made on paediatric pre-hospital advanced airway management. The aim of this study was to investigate pre-hospital endotracheal intubation success rate in children, first-pass success rates and complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management in patients younger than 16 years of age treated by pre-hospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region (1.3 million inhabitants). A prospective descriptive study based on data collected from eight anaesthetist-staffed pre-hospital critical care teams between February 1st 2011 and November 1st 2012. Primary endpoints were 1) pre-hospital endotracheal intubation success rate in children 2) pre-hospital endotracheal intubation first-pass success rate in children and 3) complications related to prehospital advanced airway management in children. The pre-hospital critical care anaesthetists attempted endotracheal intubation in 25 children, 13 of which were less than 2 years old. In one patient, a neonate (600 g birth weight), endotracheal intubation failed. The patient was managed by uneventful bag-mask ventilation. All other 24 children had their tracheas successfully intubated by the pre-hospital critical care anaesthetists resulting in a pre-hospital endotracheal intubation success rate of 96 %. Overall first pass success-rate was 75 %. In the group of patients younger than 2 years old, first pass success-rate was 54 %. The total rate of airway management related complications such as vomiting, aspiration, accidental intubation of the oesophagus or right main stem bronchus, hypoxia (oxygen saturation < 90 %) or bradycardia (according to age) was 20 % in children younger than 16 years of age and 38 % in children younger than 2 years of age. No deaths, cardiac arrests or severe bradycardia (heart rate <60) occurred in relation to pre-hospital
Mikkelsen, Søren; Krüger, Andreas J; Zwisler, Stine T; Brøchner, Anne C
Background Prehospital care provided by specially trained, physician-based emergency services (P-EMS) is an integrated part of the emergency medical systems in many developed countries. To what extent P-EMS increases survival and favourable outcomes is still unclear. The aim of the study was thus to investigate ambulance runs initially assigned ‘life-saving missions’ with emphasis on long-term outcome in patients treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark Methods All MECU runs are registered in a database by the attending physician, stating, among other parameters, the treatment given, outcome of the treatment and the patient's diagnosis. Over a period of 80 months from May 1 2006 to December 31 2012, all missions in which the outcome of the treatment was registered as ‘life saving’ were scrutinised. Initial outcome, level of competence of the caretaker and diagnosis of each patient were manually established in each case in a combined audit of the prehospital database, the discharge summary of the MECU and the medical records from the hospital. Outcome parameters were final outcome, the aetiology of the life-threatening condition and the level of competences necessary to treat the patient. Results Of 25 647 patients treated by the MECU, 701 (2.7%) received prehospital ‘life saving treatment’. In 596 (2.3%) patients this treatment exceeded the competences of the attending emergency medical technician or paramedic. Of these patients, 225 (0.9%) were ultimately discharged to their own home. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that anaesthesiologist administrated prehospital therapy increases the level of treatment modalities leading to an increased survival in relation to a prehospital system consisting of emergency medical technicians and paramedics alone and thus supports the concept of applying specialists in anaesthesiology in the prehospital setting especially when treating patients with cardiac arrest, patients in
Salazar, June; Zubiaur, Oihane; Azkunaga, Beatriz; Molina, Juan Carlos; Mintegi, Santiago
This objective was to analyze prehospital management of acute childhood poisonings. Poisonings treated in 59 pediatric emergency departments participating in the Toxicology Observation Project of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine were registered prospectively between 2008 and 2014. We analyzed consultations made and treatments received before the patient arrived in the emergency department. A total of 902 poisonings were registered; in 870 cases (96.4%) cases whether or not a prehospital consultation had been made was on record. An emergency service of come type was contacted or visited in 312 cases (35.9%). Calls were most often made to the central emergency service (122 cases [14%]), primary care centers (100 cases [11.5%]), or the National Toxicology Institute (60 cases, [6.9%]). Choice of service to call or visit varied greatly according to type of poisoning. Prehospital treatment was more often received if a service had been contacted (26.3%) than if not (6.8%) (P<.001). Treatment was also more specific to the type of poisoning (e.g., decontamination, oxygen therapy, antidotes) if a prehospital service had been contacted. About half the cases that consulted a poisoning service but did not receive treatment before coming to a hospital did receive treatment in the hospital emergency department. We conclude that a substantial percentage of patients who seek care for childhood poisoning from an emergency department have also consulted a prehospital service. Better prehospital management of such cases could facilitate earlier treatment when required and also preempt unnecessary trips to pediatric emergency departments.
Browne, Lorin R; Shah, Manish I; Studnek, Jonathan R; Ostermayer, Daniel G; Reynolds, Stacy; Guse, Clare E; Brousseau, David C; Lerner, E Brooke
The National Association of Emergency Medical Services Physicians' (NAEMSP) Position Statement on Prehospital Pain Management and the joint National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) Evidence-based Guideline for Prehospital Analgesia in Trauma aim to improve the recognition, assessment, and treatment of prehospital pain. The impact of implementation of these guidelines on pain management in children by emergency medical services (EMS) agencies has not been assessed. Determine the change in frequency of documented pain severity assessment and opiate administration among injured pediatric patients in three EMS agencies after adoption of best practice recommendations. This is a retrospective study of children <18 years of age with a prehospital injury-related primary impression from three EMS agencies. Each agency independently implemented pain protocol changes which included adding the use of age-appropriate pain scales, decreasing the minimum age for opiate administration, and updating fentanyl dosing. We abstracted data from prehospital electronic patient records before and after changes to the pain management protocols. The primary outcomes were the frequency of administration of opioid analgesia and documentation of pain severity assessment as recorded in the prehospital patient care record. A total of 3,597 injured children were transported prior to pain protocol changes and 3,743 children after changes. Opiate administration to eligible patients across study sites regardless of documentation of pain severity was 156/3,089 (5%) before protocol changes and 175/3,509 (5%) after (p = 0.97). Prior to protocol changes, 580 (18%) children had documented pain assessments and 430 (74%) had moderate-to-severe pain. After protocol changes, 644 (18%) patients had pain severity documented with 464 (72%) in moderate-to-severe pain. For all study agencies, pain severity was documented in 13%, 19%, and 22% of
Pre-hospital emergency care (PHEC) in the military has undergone major changes during the last 10 years of warfighting in the land environment. Providing this care in the maritime environment presents several unique challenges. This paper examines the clinical capabilities required of a PHEC team in the maritime environment and how this role can be fulfilled as part of Role 2 Afloat. It applies to Pre-hospital emergency care projected from a hospital not to General Duties Medical Officers at Role 1.
Quock, R.M.; Panek, R.W.; Kouchich, F.J.; Rosenthal, M.A.
Exposure of rats to high levels of nitrous oxide (N2O) in oxygen reduced body temperature in a concentration-related manner. The hypothermia was partly reversed by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. But in rats rendered tolerant to morphine by pellet implantation, exposure to 75% N2O/25% O2 evoked a marked hypothermia similar to that observed in morphine-naive animals. In another experiment, the hypothermic effect of chloral hydrate was also sensitive to antagonism by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. These observations lead the authors to suspect that N2O-induced hypothermia in rats is possibly not mediated by opiate receptors. The thermotropic activity of N2O may result from some non-opioid action of N2O. Its selective antagonism by naloxone (but not naltrexone) may be due to a unique non-opioid analeptic action of naloxone. 32 references, 4 figures.
Hong, Seok Hyun; Oh, Ju Sun; Lee, Chang Hyun; Oh, Jae Ho
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a neurologic disorder characterized by clinical symptoms, such as nystagmus, ataxia, and mental confusion. Hypothermia in patients with WE is a rare complication, and its pathogenic mechanism and therapy are yet to be ascertained. Herein, we presented a case of a 61-year-old man who was diagnosed with WE 3 months earlier. We investigated the cause of hypothermia (35.0℃) that occurred after an enema (bowel emptying). Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed mammillary body and hypothalamus atrophy. In the autonomic function test, the sympathetic skin response (SSR) test did not evoke SSR latencies on both hands. In addition, abnormal orthostatic hypotension was observed. Laxative and stool softener medication were administered, and his diet was modified, which led to an improvement in constipation after 2 weeks. Moreover, there was no recurrence of hypothermic episode. This is the first reported case of late-onset hypothermia secondary to WE.
Guest, James D; Vanni, S; Silbert, L
Spinal surgery carries risks of incidental spinal cord and nerve root injury. Neuroprotection, to minimize the extent of such injuries, is desirable. However, no neuroprotective strategies have been conclusively validated in nonvascular spinal surgery. Mild hypothermia resulting from general anesthesia is a readily achievable potential neuroprotective strategy. Mild hypothermia, however, has been associated with wound infection, increased operative blood loss and other complications. No previous studies have specifically evaluated whether mild hypothermia is associated with an increased risk of these complications in elective spinal surgery. We investigated the association between incidental mild hypothermia, perioperative complications and operative blood loss. This is a retrospective study employing cohort analysis, rank analysis and single and multivariate linear regression. The setting was the Veterans Administration Medical Center, a teaching hospital of the University of Miami. Data on a total of 70 adult veterans aged 23 to 81 years undergoing complex spinal procedures in which passive cooling was employed during surgical decompression. The variables measured were temperature, blood loss, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and duration of anesthesia. The outcome measured was the presence or absence of complications. After 70 patients had been acquired, regression and rank analyses were performed to test for a link between mild hypothermia and blood loss. In addition, two cohorts, patients who experienced complications, and those who did not experience complications in the perioperative period, were compared for several variables including three measures of exposure to hypothermia. Surgical procedures included 60 cervical, 1 occipitocervical, 1 cervicothoracic, 7 thoracic and 1 thoracolumbar procedure. Hypothermia followed induction of anesthesia; esophageal or bladder temperature was monitored. Cooling was passive; warming utilized a forced air blanket
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a neurologic disorder characterized by clinical symptoms, such as nystagmus, ataxia, and mental confusion. Hypothermia in patients with WE is a rare complication, and its pathogenic mechanism and therapy are yet to be ascertained. Herein, we presented a case of a 61-year-old man who was diagnosed with WE 3 months earlier. We investigated the cause of hypothermia (35.0℃) that occurred after an enema (bowel emptying). Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed mammillary body and hypothalamus atrophy. In the autonomic function test, the sympathetic skin response (SSR) test did not evoke SSR latencies on both hands. In addition, abnormal orthostatic hypotension was observed. Laxative and stool softener medication were administered, and his diet was modified, which led to an improvement in constipation after 2 weeks. Moreover, there was no recurrence of hypothermic episode. This is the first reported case of late-onset hypothermia secondary to WE. PMID:28289649
Saito, Osamu; Saito, Takako; Sugase, Taro; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke
We present the case of a 36-year-old man with type-1 diabetes who was hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). On admission, he had hypothermia, hypokalemia and combined metabolic and respiratory alkalosis, in addition to hyperglycemia. Hypothermia, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis, with a concurrent respiratory alkalosis, are not commonly seen in DKA. After admission, intravenous infusion of 0.45% saline was administered, which resulted in the development of pure metabolic acidosis. After starting insulin infusion, hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia became evident and finally resulted in massive rhabdomyolysis. Hyperkalemia accompanying oliguric acute kidney injury (AKI) warranted initiation of hemodialysis (HD) on Day-five. On the 45th hospital day, his urine output started to increase and a total of 22 HD sessions were required. We believe that in this case severe dehydration, hypothermia and hypokalemia might have contributed to the initial symptoms of DKA as well as the prolongation of AKI.
Kawamura, S; Suzuki, E; Suzuki, A; Yasui, N
A new hypothermia bed system was used to induce mild hypothermia (33-35 degrees C) in six patients with stroke due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, or embolic internal carotid artery occlusion. The system bed contained all necessary equipment including a respirator, a cooling unit, physiological monitors, and a storage battery. Surface cooling of the patients was performed using water-circulating blankets, and core temperature was maintained based on bladder temperature and a feedback computer program. During hypothermic therapy, patient transfer and radiological examination including computed tomography and positron emission tomography could be easily and safely performed. Differences between the measured bladder temperature and the target temperature were approximately +/- 0.1 degree C. The proposed hypothermia system bed may be useful for serial radiological examination of patients with stroke.
Dailey, Travis; Mosley, Yusef; Pabon, Mibel; Acosta, Sandra; Tajiri, Naoki; van Loveren, Harry; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V
With limited clinical trials on stem cell therapy for adult stroke underway, the assessment of efficacy also needs to be considered for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, considering its distinct symptoms. The critical nature of this condition leads to establishment of deficits that last a lifetime. Here, we will highlight the progress of current translational research, commenting on the critical nature of the disease, stem cell sources, the use of hypothermia, safety and efficacy of each treatment, modes of action, and the possibility of combination therapy. With this in mind, we reference translational guidelines established by a consortium of research partners called Stem cell Therapeutics as an Emerging Paradigm for Stroke (STEPS). The guidelines of STEPS are directed toward evaluating outcomes of cell therapy in adult stroke; however, we identify the overlapping pathology, as we believe that these guidelines will serve well in the investigation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic therapy. Finally, we discuss emerging treatments and a case report, altogether suggesting that the potential for these treatments to be used in synergy has arrived and the time for advancing stem cell use in combination with hypothermia for cerebral palsy is now.
Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi
An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.
Yu, C G; Jimenez, O; Marcillo, A E; Weider, B; Bangerter, K; Dietrich, W D; Castro, S; Yezierski, R P
locomotor deficits following traumatic SCI; and 3) modest systemic hypothermia (32-33 degrees C) reduces the area of tissue damage at both 7 and 44 days postinjury. Although additional research is needed to study the therapeutic window and long-term benefits of systemic hypothermia, these data support the possible use of modest systemic hypothermia in the treatment of acute SCI.
Hyodoh, Hideki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Katada, Ryuichi; Hyodoh, Kazusa; Matsumoto, Hiroshi
To identify lung findings specific to fatal hypothermia on postmortem computed tomography (CT) imaging. Whole body CT scans were performed followed by full autopsy to investigate causes of death. There were 13 fatal hypothermia cases (group A) and 118 with other causes of death (group B). The chest cavity (CC), dead space including fluid/pneumothorax (DS), aerated lung volume (ALV), percentage aerated lung (%ALV), and tracheal aerated volume (ATV) were measured. Autopsy findings of groups A and B were compared. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to identify factors specific to fatal hypothermia. There were no differences in age, sex, number with emphysema, or time from death to CT examination between the 2 groups. CC, DS, ALV, %ALV, and ATV were 2601.0±247.4 (mL), 281.1±136.5 (mL), 1564.5±281.1 (mL), 62.1±6.2(%), and 21.8±2.7 (mL) in group A and 2339.2±67.7 (mL), 241.1±38.0 (mL), 739.9±67.0 (mL), 31.4±2.3(%), and 15.9±0.8 (mL) in group B, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between groups A and B in ALV, %ALV and ATV. The multiple comparison procedure revealed that ALV and %ALV differed significantly between fatal hypothermia and other causes of death (p<0.05). Using ROC evaluation, %ALV had the largest area under the curve (0.819). This study demonstrates that the %ALV is greater in fatal hypothermia cases than in those with other causes of death on postmortem CT chest imaging. Based on CT, hypothermia is very likely to be the cause of death if the %ALV is >70%.
De Robertis, E; Kozek-Langenecker, S A; Tufano, R; Romano, G M; Piazza, O; Zito Marinosci, G
Acidosis, hypothermia and hypocalcaemia are determinants for morbidity and mortality during massive hemorrhages. However, precise pathological mechanisms of these environmental factors and their potential additive or synergistic anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet effects are not fully elucidated and are at least in part controversial. Best available evidences from experimental trials indicate that acidosis and hypothermia progressively impair platelet aggregability and clot formation. Considering the cell-based model of coagulation physiology, hypothermia predominantly prolongs the initiation phase, while acidosis prolongs the propagation phase of thrombin generation. Acidosis increases fibrinogen breakdown while hypothermia impairs its synthesis. Acidosis and hypothermia have additive effects. The effect of hypocalcaemia on coagulopathy is less investigated but it appears that below the cut-off of 0.9 mmol/L, several enzymatic steps in the plasmatic coagulation system are blocked while above that cut-off effects remain without clinical sequalae. The impact of environmental factor on hemostasis is underestimated in clinical practice due to our current practice of using routine coagulation laboratory tests such as partial thromboplastin time or prothrombin time, which are performed at standardized test temperature, after pH correction, and upon recalcification. Temperature-adjustments are feasible in viscoelastic point-of-care tests such as thrombelastography and thromboelastometry which may permit quantification of hypothermia-induced coagulopathy. Rewarming hypothermic bleeding patients is highly recommended because it improves patient outcome. Despite the absence of high-quality evidence, calcium supplementation is clinical routine in bleeding management. Buffer administration may not reverse acidosis-induced coagulopathy but may be essential for the efficacy of coagulation factor concentrates such as recombinant activated factor VII.
Li, Cheng; Dong, Yuanlin; Chen, Dan; Xie, Zhongcong; Zhang, Yiying
The commonly used inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce DNA damage and cytotoxicity. However, the methods to attenuate these effects remain largely to be determined. Mild hypothermia has neuroprotective effects. We therefore set out to assess whether mild hypothermia could protect the isoflurane-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we investigated the underlying mechanisms by assessing the effects of mild hypothermia on the isoflurane-induced changes in ATP levels. H4 human neuroglioma cells were treated with 2% isoflurane for 3 or 6 h with and without mild hypothermia (35°C). We assessed the cell viability by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. We determined DNA damage by measuring levels of phosphorylation of the histone protein H2A variant X at Ser139 (γH2A.X), the marker of DNA damage. We also measured ATP levels in the cells. Here we showed that the treatment with 2% isoflurane for 6 h induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in the cells. Moreover, the treatment with 2% isoflurane for 3 h decreased ATP levels without inducing cytotoxicity. Mild hypothermia attenuated the isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and ATP reduction in the cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the isoflurane-induced reduction in ATP levels occurred before the isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity. Isoflurane may induce DNA damage and cause cytotoxicity through reducing ATP levels. Mild hypothermia would ameliorate isoflurane-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity by attenuating the isoflurane-induced reduction in ATP levels. These pilot studies have established a system and will promote the future investigations of anesthesia neurotoxicity. PMID:28228717
Li, Cheng; Dong, Yuanlin; Chen, Dan; Xie, Zhongcong; Zhang, Yiying
The commonly used inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce DNA damage and cytotoxicity. However, the methods to attenuate these effects remain largely to be determined. Mild hypothermia has neuroprotective effects. We therefore set out to assess whether mild hypothermia could protect the isoflurane-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Moreover, we investigated the underlying mechanisms by assessing the effects of mild hypothermia on the isoflurane-induced changes in ATP levels. H4 human neuroglioma cells were treated with 2% isoflurane for 3 or 6 h with and without mild hypothermia (35°C). We assessed the cell viability by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. We determined DNA damage by measuring levels of phosphorylation of the histone protein H2A variant X at Ser139 (γH2A.X), the marker of DNA damage. We also measured ATP levels in the cells. Here we showed that the treatment with 2% isoflurane for 6 h induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in the cells. Moreover, the treatment with 2% isoflurane for 3 h decreased ATP levels without inducing cytotoxicity. Mild hypothermia attenuated the isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and ATP reduction in the cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the isoflurane-induced reduction in ATP levels occurred before the isoflurane-induced cytotoxicity. Isoflurane may induce DNA damage and cause cytotoxicity through reducing ATP levels. Mild hypothermia would ameliorate isoflurane-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity by attenuating the isoflurane-induced reduction in ATP levels. These pilot studies have established a system and will promote the future investigations of anesthesia neurotoxicity.
Daulatzai, Mak Adam
Aging is a consequence of progressive decline in special and somatosensory functions and specific brain stem nuclei. Many senescent stigmata, including hypoxia, hypoxemia, depressed cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism, diseases of senescence, and their medications all enhance hypothermia as do alcohol, cold environment, and malnutrition. Hypothermia is a critical factor having deleterious impact on brain stem and neocortical functions. Additionally, anesthesia in elderly also promotes hypothermia; anesthetics not only cause consciousness (sensory and motor) changes, but memory impairment as well. Anesthesia inhibits cholinergic pathways, reticular and thalamocortical systems, cortico-cortical connectivity, and causes post-operative delirium and cognitive dysfunction. Increasing evidence indicates that anesthetic exposures may contribute to dementia onset and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in hypothermic elderly. Inhaled anesthetics potentiate caspases, BACE, tau hyperphosphorylation, and apoptosis. This paper addresses the important question: "Why do only some elderly fall victim to AD"? Based on information on the pathogenesis of early stages of cognitive dysfunction in elderly (i.e., due to senescent stigmata), and the effects of anesthesia superimposed, a detailed plausible neuropathological substrate (mechanism/pathway) is delineated here that reveals the possible cause(s) of AD. Basically, it encompasses several risk factors for cognitive dysfunction during senescence plus several hypothermia-enhancing routes; they all converge and tip the balance towards dementia onset. This knowledge of the confluence of heterogeneous risk factors in perpetuating dementia relentlessly is of importance in order to: (a) avoid their convergence; (b) take measures to stop/reverse cognitive dysfunction; and (c) to develop therapeutic strategies to enhance cognitive function and attenuate AD.
Grau, Katharina; Plener, Paul L; Gahr, Maximilian; Denzer, Christian; Freudenmann, Roland W
Risperidone is a widely used, second-generation antipsychotic approved for treating schizophrenia as well as for treating aggression in children and adolescents with mental retardation. The substance has a well-established risk profile including alterations of body temperature. Apart from hyperthermia with and without full-blown malignant neuroleptic syndrome, low body temperatures (hypothermia) have also been reported anecdotally, usually appearing in the context of comedication. Here, we report a case of hypothermia associated with a low-dose risperidone monotherapy in a child.
Hutchison, James S; Ward, Roxanne E; Lacroix, Jacques; Hébert, Paul C; Barnes, Marcia A; Bohn, Desmond J; Dirks, Peter B; Doucette, Steve; Fergusson, Dean; Gottesman, Ronald; Joffe, Ari R; Kirpalani, Haresh M; Meyer, Philippe G; Morris, Kevin P; Moher, David; Singh, Ram N; Skippen, Peter W
Hypothermia therapy improves survival and the neurologic outcome in animal models of traumatic brain injury. However, the effect of hypothermia therapy on the neurologic outcome and mortality among children who have severe traumatic brain injury is unknown. In a multicenter, international trial, we randomly assigned children with severe traumatic brain injury to either hypothermia therapy (32.5 degrees C for 24 hours) initiated within 8 hours after injury or to normothermia (37.0 degrees C). The primary outcome was the proportion of children who had an unfavorable outcome (i.e., severe disability, persistent vegetative state, or death), as assessed on the basis of the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score at 6 months. A total of 225 children were randomly assigned to the hypothermia group or the normothermia group; the mean temperatures achieved in the two groups were 33.1+/-1.2 degrees C and 36.9+/-0.5 degrees C, respectively. At 6 months, 31% of the patients in the hypothermia group, as compared with 22% of the patients in the normothermia group, had an unfavorable outcome (relative risk, 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 2.22; P=0.14). There were 23 deaths (21%) in the hypothermia group and 14 deaths (12%) in the normothermia group (relative risk, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.90 to 2.27; P=0.06). There was more hypotension (P=0.047) and more vasoactive agents were administered (P<0.001) in the hypothermia group during the rewarming period than in the normothermia group. Lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and in the hospital and other adverse events were similar in the two groups. In children with severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia therapy that is initiated within 8 hours after injury and continued for 24 hours does not improve the neurologic outcome and may increase mortality. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN77393684 [controlled-trials.com].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Carrillo, Eli; Hern, H Gene; Barger, Joseph
Anaphylaxis in the pediatric population is both serious and potentially lethal. The incidence of allergic and anaphylactic reactions has been increasing and the need for life saving intervention with epinephrine must remain an important part of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provider training. Our aim was to characterize dosing and timing of epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol in the pediatric patient with anaphylaxis. In this retrospective chart review, we studied prehospital medication administration in pediatric patients ages 1 month up to 14 years old classified as having a severe allergic reaction or anaphylaxis. We compared rates of epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol given to patients with allergic conditions including anaphylaxis. In addition, we calculated the rate of epinephrine administration in cases of anaphylaxis and determined what percentage of time the epinephrine was given by EMS or prior to their arrival. Of the pediatric patient contacts, 205 were treated for allergic complaints. Of those with allergic complaints, 98 of 205 (48%; 95% CI 41%, 55%) had symptoms consistent with anaphylaxis and indications for epinephrine. Of these 98, 53 (54%, 95% CI 44%, 64%) were given epinephrine by EMS or prior to EMS arrival. Among the patients in anaphylaxis not given epinephrine prior to EMS arrival, 6 (12%; 95% CI 3%, 21%) received epinephrine from EMS, 10 (20%; 95% CI 9%, 30%) received diphenhydramine only, 9 (18%, 95% CI 7%-28%) received only albuterol and 17 (33%, 95% CI 20%-46%) received both albuterol and diphenhydramine. 9 patients in anaphylaxis received no treatment prior to arriving to the emergency department (18%, 95% CI 7%-28%). In pediatric patients who met criteria for anaphylaxis and the use of epinephrine, only 54% received epinephrine and the overwhelming majority received it prior to EMS arrival. EMS personnel may not be treating anaphylaxis appropriately with epinephrine.
Landman, Adam B; Rokos, Ivan C; Burns, Kevin; Van Gelder, Carin M; Fisher, Roger M; Dunford, James V; Cone, David C; Bogucki, Sandy
Some of the most intractable challenges in prehospital medicine include response time optimization, inefficiencies at the emergency medical services (EMS)-emergency department (ED) interface, and the ability to correlate field interventions with patient outcomes. Information technology (IT) can address these and other concerns by ensuring that system and patient information is received when and where it is needed, is fully integrated with prior and subsequent patient information, and is securely archived. Some EMS agencies have begun adopting information technologies, such as wireless transmission of 12-lead electrocardiograms, but few agencies have developed a comprehensive plan for management of their prehospital information and integration with other electronic medical records. This perspective article highlights the challenges and limitations of integrating IT elements without a strategic plan, and proposes an open, interoperable, and scalable prehospital information technology (PHIT) architecture. The two core components of this PHIT architecture are 1) routers with broadband network connectivity to share data between ambulance devices and EMS system information services and 2) an electronic patient care report to organize and archive all electronic prehospital data. To successfully implement this comprehensive PHIT architecture, data and technology requirements must be based on best available evidence, and the system must adhere to health data standards as well as privacy and security regulations. Recent federal legislation prioritizing health information technology may position federal agencies to help design and fund PHIT architectures.
Warner, Keir J; Copass, Michael K; Bulger, Eileen M
The use of prehospital needle thoracostomy (NT) is controversial as it is not without risk. Issues such as inappropriate patient selection, misplacement causing iatrogenic injury, treatment failures in obese patients, and delaying definitive tube thoracostomy in the emergency department contribute to this controversy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a cohort of patients undergoing NT by paramedics for tension pneumothorax and review the indications for use, complications, and emergency department outcomes of NT. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing NT in the prehospital setting and transported directly to a Level 1 trauma center over a one-year period. Patients were transported by a single ground transport agency staffed by paramedics. All paramedics were trained to follow uniform protocols for treatment procedures. Variables included indications for NT, patient demographics, prehospital vital signs, injury mechanism, chest X-ray, and Emergency Department outcomes. Paramedics responded to 20,330 advanced life support calls, and 39 (0.2%) patients had a NT placed for treatment of tension pneumothorax. Twenty-two (56.4%) patients were in circulatory arrest, with 12 suffering traumatic arrest and 10 patients in nontraumatic PEA arrest. The remaining 17 (43.6%) patients were treated for nonarrest causes. The use of NT appears to be a safe procedure when preformed by paramedics in an urban EMS system. Prehospital NT resulted in four cases of unexpected survival.
To answer two research questions: First, can previously identified factors relating to academic performance be used to predict first-year academic success for students undertaking a newly developed and vocationally oriented prehospital care course delivered in a rural setting? Second, can the study's findings be used to develop appropriate student selection criteria to assist in the admission of students into relevant tertiary studies or the prehospital care industry? A retrospective review of all first-year, on-campus prehospital care students enrolled in a vocational course at a rural Australian university from 1998 to 2001 was conducted. Six predictors of academic performance were examined, namely: University Admission Index (UAI), postsecondary educational qualifications, student entry type (traditional or mature-aged), previous health-related experience, gender, and background (rural or urban). Three dependent variables assessed academic performance: grade point average (GPA) of students who completed all required first-year subjects, GPA of students who completed at least one subject in the first year, and the student's ability to successfully complete the first year. UAI > 50, previous health-related experience, postsecondary educational qualifications, background, student entry type, and gender were all found to be significant predictors of first-year academic performance in selective cohorts. In addition, a combination of predictors produced higher GPAs than did any single predictor. Academic performance of first-year students in the prehospital care discipline can be predicted given the appropriate selection variables. Admission selection can be assisted with the generated Student Selection 001.
Gaynor, Mark; Myung, Dan; Hashmi, Nada; Shankaranarayanan, G
iRevive is a sensor-supported, pre-hospital patient care system for the capture and transmittal of electronic patient data from the field to hospitals. It is being developed by 10Blade and Boston MedFlight. iRevive takes advantage of emerging technologies to offer a robust, flexible, and extensible IT infrastructure for patient data collection.
Lampi, Maria; Junker, Johan; Berggren, Peter; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Vikström, Tore
The pre-hospital triage process aims at identifying and prioritizing patients in the need of prompt intervention and/or evacuation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate triage decision skills in a Mass Casualty Incident drill. The study compares two groups of participants in Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support courses. A questionnaire was used to deal with three components of triage of victims in a Mass Casualty Incident: decision-making; prioritization of 15 hypothetical casualties involved in a bus crash; and prioritization for evacuation. Swedish Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants filled in the same triage skills questionnaire just before and after their respective course. One hundred fifty-three advanced Trauma Life Support course participants were compared to 175 Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants. The response rates were 90% and 95%, respectively. A significant improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for the Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support group in regards to decision-making. This difference was only noticeable among the participants who had previously participated in Mass Casualty Incident drills or had experience of a real event (pre-test mean ± standard deviation 2.4 ± 0.68, post-test mean ± standard deviation 2.60 ± 0.59, P = 0.04). No improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for either group regarding prioritization of the bus crash casualties or the correct identification of the most injured patients for immediate evacuation. Neither Advanced Trauma Life Support nor Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants showed general improvement in their tested triage skills. However, participation in Mass Casualty Incident drills or experience of real events prior to the test performed here, were shown to be advantageous for Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants. These courses should be
Murphy, Adrian; Wakai, Abel; Walsh, Cathal; Cummins, Fergal; O'Sullivan, Ronan
Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to monitor and evaluate critical areas of clinical and support functions that influence patient outcome. Traditional prehospital emergency care performance monitoring has focused solely on response time metrics. The landscape of emergency care delivery in Ireland is in the process of significant national reconfiguration. The development of KPIs is therefore considered one of the key priorities in prehospital research. The aim of this study was to develop a suite of KPIs for prehospital emergency care in Ireland. A systematic literature review of prehospital care performance measurement was undertaken followed by a three-round Delphi consensus process facilitated by a broad-based multidisciplinary group of panellists. The consensus process was conducted between June 2012 and October 2013. Each candidate indicator on the Delphi survey questionnaire was rated using a 5-point Likert-type rating scale. Agreement was defined as at least 70% of responders rating an indicator as 'agree' or 'strongly agree' on the rating scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Sensitivity of the ratings was examined for robustness by bootstrapping the original sample. Of the 78 citations identified by the systematic review, 5 relevant publications were used to select candidate indicators for the Delphi round 1 questionnaire. Response rates in Delphi rounds 1 and 2 were 89% and 83%, respectively. Following the consensus development conference, 101 KPIs reached consensus. Based on the Donabedian framework for quality-of-care indicators, 7 of the KPIs which reached agreement were structure KPIs, 74 were process KPIs and 20 were outcome KPIs. The highest ranked indicator was a process KPI ('Direct transport of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients to a primary percutaneous intervention (PCI)-capable facility for ECG to PCI time <90 min'). Improving the quality of prehospital care requires the development and implementation of
Ibrahim, Nasiru A; Ajani, Abdul Wahab O; Mustafa, Ibrahim A; Balogun, Rufai A; Oludara, Mobolaji A; Idowu, Olufemi E; Solagberu, Babatunde A
Introduction Injuries are the third most important cause of overall deaths globally with one-quarter resulting from road traffic crashes. Majority of these deaths occur before arrival in the hospital and can be reduced with prompt and efficient prehospital care. The aim of this study was to highlight the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in Lagos, Nigeria and assess the effectiveness of prehospital care, especially the role of Lagos State Ambulance Service (LASAMBUS) in providing initial care and transportation of the injured to the hospital. A three-year, retrospective review of road traffic injured patients seen at the Surgical Emergency Room (SER) of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Nigeria, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 was conducted. Parameters extracted from the Institution Trauma Registry included bio-data, date and time of injury, date and time of arrival in SER, host status, type of vehicle involved, and region(s) injured. Information on how patients came to the hospital and outcome in SER also were recorded. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS; IBM Corporation; Armonk, New York USA) version 16. A total of 23,537 patients were seen during the study period. Among them, 16,024 (68.1%) had trauma. Road traffic crashes were responsible in 5,629 (35.0%) of trauma cases. Passengers constituted 42.0% of the injured, followed by pedestrians (34.0%). Four wheelers were the most frequent vehicle type involved (54.0%), followed by motor cycles (30.0%). Regions mainly affected were head and neck (40.0%) and lower limb (29.0%). Less than one-quarter (24.0%) presented to the emergency room within an hour, while one-third arrived between one and six hours following injury. Relatives brought 55.4%, followed by bystanders (21.4%). Only 2.3% had formal prehospital care and were brought to the hospital by LASAMBUS. They also had significantly shorter arrival time. One hundred and nine patients
Corbett, E. L.; Sisodiya, S.; Sarkar, D.
We describe a 71 year old man with a neurodegenerative condition who developed chronic inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and hypothermia resulting in recurrent episodes of impaired consciousness. This combination of abnormalities is attributable to hypothalamic disease and has not to our knowledge been previously reported with clearly documented antidiuretic hormone excess. Images Figure 1 PMID:8121871
Describes the 1970-1979 incidence of exposure-related hypothermia deaths in the United States. Showed nonwhite men at highest and white women at lowest risk at all ages. Age-related impairment in theromoregulation, functional disability, poverty, and social isolation were found to increase elderly individual's susceptibility to this environmental…
Munta, Kartik; Santosh, Paiullah; Surath, Manimala Rao
Organophosphorus poisoning cases are routinely treated across all Intensive Care Units adjoining the rural areas where agriculture is the main source of income. We present a unique case of severe hypothermia seen in a case of organophosphorus poisoning, which led to electrocardiogram disturbances and life-threatening arrhythmias. PMID:28250607
Munta, Kartik; Santosh, Paiullah; Surath, Manimala Rao
Organophosphorus poisoning cases are routinely treated across all Intensive Care Units adjoining the rural areas where agriculture is the main source of income. We present a unique case of severe hypothermia seen in a case of organophosphorus poisoning, which led to electrocardiogram disturbances and life-threatening arrhythmias.
O'Donnell, Sharon; Condell, Sarah; Begley, Cecily; Fitzgerald, Tony
This paper reports the findings of a study that identified gender specific prehospital care pathway delays amongst Irish women and men with myocardial infarction. Women are more likely to experience a poorer prognosis than their male counterparts following hospitalization for myocardial infarction, yet research shows that women continue to experience prehospital care pathway delays. A 1-year prospective census was carried in six major academic teaching hospitals in Dublin, Ireland in 2001-2002. A total of 277 (31%) female and 613 (69%) male patients with confirmed myocardial infarction were included in the study. Women were more likely to experience prolonged 'initial symptom-onset to A&E delays' (14 hours vs. 2.8 hours P < 0.0001), and 'intense symptom-onset to A&E delays' (3.1 hours vs. 1.8 hours , P < 0.0001), i.e. arrival at a hospital accident and emergency department. Advancing age was associated with greater prehospital delays (P < 0.0001), whilst patients with private health insurance had shorter delays than public patients (without private health insurance) or those with medical cards (entitling them to means-tested medical benefits) (P = 0.001). Patients who drove themselves by car to hospital had shorter median prehospital times than those arriving by any other admission mode (P < 0.0001), whilst those referred by their general practitioner had longer delays than those who were self-referred (5 hours vs. 1.7 hours, P < 0.0001). Female gender, advancing age, referral source, insurance status and mode of transport to hospital are independent factors contributing to prehospital patient delays. Nurses who care for patients with coronary artery disease have a unique opportunity to educate people about the most appropriate action to be taken in the event of experiencing symptoms.
Rutkowska, Anna; Skotnicka-Klonowicz, Grażyna
Damage that arises as a result of injuries is one of the most common causes of children presenting to hospital emergency departments. The aim of the study was to assess the implementation of recommendations for prehospital pain management in injured children provided by various health care centers. A total of 7146 children aged 0 to 18 years because of injury were admitted to the Department of Paediatric Emergency Medicine in the Maria Konopnicka Memorial University Teaching Hospital No. 4 in Lodz within the period of 12 months. From this group, 1493 children received prehospital emergency care from various health care centers. Health care centers provided prehospital aid to 21% of all children with injuries. Boys (60.3%) and children older than 5 years (80%) predominated among pediatric trauma cases. Prehospital emergency aid was most frequently administered to children by emergency medical services personnel (42.7%) and a primary health care physician (28.1%). Injuries of head (42.1%), neck (1.1%), chest (1.7%), abdomen (2.5%), upper (32.2%), and lower (19.9%) limbs as well as burns (5.3%) were diagnosed in pediatric patients. Indications for prehospital analgesia were found in 489 of 1493 patients (32.7%). Analgesia was administered to 159 children (32%), pain medication was not given to 223 children (46%), and in 107 cases (22%), there was a lack of information on that subject. Despite the training of medical staff, provision of analgesia for children with burns and traumatic injuries of the osteoarticular system is inadequate.
Ahidjo, Kawu A; Olayinka, Salami A; Ayokunle, Olawepo; Mustapha, Alimi F; Sulaiman, Gbadegesin AA; Gbolahan, Adebule T
Background A well-organized and efficient prehospital transport is associated with improved outcome in trauma patients. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on prehospital transport of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and its relation to mortality. Objective To determine if prehospital transportation is a predictor of mortality in patients with SCI in Nigeria. Design Prospective cohort study Methods Prehospital transport related conditions, injury arrival intervals and persons that brought patients with SCI to the casualty were noted. Data analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test and multiple logistic regressions. Main Outcome Measures Mortality within 6 weeks on admission Results 168 patients with SCI presented in the casualty during this review period. Majority (67.9%) presented after 24 hrs of the injury. Majority (58.3%) were conveyed into the casualty by their relatives. Salon car (54.2%) was the most common mode of transportation where majority (55.4%) laid on their back during the transfer. Majority (75%) of the patients had multiple hospital presentation before reporting in our casualty. The mortality observed was 16.7%. Multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, gender, and means of transportation revealed that age (OR= 63.41, 95% CI= 9.24-43.53), crouched position during transfer (OR= 23.52, 95% CI= 7.26-74.53), presentation after 24 hrs (OR=5.48, 95% CI=3.20-16.42) and multiple hospital presentation (OR= 7.94, 95% CI= 1.89-33.43) were associated with mortality within 6 weeks of admission. Conclusion A well-organized and efficient prehospital transport would reduce mortality in spinal cord injured patients. Public enlightenment campaign on factors that could reduce road traffic injury would help reduce mortality. PMID:21756570
Sage, Michaël; Nadeau, Mathieu; Kohlhauer, Matthias; Praud, Jean-Paul; Tissier, Renaud; Robert, Raymond; Walti, Hervé; Micheau, Philippe
Ultra-fast cooling for mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) has several potential applications, including prevention of post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Ultra-fast MTH by total liquid ventilation (TLV) entails the sudden filling of the lungs with a cold perfluorocarbon liquid and its subsequent use to perform TLV. The present physiological study was aimed at assessing whether pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics as well as lung mechanics are significantly altered during this procedure. Pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures, cardiac output as well as airway resistance and respiratory system compliance were measured during ultra-fast MTH by TLV followed by rewarming and normothermia in six healthy juvenile lambs. Results show that none of the studied variables were altered upon varying the perfluorocarbon temperature from 12 to 41 °C. It is concluded that ultra-fast MTH by TLV does not have any deleterious effect on hemodynamics or lung mechanics in healthy juvenile lambs.
Redondo, J I; Suesta, P; Gil, L; Soler, G; Serra, I; Soler, C
A retrospective study of 275 anaesthetic records of cats was undertaken to examine the prevalence of postanaesthetic hypothermia, its clinical predictors and consequences. Temperature was recorded throughout anaesthesia. The temperature reached at the end was classified as hyperthermia (>39.50 °C), normothermia (38.50 to 39.50 °C), slight hypothermia (38.49 to 36.50 °C), moderate hypothermia (36.49 to 34.00 °C) or severe hypothermia (<34.00 °C). Statistical analysis consisted of multiple regression to identify the factors that affect the temperature at the end of the procedure. Before premedication, the mean (sd) temperature was 38.2 (1.0) °C. At 60, 120 and 180 minutes from induction, the temperature was 35.4 (1.4) °C, 35.0 (1.5) °C and 34.6 (1.5) °C, respectively. The prevalence of hypothermia was slight 26.5 per cent (95 per cent CI 21.7 to 32.0 per cent), moderate 60.4 per cent (95 per cent CI 54.5 to 66.0 per cent) and severe 10.5 per cent (95 per cent CI 7.4 to 14.7 per cent). The variables associated with a decrease in the temperature recorded at the end of anaesthesia were the duration of anaesthesia, the reason for anaesthesia (abdominal and orthopaedic surgeries significantly reduced the temperature when compared with minor procedures) and the anaesthetic risk (high-risk cats showed lower temperatures than low-risk cats). The temperature before premedication was associated with an increase in the final temperature.
Todd, Michael M; Hindman, Bradley J; Clarke, William R; Torner, James C
Surgery for intracranial aneurysm often results in postoperative neurologic deficits. We conducted a randomized trial at 30 centers to determine whether intraoperative cooling during open craniotomy would improve the outcome among patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A total of 1001 patients with a preoperative World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score of I, II, or III ("good-grade patients"), who had had a subarachnoid hemorrhage no more than 14 days before planned surgical aneurysm clipping, were randomly assigned to intraoperative hypothermia (target temperature, 33 degrees C, with the use of surface cooling techniques) or normothermia (target temperature, 36.5 degrees C). P