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Sample records for preliminary lta pie

  1. LOTS of LTA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Current problems facing the logistical planner in utilizing the new ships of the modern, intermodal sea transportation systems in a logistics-over-the-shore (undeveloped) environment are described. Then the employment of two potential LTA vehicle systems are described and discussed as significant parts of possible solutions to this range of logistical problems. Vulnerability aspects of these LTA vehicles are also briefly addressed because of their possible employment near combat areas.

  2. Lea's Pies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a pie company owner to develop an inexpensive container that would protect pies and keep them in a near frozen condition for shipping in 48 hours. A NASA engineer made a thermal barrier envelope from a metalized mylar called 'space blanket material,' developed during the Apollo era. The envelope protects the pies from heat transfer. Pictured, a NASA engineer removes the temperature logger from a pecan pie shipped to him in a prototype envelope.

  3. Lea's Pies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a pie company owner to develop an inexpensive container that would protect pies and keep them in a near frozen condition for shipping in 48 hours. A NASA engineer made a thermal barrier envelope from a metalized mylar called 'space blanket material,' developed during the Apollo era. The envelope protects the pies from heat transfer. Pictured, a NASA engineer removes the temperature logger from a pecan pie shipped to him in a prototype envelope.

  4. Basic relationships for LTA economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Operating costs based on data of actual and proposed airships for conventional lighter than air craft (LTA) are presented. An economic comparison of LTA with the B-47F is included, and possible LTA economic trends are discussed.

  5. LTA Physics Design: Description of All MOX Pin LTA Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    In this document issued according to Work Release 02. P. 99-lb the results of neutronics studies of <<100%Pu>> MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  6. LTA structures and materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1975-01-01

    The state-of-the-art concerning structures and materials technology is reviewed. It is shown that many present materials developments resulting from balloon and aircraft research programs can be applied to new concepts in LTA vehicles. Both buoyant and semi-buoyant vehicles utilize similar approaches to solving structural problems and could involve pressurized non-rigid and unpressurized rigid structures. System designs common to both and vital to structural integrity include much of the past technology as well. Further research is needed in determination of structural loads, especially in future design concepts.

  7. Multi-PIE.

    PubMed

    Gross, Ralph; Matthews, Iain; Cohn, Jeff; Kanade, Takeo; Baker, Simon

    2010-05-01

    A close relationship exists between the advancement of face recognition algorithms and the availability of face databases varying factors that affect facial appearance in a controlled manner. The CMU PIE database has been very influential in advancing research in face recognition across pose and illumination. Despite its success the PIE database has several shortcomings: a limited number of subjects, single recording session and only few expressions captured. To address these issues we collected the CMU Multi-PIE database. It contains 337 subjects, imaged under 15 view points and 19 illumination conditions in up to four recording sessions. In this paper we introduce the database and describe the recording procedure. We furthermore present results from baseline experiments using PCA and LDA classifiers to highlight similarities and differences between PIE and Multi-PIE.

  8. 1981 LTA technology assessment - Past and present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashford, R. L.; Levitt, B. B.; Mayer, N. J.; Vocar, J. M.; Woodward, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    A four-part presentation is made of (1) lessons learned from the design and operation of the 'classic' airships of the 1920s and 30s, with respect to such issues as construction, propulsion, control, instrumentation, ground handling, habitability, aerodynamics, and structure and construction; (2) lessons learned from the development of such specialized lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts as metal-clad airships, semi-buoyant lifting bodies, experimental, sport and commercial free balloons, high-altitude platforms, and tethered aerostats; (3) the current status of LTA technology in various countries, with emphasis on significant developments in configuration, dynamics, control, structures, materials, and propulsion; and (4) a projection of future trends. It is concluded that socio-economic factors will strongly influence and encourage LTA development in the 1990s.

  9. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  10. A landslide-quake detection algorithm with STA/LTA and diagnostic functions of moving average and scintillation index: A preliminary case study of the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Jie; Lin, Guan-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Since 1999, Taiwan has experienced a rapid rise in the number of landslides, and the number even reached a peak after the 2009 Typhoon Morakot. Although it is proved that the ground-motion signals induced by slope processes could be recorded by seismograph, it is difficult to be distinguished from continuous seismic records due to the lack of distinct P and S waves. In this study, we combine three common seismic detectors including the short-term average/long-term average (STA/LTA) approach, and two diagnostic functions of moving average and scintillation index. Based on these detectors, we have established an auto-detection algorithm of landslide-quakes and the detection thresholds are defined to distinguish landslide-quake from earthquakes and background noises. To further improve the proposed detection algorithm, we apply it to seismic archives recorded by Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) during the 2009 Typhoon Morakots and consequently the discrete landslide-quakes detected by the automatic algorithm are located. The detection algorithm show that the landslide-detection results are consistent with that of visual inspection and hence can be used to automatically monitor landslide-quakes.

  11. LTA measurements on shuttle cleaning nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A laser transit anemometer was used to make flow field velocity measurements on a supersonic air/water cleaning nozzle used to clean liquid oxygen shuttle components at Kennedy Space Center. The velocity along the centerline of the nozzle was characterized by the LTA system and compared with CFD calculations to ascertain the optimum distance the nozzle should be placed from the liquid oxygen part for maximum cleaning..

  12. Periodic modeling of zeolite Ti-LTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Roldan, Alberto; Ngoepe, Phuti E.; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2017-08-01

    We have proposed a combination of density functional theory calculations and interatomic potential-based simulations to study the structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of pure-silica zeolite Linde Type A (LTA), as well as two titanium-doped compositions. The energetics of the titanium distribution within the zeolite framework suggest that the inclusion of a second titanium atom with configurations Ti-(Si0)-Ti, Ti-(Si1)-Ti, and Ti-(Si2)-Ti is more energetically favorable than the mono-substitution. Infra-red spectra have been simulated for the pure-silica LTA, the single titanium substitution, and the configurations Ti-(Si0)-Ti and Ti-(Si2)-Ti, comparing against experimental benchmarks where available. The energetics of the direct dissociation of water on these Lewis acid sites indicate that this process is only favored when two titanium atoms form a two-membered ring (2MR) sharing two hydroxy groups, Ti-(OH2)-Ti, which suggests that the presence of water may tune the distribution of titanium atoms within the framework of zeolite LTA. The electronic analysis indicates charge transfer from H2O to the Lewis acid site and hybridization of their electronic states.

  13. LTA structures and materials technology. [airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1975-01-01

    The state-of-the-art concerning structures and materials technology is reviewed. It is shown that many present materials developments resulting from balloon and aircraft research programs can be applied to new concepts in LTA vehicles. Both buoyant and semi-buoyant vehicles will utilize similar approaches to solving structural problems and could involve pressurized non-rigid and unpressurized rigid structures. System designs common to both and vital to structural integrity will include much of the past technology as well. Further research is needed in determination of structural loads, especially in future design concepts.

  14. LTA - Recent developments. [Lighter Than Air ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    NASA-sponsored studies of existing and new LTA missions showed that airships looked very promising for some two dozen civil and military applications. These include surveillance of rural and urban areas, in the form of forest and police patrols; transport of very heavy large-volume maritime, industrial, and military payloads; coastal patrol and sea control; seismographic surveys; air pollution monitoring; and moving goods to remote areas; along with a number of less important but still attractive missions. A figure of merit of productivity (payload weight, ton moles per hour) was used to compare airships of various type and size. In each case, this criterion established an index of efficiency for evaluating not only conceptual approaches but also modes of flight. Some, in part unexpected, results of these studies are described.

  15. LTA - Recent developments. [Lighter Than Air ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    NASA-sponsored studies of existing and new LTA missions showed that airships looked very promising for some two dozen civil and military applications. These include surveillance of rural and urban areas, in the form of forest and police patrols; transport of very heavy large-volume maritime, industrial, and military payloads; coastal patrol and sea control; seismographic surveys; air pollution monitoring; and moving goods to remote areas; along with a number of less important but still attractive missions. A figure of merit of productivity (payload weight, ton moles per hour) was used to compare airships of various type and size. In each case, this criterion established an index of efficiency for evaluating not only conceptual approaches but also modes of flight. Some, in part unexpected, results of these studies are described.

  16. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  17. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  18. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  19. The PIE Institute Project: Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Carroll, Becky; Helms, Jen; Smith, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The Playful Invention and Exploration (PIE) Institute project was funded in 2005 by the National Science Foundation (NSF). For the past three years, Inverness Research has served as the external evaluator for the PIE project. The authors' evaluation efforts have included extensive observation and documentation of PIE project activities; ongoing…

  20. [Pie]: Re-Count and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The number [pie] [approximately] 3.14159 is defined to be the ratio C/d of the circumference C to the diameter d of any given circle. In this article, the author looks at some surprising and unexpected places where [pie] occurs, and then thinks about some ways of remembering all those digits in the expansion of [pie].

  1. Airships 101: Rediscovering the Potential of Lighter-Than-Air (LTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.; Hochstetler, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of airships past, present, and future is provided in a Powerpoint-formatted presentation. This presentation was requested for transfer to the British MOD by Paul Espinosa of NASA Ames, Code PX. The presentation provides general information about airships divided into four main categories: the legacy of NASA Ames in LTA (Lighter-Than-Air), LTA taxonomy and theory, LTA revival and missions, and LTA research and technology.

  2. Efforts toward achieving an unmanned, high-altitude LTA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Onda, Masahiko; Ford, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The modern demands for an unmanned aerospace platform, capable of long-duration stationkeeping at high-altitudes, are well-known. Satellites, balloons, and aircraft have traditionally served in the role of platform, facilitating tasks ranging from telecommunications to deep-space astronomy. However, limitations on the performance and flexibility of these systems, as well as the intrinsically high-cost of satellite construction, operation, and repair, warrants development of a supplemental technology for the platform. Much has been written in the literature on the possible advantages of a lighter-than-air (LTA) platform, if such an LTA could be constructed. Potential applications include remote sensing, environmental monitoring, mobile communications, space and polar observations, cargo delivery, military reconnaissance, and others. At present, conventional LTA`s are not capable of serving in the manner specified. Within this context, a research program known as HALROP (High Altitude Long Range Observational Platform) is currently underway. The goal is to create a stratospheric platform, possibly in the form of a next generation LTA vehicle. The authors present a qualitative review of their efforts, focusing on milestones in the HALROP Program. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Personal Impact of Epilepsy Scale (PIES).

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robert S; Nune, George; Roberts, Sanford E; Cramer, Joyce A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of epilepsy is manifest by effects related to seizures and side effects of therapy and comorbidities such as depression. This report describes the development of a brief patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument, the Personal Impact of Epilepsy Scale (PIES), to measure the influence of epilepsy overall and in each of these domains. Instrument development followed standard procedures and an FDA Guidance. People with epilepsy were surveyed with open-ended questions to derive major themes of their concerns, resulting in 4 key areas: seizures, side effects, comorbidities, and overall quality of life (QOL). A preliminary set of 152 questions was based on these themes and completed by 50 patients, age 42.7 (range: 21-71) years, concurrent with comparator instruments, including the NH Seizure Severity Scale (NHSSS), the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP), the Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31) scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Epilepsy Foundation Depression: A Checklist. A multiple regression model indicated which PIES measures were associated with scores from the comparator instruments. Questions in each of the domains were selected for correlations and nonduplication. Test-retest consistency at a 3-day interval was completed by 38 subjects and a final set of questions constructed. The final question set comprised 25 items: 9 about characteristics of seizures, 7 about medication side effects, 8 about comorbidities, and 1 about overall quality of life. All items had 5 response choices (0-4), with higher scores reflecting more negative status. A total of 46 subjects completed the 25 questions. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87, indicating good internal consistency. Each of the three domains correlated well with the overall QOL item. The questions pertaining to seizures correlated with the NHSSS, the side effect questions with the LAEP, and the comorbidity questions with the QOLIE-31. The PIES provides a simple, brief PRO measure as a profile of

  4. Phase selection controlled by sodium ions in the synthesis of FAU/LTA composite zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Linyan; Xie, Sujuan; Wang, Qingxia; Liu, Shenglin; Xu, Longya

    2009-01-01

    Zeolite faujasite (FAU), Linde type A (LTA) and FAU/LTA composite have been synthesized using tetramethylammonium cation (TMA+) as template, by adjusting only the concentration of Na+ ions in the initial solution (1.00 Al2O3 4.36 SiO2 : 2.39 (TMA)2 O : β Na2 O : 249.00H2 O). Na+ ions alter the phase composition of the product more than TMA+ or OH− ions. When Na2 O concentration [Na2 O] increases from 0.024 to 0.168, the product gradually changes from pure FAU to pure LTA via the formation of FAU/LTA composite with increasing LTA fraction. Interestingly, the induction periods of FAU and LTA in the FAU/LTA composite zeolite ([Na2 O] is 0.072) are both 13 h, quite different from the induction periods of their individual pure phases—45 h for FAU and 4 h for LTA. During the crystallization, the LTA/(FAU + LTA) fraction in the composite zeolite decreases in a nearly linear fashion. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis indicate some difference between the properties of the FAU/LTA composite zeolite and of the mechanical mixture. PMID:27877264

  5. Phase selection controlled by sodium ions in the synthesis of FAU/LTA composite zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Linyan; Xie, Sujuan; Wang, Qingxia; Liu, Shenglin; Xu, Longya

    2009-01-01

    Zeolite faujasite (FAU), Linde type A (LTA) and FAU/LTA composite have been synthesized using tetramethylammonium cation (TMA +) as template, by adjusting only the concentration of Na + ions in the initial solution (1.00 Al2 O3 4.36 SiO2 : 2.39 (TMA)2 O : β Na2 O : 249.00H2 O). Na + ions alter the phase composition of the product more than TMA+ or OH- ions. When Na2 O concentration [Na2 O] increases from 0.024 to 0.168, the product gradually changes from pure FAU to pure LTA via the formation of FAU/LTA composite with increasing LTA fraction. Interestingly, the induction periods of FAU and LTA in the FAU/LTA composite zeolite ([Na2 O] is 0.072) are both 13 h, quite different from the induction periods of their individual pure phases—45 h for FAU and 4 h for LTA. During the crystallization, the LTA/(FAU + LTA) fraction in the composite zeolite decreases in a nearly linear fashion. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis indicate some difference between the properties of the FAU/LTA composite zeolite and of the mechanical mixture.

  6. Phase selection controlled by sodium ions in the synthesis of FAU/LTA composite zeolite.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linyan; Xie, Sujuan; Wang, Qingxia; Liu, Shenglin; Xu, Longya

    2009-02-01

    Zeolite faujasite (FAU), Linde type A (LTA) and FAU/LTA composite have been synthesized using tetramethylammonium cation (TMA(+)) as template, by adjusting only the concentration of Na(+) ions in the initial solution (1.00 Al2O3 4.36 SiO2 : 2.39 (TMA)2 O : β Na2 O : 249.00H2 O). Na(+) ions alter the phase composition of the product more than TMA(+) or OH(-) ions. When Na2 O concentration [Na2 O] increases from 0.024 to 0.168, the product gradually changes from pure FAU to pure LTA via the formation of FAU/LTA composite with increasing LTA fraction. Interestingly, the induction periods of FAU and LTA in the FAU/LTA composite zeolite ([Na2 O] is 0.072) are both 13 h, quite different from the induction periods of their individual pure phases-45 h for FAU and 4 h for LTA. During the crystallization, the LTA/(FAU + LTA) fraction in the composite zeolite decreases in a nearly linear fashion. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis indicate some difference between the properties of the FAU/LTA composite zeolite and of the mechanical mixture.

  7. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  8. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  9. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  10. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared by...

  11. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared by...

  12. Growth morphologies and optical properties of LTA single crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Ren, Miaojuan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Peiji

    2013-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to study the growth morphologies of l-threonine acetate (abbreviated as LTA) crystal. Spiral growth hillocks and typical step patterns are described and discussed. Nuclei with various shapes often distribute at the larger step terraces. Eventually, in order to investigate microscopic second order nonlinear optical properties of LTA crystals, the molecular dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α), and first hyperpolarizability (β) were computed using a series of basis sets including polarized and diffuse functions at the framework of Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods. The study is helpful to the further development of l-threonine analogs with improved nonlinear optical properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Airship logistics: The LTA vehicle; a total cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, L. R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Design considerations for logistics are dealt with as they pertain to the large rigid LTA vehicle as either a commercial or military cargo carrier. Pertinent factors discussed are: (1) the basic mission; (2) types of payload; (3) the payload space in regards to configuration and sizing, its capacity, and its loadability. A logistic capability comparison of selected cargo airships versus jumbo jets is also made.

  14. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  15. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies,...

  16. Post irradiation effects (PIE) in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, D. C.; Lowry, L.; Barnes, C.; Zakharia, M.; Agarwal, S.; Rax, B.

    1991-01-01

    Post-irradiation effects (PIE) ranging from normal recovery to catastrophic failure have been observed in integrated circuits during the PIE period. Data presented show failure due to rebound after a 10 krad(Si) dose. In particular, five device types are investigated with varying PIE response. Special attention has been given to the HI1-507A analog multiplexer because its PIE response is extreme. X-ray diffraction has been uniquely employed to measure physical stress in the HI1-507A metallization. An attempt has been made to show a relationship between stress relaxation and radiation effects. All data presented support the current MIL-STD Method 1019.4 but demonstrate the importance of performing PIE measurements, even when mission doses are as low as 10 krad(Si).

  17. Post irradiation effects (PIE) in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, D. C.; Lowry, L.; Barnes, C.; Zakharia, M.; Agarwal, S.; Rax, B.

    1991-01-01

    Post-irradiation effects (PIE) ranging from normal recovery to catastrophic failure have been observed in integrated circuits during the PIE period. Data presented show failure due to rebound after a 10 krad(Si) dose. In particular, five device types are investigated with varying PIE response. Special attention has been given to the HI1-507A analog multiplexer because its PIE response is extreme. X-ray diffraction has been uniquely employed to measure physical stress in the HI1-507A metallization. An attempt has been made to show a relationship between stress relaxation and radiation effects. All data presented support the current MIL-STD Method 1019.4 but demonstrate the importance of performing PIE measurements, even when mission doses are as low as 10 krad(Si).

  18. Polypropylene glycol is a selective binding inhibitor for LTA and other structurally related TLR2 agonists.

    PubMed

    Draing, Christian; Traub, Stephanie; Deininger, Susanne; Mang, Philippa; Möller, Heiko M; Manso, Miguel; Rossi, Francois; Morath, Siegfried; Hartung, Thomas; von Aulock, Sonja

    2008-03-01

    Polypropylene glycol (PPG) is commonly added to bacterial cultures to avoid foaming. However, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from bacteria grown with PPG lacked cytokine-inducing potency in human blood. We tested the blocking efficacy of several glycols on the cytokine response to staphylococcal LTA in human blood. PPG 1200 was the most potent inhibitor tested, shown for TNF, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TGF-beta induction, and displayed no cytotoxic effects. TNF induction by Staphylococcus aureus or by Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 agonists (di- and triacylated lipopeptides and LTA) was also inhibited by PPG 1200, but not that induced by Escherichia coli or TLR4 agonists. In flow cytometric studies, PPG-carrying nanobeads bound more rhodamine-labeled LTA than those with glycerol. Additionally, the methyl group peak in the (1)H-NMR of LTA shifted after incubation with increasing PPG 1200 concentrations. Sequential incubation of polystyrene plates with LTA, then PPG 1200 and then blood, with washing steps in between, showed that LTA-induced TNF release was inhibited. But when PPG 1200 was pre-incubated with blood that was washed before LTA was added, TNF induction was not repressed, demonstrating that PPG binds LTA and not cellular structures. In summary, PPG 1200 is a novel inhibitor of cytokine induction by TLR2 agonists, which interferes directly with the ligands.

  19. Hybrid LTA vehicle controllability as affected by buoyancy ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D. N.; Kubicki, P.; Tarczynski, T.; Fairbanks, A.; Piasecki, F. N.

    1979-01-01

    The zero and low speed controllability of heavy lift airships under various wind conditions as affected by the buoyancy ratio are investigated. A series of three hybrid LTA vehicls were examined, each having a dynamic thrust system comprised of four H-34 helicopters, but with buoyant envelopes of different volumes (and hence buoyancies), and with varying percentage of helium inflation and varying useful loads (hence gross weights). Buoyancy ratio, B, was thus examined varying from approximately 0.44 to 1.39. For values of B greater than 1.0, the dynamic thrusters must supply negative thrust (i.e. downward).

  20. 46 CFR 16.109 - Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). 16.109 Section 16.109... General § 16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). Service agents are subject to Public Interest Exclusion (PIE) actions in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40, subpart R. The PIE is an action which excludes...

  1. Framework stabilization of Si-rich LTA zeolite prepared in organic-free media.

    PubMed

    Conato, Marlon T; Oleksiak, Matthew D; Peter McGrail, B; Motkuri, Radha K; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-07

    Zeolite HOU-2 (LTA type) is prepared with the highest silica content (Si/Al = 2.1) reported for Na-LTA zeolites without the use of an organic structure-directing agent. The rational design of Si-rich zeolites has the potential to improve their thermal stability for applications in catalysis, gas storage, and selective separations.

  2. Framework Stabilization of Si-Rich LTA Zeolite Prepared in Organic-Free Media

    SciTech Connect

    Conato, Marlon T.; Oleksiak, Matthew D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Motkuri, Radha K.; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2014-10-16

    Zeolite HOU-2 (LTA type) is prepared with the highest silica content (Si/Al = 2.1) reported for Na-LTA zeolites without the use of an organic structure-directing agent. The rational design of Si-rich zeolites has the potential to improve their thermal stability for applications in catalysis, gas storage, and selective separations.

  3. LTA application of a long trailing wire high speed/low weight reeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werb, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    The successful development of a unique yet simple reeling system for handling long trailing tensile members at high speeds is described. This high speed when combined with the system simplicity, low weight and effective motive power consumption make this reeling system particularly attractive to LTA planners and designers for numerous LTA missions.

  4. Defective Reduction in Frozen Pie Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooted, Oranuch; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat

    2017-06-01

    The frozen pie production has a lot of defects resulting in high production cost. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique has been applied to improve the frozen pie process. Pareto chart is also used to determine the major defects of frozen pie. There are 3 main processes that cause the defects which are the 1st freezing to glazing process, the forming process, and the folding process. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) obtained from FMEA is analyzed to reduce the defects. If RPN of each cause exceeds 45, the process will be considered to be improved and selected for the corrective and preventive actions. The results showed that RPN values decreased after the correction. Therefore, the implementation of FMEA technique can help to improve the performance of frozen pie process and reduce the defects approximately 51.9%.

  5. Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design.

  6. Al Pie De La Letra

    PubMed Central

    Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ethnic minorities are at higher stroke risk than non-Hispanic whites yet are less likely to have optimal vascular risk factor control. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive strategies for enhancing vascular risk reduction in minority patients with stroke. This study aimed to develop a postdischarge report card to boost treatment adherence among elderly Spanish-speaking patients with stroke within an urban health system. Methods This study included a total of 13 Spanish-only speaking participants aged ≥60 years discharged from a local government hospital in Los Angeles within 18 months of an index ischemic stroke and 6 caregivers engaged in focus groups and interviews. Structured interviews were conducted with 11 care providers and 9 administrators at the hospital. Framework analysis examined the data and elicited themes to adapt a pre-existing patient report card tool. Results Spontaneously using the same phrase, “Al pie de la letra,” several participants expressed a need to follow medical instructions accurately to prevent recurrent stroke and identified barriers/facilitators for doing so. They made comments about the pre-existing report card, advising several changes, including the clarification of phrases, and written instructions to explain the need for the card and how to fill it out. The providers and administrators recommended avenues for successfully using the card at the hospital. A new report card was created that incorporated all major perspectives. Conclusions Crafting a culturally sensitive tool for promoting treatment adherence in elderly Spanish-only-speaking patients with stroke within an urban health system using a participatory methodology is feasible. The efficacy of this new report card should be tested in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:20167904

  7. Differential localization of LTA synthesis proteins and their interaction with the cell division machinery in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Nathalie T; Piçarra Cassona, Carolina; Monteiro, João M; Bottomley, Amy L; Corrigan, Rebecca M; Foster, Simon J; Pinho, Mariana G; Gründling, Angelika

    2014-04-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. In Staphylococcus aureus it consists of a polyglycerolphosphate-chain that is retained within the membrane via a glycolipid. Using an immunofluorescence approach, we show here that the LTA polymer is not surface exposed in S. aureus, as it can only be detected after digestion of the peptidoglycan layer. S. aureus mutants lacking LTA are enlarged and show aberrant positioning of septa, suggesting a link between LTA synthesis and the cell division process. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that the three key LTA synthesis proteins, YpfP and LtaA, involved in glycolipid production, and LtaS, required for LTA backbone synthesis, interact with one another. All three proteins also interacted with numerous cell division and peptidoglycan synthesis proteins, suggesting the formation of a multi-enzyme complex and providing further evidence for the co-ordination of these processes. When assessed by fluorescence microscopy, YpfP and LtaA fluorescent protein fusions localized to the membrane while the LtaS enzyme accumulated at the cell division site. These data support a model whereby LTA backbone synthesis proceeds in S. aureus at the division site in co-ordination with cell division, while glycolipid synthesis takes place throughout the membrane. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Differential localization of LTA synthesis proteins and their interaction with the cell division machinery in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Nathalie T; Piçarra Cassona, Carolina; Monteiro, João M; Bottomley, Amy L; Corrigan, Rebecca M; Foster, Simon J; Pinho, Mariana G; Gründling, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. In Staphylococcus aureus it consists of a polyglycerolphosphate-chain that is retained within the membrane via a glycolipid. Using an immunofluorescence approach, we show here that the LTA polymer is not surface exposed in S. aureus, as it can only be detected after digestion of the peptidoglycan layer. S. aureus mutants lacking LTA are enlarged and show aberrant positioning of septa, suggesting a link between LTA synthesis and the cell division process. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that the three key LTA synthesis proteins, YpfP and LtaA, involved in glycolipid production, and LtaS, required for LTA backbone synthesis, interact with one another. All three proteins also interacted with numerous cell division and peptidoglycan synthesis proteins, suggesting the formation of a multi-enzyme complex and providing further evidence for the co-ordination of these processes. When assessed by fluorescence microscopy, YpfP and LtaA fluorescent protein fusions localized to the membrane while the LtaS enzyme accumulated at the cell division site. These data support a model whereby LTA backbone synthesis proceeds in S. aureus at the division site in co-ordination with cell division, while glycolipid synthesis takes place throughout the membrane. PMID:24533796

  9. 49 CFR 40.367 - Who initiates a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who initiates a PIE proceeding? 40.367 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.367 Who initiates a PIE proceeding? The following DOT officials may initiate a PIE proceeding: (a) The drug and alcohol program manager...

  10. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  11. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    PubMed Central

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic. PMID:28303931

  12. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic.

  13. The Mini-Casebook--Easy As Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Hal; Sweet, Charlie

    2003-01-01

    Presents a casebook on the song "American Pie" that considers how to define the parameters of short narrative. Describes the creation of an end-of-term cumulative writing project that the authors have successfully employed for the last decade. Discusses how they put together a casebook that teaches the necessary research skills. (SG)

  14. Direct Logistic Fuel JP-8 Conversion in a Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-09

    Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA- SOFC ) Prepared By CellTech Power , LLC, 131 Flanders Road, MA, 01581 April, 2008 Final Report Contract... REPORT Direct Logistic Fuel JP-8 Conversion in a Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA- SOFC ) 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This...logistic fuel only. The aim of this program was to advance LTA- SOFC technology with respect to direct conversion of JP-8. U 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4

  15. A revolutionary and operational tethered aerostat system illustrating new LTA technology. [for ground-air-ground communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menke, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An operational tethered aerostat system, which demonstrates utility of LTA systems, is described. It was made possible by development of a reliable tethered aerostat that is used to support broadcast equipment at an altitude of 10,000 feet. Two elements of the TCOM system, the aerostat and mooring station, are particularly relevant to the LTA Workshop. They demonstrate the feasibility of using LTA vehicles in real, operational, all-weather applications and, in addition, illustrate an advance in the overall technology base of LTA. The aerostat and the mooring station, including their technical design features and demonstrated performance characteristics, are described.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes MDR transporters are involved in LTA synthesis and triggering of innate immunity during infection

    PubMed Central

    Tadmor, Keren; Pozniak, Yair; Burg Golani, Tamar; Lobel, Lior; Brenner, Moran; Sigal, Nadejda; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance (MDR) transporters are known eponymously for their ability to confer resistance to various antimicrobial drugs. However, it is likely that this is not their primary function and that MDR transporters evolved originally to play additional roles in bacterial physiology. In Listeria monocytogenes a set of MDR transporters was identified to mediate activation of innate immune responses during mammalian cell infection. This phenotype was shown to be dependent on c-di-AMP secretion, but the physiological processes underlying this phenomenon were not completely resolved. Here we describe a genetic approach taken to screen for L. monocytogenes genes or physiological pathways involved in MDR transporter-dependent triggering of the type I interferon response. We found that disruption of L. monocytogenes lipoteichoic acid (LTA) synthesis results in enhanced triggering of type I interferon responses in infected macrophage cells yet does not impact bacterial intracellular growth. This innate immune response required the MDR transporters and could be recapitulated by exposing macrophage cells to culture supernatants derived from LTA mutant bacteria. Notably, we found that the MDR transporters themselves are required for full production of LTA, an observation that links MDR transporters to LTA synthesis for the first time. In light of our findings, we propose that the MDR transporters play a role in regulating LTA synthesis, possibly via c-di-AMP efflux, a physiological function in cell wall maintenance that triggers the host innate immune system. PMID:24611134

  17. Pie de Palo, Argentina: A cataclastic diapir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2009-03-01

    The term cataclastic diapirism is proposed for the low-temperature extrusion of highly fractured rocks through more competent strata to produce domed topographies at the surface. The process is illustrated by reference to the geomorphology, neotectonics and microseismicity of the Pie de Palo, an elongated ridge in the western Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina composed of shattered and sheared Lower Palaeozoic rocks and subject to coseismic uplift. The Pie de Palo is conventionally interpreted as a fault-driven basement fold linked to low-angle eastward subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America; the diapiric model implies instead that deformation is powered by regional compression from west-verging, near-surface, crustal shortening which results ultimately from Atlantic spreading.

  18. PIE preparation of the MEGAPIE target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlmuther, Michael; Wagner, Werner

    2012-12-01

    The MEGAPIE target, after successfully operating for 4 months at a beam power of 0.77 MW, is now being prepared for post irradiation examination PIE. The lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target was irradiated from August until December 2006, and in this period received a beam charge of 2.8 A h of 575 MeV protons. After that, the target was stored in the target storage facility of PSI, waiting for its post irradiation examination. In the meantime several campaigns of tests have been conducted by PSI and ZWILAG, the interim storage facility of Swiss nuclear power plants. In these tests the feasibility of the conditioning of the target and the extraction of sample material for the PIE has been proven. After transport to the hot cell facility at ZWILAG in June 2009, the dismantling of the MEGAPIE target started. It finally was cut into 21 pieces. Ten of these pieces will be shipped to the Hot Laboratory of PSI ('PSI hotlab') to extract samples from the structural materials as well as from the LBE. Currently it is foreseen that the sample extraction will start in the first half of 2011. The remaining parts of the MEGAPIE target were conditioned as radioactive waste. The present paper will mainly focus on the dismantling and first visual inspection of the MEGAPIE target. In addition an outlook on the PIE phase of MEGAPIE is given.

  19. The lta4h Locus Modulates Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infection in Zebrafish and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David M.; Vary, Jay C.; Ray, John P.; Walsh, Gregory S.; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Bang, Nguyen D.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Khadge, Saraswoti; King, Mary-Claire; Hawn, Thomas R.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces varied early outcomes, ranging from resistance to infection to progressive disease. Here we report results from a forward genetic screen in zebrafish larvae that identify multiple mutant classes with distinct patterns of innate susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum. A hypersusceptible mutant maps to the lta4h locus encoding leukotriene A4 hydrolase, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant and proinflammatory eicosanoid. lta4h mutations confer hypersusceptibility independent of LTB4 reduction, by redirecting eicosanoid substrates to anti-inflammatory lipoxins. The resultant anti-inflammatory state permits increased mycobacterial proliferation by limiting production of tumor necrosis factor. In humans, we find that protection from both tuberculosis and multibacillary leprosy is associated with heterozygosity for LTA4H polymorphisms that have previously been correlated with differential LTB4 production. Our results suggest conserved roles for balanced eicosanoid production in vertebrate resistance to mycobacterial infection. PMID:20211140

  20. Revised numerical wrapper for PIES code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raburn, Daniel; Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Donald

    2015-11-01

    A revised external numerical wrapper has been developed for the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (PIES code), which is capable of calculating 3D MHD equilibria with islands. The numerical wrapper has been demonstrated to greatly improve the rate of convergence in numerous cases corresponding to equilibria in the TFTR device where magnetic islands are present. The numerical wrapper makes use of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver along with adaptive preconditioning and a sophisticated subspace-restricted Levenberg-Marquardt backtracking algorithm. The details of the numerical wrapper and several sample results are presented.

  1. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  2. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  3. Sex and the Cinema: What "American Pie" Teaches the Young

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Sharyn

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the wildly successful blockbuster "American Pie" teenpics, especially "American Pie 3--The Wedding". I argue that these films are specifically designed to appeal to teenage male audiences, and to provide lessons in sex and romance. Movies like this are especially important as they are experienced by far more teenagers than,…

  4. Sex and the Cinema: What "American Pie" Teaches the Young

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Sharyn

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the wildly successful blockbuster "American Pie" teenpics, especially "American Pie 3--The Wedding". I argue that these films are specifically designed to appeal to teenage male audiences, and to provide lessons in sex and romance. Movies like this are especially important as they are experienced by far more teenagers than,…

  5. Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The Propulsion Induced Effects (PIE) test program is being lead by NASA Ames for Configuration Aerodynamics (CA). Representatives from CA, Technology Integration (TI), Inlet, and the Nozzle ITD's are working with Ames in defining and executing this test program. The objective of the CA 4-14 milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) and design variations using computational and experimental methods. The experimental aspect includes static calibrations, transonic and supersonic wind tunnel testing. The test program will generate a comprehensive database that will include all appropriate wind tunnel corrections, with emphasis placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the TCA.

  6. 49 CFR 40.379 - How do you contest the issuance of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do you contest the issuance of a PIE? 40.379... issuance of a PIE? (a) If you receive a NOPE, you may contest the issuance of the PIE. (b) If you want to contest the proposed PIE, you must provide the Director information and argument in opposition to...

  7. 49 CFR 40.377 - Who decides whether to issue a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who decides whether to issue a PIE? 40.377 Section... a PIE? (a) The ODAPC Director, or his or her designee, decides whether to issue a PIE. If a designee... determination about whether to start a PIE proceeding. (c) There is a “firewall” between the initiating...

  8. 49 CFR 40.363 - On what basis may the Department issue a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On what basis may the Department issue a PIE? 40... the Department issue a PIE? (a) If you are a service agent, the Department may issue a PIE concerning... also may issue a PIE if you have failed to cooperate with DOT agency representatives...

  9. Characterisation of TNF block haplotypes affecting the production of TNF and LTA.

    PubMed

    Tan, J H; Temple, S E L; Kee, C; Waterer, G W; Tan, C R T; Gut, I; Price, P

    2011-02-01

    Polymorphisms in the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (particularly TNF and adjacent genes) associate with several immunopathological diseases and with susceptibility to pneumonia. The MHC is characterised by strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), so identification of loci affecting disease must be based on haplotypes. We have defined 31 tumour necrosis factor (TNF) block haplotypes (denoted FV1-31) in Caucasians, Asians and Australian Aboriginals. This study correlates the carriage of TNF block haplotypes with TNF and lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) protein production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 205 healthy Caucasian subjects, following in vitro stimulation with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae; gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (E. coli; gram-negative bacteria) or TNF over 4, 8 and 24 h. Fifteen haplotypes were present at >1%, accounting for 94.5% of the cohort. The haplotypes were grouped into five families based on common alleles. Following stimulation, cells from carriers of the FV10 haplotype (family 2) produced less LTA compared with non-FV10 carriers. Carriers of the FV18 haplotype (family 4) produced more LTA than other donors. Induction of TNF by S. pneumoniae following 24 h stimulation was also greater in donors with FV18. The FV18 haplotype associated with the 44.1 MHC ancestral haplotype (HLA-A2, -C5, -B44, -DRB1*0401 and -DQB1*0301) that has few disease associations. FV16 occurred in the 8.1 MHC haplotype (HLA-A2, B8, DR3) that is associated with multiple immunopathological diseases. FV16 did not affect TNF or LTA levels. The findings suggest that many genetic variations critical in vivo are not effectively modelled by short-term cultures.

  10. Gene expression of 5-lipoxygenase and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of nephrotic syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Menegatti, E; Roccatello, D; Fadden, K; Piccoli, G; De Rosa, G; Sena, L M; Rifai, A

    1999-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LT) of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway constitute a class of potent biological lipid mediators of inflammation implicated in the pathogenesis of different models of experimental glomerulonephritis. The key enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), catalyses oxygenation of arachidonic acid to generate the primary leukotriene LTA4. This LT, in turn, serves as a substrate for either LTA4 hydrolase, to form the potent chemoattractant LTB4, or LTC4 synthase, to produce the powerful vasoconstrictor LTC4. To investigate the potential role of LT in the pathogenesis of human glomerulonephritis with nephrotic syndrome, we examined the gene expression of 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase in renal tissue of 21 adult patients with nephrotic syndrome and 11 controls. The patients consisted of 11 cases of membranous nephropathy (MN), seven focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), two non-IgA mesangial glomerulonephritis and one minimal change disease. Total RNA purified from renal tissue was reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified with specific primers in a polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eight patients' renal tissue, four MN and four FSGS, co-expressed 5-LO and LTA4 hydrolase. In situ hybridization analysis revealed 5-LO expression and distribution limited to the interstitial cells surrounding the peritubular capillaries. Comparative clinical and immunohistological data showed that these eight patients had impaired renal function and interstitial changes that significantly correlated with 5-LO expression. These findings suggest that leukotrienes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MN and FSGS. These results are also relevant to elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms which underlie progression to renal failure in these diseases. PMID:10337029

  11. LUNAR MODULE TEST ARTICLE [LTA] [2R] IS MOVED FOR MATING TO LUNAR MODULE ADAPTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Lunar Module Test Article [LTA] 2R, for the second Saturn V mission, is being moved from the low bay of the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building for mating with the spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter. The second Saturn V [502], except for a different lunar return trajectory, will be a repeat of the Apollo 4 unmanned Earth orbital flight of a high apogee for systems testing using several propulsion system burns and a heat shield test at lunar re-entry speed.

  12. Comparison of the STA/LTA and power spectral density methods for microseismic event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, Yoones; Van der Baan, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Robust event detection and picking is a prerequisite for reliable (micro-) seismic interpretations. Detection of weak events is a common challenge among various available event detection algorithms. In this paper we compare the performance of two event detection methods, the short-term average/long-term average (STA/LTA) method, which is the most commonly used technique in industry, and a newly introduced method that is based on the power spectral density (PSD) measurements. We have applied both techniques to a 1-hr long segment of the vertical component of some raw continuous data recorded at a borehole geophone in a hydraulic fracturing experiment. The PSD technique outperforms the STA/LTA technique by detecting a higher number of weak events while keeping the number of false alarms at a reasonable level. The time-frequency representations obtained through the PSD method can also help define a more suitable bandpass filter which is usually required for the STA/LTA method. The method offers thus much promise for automated event detection in industrial, local, regional and global seismological data sets.

  13. Association between ANKK1 (rs1800497) and LTA (rs909253) Genetic Variants and Risk of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Arwa H.; Elhawary, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has assessed associations between schizophrenia and genetic variants of the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) genes among individuals of Middle Eastern ancestry. Here we present the first association study investigating the ANKK1 rs1800497 (T>C) and LTA rs909253 (A>G) single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an Egyptian population. Among 120 patients with DSM-IV and PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) assessments of schizophrenia and 100 healthy controls, we determined the genotypes for the polymorphisms using endonuclease digestion of amplified genomic DNA. Results confirmed previous findings from different ethnic populations, in that the rs1800497 and rs909253 polymorphisms were both associated with risk of schizophrenia. Differences between the genotypes of cases and controls were strongly significant (P = 0.0005 for rs1800497 and P = 0.001 for rs909253). The relative risk to schizophrenia was 1.2 (P = 0.01) for the C allele and 0.8 (P = 0.04) for the G allele. The CC, GG, and combined CC/AA genotypes were all more frequent in cases than in controls. These results support an association between ANKK1 and LTA genetic markers and vulnerability to schizophrenia and show the potential influence of just one copy of the mutant C or G allele in the Egyptian population. PMID:26114114

  14. Crystal structures of Sr-diphylloaluminosilicates synthesized from LTA and FAU zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedić, Bojana; Kremenović, Aleksandar; Dimitrijević, Radovan; Dondur, Vera

    2008-02-01

    Crystal structures of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate phases are solved and refined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data by Rietveld method in trigonal space group P3¯c1 (No. 165) and hexagonal space group P6 3/ mcm (No. 193), respectively. The stoichiometric phase is synthesized from the Sr-LTA zeolite, whereas the non-stoichiometric phase is prepared from the Sr-FAU zeolite by thermal treatment. Structural models described in the space group P3¯c1 are refined to the agreement factors: Rexp = 3.32, Rp = 6.63, Rwp = 9.27, RB = 3.70 for Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate LTA and Rexp = 3.64, Rp = 7.06, Rwp = 10.1, RB = 3.76 for Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate FAU. Structural models described in the space group P6 3/ mcm are refined to the agreement factors: Rexp = 3.32, Rp = 6.50, Rwp = 9.10, RB = 3.40 for Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate LTA and Rexp = 3.64, Rp = 6.92, Rwp = 9.90, RB = 3.55 for Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate FAU. Vacancies in the positions occupied by the Sr 2+ ions are characteristic of the Sr-diphylloaluminosilicate FAU structure.

  15. First Images from the 74 MHz VLA - Pie Town Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, W. M.; Cohen, A. S.; Kassim, N. E.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2005-12-01

    A 74 MHz (4m wavelength) receiver has now been added to the VLBA antenna at Pie Town, bringing the full resolving power of the VLA + Pie Town Link to this low frequency. With baselines up to 73 km, corresponding to resolutions of ˜10 arcsec, and sensitivities ˜20 mJy bm-1, the first observations shown here have achieved by far the highest resolution and sensitivity of any images at this frequency to date.

  16. Decommissioning and PIE of the MEGAPIE spallation target

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C.; Henry, J.; Wohlmuther, M.; Dai, Y.; Gavillet, D.; Hammer, B.; Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.; Thomsen, K.; Tuerler, A.; Wagner, W.; Gessi, A.; Guertin, A.; Konstantinovic, M.; Lindau, R.; Maloy, S.; Saito, S.

    2013-07-01

    A key experiment in the Accelerated Driven Systems roadmap, the MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) (1 MW) was initiated in 1999 in order to design and build a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target, then to operate it into the Swiss spallation neutron facility SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institute. The target has been designed, manufactured, and tested during integral tests, before irradiation carried out end of 2006. During irradiation, neutron and thermo hydraulic measurements were performed allowing deep interpretation of the experiment and validation of the models used during design phase. The decommissioning, Post Irradiation Examinations and waste management phases were defined properly. The phases dedicated to cutting, sampling, cleaning, waste management, samples preparation and shipping to various laboratories were performed by PSI teams: all these phases constitute a huge work, which allows now to perform post-irradiation examination (PIE) of structural material, irradiated in relevant conditions. Preliminary results are presented in the paper, they concern chemical characterization. The following radio-nuclides have been identified by γ-spectrometry: {sup 60}Co, {sup 101}Rh, {sup 102}Rh, {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 172}Hf/Lu, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 194}Hg/Au, {sup 195}Au, {sup 207}Bi. For some of these nuclides the activities can be easily evaluated from γ-spectrometry results ({sup 207}Bi, {sup 194}Hg/Au), while other nuclides can only be determined after chemical separations ({sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 195}Au, {sup 129}I, {sup 36}Cl and α-emitting {sup 208-210}Po). The concentration of {sup 129}I is lower than expected. The chemical analysis already performed on spallation and corrosion products in the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) are very relevant for further applications of LBE as a spallation media and more generally as a coolant.

  17. Identifying P-phase arrivals with noise: An improved Kurtosis method based on DWT and STA/LTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibing; Shang, Xueyi; Wang, Zewei; Dong, Longjun; Weng, Lei

    2016-10-01

    A discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and short time average to long time average (STA/LTA)-based Kurtosis algorithm (W-S/L-K method) is proposed to pick the arrival time of the P-phase; this method advantageously combines the outstanding ability of retrieving the P-phase arrival information from wavelet coefficients at high resolutions with inherent reliability in obtaining the P-phase arrival time using the STA/LTA picking method. The W-S/L-K method uses local maximum amplitudes and local kurtosis onsets from the wavelet detail components to determine the P-phase arrival times reliably and accurately. It was tested and verified using microseismic data collected from the Yongshaba mine. The results show that the W-S/L-K method's rates of picking errors smaller than 5 ms, 10 ms, and 15 ms were 58%, 86%, and 97.5%, respectively, and the W-S/L-K method was able to pick higher quality P-phase arrival times than those determined using the Kurtosis, Skewness, STA/LTA, Kurtosis + STA/LTA, and Skewness + STA/LTA methods. The proposed method provides a reliable technique for accurately picking P-phase arrival times, especially for signals with low signal to noise ratios (SNRs), heavy tails, and spikes. Moreover, it is able to detect pure noise.

  18. Code Analyses Supporting PIE of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Spellman, Donald J; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation's surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating the fuel in commercial power reactors. Four lead test assemblies (LTAs) were manufactured with weapons-grade mixed oxide (WG-MOX) fuel and irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1, to a maximum fuel rod burnup of ~47.3 GWd/MTHM. As part of the fuel qualification process, five rods with varying burnups and initial plutonium contents were selected from one assembly and shipped to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for hot cell examination. ORNL has provided analytical support for the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of these rods via extensive fuel performance modeling which has aided in instrument settings and PIE data interpretation. The results of these fuel performance simulations are compared in this paper with available PIE data.

  19. Low pH Environmental Stress Inhibits LPS and LTA-Stimulated Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stanley F.; Fung, Christopher; Helinski, Jadwiga D.; Alluri, Ravi; Davidson, Bruce A.; Knight, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric aspiration increases the risks for developing secondary bacterial pneumonia. Cytokine elaboration through pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) is an important mechanism in initiating innate immune host response. Effects of low pH stress, a critical component of aspiration pathogenesis, on the PRR pathways were examined, specifically toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) and TLR4, using isolated rat alveolar macrophages (aMØs). We assessed the ability of aMØs after brief exposure to acidified saline to elaborate proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) stimulation, known ligands of TLR4 and TLR2, respectively. Low pH stress reduced LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine release (CINC-1, MIP-2, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IFN-β). LPS and LTA increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations while Ca2+ chelation by BAPTA decreased LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine responses. BAPTA blocked the effects of low pH stress on most of LPS-stimulated cytokines but not of LTA-stimulated responses. In vivo mouse model demonstrates suppressed E. coli and S. pneumoniae clearance following acid aspiration. In conclusion, low pH stress inhibits antibacterial cytokine response of aMØs due to impaired TLR2 (MyD88 pathway) and TLR4 signaling (MyD88 and TRIF pathways). The role of Ca2+ in low pH stress-induced signaling is complex but appears to be distinct between LPS- and LTA-mediated responses. PMID:24288685

  20. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official bears...

  1. 49 CFR 40.409 - What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the issuance of a PIE mean to... What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers? (a) As an employer, you are deemed to have notice of the issuance of a PIE when it appears on the List mentioned in § 40.401(a) or the...

  2. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding... concurrence, settle a PIE proceeding....

  3. 49 CFR 40.383 - What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE? 40.383 Section 40.383 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... What procedures apply if you contest the issuance of a PIE? (a) DOT conducts PIE proceedings in a...

  4. 49 CFR 40.397 - When does the Director make a PIE decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When does the Director make a PIE decision? 40.397... a PIE decision? The Director makes his or her decision within 60 days of the date when the record of a PIE proceeding is complete (including any meeting with the Director and any additional...

  5. Personalized Information Environments: Do Public Libraries Want a Slice of the PIE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worcester, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of personalized information environments (PIEs) focuses on library personalized interfaces. Describes academic library PIEs and commercial sites, such as Amazon.com that use personalization; explores the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg's personalized interface; and discusses opportunities and challenges PIEs offer public…

  6. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  7. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  8. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  9. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...

  10. Highly oriented, neutral and cation-free AlPO4 LTA: from a seed crystal monolayer to a molecular sieve membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aisheng; Caro, Jürgen

    2011-04-14

    An oriented, neutral and cation-free AlPO(4) LTA molecular sieve membrane with high hydrogen selectivity was prepared on porous α-Al(2)O(3) supports through secondary growth of a highly oriented AlPO(4) LTA monolayer.

  11. Two-Person Pie-Cutting: The Fairest Cuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbanel, Julius B.; Brams, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Barbanel, Brams, and Stromquist (in 2009) asked whether there exists a two-person moving-knife procedure that yields an envy-free, undominated, and equitable division of a pie. We present two procedures: One yields an envy-free, almost undominated, and almost equitable allocation, whereas the second yields an allocation with the two "almost"…

  12. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  13. Two-Person Pie-Cutting: The Fairest Cuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbanel, Julius B.; Brams, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Barbanel, Brams, and Stromquist (in 2009) asked whether there exists a two-person moving-knife procedure that yields an envy-free, undominated, and equitable division of a pie. We present two procedures: One yields an envy-free, almost undominated, and almost equitable allocation, whereas the second yields an allocation with the two "almost"…

  14. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  15. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  16. Loading density dependence of ferromagnetic properties in potassium clusters arrayed in a simple cubic structure in zeolite LTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takehito; Ikemoto, Yuka; Nozue, Yasuo

    2000-06-01

    Magnetic properties are investigated for potassium clusters arrayed in zeolite LTA. The potassium loading density per cluster, n, is changed up to 7.2 per cluster. The n-dependence of the Curie constant and the magnetization are measured in detail. Possible origins of ferromagnetic properties are discussed.

  17. The effect of extra framework species on the intrinsic negative thermal expansion property of zeolites with the LTA topology.

    PubMed

    Carey, Thomas; Corma, Avelino; Rey, Fernando; Tang, Chiu C; Hriljac, Joseph A; Anderson, Paul A

    2012-06-14

    X-Ray powder diffraction studies have been used to measure the thermal expansion properties of three zeolites with the LTA topology and provide details of the underlying structural changes. Siliceous ITQ-29 and dehydrated and hydrated silver zeolite A have large negative, moderate negative and positive thermal expansion coefficients, respectively.

  18. High performance zeolite LTA pervaporation membranes on ceramic hollow fibers by dipcoating-wiping seed deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengbao; Ge, Qinqin; Shao, Jia; Yan, Yushan

    2009-05-27

    We demonstrate for the first time that by one single hydrothermal synthesis a zeolite LTA membrane with a high flux of 9.0 kg/m(2) h and high water/ethanol separation factor of 10,000 could be formed on a ceramic hollow fiber that is known for its ability to form a compact module. The flux is the highest reported in the literatures. A novel seeding method, dipcoating-wiping, is key to obtaining zeolite membranes with high separation performance because it reproducibly produces a uniform and trace seed layer on the support. This new seeding method is expected to have serious implications for making defect-free zeolite films and membranes for many applications. The membranes reported here have the potential to solve the key problems that have prevented zeolite membranes from widespread use for biofuel production.

  19. Optical and structural studies of CuI clusters in zeolites LTA and FAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Takuji

    2006-05-01

    CuI clusters were incorporated into α-cages and supercages of zeolites LTA and FAU, respectively, with various loading densities. From the powder XRD measurement of CuI clusters in FAU, it can be concluded that CuI clusters with homogeneous size were distributed in the cages. In case of using FAU as a host, when the loading density became close to the maximum, photo absorption intensity gradually decreased. A polariton effect, i.e. photo excited energy transfers among the clusters, may play an important role on this phenomenon. Cu and I atoms of bulk CuI crystal have tetrahedral chemical bondings. Supercages of FAU have an arrangement of a diamond structure. Coincidence on the symmetry of the chemical bondings in the CuI clusters and the arrangement of the clusters in the supercages may be the origin of a highly ordered state of CuI clusters and will enhance the polariton effect.

  20. 49 CFR 40.407 - May a service agent ask to have a PIE reduced or terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a service agent ask to have a PIE reduced or... agent ask to have a PIE reduced or terminated? (a) Yes, as a service agent concerning whom the Department has issued a PIE, you may request that the Director terminate a PIE or reduce its duration...

  1. Genetic Variation on the BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA Region of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class III Associates with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Marchesani, Marja; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Mäntylä, Päivi; Paju, Susanna; Buhlin, Kåre; Suominen, Anna L.; Contreras, Johanna; Knuuttila, Matti; Hernandez, Marcela; Huumonen, Sisko; Nieminen, Markku S.; Perola, Markus; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a multifactorial etiology. We investigated whether human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms (6p21.3) are associated with periodontal parameters. Parogene 1 population samples (n = 169) were analyzed with 13,245 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MHC region. Eighteen selected SNPs (P ≤ 0.001) were replicated in Parogene 2 population samples (n = 339) and the Health 2000 Survey (n = 1,420). All subjects had a detailed clinical and radiographic oral health examination. Serum lymphotoxin-α (LTA) concentrations were measured in the Parogene populations, and the protein was detected in inflamed periodontal tissue. In the Parogene 1 population, 10 SNPs were associated with periodontal parameters. The strongest associations emerged from the parameters bleeding on probing (BOP) and a probing pocket depth (PPD) of ≥6 mm with the genes BAT1, NFKBIL1, and LTA. Six SNPs, rs11796, rs3130059, rs2239527, rs2071591, rs909253, and rs1041981 (r2, ≥0.92), constituted a risk haplotype. In the Parogene 1 population, the haplotype had the strongest association with the parameter BOP, a PPD of ≥6 mm, and severe periodontitis with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.63 (2.21 to 3.20), 2.90 (2.37 to 3.52), and 3.10 (1.63 to 5.98), respectively. These results were replicated in the other two populations. High serum LTA concentrations in the Parogene population were associated with the periodontitis risk alleles of the LTA SNPs (rs909253 and rs1041981) of the haplotype. In addition, the protein was expressed in inflamed gingival connective tissue. We identified a novel BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA haplotype as a significant contributor to the risk of periodontitis. The genetic polymorphisms in the MHC class III region may be functionally important in periodontitis susceptibility. PMID:24566624

  2. Discovery of the cell-penetrating function of A2 domain derived from LTA subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Guo, Hua; Zheng, Wenyun; Zhang, Na; Wang, Tianwen; Wang, Ping; Ma, Xingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is a protein toxin produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). As a bacterial toxin, LT holotoxin can enter intestinal epithelial cells and cause diarrhea. In addition, LT is also a powerful mucosal adjuvant capable of enhancing the strong immune responses to co-administered antigens. However, the LT immunological mechanism is still not clear in some aspects, especially with the respect to how the LTA subunit functions alone. Here, we discovered that the A2 domain of LTA could carry a fluorescent protein into cells, whose function is similar to a cell-penetrating peptide. The transmembrane-transporting ability of the A2 domain is non-specific in its cell-penetrating function, which was shown through testing with different cell types. Moreover, the LTA2 fusion protein penetrated a fluorescently labeled cell membrane that identified LTA2 internalization through membrane transport pathways, and showed it finally localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, low-temperature stress and pharmacological agent treatments showed that the LTA2 internalization route is a temperature-dependent process involving the clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the macropinocytosis pathways. These results could explain the internalization of the LTA subunit alone without the LTB pentamer, contributing to a better understanding of LTA working as a mucosal adjuvant; they also suggest that the A2 domain could be used as a novel transport vehicle for research and treatment of disease.

  3. Optimization studies of a multikilowatt PIE CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, A. K.; Seguin, H. J. J.; Seguin, V. A.

    1986-02-01

    Detailes of an investigation of the operational performance of a 10 kW CW PIE CO2 laser are presented. The results obtained from the experiment, successfully scaled by an order of magnitude from an earlier proof-of-principle device, clearly document that the PIE excitation process can be effectively utilized in the design of very large volumen lasers. Optimization data further reveal that overall wallplug efficiency is commensurate with that obtained from E-beam sustained lasers; but at far less complexity and cost. As such, this relatively simple and reliable nonself-sustained excitation process appears attractive commercial for the development of very large and cost effective CW CO2 lasers.

  4. Fully Copper-Exchanged High-Silica LTA Zeolites as Unrivaled Hydrothermally Stable NH3 -SCR Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Taekyung; Ahn, Nak Ho; Seo, Seungwan; Cho, Jung; Kim, Hyojun; Jo, Donghui; Park, Gi Tae; Kim, Pyung Soon; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bruce, Elliott L; Wright, Paul A; Nam, In-Sik; Hong, Suk Bong

    2017-03-13

    Diesel engine technology is still the most effective solution to meet tighter CO2 regulations in the mobility and transport sector. In implementation of fuel-efficient diesel engines, the poor thermal durability of lean nitrogen oxides (NOx ) aftertreatment systems remains as one major technical hurdle. Divalent copper ions when fully exchanged into high-silica LTA zeolites are demonstrated to exhibit excellent activity maintenance for NOx reduction with NH3 under vehicle simulated conditions even after hydrothermal aging at 900 °C, a critical temperature that the current commercial Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst cannot overcome owing to thermal deactivation. Detailed structural characterizations confirm the presence of Cu(2+) ions only at the center of single 6-rings that act not only as a catalytically active center, but also as a dealumination suppressor. The overall results render the copper-exchanged LTA zeolite attractive as a viable substitute for Cu-SSZ-13.

  5. Stability and transitions in posttraumatic growth trajectories among cancer patients: LCA and LTA analyses.

    PubMed

    Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Saltzman, Leia Y; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Perry, Shlomit; Ziv, Yuval; Ginat-Frolich, Rivkah; Stemmer, Salomon M

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the current study were to identify (a) different post cancer treatment adaptation profiles; (b) factors that predict these adaptation profiles; and (c) transitions in post cancer-treatment adaptation profiles and trajectories in a sample (N = 198) of female breast cancer patients over a 2-year period. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to idenitfy profiles of post cancer treatment adaptation, based on a combined pattern of responses to observable indicators of distress, coping strategies, and posttraumatic growth. latent transition analysis (LTA) was used to track trajectories, based on the probabilities of transitions among latent classes. Four postcancer treatment adaptation profiles were found: (a) distressed, (b) resistant, (c) constructive growth, and (d) struggling growth. The majority of transitions between different adaptation profiles occurred between 6 and 12 months after treatment. These findings offer theoretical and practice implications regarding posttraumatic growth in breast-cancer patients by distinguishing between profiles of adaptation and highlights a previously unidentified profile-struggling growth. These results contribute to the theoretical understanding of the complex relationship between growth, distress, and coping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. OpenMP for 3D potential boundary value problems solved by PIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KuŻelewski, Andrzej; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is examination of an application of modern parallel computing technique OpenMP to speed up the calculation in the numerical solution of parametric integral equations systems (PIES). The authors noticed, that solving more complex boundary problems by PIES sometimes requires large computing time. This paper presents the use of OpenMP and fast C++ linear algebra library Armadillo for boundary value problems modelled by 3D Laplace's equation and solved using PIES. The testing example shows that the use of mentioned technologies significantly increases speed of calculations in PIES.

  7. Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Meat Pies from Retail Sale in England 2013.

    PubMed

    McLauchlin, Jim; Aird, Heather; Charlett, Andre; Elviss, Nicola; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira; Willis, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes in England associated with meat pie consumption were detected in 2012. To obtain baseline data for pies unrelated to outbreaks, 862 samples of ready-to-eat meat pies were collected at retail or from catering facilities in England in 2013 and examined to enumerate food-poisoning bacteria and indicator organisms using Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods for Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes (ISO 11290), Clostridium perfringens (ISO 21528), coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus (ISO 6888), Bacillus spp. including B. cereus (ISO 1737), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528), and aerobic colony counts (ACCs; ISO 4833). Microbiological quality was satisfactory in 94% of samples, borderline in 5%, and unsatisfactory in 1%. The proportion of pies from markets that were borderline or unsatisfactory significantly increased, and the proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory pies from supermarkets significantly decreased. Among the refrigerated (0 to 15°C) pies, microbiological quality significantly decreased in pies stored at >8°C and further significantly decreased at in pies stored at ambient temperature (>15 to 25°C). Samples collected at 25 to 40°C had the highest proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory results, but results improved in pies stored at >40°C. The most common cause for borderline or unsatisfactory results was elevated ACCs (5% of all samples). Within the individual microbiological parameters, borderline or unsatisfactory results resulted from elevated Enterobacteriaceae or Bacillus levels (10 samples for each), C. perfringens levels (2 samples), and S. aureus or E. coli levels (1 sample each). L. monocytogenes was recovered from one pie at <10 CFU/g. A literature review revealed a range of microbiological hazards responsible for food poisoning and meat pie consumption, and surveillance data from 1992

  8. Harnessing the Internet for International Exchanges on Learning Cities: The Pie Experience 2011-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) project was developed to facilitate online exchanges of information and experience between learning cities around the world and, in doing this, to test the potential of the internet to enable such low-cost exchanges. The author provides a personal assessment of the PIE experience over the three years 2011…

  9. 49 CFR 40.409 - What does the issuance of a PIE mean to transportation employers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ensure that any service agents you are using or planning to use are not subject to a PIE. (b) As an employer who is using a service agent concerning whom a PIE is issued, you must stop using the services of the service agent no later than 90 days after the Department has published the decision in the Federal...

  10. Harnessing the Internet for International Exchanges on Learning Cities: The Pie Experience 2011-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) project was developed to facilitate online exchanges of information and experience between learning cities around the world and, in doing this, to test the potential of the internet to enable such low-cost exchanges. The author provides a personal assessment of the PIE experience over the three years 2011…

  11. 49 CFR 40.393 - How long does a PIE stay in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does a PIE stay in effect? 40.393 Section... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.393 How long does a PIE stay in effect? (a) In the NOPE (see § 40.375(b)(5)), the initiating official proposes the duration of the...

  12. 49 CFR 40.387 - What matters does the Director decide concerning a proposed PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proposed PIE? 40.387 Section 40.387 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... the Director decide concerning a proposed PIE? (a) Following the service agent's response (see § 40... from the service agent (see § 40.379(b)(1)) or on his or her own motion, the Director may dismiss a...

  13. 49 CFR 40.405 - May the Federal courts review PIE decisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May the Federal courts review PIE decisions? 40.405 Section 40.405 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... courts review PIE decisions? The Director's decision is a final administrative action of the...

  14. Development of the Persistence in Engineering (PIE) Survey Instrument. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eris, Ozgur; Chen, Helen; Bailey, Tori; Engerman, Kimarie; Loshbaugh, Heidi; Griffin, Ashley; Lichtenstein, Gary; Cole, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The Persistence In Engineering (PIE) survey was developed to identify and characterize the fundamental factors that influence students' intentions to pursue an engineering degree over the course of their undergraduate career, and upon graduation, to practice engineering as a profession. The PIE survey is one of five data-gathering methods used in…

  15. No Humble Pie: The Origins and Usage of a Statistical Chart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Ian

    2005-01-01

    William Playfair's pie chart is more than 200 years old and yet its intellectual origins remain obscure. The inspiration likely derived from the logic diagrams of Llull, Bruno, Leibniz, and Euler, which were familiar to William because of the instruction of his mathematician brother John. The pie chart is broadly popular but--despite its common…

  16. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding? At any time before the Director's decision, you and the initiating official can, with the Director's...

  17. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding? At any time before the Director's decision, you and the initiating official can, with the Director's...

  18. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can you settle a PIE proceeding? 40.395 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding? At any time before the Director's decision, you and the initiating official can, with the Director's...

  19. Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2014-04-01

    In the Ultimatum Game, two players are offered a chance to win a pie. The proposer suggests how to split the pie. The responder can either accept or reject the deal. If an agreement is not reached, neither player gets anything. Both game theory and evolutionary game theory predict the rational solution that the proposer offers the smallest possible share and the responder accepts it. Fairness thus requires additional mechanisms for natural selection to favor it. Studies to date assumed that individuals have competed for the fixed size of pies, in sharp contrast with real situations, where randomness is ubiquitous. Here we study the impact of random allocation of pies on the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Interestingly, we find that the evolution of fairness can be promoted by the randomness associated with the size of pies, without the support of any additional evolutionary mechanisms.

  20. Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    In the Ultimatum Game, two players are offered a chance to win a pie. The proposer suggests how to split the pie. The responder can either accept or reject the deal. If an agreement is not reached, neither player gets anything. Both game theory and evolutionary game theory predict the rational solution that the proposer offers the smallest possible share and the responder accepts it. Fairness thus requires additional mechanisms for natural selection to favor it. Studies to date assumed that individuals have competed for the fixed size of pies, in sharp contrast with real situations, where randomness is ubiquitous. Here we study the impact of random allocation of pies on the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Interestingly, we find that the evolution of fairness can be promoted by the randomness associated with the size of pies, without the support of any additional evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:24686840

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Adam P.; Morris, Robert H.; Newton, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment. PMID:28239124

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Adam P; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I

    2013-08-28

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment.

  3. Introducing a Framework for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughani, Bahram

    A desired outcome for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) education is preparing physics majors with an innovative and entrepreneurial mindset who are capable of opportunity recognition and adept in leveraging physics knowledge to address specific needs. Physics as a discipline is well-recognized to prepare students who become problem solvers and critical thinkers, gifted in dealing with abstract ideas and ambiguities in the context of complex and real-world problems. These characteristics when enhanced through appropriate combinations of curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular programs can prepare physics majors for careers and future challenges that may involve translating physics knowledge into useful products and services either as part of a technical team within an organization or through startups. A viable PIE education model prepares graduates for various career paths in addition to the traditional options such as pursuing graduate studies or becoming a science teacher. Having a well-defined ``third option'' for physics will benefit the robustness of the physics discipline through recruitment and retention of prospective students who in principle are interested in physics as a subject, but in practice they may overlook physics as their preferred major primarily because they are uncertain about a viable career path based on an undergraduate physics education. The ''Pathways to Innovation'' at Loyola is established based on the program developed by VentureWell and Epicenter (NSF Supported).

  4. 49 CFR 40.401 - How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... public about a PIE? 40.401 Section 40.401 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE? (a) The Department maintains a.... (b) When the Director issues a PIE, he or she adds to the List the name and address of the...

  5. Variants in LTA, TNF, IL1B and IL10 genes associated with the clinical course of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Jaimes, Fabián A; Rugeles, Maria T; López, Juan Álvaro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Velilla, Paula A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between some SNPs of the TNF, LTA, IL1B and IL10 genes with cytokine concentrations and clinical course in Colombian septic patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study to genotype 415 septic patients and 205 patients without sepsis for the SNPs -308(G/A) rs1800629 of TNF; +252 (G/A) rs909253 of LTA; -511(A/G) rs16944 and +3953(C/T) rs1143634 of IL1B; and -1082(A/G) rs1800896, -819(C/T) rs1800871 and -592(C/A) rs1800872 of IL10. The association of theses SNPs with the following parameters was evaluated: (1) the presence of sepsis; (2) severity and clinical outcomes; (3) APACHE II and SOFA scores; and (4) procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor, lymphotoxin alpha, interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 10 plasma concentrations. We found an association between the SNP LTA +252 with the development of sepsis [OR 1.29 (1.00-1.68)]; the SNP IL10 -1082 with sepsis severity [OR 0.53 (0.29-0.97)]; the TNF -308 with mortality [OR 0.33 (0.12-0.95)]; and the IL10 -592 and IL10 -1082 with admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) [OR 3.36 (1.57-7.18)] and [OR 0.18 (0.04-0.86)], respectively. None of the SNPs were associated with cytokine levels, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein serum concentrations, nor with APACHE II and SOFA scores. Our results suggest that these genetic variants play an important role in the development of sepsis and its clinical course.

  6. Relationship between human LTA4H polymorphisms and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an ethnic Han Chinese population in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Jin; Yue, Jun; Liu, Lirong; Han, Min; Wang, Hongxiu

    2014-12-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were reported to be associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in Vietnamese population. But these associations were not found in the Russians. To investigate the association of LTA4H polymorphisms with tuberculosis in a Han Chinese population in Eastern China, we genotyped 5 SNPs of LTA4H gene in 743 of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 372 of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 888 of healthy controls individuals. The CC and TT homozygotes of rs1978331 and rs2540474 were identified to have higher rates (P < 0.01) and be risk factors in the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (OR = 1.412; 95% CI = 1.104-1.804 and(OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.080-1.764). However, no significant association was found between any of the SNPs and pulmonary tuberculosis. In the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis subgroups. LTA4H gene were significantly associated with tuberculous meningitis, lymph node tuberculosis, bone tuberculosis and other extra-pulmonary tuberculosis except for pleural tuberculosis. The present findings suggest that polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene may affect susceptibility to extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and change the risk of developing the disease in the Han nationality in the East China.

  7. Structural Conservation and Functional Diversity of the Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) Domain Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher A; Epperson, Megan L; Singh, Sukrit; Elliott, Jabari I; Fremont, Daved H

    2015-08-28

    Poxviruses encode a broad array of proteins that serve to undermine host immune defenses. Structural analysis of four of these seemingly unrelated proteins revealed the recurrent use of a conserved beta-sandwich fold that has not been observed in any eukaryotic or prokaryotic protein. Herein we propose to call this unique structural scaffolding the PIE (Poxvirus Immune Evasion) domain. PIE domain containing proteins are abundant in chordopoxvirinae, with our analysis identifying 20 likely PIE subfamilies among 33 representative genomes spanning 7 genera. For example, cowpox strain Brighton Red appears to encode 10 different PIEs: vCCI, A41, C8, M2, T4 (CPVX203), and the SECRET proteins CrmB, CrmD, SCP-1, SCP-2, and SCP-3. Characterized PIE proteins all appear to be nonessential for virus replication, and all contain signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. The PIE subfamilies differ primarily in the number, size, and location of structural embellishments to the beta-sandwich core that confer unique functional specificities. Reported ligands include chemokines, GM-CSF, IL-2, MHC class I, and glycosaminoglycans. We expect that the list of ligands and receptors engaged by the PIE domain will grow as we come to better understand how this versatile structural architecture can be tailored to manipulate host responses to infection.

  8. Structural Conservation and Functional Diversity of the Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) Domain Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christopher A.; Epperson, Megan L.; Singh, Sukrit; Elliott, Jabari I.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses encode a broad array of proteins that serve to undermine host immune defenses. Structural analysis of four of these seemingly unrelated proteins revealed the recurrent use of a conserved beta-sandwich fold that has not been observed in any eukaryotic or prokaryotic protein. Herein we propose to call this unique structural scaffolding the PIE (Poxvirus Immune Evasion) domain. PIE domain containing proteins are abundant in chordopoxvirinae, with our analysis identifying 20 likely PIE subfamilies among 33 representative genomes spanning 7 genera. For example, cowpox strain Brighton Red appears to encode 10 different PIEs: vCCI, A41, C8, M2, T4 (CPVX203), and the SECRET proteins CrmB, CrmD, SCP-1, SCP-2, and SCP-3. Characterized PIE proteins all appear to be nonessential for virus replication, and all contain signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. The PIE subfamilies differ primarily in the number, size, and location of structural embellishments to the beta-sandwich core that confer unique functional specificities. Reported ligands include chemokines, GM-CSF, IL-2, MHC class I, and glycosaminoglycans. We expect that the list of ligands and receptors engaged by the PIE domain will grow as we come to better understand how this versatile structural architecture can be tailored to manipulate host responses to infection. PMID:26343707

  9. The causal pie model: an epidemiological method applied to evolutionary biology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Wensink, Maarten; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-05-01

    A general concept for thinking about causality facilitates swift comprehension of results, and the vocabulary that belongs to the concept is instrumental in cross-disciplinary communication. The causal pie model has fulfilled this role in epidemiology and could be of similar value in evolutionary biology and ecology. In the causal pie model, outcomes result from sufficient causes. Each sufficient cause is made up of a "causal pie" of "component causes". Several different causal pies may exist for the same outcome. If and only if all component causes of a sufficient cause are present, that is, a causal pie is complete, does the outcome occur. The effect of a component cause hence depends on the presence of the other component causes that constitute some causal pie. Because all component causes are equally and fully causative for the outcome, the sum of causes for some outcome exceeds 100%. The causal pie model provides a way of thinking that maps into a number of recurrent themes in evolutionary biology and ecology: It charts when component causes have an effect and are subject to natural selection, and how component causes affect selection on other component causes; which partitions of outcomes with respect to causes are feasible and useful; and how to view the composition of a(n apparently homogeneous) population. The diversity of specific results that is directly understood from the causal pie model is a test for both the validity and the applicability of the model. The causal pie model provides a common language in which results across disciplines can be communicated and serves as a template along which future causal analyses can be made.

  10. Incorporation of AgI clusters into the cages of zeolites LTA and FAU observed by optical spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodaira, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Takuji; Takeo, Harutoshi

    1999-02-01

    The loading of AgI into the cages of zeolites LTA and FAU was performed by vapor-phase adsorption. The successful incorporation of AgI clusters into the cages was confirmed by optical absorption spectra and X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Large blue shifts of the absorption edges were observed in the spectra of adsorbed AgI to both zeolites, compared with the lowest excited state of AgI in the bulk. The present observation of the shift implies that a strong quantum confinement in the photoexcited state of AgI occurs, which leads to the conclusion that AgI clusters have been formed in the cages. In the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of AgI-loaded LTA, superlattice reflection peaks are observed which cannot be assigned either to the reflection of LTA or the AgI in the bulk.

  11. Lipoteichoic Acid (LTA) and Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Periodontal Pathogenic Bacteria Facilitate Oncogenic Herpesvirus Infection within Primary Oral Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lu; DeFee, Michael R.; Cao, Yueyu; Wen, Jiling; Wen, Xiaofei; Noverr, Mairi C.; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) remains the most common tumor arising in patients with HIV/AIDS, and involvement of the oral cavity represents one of the most common clinical manifestations of this tumor. HIV infection incurs an increased risk for periodontal diseases and oral carriage of a variety of bacteria. Whether interactions involving pathogenic bacteria and oncogenic viruses in the local environment facilitate replication or maintenance of these viruses in the oral cavity remains unknown. In the current study, our data indicate that pretreatment of primary human oral fibroblasts with two prototypical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) produced by oral pathogenic bacteria–lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), increase KSHV entry and subsequent viral latent gene expression during de novo infection. Further experiments demonstrate that the underlying mechanisms induced by LTA and/or LPS include upregulation of cellular receptor, increasing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activating intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPK and NF-κB, and all of which are closely associated with KSHV entry or gene expression within oral cells. Based on these findings, we hope to provide the framework of developing novel targeted approaches for treatment and prevention of oral KSHV infection and KS development in high-risk HIV-positive patients. PMID:24971655

  12. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Conductivity Measurements on Hydrated and Alkali-metal Intercalated Zeolite LTA and FAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Wada, Noboru

    2007-03-01

    Zeolite LTA and FAU films were made from zeolite powders using a hydrothermal method. Electrical conductivity measurement were performed on the zeolite films in temperature range between 180 K and 430 K, using an LCR meter with the sweeping frequency varied from 20 to 1 MHz and drawing the Cole-Cole plots. The resistivities of both hydrated LTA and FAU zeolites increased with increasing the sample temperature from RT to 430 K, which might be caused by loss of water molecules from the pores of zeolite crystals. Also, the resistivities increased with decreasing the sample temperature from RT to 180 K, probably caused by freezing of water molecules in the zeolite. When the dehydrated zeolite samples were intercalated with alkali metals (Rb and K), the resistivities of the samples did not vary much at RT. However, the resistivities of the intercalated zeolite films decreased drastically by four orders of magnitude when the sample temperature was varied from RT to 180 K. We speculate that the dynamics of alkali atoms in the zeolite pores (electron-phonon scattering) may be responsible for the drastic change in the electrical conductivity.

  13. 49 CFR 40.395 - Can you settle a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.395 Can you settle a PIE proceeding? At any time before the Director's decision, you and the initiating official can, with the...

  14. Percutaneous quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release of extension contracture of the knee.

    PubMed

    Liu, H X; Wen, H; Hu, Y Z; Yu, H C; Pan, X Y

    2014-05-01

    To release extension contracture of the knee, the authors used a minimally invasive technique: percutaneous quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release. Percutaneous pie-crusting release was performed using an 18-gauge needle to puncture the stiff fibrous band of the distal and lateral quadriceps tendon under maximum knee flexion. Quadriceps contracture was gradually released by multiple needle punctures. A knee brace was prescribed for one week and knee flexion exercises were performed on the first postoperative day. This technique was performed in seven post-traumatic stiff knees and five stiff total knee arthroplasties. Mean maximum flexion increased from 37° preoperatively to 50° after arthrolysis and 107(o) after pie-crusting. At a mean follow-up of eight months, mean maximum flexion was 103°. There were no major complications. The technique of quadriceps tendon pie-crusting release is a simple, minimally invasive and effective treatment for knee extension contracture.

  15. Report on FY16 Low-dose Metal Fuel Irradiation and PIE

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Philip D.

    2016-09-01

    This report gives an overview of the efforts into the low-dose metal fuel irradiation and PIE as part of the Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) milestone M3FT-16OR020303031. The current status of the FCT and FCRP irradiation campaigns are given including a description of the materials that have been irradiated, analysis of the passive temperature monitors, and the initial PIE efforts of the fuel samples.

  16. Heat and Ice in Sermilik Fjord: Novel Observational Techniques Using PIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, M.; Straneo, F.; Sutherland, D.

    2014-12-01

    A 1-year pilot experiment using pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) was conducted in Sermilik Fjord in eastern Greenland to test non-traditional methods for measuring the time-varying
heat content in high-latitude seas, shelves, and fjords and for detecting the presence of ice. PIES, which are installed on the seafloor below the reach of destructive iceberg keels, present
a promising and inexpensive way to improve understanding of fjord dynamics and shelf-fjord interactions and will increase long-term monitoring capabilities in high latitudes where
remoteness and harsh conditions hamper traditional in situ observation techniques. The use
of PIES to characterize variability at high latitudes is a novel application of an existing
technology, but rests on the same principle as the traditional blue-water uses for PIES: due
to the dependence of sound speed on temperature, the surface-to-bottom round-trip acoustic-travel-time associated with reflections between the PIES and the air-sea interface is an excellent proxy
for heat content in the intervening water column. Furthermore, since reflections from seawater-ice interfaces are also detected when ice
is present, PIES provide a means to characterize the ice component in high-latitude systems. The PIES deployed in Sermilik Fjord (August 2011 - September 2012) resolved changes in heat content at scales ranging from hourly to seasonal. Furthermore, during winter, the PIES logged about 300 iceberg detections and recorded a 2-week period of land-fast ice cover in March. The deepest icebergs in the fjord were found to have keel depths reaching to ~350 m and iceberg speeds averaged about 0.2 m/s but were as high as 0.5 m/s.

  17. The causal pie model: an epidemiological method applied to evolutionary biology and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Wensink, Maarten; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-01-01

    A general concept for thinking about causality facilitates swift comprehension of results, and the vocabulary that belongs to the concept is instrumental in cross-disciplinary communication. The causal pie model has fulfilled this role in epidemiology and could be of similar value in evolutionary biology and ecology. In the causal pie model, outcomes result from sufficient causes. Each sufficient cause is made up of a “causal pie” of “component causes”. Several different causal pies may exist for the same outcome. If and only if all component causes of a sufficient cause are present, that is, a causal pie is complete, does the outcome occur. The effect of a component cause hence depends on the presence of the other component causes that constitute some causal pie. Because all component causes are equally and fully causative for the outcome, the sum of causes for some outcome exceeds 100%. The causal pie model provides a way of thinking that maps into a number of recurrent themes in evolutionary biology and ecology: It charts when component causes have an effect and are subject to natural selection, and how component causes affect selection on other component causes; which partitions of outcomes with respect to causes are feasible and useful; and how to view the composition of a(n apparently homogeneous) population. The diversity of specific results that is directly understood from the causal pie model is a test for both the validity and the applicability of the model. The causal pie model provides a common language in which results across disciplines can be communicated and serves as a template along which future causal analyses can be made. PMID:24963386

  18. Use of Formative Assessment, Self- and Peer-Assessment in the Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afitska, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on formative teacher assessment and feedback, learner self- and peer-assessment have been carried out in the field of Language Testing and Assessment (LTA) research over the last two decades. These studies investigated the above mentioned concepts from different perspectives (impact of assessment on learning,…

  19. SNPs in PTGS2 and LTA Predict Pain and Quality of Life in Long Term Lung Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Sarah M.; Gonzalez, Brian D.; Clark, Matthew M.; Patten, Christi; Felten, Sara; Liu, Heshan; Li, Yafei; Sloan, Jeff; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Lung cancer survivors report the lowest quality of life relative to other cancer survivors. Pain is one of the most devastating, persistent, and incapacitating symptoms for lung cancer survivors. Prevalence rates vary with 80–100% of survivors experiencing cancer pain and healthcare costs are five times higher in cancer survivors with uncontrolled pain. Cancer pain often has a considerable impact on quality of life among cancer patients and cancer survivors. Therefore, early identification, and treatment is important. Although recent studies have suggested a relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several cytokine and inflammation genes with cancer prognosis, associations with cancer pain are not clear. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to identify SNPs related to pain in long term lung cancer survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Lung Cancer Cohort upon diagnosis of their lung cancer. 1149 Caucasian lung cancer survivors, (440 surviving < 3 years; 354 surviving 3–5 years; and 355 surviving> 5 years) completed study questionnaires and had genetic samples available. Ten SNPS from PTGS2 and LTA genes were selected based on the serum literature. Outcomes included pain, and quality of life as measured by the SF-8. RESULTS Of the 10 SNPs evaluated in LTA and PTGS2 genes, 3 were associated with pain severity (rs5277; rs1799964), social function (rs5277) and mental health (rs5275). These results suggested both specificity and consistency of these inflammatory gene SNPs in predicting pain severity in long term lung cancer survivors. CONCLUSION These results provide support for genetic predisposition to pain severity and may aid in identification of lung cancer survivors at high risk for morbidity and poor QOL. PMID:22464751

  20. Bacteriological Studies on Meat Pies and Frozen Prepared Dinners

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, D. C.; Tittiger, F.

    1971-01-01

    A bacteriological survey of meat pies, frozen prepared dinners and entrees indicated that their bacterial populations were related to the components, the environment and handling in manufacture. Results were correlated with microbiological examinations of ingredients, line samples and plant environmental samples. Total bacterial counts, coliform counts and Staphylococcus counts of the finished product were low. Coliform organisms found were primarily Aerobacter spp. originating with the frozen vegetables. Enterococci were also found in the frozen vegetables and finished product. Both enterococci and Aerobacter organisms were recovered from the plant environment where they appeared to multiply. Many of the plant personnel carried coagulase-positive staphylococci in the throat or nasal cavity, and this was indicated as a possible source for these organisms found in low numbers in the finished product. Cooking of the products produced sterility except for the survival of some spore forming Bacillus spp. The presence of a poultry slaughtering operation adjacent to the manufacturing area was considered to contribute to microbial contamination of the air in the plant. PMID:4251416

  1. An Assessment of ORNL PIE Capabilities for the AGR Program Capsule Post Irradiation Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel

    2006-09-01

    ORNL has facilities and experienced staff that can execute +the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) task. While the specific PIE breakdown needs to be more formally defined, the basic outline is clear and the existing capabilities can be assessed within the needs of the tasks defined in the program plan. A one-to-one correspondence between the program plan tasks and the current ORNL PIE status was conducted and while some shortcomings were identified, the general capability is available. Specific upgrade needs were identified and reviewed. A path forward was formulated. Building 3525 is available for this work and this building is currently receiving renewed attention from management so that it will be in good working order prior to the expected PIE start date. This building is equipped with the tools necessary for PIEs of this nature, but the long hiatus in coated particle fuel work has left it with aging analysis tools. This report identified several of these tools and rough estimates of what would be required to update and replace them. In addition, other ORNL buildings are available to support Building 3525 in specialized tasks along with the normal laboratory infrastructure. Before the AGR management embarks on any equipment development effort, the PIE tasks should be updated against current program (modeling and data) needs and better defined so that the items to be measured, their measurement uncertainties, and thru-put needs can be reviewed. A Data Task Matrix (DTM) should be prepared so that the program data needs can be compared against the identified PIE tasks and what is practical in the hot cell environment to make sure nothing is overlooked. Finally, thought should be given to the development of standardized equipment designs between sites to avoid redundant design efforts and different measurement techniques. This is a potentially cost saving effort that can also avoid data inconsistencies.

  2. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF 31 on the Top and Cut Surfaces of Southern Custard Pies

    PubMed Central

    Preonas, D. L.; Nelson, A. I.; Ordal, Z. John; Steinberg, M. P.; Wei, L. S.

    1969-01-01

    A Staphylococcus strain was inoculated on the top and cut surfaces of freshly baked Southern custard pies which were then packaged in a pasteboard carton and held at 30 C. Daily plate counts of surface sections 0.3 inch (0.76 cm) in thickness were made. The top surface inoculum showed a 24-hr lag time. This was due to the protective action of a top cakelike layer as shown by homogenization of the mix and coating of the surface. Substitution of all sweeteners with dextrose completely inhibited growth on the top surface. Further addition of dextrose to lower water activity (Aw) to 0.9 prevented growth on the cut surface as well, but such pies were organoleptically unacceptable. Growth on the top surface could also be prevented by 80 μg of undissociated sorbic acid per g in combination with 100 μg of undissociated propionic acid per g in the baked pie. Growth on the cakelike top surface was always retarded longer than on the cut surface provided the packaging allowed evaporation of surface moisture. Reducing the Aw of a different type of cream pie to 0.907 prevented top surface growth. It was concluded that baked cream pies with a cakelike top layer could be marketed with a “refrigerate after opening” label, provided the package maintains the moisture gradient caused by the surface skin and either a combination of 80 μg of undissociated sorbic acid per g and 100 μg undissociated propionic acid per g is present in the baked pie or the Aw of the baked pie is 0.920 or lower. Images PMID:5803631

  3. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF31 on the top and cut surfaces of Southern custard pies.

    PubMed

    Preonas, D L; Nelson, A I; Ordal, Z J; Steinberg, M P; Wei, L S

    1969-07-01

    A Staphylococcus strain was inoculated on the top and cut surfaces of freshly baked Southern custard pies which were then packaged in a pasteboard carton and held at 30 C. Daily plate counts of surface sections 0.3 inch (0.76 cm) in thickness were made. The top surface inoculum showed a 24-hr lag time. This was due to the protective action of a top cakelike layer as shown by homogenization of the mix and coating of the surface. Substitution of all sweeteners with dextrose completely inhibited growth on the top surface. Further addition of dextrose to lower water activity (Aw) to 0.9 prevented growth on the cut surface as well, but such pies were organoleptically unacceptable. Growth on the top surface could also be prevented by 80 mug of undissociated sorbic acid per g in combination with 100 mug of undissociated propionic acid per g in the baked pie. Growth on the cakelike top surface was always retarded longer than on the cut surface provided the packaging allowed evaporation of surface moisture. Reducing the Aw of a different type of cream pie to 0.907 prevented top surface growth. It was concluded that baked cream pies with a cakelike top layer could be marketed with a "refrigerate after opening" label, provided the package maintains the moisture gradient caused by the surface skin and either a combination of 80 mug of undissociated sorbic acid per g and 100 mug undissociated propionic acid per g is present in the baked pie or the Aw of the baked pie is 0.920 or lower.

  4. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus activates immune cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Nicolas W J; Morath, Siegfried; Alexander, Christian; Hamann, Lutz; Hartung, Thomas; Zähringer, Ulrich; Göbel, Ulf B; Weber, Joerg R; Schumann, Ralf R

    2003-05-02

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) derived from Streptococcus pneumoniae, purified employing a chloroform/methanol protocol, and from Staphylococcus aureus, prepared by the recently described butanol extraction procedure, was investigated regarding its interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-2 and -4, and MD-2. LTA from both organisms induced cytokine synthesis in human mononuclear phagocytes. Activation was LBP- and CD14-dependent, and formation of complexes of LTA with LBP and soluble CD14 as well as catalytic transfer of LTA to CD14 by LBP was verified by PhastGel(TM) native gel electrophoresis. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293/CD14 cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were responsive to LTA only after transfection with TLR-2. Additional transfection with MD-2 did not affect stimulation of these cells by LTA. Our data suggest that innate immune recognition of LTA via LBP, CD14, and TLR-2 represents an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of systemic complications in the course of infectious diseases brought about by the clinically most important Gram-positive pathogens. However, the involvement of TLR-4 and MD-2 in this process was ruled out.

  5. Role of LTA4H Polymorphism in Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Occurrence and Clinical Severity in Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Gopalan; Kavitha, Dhanasekaran; Karunaianantham, Ramesh; Gil-Santana, Leonardo; Almeida-Junior, Jilson L.; Reddy, Sirasanambatti Devarajulu; Kumar, Marimuthu Makesh; Hemalatha, Haribabu; Jayanthi, Nagesh Nalini; Ravichandran, Narayanan; Krishnaraja, Raja; Prabhakar, Angamuthu; Manoharan, Tamizhselvan; Nithyananthan, Lokeswaran; Arjunan, Gunasundari; Natrajan, Mohan; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Background Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory phenomenon complicating HIV management in coincidental tuberculosis (TB) infection, upon immune reconstitution driven by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Leukotriene A4 hydroxylase (LTA4H), an enzyme which converts LTA4 to LTB4, regulates the balance between the anti-inflammatory lipoxins and pro-inflammatory LTB4, with direct implications in TB-driven inflammation. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the LTA4H promoter which regulates its transcriptional activity (rs17525495) has been identified and described to impact clinical severity of TB presentation and response to corticosteroid therapy. Notably, the role of LTA4H on TB-IRIS has not been previously evaluated. Here, we performed an exploratory investigation testing the association of LTA4H polymorphism with respect to frequency of TB-IRIS occurrence and severity of TB-IRIS presentation in HIV-TB co-infected individuals. Methods Genotypic evaluation of the LTA4H enzyme from available samples was retrospectively correlated with clinical data captured in case sheets including IRIS details. The cohort included patients recruited from a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized clinical trial (NCT0933790) of ART-naïve HIV+ patients with newly diagnosed rifampicin sensitive pulmonary TB in South India. Frequency of the wild type genotype (CC), as well as of the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) in the IRIS and non-IRIS patients was estimated. Comparative analyses were performed between wild genotype (CC) and the mutant genotypes (CT or TT) and tested for association between the LTA4H polymorphisms and IRIS incidence and clinical severity. Results A total of 142 eligible ART-naïve patients were included in the analyses. Eighty-six individuals exhibited the wild genotype (CC) while 56 had mutant genotypes (43-CT and only 13-TT). Variant allele frequency was 0.23 and 0.26 in non

  6. PIE: an online prediction system for protein-protein interactions from text.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Soo-Jin; Sriram, Ram; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2008-07-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) extraction has been an important research topic in bio-text mining area, since the PPI information is critical for understanding biological processes. However, there are very few open systems available on the Web and most of the systems focus on keyword searching based on predefined PPIs. PIE (Protein Interaction information Extraction system) is a configurable Web service to extract PPIs from literature, including user-provided papers as well as PubMed articles. After providing abstracts or papers, the prediction results are displayed in an easily readable form with essential, yet compact features. The PIE interface supports more features such as PDF file extraction, PubMed search tool and network communication, which are useful for biologists and bio-system developers. The PIE system utilizes natural language processing techniques and machine learning methodologies to predict PPI sentences, which results in high precision performance for Web users. PIE is freely available at http://bi.snu.ac.kr/pie/.

  7. Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the Learner-Centered Information-Age Paradigm of Education: A Study to Improve the Design of the Functions and Features of PIES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) design theory is a design recommendation regarding the function and features of Learning Managements Systems (LMS) that can support the information-age learner-centered paradigm of education. The purpose of this study was to improve the proposed functions and features of the PIES design theory…

  8. Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the Learner-Centered Information-Age Paradigm of Education: A Study to Improve the Design of the Functions and Features of PIES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) design theory is a design recommendation regarding the function and features of Learning Managements Systems (LMS) that can support the information-age learner-centered paradigm of education. The purpose of this study was to improve the proposed functions and features of the PIES design theory…

  9. Contributions from Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France: an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, Ole A.; Chami, Malik; Doxaran, David

    2012-04-01

    This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters presents selected contributions from the international conference Particles in Europe (PiE) 2010 organized by Sequoia Scientific, Inc., and the Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche (LOV) on 15-17 November 2010 in Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, and guest-edited by Ole Mikkelsen, Malik Chami and David Doxaran. PiE was initiated in 2008, in order to promote and further our understanding of the importance of suspended particulate matter (SPM) for a very wide range of processes in the aquatic environment—from optics and acoustics, over sediment transport, to the global carbon balance. The papers in this special issue are in particular concerned with the interaction between SPM and water optical properties, as well as how to use optical proxy measurements to understand SPM processes. The next PiE conference is scheduled for 17-19 October 2012 in Barcelona, Spain.

  10. On the Fair Division of Multiple Stochastic Pies to Multiple Agents within the Nash Bargaining Solution

    PubMed Central

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    The fair division of a surplus is one of the most widely examined problems. This paper focuses on bargaining problems with fixed disagreement payoffs where risk-neutral agents have reached an agreement that is the Nash-bargaining solution (NBS). We consider a stochastic environment, in which the overall return consists of multiple pies with uncertain sizes and we examine how these pies can be allocated with fairness among agents. Specifically, fairness is based on the Aristotle’s maxim: “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally, in proportion to the relevant inequality”. In this context, fairness is achieved when all the individual stochastic surplus shares which are allocated to agents are distributed in proportion to the NBS. We introduce a novel algorithm, which can be used to compute the ratio of each pie that should be allocated to each agent, in order to ensure fairness within a symmetric or asymmetric NBS. PMID:23024752

  11. Asymmetric enrichment of PIE-1 in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote mediated by binary counterdiffusion.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Brian R; Perkins, Edward M; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Sun, Sean X; Wirtz, Denis

    2009-02-23

    To generate cellular diversity in developing organisms while simultaneously maintaining the developmental potential of the germline, germ cells must be able to preferentially endow germline daughter cells with a cytoplasmic portion containing specialized cell fate determinants not inherited by somatic cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, germline inheritance of the protein PIE-1 is accomplished by first asymmetrically localizing the protein to the germplasm before cleavage and subsequently degrading residual levels of the protein in the somatic cytoplasm after cleavage. Despite its critical involvement in cell fate determination, the enrichment of germline determinants remains poorly understood. Here, combining live-cell fluorescence methods and kinetic modeling, we demonstrate that the enrichment process does not involve protein immobilization, intracellular compartmentalization, or localized protein degradation. Instead, our results support a heterogeneous reaction/diffusion model for PIE-1 enrichment in which the diffusion coefficient of PIE-1 is reversibly reduced in the posterior, resulting in a stable protein gradient across the zygote at steady state.

  12. Principal angles separate subject illumination spaces in YDB and CMU-PIE.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, J Ross; Draper, Bruce A; Chang, Jen-Mei; Kirby, Michael; Kley, Holger; Peterson, Chris

    2009-02-01

    The theory of illumination subspaces is well developed and has been tested extensively on the Yale Face Database B (YDB) and CMU-PIE (PIE) data sets. This paper shows that if face recognition under varying illumination is cast as a problem of matching sets of images to sets of images, then the minimal principal angle between subspaces is sufficient to perfectly separate matching pairs of image sets from nonmatching pairs of image sets sampled from YDB and PIE. This is true even for subspaces estimated from as few as six images and when one of the subspaces is estimated from as few as three images if the second subspace is estimated from a larger set (10 or more). This suggests that variation under illumination may be thought of as useful discriminating information rather than unwanted noise.

  13. Progress on accelerated calculation of 3D MHD equilibrium with the PIES code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raburn, Daniel; Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Donald

    2016-10-01

    Continuing progress has been made in accelerating the 3D MHD equilibrium code, PIES, using an external numerical wrapper. The PIES code (Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver) is capable of calculating 3D MHD equilibria with islands. The numerical wrapper has been demonstrated to greatly improve the rate of convergence in numerous cases corresponding to equilibria in the TFTR device where magnetic islands are present; the numerical wrapper makes use of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver along with adaptive preconditioning and a sophisticated subspace-restricted Levenberg backtracking algorithm. The wrapper has recently been improved by automation which combines the preexisting backtracking algorithm with insights gained from the stability of the Picard algorithm traditionally used with PIES. Improved progress logging and stopping criteria have also been incorporated in to the numerical wrapper.

  14. 49 CFR 40.403 - Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must a service agent notify its clients when the... Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE? (a) As a service agent, if... clients, in writing, about the issuance, scope, duration, and effect of the PIE. You may meet this...

  15. 49 CFR 40.381 - What information do you present to contest the proposed issuance of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information do you present to contest the... What information do you present to contest the proposed issuance of a PIE? (a) As a service agent who wants to contest a proposed PIE, you must present at least the following information to the Director: (1...

  16. Graphic displays: the effects of orientation on the tangible perception of histograms and pie charts.

    PubMed

    Painter, J; Pring, L

    2000-09-01

    Two studies designed to investigate the ability of blind subjects to interpret tangible graphic displays of data at varying degrees of orientation are reported. In the first experiment visually handicapped children were required to interpret histograms and pie charts presented at two different orientations. Horizontally oriented histograms were found to have a significant advantage over vertically oriented histograms, but there was no effect of orientation on pie charts. In the second study horizontally and vertically oriented histograms were again compared using a subject sample comprised only of congenitally or very early blind children. The results confirmed the superiority of horizontally presented histograms over the more common vertical display.

  17. The application of the Galerkin method to solving PIES for Laplace's equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bołtuć, Agnieszka; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the application of the Galerkin method to solving the parametric integral equation system (PIES) on the example of Laplace's equation. The main aim of the paper is the analysis of the effectiveness of two methods for PIES solving: the collocation method and the Galerkin method. Researches were performed on two examples with analytical solutions. Tests concern mainly the accuracy of obtained numerical solutions and their stability. For both analyzed methods calculations were made with the various number of expressions in the approximation series, whilst in the collocation method two variants of the arrangement of collocation points were considered. We also compared the complexity of both methods using the execution time.

  18. Gain and saturation parameters of a multikilowatt PIE CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikumb, S. K.; Seguin, H. J. J.; Seguin, V. A.; Reshef, H.

    1987-07-01

    Details of an experimental investigation of the small signal gain and saturation parameter of a 10 kW CW photoinitiated, impulse-enhanced, electrically excited (PIE) CO2 laser are presented. Measurements were made as a function of several device operational conditions, such as gas pressure, input electrical power, pulser ionization, and flow velocity. Gain profiles were also obtained, both from anode to cathode, and in the direction of gas flow. The results document the effectiveness of the PIE excitation technique, while providing detailed information on the gain medium. Such data are essential to the design of an efficient optical extraction system.

  19. Is the pie-crusting technique safe for MCL release in varus deformity correction in total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R Michael; Daluga, Andrew T; Sturgis, Lindsey A; Lieberman, Jay R

    2013-09-01

    Established for lateral release in TKA, the pie-crusting technique has not been studied for the medial collateral ligament (MCL). In cadaveric knees the MCL was release with a pie-crusting technique in one and traditional technique in the contralateral knee. Along with a control group, each MCL was subjected to mechanical testing. The stiffness, force and stress required to cause ligament elongation were less in the pie-crusting group (p < 0.05) compared to the control group, but were not statistically different than the traditional group. The pie-crusting group demonstrated a characteristic "stair-step" failure mode at the joint line, whereas the traditional group failed elastically at the tibial insertion. MCL pie-crusting is likely technique dependent since failure occurs within the ligament itself and further study is warranted.

  20. Theoretical modeling of optical properties of Ag8 and Ag14 silver clusters embedded in an LTA sodalite zeolite cavity.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2013-10-07

    Optical properties of silver Ag(n) nanoclusters are demonstrated to be dependent on their size, structure and charge state. It is found that when being contained in the sodalite cavity of LTA zeolite the tetradecanuclear hexacation silver cluster Ag14(6+) is stable. Its lower-lying states and optical spectrum are theoretically determined using the quantum chemical TD-DFT method. Its ground state possesses an outer-shell electron configuration of A1g(2)T2g(6) mimicking the s(2)p(6) valence of noble gas atoms. These frontier orbitals are constructed from 5s,5p(Ag)-AOs with contributions from framework oxygen atoms. Light absorption of Ag14(6+) embedded in the sodalite cage which is characterized by strong peaks centered at 331 and 476 nm (transitions 5s,p(Ag) → 5s,p(Ag)) leads to much longer wavelength emission. The sodalite cage, as a container, stabilizes the central Ag14(6+) cluster by electrostatic attraction. The absorption spectrum of the isovalent neutral Ag8 cluster embedded inside the same sodalite cavity is also simulated using TD-DFT and CASPT2 methods. This absorption spectrum which is similar to that of the Ag14(6+) cluster has two absorption bands in the near UV and visible regions.

  1. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  2. 49 CFR 40.375 - How does the initiating official start a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the initiating official start a PIE proceeding? 40.375 Section 40.375 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.375 How does the initiating official start a...

  3. Bars, Lines, & Pies: A Graphing Skills Program. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bars, Lines, & Pies" is a dynamic math program designed to build graphing skills in students, while also showing them the relevance of math in their lives. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation along with Scholastic, the graphing lessons and activities involve engaging, real-world examples about the environment and recycling. In these lessons,…

  4. Preschool Instruction for the Exceptional (PIE) Project Report: 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccoricco, Edward A.; And Others

    Presented is the 1976-77 project report containing descriptions and evaluations of the five accomplished goals of the Preschool Instruction for the Exceptional (PIE) program which has provided services for 54 New Jersey students (3 to 5-years old). Described and discussed are the following objectives: (1) identification and diagnosis of preschool…

  5. Reflections on "Petit Battement sur le Cou de Pied": Is It Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskevska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article presents multiple perspectives of "petit battement sur le cou de pied". These perspectives include historical, biomechanical, and pedagogic points of view. The article offers useful information for ballet specialists and applied research studies aimed at ballet pedagogy. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  6. EZDRAW. An Interactive Computer Graphics Program to Design Bar, Line, or Pie Graphs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Figure Page 1 EZDRAW System Configuration . . . . . . . . . )15 2 Representation of EZDRAW Levels by Menus . .16 * 3 GRAFMAKER Design...Graph . . . .. . . .. 47 8 EZDRAW Pie Graph ... 48 * 9 Main Module .. . . . . . .. B-2 10 Starting EZDR A’. . .. . . . .. B- 3 11 Initializing EZDRAW...Design Attributes . . . . A- 3 II EZDRAW Variables .......... ........ C-1 III EZDRAW Subroutines ..... .............. .D-1 IV DI-3000 Subroutines

  7. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  8. 49 CFR 40.391 - What is the scope of a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... “fatal flaws” in tests. Alternatively, X received a correction notice pointing out these problems in its... verifying tests positive. When it received a correction notice, Y immediately dismissed the erring MRO. In... issues a PIE with respect to Service Agent Z. Z provides services for DOT-regulated transportation...

  9. Slicing the Attitude Pie: A Validity and Reliability Study of a New Attitude Assessment Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lull, James T.; Cappella, Joseph N.

    This paper introduces a new measure of attitude, the "attitude pie," which attempts to separate true neutrality from degree of indifference while providing an evaluation score on the issue being judged. A large reliability-validity study involving ten attitude traits, four different methods, and over one hundred subjects at three different times…

  10. Reflections on "Petit Battement sur le Cou de Pied": Is It Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskevska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article presents multiple perspectives of "petit battement sur le cou de pied". These perspectives include historical, biomechanical, and pedagogic points of view. The article offers useful information for ballet specialists and applied research studies aimed at ballet pedagogy. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  11. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…

  12. Adolescent Ambiguities in "American Pie": Popular Culture as a Resource for Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Proposes the need to critically incorporate popular culture into sex education efforts in order to develop programs that resonate with teens' experiences while allowing them to construct more equitable social relations. Illustrates how this might be done through an analysis of the recent teen film, "American Pie," identifying specific implications…

  13. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…

  14. Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berglund, A M M; Sturve, J; Förlin, L; Nyholm, N E I

    2007-11-01

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

  15. Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, A.M.M. Sturve, J.; Foerlin, L.; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2007-11-15

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

  16. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense…

  17. Children and Drug Education: The P.I.E.D. Pipers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloss, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Developing coping skills for preventing substance abuse and promoting interaction and role modeling among older and younger children were the goals of the P.I.E.D. (People Involved in Education about Drugs) Pipers project. Nurses taught content to student trainees who presented information to peers and younger children. (SK)

  18. Reading: Making It Personal Again--Now Serving PIE to Hungry Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nancy; Oleynik, Myra; Sacco, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Something wonderful happens when children are asked to choose their own books and are given ample time to read and discuss them. They become hungry readers with an appetite for books! This simple strategy was the basis for developing the program known as PIE (Personalized Independent Enrichment) and its recipe for reading success. The goal of the…

  19. prepare_taxa_charts.py: A Python program to automate generation of publication ready taxonomic pie chart images from QIIME.

    PubMed

    Lakhujani, Vijay; Badapanda, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is one of the most popular open-source bioinformatics suite for performing metagenome, 16S rRNA amplicon and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) data analysis. Although, it is very comprehensive and powerful tool, it lacks a method to provide publication ready taxonomic pie charts. The script plot_taxa_summary.py bundled with QIIME generate a html file and a folder containing taxonomic pie chart and legend as separate images. The images have randomly generated alphanumeric names. Therefore, it is difficult to associate the pie chart with the legend and the corresponding sample identifier. Even if the option to have the legend within the html file is selected while executing plot_taxa_summary.py, it is very tedious to crop a complete image (having both the pie chart and the legend) due to unequal image sizes. It requires a lot of time to manually prepare the pie charts for multiple samples for publication purpose. Moreover, there are chances of error while identifying the pie chart and legend pair due to random alphanumeric names of the images. To bypass all these bottlenecks and make this process efficient, we have developed a python based program, prepare_taxa_charts.py, to automate the renaming, cropping and merging of taxonomic pie chart and corresponding legend image into a single, good quality publication ready image. This program not only augments the functionality of plot_taxa_summary.py but is also very fast in terms of CPU time and user friendly.

  20. Combining MFD and PIE for accurate single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer measurements.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Volodymyr; Sikor, Martin; Kalinin, Stanislav; Mokranjac, Dejana; Seidel, Claus A M; Lamb, Don C

    2012-03-01

    Single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) experiments using single-molecule burst analysis on a confocal microscope are an ideal tool to measure inter- and intramolecular distances and dynamics on the nanoscale. Different techniques have been developed to maximize the amount of information available in spFRET burst analysis experiments. Multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) is used to monitor a variety of fluorescence parameters simultaneously and pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) employs direct excitation of the acceptor to probe its presence and photoactivity. To calculate accurate FRET efficiencies from spFRET experiments with MFD or PIE, several calibration measurements are usually required. Herein, we demonstrate that by combining MFD with PIE information regarding all calibration factors as well as an accurate determination of spFRET histograms can be performed in a single measurement. In addition, the quality of overlap of the different detection volumes as well as the detection of acceptor photophysics can be investigated with MFD-PIE. Bursts containing acceptor photobleaching can be identified and excluded from further investigation while bursts that contain FRET dynamics are unaffected by this analysis. We have employed MFD-PIE to accurately analyze the effects of nucleotides and substrate on the interdomain separation in DnaK, the major bacterial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The interdomain distance increases from 47 Å in the ATP-bound state to 84 Å in the ADP-bound state and slightly contracts to 77 Å when a substrate is bound. This is in contrast to what was observed for the mitochondrial member of the Hsp70s, Ssc1, supporting the notion of evolutionary specialization of Hsp70s for different cellular functions in different organisms and cell organelles.

  1. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of LTA nanozeolite using barley husk silica: Mercury removal from standard and real solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Dehnavi, Ahmad Roozbehani; Joorabdoozha, Amir

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Silica extraction from barley husk with high purity for the synthesis of A nanozeolite. ► Free template A nanozeolite synthesized via new source of silica at low temperature. ► Optimization of SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratios, temperature and time of the synthesis. ► Utilizing of synthesized A nanozeolite for mercury removal from aqueous solutions. ► Mercury removal at optimized pH, contact time and adsorbent dose from real solution. - Abstract: In this study, synthesized Lined Type A (LTA) nanozeolite from barley husk silica (BHS) was used for mercury removal from standard and real aqueous solutions. The BHS in amorphous phase with 80% purity was extracted from barley husk ash (BHA), and used effectively as a new source of silica for the synthesis of NaA nanozeolite. The NaA nanocrystal in pure phase has been synthesized at low temperature, without adding any organic additives. The effects of heating time, reaction temperature, SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} mole ratios on the crystallization of NaA nanozeolite were studied. The adsorption capacity of mercury (II) was studied as a function of pH, contact time, and amount of adsorbent. The crystallization of NaA nanozeolite from BHS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and FTIR techniques. Moreover, concentration of Hg{sup 2+} ions in the aqueous solutions was analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy method (HG-AAS). The standard and real samples analysis showed that NaA nanozeolite is capable of Hg{sup 2+} ions removal from the aqueous solutions. Efficiency of mercury (II) adsorption from real solutions onto the nano-sized NaA zeolite was 98%.

  3. Results of PIE of experimental (U-Mo)-based LEU disperse fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Vatulin, A.; Dobrikova, I.; Suprun, V.; Petrov, Y.; Trifonov, Y.; Alexandrov, V.; Ijutov, A.; Novoselov, A.; Starkov, V.; Shishin, V.; Yakovlev, V.

    2008-07-15

    Performed in frames of Russian RERTR Program were post-irradiation examinations of 12 types of disperse (U-Mo)-based fuel compositions in Al matrix. The goal of the work was to substantiate serviceability of the new fuel compositions being developed for utilization in Russian-built pool-type research reactors. Among the methods of PIE used in this work were visual examination, gamma-scanning, optical metallography, SEM, X-ray analysis and some others. The present paper is dedicated to an analysis of the main results of PIE completed so far. Special attention has been paid to the parameters affecting formation of interaction layer between fuel granules and matrix Al. (author)

  4. Arthroscopic trans-portal deep medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release.

    PubMed

    Atoun, Ehud; Debbi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Weiler, Andreas; Debbi, Eytan; Rath, Ehud

    2013-02-01

    Arthroscopic treatments of meniscal injuries of the knee are among the most common orthopaedic procedures performed. Adequate visualization of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus might be challenging, especially in patients with tight medial compartments. In these cases instrument manipulation in an attempt to reach the posterior horn of the meniscus can cause an iatrogenic chondral injury because of the narrow medial joint space. A transcutaneous medial collateral ligament (MCL) pie-crusting release facilitates expansion of the medial joint space in a case of a tight medial compartment. Nevertheless, it might cause injury to the superficial MCL, infection, and pain and injury to the saphenous nerve because of multiple needle punctures of the skin. We describe an inside-out, arthroscopic deep MCL pie-crusting release, which allows access to the medial meniscus through the anterior approach to provide good visualization of the footprint and sufficient working space.

  5. Precision Information Environment (PIE) for International Safeguards: Pre-Demonstration Development Use Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Henry, Michael J.

    2013-11-13

    In FY2013, the PIE International Safeguards team demonstrated our development progress to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) staff from the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24, our client) and the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22). Following the demonstration, the team was asked by our client to complete additional development prior to a planned demonstration at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), scheduled tentatively for January or spring of 2014. The team discussed four potential areas for development (in priority order), and will develop them as time and funding permit prior to an IAEA demonstration. The four capability areas are: 1. Addition of equipment manuals to PIE-accessible files 2. Optical character recognition (OCR) of photographed text 3. Barcode reader with information look-up from a database 4. Add Facilities to Data Model 5. Geospatial capabilities with information integration Each area will be described below in a use case.

  6. Tunable PIE and synchronized gating detections by FastFLIM for quantitative microscopy measurements of fast dynamics of single molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Coskun, Ulas; Ferreon, Allan Chris; Barbieri, Beniamino; Liao, Shih-Chu Jeff

    2016-03-01

    The crosstalk between two fluorescent species causes problems in fluorescence microscopy imaging, especially for quantitative measurements such as co-localization, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). In laser scanning confocal microscopy, the lasers can be switched on and off by acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) in the microsecond scale for alternative line scanning in order to avoid the crosstalk while minimizing the time delay between two lasers on the same pixel location. In contrast, the pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) technique synchronizes two pulsed lasers of different wavelengths in the nanosecond scale to enable measuring superfast dynamics of two fluorescent species simultaneously and yet quantitatively without the crosstalk contamination. This feature is critical for many cell biology applications, e.g. accurate determination of stoichiometry in FRET measurements for studying protein-protein interactions or cell signal events, detection of weaker bindings in FCCS by eliminating the false cross correlation due to the crosstalk. The PIE has been used with the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) electronics. Here, we describe a novel PIE development using the digital frequency domain (DFD) technique -- FastFLIM, which provides tunable PIE setups and synchronized gating detections, tailored and optimized to specific applications. A few PIE setups by FastFLIM and measurement examples are described. Combined with the sensitivity of Alba and Q2 systems, the PIE allowed us to quantitatively measure the fast dynamics of single molecules.

  7. "Operation Pied Piper": a psychoanalytic narrative of authority in a time of war.

    PubMed

    Farley, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The evacuation of British children during World War II is read alongside the legend of the "Pied Piper" after which the mass migration was officially named. While virtually every British account of World War II makes mention of the evacuation, most are silent on the question of its ominous title: "Operation Pied Piper." This paper traces the legend's key theme - on influencing and being influenced - as it surfaces in the writing of one child analyst and one social worker charged with the responsibility of leading a family of five hostels for British youth. At a time when Hitler's deadly regime reached unprecedented heights across the Channel, the legend of the "Pied Piper" becomes a highly suggestive metaphor for thinking about D. W. Winnicott and Clare Britton's writing on what authority could mean in the face of leadership gone terribly wrong. Quite another, profoundly intimate loss of leadership haunts their words as well: Sigmund Freud, in exile from Hitler's Europe and leader of the psychoanalytic movement, died in London just weeks after the first wave of Blitz evacuations. It is in this context that Winnicott and Britton articulated a theory of authority that could address the losses of history without at the same time demanding the loss of the mind.

  8. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D.; Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Gerczak, Tyler J.

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  9. African departure rather than migration speed determines variation in spring arrival in pied flycatchers.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Janne; Both, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    Properly timed spring migration enhances reproduction and survival. Climate change requires organisms to respond to changes such as advanced spring phenology. Pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca have become a model species to study such phenological adaptations of long-distance migratory songbirds to climate change, but data on individuals' time schedules outside the breeding season are still lacking. Using light-level geolocators, we studied variation in migration schedules across the year in a pied flycatcher population in the Netherlands, which sheds light on the ability for individual adjustments in spring arrival timing to track environmental changes at their breeding grounds. We show that variation in arrival dates to breeding sites in 2014 was caused by variation in departure date from sub-Saharan Africa and not by environmental conditions encountered en route. Spring migration duration was short for all individuals, on average 2 weeks. Males migrated ahead of females in spring, while migration schedules in autumn were flexibly adjusted according to breeding duties. Individuals were therefore not consistently early or late throughout the year. In fast migrants like our Dutch pied flycatchers, advancement of arrival to climate change likely requires changes in spring departure dates. Adaptation for earlier arrival may be slowed down by harsh circumstances in winter, or years with high costs associated with early migration. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  10. Parallelization of LSODE in PIES Using NVIDIA's CUDA Architecture for GPGPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Paul; Ethier, Stephane

    2009-11-01

    The Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (PIES) is a powerful tool for computing three dimensional MHD equilibria, without making assumptions about the form of the magnetic field. Part of its strength comes from its ability to handle equilibria with islands and stochastic regions. However, a high-resolution PIES calculation often takes several hours to complete, spending most of its time in the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations (LSODE) to follow field-line trajectories. This work examines the feasibility of speeding up these calculations by taking advantage of the parallel computing resources of programmable Graphic Processor Units (GPUs). To this end, the LSODA variant version of LSODE is converted to NVIDIA's C for CUDA application programming interface and tested against its original Fortran version on an NVIDIA Tesla Cluster. Run times are compared between the serial and parallel versions, with special attention given to different scaling options. The new code is also analyzed for bottlenecks and opportunities for additional speedups, with the ultimate goal of developing a PIES-based MHD solver capable of running between experimental shots.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of a manual-based psychosocial group intervention for young people with epilepsy [PIE].

    PubMed

    Dorris, Liam; Broome, Helen; Wilson, Margaret; Grant, Cathy; Young, David; Baker, Gus; Balloo, Selina; Bruce, Susan; Campbell, Jo; Concannon, Bernie; Conway, Nadia; Cook, Lisa; Davis, Cheryl; Downey, Bruce; Evans, Jon; Flower, Diane; Garlovsky, Jack; Kearney, Shauna; Lewis, Susan; Stephens, Victoria; Turton, Stuart; Wright, Ingram

    2017-07-01

    We conducted an exploratory RCT to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy for a manual-based psychosocial group intervention aimed at improving epilepsy knowledge, self-management skills, and quality of life in young people with epilepsy. Eighty-three participants (33:50m/f; age range 12-17years) were randomized to either the treatment or control group in seven tertiary paediatric neuroscience centres in the UK, using a wait-list control design. Participants were excluded if they reported suicidal ideation and/or scored above the cut off on mental health screening measures, or if they had a learning disability or other neurological disorder. The intervention consisted of six weekly 2-hour sessions using guided discussion, group exercises and role-plays facilitated by an epilepsy nurse and a clinical psychologist. At three month follow up the treatment group (n=40) was compared with a wait-list control group (n=43) on a range of standardized measures. There was a significant increase in epilepsy knowledge in the treatment group (p=0.02). Participants receiving the intervention were also significantly more confident in speaking to others about their epilepsy (p=0.04). Quality of life measures did not show significant change. Participants reported the greatest value of attending the group was: Learning about their epilepsy (46%); Learning to cope with difficult feelings (29%); and Meeting others with epilepsy (22%). Caregiver and facilitator feedback was positive, and 92% of participants would recommend the group to others. This brief psychosocial group intervention was effective in increasing participants' knowledge of epilepsy and improved confidence in discussing their epilepsy with others. We discuss the qualitative feedback, feasibility, strengths and limitations of the PIE trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison between urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 detection and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays for evaluating aspirin response in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jingwei; Chen, Xiahuan; Feng, Xueru; Fu, Sidney W; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Liu, Meilin

    2015-10-15

    Aspirin is widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to compare between two established methods of aspirin response, urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11dhTXB2) and platelet Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTA) assays in elderly Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and to investigate the clinical significance of both methods in predicting cardiovascular events. Urinary 11dhTxB2 assay and arachidonic acid-induced (AA, 0.5mg/ml) platelet aggregation by Light Transmission Aggregometry (LTAAA) assay were measured to evaluate aspirin responses. High-on aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) was defined as urinary 11dhTxB2>1500pg/mg or AA-induced platelet aggregation≥15.22%-the upper quartile of our enrolled population. The two tests showed a poor correlation for aspirin inhibition (r=0.063) and a poor agreement in classifying HAPR (kappa=0.053). With a mean follow-up time of 12months, cardiovascular events occurred more frequently in HAPR patients who were diagnosed by LTA assay as compared with no-HAPR patients (22.5% versus 10.6%, P=0.039, OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.06-5.63). However, the HAPR status, as determined by urinary 11dTXB2 measurement, did not show a significant correlation with outcomes.

  13. Analysis of migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in response to LPS and LTA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim; Fiedler, Tomas; Peters, Kirsten

    2016-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to stimulate the regeneration of injured tissue. Since bacterial infections are common complications in wound healing, bacterial pathogens and their components come into direct contact with MSC. The interaction with bacterial structures influences the proliferation, differentiation and migratory activity of the MSC, which might be of relevance during regeneration. Studies on MSC migration in response to bacterial components have shown different results depending on the cell type. Here, we analyzed the migration rate and chemotaxis of human adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in response to the basic cell-wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. To this end, we used transwell and scratch assays, as well as a specific chemotaxis assay combined with live-cell imaging. We found no significant influence of LPS or LTA on the migration rate of adMSC in transwell or scratch assays. Furthermore, in the µ-slide chemotaxis assay, the stimulation with LPS did not exert any chemotactic effect on adMSC.

  14. Comparative analysis of isotopic composition of spent fuel from Takahama-3 PWR PIE database using TRIPOLI-PEPIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. K.

    2006-07-01

    Evaluation of isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel is essential for reactor physics and fuel cycle back-end applications. A TRIPOLI-PEPIN coupled depletion code, TR4PEP, has been developed to meet these requirements. It combines the continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code, TRIPOLI4.3 [1] and the point depletion code, PEPIN-2 [2], to perform the burnup dependent material data calculation. The depletion calculation flow of TR4PEP code has been presented on a previous study. Its application on PWR UO{sub 2} and MOX spent fuel has been validated against several international numerical benchmarks. Compared to industry standard deterministic cell codes and other Monte Carlo based depletion codes, TR4PEP deep-burn depletion calculations have shown satisfactory results. [3] In addition to the numerical benchmarks, the analysis of available post irradiation examination (PIE) results by TR4PEP is also important The PIE results at fuel assembly level are accessible only from spent fuel reprocessing plant and these data are not easy to use for code validation due to the dissolution of several assemblies in the same time. The PIE results at fuel pellet level depend not only on the method for the isotopic measurements but also on the irradiation environment and history. A free access PIE database on isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel is obtainable from OECD/NEA. [4] Both PWR and BWR PIE data at fuel pellet level are taken into account in this database but the only 17 x 17 type PWR fuel available in this database is from Takahama-3 PIE results. To validate TR4PEP with Takahama-3 PIE results, two irradiated UO{sub 2} samples, SF95-4 from fuel assembly NT3G23 and SF97-5 from NT3G24, are considered in this study. Both samples have an initial {sup 235}U enrichment of 4.11 wt% and their burnup are respectively 36.69 and 47.03 GWd/t. Comparative analysis of isotopic composition from SF95-4 and SF97-5 including 19 actinides from {sup 234}U to {sup 247}Cm and 18

  15. Comparison of a Waveform Cross Correlation Detection Method to a Traditional STA/LTA Picker: Application to the Crooked Lake Sequence Near Fox Creek, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, D. W.; Spriggs, N.

    2014-12-01

    Waveform cross correlation, or template matching as it is sometimes called, has long been known to be an effective method for finding occurrences of a known repeating signal within a waveform. Because seismic signals are rarely known a priori, waveform cross correlation is not often used as a detection method for seismic networks. However, past studies (e.g. Gibbons and Ringdal, 2006) have shown that cross correlation can be effective in identifying events with similar locations and focal mechanisms (and thus waveforms) to a pre-existing template. Because induced seismicity often satisfies these requirements the method is well-suited to induced seismicity monitoring. We apply the method of waveform cross correlation to a sequence of events between Nov. 29, 2013 and Dec. 13, 2013 occurring at Crooked Lake near Fox Creek, Alberta. These events are believed to be attributable to injection activities in the area. A total of 24 events were detected using traditional STA/LTA triggering methods. The largest event, measured at local magnitude 3.9, is used as a template to identify other events. We compare the effectiveness of the traditional STA/LTA detection method to the cross correlation technique. With a modest correlation threshold we identify all 24 of the original events and an additional 89 new events for a total of 113 events identified by waveform cross correlation. We estimate the magnitude of completeness using the maximum curvature method (Wiemer and Wyss, 2000) and compare the result for the STA/LTA catalogue and the cross correlation catalogue. We find that the magnitude of completeness is about 0.8 magnitude units lower for the cross correlation catalogue. We explore the possibility of determining a probability density function to describe the values of observed correlation between a template and a seismic signal and reconcile theoretical expectations with empirical data. We further suggest a trigger threshold for cross correlation detection algorithms

  16. Inhibition of transcription by the Caenorhabditis elegans germline protein PIE-1: genetic evidence for distinct mechanisms targeting initiation and elongation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dolan; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, specification of the germ lineage depends on PIE-1, a maternal protein that blocks mRNA transcription in germline blastomeres. Studies in mammalian cell culture have suggested that PIE-1 inhibits P-TEFb, a kinase that phosphorylates serine 2 in the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) repeats of RNA polymerase II during transcriptional elongation. We have tested this hypothesis using an in vivo complementation assay for PIE-1 function. Our results support the view that PIE-1 inhibits P-TEFb using the CTD-like motif YAPMAPT. This activity is required to block serine 2 phosphorylation in germline blastomeres, but unexpectedly is not essential for transcriptional repression or specification of the germline. We find that sequences outside of the YAPMAPT are required to inhibit serine 5 phosphorylation, and that this second inhibitory mechanism is essential for transcriptional repression and specification of the germ lineage. Our results suggest that PIE-1 uses partially redundant mechanisms to block transcription by targeting both the initiation and elongation phases of the transcription cycle.

  17. Detection of rhodopsin dimerization in situ by PIE-FCCS, a time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin self-associates in the plasma membrane. At low concentrations, the interactions are consistent with a monomer-dimer equilibrium (Comar et al., J Am Chem Soc 136(23):8342-8349, 2014). At high concentrations in native tissue, higher-order clusters have been observed (Fotiadis et al., Nature 421:127-128, 2003). The physiological role of rhodopsin dimerization is still being investigated, but it is clear that a quantitative assessment is essential to determining the function of rhodopsin clusters in vision. To quantify rhodopsin interactions, I will outline the theory and methodology of a specialized time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring membrane protein-protein interactions called pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS). The strength of this technique is its ability to quantify rhodopsin interactions in situ (i.e., a live cell plasma membrane). There are two reasons for restricting the scope to live cell membranes. First, the compositional heterogeneity of the plasma membrane creates a complex milieu with thousands of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate species. This makes it difficult to infer quaternary interactions from detergent solubilized samples or construct a model phospholipid bilayer that recapitulates all of the interactions present in native membranes. Second, organizational structure and dynamics is a key feature of the plasma membrane, and fixation techniques like formaldehyde cross-linking and vitrification will modulate the interactions. PIE-FCCS is based on two-color fluorescence imaging with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) (Becker et al., Rev Sci Instrum 70:1835-1841, 1999). By time-tagging every detected photon, the data can be analyzed as a fluorescence intensity distribution, fluorescence lifetime histogram, or fluorescence (cross-)correlation spectra (FCS/FCCS) (Becker, Advanced time-correlated single-photon counting techniques, Springer, Berlin, 2005). These

  18. Calling Where It Counts: Subordinate Pied Babblers Target the Audience of Their Vocal Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, David J.; Finch, Fiona M.; Bell, Matthew B. V.; Ridley, Amanda R.

    2015-01-01

    For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups. For subordinate pied babblers therefore, searching for breeding opportunities in non-natal groups is of primary importance as this represents the major route to reproductive success. However, prospecting (where individuals leave the group to search for reproductive opportunities within other groups) is costly and individuals rapidly lose weight when not part of a group. Here we demonstrate that subordinate pied babblers adopt an alternative strategy for mate attraction by vocal advertisement from within their natal territories. We show that subordinates focus their calling efforts on the edges of their territory, and specifically near boundaries with neighbouring groups that have potential breeding partners (unrelated individuals of the opposite sex). In contrast to prospecting, calling individuals showed no body mass loss associated with this behaviour, suggesting that calling from within the group may provide a ‘cheap’ advertisement strategy. Additionally, we show that subordinates use information regarding the composition of neighbouring groups to target the greatest number of potential mating partners. PMID:26177094

  19. Calling Where It Counts: Subordinate Pied Babblers Target the Audience of Their Vocal Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Humphries, David J; Finch, Fiona M; Bell, Matthew B V; Ridley, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups. For subordinate pied babblers therefore, searching for breeding opportunities in non-natal groups is of primary importance as this represents the major route to reproductive success. However, prospecting (where individuals leave the group to search for reproductive opportunities within other groups) is costly and individuals rapidly lose weight when not part of a group. Here we demonstrate that subordinate pied babblers adopt an alternative strategy for mate attraction by vocal advertisement from within their natal territories. We show that subordinates focus their calling efforts on the edges of their territory, and specifically near boundaries with neighbouring groups that have potential breeding partners (unrelated individuals of the opposite sex). In contrast to prospecting, calling individuals showed no body mass loss associated with this behaviour, suggesting that calling from within the group may provide a 'cheap' advertisement strategy. Additionally, we show that subordinates use information regarding the composition of neighbouring groups to target the greatest number of potential mating partners.

  20. Microsporidian infection in the pied peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis).

    PubMed

    Novilla, M N

    1978-01-01

    A microsporidian infection was diagnosed in a pied peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) which had died after an illness of 2 days. The parasite was observed in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. Lesions were most severe in the liver, with numerous organisms adjacent to areas of hepatic necrosis. Although the organisms were seen within renal tubules and within the intestinal mucosa, inflammatory lesions in those sites were minimal. The microsporidian nature of the parasite was confirmed by morphologic studies. The genus of the organism was not determined.

  1. [The Projet PIE: a promising strategy to reach elders with a mental health problem].

    PubMed

    Nour, Kareen; Brown, Brita; Moscovitz, Nona; Hébert, Marijo; Regenstreif, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Approximately fifty percent of older adults with a mental health problem do not receive services. A proactive outreach strategy, Project PIE (Prevention-Intervention-Education) relies upon the assistance of non-traditional referral sources, namely community liaisons, to identify and refer to the CSSS vulnerable or isolated elders with a mental health problem. An evaluation of this project reveals encouraging results. The project appears useful, relevant and efficient to detect elders with a mental health problem and offer the required assistance. This project also appears to be a means to foster social solidarity.

  2. Effect of TNF and LTA polymorphisms on biological markers of response to oxidative stimuli in coal miners: a model of gene-environment interaction

    PubMed Central

    Nadif, R; Jedlicka, A; Mintz, M; Bertrand, J; Kleeberger, S; Kauffmann, F

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Interaction between genetic background and oxidative environmental stimuli in the pathogenesis of human lung disease has been largely unexplored. Methods: A prospective epidemiological study was undertaken in 253 coal miners. Intermediate quantitative phenotypes of response to oxidant exposure, including erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase activities, were studied. Oxidant exposures studied were smoking habits and cumulative dust exposure assessed by job history and ambient measures. Disease phenotypes included subclinical computed tomography score at the first survey and x ray profusion grades twice, five years apart, to assess established coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Miners were genotyped for common functional polymorphisms in the gene for tumour necrosis factor α (TNF) and lymphotoxin α (LTA), two proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Results: Regarding gene-environment interaction on intermediate phenotypes, results showed interaction of a promoter polymorphism at the –308 position in TNF with occupational exposure on erythrocyte GSH-Px activity with a significant association in those with high exposure (p=0.003), whereas no association was observed among those with low exposure (interaction p=0.06). Regarding gene intermediate phenotype interaction on clinical outcome, results showed an association of CWP prevalence with an NcoI polymorphism in LTA in those with low catalase activity (p=0.05), whereas no association was observed in those with high activity (interaction p=0.03). No other significant association was observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that interactions of genetic background with environmental exposure and intermediate response phenotypes are important components in the pathogenesis of CWP. PMID:12566517

  3. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Christian G

    2016-08-15

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination represents the earlier works. As an historical chronology, the focus is on the emergence of key, specific aspects of the overall topic (often termed PiE) in the published literature and on the most highly cited works. This examination is not a conventional, technical review of the literature; as such, little attention was devoted to the more recent literature. The many dimensions involved with PiE span over 70years of published literature. Some articles began to appear in published works in the 1940s and earlier, while others only began to receive attention in the 1990s and later. Decades of early research on what at the time seemed to be disconnected topics eventually coalesced in the mid-to-late 1990s around a number of interconnected concerns and issues that now comprise PiE. Major objectives are to provide a new perspective to the topic, to facilitate more efficient and effective review of the literature by others, and to recognize the more significant, seminal contributions to the advancement of PiE as a field of research. Some of the most highly cited articles in all of environmental science now involve PiE. As of April 2015, a core group of 385 PiE articles had each received at least 200 citations; one had received 5424 citations. But hundreds of additional articles also played important roles in the evolution and advancement of the field.

  4. Quadriceps and patellar tendon pie-crusting as a treatment for limited flexion in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Burge, J Ross; Sanchez, Hugo B; Wagner, Russell A

    2014-04-01

    The pie-crusting method of ligament and tendon lengthening has been used successfully in various tissues but is not reported in the literature as an option for patellar or quadriceps tendons to address flexion limitation. Our case report discusses a patient with longstanding flexion limitation who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. The report reviews the literature on intraoperative treatments, which primarily pertains to the condition of patella baja, and demonstrates that the pie-crusting technique should be included as a treatment option for a tight extensor mechanism while having some advantages over tibial tubercle osteotomy or Z-plasty.

  5. EC as PIE: five criteria for executing a successful DNP final project.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Julee; Caruso, Diane; Fuchs, Mary Ann; Hypes, Kathe

    2014-01-01

    The goal of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs should be to produce nurses that are uniquely prepared to bridge the gap between the discovery of new knowledge and the scholarship of translation, application, and integration of this new knowledge in practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2006). However, there is concern over the variability in DNP programs and expected outcomes. The aim of this article is to describe a 5-point system of evaluation to determine whether a DNP final project meets the outcomes of the AACN Essentials of Doctoral Education in Advanced Nursing Practice (2006) in a comprehensive and rigorous way. In brief, the five criteria that must be met are represented by the acronym EC as PIE (E = Enhances; C = Culmination; P = Partnerships; I = Implements; E = Evaluates). Each criterion must be present and come together to form one complete "pie" representing evidence-based practice that is robust and innovative, culminating in a rigorous doctoral level DNP final project. In addition, we provide detailed examples of how these standards are currently being successfully implemented and discuss additional possibilities.

  6. PIE on Safety-Tested Loose Particles from Irradiated Compact 4-4-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.

    2016-04-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). This work is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) through the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Office under the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation tests initiated in 2006. The AGR-1 TRISO particles and fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 using laboratory-scale equipment and irradiated for 3 years in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. Post-irradiation examination was performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to test fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing and post-safety testing PIE conducted at ORNL on loose particles extracted from irradiated AGR-1 Compact 4-4-2.

  7. Corticosterone metabolites in blue tit and pied flycatcher droppings: effects of brood size, ectoparasites and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Elisa; Merino, Santiago; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Tomás, Gustavo; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Osorno, José Luis; Kuchar, Alexandra; Möstl, Erich

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of birds induces the secretion of corticosterone (CORT) as a response to different ecological variables. In this study we tested experimentally if manipulations of brood size or ectoparasitism led to subsequent differences in the concentration of excreted CORT metabolites of adult and nestling blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). No significant effect of the manipulation of brood size was detected in adults or nestlings. No significant effect of ectoparasitism was detected in males or nestlings, although females from uninfested nests showed lower concentrations of excreted CORT metabolites. In addition, we analysed if weather conditions had an influence on the concentration of excreted CORT metabolites of blue tits and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding in the same forest. We detected no effect of weather conditions on adults, but nestlings of both species showed a negative correlation between their excreted CORT metabolites and the average mean temperatures they were subjected to during their growth. This effect was not found in blue tits in a colder year, suggesting that the sensitivity of the HPA axis to ambient temperature may be subjected to interannual variation. Moreover, we found a positive effect of the maximum temperature on the day of sampling on the concentration of CORT metabolites of blue tit nestlings in one of the years. These results suggest that weather conditions may act as environmental stressors to which the HPA axis of blue tit and pied flycatcher nestlings may be sensitive.

  8. Pie waste - A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol.

    PubMed

    Magyar, Margaret; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jayanthi, Singaram; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-02-17

    Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000g dry weight basis that produced 329g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrate how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil.

  9. The relationship of family characteristics and bipolar disorder using causal-pie models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Kao, C-F; Lu, M-K; Yang, Y-K; Liao, S-C; Jang, F-L; Chen, W J; Lu, R-B; Kuo, P-H

    2014-01-01

    Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs.

  10. The PIES2012 Code for Calculating 3D Equilibria with Islands and Stochastic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticello, Donald; Reiman, Allan; Raburn, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We have made major modifications to the PIES 3D equilibrium code to produce a new version, PIES2012. The new version uses an adaptive radial grid for calculating equilibrium currents. A subset of the flux surfaces conform closely to island separatrices, providing an accurate treatment of the effects driving the neoclassical tearing mode. There is now a set of grid surfaces that conform to the flux surfaces in the interiors of the islands, allowing the proper treatment of the current profiles in the islands, which play an important role in tearing phenomena. We have verified that we can introduce appropriate current profiles in the islands to suppress their growth, allowing us to simulate situations where islands are allowed to grow at some rational surfaces but not others. Placement of grid surfaces between islands is guided by the locations of high order fixed points, allowing us to avoid spectral polution and providing a more robust, and smoother convergence of the code. The code now has an option for turning on a vertical magnetic field to fix the position of the magnetic axis, which models the horizontal feedback positioning of a tokamak plasma. The code has a new option for using a Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov scheme for convergence. The code now also contains a model that properly handles stochastic regions with nonzero pressure gradients. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. 49 CFR 40.373 - Before starting a PIE proceeding, does the initiating official give the service agent an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Before starting a PIE proceeding, does the initiating official give the service agent an opportunity to correct problems? 40.373 Section 40.373 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public...

  12. 49 CFR 40.369 - What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the discretion of an initiating official in starting a PIE proceeding? 40.369 Section 40.369 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.369 What is the discretion of...

  13. A Comparison of Learning Management Systems in a School District: Searching for the Ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Zahide; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Kwon, Seolim; Kageto, Yuichi; Shao, Zihang

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the use of several learning management systems (LMS), their benefits, and their limitations in relation to the desired characteristics of an ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the information age. A qualitative research design was used. The participants of the study were teachers, administrators, and…

  14. 49 CFR 40.401 - How does the Department notify employers and the public about a PIE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... document called the “List of Excluded Drug and Alcohol Service Agents.” This document may be found on the Department's web site (http://www.dot.gov/ost/dapc). You may also request a copy of the document from ODAPC. (b) When the Director issues a PIE, he or she adds to the List the name and address of the service...

  15. A Comparison of Learning Management Systems in a School District: Searching for the Ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Zahide; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Kwon, Seolim; Kageto, Yuichi; Shao, Zihang

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the use of several learning management systems (LMS), their benefits, and their limitations in relation to the desired characteristics of an ideal Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the information age. A qualitative research design was used. The participants of the study were teachers, administrators, and…

  16. Difficult Dialogues, Privilege and Social Justice: Uses of the Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) Model in Student Affairs Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sherry K.

    2007-01-01

    This article will introduce the Privileged Identity Exploration (PIE) Model. This model identifies eight (8) defense modes associated with behaviors individuals display when engaged in difficult dialogues about social justice issues. Implications for the model and ways it can be used to assist facilitators as they engage participants in…

  17. "A New Kind of Rule": The Subversive Narrator in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    1986-01-01

    Compares "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" to "The Pied Piper of Hamelin," noting that both: (1) were begun for the amusement of specific children; (2) use a subterranean journey as a device; (3) are critical of social authority; and (4) have problematic endings. (SRT)

  18. [Comparative analysis of Ayrshire and Black Pied cattle breeds by histocompatibility markers].

    PubMed

    Udina, I G; Karamysheva, E E; Sulimova, G E; Pavlenko, S P; Turkova, S O; Orlova, A R; Ernst, L K

    1998-12-01

    Distribution of BoLA-A antigens and BoLA-DRB3 alleles was studied by means of the microlymphocytotoxic test (BoLA-A) and the PCR-RFLP method (BoLA-DRB3) using restriction endonucleases RSAI, HaeIII, and XhoII in Ayrshire (n = 127) and Black Pied (n = 129) cattle breeds. Comparative analysis of profiles for class I antigens revealed significant differences in the frequencies of antigens W2, W6, W10, W31, W44, W15, and W19 (P > 99%). The studied breeds also differ in the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles and distribution of their frequencies. Heterogeneous allele frequency profile was detected in Ayrshire cattle: five of 18 detected alleles (DRB3.2*7, *8, *10, *24, and *28) accounted for 77%. Allele DRB3.2*7 (37.6%), which is classed with rare alleles in Black Pied cattle is the most common in Ayrshire cattle. The observed heterozygosity level in the combined sample of Black Pied breed (0.836) is higher than in Ayrshire breed (0.070). In both breeds, the heterozygosity level was studied in the groups of healthy and ill with persistent lymphocytosis (caused by bovine leukemia virus) animals and in the group of virus carriers in Ayrshire breed. In ill animals, a decrease in the observed heterozygosity level was detected, as compared to healthy animals and the expected heterozygosity level. The observed heterozygosity level exceeds the expected one in virus carriers. The detected features of the heterozygosity level in the studied groups allow the heterozygosity level for locus BoLA-DRB3 to be considered a nonspecific factor of resistance to leukemia and are heterozygous animals to have higher resistance to bovine leukemia. The presence of a larger proportion of highly productive animals (the annual productivity of more than 7000 kg) in the group of ill Ayrshire cattle animals, as compared to healthy animals to established. To increase resistance to bovine leukemia, the obtained data indicate the importance of the control of heterozygosity level and genetic diversity for

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella and Yersinia in free-living pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Vela, Ana I; Lobato, Elisa; Briones, Victor; Moreno, Juan

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella and Yersinia are important enteropathogens in poultry and can affect birds of all ages, including embryos. These food-borne zoonotic enteropathogens are of great economic and medical concern worldwide and are intensely studied in poultry. Information regarding the prevalence of these bacteria in wild birds is scarce and biased toward avian species ecologically linked to humans, which have often been incriminated as both reservoirs and disseminators of these enteropathogens. The prevalence of Salmonella and Yersinia recovered from both the feces and eggs in a population of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding in nest-boxes in central Spain was evaluated. Salmonella arizonae was recovered from the feces of one female but was not recovered from eggs. Yersinia was not detected in either the feces or eggs. These results may suggest that Salmonella and Yersinia may be uncommon in this population studied and may indicate that these birds are unlikely reservoirs of Salmonella and Yersinia.

  20. Variete Technique du Lambeau Sural dans les Brulures Profondes du Pied

    PubMed Central

    Ezzoubi, M.; Ettalbi, S.; Elmounjid, S.; Fassi, J.; Benchamckha, F.J.; Sakhi, M.; Boukind, E.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Les couvertures des pertes de substance de la jambe, du talon et du pied font souvent appel au lambeau sural, qui reste, de part ses dimensions, une indication limitée. Les Auteurs présentent, à travers deux cas cliniques, une variété technique pour la levée du lambeau sural, permettant d'obtenir des palettes cutanées de grande surface avec une bonne sécurité vasculaire. C'est un lambeau fasciocutané remontant jusqu'à un centimètre du creux poplité et incluant, lors de la levée, l'aponévrose, le nerf sural, la petite veine saphène et le nerf sural latéral. PMID:21990988

  1. Variable step size and order strategy for delay differential equations in PIE(CIE)s mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Nurul Huda Abdul; Majid, Zanariah Abdul

    2014-12-01

    This article deals with the strategy of variable step size and variable order implementation that has been formulated for solving first order of delay differential equations. This strategy is adapted in PIE(CIE)s mode which is generally based on predictor-corrector scheme in multistep block method of order 4 to 9 with s is for convergence test. The purpose here is to enhance the efficiency of the developed predictor-corrector algorithm in the capability to vary automatically not only for the step size, but the order of the method employed as well. All order and coefficients are stored in the code in order to avoid an expensive computational work. The delay argument would be evaluated using Newton divided-difference interpolation at which the points involved would be similar to the current order of the method. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented strategy and comparison is made with the existing results.

  2. Biomechanical validation of medial pie-crusting for soft-tissue balancing in knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mihalko, William M; Woodard, Erik L; Hebert, Casey T; Crockarell, John R; Williams, John L

    2015-02-01

    Balancing a varus knee is traditionally accomplished by releasing the medial soft-tissue sleeve off the tibia. Recently, "pie-crusting" (PC) medial structures has been described. In a biomechanical cadaver study we compared PC to traditional release (TR) to determine their effects on flexion and extension gaps. PC was done in five specimens along the anterior half of the medial soft-tissue sleeve and five along the posterior half, followed by a traditional release. In 90° flexion, valgus laxity after TR was significantly greater than after PC alone. PC of the anterior or posterior aspect of the medial soft-tissue sleeve can effect changes more in flexion than in extension, respectively. Complete TR did not provide more gap opening than PC in extension, but produced more effect in flexion.

  3. Statement-Pie: a strategy to improve the paragraph writing skills of adolescents with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wallace, G W; Bott, D A

    1989-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching a metacognitive text structure strategy upon the paragraph writing skills of eighth-grade students with learning disabilities. The technique, called Statement-Pie (Hanau, 1974), teaches students to understand the relationship of supporting details to a main idea. Four students were taught to use an outline as a paragraph planning guide, which they then used to convert information into written expository paragraphs. All subjects reached instructional outcome criterion on the writing of comparison/contrast and sequence paragraphs. One week after reaching mastery in the special education classroom, students generalized their paragraph writing skills to other teachers and to different classrooms. The results of this investigation indicate that when provided with direct, intensive instruction in a text structure strategy, adolescents with learning disabilities can improve their skills in paragraph writing.

  4. Tuberculose du médio-pied, une localisation inhabituelle: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Hachimi, Hicham; Tahiri, Latifa; Kadi, Nadira; Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid; Harzy, Taoufik

    2012-01-01

    La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire représente 2 à 5% de l’ensemble des tuberculoses, la localisation au médio-pieds est rare. Nous en rapportons le cas d’une patiente âgée de 18 ans, qui présente depuis 2 ans des douleurs du médio-pied droit inflammatoires avec tuméfactio, La radiographie a montré des géodes et des érosions des os naviculaire et cunéiformes. L’IRM a orienté vers le dignostic de tuberculose confirm par biospie et étude anathomopathologique. C’est pourquoi devant tout tableau clinique traînant ou devant toute lésion osseuse suspecte ou de présentation atypique le diagnostic de tuberculose doit être évoqué afin d’éviter un retard diagnostique. PMID:22593789

  5. Alternate non-stop migration strategies of pied flycatchers to cross the Sahara desert

    PubMed Central

    Both, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Each year more than two billion songbirds cross the Sahara, but how they perform this formidable task is largely unknown. Using geolocation tracks from 27 pied flycatchers, a nocturnally migrating passerine, we show that most birds made diurnal flights in both autumn and spring. These diurnal flights were estimated to be part of non-stop flights of mostly 40–60 h. In spring, birds flew across the Sahara, while autumn migration probably circumpassed part of the desert, through a long oversea flight. Our data contradict claims that passerines cross the Sahara by intermittent flight and daytime resting. The frequent occurrence of long non-stop flights to cross the desert shows migrants' physiological abilities and poses the question why this would not be the general migration strategy to cross the Sahara. PMID:27072404

  6. Neuroaxonal Dystrophy in a Flock of Pied Imperial Pigeons (Ducula bicolor).

    PubMed

    Barrows, M; Killick, R; Day, C; Saunders, R; Baiker, K; Ressel, L; Denk, D

    2017-05-01

    Five juvenile pied imperial pigeons (Ducula bicolor) presented with neurological signs including torticollis, ataxia and poor flying ability. All were humanely destroyed and submitted for post-mortem examination. Microscopically, the most significant findings were in the brain and spinal cord. Spheroid formation was evident within the medulla, pons, diencephalon, cortical grey and subcortical white matter, spinal cord white and grey matter and the granular and molecular cell layers of the cerebellum. There was no evidence of associated inflammation. Immunohistochemistry revealed positive labelling within the spheroids for S100 axons and phosphorylated neurofilaments including SMI31, neurofilament cocktail and microtubule-associated protein 2. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the light microscopical findings of frequent axonal spheroids. These results are consistent with neuroaxonal dystrophy, which has not been described previously in pigeons. This highlights the importance of considering neuroaxonal dystrophy in juvenile birds with neurological signs. A genetic basis is suspected in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social suppliers: Exploring the cultural contours of the performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) market among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Katinka; Mulrooney, Kyle J D

    2017-02-01

    This paper explores the understudied phenomenon of performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) markets by examining the structure and formation of the market for PIEDs among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium. This article specifically seeks to account for individual reasons and motivations for dealing PIEDs within these bodybuilding subcultures. Understanding illicit PIED markets is important for policy decisions as knowledge on the production and distribution of these substances may assist in designing law enforcement efforts, harm reduction initiatives and treatment options. This article draws on two years of fieldwork in various bodybuilding settings, 47 semi-structured interviews with individuals who are directly or indirectly involved in the PIED market and 64 PIED dealing cases initiated by criminal justice agencies in the Netherlands and Belgium. The data indicates that PIED dealing groups and individuals are often driven by motivations stemming from their social and cultural embeddedness in the bodybuilding subculture. Specifically, these PIED dealers are 'over-socialized' into the structure and culture of bodybuilding and follow the cultural scripts that come with their group affiliation and organization. As a result of the cultural context in which these transactions occur, PIED dealing networks among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium are more likely to consist of friends or 'friends of friends' tied together by threads of collective meaning found within the bodybuilding subculture. We argue that efforts seeking to explain the structure, formation and motivations of illicit PIED dealing must learn to appreciate how culture mediates structural forces and thereby influences individual and collective action. Policy makers, health care professionals and other relevant parties should consider a plurality of factors (social, economic and cultural) when designing and evaluating PIED-related interventions such as law enforcement efforts, harm

  8. In vivo amelioration of endogenous antitumor autoantibodies via low-dose P4N through the LTA4H/activin A/BAFF pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Hsieh, Cheng-Hao; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chang, Jung; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Jackson, Tiffany L B; Mold, David E; Huang, Ru Chih C

    2016-11-29

    Cancer progression is associated with the development of antitumor autoantibodies in patients' sera. Although passive treatment with antitumor antibodies has exhibited remarkable therapeutic efficacy, inhibitory effects on tumor progression by endogenous antitumor autoantibodies (EAAs) have been limited. In this study, we show that P4N, a derivative of the plant lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), enhanced the production of EAAs and inhibited tumor growth at low noncytotoxic concentrations via its immunoregulatory activity. Intratumoral injection of P4N improved the quantity and quality of EAAs, and passive transfer of P4N-induced EAAs dramatically suppressed lung metastasis formation and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with metastatic CT26 tumor cells. P4N-induced EAAs specifically recognized two surface antigens, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and F1F0 ATP synthase, on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. Additionally, P4N treatment led to B-cell proliferation, differentiation to plasma cells, and high titers of autoantibody production. By serial induction of autocrine and paracrine signals in monocytes, P4N increased B-cell proliferation and antibody production via the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)/activin A/B-cell activating factor (BAFF) pathway. This mechanism provides a useful platform for studying and seeking a novel immunomodulator that can be applied in targeting therapy by improving the quantity and quality of the EAAs.

  9. In vivo amelioration of endogenous antitumor autoantibodies via low-dose P4N through the LTA4H/activin A/BAFF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Hsieh, Cheng-Hao; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chang, Jung; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Jackson, Tiffany L. B.; Mold, David E.; Huang, Ru Chih C.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer progression is associated with the development of antitumor autoantibodies in patients’ sera. Although passive treatment with antitumor antibodies has exhibited remarkable therapeutic efficacy, inhibitory effects on tumor progression by endogenous antitumor autoantibodies (EAAs) have been limited. In this study, we show that P4N, a derivative of the plant lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), enhanced the production of EAAs and inhibited tumor growth at low noncytotoxic concentrations via its immunoregulatory activity. Intratumoral injection of P4N improved the quantity and quality of EAAs, and passive transfer of P4N-induced EAAs dramatically suppressed lung metastasis formation and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with metastatic CT26 tumor cells. P4N-induced EAAs specifically recognized two surface antigens, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and F1F0 ATP synthase, on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. Additionally, P4N treatment led to B-cell proliferation, differentiation to plasma cells, and high titers of autoantibody production. By serial induction of autocrine and paracrine signals in monocytes, P4N increased B-cell proliferation and antibody production via the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)/activin A/B-cell activating factor (BAFF) pathway. This mechanism provides a useful platform for studying and seeking a novel immunomodulator that can be applied in targeting therapy by improving the quantity and quality of the EAAs. PMID:27856749

  10. Reduction Osteotomy vs Pie-Crust Technique as Possible Alternatives for Medial Release in Total Knee Arthroplasty and Compared in a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Hyun; Yang, Tae Yeong; Lee, Jang Yun

    2016-07-01

    To compare the gap change between the pie-crust technique and reduction osteotomy to determine their effects on flexion and extension gaps and their success rates in achieving ligament balancing during total knee arthroplasty. In a prospective randomized controlled trial, 106 total knee arthroplasties were allocated to each group with 53 cases. If there was a narrow medial gap with an imbalance of ≥3 mm after the initial limited medial release, either reduction osteotomy or pie-crust technique was performed. The changes of extension and flexion medial gaps along with the success rate of mediolateral balancing were compared. There was a significant difference in the change of medial gap in knee extension with mean changes of 3.5 ± 0.5 mm and 2.3 ± 0.8 mm in the reduction osteotomy and pie-crust groups, respectively (P < .001). For flexion gap, greater change was found in the pie-crust group compared with the reduction osteotomy group; the mean medial gap changes in knee flexion were 1.1 ± 0.5 mm and 2.3 ± 1.2 mm in the reduction osteotomy and pie-crust groups, respectively. The success rates were 90.6% and 67.9% in reduction osteotomy and pie-crust groups, respectively (P = .007). As an alternative medial release method, reduction osteotomy was more effective in extension gap balancing, and pie-crust technique was more effective in flexion gap balancing. The overall success rate of mediolateral ligament balancing was higher in the reduction osteotomy group than in the pie-crust group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of large-scale computing infrastructure for diverse environmental research applications using GC3Pie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffioletti, Sergio; Dawes, Nicholas; Bavay, Mathias; Sarni, Sofiane; Lehning, Michael

    2013-04-01

    , execute location-based subroutines at each grid point and store the results back into the central repository for post-processing. An optional extension of this infrastructure will be to provide a 'ring buffer'-type database infrastructure, such that model results (e.g. test runs made to check parameter dependency or for development) can be visualised and downloaded after completion without submitting them to a permanent storage infrastructure. Data organization Data collected from sensors are archived and classified in distributed sites connected with an open-source software middleware, GSN. Publicly available data are available through common web services and via a cloud storage server (based on Swift). Collocation of the data and processing in the cloud would eventually eliminate data transfer requirements. Execution control logic Execution of the data analysis pipelines (for both the R-based analysis and the Alpine3D simulations) has been implemented using the GC3Pie framework developed by UZH. (https://code.google.com/p/gc3pie/). This allows large-scale, fault-tolerant execution of the pipelines to be described in terms of software appliances. GC3Pie also allows supervision of the execution of large campaigns of appliances as a single simulation. This poster will present the fundamental architectural components of the data analysis pipelines together with initial experimental results.

  12. The strategy for numerical solving of PIES without explicit calculation of singular integrals in 2D potential problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szerszeń, Krzysztof; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a strategy for numerical solving of parametric integral equation system (PIES) for 2D potential problems without explicit calculation of singular integrals. The values of these integrals will be expressed indirectly in terms of easy to compute non-singular integrals. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is investigated with the example of potential problem modeled by the Laplace equation. The strategy simplifies the structure of the program with good the accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  13. Hormonal and behavioral variation in pied tamarins housed in different management conditions.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D M; Santymire, R M

    2013-01-01

    Pied tamarins are an endangered Amazonian primate that has limited breeding success in zoos. Unfortunately, little is known about their reproductive biology and adrenocortical activity. Objectives were: (1) determine if fecal hormones could be utilized to monitor gonadal and adrenocortical activity; (2) characterize male and female gonadal and adrenocortical hormones; and (3) determine if there were differences between adrenocortical activity and behavior in a nonbreeding, on-exhibit (NB-ON) pair compared to a breeding, off-exhibit (B-OFF) pair. Fecal samples were collected from four (two males; two females) individuals. Hormones were analyzed for fecal progesterone (FPM), androgen (FAM), and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites by enzyme immunoassay. Behavioral observations were conducted for 6 months. Data were collected on instantaneous behavior, location, and all occurrences of intraspecific behaviors. Fecal progesterone metabolites were validated by pregnancy (mean ± SE, pregnant: 28.47 ± 1.60 μg/g; nonpregnant: 8.63 ± 0.89 μg/g). Fecal androgen metabolites were higher (T = 31,971, P < 0.05) in the B-OFF male (863.66 ± 46.30 μg/g) than the NB-ON male (838.63 ± 60.70 μg/g). Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were validated by response to veterinary procedure with elevated values (7.31 ± 1.48 μg/g) seven times the baseline (0.37 ± 0.04 μg/g) at 24-hr postphysical. Females had higher baseline FGM than the males (P < 0.05). Baseline FGM were higher (P < 0.05) in the NB-ON female (0.93 ± 0.03 μg/g) compared to the B-OFF female (0.38 ± 0.02 μg/g). Similarly, the NB-ON male's FGM baseline (0.71 ± 0.03 μg/g) were higher (P < 0.05) than the B-OFF male (0.21 ± 0.01 μg/g). Behavioral data revealed stereotypical behaviors in the NB-ON pair but no stereotypical behaviors in the B-OFF pair. Fecal hormone monitoring and behavioral analysis may provide insight on the limited breeding success of pied tamarins in zoos. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Development and psychometric characteristics of the pediatric inpatient experience survey (PIES).

    PubMed

    Ziniel, Sonja I; Connor, Jean A; Graham, Dionne; Kupiec, Jennifer Koch; Rauscher, Nina A; Growdon, Amanda S; Berger, Anne; Jenkins, Kathy J; Harris, Sion Kim

    2016-04-01

    To study the psychometric properties of the Pediatric Inpatient Experience Survey (PIES), a mail and phone survey for parent reporting of family-centered aspects of inpatient care experiences. Two waves of cross-sectional survey data were collected by mail and phone in 2009 to design a measurement instrument with good psychometric characteristics. Additional cross-sectional data from a mail administration in 2011 confirmed the measurement domains. Free-standing pediatric hospital in the northeastern USA. A convenience sample of English-speaking parents of hospitalized children, stratified by patient type (medical versus surgical) and previous stays at this hospital (yes versus no), constituted the instrument design phase. Four hundred and seventy-nine (63%) of those approached agreed to participate and were randomly assigned to mail or phone survey administration. Four hundred and one of these respondents completed the first wave of the survey and 354 respondents completed the second wave. A shortened instrument was mailed to parents randomly selected from patient discharge records. Data from 929 parents (response rate: 36.2%) were used for confirmatory analysis of the created measurement domains. The main outcome measures of this psychometric validation study were individual item performance, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. The resulting survey includes 61 items with 35 rating items with satisfactory test-retest reliability loading on eight domains. The factor structure was supported by Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis. The survey supported construct validity in distinguishing between medical versus surgical and first time versus previous hospital stay groups known to differ with regard to satisfaction. Comparing mail and phone administrations, differences in scores were exacerbated in domain scores and showed the need for mode adjustment. PIES shows satisfactory test-retest reliability, internal consistency

  15. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    PubMed

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  16. Miniature Gas Chromatograph (GC): Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES) Instrument for the Trace Analyses of Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    In situ exploration of the solar system to identify its early chemistry as preserved in icy bodies and to look for compelling evidence of astrobiology will require new technology for chemical analysis. Chemical measurements in space flight environments highlight the need for a high level of positive identification of chemical compounds, since re-measurement by alternative techniques for confirmation will not be feasible. It also may not be possible to anticipate all chemical species that are observed, and important species may be present only at trace levels where they can be masked by complex chemical backgrounds. Up to now, the only techniques providing independent sample identification of GC separated components across a wide range of chemical species have been Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS). We describe here the development of a versatile and robust miniature GC detector based on Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES), for use with miniature GC systems being developed for planetary missions. PIES identifies the sample molecule through spectra related to its ionization potential. The combination of miniature GC technology with the primary identification capabilities of PIES provides an analytical approach ideal for planetary analyses.

  17. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions.

    PubMed

    Berglund, A M M; Nyholm, N E I

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition.

  18. Syndrome de larva migrans cutanée sur pied malformé (à propos d'un cas)

    PubMed Central

    Benbella, Imane; Khalki, Hanane; Lahmadi, Khalid; Kouara, Sara; Abbadi, Abderrahim; Er-rami, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome de larva migrans cutanée est une dermite sous cutanée causée par des larves d'ankylostomes d'animaux en impasse parasitaire chez l'homme. L'infestation transcutanée est favorisée par le contact avec le sol contaminé par les larves du parasite. Nous rapportons le cas d'un nourrisson de 15 mois, originaire de Guinée-Bissau, atteint d'un syndrome de larva migrans cutanée sur un pied malformé. Cette malformation sous forme d'une syndactylie associée à une tuméfaction du pied, était à l'origine d'un retard d'acquisition de la station debout. De même, on a rapporté une notion de pieds nus, vue la difficulté de chausser le pied malformé du patient. Tous ces facteurs auraient contribués à favoriser l'infestation du malade par les larves du nématode. PMID:27217876

  19. Optical properties of the hydrated charged silver tetramer and silver hexamer encapsulated inside the sodalite cavity of an LTA-type zeolite.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Nguyen, Hue Minh Thi; Pham-Ho, My Phuong; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2016-07-21

    The optical spectra in the UV-VIS region of the hydrated doubly charged tetramer Ag4(2+) and hydrated multiply charged hexamer Ag6(p+) silver clusters encapsulated inside the sodalite cavity of an LTA-type zeolite have been systematically predicted using DFT, TD-DFT and CASSCF/CASPT2 methods. The optical behaviour of the model hydrated clusters [Ag6(H2O)8(Si24H24O36)](p+) is very sensitive to their charge. Among the cations [Ag6(H2O)8(Si24H24O36)](p+), only the embedded hydrated quadruply charged silver hexamer [Ag6(H2O)8(Si24H24O36)](4+) shows a strong absorption band at ∼420 nm (blue light) and emits light in red color. The absorption spectrum of the hydrated doubly charged silver tetramer cluster [Ag4(H2O)m(Si24H24O36)](2+), which shifts slightly and steadily with the increasing amount of interacting water molecules to longer wavelengths, has a strong peak in the blue region. The water environment forces the silver tetramer to relocate into one side of the cavity instead of at its center as in the case of the non-hydrated [Ag4(Si24H24O36)](2+) cluster. Water molecules act as ligands significantly splitting the energy levels of excited states of the Ag4(2+) and Ag6(4+) clusters. This causes the absorption spectra of the clusters to broaden and the emission to shift to the green-yellow and red part of the visible region.

  20. The why of practice: utilizing PIE to analyze social work practice in Australian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, David; Joubert, Lynette; Holland, Lucy; Posenelli, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This research used a collaborative approach to gain a comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the breadth and depth of the social work role in health care. Data was collected from individual interviews with all employed hospital social workers (N = 120) across five Melbourne, Australia health networks about their most recently completed case. This data was coded using a revised version of the Karls and Wandrei (1994) Person-in-Environment (PIE) tool to retrospectively analyze the reasons for social work involvement over the course of the case. The findings demonstrate that the hospital social work role is multidimensional across a number of domains but centers predominantly on assisting clients and their significant others with issues of altered social roles and functioning; particularly in relation to role responsibility, dependency, and managing associated role-change losses. The findings of this study will assist hospital social workers, managers, and academics to better describe and effectively undertake this complex work. These findings will also assist in the development of professional training and education to up-skill social workers who operate within this complex setting.

  1. Temporal regularity increases with repertoire complexity in the Australian pied butcherbird's song

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Hollis; Scharff, Constance; Rothenberg, David; Parra, Lucas C.; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the complexity of song repertoire and the temporal regularity of singing performance. We found that different phrase types often share motifs (notes or stereotyped groups of notes). These shared motifs reappeared in strikingly regular temporal intervals across different phrase types, over hundreds of phrases produced without interruption by each bird. We developed a statistical estimate to quantify the degree to which phrase transition structure is optimized for maximizing the regularity of shared motifs. We found that transition probabilities between phrase types tend to maximize regularity in the repetition of shared motifs, but only in birds of high repertoire complexity. Conversely, in birds of low repertoire complexity, shared motifs were produced with less regularity. The strong correlation between repertoire complexity and motif regularity suggests that birds possess a mechanism that regulates the temporal placement of shared motifs in a manner that takes repertoire complexity into account. We discuss alternative musical, mechanistic and ecological explanations to this effect. PMID:27703699

  2. In-Situ Detection of Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris: The Pie Experiment On MIR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, J. C.; Maag, C. R.; Durin, C.

    During the last few years, investigation of impact features found on material retrieved after exposure to space for a long period of time, in low earth orbits, has provided us with a great deal of data on the particulate environment, either natural or man-made. The PIE detection device presented here has been deployed outside the Kvant-2 module attached to the Russian MIR station, between June 1996 and April 1997. Part of the experiment uses a detection technique similar to the one used in previous experiments flown on LDEF and MIR. Passive sensors are composed primarly of stacked thin metal foils (gold and aluminium). According to the size of the particles, they are either decelerated or fragmented upon high velocity impact. The size of holes or impact craters give information on the size or shape of the impacting particles. Samples have been retrieved for laboratory analysis. Comparison with data from LDEF, EuReCa, HST and previous experiments on MIR provides insight in the long term evolution of small particle population and in the debris environment of a permanently manned station. Some of the samples show evidence of secondary impact cratering: an attempt is made to locate the origin of the primary impact site. Some results about the possible origin of the impactors are provided by the chemical identification of particle remnants inside the craters

  3. Placental immune editing switch (PIES): learning about immunomodulatory pathways from a unique case report.

    PubMed

    Bronchud, Miguel H; Tresserra, Francesc; Xu, Wenjie; Warren, Sarah; Cusido, Maite; Zantop, Bernat; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Cesano, Alessandra

    2016-12-13

    The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural "placental immune-editing switch" mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue. Our analysis was carried out in primary breast cancer with metastatic homolateral axillary lymph nodes as well as placenta tissue (both uterine decidual tissue and term placenta tissue) from a pregnant woman. Gene expression profiling of paired non-self and self tissues (i.e. placenta/uterus; breast cancer/normal breast tissue; metastatic lymphnode/normal lymphnode tissue) was performed using the PanCancer Immune gene panel, a 770 Nanostring gene expression panel. Our findings reveal overlapping in specific immune gene expression in placenta and cancer tissue, suggesting that these genes might play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance both physiologically (in the placenta) and pathologically (in the cancer setting).

  4. Female pied flycatchers trade between male quality and mating status in mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Slagsvold, T.; Drevon, T.

    1999-01-01

    According to mate choice theory, females should consider both male quality and mating status when choosing a mate. In birds, strong experimental evidence indicates that females prefer males with elaborate traits. No comparable evidence exists to determine whether females take male mating status into account or how they may trade between male quality and male mating status. We studied mate choice of female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in outdoor aviaries where the effect of territory quality could be eliminated and where we could control which males were mated and which were unmated. We used male plumage colour as our measure of male quality. In the aviaries, focal females could easily compare males and assess their plumage colour and mating status, and resident females were prevented from attacking prospecting females because of separation in different compartments. The study provided evidence for a trade-off in mate choice. Females may compromise by choosing an already mated male if he is more brightly coloured and, presumably, of higher quality than available unmated males. The study did not support the idea that polygyny is based on male deception of females, but the results were consistent with the female aggression hypothesis.

  5. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a ‘pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers ‘filling' and amino-functionalized graphene ‘crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm−2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g−1 (4.7 mAh cm−2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm−2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm−2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm−2. PMID:26608228

  6. [EEG in altricial pied flycatcher nestlings during the functional sates related with natural behavior cycle].

    PubMed

    Korneeva, E V; Aleksandrov, L I; Khramov, A E; Sitnikova, E Iu; Raevskiĭ, V V

    2014-01-01

    Electrical brain activity accompanying various forms of behavior was studied in 11-day-old pied flycatcher nestlings. Wavelet analysis of EEG, recorded from symmetrical areas of caudomedial nidopallium (higher avian auditory center) during rest, passive and active wakefulness and movements showed that the major rhythmical EEG component was confined to low-frequency range in all four states. The significant difference from other states was observed only during movements: spectral power in the range of 1-3 Hz decreased while that in the range of 5-20 Hz--increased. The range of 3-5 Hz revealed, in all functional states, the interhemispheric asymmetry of spectral power that could be due to asymmetrical embryonic development of avian visual projections. Active wakefulness and movements were characterized by high positive correlations between spectral power in right and left hemispheres. During rest this correlation was negative. The correlation values during passive wakefulness and rest were rather low that could indicate disintegration of neural connections.

  7. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a `pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers `filling' and amino-functionalized graphene `crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm-2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g-1 (4.7 mAh cm-2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm-2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm-2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm-2.

  8. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-11-26

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a 'pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers 'filling' and amino-functionalized graphene 'crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm(-2)) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g(-1) (4.7 mAh cm(-2)) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm(-2)) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm(-2) by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm(-2).

  9. Monitoring lipid anchor organization in cell membranes by PIE-FCCS.

    PubMed

    Triffo, Sara B; Huang, Hector H; Smith, Adam W; Chou, Eldon T; Groves, Jay T

    2012-07-04

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation.

  10. Placental immune editing switch (PIES): learning about immunomodulatory pathways from a unique case report

    PubMed Central

    Bronchud, Miguel H.; Tresserra, Francesc; Xu, Wenjie; Warren, Sarah; Cusido, Maite; Zantop, Bernat; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Cesano, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural “placental immune-editing switch” mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue. Our analysis was carried out in primary breast cancer with metastatic homolateral axillary lymph nodes as well as placenta tissue (both uterine decidual tissue and term placenta tissue) from a pregnant woman. Gene expression profiling of paired non-self and self tissues (i.e. placenta/uterus; breast cancer/normal breast tissue; metastatic lymphnode/normal lymphnode tissue) was performed using the PanCancer Immune gene panel, a 770 Nanostring gene expression panel. Our findings reveal overlapping in specific immune gene expression in placenta and cancer tissue, suggesting that these genes might play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance both physiologically (in the placenta) and pathologically (in the cancer setting). PMID:27852037

  11. MOX Average Power Test 30 GWd/MT PIE: Quick Look

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, RN

    2001-02-14

    This report summarizes the early results of the post irradiation examination of the 30 GWd/MT MOX Average Power Test Capsules (numbers 3 and 10). The purpose of this preliminary examination is to document and monitor the progress of the MOX Average Power Test Irradiation. The capsules and their fuel pins were found to be in excellent condition. Measurement of the fission gas release fraction (about 1.50 to 2.26%), preliminary fuel stack gamma scan measurements, and preliminary fuel pin diameter measurements indicate that the fuel is behaving as expected.

  12. Preparation, crystal structure, and thermal stability of the cadmium sulfide nanoclusters Cd6S44+ and Cd2Na2S4+in the sodalite cavities of zeolite A (LTA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok Han; Heo, Nam Ho; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Hong, Suk Bong; Seff, Karl

    2006-12-28

    The crystal structure and thermal stability of two cadmium sulfide nanoclusters prepared in zeolite A (LTA) have been studied by XPS, TGA, and single-crystal and powder XRD. The crystal structures of Cd2.4Na3.2(Cd6S4)0.4(Cd2Na2S)0.6(H2O)> or =5.8[Si12Al12O48]-LTA (a = 12.2919(7) A, crystal 1 (hydrated)) and /Cd4Na2(Cd2O)(Na2O)/[Si12Al12O48]-LTA (a = 12.2617(4) A, crystal 2 (dehydrated)) were determined by single-crystal methods in the cubic space group Pm3m at 294(1) K. Crystal 1 was prepared by ion exchange of Na12-LTA in an aqueous stream 0.05 M in Cd2+, followed by washing in a stream of water, followed by reaction in an aqueous stream 0.05 M in Na2S. Crystal 2 was made by dehydrating crystal 1 at 623 K and 1 x 10(-6) Torr for 3 days. In crystal 1, Cd6S4(4+) nanoclusters were found in and extending out of about 40% of the sodalite cavities. Central to each Cd6S4(4+) cluster is a Cd4S4 unit (interpenetrating Cd2+ and S2- tetrahedra with near Td symmetry, Cd-S = 2.997(24) A, Cd-S-Cd = 113.8(12) degrees, and S-Cd-S = 58.1(24) degrees). Each of the two remaining Cd2+ ions bonds radially through a 6-ring of the zeolite framework to a sulfide ion of this Cd4S4 unit (Cd-S = 2.90(8) A). In each of the remaining 60% of the sodalite cavities of crystal 1, a planar Cd2Na2S4+ cluster was found (Cd-S/Na-S = 2.35(5)/2.56(14) A and Cd-S-Cd/Na-S-Na = 122(5)/92(7) degrees). Cd6S4(4+) and Cd2Na2S4+ are stable within the zeolite up to about 700 K in air. Upon vacuum dehydration at 623 K, all sulfur was lost (crystal 2). Instead as anions, only two oxide ions remain per sodalite unit. One bridges between two Cd2+ ions (Cd2O2+, Cd-O = 2.28(3) A) and the other between two Na+ ions (Na2O, Na-O = 2.21(10) A).

  13. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection and TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL polymorphisms in Mexican population: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients have a greater response to viral infection than do others having a similar level of viral replication. Hypercytokinemia is the principal immunopathological mechanism that contributes to a severer clinical course in cases of influenza A/H1N1. The benefit produced, or damage caused, by these cytokines in severe disease is not known. The genes that code for these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between polymorphisms of TNF, LTA, IL1B, IL6, IL8, and CCL1 and the infection and severity of the illness caused by the pandemic A/H1N1 in Mexico in 2009. Methods Case–control study. The cases were patients confirmed with real time PCR with infection by the A/H1N1 pandemic virus. The controls were patients with infection like to influenza and non-familial healthy contacts of the patients with influenza. Medical history and outcome of the disease was registered. The DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms TNF rs361525, rs1800629, and rs1800750; LTA rs909253; IL1B rs16944; IL6 rs1818879; IL8 rs4073; and CCL1 rs2282691. Odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. The logistic regression model was adjusted by age and severity of the illness in cases. Results Infection with the pandemic A/H1N1 virus was associated with the following genotypes: TNF rs361525 AA, OR = 27.00; 95% CI = 3.07–1248.77); LTA rs909253 AG (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.82–10.32); TNF rs1800750 AA (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.48–12.64); additionally, LTA rs909253 AG showed a limited statistically significant association with mortality (p = 0.06, OR = 3.13). Carriers of the TNF rs1800629 GA genotype were associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.05); those of the TNF rs1800750 AA genotype, with high levels of creatine phosphokinase (p=0.05). The IL1B rs16944 AA genotype was associated

  14. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler.

    PubMed

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R; Townsend, Simon W

    2016-05-24

    Language's expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a "mobbing sequence," potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought.

  15. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler

    PubMed Central

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2016-01-01

    Language’s expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a “mobbing sequence,” potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  16. Captive breeding and reintroduction of the oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) in Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Kongprom, Urarikha; Manathamkamon, Darika; Wanpradab, Sunan; Sangarang, Satean

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two related issues of the captive breeding and reintroduction of the Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) in order to increase its population in the natural habitats. Oriental pied hornbills were bred in Khao Kheow Open Zoo. Three pairs were separated and kept in breeding cages. Females occupied artificial nests between February and April 2005-2007. Eggs were laid and incubated between February and March each year from 2005 to 2007. Nestlings hatched in late March and left the nest in late April 2005-2007. Each breeding pair was fed with approximately 400 g of food each day. All three pairs reproduced resulting in mature offspring of seven in 2005, six in 2006, and five in 2007. Four of sixteen 3-year-old birds were randomly selected and equipped with a GPS receiver on their backs. Activities of the birds attached and unattached with GPS were not significantly different. The first two birds (one female, one male with GPS) were reintroduced on August 5, 2006, and another nine birds (four birds with GPS) were reintroduced on December 26, 2006. The average home range of these reintroduced birds was 0.13 km(2) . Their foods consisted of wild plants and animals in the home range. The first reintroduced pair was able to breed naturally by laying and hatching eggs in an artificial nest. Two juveniles left the nest in April 2008. These results indicate that both captive breeding and reintroduction are potentially important ways to increase the population of the Oriental pied hornbill in natural habitats. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A bipartite U1 site represses U1A expression by synergizing with PIE to inhibit nuclear polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fei; Caratozzolo, Rose M; Goraczniak, Rafal; Ho, Eric S; Gunderson, Samuel I

    2007-12-01

    U1A protein negatively autoregulates itself by polyadenylation inhibition of its own pre-mRNA by binding as two molecules to a 3'UTR-located Polyadenylation Inhibitory Element (PIE). The (U1A)2-PIE complex specifically blocks U1A mRNA biosynthesis by inhibiting polyA tail addition, leading to lower mRNA levels. U1 snRNP bound to a 5'ss-like sequence, which we call a U1 site, in the 3'UTRs of certain papillomaviruses leads to inhibition of viral late gene expression via a similar mechanism. Although such U1 sites can also be artificially used to potently silence reporter and endogenous genes, no naturally occurring U1 sites have been found in eukaryotic genes. Here we identify a conserved U1 site in the human U1A gene that is, unexpectedly, within a bipartite element where the other part represses the U1 site via a base-pairing mechanism. The bipartite element inhibits U1A expression via a synergistic action with the nearby PIE. Unexpectedly, synergy is not based on stabilizing binding of the inhibitory factors to the 3'UTR, but rather is a property of the larger ternary complex. Inhibition targets the biosynthetic step of polyA tail addition rather than altering mRNA stability. This is the first example of a functional U1 site in a cellular gene and of a single gene containing two dissimilar elements that inhibit nuclear polyadenylation. Parallels with other examples where U1 snRNP inhibits expression are discussed. We expect that other cellular genes will harbor functional U1 sites.

  18. Open arthrolysis with pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon for treating post-traumatic contracture of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhan, Yu-lin; Yu, Shi-yang; Zheng, Xian-you; Liu, Shen; Fan, Cun-yi

    2016-05-01

    Extensive loss of elbow flexion compromises the performance of daily activities. We examined the clinical outcomes of patients with post-traumatic extension contracture of the elbow treated with open arthrolysis and pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 7 patients (5 men and 2 women; mean age, 35 years) who underwent open arthrolysis via a combined lateral and medial approach with pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon for the treatment of post-traumatic elbow stiffness. All the patients had heterotopic ossification that restricted elbow motion and underwent removal of the ossified tissue and capsular release. The triceps tendon was gradually stretched by making multiple stab incisions on the tendon by using a No. 11 surgical blade. The range of motion of the elbow was recorded both preoperatively and at the final postoperative follow-up. Elbow function was assessed with the Mayo Elbow Performance Score. The patients were followed up for a mean of 24 months. After treatment, significant improvement was noted in the total arc of motion (from 44° to 116°, P <.001), mean flexion (from 80° to 124°, P < .001), and mean extension (from 31° to 8°, P = .004). The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score improved significantly from 59 points preoperatively to 92 points at the final evaluation. No major postoperative complications developed in any of the patients. Our findings indicate that open arthrolysis with pie-crusting release of the triceps tendon is an effective and safe treatment approach for post-traumatic extension contracture of the elbow. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers

    PubMed Central

    Muijres, Florian T.; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a ‘feathered upstroke’ during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called ‘normal hovering’ as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body–tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as

  20. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers.

    PubMed

    Muijres, Florian T; Bowlin, Melissa S; Johansson, L Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-02-07

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a 'feathered upstroke' during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called 'normal hovering' as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body-tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive

  1. Effects of inbreeding on fighting ability measured in Aosta Chestnut and Aosta Black Pied cattle.

    PubMed

    Sartori, C; Mantovani, R

    2012-09-01

    Aosta Black Pied (ABP) and Aosta Chestnut (AC) are dual-purpose cattle indigenous to the western Alps and famous for their fighting ability in traditional Italian Batailles de Reines. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of inbreeding on breeding values for fighting ability achieved in participants. Inbreeding (F) and average relatedness (AR) were obtained from the entire pedigree information available (19,554 and 87,967 records for ABP and AC, respectively). Data (n = 23,998) relating to 8,259 cows competing in years 2001-2009 were analyzed to obtain heritability (h(2)) estimates and breeding values for the trait. A placement score was chosen as a phenotype for fighting ability and both a classical quantitative model (NORM) and its implementation, used to identify its indirect genetic effects (COMP), were analyzed using the expectation maximization-REML (EM-REML) method. The F and AR trends in animals born between 1990 and 2009 were generally low and were greater for ABP (+0.06%/yr) than for AC (+0.03%/yr) populations, which also presented a greater mean F (about 2.8% ± 1.7% vs. 0.8% ± 1.5% for ABP and AC, respectively) and mean AR among individuals (about 1.0% ± 0.8% vs. 0.4% ± 0.3% for ABP and AC, respectively). Heritability estimates from 0.083 ± 0.036 to 0.120 ± 0.037 were obtained using the NORM model, accounting for or not accounting for F, respectively. Similar results were obtained also for the COMP model, with h(2) estimates of 0.12 ± 0.037, whether or not F was taken into consideration. Linear regression analyses carried out on the 33 major lineages to which most of participants belonged (n = 6,087) revealed an overall negative trend of EBV compared with the increase of either F (b = -21.3, P < 0.01) or AR (b = -50.1, P < 0.01). However, a great variability in the relationship between EBV and F or AR was found by analyzing data within lineages. Despite the variability, an unfavorable effect of inbreeding was detected in the

  2. An innovative method to produce green table olives based on "pied de cuve" technology.

    PubMed

    Martorana, Alessandra; Alfonzo, Antonio; Settanni, Luca; Corona, Onofrio; La Croce, Francesco; Caruso, Tiziano; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Francesca, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    The technology of "pied de cuve" (PdC) is applied in food process only to produce wines with an enriched community of pro-technological yeasts. PdC promotes the growth of the desirable microbial strains in a small volume of grape must acting as a starter inoculums for higher volumes. The aim of the present work was to investigate the use of partially fermented brines, a technology known as PdC, developed with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of green fermented table olives during two consecutive campaigns. The experimental plan included two trials based on different PdCs: trial A, PdC obtained with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13; trial B, PdC obtained through a spontaneous fermentation. Two control additional trials without PdC were included for comparison: trial C, spontaneous fermentation; trial D, direct inoculation of L. pentosus OM13. The use of PdCs favoured the rapid increase of LAB concentrations in both trials A and B. These trials showed levels of LAB higher than trial C and almost superimposable to that of trial D. Trial B was characterized by a certain diversity of L. pentosus strains and some of them dominated the manufacturing process. These results indicated PdC as a valuable method to favour the growth of autochthonous L. pentosus strains. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) visibly discriminated olive processes fermented with the two experimental PdCs. Interestingly, on the basis of microbial and pH variables, both approaches showed that the olives produced with PdC technology are closely related to those of trial D, with the advantages of reducing the amount of starter to inoculate (trial A) and a higher LAB biodiversity (trial B). Volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and sensory analysis showed trials A and B different from the trials with no PdC added, in both years. Furthermore, the trial B showed the highest scores of green olive aroma and

  3. Microbial phenomics information extractor (MicroPIE): a natural language processing tool for the automated acquisition of prokaryotic phenotypic characters from text sources.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jin; Moore, Lisa R; Blank, Carrine E; Wu, Elvis Hsin-Hui; Ackerman, Marcia; Ranade, Sonali; Cui, Hong

    2016-12-13

    The large-scale analysis of phenomic data (i.e., full phenotypic traits of an organism, such as shape, metabolic substrates, and growth conditions) in microbial bioinformatics has been hampered by the lack of tools to rapidly and accurately extract phenotypic data from existing legacy text in the field of microbiology. To quickly obtain knowledge on the distribution and evolution of microbial traits, an information extraction system needed to be developed to extract phenotypic characters from large numbers of taxonomic descriptions so they can be used as input to existing phylogenetic analysis software packages. We report the development and evaluation of Microbial Phenomics Information Extractor (MicroPIE, version 0.1.0). MicroPIE is a natural language processing application that uses a robust supervised classification algorithm (Support Vector Machine) to identify characters from sentences in prokaryotic taxonomic descriptions, followed by a combination of algorithms applying linguistic rules with groups of known terms to extract characters as well as character states. The input to MicroPIE is a set of taxonomic descriptions (clean text). The output is a taxon-by-character matrix-with taxa in the rows and a set of 42 pre-defined characters (e.g., optimum growth temperature) in the columns. The performance of MicroPIE was evaluated against a gold standard matrix and another student-made matrix. Results show that, compared to the gold standard, MicroPIE extracted 21 characters (50%) with a Relaxed F1 score > 0.80 and 16 characters (38%) with Relaxed F1 scores ranging between 0.50 and 0.80. Inclusion of a character prediction component (SVM) improved the overall performance of MicroPIE, notably the precision. Evaluated against the same gold standard, MicroPIE performed significantly better than the undergraduate students. MicroPIE is a promising new tool for the rapid and efficient extraction of phenotypic character information from prokaryotic taxonomic

  4. Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, P K; Laaksonen, T; Artemyev, A V; Belskii, E; Berg, P R; Both, C; Buggiotti, L; Bureš, S; Burgess, M D; Bushuev, A V; Krams, I; Moreno, J; Mägi, M; Nord, A; Potti, J; Ravussin, P-A; Sirkiä, P M; Sætre, G-P; Winkel, W; Primmer, C R

    2012-04-01

    The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed 2 of 14 loci to show significantly elevated signals of divergence. The first of these, the follistatin gene, is expressed in the developing feather bud and is found in pathways with genes that determine the structure of feathers and may thus be important in generating variation in structural colouration. The second is a gene potentially underlying the ability to detect this variation: SWS1 opsin. These two loci were most differentiated in two Spanish pied flycatcher populations, which are also among the populations that have the highest UV reflectance. The follistatin and SWS1 opsin genes thus provide strong candidates for future investigations on the molecular basis of adaptively significant traits and their co-evolution.

  5. Differentiation in neutral genes and a candidate gene in the pied flycatcher: using biological archives to track global climate change.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Kerstin; Schwenk, Klaus; Both, Christiaan; Canal, David; Johansson, Ulf S; van der Mije, Steven; Töpfer, Till; Päckert, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Global climate change is one of the major driving forces for adaptive shifts in migration and breeding phenology and possibly impacts demographic changes if a species fails to adapt sufficiently. In Western Europe, pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) have insufficiently adapted their breeding phenology to the ongoing advance of food peaks within their breeding area and consequently suffered local population declines. We address the question whether this population decline led to a loss of genetic variation, using two neutral marker sets (mitochondrial control region and microsatellites), and one potentially selectively non-neutral marker (avian Clock gene). We report temporal changes in genetic diversity in extant populations and biological archives over more than a century, using samples from sites differing in the extent of climate change. Comparing genetic differentiation over this period revealed that only the recent Dutch population, which underwent population declines, showed slightly lower genetic variation than the historic Dutch population. As that loss of variation was only moderate and not observed in all markers, current gene flow across Western and Central European populations might have compensated local loss of variation over the last decades. A comparison of genetic differentiation in neutral loci versus the Clock gene locus provided evidence for stabilizing selection. Furthermore, in all genetic markers, we found a greater genetic differentiation in space than in time. This pattern suggests that local adaptation or historic processes might have a stronger effect on the population structure and genetic variation in the pied flycatcher than recent global climate changes.

  6. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, P K; Laaksonen, T; Artemyev, A V; Belskii, E; Berg, P R; Both, C; Buggiotti, L; Bureš, S; Burgess, M D; Bushuev, A V; Krams, I; Moreno, J; Mägi, M; Nord, A; Potti, J; Ravussin, P-A; Sirkiä, P M; Sætre, G-P; Winkel, W; Primmer, C R

    2012-01-01

    The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed 2 of 14 loci to show significantly elevated signals of divergence. The first of these, the follistatin gene, is expressed in the developing feather bud and is found in pathways with genes that determine the structure of feathers and may thus be important in generating variation in structural colouration. The second is a gene potentially underlying the ability to detect this variation: SWS1 opsin. These two loci were most differentiated in two Spanish pied flycatcher populations, which are also among the populations that have the highest UV reflectance. The follistatin and SWS1 opsin genes thus provide strong candidates for future investigations on the molecular basis of adaptively significant traits and their co-evolution. PMID:22027894

  8. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Genetic Diversity of the Critically Endangered Primate, the Pied Tamarin (Saguinus bicolor): Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Farias, Izeni P; Santos, Wancley G; Gordo, Marcelo; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed DNA at 9 microsatellite loci from hair samples of 73 pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) located in 3 urban forest fragments and a biological reserve in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The forest fragments had become isolated from the continuous forest 6-15 years prior to the time of sampling. Tests for reduction in population size showed that all groups from the urban forest fragments had undergone genetic bottlenecks. Pied tamarins in this region historically formed one biological population, and the fragments were connected by high levels of gene flow. These results indicate the need to implement a conservation plan that allows for connectivity between the urban fragments, as well as protection from further constriction. Such connectivity could be achieved via the creation and protection of corridors. In addition to the current population trends explained by anthropogenic actions, the species also shows a trend of long-term demographic decline that has resulted in approximately an order of magnitude decrease and began 13 thousand years ago. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Motherhood and apple pie: the effectiveness of medical care for children.

    PubMed

    Starfield, B

    1985-01-01

    The impact upon health of changes in public policy regarding health services has not been systematically assessed. The long-term, and largely irreversible, effects of reduced support for health services to children present special challenges to collaborative research between clinical and public health approaches. Preliminary evidence from such a collaborative study of a variety of illnesses and interventions is persuasive of real benefit from prompt access to medical care.

  10. An Alpine-style Ordovician collision complex in the Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina: Record of subduction of Cuyania beneath the Famatina arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Staal, C. R.; Vujovich, G. I.; Currie, K. L.; Naipauer, M.

    2011-03-01

    The Caucete Group and structurally overlying Pie de Palo Complex in western Argentina are characterised by two generations of west-verging folds and thrust-related shear zones, which formed under amphibolite facies conditions. The Caucete Group is separated from the Pie de Palo Complex by the Pirquitas thrust. These structures are interpreted to have formed as a result of a progressive deformation, generated during Middle Ordovician, underthrusting of the Laurentian-derived Cuyania microcontinent beneath the active Famatina margin. Geometrical relationships are most simply explained if the Pie de Palo Complex was basement to the Caucete Group prior to Ordovician orogenesis. We propose that this basement-cover relationship was established during Cambrian rifting of the Cuyania microcontinent from Laurentia. The Pirquitas fault may have been initiated during this extension prior to its long-lived remobilization as a thrust. We cannot rule out the possibility that the Pie de Palo Complex was exotic with respect to the Caucete Group, but for this to be possible we have to introduce an extra generation of structures, for which no evidence is preserved. The deformation was characterised by early strain localization followed by a more homogeneously distributed non-coaxial flow during F 2. Thermal softening probably dominated over fabric softening during this stage.

  11. 49 CFR 40.371 - On what information does an initiating official rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On what information does an initiating official rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding? 40.371 Section 40.371 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.371 On...

  12. Daily behaviour can differ between colour morphs of the same species: a study on circadian activity behaviour of grey and pied zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ila; Trivedi, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod

    2014-05-01

    To investigate if the plumage colour mutation relates to circadian activity behaviour in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, wild type grey and pied mutant males were sequentially subjected for three weeks each to 12 h light:12 h darkness (12L:12D) and constant dim light (LL(dim)) condition. During the first 3 h of the 12 h day, pied finches were significantly greater active than grey finches. Also, as compared to grey, pied finches had longer activity duration in the day, with early activity onsets and late activity offsets. This was changed under free-running condition (LL(dim)), when the activity later in the subjective day (clock hour 9 and 11) was significantly greater in grey than in pied finches.Two colour morphs differed in daily activity profile, but not in the total daily activity or circadian rhythm period. Results suggest that greyzebra finches represent late chronotype, and could perhaps be better adapted to a seemingly stressful environment, such as low intensity LL(dim) in the present study.

  13. Overflow transports in Denmark Strait and the Faroe Bank Channel derived from combined moored ADCP and PIES measurements during 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Denmark Strait (DS) and Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) are the major pathways of dense water leaving the Arctic Mediterranean. The water formed in the Nordic Seas crosses the sills of this passages and descends into the deep North Atlantic Ocean where it becomes part of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Estimates of strength and variability of these overflows are useful to observe temporal changes and understand mechanisms that may affect the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The velocities in the overflows have been measured with Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) for almost two decades. For transport estimates the thickness of the overflow plume is typically derived from the depth of maximum velocity shear. During 2011 and 2014 Pressure Inverted Echo Sounders (PIES) were added to the mooring sites. The thickness of the plume of overflow water that is usually characterized to be denser than σΦ=27.8 kgm-3 can be estimated from hydrographic profiles that were obtained from travel time measurements of the PIES. The volume transports in DS, calculated from ADCPs only and in combination with the plume thickness derived from PIES measurements, are compared. The mean difference between both is about 3% of the total transport of 3 Sv. Nevertheless, daily estimates can differ within the same magnitude, whereas the difference of monthly estimates reduces to about 0.3 Sv. The heat transport of the overflow relative to 0° C calculated from combined PIES and ADCP measurements across the DS varies within the order of 10 TW. Estimates of transports from hydraulic control theory were derived from PIES data upstream of the sills in DS and FBC and compared to transport observations at the sills. Additionally, the variability within the vertical structure of the water column in DS and FBC are analysed.

  14. Fifteen-year population attributable fractions and causal pies of risk factors for newly developed hepatocellular carcinomas in 11,801 men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shu-Fen; Yang, Hwai-I; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Jen; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factorial process. Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important risk factors of HCC. Host factors, such as alcohol drinking, may also play a role. This study aims to provide a synthesis view on the development of HCC by examining multiple risk factors jointly and collectively. Causal-pie modeling technique was applied to analyze a cohort of 11,801 male residents (followed up for 15 years) in Taiwan, during which a total of 298 incident HCC cases were ascertained. The rate ratios adjusted by age were further modeled by an additive Poisson regression. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) and causal-pie weights (CPWs) were calculated. A PAF indicates the magnitude of case-load reduction under a particular intervention scenario, whereas a CPW for a particular class of causal pies represents the proportion of HCC cases attributable to that class. Using PAF we observed a chance to reduce around 60% HCC risk moving from no HBV-related intervention to the total elimination of the virus. An additional ∼15% (or ∼5%) reduction can be expected, if the HBV-related intervention is coupled with an HCV-related intervention (or an anti-drinking campaign). Eight classes of causal pies were found to be significant, including four dose-response classes of HBV (total CPW=52.7%), one independent-effect class of HCV (CPW=14.4%), one HBV-alcohol interaction class (CPW=4.2%), one HBV-HCV interaction class (CPW=1.7%), and one all-unknown class (CPW=27.0%). Causal-pie modeling for HCC helps clarify the relative importance of each viral and host factor, as well as their interactions.

  15. A novel putative lipoprotein receptor (CasLpR) in the hemocytes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: cloning and up-regulated expression after the injection of LPS and LTA.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Chung, J Sook

    2012-03-01

    The full-length cDNA encoding a putative lipoprotein receptor (CasLpR) was isolated from the hemocytes of Callinectes sapidus using 5' and 3' RACEs. The open reading frame for CasLpR contains a precursor of putative CasLpR consisting of 1710 amino acid residues including 22 amino acid residues of the signal peptide (22 amino acids). Mature CasLpR (1688 amino acids with 5.6% of phosphorylation sites) has multiple, putative functional domains: five low-density lipoprotein receptor domains in the N-terminus, and a G-protein-coupled receptor proteolysis site domain and a 7 transmembrane receptor (secretin family) domain in the C-terminus. To date, there are no proteins with a similar domain structure in the GenBank. The expression pattern of CasLpR was exclusive in hemocytes among all tested tissues obtained from a juvenile female at intermolt stage: brain, eyestalk ganglia, pericardial organs, and thoracic ganglia complex (nervous system); hepatopancreas (digestive system); heart, artery and hemocytes (circulatory system); gill and antennal gland (excretory system), hypodermis; and Y-organ (endocrine organ). There was no CasLpR expression in the ovary of an adult female. A putative function of CasLpR was examined after challenges of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in vivo using qRT-PCR assays. Animals at 24 h after injection of LPS or LTA up-regulated the expression of CasLpR in hemocytes by ∼3.5 and 1.4 folds, respectively, compared to the controls that received saline injection. LPS challenge also caused the greatest increment (∼55 folds) of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression in these samples. These data indicate that putative CasLpR and CasHsp90 may be involved in the defense system or the stress response of C. sapidus.

  16. Bayesian Treaty Monitoring: Preliminary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    September 2011, Tucson , AZ. Volume I. Sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA...STA/LTA). Independent algorithms then attempt to associate detections to seismic events. To avoid creating a flood of spurious events, a very high...velocity structure (e.g., Thurber, 1983 ; Zhang & Thurber, 2003), and by difference-based methods such as double-differencing (Waldhauser and Ellsworth

  17. First results of the 74-MHz Very Large Array-Pie Town link. Hercules A at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizani, Nectaria A. B.; Cohen, A.; Kassim, N. E.

    2005-04-01

    We present the results of the first successful observations of the Pie Town link with the Very Large Array at 74 MHz on Hercules A. The improvement in resolution from 25 to 10 arcsec resolves the helical- and ring-like features seen at higher frequencies. We also present new high dynamic range images of this powerful radio galaxy at 325 MHz. Our low-frequency observations confirm the multiple outburst interpretation of the spectral index differences at high frequencies. A comparison between our radio and ROSAT X-ray data does not reveal any association between the X-ray emission from the cluster and the radio lobes. There are no extra regions of radio emission at 74 MHz.

  18. A new classification of the Pied Woodpeckers assemblage (Dendropicini, Picidae) based on a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    The pied woodpecker assemblage historically included the widespread genera Picoides and Dendrocopos. The assignment of species to either of these two genera has for long puzzled systematists due to their overall plumage similarity. Recent molecular studies not only suggested that both of these genera are not monophyletic, but also that four other genera, the African Dendropicos the South American Veniliornis and two Asian monospecific genera (Hypopicus and Sapheopipo) are nested within the Dendrocopos-Picoides clade. Yet, our current understanding of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group is still very partial because several distinctive Old World species that have been assigned to different genera throughout their taxonomic history have not been sampled yet. Here, using DNA sequence data gathered from four loci, we reconstructed a species level phylogeny of the Indo-Malayan and Palearctic Pied Woodpeckers to understand the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of the Eurasian species with respect to African and New World lineages. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed nine strongly supported clades within the Dendropicini. Noticeably, two species that had disputed affinities at the genus level clustered in clades with species from the same biogeographical region: the Brown-backed Woodpecker (D. obsoletus) is nested in Dendropicos and the Arabian Woodpecker (D. dorae) is related to two Eurasian species, the Brown-fronted (D. auriceps) and Middle-spotted woodpeckers (D. medius). The nine clades have a strong biogeographic component and very few dispersal event among bioregions occurred. For example, the African species formed a clade, suggesting that only one dispersal event is needed to explain the presence of Dendropicini in Africa. Based on our phylogenetic results, we propose a new classification of the Dendropicini that recognizes nine genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Demographic Divergence History of Pied Flycatcher and Collared Flycatcher Inferred from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Burri, Reto; Olason, Pall I.; Kawakami, Takeshi; Smeds, Linnéa; Ellegren, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Profound knowledge of demographic history is a prerequisite for the understanding and inference of processes involved in the evolution of population differentiation and speciation. Together with new coalescent-based methods, the recent availability of genome-wide data enables investigation of differentiation and divergence processes at unprecedented depth. We combined two powerful approaches, full Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis (ABC) and pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent modeling (PSMC), to reconstruct the demographic history of the split between two avian speciation model species, the pied flycatcher and collared flycatcher. Using whole-genome re-sequencing data from 20 individuals, we investigated 15 demographic models including different levels and patterns of gene flow, and changes in effective population size over time. ABC provided high support for recent (mode 0.3 my, range <0.7 my) species divergence, declines in effective population size of both species since their initial divergence, and unidirectional recent gene flow from pied flycatcher into collared flycatcher. The estimated divergence time and population size changes, supported by PSMC results, suggest that the ancestral species persisted through one of the glacial periods of middle Pleistocene and then split into two large populations that first increased in size before going through severe bottlenecks and expanding into their current ranges. Secondary contact appears to have been established after the last glacial maximum. The severity of the bottlenecks at the last glacial maximum is indicated by the discrepancy between current effective population sizes (20,000–80,000) and census sizes (5–50 million birds) of the two species. The recent divergence time challenges the supposition that avian speciation is a relatively slow process with extended times for intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers to evolve. Our study emphasizes the importance of using genome-wide data to

  20. [Nourseothricin (streptothricin) inactivated by plasmid pIE 636-encoded acetyltransferase: detection of N-acetyl-beta-lysine in the inactivated product].

    PubMed

    Seltmann, G

    1985-12-01

    Nourseothricin (streptothricin) can be inactivated by an acetyl transferase synthesized by E. coli strains containing plasmid pIE 636. Nourseothricin inactivated in the presence of 14C-acetyl-coenzyme A was purified and submitted to partial acidic hydrolysis. By electrophoresis of the hydrolysate a 14C-containing substance moving only slowly towards the cathode could be isolated. This substance after complete hydrolysis yields only unlabelled beta-lysine.

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  2. A new dual-frequency liquid crystal lens with ring-and-pie electrodes and a driving scheme to prevent disclination lines and improve recovery time.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung-Yuan; Chao, Paul C-P

    2011-01-01

    A new liquid crystal lens design is proposed to improve the recovery time with a ring-and-pie electrode pattern through a suitable driving scheme and using dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) MLC-2048. Compared with the conventional single hole-type liquid crystal lens, this new structure of the DFLC lens is composed of only two ITO glasses, one of which is designed with the ring-and-pie pattern. For this device, one can control the orientation of liquid crystal directors via a three-stage switching procedure on the particularly-designed ring-and-pie electrode pattern. This aims to eliminate the disclination lines, and using different drive frequencies to reduce the recovery time to be less than 5 seconds. The proposed DFLC lens is shown effective in reducing recovery time, and then serves well as a potential device in places of the conventional lenses with fixed focus lengths and the conventional LC lens with a single circular-hole electrode pattern.

  3. A New Dual-Frequency Liquid Crystal Lens with Ring-and-Pie Electrodes and a Driving Scheme to Prevent Disclination Lines and Improve Recovery Time

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Yung-Yuan; Chao, Paul C.-P.

    2011-01-01

    A new liquid crystal lens design is proposed to improve the recovery time with a ring-and-pie electrode pattern through a suitable driving scheme and using dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) MLC-2048. Compared with the conventional single hole-type liquid crystal lens, this new structure of the DFLC lens is composed of only two ITO glasses, one of which is designed with the ring-and-pie pattern. For this device, one can control the orientation of liquid crystal directors via a three-stage switching procedure on the particularly-designed ring-and-pie electrode pattern. This aims to eliminate the disclination lines, and using different drive frequencies to reduce the recovery time to be less than 5 seconds. The proposed DFLC lens is shown effective in reducing recovery time, and then serves well as a potential device in places of the conventional lenses with fixed focus lengths and the conventional LC lens with a single circular-hole electrode pattern. PMID:22163906

  4. Pre-laying nutrition mediates maternal effects on offspring immune capacity and growth in the pied flycatcher.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan; Lobato, Elisa; Morales, Judith; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-De La Puente, Josué; Tomás, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    We have aimed at detecting prelaying maternal effects on nestling antibody defences and growth through experimental food supplementation of female pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca and subsequent exchange of whole clutches with control nests. The levels of immunoglobulins and the mass and size of chicks at 12 days of age were ascertained. This is the first study controlling for maternal incubation effects by exchanging eggs rather than nestlings. Our prediction is that the females' availability of pre-laying nutritional resources affects offspring immune capacity and growth through maternal effects in the eggs when conditions during incubation and rearing are controlled for. Nestling immunoglobulin Y (IgY) levels and tarsus length were indeed positively associated with maternal food supplementation at laying. The only rearing environmental effect detected was that of mite infestation which affected both IgY levels and growth of nestlings. Nestlings that recruited to the population in the subsequent 2 years had higher IgY levels than those that did not. Maternal adaptations for allocating resources to eggs play an important role in moulding offspring phenotypes and may affect their survival prospects.

  5. Foveolar Müller cells of the Pied Flycatcher: morphology and distribution of the intermediate filaments regarding the cell transparency

    PubMed Central

    Zueva, Lidia; Golubeva, Tatiana; Korneeva, Elena; Makarov, Vladimir; Khmelinskii, Igor; Inyushin, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) have critical importance for the clearness and uncommon transparency of the vertebrates' lens fiber cells, although the physical mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, an unusual low-scattering light transport was also described in the retinal Müller cells. Exploring the function of the IFs in the Müller cells, we have studied the morphology and distribution pattern of the IFs and other cytoskeletal filaments inside the Müller cell main processes in the foveolar part of the avian (Pied Flycatcher) retina. We found that some IFs surrounded by globular nanoparticles (that we suggest are crystallines) are present in almost every part of the Müller cells that span the retina, including the microvilli. Unlike the IFs implicated in the mechanical architecture of the cell, these IFs are not connected to any specific cellular membranes. Instead, they are organized into bundles, passing inside the cell from the endfeet to the photoreceptor, following the geometry of the processes and repeatedly circumventing numerous obstacles. We believe that all of the presently reported data effectively confirms that the model of nanooptical channels built of the intermediate filaments [Makarov et al., 2015, Khmelinskii et al., 2015] may provide a viable explanation of the Müller cell transparency. PMID:26926795

  6. Active basement uplift of Sierra Pie de Palo (Northwestern Argentina): Rates and inception from10Be cosmogenic nuclide concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siame, Lionel L.; Sébrier, Michel; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Costa, Carlos; Ahumada, Emilio A.; Gardini, Carlos E.; Cisneros, Hector

    2015-06-01

    Quaternary tectonic and denudation rates are investigated for an actively growing basement anticline: the Sierra Pie de Palo range, which belongs to the Andean foreland of Northwestern Argentina (28°S-33°S). In this study, a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography is combined with in situ-produced cosmogenic10Be concentrations measured in (1) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial terraces affected by fault activity (along the north bounding fault) and growth of the basement fold (along the southeastern border), (2) bedrock outcrops corresponding to an exhumed and folded, regional erosion surface, and (3) fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of several watersheds. Along the eastern and northern borders of the range, incision and uplift rates have been estimated at approximately 0.5 and 1 mm/yr when integrated on Holocene and Pleistocene time scales, in close agreement with both long-term (structural and basin evolution data) and short-term (GPS-derived velocity field) analyses. Cosmogenic-derived denudation and uplift rates combined with geomorphic characteristics of watersheds and river channels allows estimating the onset of the uplift at 4-6 Ma, followed by a more recent period of topographic rejuvenation at roughly 1-2 Ma, probably synchronous with steepening of the eastern and northern flanks of the anticline.

  7. Foveolar Müller Cells of the Pied Flycatcher: Morphology and Distribution of Intermediate Filaments Regarding Cell Transparency.

    PubMed

    Zueva, Lidia; Golubeva, Tatiana; Korneeva, Elena; Makarov, Vladimir; Khmelinskii, Igor; Inyushin, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) have critical importance for the clearness and uncommon transparency of vertebrate lens fiber cells, although the physical mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, an unusual low-scattering light transport was also described in retinal Müller cells. Exploring the function of IFs in Müller cells, we have studied the morphology and distribution pattern of IFs and other cytoskeletal filaments inside the Müller cell main processes in the foveolar part of the avian (pied flycatcher) retina. We found that some IFs surrounded by globular nanoparticles (that we suggest are crystallines) are present in almost every part of the Müller cells that span the retina, including the microvilli. Unlike IFs implicated in the mechanical architecture of the cell, these IFs are not connected to any specific cellular membranes. Instead, they are organized into bundles, passing inside the cell from the endfeet to the photoreceptor, following the geometry of the processes, and repeatedly circumventing numerous obstacles. We believe that the presently reported data effectively confirm that the model of nanooptical channels built of the IFs may provide a viable explanation of Müller cell transparency.

  8. Effects of pollution on land snail abundance, size and diversity as resources for pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Kalle; Suominen, Otso

    2010-09-01

    Passerine birds need extra calcium during their breeding for developing egg shells and proper growth of nestling skeleton. Land snails are an important calcium source for many passerines and human-induced changes in snail populations may pose a severe problem for breeding birds. We studied from the bird's viewpoint how air pollution affects the shell mass, abundance and diversity of land snail communities along a pollution gradient of a copper smelter. We sampled remnant snail shells from the nests of an insectivorous passerine, the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, to find out how the availability of land snails varies along the pollution gradient. The total snail shell mass increased towards the pollution source but declined abruptly in the vicinity of the smelter. This spatial variation in shell mass was evident also within a single snail species and could not be wholly explained by spatially varying snail numbers or species composition. Instead, the total shell mass was related to their shell size, individuals being largest at the moderately polluted areas. Smaller shell size suggests inferior growth of snails in the most heavily polluted area. Our study shows that pollution affects the diversity, abundance (available shell mass) and individual quality of land snails, posing reproductive problems for birds that rely on snails as calcium sources during breeding. There are probably both direct pollution-related (heavy metal and calcium levels) and indirect (habitat change) effects behind the observed changes in snail populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Biri, S.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Tuske, O.; Delferriere, O.

    2008-02-15

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed.

  10. La place de la double arthrodèse dans la prise en charge du pied bot varus équin invétéré

    PubMed Central

    Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Chater, Lamiae; Afifi, My Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    La prise en charge du pied bot varus équin invétéré ( PBVEI) pose d’énormes problèmes thérapeutiques. La double arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio-tarsienne longtemps considérée comme la solution de sécurité pour ces déformations est encore couramment utilisée. Nous rapportons une série de 13 enfants opérés pour un pied bot varus équin invétérés (16 pieds) par Arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne réalisée au service d'orthopédie pédiatrique du CHU Hassan II; de Fès au Maroc sur une période de 4 ans; étalée de janvier 2009 à décembre 2012. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 12,6 ans avec prédominance féminine. L'origine congénitale était retrouvée chez 10 patients. L'atteinte était gauche chez 8 patients avec une localisation bilatérale chez 3 patients. La radiographie standard du pied de face et de profil a révélée une divergence talo-calcanéenne qui variait entre 5 et 20°, l'angle talus-1er métatarsien entre 20 et 40° (avec une moyenne de 28°) et l'angle calcanéus-5ème métatarsien entre 15° et 45° (avec une moyenne de 30°). Tous les patients ont bénéficiés d'une arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne. Les résultats étaient satisfaisants dans 98% des cas. Le pied était plantigrade dans 9 cas, le varus de l'arrière pied persistait dans 4 pieds alors que l’équin et le varus de l'avant pied étaient notés chez 2 cas. La double arthrodèse est l'intervention idéale pour stabiliser et corriger les déformations rencontrées dans le PBVE invétéré, elle assure totalement le verrouillage du couple de torsion. Elle permet outre une correction des diverses déformations et une ré-axation de l'arrière-pied dans les 3 plans de l'espace. PMID:25829977

  11. Transition in public knowledge of risk factors of cardiovascular disease in an Iranian general population: A latent transition analysis (LTA) on a longitudinal large community-based educational prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee Alhossaini, Mahsa; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Feizi, Awat; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the second leading cause of death, after accidents, in Iran. This study was performed to assess the change in levels of knowledge about 8 risk factors of CVD and its associated determinants the Iranian general population. METHODS The current repeated cross-sectional study included 3014 people in 2004, 3012 in 2005, and 4719 in 2007, aged older than 19 years. Knowledge about 8 risk factors (high blood pressure, nutrition, physical inactivity, smoking, diabetes, heredity, stress, and obesity) as the major causes of CVD was evaluated using latent transition analysis (LTA). RESULTS The most widely known CVD risk factors were nutrition and physical inactivity followed by stress. In addition, old age, low level of education, male gender and low socioeconomic status (SES) level were the significant determinants of low knowledge levels of CVD risk factors. Besides, individuals’ knowledge of CVD risk factors increased across the time. CONCLUSION Public knowledge of CVD risk factors has increased; however significant gaps continue to exist, particularly among the elderly, less-educated people, people in low socioeconomic status level and men. Future intensified educational efforts by policymakers are necessary for improving knowledge of CVD, particularly among high-risk groups. PMID:28149314

  12. SplicePie: a novel analytical approach for the detection of alternative, non-sequential and recursive splicing.

    PubMed

    Pulyakhina, Irina; Gazzoli, Isabella; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Verwey, Nisha; den Dunnen, Johan T; den Dunnen, Johan; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Laros, Jeroen F J

    2015-07-13

    Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism present in eukaryotic cells to obtain a wide range of transcripts and protein isoforms from a relatively small number of genes. The mechanisms regulating (alternative) splicing and the paradigm of consecutive splicing have recently been challenged, especially for genes with a large number of introns. RNA-Seq, a powerful technology using deep sequencing in order to determine transcript structure and expression levels, is usually performed on mature mRNA, therefore not allowing detailed analysis of splicing progression. Sequencing pre-mRNA at different stages of splicing potentially provides insight into mRNA maturation. Although the number of tools that analyze total and cytoplasmic RNA in order to elucidate the transcriptome composition is rapidly growing, there are no tools specifically designed for the analysis of nuclear RNA (which contains mixtures of pre- and mature mRNA). We developed dedicated algorithms to investigate the splicing process. In this paper, we present a new classification of RNA-Seq reads based on three major stages of splicing: pre-, intermediate- and post-splicing. Applying this novel classification we demonstrate the possibility to analyze the order of splicing. Furthermore, we uncover the potential to investigate the multi-step nature of splicing, assessing various types of recursive splicing events. We provide the data that gives biological insight into the order of splicing, show that non-sequential splicing of certain introns is reproducible and coinciding in multiple cell lines. We validated our observations with independent experimental technologies and showed the reliability of our method. The pipeline, named SplicePie, is freely available at: https://github.com/pulyakhina/splicing_analysis_pipeline. The example data can be found at: https://barmsijs.lumc.nl/HG/irina/example_data.tar.gz.

  13. [Genetic mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to leukemia in Ayrshire and black pied cattle breeds determined by allelic distribution of gene Bola-DRB3].

    PubMed

    Udina, I G; Karamysheva, E E; Turkova, S O; Orlova, A R; Sulimova, G E

    2003-03-01

    In the herds of Ayrshire and Black Pied cattle breeds of Russian selection, comparative analysis of allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 was performed in animal groups with different status of persistent lymphocytosis (PL) caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Alleles were typed by PCR-RFLP. Different spectra of BoLA-DRB3 alleles mediating susceptibility and resistance to leukemia were detected in the studied breeds. The role of amino acid motives in beta 1 domain of BoLA-DRB3 antigens was confirmed: ER (in positions 70-71), in resistance to leukemia and VDTY and VDTV (75-78), in susceptibility to leukemia. The nucleotide sequence of allele BoLA-DRB3.2*7 with deletion of codon 65, which resulted in the changed conformation of the corresponding antigen molecule, was associated with resistance to PL. Cows of Black Pied and Ayrshire breeds with genotypes coding VDTY/VDTV (RR = 11.67, P = 0.014) and VDTY/VDTY (RR = 4.71, P = 0.022), respectively, were shown to be susceptible to PL. The role of heterozygosity level was demonstrated (estimated by BoLA-DRB3 alleles and by amino acid motives in positions 75-78 of the antigen) as an unspecific factor of resistance to PL. The lowest heterozygosity level by amino acid motives (75-78) was revealed in PL animals, for which sample inbreeding coefficients were detected: F = 0.324 and F = 0.084 in Ayrshire and Black Pied breeds, respectively.

  14. A Preliminary Study of Seismicity at Ceboruco, Volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2007-12-01

    Ceboruco Volcano is located northwestern of Tepic-Zacoalco graben (Jalisco, Mexico). Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their volcano explosivity index (VEI) and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, during the first cycle the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI is estimated between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome extruded in the interior of the caldera. The dome, called Dos Equis, collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by historic andesitic lava flows located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. In February 2003 as part of an agreement with Nayarit Civil Defense a seismic station was installed in the SW flank of the volcano. The station is equipped with a Marslite (lennartz) digitizer with a 3DLe 1Hz. seismic sensor. Detection system is based on a STA/LTA recording algorithm. More than 2000 small earthquakes have been attributed to various local sources, and some of this earthquakes are possibly located beneath Ceboruco volcano. A preliminary classification separates high frequency and low frequency seismic events. The sources of high frequency earthquakes appear to be distributed as evidenced from waveforms variety and changing S-P arrivals separations. The low frequency seismic events also show varying signatures and some of them exhibit extended coda, including some monochromatic character.

  15. Profil bactériologique du pied diabétique et son impact sur le choix des antibiotiques

    PubMed Central

    Zemmouri, Adil; Tarchouli, Mohamed; Benbouha, Abdellatif; Lamkinsi, Tarik; Bensghir, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa; Haimeur, Cherqui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analyse du profil bactériologique des pieds diabétiques pris en charge à l'hôpital militaire de Rabat et son influence sur l'antibiothérapie de première intention. Méthodes Etude prospective non randomisée étalée sur 18 mois, ayant concerné 105 patients. Après recueil des données et en attente des résultats bactériologiques nos patients ont été divisés en deux groupes: un groupe a été mis sous Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique + Gentamycine (59 patients) et un groupe sous Ertapénème±Gentamycine (46 patients). Résultats L’étude a regroupé 85 hommes et 20 femmes (sexe ratio = 4.26). L’âge moyen est de 64.4 ans. La gangrène a été observée chez 79% des malades; elle était humide-donc surinfectée en principe- dans 43% des cas. Par ailleurs, 67% des malades ont un chiffre de globules blancs 12000 définissant une infection sévère. L'ostéolyse a été mise en évidence chez 27% de nos patients. Parmi les différentes techniques de prélèvements: 81% ont été profonds dont 21% de biopsie osseuse per opératoire et 14% de prélèvements combinés. 42% de ces prélèvements sont poly microbiens et 21% sont stériles. Les résultats bactériologiques viennent confirmer la prédominance des bactéries aérobies à Gram positif. Le taux de remplacement de l'Ertapénème est de 22% contre un taux de 50% pour l'Amoxiclav. Conclusion L'antibiothérapie ne doit être instaurée qu'en cas d'infection du pied diabétique diagnostiquée sur les critères cliniques établis par les consensus internationaux récents. Le respect des mesures de lutte contre la diffusion de la résistance bactérienne s'avère primordiale. PMID:27386024

  16. Adipocytokines: The pied pipers.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Hardik; Upaganlawar, Aman; Balaraman, R

    2010-01-01

    Even though there have been major advances in therapy, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease retain their lead as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the first decade of 21(st) century. To add to the woes, we have diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance as the other causes. The adipose tissue secretes several bioactive mediators that influence inflammation, insulin resistance, diabetes, atherosclerosis and several other pathologic states besides the regulation of body weight. These mediators are mostly proteins and are termed "adipocytokines". Adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and leptin are a few such proteins. Adiponectin is a multimeric protein, acting via its identified receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. It is a potential biomarker for metabolic syndrome and has several antiinflammatory actions. Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity and ameliorates obesity. Resistin, another protein secreted by the adipose tissue, derived its name due to its involvement in the development of insulin resistance. It plays a role in the pathophysiology of several conditions because of its robust proinflammatory activity mediated through the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2). In 2007, resistin was reported to have protective effect in ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocyte-apoptosis in the setting of myocardial infarction (MI). RBP-4 is involved in the developmental pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Visfatin has been described as an inflammatory cytokine. Increased expression of visfatin mRNA has been observed in inflammatory conditions like atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Leptin mainly regulates the food intake and energy homeostasis. Leptin resistance has been associated with development of obesity and insulin resistance. Few drugs (thiazolidinediones, rimonabant, statins, etc.) and some lifestyle modifications have been found to improve the levels of adipocytokines. Their role in therapy has a lot in store to be explored upon.

  17. Sharing Smaller Pies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Tom

    This paper details the unfavorable predicament of the United States as a consequence of using much of its own non-renewable material and energy resources. As a consequence, the United States will soon be subject to the political and economic conditions imposed upon it by other nations. The United States must begin to implement adjustments to the…

  18. Adipocytokines: The pied pipers

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Hardik; Upaganlawar, Aman; Balaraman, R

    2010-01-01

    Even though there have been major advances in therapy, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease retain their lead as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the first decade of 21st century. To add to the woes, we have diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance as the other causes. The adipose tissue secretes several bioactive mediators that influence inflammation, insulin resistance, diabetes, atherosclerosis and several other pathologic states besides the regulation of body weight. These mediators are mostly proteins and are termed “adipocytokines”. Adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and leptin are a few such proteins. Adiponectin is a multimeric protein, acting via its identified receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. It is a potential biomarker for metabolic syndrome and has several antiinflammatory actions. Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity and ameliorates obesity. Resistin, another protein secreted by the adipose tissue, derived its name due to its involvement in the development of insulin resistance. It plays a role in the pathophysiology of several conditions because of its robust proinflammatory activity mediated through the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2). In 2007, resistin was reported to have protective effect in ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocyte-apoptosis in the setting of myocardial infarction (MI). RBP-4 is involved in the developmental pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Visfatin has been described as an inflammatory cytokine. Increased expression of visfatin mRNA has been observed in inflammatory conditions like atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Leptin mainly regulates the food intake and energy homeostasis. Leptin resistance has been associated with development of obesity and insulin resistance. Few drugs (thiazolidinediones, rimonabant, statins, etc.) and some lifestyle modifications have been found to improve the levels of adipocytokines. Their role in therapy has a lot in store to be explored upon. PMID:21808585

  19. Sweetie Pie Thornless Blackberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Sweetie Pie’ is a new thornless blackberry (Rubus L. subg. Watson) cultivar developed and released by the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory. ‘Sweetie Pie’ is a vigorous, semi-erect blackberry that produces moderate yields of sweet high quality fruit having excellent flavor, ...

  20. Aerodynamics and Hovering Control of LTA Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Cylinders (From Reference 7). 28 ~~0 0 - iI- ~43 0 C*4 JoJ o Di 29rtf IrI ALLEN ( NACA REPT 1048) f ( k a ~~ 01 WHER IS MAX.NEGATIVEdx2 FUR2...size, the propulsive power will decrease as che propeller remote inlet velocity V, decreases. Hence, a wake-immersed propeller can produce the same...M.: "The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls", NACA Report 184, 1924. 2. Milne-Thompson: THEORETICAL HYDRODYNAMICS, MacMillan, 1955. 3. Koebn, N. E

  1. Basic relationships for LTA technical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction to airship performance is presented. Static lift equations are shown which, when combined with power requirements for conventional airships, allow parametric studies of range, payload, speed and airship size. It is shown that very large airships are required to attain reasonable speeds at transoceanic ranges.

  2. LTA vehicles comparison for Titan exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombatti, Giacomo; Aboudan, Alessio; La Gloria, Nicola; Debei, Stefano

    In the past years several aerial vehicles have been proposed for the exploration of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. After Cassini-Huygens mission, Titan has been revealed as a complex moon with the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system a part from Earth. Future missions to Titan will carry out an in depth characterisation of the atmosphere, of the internal structure of the clouds and of its seasonal evolution, as well as the mapping of the surface and the investigation of surface-atmosphere interactions. Robotic montgolfiers, conventional or lenticular airships can be very effective to fulfil scientific requirements for a Cassini-Huygens follow up mission. In this paper a comparison of the performance of the three types of vehicles is analysed with respect to a common mission profile for the exploration of Titan. A system of 150 kg with a 25 kg payload has been used as a gondola; 45 W power has been considered for scientific operations. The total available power for attitude and mobility is around 100 W. The starting altitude value for the simulations is around 10 km and does not reach heights lower than 6 km (due to the risk of precipitations that could occur); in addition a surface science mission profile has been investigated for the airships. The equatorial area (around 20N) has been selected as the starting location of the simulations and one Titan day has been considered for simulations. Versatility of the airship allows deeper investigation w.r.t. the other systems both in space and time. Airship also permits investigations that cover a wider range of altitudes (from 10 km down to surface) without major risks.

  3. 2016 TRI Preliminary Dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The TRI preliminary dataset includes the most current TRI data available and reflects toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities that occurred at TRI facilities during the 2016 calendar year.

  4. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  5. [Visual input affects the expression of the early genes c-Fos and ZENK in auditory telencephalic centers of pied flycatcher nestlings during the acoustically-guided freezing].

    PubMed

    Korneeva, E V; Tiunova, A A; Aleksandrov, L I; Golubeva, T B; Anokhin, K V

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzed expression of transcriptional factors c-Fos and ZENK in 9-day-old pied flycatcher nestlings' (Ficedula hypoleuca) telencephalic auditory centers (field L, caudomedial nidopallium and caudomedial mesopallium) involved in the acoustically-guided defense behavior. Species-typical alarm call was presented to the young in three groups: 1--intact group (sighted control), 2--nestlings visually deprived just before the experiment for a short time (unsighted control) 3--nestlings visually deprived right after hatching (experimental deprivation). Induction of c-Fos as well as ZENK in nestlings from the experimental deprivation group was decreased in both hemispheres as compared with intact group. In the group of unsighted control, only the decrease of c-Fos induction was observed exclusively in the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that limitation of visual input changes the population of neurons involved into the acoustically-guided behavior, the effect being dependant from the duration of deprivation.

  6. Newcastle disease in a zoo affecting demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J

    1981-07-01

    Newcastle disease virus could be isolated from demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures. All of these birds died without prominent symptoms and had no typical pathological lesions. Identification and characterisation studies of the viruses were performed in CEF cultures and embryos. Serological cross reactions could be detected between NDV strain B1 and the new isolates by haemagglutination inhibition and plaque reduction tests. Electron microscopic examination revealed particles with paramyxovirus morphology. Inoculation of susceptible cockerels resulted in severe clinical symptoms and mortality. The distribution of lesions in the digestive tract indicates that the isolated viruses are of the velogenic viscerotropic type.

  7. Algorithmic pie-crusting of the medial collateral ligament guided by sensing technology affects the use of constrained inserts during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Spencer; Lee, Yuo-Yu; González Della Valle, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    Intra-operative sensing technology is an alternative to standard techniques in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for determining balance by providing quantitative analysis of loads and point of contact throughout a range of motion. We used intra-operative sensing (VERASENSE-OrthoSensor, Inc.) to examine pie-crusting release of the medial collateral ligament in knees with varus deformity (study group) in comparison to a control group where balance was obtained using a classic release technique and assessed using laminar spreaders, spacer blocks, manual stress, and a ruler. The surgery was performed by a single surgeon utilizing measured resection and posterior-stabilized, cemented implants. Seventy-five study TKAs were matched 1:3 with 225 control TKAs. Outcome variables included the use of a constrained insert, functional- and knee-specific Knee Society score (KSS) at six weeks, four months, and one year post-operatively. Outcomes were analyzed in a multivariate model controlling for age, sex, BMI, and severity of deformity. The use of a constrained insert was significantly lower in the study group (5.3 vs. 13.8%; p = 0.049). The use of increased constraint was not significant between groups with increasing deformity. There was no difference in functional KSS and knee-specific KSS between groups at any follow-up interval. An algorithmic pie-crusting technique guided by intra-operative sensing is associated with decreased use of constrained inserts in TKA patients with a pre-operative varus deformity. This may cause a positive shift in value and cost savings.

  8. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Divan, P.; Dunn, K.; Kojima, J.

    1981-01-01

    Computerization of aerodynamic theory has progressed to state where analysis of complete aircraft configurations can be performed in single program. Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System, APAS, is comprehensive aerodynamic analysis system, based on linearized potential theory. Three-dimensional configurations (with or without jet flaps) having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed with APAS. As preliminary design aid, APAS allows designer to survey systematically large number of alternative configurations and component geometries economically.

  9. Preliminary Cruise Report - Iguana Expedition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A preliminary cruise report of Expedition Iguana , 31 March 1972-11 May 1972, gives some preliminary results, list of equipment and, personnel, stations and data gathered, and track and topographic plots. (Author)

  10. Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-06

    ... Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets   The data files available through this web page and ftp links are preliminary ... geometric corrections. Caution should be used for science analysis. At a later date, more qualified versions will be made public.   ...

  11. Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-29

    ISS029-E-011867 (29 Sept. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 29 commander, works with the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) control box in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station in preparation for another session with the Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment (PACE) hardware.

  12. Climate change, breeding date and nestling diet: how temperature differentially affects seasonal changes in pied flycatcher diet depending on habitat variation.

    PubMed

    Burger, Claudia; Belskii, Eugen; Eeva, Tapio; Laaksonen, Toni; Mägi, Marko; Mänd, Raivo; Qvarnström, Anna; Slagsvold, Tore; Veen, Thor; Visser, Marcel E; Wiebe, Karen L; Wiley, Chris; Wright, Jonathan; Both, Christiaan

    2012-07-01

    1. Climate warming has led to shifts in the seasonal timing of species. These shifts can differ across trophic levels, and as a result, predator phenology can get out of synchrony with prey phenology. This can have major consequences for predators such as population declines owing to low reproductive success. However, such trophic interactions are likely to differ between habitats, resulting in differential susceptibility of populations to increases in spring temperatures. A mismatch between breeding phenology and food abundance might be mitigated by dietary changes, but few studies have investigated this phenomenon. Here, we present data on nestling diets of nine different populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca, across their breeding range. This species has been shown to adjust its breeding phenology to local climate change, but sometimes insufficiently relative to the phenology of their presumed major prey: Lepidoptera larvae. In spring, such larvae have a pronounced peak in oak habitats, but to a much lesser extent in coniferous and other deciduous habitats. 2. We found strong seasonal declines in the proportions of caterpillars in the diet only for oak habitats, and not for the other forest types. The seasonal decline in oak habitats was most strongly observed in warmer years, indicating that potential mismatches were stronger in warmer years. However, in coniferous and other habitats, no such effect of spring temperature was found. 3. Chicks reached somewhat higher weights in broods provided with higher proportions of caterpillars, supporting the notion that caterpillars are an important food source and that the temporal match with the caterpillar peak may represent an important component of reproductive success. 4. We suggest that pied flycatchers breeding in oak habitats have greater need to adjust timing of breeding to rising spring temperatures, because of the strong seasonality in their food. Such between-habitat differences can have

  13. Long-term recovery of clutch size and egg shell quality of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a metal polluted area.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2015-06-01

    We explored if breeding parameters and egg shell quality of an insectivorous passerine, pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, have fully recovered after c.a. 99% decrease in dust emissions from a non-ferrous smelter in the course of the 23 year study period. Some potentially important population characteristics (density, phenology, age) and environmental variables (habitat, inter-specific competition) were taken into account in the analysis. We found marked increase in reproductive parameters (egg shell quality, clutch size, hatchability, and fledgling number) in the metal polluted area especially in 1990's when metal-rich dust emissions from the smelter were markedly reduced. Still clutch sizes and fledgling numbers remain below the levels of the reference area. There is currently very little evidence of direct toxic effects of metals in our study population but full recovery of breeding parameters may not be reached until the full recovery of food chains, which is likely to be a slow process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synchrotron radiation as a tool for in situ investigation of extraterrestrial grains in low-density collectors: application to the analyses of the PIE polymid foams targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, J.; Quirico, E.; Simionovici, A.; Raynal, P.-I.; Chevallier, P.; Langevin, Y.

    2002-08-01

    The Particle Impact Experiment (PIE) was flown for 11 months outside the MIR station in 1996-97. The grains, both of extraterrestrial and terrestrial origins, captured in the low-density foam collectors, were investigated for using Synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (SXμF) techniques, developed at LURE (Orsay, France) and ESRF (Grenoble, France). The positions of grains a few microns large are known at better than 10 μm. Chemical identification is arduous; only Z>20 elements are identified and, for the heavy elements, only a rough estimate of their abundances inside the grains can be given. We use the Fe/Ni ratio as the criterion allowing to distinguish between terrestrial orbital debris (OD) and extraterrestrial grains. In the 60 cm2 of foam analyzed by this technique, we identified two or three probable extraterrestrial grains and confirmed the existence of an OD cloud, rich in Fe-Ni alloys, crossed by the MIR station. SXμF is a powerful, non-destructive, technique of in situ identification of absorbing grains trapped in a material otherwise transparent to X-rays. It is the only analytical procedure for foams, opaque to visible light. For aerogels, exposed in many space missions and used as grain collectors in the STARDUST mission, the grains positions can be known after an optical scanning; SXμF appears as the last step for the high resolution in situ identification (size, shape, chemical composition) of the grain before its eventual extraction by microtunneling techniques.

  15. Genesis Preliminary Examination Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of preliminary examination of the Genesis sample collectors is to provide information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. Similarly, the information will be used by the Genesis Sample Allocation sub-committee of CAPTEM to determine the optimum allocation scheme, and by the Genesis Curator to determine the processing sequence for allocation production. The plan includes a decision process and detailed examination and documentation protocol for whole arrays and individual collectors (wafers, concentrator targets, bulk metallic glass, gold foil, and polished aluminum). It also includes a plan for communicating the information obtained to the scientific community. The plan does not include a detailed plan for preliminary examination of the SRC lid foil collectors, the process for removal of individual collectors from their frames, or for the subsequent subdivision of collector materials for allocation.

  16. On Preliminary Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  17. Preliminary results of DISTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedfer, Y.

    1998-05-01

    DISTO is a spectrometer experiment installed at Saturne in Saclay to study strangeness production in p¯p reactions. It has entered its production phase in the second semester of 1996 and is to complete it by the time Saturne closes at the end of 1997. Preliminary results bearing on the two main items of its physics program. viz. polarization in associated hyperon production and OZ1 rule assessment in vector meson production, and obtained at 2.85 GeV are presented.

  18. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. [Estimation of heritability and repeatability of resting metabolic rate in birds, with free-living pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Passeriformes) as an example].

    PubMed

    Bushuev, A V; Kerimov, A B; Ivankina, E V

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of a trait heritability and repeatability can get at an idea of its usefulness for being an individual characteristic and its ability to change under selection pressure. Heritability and repeatability of energetic parameters still poorly studied in birds. The most important physiological characteristic of homoiotherms is resting metabolic rate (RMR), which, in the absence of productive processes, does not exceed basal metabolic rate (BMR). We estimated BMR repeatability in free-living pied flycatchers in Moscow Region (55 degrees 44' N, 36 degrees 51' E; 1992-2008) and Tomsk (56 degrees 20' N, 84 degrees 56' E; 2008-2009) populations over intervals from 40 days to 3 years. In Moscow Region population, BMR repeatability amounted to tau = 0.34 +/- 0.10 (n=80) if measured over 1 year interval, tau = 0.60 +/- 0.15 (n=19) if measured over 2 years interval, and tau = 0.85 +/- 0.13 (n=6) if measured over 3 years interval providing that consecutive BMR measurements were done in the same period of reproductive season. In Tomsk population, BMR repeatability, measured over 1 year interval, amounted to tau = 0.49 +/- 0.11 (n=50). Repeatability is a measure of a trait constancy and sets the upper limit of its heritability. To estimate RMR heritability, cross-fostering experiments have been conducted in 2003-2005 with flycatchers of Moscow Region population. RMR of chicks positively correlated with BMR of their biological fathers, whereas such correlation in metabolic rates between chicks and their foster fathers was absent. The RMR heritability estimate turned out to be h2 = 0.43 +/- 0.17 (n=210). The obtained estimates of heritability and repeatability of fundamental energetic traits are rather high for physiological features. This suggests the existence of a potential for direct selection on BMR and evolutionary stable diversity of avian populations with regard to basal metabolic rate.

  1. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  2. Milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid profile of dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied cows fed separate concentrate-forage versus total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Cornale, Paolo; Lussiana, Carola; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Turille, Germano; Mimosi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two feeding methods on milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile obtained from dual-purpose cattle. Twenty-four Aosta Red Pied cows beyond peak of lactation were assigned to two groups and fed hay and concentrates in the proportions 0.69 and 0.31 on a dry matter basis for 10 weeks. Concentrates were offered separately from forages 6 times a day (separate ration, SR) or as a total mixed ration (TMR). The feeding method did not significantly influence dry matter intake (16.8 vs. 16.9 kg/head/day for SR- and TMR-fed cows, respectively), milk yield (17.4 vs. 17.5 kg/head/day), milk fat, protein and lactose contents (36.4 vs. 35.2, 33.5 vs. 32.8, and 47.3 vs. 47.4 g/kg) and yields (607.9 vs. 613.4, 567.4 vs. 572.7 and 805.5 vs. 829.7 g/head/day). The overall milk FA profile was very similar between groups. Milk concentrations of FA used as indirect markers of rumen function (C18:2 t10c12, odd- and branched-chain FA) and the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation were comparable (P > 0.05) between SR- and TMR-fed cows, suggesting that ruminal pH did not vary considerably as a consequence of the feeding strategy applied. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Ancient DNA analysis might suggest external origin of individuals from chamber graves placed in medieval cemetery in Pień, Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Zamerska, Alicja; Drozd-Lipińska, Alicja; Poliński, Dariusz; Janowski, Andrzej; Witas, Henryk

    2017-08-11

    The participation of immigrants during early days in Poland of Piast's dynasty is a debated issue among archaeologists and anthropologists alike. Such hypotheses were formulated on the basis of, amongst others, the discovery of early medieval chamber graves characterized by construction features typical of the Scandinavian culture area. Archaeological and anthropological studies to date have not provided an unequivocal answer as to whether the individuals interred in those graves were autochthons who adopted a different burial rite, or perhaps immigrants from foreign lands. To characterize the gene pool of this population we analyzed the C/T allele of the nuclear gene LCT-13910 as well as fragments of the mitochondrial genome from individuals buried in very richly furnished chamber graves at the medieval cemetery in Pień. The obtained results for the nuclear allele and mtDNA do not corroborate the Scandinavian origin of the analyzed population. Moreover, we did not find haplogroup I, which is the one typical of populations that historically inhabited the north of Europe; and the frequency of the LCT-13910 T allele was similar to that of past and present Polish populations. On the other hand, we identified the atypical haplogroup C5c1, which suggests Asian origin of the studied individuals and confirms our previous reports concerning ancient human migrations from Asia to the territory of present-day Poland. While our findings do not conclusively disprove a Scandinavian lineage of the studied population, they certainly shed some new light on the origin of the individuals buried in chamber graves, which may be very different from the one initially proposed by archaeologists.

  4. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This six large gunite storage tanks considered as a group is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long-range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives, (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. This report presents the results of the preliminary decommission study for the six gunite storage tanks.

  5. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  6. AGR-2 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    SciTech Connect

    Ploger, Scott; Demkowciz, Paul; Harp, Jason

    2015-05-01

    The AGR 2 irradiation experiment began in June 2010 and was completed in October 2013. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in July 2014 for post-irradiation examination (PIE). The first PIE activities included nondestructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and their graphite fuel holders. Dimensional metrology was then performed on the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsule shells. AGR 2 disassembly and metrology were performed with the same equipment used successfully on AGR 1 test train components. Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Disassembly of the AGR 2 test train and its capsules was conducted rapidly and efficiently by employing techniques refined during the AGR 1 disassembly campaign. Only one major difficulty was encountered while separating the test train into capsules when thermocouples (of larger diameter than used in AGR 1) and gas lines jammed inside the through tubes of the upper capsules, which required new tooling for extraction. Disassembly of individual capsules was straightforward with only a few minor complications. On the whole, AGR 2 capsule structural components appeared less embrittled than their AGR 1 counterparts. Compacts from AGR 2 Capsules 2, 3, 5, and 6 were in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor damage or markings were visible using high resolution photographic inspection. Compact dimensional measurements indicated radial shrinkage between 0.8 to 1.7%, with the greatest shrinkage observed on Capsule 2 compacts that were irradiated at higher temperature. Length shrinkage ranged from 0.1 to 0.9%, with by far the lowest axial shrinkage on Capsule 3 compacts

  7. GeoLab—A habitat-based laboratory for preliminary examination of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Calaway, Michael J.; Sue Bell, Mary; Young, Kelsey E.

    2013-10-01

    GeoLab is a prototype geological laboratory designed for deployment and testing during NASA's analog demonstrations. Scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) built GeoLab as part of a technology project to support the development of science operational concepts for future planetary surface missions. It was integrated into NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit 1 - Pressurized Excursion Module (HDU1-PEM), a first generation exploration habitat test bed. As a test bed, GeoLab provides a high fidelity working space for crewmembers to perform preliminary examination and characterization of geologic samples. The GeoLab concept builds from the hardware and cleanroom protocols used in JSC's Astromaterials Sample Curation laboratories. The main hardware component of the GeoLab is a custom-built glovebox, constructed from stainless steel and polycarbonate, and built to provide a positive pressure nitrogen environment. The glovebox is mounted onto the habitat's structural ribs; the unique shape (trapezoidal prism) fits within a pie-shaped section of the cylindrical habitat. A key innovation of GeoLab is the mechanism for transferring samples into the glovebox: three antechambers (airlocks) that pass through the shell of the habitat. These antechambers allow geologic samples to enter and exit the main glovebox chamber directly from (and to) the outside, thereby controlling contamination from inside the habitat. The glovebox is configured to include imaging systems, instrumentation, and computer controls. The first field trials tested a simple configuration including a microscope, a commercially available handheld X-ray Fluorescence instrument, network cameras, and simple sample handling tools inside the glovebox. We present results from the initial field trials of GeoLab during the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) planetary analog test near Flagstaff, AZ. These field tests examined the general operations of the GeoLab hardware and the crew

  8. Detrital zircon analysis from the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian sedimentary cover (Cuyania terrane), Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina: Evidence of a rift and passive margin system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipauer, M.; Vujovich, G. I.; Cingolani, C. A.; McClelland, W. C.

    2010-03-01

    Metamorphic basement and its Neoproterozoic to Cambrian cover exposed in the Sierra de Pie de Palo, a basement block of the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina, lie within the Cuyania terrane. Detrital zircon analysis of the cover sequence which includes, in ascending order, the El Quemado, La Paz, El Desecho, and Angacos Formations of the Caucete Group indicate a Laurentian origin for the Cuyania terrane. The lower section represented by the El Quemado and La Paz Formations is interpreted as having an igneous source related to a rift setting similar to that envisioned for the southern and eastern margins of Laurentia at approximately 550 Ma. The younger strata of the El Desecho Formation are correlative with the Cerro Totora Formation of the Precordillera, and both are products of rift sedimentation. Finally, the Angacos Formation and the correlative La Laja Formation of the Precordillera were deposited on the passive margin developed on the Cuyania terrane. The maximum depositional ages for the Caucete Group include ca. 550 Ma for the El Quemado Formation and ca. 531 Ma for the El Desecho Formation. Four different sediment sources areas were interpreted in the provenance analysis. The main source is crystalline basement dominated by early Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks related to the Granite-Rhyolite province of central and eastern Laurentia. Possible source areas for 1600 Ma metamorphic detrital zircons of the Caucete Group include the Yavapai-Mazatzal province ( ca. 1800-1600 Ma) of south-central to southwestern Laurentia. Younger Mesoproterozoic zircon is likely derived from Grenville-age medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks and subordinate igneous rocks that form the basement of Cuyania as well as the southern Grenville province of Laurentia itself. Finally, Neoproterozoic igneous zircon in the Caucete Group records different magmatic pulses along the southern Laurentian margin during opening of Iapetus and break-up of Rodinia. Northwestern Cuyania terrane

  9. Genetic correlations between type and test-day milk yield in small dual-purpose cattle populations: The Aosta Red Pied breed as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Sartori, Cristina; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at estimating the relationships between linear type traits and milk production in the dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied (ARP) cattle breed, by expressing type traits as factor scores with the same biological meaning of the individual traits. Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits for muscularity and udder of 32,275 first-parity ARP cows, obtaining 3 factor scores for individual muscularity (F1), udder side (F2), and udder conformation (F3). Data from 169,008 test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yield (kg), belonging to the first 3 lactations of 16,605 cows, were also analyzed. After obtaining genetic parameters for both morphological factors and milk production traits through a series of AIREML single-trait models, bivariate analyses were performed on a data set accounting for 201,283 records of 35,530 cows, to assess the phenotypic and genetic correlations among all factor scores and milk yield traits. The heritability estimates obtained proved to be moderate for both groups of traits, ranging from 0.132 (fat) to 0.314 (F1). Muscularity factor showed moderate and negative genetic correlations (ra) with udder size (-0.376) and udder conformation (0.214) factors. A low and negative ra was found between udder factors. Strong and positive ra were found among all the 3 milk production traits and F 0010 (ra≥0.597). Negative ra with milk traits were obtained for both F 0005 and F3, ranging from -0.417 to -0.221. Phenotypic correlations were lower than the genetic ones, and sometimes close to zero. The antagonism between milk production and meat attitude traits suggests that great attention should be paid in assigning proper weight to the traits, comprising functional traits such as udder conformation, included in selection indices for the dual-purpose breed. The ra obtained for factor scores are consistent with previous estimates for the corresponding individual type traits, and this confirms the possible use of factor analysis to

  10. Opening the medial tibiofemoral compartment by pie-crusting the superficial medial collateral ligament at its tibial insertion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Roussignol, X; Gauthe, R; Rahali, S; Mandereau, C; Courage, O; Duparc, F

    2015-09-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of tears in the middle and posterior parts of the medial meniscus can be difficult when the medial tibiofemoral compartment is tight. Passage of the instruments may damage the cartilage. The primary objective of this cadaver study was to perform an arthroscopic evaluation of medial tibiofemoral compartment opening after pie-crusting release (PCR) of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) at its distal insertion on the tibia. The secondary objective was to describe the anatomic relationships at the site of PCR (saphenous nerve, medial saphenous vein). We studied 10 cadaver knees with no history of invasive procedures. The femur was held in a vise with the knee flexed at 45°, and the medial aspect of the knee was dissected. PCR of the sMCL was performed under arthroscopic vision, in the anteroposterior direction, at the distal tibial insertion of the sMCL, along the lower edge of the tibial insertion of the semi-tendinosus tendon. Continuous 300-N valgus stress was applied to the ankle. Opening of the medial tibiofemoral compartment was measured arthroscopically using graduated palpation hooks after sequential PCR of the sMCL. The compartment opened by 1mm after release of the anterior third, 2.3mm after release of the anterior two-thirds, and 3.9mm after subtotal release. A femoral fracture occurred in 1 case, after completion of all measurements. Both the saphenous nerve and the medial saphenous vein were located at a distance from the PCR site in all 10 knees. PCR of the sMCL is chiefly described as a ligament-balancing method during total knee arthroplasty. This procedure is usually performed at the joint line, where it opens the compartment by 4-6mm at the most, with some degree of unpredictability. PCR of the sMCL at its distal tibial insertion provides gradual opening of the compartment, to a maximum value similar to that obtained with PCR at the joint space. The lower edge of the semi-tendinosus tendon is a valuable landmark

  11. [A comparative study on efficacy of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and vasoactive drugs on reversing hearing loss in patients suffering idiopathic sensorineural cochlear hypoacusis. A preliminary clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Campos-Bañales, Eugenia María; López-Campos, Daniel; de Serdio-Arias, José Luis; Esteban-Rodriguez, J; García-Sáinz, Mar; Muñoz-Cortés, Álvaro; López-Aguado, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Sensory neural hearing loss (SNHL) is a disorder characterised by an important deterioration of the auditory function. Re-establishing normal ion homeostasis of the endolymph could be related to hearing recovery and it might be mediated by mineralocorticoids. The main purpose of this preliminary, randomized controlled clinical trial was assessing the recovery of idiopathic sensory neural cochlear hearing loss (SNHL) by comparing the efficacy of 2 types of steroids versus vasodilators. The 3-month intervention involved 70 patients, allocated into 4 different groups: a control with no medication, consisting of 14 patients (8 men and 6 women); a vasodilator group of 21 patients (11 men and 10 women); a glucocorticoid group with 16 patients (10 men and 6 women); and a mineralocorticoid therapy group, consisting of 19 patients (11 men and 8 women). The level of hearing loss and its topography were estimated using Liminal Tone Audiometry (LTA) and Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR). Our research found overall greater efficacy of mineralocorticoids versus glucocorticoids and vasodilators. There was better response in women than in men and it was higher from the left ear, regardless of patient gender. The hearing gain was significantly superior in the mineralocorticoid group, followed by the glucocorticoid group. However, the responses to vasodilators were lesser and of low statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  13. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-one low-level liquid radioactive waste collection and storage tanks are part of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. D D of eight of the nine groups of surplus tanks are considered in this report.

  14. Preliminary reference Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  15. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grün, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Lettieri, R.; Marchant, W.; Mendez, B.; Nittler, L. R.; Ogliore, R.; Postberg, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Schmitz, S.; Silversmit, G.; Simionovici, A.; Srama, R.; Stadermann, F. J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud, R. M.; Susini, J.; Sutton, S.; Trieloff, M.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tyliczszak, T.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Warren, J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2009-03-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE.

  16. Segmentation: Slicing the Urban Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Explains market segmentation and defines undifferentiated, concentrated, and differentiated marketing strategies. Describes in detail the marketing planning process at the Metropolitan Community Colleges. Focuses on the development and implementation of an ongoing recruitment program designed for the market segment composed of business employees.…

  17. SDI - pie in the sky

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.

    1984-04-01

    Proponents of the controversial Strategic Defense Initiatives (SDI)reverse arrowfeel that the will to succeed will be as significant a factor as capability in their effort to make defense a popular concept. They reject the idea that a defensive system must be perfect, and want to loosen the hold of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and Salt II. More than an improvement to deterrence, the goal of SDI is to make a technological leap over the Soviet Union to make its military investments obsolete. Scientists find research on defensive weapons more rewarding than work on offensive systems. Critics need to understand that the force of SDI is ideological in that it rejects the concept of mutually assured destruction (MAD) and concedes that nuclear war is possible.

  18. Segmentation: Slicing the Urban Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Explains market segmentation and defines undifferentiated, concentrated, and differentiated marketing strategies. Describes in detail the marketing planning process at the Metropolitan Community Colleges. Focuses on the development and implementation of an ongoing recruitment program designed for the market segment composed of business employees.…

  19. Instant Pudding and Pie Filling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    0.57 Cocoa 12.46 Chocolate flavor enhancer 0.04 Artificial vanilla flavor 0.10 4 Food starch-modified, pre-gelatinized 14.32 Powdered vegetable... chocolate , vanilla and butterscotch flavors - were developed by NARADCOM, successfully production-tested, and subsequently procured through...powder of Example 1. These were chilled, sliced and served in the same manner as in Example 1. 8 Example 3 A chocolate flavored instant dessert

  20. Preliminary Laboratory Measurements of the Boss Modulation Transfer Function.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-05

    NOVS IOSOE190.rTE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATIO~N OF THIS P& PIE fmhnw D.. ut e UNCLASSIFIED $CgUftv CL&Aqmaymm OF TWOI Pawav...these reasons, a focal length between 100 and 20b cm seemed appropriate. A single element, plano -convex lens with a focal length of 105 cm was finally

  1. Quels agents incriminés dans les mycoses du pied ? Enquête auprès des diabétiques consultant au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Chegour, Hakima; El Ansari, Nawal; El Mghari, Ghizlane; Tali, Abdelali; Zoughaghi, Laila; Sebbani, Majda; Amine, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Les infections mycosiques du pied constituent un motif fréquent de consultation chez les diabétiques, le diabète constituant à la fois un facteur favorisant et aggravant les lésions cutanéomuqueuses. L'objectif de ce travail était d'identifier la flore mycologique locale responsable des lésions du pied chez le diabétique et déterminer les facteurs favorisant la survenue de mycoses. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale intéressant des diabétiques suivis en consultation; un prélèvement mycologique, avec examen direct et culture, a été réalisé devant toute suspicion clinique de lésion mycosique. Quatre-vingt-deux patients ont été inclus. L'hémoglobine glycosylée moyenne a été de9,2% ± 2,23. Un intertrigo inter orteil a été noté dans 90,2% des cas; l'examen mycologique était positif dans 64,8% des cas, avec 18 cas de Trichophyton rubrum et 11 cas de Candida albicans. Une atteinte unguéale a été suspectée chez 65,9% patients; la culture a mis en évidence un Trichosporon pathogène chez sept patients, un Candida albicansdans six cas, un Trichophyton rubrum dans quatre cas, avec trois cas de Trichophyton mentagrophytes et deux cas de Scytalidium dimidiatum. L’étude analytique, après confirmation mycologique, en fonction des principales caractéristiques des patients a montré que l'atteinte mycosique du pied est significativement corrélée au déséquilibre glycémique. Ce travail a montré la prédominance du Trichophyton rubrum dans les lésions d'intertrigo inter orteil et du Trichosporon dans les onychomycoses, avec une prédominance globale plus globale plus élevée du TR. PMID:25170372

  2. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  3. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  4. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  5. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  6. 40 CFR 161.170 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by an integrated system, the applicant must provide a preliminary analysis of each technical grade of active ingredient contained in the product to identify all... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 161.170 Section...

  7. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  8. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  9. The MUNU experiment : preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busto, J.; MUNU Collaboration

    2000-06-01

    The MUNU collaboration has built a detector to study overlineνe - e - scattering at low energy. From the results we expect to increase the sensitivity to the neutrino magnetic moment. The detector used, a 1 m 3 T.P.C. surrounded by an anti-Compton scintillator, is running at the Bugey nuclear plant. Some preliminary results will be presented in the following.

  10. Lunar Excavator Preliminary Test Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This video shows a preliminary test of the boom and bucket wheel assembly of the lunar excavator prototype developed by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden. According to Michael Duke, director for the center, the wheel on the end of the boom can dig up 45.36 kilograms (100 pounds) of dirt each hour which is several times the weight of the entire device.

  11. Lunar Excavator Preliminary Test Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This video shows a preliminary test of the boom and bucket wheel assembly of the lunar excavator prototype developed by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden. According to Michael Duke, director for the center, the wheel on the end of the boom can dig up 45.36 kilograms (100 pounds) of dirt each hour which is several times the weight of the entire device.

  12. Apport de l’écho-doppler artériel des membres inférieurs dans la prise en charge du pied diabétique à l'hôpital Saint-Jean de Dieu de Thiès (Sénégal)

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Aliou Amadou; Affangla, Désiré Alain; Dione, Jean-Michel; Akpo, Géraud; Mbengue, Marie; Ka, Mamadou Mourtalla; Diop, Bernard Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le pied diabétique se définit comme l'ensemble des manifestations trophiques du pied survenant chez le diabétique par atteinte nerveuse, artérielle et ou infectieuse. Le pied diabétique est un problème majeur de santé publique à l’échelle mondiale avec un taux d'amputation de membres inférieurs très élevé. L’écho-doppler artériel des membres inférieurs est de nos jours incontournable dans la prise en charge du pied diabétique. Le but de cette étude est de montrer la place prépondérante qu'occupe l’écho-doppler artériel dans le bilan lésionnel du pied diabétique. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective monocentrique incluant 46 patients sur une période de 24 mois, de mars 2012 à mars 2014 à l'hôpital Saint-Jean de Dieu, un des deux hôpitaux de référence de la région de Thiès, doté depuis juillet 2011 d'un centre moderne de traitement du diabète et des maladies cardio-métaboliques (Diabcarmet). Dans les critères d'inclusion, nous avons sélectionné tous les patients diabétiques adressés pour un écho-doppler artériel des membres inférieurs dans le cadre d'une prise en charge du pied diabétique. Etaient exclus de l’étude, les patients artéritiques non-diabétiques et les patients diabétiques asymptomatiques référés pour un bilan écho-doppler de routine. Résultats Le sex-ratio était de 1.42 (27 hommes pour 19 femmes). L’âge moyen des patients était de 62,86 ans avec des extrêmes de 23 et 88 ans. 60% des patients (n=28) étaient âgés entre 50 et 70 ans. Le diabète de type 2 était retrouvé chez 95% des patients (n=44) alors que le diabète de type 1 représentait 5% (n=2). La moyenne d’évolution du diabète était estimée à 8 ans, avec des extrêmes de 2 et 20 ans. On notait une atteinte du pied droit chez 24 patients, une atteinte du pied gauche chez 18 patients et une atteinte bilatérale chez 4 patients. La plupart du temps, les lésions du pied diabétique survenaient

  13. A LTA flight research vehicle. [technology assessment, airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nebiker, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    An Airship Flight Research Program is proposed. Major program objectives are summarized and a Modernized Navy ZPG3W Airship recommended as the flight test vehicle. The origin of the current interest in modern airship vehicles is briefly discussed and the major benefits resulting from the flight research program described. Airship configurations and specifications are included.

  14. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  15. Aerocrane: A hybrid LTA aircraft for aerial crane applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, R. G., Jr.; Doolittle, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Aerocrane, a hybrid aircraft, combines rotor lift with buoyant lift to offer VTOL load capability greatly in excess of helicopter technology while eliminating the airship problem of ballast transfer. In addition, the Aerocrane concept sharply reduces the mooring problem of airships and provides 360 deg vectorable thrust to supply a relatively large force component for control of gust loads. Designed for use in short range, ultra heavy lift missions, the Aerocrane operates in a performance envelope unsuitable for either helicopters or airships. Basic design considerations and potential problem areas of the concept are addressed.

  16. [Preliminary identification of clinically significant Clostridium species].

    PubMed

    Balejová, Magda

    2010-06-01

    Preliminary identification of clinically significant Clostridium spp. is based on evaluating their microscopic and macroscopic morphology, Gram staining (Gram stain-positive structure of the bacterial wall), positive production of lecithinase, lipase and proteolytic activity on egg yolk agar, and simple chemical tests. If this preliminary identification is not sufficient, biochemical identification is performed, along with 16S-rRNA sequencing of the bacterial genome. The article comments on options of preliminary identification of clinically significant Clostridium spp.

  17. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  18. Integral lift engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, W.; Leto, A.; Schaefer, R.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary mechanical design of a complete lift fan engine system is reported. A description of the lift fan engine, layout drawings of the components and complete engine, and a discussion of the design analyses and results are presented. The design features and areas of analysis include fan and compressor rotor blades of composite construction, a combustor folded over the compressor, relatively high-temperature blades in the high-pressure turbine, the first stage of the low-pressure turbine used for bearing support and ducting of lubricant to the bearings, a complete lubrication system, critical speeds of the shafting, and vibration and flutter of the blading.

  19. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  20. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  1. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  2. Descent advisor preliminary field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional- and flight-management-system-equipped jet transports, to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 sec late with a standard deviation of 13.1 sec. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  3. Preliminary Investigation of a Paraglider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1960-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.

  4. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  5. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  6. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  7. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  8. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations. The...

  9. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations. The...

  10. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations. The...

  11. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations. The...

  12. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  13. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  14. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  15. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  16. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  17. 25 CFR 11.1005 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 11.1005 Section 11.1005 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1005 Preliminary inquiry. (a) If a minor is placed in...

  18. 19 CFR 202.3 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary inquiry. 202.3 Section 202.3 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF COSTS OF PRODUCTION § 202.3 Preliminary inquiry. Upon the receipt of an application properly filed, the...

  19. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary amendments....

  20. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary amendments....

  1. 33 CFR 116.15 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 116.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.15 Preliminary investigation. (a) During the Preliminary Investigation, the District Commander will prepare a written report containing all pertinent information and...

  2. 33 CFR 116.15 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 116.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.15 Preliminary investigation. (a) During the Preliminary Investigation, the District Commander will prepare a written report containing all pertinent information and...

  3. 33 CFR 116.15 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 116.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.15 Preliminary investigation. (a) During the Preliminary Investigation, the District Commander will prepare a written report containing all pertinent information and...

  4. 33 CFR 116.15 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 116.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.15 Preliminary investigation. (a) During the Preliminary Investigation, the District Commander will prepare a written report containing all pertinent information and...

  5. 33 CFR 116.15 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 116.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.15 Preliminary investigation. (a) During the Preliminary Investigation, the District Commander will prepare a written report containing all pertinent information and...

  6. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  7. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  8. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  9. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  10. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  11. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  12. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  13. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  14. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  15. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  16. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by...

  17. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by...

  18. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by...

  19. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations. The...

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  2. Land Tenure Adjustment Project. Preliminary Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-16

    Desert District, Riverside, California ), Department of Defense (Air Force Flight Test Center - Edwards Air Force Base and George Air Force Base) and San ...The Land Tenure Adjustment (LTA) Project stems from concern of the Bureau of Land Management (Barstow and Ridgecrest Resource Areas, California ...Bernardino County, California . Of principal concern to the three agencies is the current checkerboard landownership pattern over the 2.8 million acres

  3. Monsoon '90 - Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Guerra, Abel G.

    1992-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  4. Monsoon 1990: Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob J.; Dubois, Pascale; Guerra, Abel

    1991-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  5. Preliminary geological mapping of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masursky, H.; Schaber, G. G.; Soderblom, L. A.; Strom, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary summary of information gained by Voyager 1 on the colored, terrain and landform surface units of Io and their global distribution is presented. Colored units are classified as white to bluish-white regions which may be sulfur or sulfur dioxide deposits, red, orange, or yellow regions thought to contain various sublimates or alterations of sulfur, brownish regions limited to the polar areas and dark brown areas surrounding some vents. Terrain features observed include plains broken by scarps, isolated mountainous regions and volcanic vents resembling terrestrial caldera or pit craters. Maps of the distribution of these features, compiled by photogeological mapping techniques developed for terrestrial volcanic mapping, are presented, and the implications of the surface unit distributions for the volcanology, crustal composition, internal convection patterns and surface age of Io are discussed.

  6. Preliminary results of UCN τ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattie, Robert; UCNtau Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a 4 σ discrepancy between measurements of the neutron lifetime performed using cold neutron beams and those performed with ultracold neutron (UCN) storage vessels. The UCN τ experiment uses an asymmetric magneto-gravitational UCN trap with in situ counting of surviving neutrons to measure the neutron lifetime. This design eliminates a major systematic of previous bottle experiments related to the loss of UCN on material trap walls and with unloading neutrons from the storage vessel. A new in situ detection system was used in the 2015-2016 run that was able to measure the population of surviving UCN at different heights in the trap, providing important information on spectral evolution. Understanding the behavior of quasi-bound UCN in a bottle experiment is essential to achieving a subsecond precision measurement of τn. We will present the preliminary results from the 2015-2016 data set and an update on the UCN τ experiment.

  7. Genesis Preliminary Examination: Ellipsometry Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry in which both the drogue and main parachutes failed to deploy causing the capsule to impact the surface of the UTTR desert at a speed of approximately 310 kph (193 mph). The impact caused severe damage to the capsule and a breach of the science canister in the field. The science canister was recovered and transported to the cleanroom at UTTR within approximately 8 hours of reentry. Although the ground water table did not rise to canister level before removal, damp soil and debris from the heat shield and other spacecraft components did enter the canister and contaminate some collector surfaces. The objective of preliminary examination of the Genesis collectors is to provide the science community with the information necessary to request the most useful samples for their analysis.

  8. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality.

  9. Surveyor 3 Preliminary Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Surveyor III soft-landed on the Moon at 00:04 GMT on April 20, 1967. Data obtained have significantly increased our knowledge of the Moon. The Surveyor III spacecraft was similar to Surveyor I; the only major change in scientific instrumentation was the addition of a soil mechanics surface sampler. Surveyor III results at this preliminary evaluation of data give valuable information about the relation between the surface skin of under-dense material responsible for the photometric properties and the deeper layers of material whose properties resemble those of ordinary terrestrial soils. In addition, they provide new insight into the relation between the general lunar surface as seen by Surveyor I and the interior of a large subdued crater. The new results have also contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of downhill transport. Many critical questions cannot, however, be answered until final reduction of experimental data.

  10. Stardust interstellar preliminary examination (ISPE).

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Flynn, G.L.; Sutton, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE. In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were {approx}0.1 m{sup 2} in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m{sup 2}-day during two periods before the cometary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described in Westphal et al. The ISPE consists of six interdependent projects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microscopy and a massively distributed, calibrated search; (2) Candidate extraction and photodocumentation; (3) Characterization of candidates through synchrotron-based Fourier-Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning X-Ray Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM); (4) Search for and analysis of craters in foils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotron-based Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); (5) Modeling of interstellar dust transport in the solar system; and (6) Laboratory simulations of hypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media.

  11. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  12. [Features of the distribution of BoLA-A antigens and alleles of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Black Pied cattle in relation to association with leukemia].

    PubMed

    Ernst, L K; Sulimova, G E; Orlova, A R; Udina, I G; Pavlenko, S P

    1997-01-01

    The character of distribution of BoLA class-I antigens was studied in Black Pied cattle populations differing in status in relation to leukemia. Associative relationships of distinct antigens with resistance and susceptibility to leukemia were revealed. Using the statusmetria method, an integral estimate of predisposition to leukemia (Z) was calculated taking into consideration the contribution of each antigen in the immunogenetic status of the animal. The interval of Z values was determined, which allowed animals to be divided into groups according to resistance or susceptibility to leukemia. Alleles of the BoLA-DRB3 gene were typed in subsamples of animals with leukemia and healthy animals by the PCR-RFLP method. Twenty alleles of the gene were detected, and their frequencies were determined in both subsamples. Alleles mediating resistance of animals to leukemia (BoLA-DRB3.2*11, *23, and *28) were distributed in the group of healthy animals with frequencies of 0.079, 0.132, and 0.053, respectively; they were completely absent in animals with leukemia. The data on the estimate of animal status in relation to leukemia, which were obtained by the method of statusmetria taking in consideration the real contribution of the each class-I antigen in the detection of the disease risk (value Z), and data of allele typing by the PCR-RFLP method were shown to be in good agreement. The possibility of using BoLA class-I antigen typing in herds to determine the number of animals with leukemia was demonstrated.

  13. Preliminary design of JEM ECLSS and TCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Otsuki, F.; Suzuki, K.; Shibutani, S.; Hattori, A.; Sasayama, H.; Inoue, M.; Sugai, W.

    1991-12-01

    Preliminary design of the Japanese Module (JEM), which will be attached to the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF), began in early 1991. The target of the design activities is the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) planned in the beginning of 1992. The pressurized module of the JEM is composed of several subsystems including the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), the Thermal Control System (TCS), mechanical equipment (airlock), the data management system, the communications and tracking system, the electrical power system, and the experiment support system. The preliminary design of ECLSS and TCS including the baseline configurations and the design requirements are described.

  14. Births: preliminary data for 2012.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2013-09-01

    Objectives-This report presents preliminary data for 2012 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods-Data in this report are based on 99.96% of 2012 births.Records for the few states with less than 100% of records received are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2012. Comparisons are made with final 2011 data. Results-The preliminary number of births for the United States in 2012 was 3,952,937, essentially unchanged (not statistically significant) from 2011; the general fertility rate was 63.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44, down only slightly from 2011, after declining nearly 3% a year from 2007 through 2010. The number of births and fertility rate either declined or were unchanged for most race and Hispanic origin groups from 2011 to 2012; however, both the number of births and the fertility rate for Asian or Pacific Islander women rose in 2012 (7% and 4%, respectively). The birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 was down 6% in 2012 (29.4 births per 1,000 teenagers aged 15-19), yet another historic low for the United States, with rates declining for younger and older teenagers and for nearly all race and Hispanic origin groups. The birth rate for women in their early 20s also declined in 2012, to a new record low of 83.1 births per 1,000 women. Birth rates for women in their 30s rose in 2012, as did the birth rate for women in their early 40s. The birth rate for women in their late 40s was unchanged. The nonmarital birth rate declined in 2012 (to 45.3 birth per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44), whereas the number of births to unmarried women rose 1% and the percentage of births to unmarried women was unchanged (at 40.7%). The cesarean delivery rate for the United States was unchanged in 2012 at 32.8%. The preterm

  15. AGR-1 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Lance Cole; Scott Ploger; Philip Winston; Binh Pham; Michael Abbott

    2011-01-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment ended on November 6, 2009, after 620 effective full power days in the Advanced Test Reactor, achieving a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in March 2010 for post-irradiation examination. The first PIE activities included non-destructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and the graphite fuel holders. Dimensional measurements of the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsules shells were performed using a custom vision measurement system (for outer diameters and lengths) and conventional bore gauges (for inner diameters). Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Neutron radiography of the intact Capsule 2 showed a high degree of detail of interior components and confirmed the observation that there was no major damage to the capsule. Disassembly of the capsules was initiated using procedures qualified during out-of-cell mockup testing. Difficulties were encountered during capsule disassembly due to irradiation-induced changes in some of the capsule components’ properties, including embrittled niobium and molybdenum parts that were susceptible to fracture and swelling of the graphite fuel holders that affected their removal from the capsule shells. This required various improvised modifications to the disassembly procedure to avoid damage to the fuel compacts. Ultimately the capsule disassembly was successful and only one compact from Capsule 4 (out of 72 total in the test train) sustained damage during the disassembly process, along with the associated graphite holder. The compacts were generally in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor

  16. EUPORIAS: plans and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. In 2012 the European Commission funded EUPORIAS, a four year long project to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The poster describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  17. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  18. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  19. Space station preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of a 3 month preliminary design and analysis effort is presented. The configuration that emerged consists of a very stiff deployable truss structure with an overall triangular cross section having universal modules attached at the apexes. Sufficient analysis was performed to show feasibility of the configuration. An evaluation of the structure shows that desirable attributes of the configuration are: (1) the solar cells, radiators, and antennas will be mounted to stiff structure to minimize control problems during orbit maintenance and correction, docking, and attitude control; (2) large flat areas are available for mounting and servicing of equipment; (3) Large mass items can be mounted near the center of gravity of the system to minimize gravity gradient torques; (4) the trusses are lightweight structures and can be transported into orbit in one Shuttle flight; (5) the trusses are expandable and will require a minimum of EVA; and (6) the modules are anticipated to be structurally identical except for internal equipment to minimize cost.

  20. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  1. Preliminary results of ANAIS-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2014-04-01

    The ANAIS (Annual Modulation with NaI(Tl) Scintillators) experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal using the same target and technique at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. 250 kg of ultrapure NaI(Tl) crystals will be used as a target, divided into 20 modules, each coupled to two photomultipliers. Two NaI(Tl) crystals of 12.5 kg each, grown by Alpha Spectra from a powder having a potassium level under the limit of our analytical techniques, form the ANAIS-25 set-up. The background contributions are being carefully studied and preliminary results are presented: their natural potassium content in the bulk has been quantified, as well as the uranium and thorium radioactive chains presence in the bulk through the discrimination of the corresponding alpha events by PSA, and due to the fast commissioning, the contribution from cosmogenic activated isotopes is clearly identified and their decay observed along the first months of data taking. Following the procedures established with ANAIS-0 and previous prototypes, bulk NaI(Tl) scintillation events selection and light collection efficiency have been also studied in ANAIS-25.

  2. Preliminary Response Analysis of AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Azian; Basharie, Siti Mariam; Ghani, Mohamad Hanifah Abd.

    2010-06-01

    Development of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) involves a great task to fully understand the overall working principles of an UAV that needed time, experience and a wide range of intelligence to cover the entire scientific facts. This study is done by means to acquire the fundamental knowledge in understanding the stability and response of an UAV. The longitudinal response and stability of UAV owing to deflection of stern plane during trimmed equilibrium motion can be computed by solving the AUV equation of motion. In this study, the AUV equations of motion were rederived and the solution was computed with the aid of Matlab software. From the existing AUV, a new dimension, weight and speed were specified to be used in the rederivation of the linearised AUV longitudinal equations of motion. From the analysis done, the longitudinal response AUV shows the stern plane and thrust has relatively steady longitudinal control power and quick response characteristic. The results had successfully given a preliminary insight of the specified AUV response and dynamic stability.

  3. 29 CFR 1955.31 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955... those not disposed of by admissions or agreements, and control the subsequent course of the...

  4. 15 CFR 270.101 - Preliminary reconnaissance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.101 Preliminary reconnaissance. (a) To...

  5. 15 CFR 270.101 - Preliminary reconnaissance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.101 Preliminary reconnaissance. (a) To...

  6. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by... point in the production process after which no further chemical reactions designed to produce or purify...

  7. San Mateo Creek Basin Preliminary Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of this Preliminary Assessment is to evaluate the site using the Hazard Ranking System and the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix to determine if a threat to human health and the environment exists such that further action is warranted.

  8. 43 CFR 2450.2 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PETITION-APPLICATION CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Petition-Application Procedures § 2450.2 Preliminary determination. Upon the filing of a petition...

  9. 43 CFR 2450.2 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PETITION-APPLICATION CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Petition-Application Procedures § 2450.2 Preliminary determination. Upon the filing of a petition...

  10. 43 CFR 2450.2 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PETITION-APPLICATION CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Petition-Application Procedures § 2450.2 Preliminary determination. Upon the filing of a petition...

  11. 43 CFR 2450.2 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PETITION-APPLICATION CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Petition-Application Procedures § 2450.2 Preliminary determination. Upon the filing of a petition...

  12. Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Weston, R. P.; Zang, T. A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) methodology and two applications of this methodology to the preliminary design phase are presented. These applications are being undertaken to improve, develop, validate and demonstrate MDO methods. Each is presented to illustrate different aspects of this methodology. The first application is an MDO preliminary design problem for defining the geometry and structure of an aerospike nozzle of a linear aerospike rocket engine. The second application demonstrates the use of the Framework for Interdisciplinary Design Optimization (FIDO), which is a computational environment system, by solving a preliminary design problem for a High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The two sample problems illustrate the advantages to performing preliminary design with an MDO process.

  13. 43 CFR 3425.1-7 - Preliminary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preliminary data. 3425.1-7 Section 3425.1... Preliminary data. (a) Any application for a lease shall contain preliminary data to assist the authorized... preliminary data shall include: (1) A map, or maps, showing the topography, physical features and natural...

  14. 43 CFR 3425.1-7 - Preliminary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preliminary data. 3425.1-7 Section 3425.1... Preliminary data. (a) Any application for a lease shall contain preliminary data to assist the authorized... preliminary data shall include: (1) A map, or maps, showing the topography, physical features and natural...

  15. 43 CFR 3425.1-7 - Preliminary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preliminary data. 3425.1-7 Section 3425.1... Preliminary data. (a) Any application for a lease shall contain preliminary data to assist the authorized... preliminary data shall include: (1) A map, or maps, showing the topography, physical features and natural...

  16. Comparative Soot Diagnostics: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Gard, Melissa Y.

    1997-01-01

    detected and suppressed. Prior to CSD, no combustion-generated particulate samples had been collected near the flame zone for well-developed microgravity flames. All of the extant data either came from drop tower tests and therefore only corresponded to the early stages of a fire or were collected far from the flame zone. The fuel sources in the drop tower tests were restricted to laminar gas-jet diffusion flames and very rapidly overheated wire insulation. The gas-jet tests indicated, through thermophoretic sampling, (2) that soot primaries and aggregates (groups of primary particles) in low-gravity may be significantly larger than those in normal gravity (1-g). This raises new scientific questions about soot processes as well as practical issues for particulate size sensitivity and detection alarm threshold levels used in on-orbit smoke detectors. Preliminary tests in the 2.2 second drop tower suggest that particulate generated by overheated wire insulation may be larger in low-g than in 1-g. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids downstream of the fire region in the Wire Insulation Flammability experiment as well as visual observation of long string-like aggregates, further confirm this suggestion. The combined impact of these limited results and theoretical predictions is that, as opposed to extrapolation from l-g data, direct knowledge of low-g combustion particulate is needed for more confident design of smoke detectors for spacecraft. This paper describes the operation and preliminary results of the CSD, a project conceived and developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The CSD flight experiment was conducted in the Middeck Glovebox Facility (MGBX) on USMP-3. The project is support by NASA Headquarters Microgravity Science and Applications Division and Code Q. The results presented here are from the microgravity portion of the experiment, including the temporal response of the detectors and average sizes of the primary and aggregate particles captured on the

  17. Pulseless Oximetry: A Preliminary Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Thomas K; Gupta, Pragya; Stoy, Sean P; Carlese, Anthony; Goldstein, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Pulse oximetry fails when pulsations are weak or absent, common in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). We developed a method to measure arterial oxygenation (Sao2) noninvasively in pulseless patients with LVADs. The technique involves 5- to 10-s occlusions of radial and ulnar arteries on one hand. A fingertip is transilluminated alternately with light-emitting diodes emitting 660 nm (red) and 905 nm (infrared). During the approximately 1 s after release of occlusion, changing attenuance of each wavelength is measured and their red/infrared arterial blood attenuance ratio (R/IR) calculated. We studied five normal subjects breathing hyperoxic, normoxic, or hypoxic gas mixtures to establish a calibration curve, using standard pulse oximetry as the gold standard. We also studied seven pulseless patients with LVADs (two studied twice) at clinically determined oxygenation. Normal subject data showed close correlation of oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo2) with R/IR, (Spo2 = 111 - [26.7 × R/IR]; R2 = 0.975). For patients with LVADs, predicted Sao2 (from the calibration curve) tended to underestimate measured Sao2 (from arterial blood) by a clinically insignificant 1.1 ± 1.6 percentage points (mean ± SD), maximum 3.4 percentage points. Preliminary results in a small number of patients demonstrate that pulseless oximetry can be used to estimate arterial saturation with acceptable accuracy. A noninvasive oximeter that does not rely on pulsatile flow would be a valuable advance in assessing oxygenation in patients with LVADs, for whom the only current option is arterial puncture, which is painful, risks arterial injury, and only provides a snapshot evaluation of oxygenation.

  18. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  19. Preliminary Results from the iMUSH Active Source Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Kiser, Eric; Palomeras, Imma; Zelt, Colin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steve; Harder, Steven; Creagar, Kenneth; Vidale, John; Abers, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    iMUSH (imaging Magma Under Saint Helens) is a US NSF sponsored multi-disciplinary investigation of Mount Saint Helens (MSH), currently the most active volcano in the Cascades arc in the northwestern United States. The project consists of active and passive seismic experiments, extensive magnetotelluric sounding, and geological/geochemical studies involving scientists at 7 institutions in the U.S. and Europe. The long-term goal of the seismic project is to combine analysis of the active source data with that of data from the 70 element broadband seismograph operating from summer 2014 until 2016. Combining seismic and MT analyses with other data, we hope to image the MSH volcanic plumbing system from the surface to the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Here we describe preliminary results of the iMUSH active source seismic experiment, conducted in July and August 2014. The active source experiment consisted of twenty-three 454 or 908 kg weight shots recorded by ~3500 seismographs deployed at ~6,000 locations. Of these instruments, ~900 Nodal Seismic instruments were deployed continuously for two weeks in an areal array within 10 km of the MSH summit. 2,500 PASSCAL Texan instruments were deployed twice for five days in 3 areal arrays and 2 dense orthogonal linear arrays that extended from MSH to distances > 80 km. Overall the data quality from the shots is excellent. The seismograph arrays also recorded dozens of micro-earthquakes beneath the MSH summit and along the MSH seismic zone, and numerous other local and regional earthquakes. In addition, at least one low frequency event beneath MSH was recorded during the experiment. At this point we have begun various types of analysis of the data set: We have determined an average 1D Vp structure from stacking short-term/long-term average ratios, we have determined the 2-D Vp structure from ray-trace inversions along the two orthogonal profiles (in the NW-SE and NE-SW directions), and we have made low-fold CMP stacks of the

  20. Very preliminary reference Moon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphaël F.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Chevrot, Sébastien; Lognonné, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The deep structure of the Moon is a missing piece to understand the formation and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Despite the great amount of information brought by the Apollo passive seismic experiment (ALSEP), the lunar structure below deep moonquakes, which occur around 900 km depth, remains largely unknown. We construct a reference Moon model which incorporates physical constraints, and fits both geodesic (lunar mass and polar moment of inertia, and Love numbers) and seismological (body wave arrivals measured by Apollo network) data. In this model, the core radius is constrained by the detection of S waves reflected from the core. In a first step, for each core radius, a radial model of the lunar interior, including P and S wave velocities and density, is inverted from seismic and geodesic data. In a second step, the core radius is determined from the detection of shear waves reflected on the lunar core by waveform stacking of deep moonquake Apollo records. This detection has been made possible by careful data selection and processing, including a correction of the gain of horizontal sensors based on the principle of energy equipartition inside the coda of lunar seismic records, and a precise alignment of SH waveforms by a non-linear inversion method. The Very Preliminary REference MOON model (VPREMOON) obtained here has a core radius of 380 ± 40 km and an average core mass density of 5200 ± 1000 kg/m 3. The large error bars on these estimates are due to the poorly constrained S-wave velocity profile at the base of the mantle and to mislocation errors of deep moonquakes. The detection of horizontally polarized S waves reflected from the core and the absence of detection of vertically polarized S waves favour a liquid state in the outermost part of the core. All these results are consistent, within their error bars, with previous estimates based on lunar rotation dissipation ( Williams et al., 2001) and on lunar induced magnetic moment ( Hood et al., 1999).

  1. ERIS: preliminary design phase overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Amico, Paola; Dekker, Johannes K.; Kerber, Florian; Marchetti, Enrico; Accardo, Matteo; Brast, Roland; Brinkmann, Martin; Conzelmann, Ralf D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Duchateau, Michel; Fedrigo, Enrico; Finger, Gert; Frank, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fernando G.; Klein, Barbara; Knudstrup, Jens; Le Louarn, Miska; Lundin, Lars; Modigliani, Andrea; Müller, Michael; Neeser, Mark; Tordo, Sebastien; Valenti, Elena; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sturm, Eckhard; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elisabeth M.; Hartl, Michael; Hofmann, Reiner; Huber, Heinrich; Plattner, Markus P.; Schubert, Josef; Tarantik, Karl; Wiezorrek, Erich; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Glauser, Adrian M.; Weisz, Harald; Esposito, Simone; Xompero, Marco; Agapito, Guido; Antichi, Jacopo; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Carbonaro, Luca; Cresci, Giovanni; Fini, Luca; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Di Rico, Gianluca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Dolci, Mauro

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation adaptive optics near-IR imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope 4, which will soon make full use of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It is a high-Strehl AO-assisted instrument that will use the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). The project has been approved for construction and has entered its preliminary design phase. ERIS will be constructed in a collaboration including the Max- Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and will offer 1 - 5 μm imaging and 1 - 2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with a high Strehl performance. Wavefront sensing can be carried out with an optical high-order NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor, or with a single laser in either an optical low-order NGS mode, or with a near-IR low-order mode sensor. Due to its highly sensitive visible wavefront sensor, and separate near-IR low-order mode, ERIS provides a large sky coverage with its 1' patrol field radius that can even include AO stars embedded in dust-enshrouded environments. As such it will replace, with a much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important imaging modes offered by NACO (diffraction limited imaging in the J to M bands, Sparse Aperture Masking and Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraphy) and the integral field spectroscopy modes of SINFONI, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be upgraded and re-used in ERIS. As part of the SPIFFI upgrade a new higher resolution grating and a science detector replacement are envisaged, as well as PLC driven motors. To accommodate ERIS at the Cassegrain focus, an extension of the telescope back focal length is required, with modifications of the guider arm assembly. In this paper we report on the status of the

  2. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  3. Preliminary Results of an On-Line, Multi-Spectrometer Fission Product Monitoring System to Support Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Testing and Qualification in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John B. Walter; Mark W. Drigert

    2007-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 (AGR-1) experiment is the first experiment in a series of eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments scheduled for placement in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and will continue irradiation for about 2.5 years. During this time six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The goals of the irradiation experiment is to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. This paper presents the preliminary test details of the fuel performance, as measured by the control and acquisition software.

  4. Of stewardship, motherhood and apple pie.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is universally agreed to be desirable, but optimal models for stewardship remain uncertain. UK stewardship targets the particular antibiotic families-cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones-blamed for the selection of Clostridium-difficile-associated disease. To balance this there have been dramatic increases in the use of penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. By channelling selection pressure in this way, we hazard destroying the utility of these antibiotic classes in turn, as happened with gonorrhoea where penicillins, fluoroquinolones and cefixime were sequentially lost as therapies. Strikingly, in context, almost all carbapenemase-producers are highly resistant to penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, which may select for them. There is an urgent need to explore an alternative stewardship model, seeking to limit total antibiotic use but to maintain heterogeneity in what is used, avoiding concentrated selection pressure. There is also a great need to improve and accelerate diagnostics for infection and resistance, reducing or removing the need for protracted empirical treatment with broad-spectrum agents.

  5. Trash Pie: Is Your School Serving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Krista M.; Curran, Mary Carla

    2010-01-01

    In observation of Earth Day, third-grade students were invited to examine what they contribute to the landfill and learn new ways they could help protect the environment. In this lesson, students collected, evaluated, and displayed data comparing the trash generated by home-lunch versus school-lunch students. Students interpreted their findings…

  6. PIE: A Dynamic Failure-Based Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic technique for statistically estimating three program characteristics that affect a program's computational behavior: (1) the probability that a particular section of a program is executed, (2) the probability that the particular section affects the data state, and (3) the probability that a data state produced by that section has an effect on program output. These three characteristics can be used to predict whether faults are likely to be uncovered by software testing. Index Terms: Software testing, data state, fault, failure, testability. 1 Introduction

  7. Resolving resource conflict: A bigger pie

    Treesearch

    Jim Winder

    1999-01-01

    One of today's critical questions for ranchers is how to gain economic benefits from natural resources without damaging biodiversity. Ranchers today face declining beef prices, escalating resource prices, and taking on costs once covered outside the industry. Ranchers join environmentalists and agency personnel in the struggle to meet evolving needs of the...

  8. Motherhood, Apple Pie, and Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.

    2005-01-01

    A good Little League baseball coach will analyze a pitcher's performance and develop an individual prescription based on that analysis. Just as all pitchers do not receive the same remedies from high-quality coaches, the author believes, neither should all students. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) stands as the imposing batter to many teachers and…

  9. The Politics of the Static Economic Pie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Until America gets a stable source of energy, we will have slow or no economic growth. The public policy of scarcity will differ from the politics of abundance and cause a rethinking of public policy. For example, we cannot have the immigration policies that we had as an empty continent. (SR)

  10. Trash Pie: Is Your School Serving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Krista M.; Curran, Mary Carla

    2010-01-01

    In observation of Earth Day, third-grade students were invited to examine what they contribute to the landfill and learn new ways they could help protect the environment. In this lesson, students collected, evaluated, and displayed data comparing the trash generated by home-lunch versus school-lunch students. Students interpreted their findings…

  11. Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-12

    The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)

  12. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  13. 37 CFR 1.484 - Conduct of international preliminary examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... international preliminary examination will be conducted on inventions not previously searched by an International Searching Authority. (d) The International Preliminary Examining Authority will establish a... reply. (e) The written opinion established by the International Searching Authority under PCT Rule...

  14. 37 CFR 1.484 - Conduct of international preliminary examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... international preliminary examination will be conducted on inventions not previously searched by an International Searching Authority. (d) The International Preliminary Examining Authority will establish a... reply. (e) The written opinion established by the International Searching Authority under PCT Rule...

  15. 18 CFR 154.105 - Preliminary statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary statement. 154.105 Section 154.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition...

  16. 10 CFR 71.85 - Preliminary determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary determinations. 71.85 Section 71.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating... shipment of licensed material— (a) The licensee shall ascertain that there are no cracks,...

  17. NII Task Force Issues Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents the preliminary report of the National Information Infrastructure's Task Force on Intellectual Property. Topics addressed include current copyright law; distribution rights; publication; first sale doctrine; technological protection; copyright management information; public performance right; fair use; licensing; international issues;…

  18. 32 CFR 552.76 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary investigation. 552.76 Section 552.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Solicitation on Military Reservations §...

  19. Engineering Technology Programs. Preliminary Curriculum Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Developed as a resource to assist in a major revision underway in Georgia area technical schools to change curricula for preparing engineering technicians, this preliminary program-planning guide describes curriculum structures for specialized programs in three major areas--electronics, electromechanics, and mechanics. The handbook, which is…

  20. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  1. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  2. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  3. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  4. Preliminary Safety Analysis for the IRIS Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ricotti, M.E.; Cammi, A.; Cioncolini, A.; Lombardi, C.; Cipollaro, A.; Orioto, F.; Conway, L.E.; Barroso, A.C.

    2002-07-01

    A deterministic analysis of the IRIS safety features has been carried out by means of the best-estimate code RELAP (ver. RELAP5 mod3.2). First, the main system components were modeled and tested separately, namely: the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the modular helical-coil Steam Generators (SG) and the Passive (natural circulation) Emergency Heat Removal System (PEHRS). Then, a preliminary set of accident transients for the whole primary and safety systems was investigated. Since the project was in a conceptual phase, the reported analyses must be considered preliminary. In fact, neither the reactor components, nor the safety systems and the reactor signal logics were completely defined at that time. Three 'conventional' design basis accidents have been preliminary evaluated: a Loss Of primary Flow Accident, a Loss Of Coolant Accident and a Loss Of Feed Water accident. The results show the effectiveness of the safety systems also in LOCA conditions; the core remains covered for the required grace period. This provides the basis to move forward to the preliminary design. (authors)

  5. 25 CFR 11.1005 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... detention or shelter care, the children's court shall conduct a preliminary inquiry within 24 hours for the... delinquent act; and (2) Whether continued detention or shelter care is necessary pending further proceedings...; and (2) The need for detention or shelter care. (f) If the children's court finds that probable...

  6. 25 CFR 11.1105 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shelter care, the children's court shall conduct a preliminary inquiry with 24 hours for the purpose of...) Whether continued shelter care is necessary pending further proceedings. (b) If a minor has been released... the complaint or the taking of the minor into custody; and (2) The need for shelter care. (f) If...

  7. A DESCRIPTIVE INDONESIAN GRAMMAR--PRELIMINARY EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    THIS PRELIMINARY EDITION COMPRISES A DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA), THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. THE THREE SECTIONS--PHONOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND MORPHOLOGY--PRESENT A COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN, WITH OCCASIONAL CONTRASTIVE REFERENCE TO MALAY, JAVANESE, SUNDANESE, AND SUMATRAN. THIS…

  8. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  9. Secondary School Mathematics. Preliminary Version. Sample Chapters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Max S.; And Others

    This volume contains preliminary versions of five of the chapters prepared by the SMSG curriculum project for use in grades 7 and 8. The first four chapters and the tenth chapter in the sequence are presented. The sample chapters in this volume illustrate a number of aspects of the curriculum project: (1) association of ideas of number and space…

  10. 5 CFR 838.1007 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1007 Preliminary review. (a)(1) Upon receipt of a court order and documentation required by... OPM has received the court order and documentation. The court order and documentation will be filed...

  11. 5 CFR 838.1007 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1007 Preliminary review. (a)(1) Upon receipt of a court order and documentation required by... OPM has received the court order and documentation. The court order and documentation will be filed...

  12. 5 CFR 838.1007 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Affecting Civil Service Retirement Benefits § 838.1007 Preliminary review. (a)(1) Upon receipt of a court order and documentation required by... OPM has received the court order and documentation. The court order and documentation will be filed...

  13. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  14. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  15. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 116.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written... through informal discussions with the complainant, users of the affected waterway, the owner of the bridge...

  16. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 116.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written... through informal discussions with the complainant, users of the affected waterway, the owner of the bridge...

  17. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 116.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written... through informal discussions with the complainant, users of the affected waterway, the owner of the bridge...

  18. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 116.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written... through informal discussions with the complainant, users of the affected waterway, the owner of the bridge...

  19. 33 CFR 116.10 - Preliminary review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 116.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.10 Preliminary review. (a) Upon receipt of a written... through informal discussions with the complainant, users of the affected waterway, the owner of the bridge...

  20. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  1. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  2. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  3. 42 CFR 455.14 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Agency Fraud Detection and Investigation Program § 455.14 Preliminary investigation. If the agency receives a complaint of Medicaid fraud...

  4. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  5. 28 CFR 36.604 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary determination. 36.604 Section 36.604 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Certification of State Laws or Local Building...

  6. 42 CFR 457.925 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary investigation. 457.925 Section 457.925 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Program...

  7. 42 CFR 457.925 - Preliminary investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preliminary investigation. 457.925 Section 457.925 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Program...

  8. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  9. 32 CFR 1803.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1803.11 Section 1803.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT TO SECTION 3.6...

  10. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  11. 32 CFR 1803.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1803.11 Section 1803.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT TO SECTION 3.6...

  12. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  13. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  14. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  15. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section 207.108 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  16. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section 207.108 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  17. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section 207.108 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  18. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section 207.108 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  19. A Preliminary "Basic Math Program" Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhring, Richard

    This report proposes a preliminary basic math program that may help mitigate the student attrition problem at Contra Costa College (California). For the purposes of this proposal, Math 101, 115, and 118 are identified as courses to be included in the program. The essential features of this proposed curriculum are summarized as follows: (1) it…

  20. Polarized electrons in ELSA (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; von Drachenfels, W.; Durek, D.; Frommberger, F.; Hoffmann, M.; Husmann, D.; Kiel, B.; Klein, F. J.; Menze, D.; Michel, T.; Nakanishi, T.; Naumann, J.; Reichelt, T.; Steier, C.; Toyama, T.; Voigt, S.; Westermann, M.

    1998-01-01

    Polarized electrons have been accelerated in the electron stretcher accelerator ELSA for the first time. Up to 2.1 GeV the polarization of the electron beam supplied by the 120 keV polarized electron source has been measured with a Mo/ller polarimeter. Preliminary results of polarization measurements at high energies and the performance of the source are presented.