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Sample records for preliminary rat study

  1. Exercise induces age-dependent changes on epigenetic parameters in rat hippocampus: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Moysés, Felipe; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Muotri, Alysson Renato; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Regular exercise improves learning and memory, including during aging process. Interestingly, the imbalance of epigenetic mechanisms has been linked to age-related cognitive deficits. However, studies about epigenetic alterations after exercise during the aging process are rare. In this preliminary study we investigated the effect of aging and exercise on DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) and H3-K9 methylation levels in hippocampus from 3 and 20-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two exercise protocols: single session or chronic treadmill protocol. DNMT1 and H3-K9 methylation levels were decreased in hippocampus from aged rats. The single exercise session decreased both DNMT3b and DNMT1 levels in young adult rats, without any effect in the aged group. Both exercise protocols reduced H3-K9 methylation levels in young adult rats, while the single session reversed the changes on H3-K9 methylation levels induced by aging. Together, these results suggest that an imbalance on DNMTs and H3-K9 methylation levels might be linked to the brain aging process and that the outcome to exercise seems to vary through lifespan.

  2. Preliminary studies on the fate of inhaled vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in rats.

    PubMed

    Hefner, R E; Watanabe, P G; Gehring, P J

    1975-06-01

    Rats were exposed to vinyl chloride monomer gas (VCM) in a closed recirculating system. The rate at which VCM was removed from the system via metabolism was determined for rats exposed to initial concentrations of VCM ranging from 50 to 1167 ppm. Upon exposure to initial concentrations of 50 to 105 ppm, the rate of metabolism was 8.04 plus or minus 3.40 x 10(-3) min-1. Upon exposure to initial concentrations ranging from 202 to 1167 ppm, the rate constants were less; the mean value being 2.65 plus or minus 1.35 x 10(-3) min-1. Regardless of concentration, the disappearance followed apparent first order kinetics. Pretreatment of rats with pyrazole prior to exposure to initial concentrations of 65 and 1234 ppm VCM caused 71 and 87% reductions in the rate of metabolism. Ethanol caused 96% and 83% reductions in the rate of VCM metabolism by rats exposed to 56 and 97 ppm VCM, respectively. Ethanol was less effective in blocking the rate of metabolism by rats exposed to high concentrations of VCM; 46 and 36% in rats exposed to 1025 and 1034 ppm VCM. In rats exposed to an initial concentration of 65 ppm VCM, SKF-525-A administration caused no inhibition of the rate of VCM metabolism; however, a 19% inhibition was seen in rats exposed to 1038 ppm. The nonprotein sulfhydryl content of the liver (glutathione and cysteine) of rats exposed to VCM concentrations ranging from 50 to 15,000 ppm VCM is reduced without a relationship to dose. With repeated daily exposure the degree of reduction is reduced. Preliminary results indicate that the primary metabolites of VCM react with the nonprotein sulfhydryl. Final metabolic products excreted in the urine appear to be S-(2-hydroxyethyl) cysteine and S-(2-carboxymethyl)cysteine and the respective N-acetyl derivatives. Monochloroacetic acid was identified as another potential metabolite. Considering the results in toto, it is hypothesized that VCM is readily and extensively metabolized. Metabolism via the primary pathway, postulated to

  3. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora. PMID:24329503

  4. Intrahippocampal cholinergic-rich transplants restore lead-induced deficits: a preliminary study in rats.

    PubMed

    Adhami, V M; Husain, R; Agarwal, A K; Seth, P K

    2000-01-01

    In the present study restorative potential of fetal cholinergic rich cell suspensions in ameliorating cognitive deficits in rats perinatally exposed to lead was studied. Lactating dams with 1-day old litters were given 0.2% (w/v) lead acetate in drinking water throughout lactation from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND21 at the end of which the treatment was stopped and the animals were weaned. On PND42 lead exposed rats were given bilateral, intrahippocampal, cholinergic rich fetal neural transplants (approximately 60,000 cells per site) and subsequently assessed 3 and 6 months posttransplantation. Control animals (Sham operated and transplanted) were also run in parallel. Lead exposed rats exhibited a decreased learning ability and locomotor activity. A significant decrease in the levels of acetylcholinesterase and sodium potassium ATPase Na+,K+-ATPase activity was observed in hippocampal region of lead exposed rats. The levels of lead were increased by fivefold in the hippocampal region of lead exposed rats. Transplantation showed marginal improvement in the above impairments at 3 months which were more marked at 6 months. Lead levels at 6 months were not significantly higher in lead exposed rats as compared with the control. Results confirm previous findings that fetal neural transplants help in restoring the lost functional deficits and demonstrate their restorative potential in case of lead induced deficits. PMID:10642113

  5. Preliminary study of quercetin affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis on rat endometriosis model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Zhuang, Meng-Fei; Yang, Ying; Xie, Shu-Wu; Cui, Jin-Gang; Cao, Lin; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the endometriosis rats model was randomly divided into 6 groups: model control group, ovariectomized group, Gestrinone group, and quercetin high/medium/low dose group. Rats were killed after 3 weeks of administration. The expression levels of serum FSH and LH were detected by ELISA. The localizations and quantities of ERα, ERβ, and PR were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The results showed that the mechanism of quercetin inhibiting the growth of ectopic endometrium on rat endometriosis model may be through the decreasing of serum FSH and LH levels and then reducing local estrogen content to make the ectopic endometrium atrophy. Quercetin can decrease the expression of ERα, ERβ, and PR in hypothalamus, pituitary, and endometrium, thereby inhibiting estrogen and progesterone binding to their receptors to play the role of antiestrogen and progesterone.

  6. A preliminary 13-week oral toxicity study of ginger oil in male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayastelter B; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or were untreated and served as comparative control groups. There was no mortality and no decrease in body weight or food consumption as well as selective organ weights during the study period. Administration of ginger oil to rats did not produce any treatment-related changes in hematological parameters, hepatic, renal functions, serum electrolytes, or in histopathology of selected organs. The major component of ginger oil was found to be zingiberene (31.08%), and initial studies indicated the presence of zingiberene in the serum after oral dosing. These results confirmed that ginger oil is not toxic to male and female rats following subchronic oral administrations of up to 500 mg/kg per day (no observed adverse effect level [NOAEL]). PMID:21960667

  7. Development of temporomandibular joint ankylosis in rats: a preliminary experimental study.

    PubMed

    Porto, G; Vasconcelos, B; Silva, V

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for the development of temporomandibular joint ankylosis in rats using disc removal and articular damage. In 30 adult male Wistar rats, articular damage was induced and disc removal performed in the right joint to induce ankylosis. The rats were divided into groups according to the time of killing (7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days). Maximal mouth opening, mandibular deviation, initial and final weights, and duration of surgery were recorded and evaluated. After death, the joints were submitted to histological study in order to score the ankylosis. The mean duration of surgery was 14.23 min. Mean difference between initial and final maximal mouth opening was 3.38 mm, being greatest at the 15-day evaluation and lowest at 90 days, and was statistically significant at 15 days (p=0.043), 30 days (p=0.027) and 60 days (p=0.027). No mandibular deviation was observed at any of the evaluation times. Histological scores increased with time of evaluation from 7 to 30 days, when they started to fall. This study model permitted the development of fibrous ankylosis in the majority of the animals, and no bony bridge was observed between the mandibular condyle and the temporal bone.

  8. [Preliminary study on efficacy and mechanism of Atractylodes Macrocephelae Rhizoma extracts in metabolic hyperlipidemia rats].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-jing; Chen, Su-hong; Pan, Dan-dan; Li, Bo; Lv, Gui-yan

    2015-05-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major factor causing coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major indicator for measuring lipid levels. However, there is no an effective medicine that can obviously increase HDL-C at present. According to previous laboratory studies, atractylodes macrocephalae extracts could significantly increase HDL-C level. In this study, the metabolic hyperlipidemia rat model was established by feeding high-sugar and fat diets and alcohol-drinking to explore the effect and mechanism of atractylodes macrocephalae extracts on hyperlipidemia rats. According to the findingins, different doses of atractylodes macrocephalae extracts could reduce the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ACAT and increase the contents of LCAT, HDL-C. Particularly, the atractylodes macrocephalae extracts (100 mg · kg(-1) group showed increase in HDL-C by about 50% and significant declines in HMG-CoA reductase, TC, TG. In conclusion, Atractylodes Macrocephelae Rhizoma extracts could effectively regulate the dyslipidemia of hyperlipidemia rats, especially on HDL-C. Its mechanism may be related to reduction in cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase in livers and increase in lipid metabolism and transport by regulating LCAT and ACAT levels.

  9. [Preliminary study on efficacy and mechanism of Atractylodes Macrocephelae Rhizoma extracts in metabolic hyperlipidemia rats].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-jing; Chen, Su-hong; Pan, Dan-dan; Li, Bo; Lv, Gui-yan

    2015-05-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major factor causing coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major indicator for measuring lipid levels. However, there is no an effective medicine that can obviously increase HDL-C at present. According to previous laboratory studies, atractylodes macrocephalae extracts could significantly increase HDL-C level. In this study, the metabolic hyperlipidemia rat model was established by feeding high-sugar and fat diets and alcohol-drinking to explore the effect and mechanism of atractylodes macrocephalae extracts on hyperlipidemia rats. According to the findingins, different doses of atractylodes macrocephalae extracts could reduce the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ACAT and increase the contents of LCAT, HDL-C. Particularly, the atractylodes macrocephalae extracts (100 mg · kg(-1) group showed increase in HDL-C by about 50% and significant declines in HMG-CoA reductase, TC, TG. In conclusion, Atractylodes Macrocephelae Rhizoma extracts could effectively regulate the dyslipidemia of hyperlipidemia rats, especially on HDL-C. Its mechanism may be related to reduction in cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase in livers and increase in lipid metabolism and transport by regulating LCAT and ACAT levels. PMID:26323152

  10. Prenatal MDMA exposure delays postnatal development in the rat: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Heuland, Emilie; Germaux, Marie-Aure; Galineau, Laurent; Chalon, Sylvie; Belzung, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA (ecstasy) is a synthetic illicit drug which is widely consumed throughout the world. Drug abuse during pregnancy may have an impairing effect on the progeny of drug-abusing mothers. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of prenatal MDMA exposure on the progeny development, using a rat model. Pregnant animals were injected daily with MDMA (10 mg/kg) between the 13th and 20th days of gestation. Male and female pups were then tested throughout the lactation period on the appearance and improvement of physical and sensory motor parameters. Appearance of some physical features (eyes opening and incisor eruption) and neurological reflexes as well as improving performances in negative geotaxis, gait and inclined board tests were delayed in pups prenatally exposed to MDMA compared to saline-treated pups. In contrast, functions that are necessary for survival such as forelimb reflex (that enables suckling) were present in both groups. At four weeks of age, MDMA animals recovered to normal level in all studied parameters. The delay in physical and neurological reflex development could be interpreted as alterations in maturation of some neuronal circuitries induced by prenatal MDMA exposure.

  11. Preliminary toxicity study of dichloromethane extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Obici, Simoni; Otobone, Fernanda Jacques; da Silva Sela, Vânia Ramos; Ishida, Kelly; da Silva, José Carlos; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2008-01-01

    Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Clusiaceae), known as "Pau Santo" or "Saco de Boi" in the central Brazilian plateau region, is used to treat several tropical diseases. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of dichloromethane (DcM) extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems, administered to rodents. In the acute toxicity tests, mice receiving doses of this extract by the oral and intraperitoneal routes, showed reversible effects, with LD50 values of 1503.0 and 538.8 mg/kg, respectively. In the repeated-dose oral (90 days) toxicity tests, male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with different doses of DcM extract (5, 25 or 125 mg/kg). In biochemical and haematological evaluations, the results varied widely in respect to dose and sex, with no linear profile, and did not show clinical correlations. In the histopathological examinations, the groups exhibited some changes, but there were no significant differences between the groups compared to the controls. In conclusion, these investigations appeared to indicate the safety of acute and repeated oral administration of the DcM extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems, which can therefore be continuously used with safety.

  12. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Duo-Yi; Meng, Lan; Ji, Nan; Luo, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP) in animal models, but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined. We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN) on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI). Methods: The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL). Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group. The contralateral SN served as a control. The MWT and TWL were determined again 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment. On day 14, ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy. Results: Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P = 0.000). In the PRF group, MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P = 0.000), while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05). Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group. Conclusions: Hyperalgesia is relieved, and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP. PMID:25673460

  13. Oral ethanol ingestion altered nifedipine pharmacokinetics in the rat: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Boje, K M; Dolce, J A; Fung, H L

    1984-11-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered nifedipine in the presence or absence of concomitant alcohol ingestion in the rat. In the presence of alcohol, the area under the nifedipine plasma concentration vs. time curve and half-life of drug elimination were increased, and the rate constant of elimination was significantly decreased (p less than 0.05), while the apparent volume of distribution was apparently unaffected. Clearance, normalized to control, was significantly decreased (p less than 0.01). Since nifedipine and ethanol both undergo dehydrogenation in their metabolism, it is possible that this observed drug-drug interaction may be due to a metabolic interference. It is not known at this time whether such an interaction exists in man. PMID:6515116

  14. Young Coconut Juice Supplementation Results in Greater Bone Mass and Bone Formation Indices in Ovariectomized Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Morii, Yuko; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Minami, Akira; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Young coconut juice (Cocos nucifera Linn.) (YCJ) has traditionally been consumed to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause by women in Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of YCJ on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Female 10-week-old Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following 4 groups: Baseline, Sham, Ovx, and Ovx + YCJ (n = 10 rats per group). Rats in the Baseline group were sacrificed immediately, and those in the other groups were subjected to either sham operation (Sham) or bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx and Ovx + YCJ). The Ovx + YCJ rats were administered 5×-concentrated YCJ at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight per day. Six weeks after surgery, the rats were sacrificed, and indices of bone mass and bone histomorphometry were measured. The bone mineral density of the left femur was significantly higher in the Ovx + YCJ group compared with the Ovx group. In addition, the Ovx + YCJ group showed significantly higher measurements for bone formation rate compared with the Ovx group. These findings suggest that YCJ supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and thus represents a possible intervention to slow the bone loss observed following menopause.

  15. Preliminary toxicokinetic study with different crystal forms of S (+)-ibuprofen (dexibuprofen) and R,S-ibuprofen in rats.

    PubMed

    Walser, S; Hruby, R; Hesse, E; Heinzl, H; Mascher, H

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to gain information on the plasma concentration-time profiles of both ibuprofen (CAS 15687-27-1) enantiomers in the rat after single oral application of two different crystal forms of S (+)-ibuprofen (dexibrufen, CAS 51146-56-6) and racemic ibuprofen in order to optimize blood-sampling times in a subsequent subchronic toxicity study. The application of either commercial racemic ibuprofen or recrystallised S (+)-ibuprofen (60 mg/kg) to two groups of 4 rats per blood sampling term was carried out in order to define Cmax and tmax and AUC of the plasma-concentrations of the ibuprofen enantiomers. The crystals of commercial (manufactured according to an usual manufacturing procedure) and recrystallised (S(+)- and racemic ibuprofen were different in respect to their shape and size. The recrystallised crystal species of S (+)- and racemic ibuprofen has better galenic (tabletting-) properties and tablets containing the modified S (+)-ibuprofen species showed favorable clinical results. The toxicokinetic behaviour of the recrystallised species was investigated in comparison to the commercial crystal species because of its slightly but significantly slower dissolution rate in simulated gastric and enteric juice. As the AUC0-24 h S-(+)-ibuprofen and the AUC0-24 h, R-(-)-ibuprofen after application of commercial and recrystallised crystal species were not different, the crystal form apparently did not exert an influence on the extent of absorption of S-(+)-ibuprofen and racemic ibuprofen in the rat. The rat has a high inversion capacity and the inversion of R-(-)-ibuprofen after application of commercial and recrystallised racemic ibuprofen was nearly complete in this study. The effects of crystallinity on solubility in simulated media in vitro did not correlate to the findings on the extent of absorption in the rat in vivo.

  16. Preliminary studies of acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain using N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide labelled by the technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Najoua; Said, Nadia Malek; Guizani, Sihem; Essouissi, Imen; Saidi, Mouldi

    2013-05-01

    There is currently great interest in developing radiolabeled substrates for acetylcholinesterase that would be useful in the in vivo imaging of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain has been measured in dementia disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies using (11)C and (18)F-labeled acetylcholine analogues. Our aim was to develop a new 99mTc-labeled acetylcholine analogue: N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc-TPCC) to study acetylcholinesterase activity. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the labelled compound was a substrate for acetylcholinesterase. The hydrolytic rate of this substrate was measured and the specificity was evaluated using the inhibitor BW 284 C51. In rat experiments, the 99mTc-TPCC showed desirable properties for studying the acetylcholinesterase in the rat brain: high hydrolytic rate and a moderate specificity of the substrate for acetylcholinesterase.

  17. The effect of Cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats (a preliminary study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary total antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats. Methods The study was conducted on 28 male Wistar rats, 7–11 weeks of age and 160 ± 20 g body weight, divided into four groups of seven rats each. The first group receiving normal saline (S), the second group receiving saline and gamma radiation (SR), the third group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% (C), and the fourth group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% and gamma radiation (CR). SR and CR groups were exposed to 15 Gy gamma irradiation for 7 min and 39 s. Rats were intraperitoneally injected each day during the 10-day period of the experiment, and their tongues and lips were examined to assess the incidence and severity of mucositis. The saliva samples were taken from the animals three times on day zero, six, and ten. Results The mean mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the CR than the SR group (P = 0.024), and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the CR group;the difference was statistically significant on the second day (P = 0.027). In the evaluation of salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary antioxidant concentration was significantly higher in the C than the S, SR, and CR groups on the tenth day of the experiment (p <0.05). Conclusion The clinical effects in the CR group seem to be due to antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde; this conclusion, however, requires further investigations. Delayed antioxidant effect in the CR group was evident in ip cinnamaldehyde injection, the exact mechanism is not clear. PMID:23351595

  18. Exercise may offset nicotine-induced injury in lung tissue: a preliminary histological study based on a rat model.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, S; Mathew, T C; Dean, E

    2012-05-01

    Nicotine appears to be the primary pharmacologic agent that causes smoking-related pulmonary diseases. An understanding of the effect of nicotine on lungs is essential to develop interventions that can be used to counter smoking-related diseases. Further, it is shown that physical exercise may partially reverse smoking-induced pathological changes in experimental animals. Hence, this study focuses on the pathological changes in rat lung following nicotine administration and the role of exercise in reversing the nicotine-induced lung injury. This is a randomized controlled trial with 3 groups of rats. Control (CG), nicotine-exposed (NG), and nicotine-exposed and exercise group (NEG). Control group received no intervention. Both NG and NEG were given 1.5 mg/kg nicotine base, daily, subcutaneously, but NEG were also subjected to an intensive daily swimming protocol. The rats were sacrificed and the lung tissue was processed for light and transmission electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies. Compared with the control group, the nicotine group showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum, cellular hyperplasia and interstitial fibrosis, and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration with increased intraluminal macrophages. There was only modest morphological change between the nicotine administered and nicotine and exercise groups. Expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase showed a mild increase in the NEG, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed mild and moderate increase in the expression in the NG and NEG, respectively. This study shows that nicotine induces substantial pathological changes in the lung and prolonged exercise may have some beneficial effects in partially reversing the nicotine-induced lung injury by inducing the expression of antioxidants. PMID:22452750

  19. 68Ga and 188Re Starch-Based Microparticles as Theranostic Tool for the Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Radiolabeling and Preliminary In Vivo Rat Studies

    PubMed Central

    Drion, Pierre; Meffre, Geneviève; Bernard, Claire; Duwez, Luc; Lepareur, Nicolas; Couturier, Olivier; Hindré, François

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This work aims to develop, validate and optimize the radiolabeling of Starch-Based Microparticles (SBMP) by 188Re and 68Ga in the form of ready-to-use radiolabeling kits, the ultimate goal being to obtain a unique theranostic vector for the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Methods Optimal labeling conditions and composition of freeze-dried kits were defined by monitoring the radiochemical purity while varying several parameters. In vitro stability studies were carried out, as well as an in vivo biodistribution as a preliminary approach with the intra-arterial injection of 68Ga radiolabeled SBMP into the hepatic artery of DENA-induced rats followed by PET/CT imaging. Results Kits were optimized for 188Re and 68Ga with high and stable radiochemical purity (>95% and >98% respectively). The in vivo preliminary study was successful with more than 95% of activity found in the liver and mostly in the tumorous part. Conclusion SBMP are a promising theranostic agent for the Selective Internal Radiation Therapy of Hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27741267

  20. In vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" phenomenon in rat arterial bloodstream: a preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2014-07-01

    The "black hole," a hypo-echoic hole at the center of the bloodstream surrounded by a hyper-echoic zone in cross-sectional views, has been observed in ultrasound backscattering measurements of blood with red blood cell aggregation in in vitro studies. We investigated whether the phenomenon occurs in the in vivo arterial bloodstream of rats using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system. Longitudinal and cross-sectional ultrasound images of the rat common carotid artery (CCA) and abdominal aorta were obtained using a 40-MHz ultrasound system. A high-frame-rate retrospective imaging mode was employed to precisely examine the dynamic changes in blood echogenicity in the arteries. When the imaging was performed with non-invasive scanning, blood echogenicity was very low in the CCA as compared with the surrounding tissues, exhibiting no hypo-echoic zone at the center of the vessel. Invasive imaging of the CCA by incising the skin and subcutaneous tissues at the imaging area provided clearer and brighter blood echo images, showing the "black hole" phenomenon near the center of the vessel in longitudinal view. The "black hole" was also observed in the abdominal aorta under direct imaging after laparotomy. The aortic "black hole" was clearly observed in both longitudinal and cross-sectional views. Although the "black hole" was always observed near the center of the arteries during the diastolic phase, it dissipated or was off-center along with the asymmetric arterial wall dilation at systole. In conclusion, we report the first in vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" caused by the radial variation of red blood cell aggregation in arterial bloodstream.

  1. Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberland, David L.; Agarwal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2008-03-01

    Monitoring of anti-rheumatic drug delivery in experimental models and in human diseases would undoubtedly be very helpful for both basic research and clinical management of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we have investigated the potential of an emerging hybrid imaging technology—photoacoustic tomography—in noninvasive monitoring of anti-TNF drug delivery. After the contrast agent composed of gold nanorods conjugated with Etanercept molecules was produced, ELISA experiments were performed to prove the conjugation and to show that the conjugated anti-TNF-α drug was biologically active. PAT of ex vivo rat tail joints with the joint connective tissue enhanced by intra-articularly injected contrast agent was conducted to examine the performance of PAT in visualizing the distribution of the gold-nanorod-conjugated drug in articular tissues. By using the described system, gold nanorods with a concentration down to 1 pM in phantoms or 10 pM in biological tissues can be imaged with good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. This study demonstrates the feasibility of conjugating TNF antagonist pharmaceutical preparations with gold nanorods, preservation of the mechanism of action of TNF antagonist along with preliminary evaluation of novel PAT technology in imaging optical contrast agents conjugated with anti-rheumatic drugs. Further in vivo studies on animals are warranted to test the specific binding between such conjugates and targeted antigen in joint tissues affected by inflammation.

  2. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:26435406

  3. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities.

  4. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.

    1984-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts, in general, are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification for that choice, and (3) provide a preliminary description of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. Because of several issues which cannot be evaluated quantitatively at this time, this report on the MSRE does not select a most probable decommissioning mode'' but rather discusses the issues and representative alternatives for disposal of the MSRE fuel salts and decommissioning of the facility. A budget and schedule representative of the types of activities likely to be required is also suggested for preliminary use in the SFMP Long Range Plan.

  5. A preliminary study on determining the time window of hypothermia cerebral protection in rat cortex by laser speckle flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjia; Li, Qiang; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Li, Pengcheng

    2007-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging technique was used to characterize the spatiotemporal changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in rat cortex induced by the local ultraprofound hypothermia(0°C) with the duration time of 1 min, 2 min, 5 min, 7 min and 10 min. The experimental results showed significant difference of the spatiotemporal characteristics of changes in CBF between short term and long term of ultraprofound hypothermia. For the short duration of ultraprofound hypothermia (1 min, 2 min and 5 min), the hypothermia cause the CBF decrease firstly, and then the CBF increase rapidly when the temperature is recovered to 37°C, exceeding the baseline level and lasting 10+/-3 min, finally return to the baseline. This trend of changes in CBF is similar in the regions of artery, vein and parenchyma, but with different amplitude. For the duration time of 7 min, the changes in CBF also exhibit the similar decrease induced by ultraprofound hypothermia and the rapid increase induced by the temperature recovering, however the increase does not show the overshoot, but only reach around 75% of the baseline level. For the duration of 10 min of ultraprofound hypothermia, the CBF does not increase rapidly when the temperature is recovered to 37°C, but remains at the low level of CBF for 12+/-2 min, and then increases gradually at artery sites, or increases rapidly and then decrease slightly later at the vein and parenchyma sites. Similar as the case in the duration time of 7 min, the final CBF only recovers to about 75% of the baseline level. The experimental results suggest that the CBF can not recover to the baseline after a long duration of ultraprofound hypothermia longer than 7 min.

  6. Teratology studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Mariline; Allais, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the rodent species of choice for the regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics, such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. Many decades of experience and extensive data have accumulated for both general and developmental toxicology investigations in this species. The high fertility and large litter size of the rat are advantages for teratogenicity testing. The study designs are well defined in the regulatory guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world. Teratology studies address maternal- and embryo-toxicity following exposure during the period of organogenesis. This chapter describes the design and conduct of a teratology study in the rat in compliance with the regulatory guidelines. The procedures for the handling and housing of the pregnant animals, the caesarean examinations and the sampling of fetuses for morphological examinations are described. The utility and design of preliminary studies and the inclusion of satellite animals in the main study for toxicokinetic sampling are discussed.

  7. The long-term ingestion of a diet high in extra virgin olive oil produces obesity and insulin resistance but protects endothelial function in rats: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that fatty acids derived from a diet high in saturated fat may negatively affect endothelial function more significantly than a diet high in unsaturated fat; nevertheless, the effects of the long-term ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function have been poorly studied. Methods To examine the chronic effects of monounsaturated (e.g., extra virgin olive oil (EVOO)) or saturated (e.g., margarine (M)) fatty acid-rich diets on the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in rats, three groups of rats were fed control, high-EVOO or high-M diets for 20 weeks. Body weight, energy consumption, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and in vitro vascular reactivity with and without metformin were assessed during the study period. Results Both high-fat diets produced obesity and insulin resistance. EVOO-fed rats showed smaller increases in total cholesterol and arterial lipid peroxidation when compared with M-fed rats. Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was not modified, but the vasodilating effect of carbachol was especially reduced in the M-fed rats compared with the EVOO-fed or control groups. Metformin addition to the incubation media decreased the vascular response to phenylephrine; decrease that was lower in rats fed with both high fat diets, and increased the carbachol and nitroprusside effects, but the metformin-enhanced response to carbachol was lower in the M group. Conclusions Our results suggest that feeding rats with high quantities of EVOO, despite producing obesity and insulin resistance, produces low levels of circulating cholesterol and arterial lipoperoxidation compared to M fed rats and shows a preserved endothelial response to carbachol, effect that is significantly enhanced by metformin only in rats fed with control and EVOO diets. PMID:24330822

  8. Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nwaehujor, C. O.; Ezeigbo, I. I.; Nwinyi, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280 g) were given an injection of 120 mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9 mmol/L) were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12 h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02 mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01 mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves. PMID:24224091

  9. Hemorrhage Near Fetal Rat Bone: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.

    2006-05-01

    High-intensity ultrasound has shown potential in treating many ailments requiring noninvasive tissue necrosis. However, little work has been done on using ultrasound to ablate pathologies on or near the developing fetus. For example, Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (cyst on lungs), Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (benign tumor on tail bone), and Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (one twin pumps blood to other twin) are selected problems that will potentially benefit from noninvasive ultrasound treatments. Before these applications can be explored, potential ultrasound-induced bioeffects should be understood. Specifically, ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated. An f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day-gestation exteriorized rat fetuses. The ultrasound pulse had a center frequency of 0.92 MHz and pulse duration of 9.6 μs. The fetuses were exposed to 1 of 4 exposure conditions (denoted A, B, C, and D) in addition to a sham exposure. Three of the exposures consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 10 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 6.7 MPa, and pulse repetition frequencies of 100 Hz (A), 250 Hz (B), and 500 Hz (C), corresponding to time-average intensities of 1.9 W/cm2, 4.7 W/cm2, and 9.4 W/cm2, respectively. Exposure D consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 6.7 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 5.0 MPa, and a PRF of 500 Hz corresponding to a time-average intensity of 4.6 W/cm2. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing time-average intensity (i.e., 11% for A, 28% for B, 31% for C, and 19% for D with a 9% occurrence when the fetuses were not exposed). The low overall occurrence of hemorrhaging may be attributed to fetal motion (observed in over half of the fetuses from the backscattered echo during the exposure). The mean hemorrhage sizes were 3.1 mm2 for A, 2.5 mm2 for B, 2.7 mm2 for C, and 5.1 mm2 for D. The larger lesions at D may

  10. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  11. Ethanol potentiation of methyl mercury toxicity: a preliminary report. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.J.; Bhatnagar, M.K.; Yamashiro, S.

    1981-03-01

    The ability of ethanol to affect hindlimb ataxia and body weight changes induced by methyl mercury was studied in rats. Animals treated with either water or ethanol increased in body weight during the experiment and showed no impairment of hindlimb movement. Rats treated with methyl mercury also increased in body weight but developed moderate hindlimb ataxia. Animals treated with ethanol and methyl mercury initially gained but subsequently lost weight and exhibited severe hindlimb ataxia. The results provide evidence that ethanol can potentiate methyl mercury toxicity in rats and, by implication, in humans.

  12. Optical coherence tomography based microangiography for quantitative monitoring of structural and vascular changes in a rat model of acute uveitis in vivo: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis models in rodents are important in the investigation of pathogenesis in human uveitis and the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies for treatment. Quantitative monitoring of ocular inflammation in small animal models provides an objective metric to assess uveitis progression and/or therapeutic effects. We present a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) to a rat model of acute anterior uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. OCT/OMAG is used to provide noninvasive three-dimensional imaging of the anterior segment of the eyes prior to injection (baseline) and two days post-injection (peak inflammation) in rats with and without steroid treatments. OCT imaging identifies characteristic structural and vascular changes in the anterior segment of the inflamed animals when compared to baseline images. Characteristics of inflammation identified include anterior chamber cells, corneal edema, pupillary membranes, and iris vasodilation. In contrast, no significant difference from the control is observed for the steroid-treated eye. These findings are compared with the histology assessment of the same eyes. In addition, quantitative measurements of central corneal thickness and iris vessel diameter are determined. This pilot study demonstrates that OCT-based microangiography promises to be a useful tool for the assessment and management of uveitis in vivo.

  13. Two Gifted Rapid Readers--Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schale, Florence C.

    The "page-at-a-glance" reading phenomenon in two gifted readers using only monocular vision was investigated. The specific questions to be answered in this preliminary study were (1) What is the average duration of fixations made by gifted readers while reading a somewhat familiar article? and (2) What degree of comprehension on materials of…

  14. Preliminary study for the OFFELO

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    X-ray Optics-Free FEL Oscillator (OFFELO) has potential of becoming a choice for next generation light sources. Using electron beam for the feedback allows OFFELO to be completely tunable and to combine the peak power of high-gain SASE FELs with extremely narrow bandwidth of the oscillator. While the high-gain X-ray FELs has been studied in depth and has been successfully demonstrated, two other concepts (the transport and the feed-back) involved in OFFELO still need detail studies. In this short paper we focus on the simulation of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. In our initial studies of OFFELO studied the saturation of the system and also its evolution using Genesis 2.0 code with a homemade wrapping code. While and lattice design from the modulator to the radiator, in order to minimize the feedback information loss in transporting the beam.

  15. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  16. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and culture; and a…

  17. Worker Motivation Study: Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Margaret A.

    Since the Hawthorne Studies gave birth to the human relations approach to management, employee motivation, defined as an intervening variable(s) that accounts for factors within an individual that arouse, maintain, and channel behavior toward a goal, has been of much interest. An attempt was made to replicate the factor structure of the Wherry and…

  18. Allogeneic anorectal transplantation in rats: technical considerations and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Flavio H. F.; Waisberg, Daniel R.; Seid, Victor E.; Costa, Anderson C. L.; Chaib, Eleazar; Baptista, Rachel Rossini; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Lanchotte, Cinthia; Cruz, Ruy J.; Araki, Jun; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a challenging condition with numerous available treatment modalities. Success rates vary across these modalities, and permanent colostomy is often indicated when they fail. For these cases, a novel potential therapeutic strategy is anorectal transplantation (ATx). We performed four isogeneic (Lewis-to-Lewis) and seven allogeneic (Wistar-to-Lewis) ATx procedures. The anorectum was retrieved with a vascular pedicle containing the aorta in continuity with the inferior mesenteric artery and portal vein in continuity with the inferior mesenteric vein. In the recipient, the native anorectal segment was removed and the graft was transplanted by end-to-side aorta-aorta and porto-cava anastomoses and end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. Recipients were sacrificed at the experimental endpoint on postoperative day 30. Surviving animals resumed normal body weight gain and clinical performance within 5 days of surgery. Isografts and 42.9% of allografts achieved normal clinical evolution up to the experimental endpoint. In 57.1% of allografts, signs of immunological rejection (abdominal distention, diarrhea, and anal mucosa inflammation) were observed three weeks after transplantation. Histology revealed moderate to severe rejection in allografts and no signs of rejection in isografts. We describe a feasible model of ATx in rats, which may allow further physiological and immunologic studies. PMID:27488366

  19. Preliminary evidence that abscisic acid improves spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cong-Cong; Ge, Jin-Fang; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2015-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a crucial phytohormone that exists in a wide range of animals, including humans, and has multiple bioactivities. As direct derivatives of carotenoids, ABA and retinoic acid (RA) share similar molecular structures, and RA has been reported to improve spatial memory in rodents. To explore the potential effects of ABA on spatial learning and memory in rodents, 20mg/kg ABA was administered to young rats for 6weeks, and its effects on behaviour performance were evaluated through a series of behavioural tests. ABA pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the exogenous ABA was distributed widely in the rat brain, characterised by rapid absorption and slow elimination. The behavioural tests showed that ABA increased both the duration spent in the target quadrant and the frequency it was entered in the probe test of the Morris water maze (MWM) and decreased the latency to locate the target quadrant. Moreover, ABA decreased the latency to enter the novel arm in the Y-maze test, accompanied by increases in the total entries and distance travelled in the three arms. However, there were no significant differences between the ABA-treated and control rats in the open field test and elevated plus-maze test. These results preliminarily indicate that ABA improves spatial memory in MWM and exploratory activity in Y-maze in young rats.

  20. Preliminary study of contaminant particulates around Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerman, D. W.; Weinberg, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques originally developed for the Skylab T025 contamination experiment were applied to S052 white-light coronagraph data in a preliminary study to investigate particulates around Skylab. Periods were selected which contained some contamination, even though there were no apparent dumps or vents during these periods. Velocity and size distributions were determined from optical data for particles within 200 meters of the spacecraft. Both photographic (61 particle tracks) and video (34 particles) observations yield an upper limit on particle radius of 100 micrometers. Selected photometric data from the S073 zodiacal light experiment during mission SL-2 were also examined for evidence of contamination.

  1. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Leal, Ricardo M. F.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  2. Monitoring Adverse Drug Reactions: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of family physicians functioning as monitors of adverse drug reactions (ADR) was examined over one month in ten practices. This was done as a preliminary trial, before attempting to use the 200 family physicians of the National Reporting System of the College of Family Physicians of Canada to monitor ADRs on a national basis. Both of these trials were designed to examine the feasibility of family physicians acting as prospective monitors of ADRs in newly marketed drugs and to identify a drug group suitable for monitoring. This study examined the detection of ADRs, prescribing and practice profiles. No firm conclusion could be reached as to the value of family doctors monitoring ADRs. This study supports the evidence that older patients receive more drugs and are at even greater risk of an ADR. Antibiotics, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory or antidepressant drugs are suggested as those most suitable for prospective monitoring in a family practice setting. PMID:21289786

  3. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  4. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  5. Preliminary Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) reliability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, T. M.; Nakashima, A. M.; Mondt, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary failure mode, failure effect, and criticality analysis of the major subsystems of nuclear electric propulsion is presented. Simplified reliability block diagrams are also given. A computer program was used to calculate the reliability of the heat rejection subsystem.

  6. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  7. Influence of preliminary exercise training on muscle damage indices in rats after one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for 6 days per week (excluding Sunday) over a 4-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a non-exercise group performed one bout of prolonged (3-h) treadmill exercise for 3 hours at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels differed significantly among the groups. [Conclusion] The preliminary exercise groups showed lower muscle damage and inflammatory response levels than the non-exercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:27390433

  8. NASA Desert RATS 2010: Preliminary results for science operations conducted in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lofgren, G. E.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Abercromby, A. F.

    2013-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with international partners to develop the space architectures and mission plans necessary for human spaceflight beyond Earth orbit. The Apollo missions to the Moon demonstrated conclusively that surface mobility is a key asset that improves the efficiency of human explorers on a planetary surface. NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS), a multi-year series of tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona, has tested a crewed pressurized rover concept referred to as the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). During NASA's Desert RATS 2010, four 2-person crews driving two SEVs collectively conducted 12 days of field exploration in the San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona. They collected 461 samples, with a total mass of 161.2 kg, on 70 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). Each SEV crew traveled over 60 km during their field explorations. This paper illustrates where the actual field sites, or 'science stations', were located, provides a brief description of the types of samples collected at each station, and highlights some of the more interesting sites. Most of the geologic samples collected at Desert RATS 2010 were well documented at the site of collection, and upon delivery to the Johnson Space Center the samples were given a preliminary examination. The samples are available for further study by interested researchers developing scientific instruments for use on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, or for geological investigations of the San Francisco Volcanic Field.

  9. Major nonhistone proteins of rat liver chromatin: preliminary identification of myosin, actin, tubulin, and tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Douvas, A S; Harrington, C A; Bonner, J

    1975-01-01

    Two major nonhistone polypeptides from rat liver chromatin have been identified as myosin and actin. Preliminary observations indicate that three other chromatin polypeptides of molecular weights 50,000, 34,000, and 32,000 are tubulin and heavy and light tropomyosin, respectively. A sixth component of molecular weight 65,000 which has been purified and electrophoreses as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels may be composed in part of protease-digested myosin. These six polypeptides together account for as much as 38% of the nonhistone protein mass of chromatin in this tissue. Images PMID:1060072

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of rat SHPS-1

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Aki; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Masato; Ogawa, Akira; Ujita, Sayuri; Adachi, Hiroaki; Okada, Masato; Matozaki, Takashi; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2006-03-01

    The ligand-binding domain of rat SHPS-1 was purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method with the solution-stirring technique. SHPS-1, a receptor-type transmembrane protein, is abundantly expressed in neural and myeloid tissues. The most amino-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain of SHPS-1 plays an important role in a variety of cell functions by binding its ligand CD47. Interaction between SHPS-1 and CD47 is thought to be involved in negative regulation of phagocytosis. The ligand-binding domain of rat SHPS-1 was purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method with the solution-stirring technique. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected from SHPS-1 crystals to 2.8 Å resolution and reduced to primitive hexagonal space group P622. Unit-cell parameters are a = b = 100.5, c = 101.3 Å.

  11. [Reversible sterilization with a physiological solution in the rat: preliminary note].

    PubMed

    Gianaroli, L; Livani, M F; Baffoni, A

    1982-02-01

    In this paper the Authors present a technique of reversible sterilization of female rats. They used saline hot solution through cervix and uterine horns in 45 S.D. female rats. They divided the rats in three groups. The first group received a 43 degree hydrotubation, the second a 50 degree hydrotubation and the third a 60 degree hydrotubation. All the animals were mated several times and the litter sizes were studied. Biopsies were taken by uterine horns and histological results are discussed. PMID:7066108

  12. 33. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR HEALY BUILDING, c. 1876 (COURTESY OF THE COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS) - Georgetown University, Healy Building, Thirty-seventh & O Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Tissue welding with 980-nm diode laser system: preliminary study for determination of optimal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkut, Zeynep D.; Tabakoglu, Haşim Ö.; Bozkulak, Özgüncem; Aksel, Ayla A.; Gulsoy, Murat

    2006-02-01

    In this study, tissue welding with 980-nm laser system, which is first-time in the literature, was performed. Hence, a preliminary study was done to determine optimal parameters for further studies. 1 cm long incisions done on the Wistar rat's dorsal skin were welded. Tissue welding with 980-nm wavelength depends on the degree of photothermal interaction. Thus, different power levels and exposure schedule were investigated. Dorsal sides of all animals were photographed from the date of surgery until they were sacrificed. The clinical examination - opening of wound and presence of infection - was noted. The rats did not show any abnormality on their health, behavior and nutrition manner. As a result, 980-nm diode laser was concluded to be a good candidate for tissue welding applications.

  14. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  15. Anti-pyretic activity of some plants in female albino rats: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Suresh, B; Dhanasekaran, S; Elango, K; Sethuraman, M; Rajan, S

    1995-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of the extracts were found to be AE (1000), AB (350) and TA (250) mg. per kg. body weight respectively. Both the root and aerial part fractions of TA displayed a pronounced anti-pyretic activity comparable to the standard drug paracetamol. AB oleoresin fraction was also found to show anti-pyretic effect. These observations however, confirm the folk-medical practices still prevailing among the tribes. PMID:22556707

  16. Chronic studies evaluating the carcinogenicity of monomethylarsonic acid in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Lora L; Eldan, Michal; van Gemert, Marcia; Capen, Charles C; Cohen, Samuel M

    2003-08-28

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) was administered in the diet of male and female Fischer F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice in 2-year feeding studies according to US EPA guidelines. Rats were treated with 50, 400, or 1300 ppm MMA and mice were treated with 10, 50, 200, or 400 ppm MMA based on preliminary short-term studies. The highest dose in the male and female rat groups was reduced to 1000 ppm during week 53 and then further reduced to 800 ppm during week 60 due to high mortality in the male rats. There was no treatment-related mortality in the mice. The primary target organ for MMA-induced toxicity in rats and mice was the large intestine. Toxicity was more severe in rats compared to mice and in male rats compared to female rats. The maximum tolerated dose for chronic dietary administration of MMA in rats and mice was assessed as 400 ppm, and the no effect level with regard to intestinal toxicity was assessed as 50 ppm for rats and female mice and 200 ppm for male mice. There were no treatment-related neoplastic effects detected in either the rat or the mouse.

  17. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  18. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in man induce aberrant crypt foci in rats: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Fard, Sara; Furrer, Rudolf; Archer, Michael C; Bruce, W Robert; Lip, HoYin; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J; Giacca, Adria; Ward, Wendy E; Femia, A Pietro; Caderni, Giovanna; Medline, Alan; Banks, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated clear associations between specific dietary and environmental risk factors and incidence of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. An animal model could facilitate such an understanding. Both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of F344 rats. F344 rats were provided with diets that contained putative risk factors for CRC: low calcium and low vitamin D, high iron, high fructose, and decreased light (UV) exposure or a control diet for 14 wk. The rats were then assessed with biochemical measures and by topological examination for evidence of colon abnormalities. Circulating ionized calcium was decreased from 2.85 to 1.69 mmol/L, and ACF were increased from 0.7 to 13.6 lesions/colon (both P < 0.001). Rats exposed to the multiple environmental conditions associated with colon cancer, developed ACF similar to the heterogeneous or ill-defined ACF in the human colon. Heterogeneous ACF are the most frequently seen in humans and are also seen in rats shortly after exposure to the non-genotoxic colon carcinogen, dextransulfate sodium. The rodent model could be used to assess the pathways from diet and environment to colon cancer and to provide guidance for clinical studies. PMID:26709971

  19. Changes in Aquaporin 1 Expression in Rat Urinary Bladder after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Song, Seung Hee; Ahn, Kuyoun; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that facilitate water movement across biological membranes. AQPs are also called water channels, and they have recently been reported to be expressed in rat and human urothelium. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the rat urothelium and AQP1 expression in rat urothelium. Materials and Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g each, n=20) were divided into 2 groups: the sham group (the Con group, n=10) and the partial BOO group (the BOO group, n=10). The BOO group underwent a partial BOO. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 were determined by performing Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on the rat urinary bladder. Results AQP1 immunoreactivity in both the control and the BOO groups was localized in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the lamina propria of the urinary bladder. The protein expression of AQP1 was significantly increased in the BOO group. Conclusions This study showed that BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1. This may imply that AQP1 has a functional role in the detrusor instability that occurs in association with BOO. PMID:20428433

  20. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in man induce aberrant crypt foci in rats: Preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Fard, Sara; Furrer, Rudolf; Archer, Michael C.; Bruce, W. Robert; Lip, HoYin; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J.; Giacca, Adria; Ward, Wendy E.; Femia, A. Pietro; Caderni, Giovanna; Medline, Alan; Banks, Kate

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have demonstrated clear associations between specific dietary and environmental risk factors and incidence of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. An animal model could facilitate such an understanding. Both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of F344 rats. F344 rats were provided with diets that contained putative risk factors for CRC: low calcium and low vitamin D, high iron, high fructose, and decreased light (UV) exposure or a control diet for 14 wk. The rats were then assessed with biochemical measures and by topological examination for evidence of colon abnormalities. Circulating ionized calcium was decreased from 2.85 to 1.69 mmol/L, and ACF were increased from 0.7 to 13.6 lesions/colon (both P < 0.001). Rats exposed to the multiple environmental conditions associated with colon cancer, developed ACF similar to the heterogeneous or ill-defined ACF in the human colon. Heterogeneous ACF are the most frequently seen in humans and are also seen in rats shortly after exposure to the non-genotoxic colon carcinogen, dextransulfate sodium. The rodent model could be used to assess the pathways from diet and environment to colon cancer and to provide guidance for clinical studies. PMID:26709971

  1. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, A.; Thaakur, Santh Rani

    2008-01-01

    The plant Passiflora foetida (grandilla) has been used mainly for asthma and various neurological disorders by the traditional medicinal practitioners of Chittor District. Since proper information regarding this plant is not available, our efforts were devoted to fix the pharmacognostical parameters and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetid. An attempt was made to fix the macroscopical, microscopical parameters of the leaf, quantitative microscopy, physical constants, behaviour of the powder with chemical reagents and preliminary qualitative phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida were investigated. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, flavanoids and carbohydrates. PMID:22557273

  2. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, A; Thaakur, Santh Rani

    2008-01-01

    The plant Passiflora foetida (grandilla) has been used mainly for asthma and various neurological disorders by the traditional medicinal practitioners of Chittor District. Since proper information regarding this plant is not available, our efforts were devoted to fix the pharmacognostical parameters and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetid. An attempt was made to fix the macroscopical, microscopical parameters of the leaf, quantitative microscopy, physical constants, behaviour of the powder with chemical reagents and preliminary qualitative phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida were investigated. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, flavanoids and carbohydrates. PMID:22557273

  3. A Preliminary Study of Career Education in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, S. R.; Leung, Y. F.; Stewart, K.; Smith, A. C.; Roberts, G. L.; Dees, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a preliminary study on the Geosciences in Middle School, which was a career education program in the Southeastern U.S focusing on science based on Super's (1990) theory. The students (n = 80) were found to improve their interests in studying science, increase science knowledge, skills and awareness and highly satisfied with…

  4. Applying for Your Own Job: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid

    2008-01-01

    This study undertook a small preliminary investigation of the contemporary employment practice of "applying for your own job". There has not yet been a specific study into the effect upon individuals and organisations of the practice of existing employees being required to apply for the same or a similar position in a competitive application…

  5. Spirituality and the Events of September 11: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Apple, Kevin J.; Aydlett, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Personal crises have been associated with spiritual growth. Sparked by the global response to the crisis of September 11, 2001, this study examined the relationship of spirituality and the September 11 tragedy using a sample of convenience from a college student population. This preliminary study used an experimental design to examine various…

  6. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SOLANUM SURATTENSE BURM.F. SEEDS

    PubMed Central

    Shahiladevi, S.; Jayanthi, G.; Jegadeesan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Solanum surattense Burm.f. has been largely used in the indigenous system of medicine. A preliminary pharmacognostical study of the seed has been undertaken and the physico-chemical, fluorescent and qualitative phytochemical tests have been worked out and the results were presented. PMID:22557226

  8. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  9. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  10. Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Turner, Paul L.; Freeland, Margaret; Corbin, Sara; Driscoll, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This brief paper reports the results of two observational studies examining the impact of fines for youth tobacco possession on public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings are presented that suggest that when police issued warnings and tickets to reduce underage youth possession of tobacco, in both towns the number of youth smoking in public…

  11. Preliminary simulation studies related to the Cerro Prieto Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Rivera, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of preliminary numerical simulations of the behavior of the Cerro Prieto field are discussed. The purpose of these studies is to examine: (1) the effect of using conventional isothermal methods of well test data analysis for geothermal systems, and (2) the influence of recharge from over under underlying aquifers on the temperature of a producing geothermal reservoir. 8 refs.

  12. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

  13. Preliminary shuttle structural dynamics modeling design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of a structural dynamics model of the space shuttle are discussed. The model provides for early study of structural dynamics problems, permits evaluation of the accuracy of the structural and hydroelastic analysis methods used on test vehicles, and provides for efficiently evaluating potential cost savings in structural dynamic testing techniques. The discussion is developed around the modes in which major input forces and responses occur and the significant structural details in these modes.

  14. Preliminary Study for Technology Enhanced Learning: Comparative Study of England and Northern Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenekeci, Ebru Heyberi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary study findings from an ongoing PhD study. In this paper, the researcher presents the preliminary study that was carried out with a number of schools in England and Northern Cyprus in order to identify the background or big pictures of each country in terms of available ICT tools that are…

  15. [Living with an ostomy: a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Trentini, M; Pacheco, M A; Martins, M L; da Silva, D M; de Farias, S R; Duarte, R; Martins, J C; Tomaz, C E

    1992-07-01

    This study reveals some aspects of ostomy patients life experience. The data were obtained by using the participant observation technique during the monthly meeting session of the Ostomy Patients Association from July 1989 to August 1991. The findings showed that the ostomized patients were concerned with: 1) the ostomy pouch (how to get it); 2) other persons opinion about ostomized patients; 3) their sexuality, and stoma care. The patients perceived themselves as physically disable and inferior persons. Some of them perceived themselves as having a normal life. Other patients also had to cope with the stigma of cancer. PMID:1297161

  16. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  17. A preliminary ultrasound study of velar fronting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodzinski, Sylvie M.; Frisch, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound imaging to measure velar consonant closure location, and (2) conduct a thorough study of velar fronting by measuring several productions of velar stops in the context of every English vowel. Word onset velar stops were measured in both words (CV or CVC) and nonwords (VCV) within a carrier phrase. Other coarticulatory influences were minimized by using words with no coda or labial coda consonants (e.g., ``Say a gap again,'' ``Say /oIkoI/ again''). Measurements were made at the point of maximal closure. Closure location was measured using the radial angle from the center of the ultrasound probe to the center of the velar closure. Pilot data for one subject has been analyzed to date. Closure location appears consistent across all central and back vowels. For front vowels, the degree of fronting of the velar appears to be correlated with the frontness of the vowel. Measures of closure location for diphthongs followed the back vowel pattern in the word targets. For nonwords, the closure location was influenced by the preceding diphthong offset quality and the following diphthong onset quality. Theoretical implications for the phonetics/phonology interface will be discussed.

  18. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  19. [Post-transfusional hepatitis. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    León, G; Sore, A; Celis, S; Semprúm, O; Acosta, V; Gómez, O

    1991-04-01

    In Venezuela post-transfusional hepatitis (PTH) data is unknown. We studied, prospectively, 147 patients who received blood transfusions (1 to 48 different blood components). They were screened for HBsAg (Ortho HBsAg Elisa Test System), anti HBc (Ortho HBc Elisa Test System and CORZYME, Abbott Laboratories) and amino-transferases (Doles), before and after transfusions. Only the last 36 patients were tested for anti HCV (Ortho HCV antibody Elisa Test)R from the beginning. The test were performed at 2, 7, 12 and 24 weeks subsequently in the negative recipients. PTH for type B virus was 3.8% (5/131), and for NANBH 2.7% (3/110). In both groups those recipients who had more transfusions had the greatest incidence of PTH. We conclude that anti HBc and ALT must be done in all blood donors to prevent the occurrence of PTH either B virus or NANBH. We suggest also, to include anti HCV screening in blood donors as a mean to make blood transfusion safer.

  20. Vapor inhalation exposure to soman in conscious untreated rats: preliminary assessment of neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael W; Wong, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Ashley; Devorak, Jennifer L; Dao, Thuy T; Leuschner, Jessica A; Kan, Robert K; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2016-01-01

    Neurological toxicity and brain injury following vapor inhalation exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) soman (GD) were examined in untreated non-anesthetized rats. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were exposed to 600 mg × min/m(3) of soman or vehicle in a customized head-out inhalation system for 7 min. Convulsant animals were observed for clinical signs and various regions of the brain (dorsolateral thalamus, basolateral amygdala, piriform cortex, and lateral cortex) were collected for pathological observations 24 h post-exposure. Signs of CWNA-induced cholinergic crises including salivation, lacrimation, increased urination and defecation, and tremors were observed in all soman-exposed animals. Soman-exposed animals at 24 h post-exposure lost 11% of their body weight in comparison to 2% in vehicle-exposed animals. Whole blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly inhibited in all soman-exposed groups in comparison to controls. Brain injury was confirmed by the neurological assessment of hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and microscopy in the piriform cortex, dorsolateral thalamus, basolateral amygdala, and lateral cortex. Severe damage including prominent lesions, edematous, congested, and/or hemorrhagic tissues was observed in the piriform cortex, dorsolateral thalamus, and lateral cortex in soman-exposed animals 24 h post-exposure, while only minimal damage was observed in the basolateral amygdala. These results indicate that inhalation exposure to soman vapor causes neurological toxicity and brain injury in untreated unanesthetized rats. This study demonstrates the ability of the described soman vapor inhalation exposure model to cause neurological damage 24 h post-exposure in rats. PMID:26711353

  1. Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 μg/m(3) and 60 μg/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 μg/m(3), 38.1μg/m(3) and 52.5 μg/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ≤ 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality.

  2. Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

    2011-03-01

    The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

  3. Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

    2010-10-01

    The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

  4. Preliminary dose comparisons for the MRS Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides preliminary information on the radiological doses to the public and the workers for alternative system configurations proposed in the MRS Systems Study. Information published in the MRS Environmental Assessment (DOE 1986) was used as a basis for this analysis. The risk differences between alternative configurations were found to be small and should not be viewed as a major factor in selecting alternative configurations. 1 ref.

  5. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  6. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Moore, T. J.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of gaseous contaminants through the working fluid to or from sensitive refractory alloys is theoretically possible during long time operation of Brayton and Stirling space power generation systems which use a gas as the working fluid. A test was designed which could give an answer to whether transport of contaminants through the working fluid was a potential major problem. The findings of that preliminary study are summarized.

  7. Preliminary Study of a Hybrid Helicon-ECR Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Hala, A.; Oksuz, L.; Ximing, Zhu

    2016-08-01

    A new type of hybrid discharge is experimentally investigated in this work. A helicon source and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source were combined to produce plasma. As a preliminary study of this type of plasma, the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) method was used to obtain values of electron temperature and density under a series of typical conditions. Generally, it was observed that the electron temperature decreases and the electron density increases as the pressure increased. When increasing the applied power at a certain pressure, the average electron density at certain positions in the discharge does not increase significantly possibly due to the high degree of neutral depletion. Electron temperature increased with power in the hybrid mode. Possible mechanisms of these preliminary observations are discussed.

  8. Tree STEM Reconstruction Using Vertical Fisheye Images: a Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berveglieri, A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  9. Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, Arnold E.; Kohl, Robert C.

    1959-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented covering the performance of a low-speed, five-cylinder piston pump designed for handling boiling hydrogen. This pump was designed for a flow of 55 gallons per minute at 240 rpm with a discharge pressure of 135 pounds per square inch. Tests were made using JP-4 fuel, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Pump delivery and endurance characteristics were satisfactory for the range of operation covered. In connection with the foregoing pump development, the cavitation characteristics of a preliminary visual model, glass-cylinder pump and of a simple reciprocating disk were studied. Subcooling of approximately 0.60 F was obtained from the cavitation produced by reciprocating a disk in boiling nitrogen and in boiling water. The subcooling obtained in a similar manner with liquid hydrogen was somewhat less.

  10. Developmental toxicity studies of methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO) in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Derelanko, Michael J; Rinehart, William E; Rodwell, Dean E

    2003-08-01

    The developmental toxicity of methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO), an industrial antioxidant used primarily as an antiskinning agent in alkyd paint, was investigated in rats and rabbits. Following preliminary dose range finding studies, groups of 25 pregnant rats or 18 pregnant rabbits were dosed by gavage with aqueous solutions of MEKO at 0, 60, 200, or 600 mg/kg (rats) or 0, 8, 14, 24, or 40 mg/kg (rabbits) on gestation days 6-15 or 6-18, respectively. In rats, dose-dependent clinical signs of maternal toxicity including reduced body weight gains were noted at 200 and 600 mg/kg. At 60 mg/kg and above enlarged spleens were observed at necropsy. The preliminary study found methemoglobin formation and reticulocytosis indicative of anemia at these dose levels. No treatment-related gestational effects, malformations or developmental variations were observed in the rats. In rabbits, 3 females aborted and 8 females were found dead at 40 mg/kg between gestation days 11 and 24. Clinical signs of maternal toxicity were present in surviving doses at this dose level. Body weight gains were reduced at 24 and 40 mg/kg. The preliminary study indicated maternal hematological effects in the rabbits similar to the rats at dose levels as low as 10 mg/kg. MEKO was not considered to have produced any treatment-related gestational effects, malformations or developmental variations in the rabbit at dose levels at or below 24 mg/kg. Because of excessive maternal mortality and abortions at the 40 mg/kg dose level, only 6 rabbits produced litters. The severe maternal toxicity and limited number of litters precluded a full assessment of developmental toxicity at 40 mg/kg. Nonetheless, MEKO did not appear to be teratogenic to the rabbit at this dose level.

  11. Photodynamic therapy of port wine stain: preliminary clinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. Stuart

    1993-07-01

    The broad, long term objective of this work is the development of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for application in the clinical management of patients with port wine stain (PWS). PDT involves the use of an exogenous drug which is concentrated in a targeted tissue. When irradiated at wavelengths specifically absorbed by the drug, selective destruction of the targeted tissue, without the production of heat, occurs. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate in human PWS patients that a photosensitizer, such as PHOTOFRINR, activated by red light at the appropriate therapeutic wavelength, can cause destruction of subsurface blood vessels in the skin with a high degree of specificity, and further study appears warranted.

  12. Assessment of abilities in basketball: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Derri, V; Kioumourtzoglou, E; Tzetzis, G

    1998-08-01

    Understanding the responding at two competitive levels of sports is prerequisite for successful identification and selection of the best athletes. The present study is a preliminary report about scores on 17 cognitive, perceptual, motor, and psychological measures of 13 elite Greek basketball athletes (national team), 20 to 22 years of age, and 15 children on a national basketball team and 14 to 15 years of age. Longitudinal studies must be conducted for the identification of the relationships among these measures and basketball performance and the development of a model for selection of athletes.

  13. Cassava starch fermentation wastewater: characterization and preliminary toxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Avancini, S R P; Faccin, G L; Vieira, M A; Rovaris, A A; Podestá, R; Tramonte, R; de Souza, N M A; Amante, E R

    2007-11-01

    Cassava starch fermentation wastewater is an industrial residue composed mainly of lactic acid bacteria with predominance of the genera Lactobacillus, and organic acids. To evaluate the safety of this residue for possible production of probiotic beverages, acute in mice and sub-chronic (28-day repeated dose) toxicity studies in rats were carried. The administration of a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight did not produce mortality in mice. Rats treated with water containing 0 (control), 25%, 50%, and 100% of the residue for 28 days, did not present alterations in behaviour or in food and water consumption. There were no treatment-related changes of toxicological significance in the relative weight of the organs neither in the haematological nor in the biochemical parameters. Histopathologic alterations observed in the small intestine did not seem to be associated with the treatment.

  14. [Preliminary study on pharmacodynamic evaluation method of Houpo formula particles].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Shao, Li-Jie; Tang, Fang

    2014-04-01

    To discuss the feasibility of the pharmacodynamic evaluation method for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula particles, with traditional decoction for reference and the intervention of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC). First of all, the similarity of traditional Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex decoction and formula particles of different manufacturers was defined by using the IR fingerprint. The UC rat model was established and given Houpo formula particles of different doses and manufacturers, with the decoction for reference, in order to observe disease activity index (DAI), colon mucosa damage index (CMDI), pathologic changes, nitric oxide (NO), endothdin (ET), substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Their intervention effects on UC rats were compared to study the difference between Sanjiu and Tianjiang Houpo formula particles, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the pharmacodynamic evaluation method for Houpo formula particles. According to the results, Houpo formula particles showed similar pharmacodynamic actions with the traditional decoction. The pharmacodynamic comparison of Houpo formula particles of different manufacturers showed no statistical significance. The experiment showed that on the basis of the TCM compounds, a prescription dismantlement study was conducted to define target points of various drugs. The traditional decoction was selected for reference in the comparison of corresponding formula particles for their pharmacodynamic equivalence. This method could avoid controversies about single or combined boiling of formula particles, and give objective comments on the pharmacodynamic effect of the formula particles. The method is proved to be feasible. PMID:25039188

  15. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Hirschkron, R.; Koch, C. C.; Neitzel, R. E.; Vinson, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric design and mission evaluations of advanced turbofan configurations were conducted for future transport aircraft application. Economics, environmental suitability and fuel efficiency were investigated and compared with goals set by NASA. Of the candidate engines which included mixed- and separate-flow, direct-drive and geared configurations, an advanced mixed-flow direct-drive configuration was selected for further design and evaluation. All goals were judged to have been met except the acoustic goal. Also conducted was a performance risk analysis and a preliminary aerodynamic design of the 10 stage 23:1 pressure ratio compressor used in the study engines.

  16. Biocontamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard A.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Korona, F. Adam; Poritz, Darwin; Smith, Jelanie; Wong, Wing

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study that was conducted to review, test, and improve on current space suit biocontamination control. Biocontamination from crew members can cause space suit damage and objectionable odors and lead to crew member health hazards. An understanding of the level of biocontamination is necessary to mitigate its effects. A series of tests were conducted with the intent of evaluating current suit materials, ground and on-orbit disinfectants, and potential commercial off-the-shelf antimicrobial materials. Included in this paper is a discussion of the test methodology, results, and analysis method.

  17. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  18. Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, Michal; Beek, Johan F.; Stenback, Karin; Faber, Dirk J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Ince, Can

    2005-02-01

    Due to the limited number of suitable intravital microscopy techniques, relatively little is known about the opto-thermal (endo)vascular responses to selective photothermolysis, used as a default treatment modality for superficial vascular anomalies such as port wine stains, telangiectasias, and hemangiomas. In this preliminary study we present a novel microscopy technique for studying (endo)vascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo, in which conventional orthogonal polarized spectral (OPS) imaging is combined with darkfield (DF) illumination. DFOPS imaging of rat mesenteric vasculature irradiated at increasing powers revealed the following (tissular) responses: formation of translucent aggregates, retrograde flow, gradual and immediate hemostasis, reinstatement of flow, vessel disappearance, and perivascular collagen damage. DFOPS imaging therefore constitutes a useful tool for examining (endo)vascular events following selective photothermolysis.

  19. Preliminary Morphological and Immunohistochemical Changes in Rat Hippocampus Following Postnatal Exposure to Sodium Arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Saroj; Dhar, Pushpa; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Mehra, Raj D.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth period (RBGP) (postnatal period 4-11) on pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis (specifically CA1 and CA3 regions) and granule cells of dentate gyrus (DG) of rat hippocampus were studied. Wistar rat pups, subdivided into the control (group I) and the experimental groups (group II, III, and IV), received distilled water and sodium arsenite (aqueous solution of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight, respectively) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. On postnatal day (PND) 12, the animals were sacrificed and brain tissue obtained. Paraffin sections (8 μm thick) stained with Cresyl Violet (CV) were observed for morphological and morphometric parameters. Arsenic induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) was studied using Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) technique on the paraffin sections. Microscopy revealed decreased number and isolation of pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, misalignments of pyramidal cells in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA1 and CA3 in experimental group III and IV, and presence of polymorphic cells in subgranular zone of ectal limb of dentate gyrus (suggestive of arsenic induced proliferation and migration of granule cells in the dentate gyrus). Morphometric assessments quantified and confirmed the microscopic findings. The mean nuclear area of pyramidal cells was increased and cell density was decreased in the CA1, CA3, and DG of experimental groups in comparison to the control group. Increase in the TUNEL positive cells in DG was observed in the experimental group IV, suggestive of increased apoptosis. These observations confirm vulnerability of pyramidal (CA1, CA3) and granule cells (DG) of hippocampus during RBGP. PMID:24082510

  20. Preliminary morphological and immunohistochemical changes in rat hippocampus following postnatal exposure to sodium arsenite.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Saroj; Dhar, Pushpa; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Mehra, Raj D

    2013-05-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth period (RBGP) (postnatal period 4-11) on pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis (specifically CA1 and CA3 regions) and granule cells of dentate gyrus (DG) of rat hippocampus were studied. Wistar rat pups, subdivided into the control (group I) and the experimental groups (group II, III, and IV), received distilled water and sodium arsenite (aqueous solution of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight, respectively) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. On postnatal day (PND) 12, the animals were sacrificed and brain tissue obtained. Paraffin sections (8 μm thick) stained with Cresyl Violet (CV) were observed for morphological and morphometric parameters. Arsenic induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) was studied using Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) technique on the paraffin sections. Microscopy revealed decreased number and isolation of pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, misalignments of pyramidal cells in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA1 and CA3 in experimental group III and IV, and presence of polymorphic cells in subgranular zone of ectal limb of dentate gyrus (suggestive of arsenic induced proliferation and migration of granule cells in the dentate gyrus). Morphometric assessments quantified and confirmed the microscopic findings. The mean nuclear area of pyramidal cells was increased and cell density was decreased in the CA1, CA3, and DG of experimental groups in comparison to the control group. Increase in the TUNEL positive cells in DG was observed in the experimental group IV, suggestive of increased apoptosis. These observations confirm vulnerability of pyramidal (CA1, CA3) and granule cells (DG) of hippocampus during RBGP.

  1. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  2. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  3. Preliminary paleomagnetic study of the Thetford Mines Ordovician Ophiolite (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Chiara, Anita; Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Extension associated with oceanic ridges at divergent plate boundaries is characterized by normal faulting and episodic magma supply. Studies in modern oceanic settings suggest locally along ridges both lower crust and upper mantle peridotites may be exhumed to the seafloor in features known as oceanic core complexes (OCC). OCC are characterized by long-lived low-angle detachment faults that extend for 10s of km, and that are crosscut by high-angle normal faults oriented parallel to the rift axis. Here we present preliminary results from 12 paleomagnetic sites sampled on an example of fossilized Ordovician OCC preserved in the in the Canadian Appalachians, the Southern Quebec ophiolites. These were obducted and subjected to polyphase deformation during Palaeozoic orogeny along the Laurentian margin of Iapetus. Although locally obscured by tectonic fabrics and structures, the original relationships between the ophiolitic mantle, the overlying plutonic section, and onlapping Ordovician siliciclastic rocks can be reconstructed within the Thetford-Mines ophiolite. Preliminary results from AMS and Thermal demagnetization experiments record a remarkably consistent overprint from the youngest (Acadian) phase of Paleozoic orogeny. Although complicating further study of intra-oceanic deformation along the detachment fault in the original OCC, the results provide further insights into the progressive overprint of deformation events as recorded by AMS.

  4. Crying abnormalities in congenital hypothyroidism: preliminary spectrographic study.

    PubMed

    Boero, D L; Weber, G; Vigone, M C; Lenti, C

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the acoustic patterns of the cries of hypothyroid newborns at the time of diagnosis and after the beginning of therapy. Cries were recorded at the nursery of the San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy from 12 full-term subjects (three boys and nine girls) affected by congenital hypothyroidism. Results show that untreated hypothyroid infants at first recording had fewer voiceless and partially voiced cries than normal controls. The percent distribution of this pattern did not change at the second recording after the onset of substitutive therapy. Also, untreated hypothyroid infants had many more cry units showing a vibrato contour than did controls, and this pattern did not change after the onset of treatment. Starting, maximum, minimum, and end frequencies measured on the fundamental were significantly lower in the hypothyroid sample. Four hypothyroid subjects recorded before therapy and within 4 weeks after therapy onset significantly augmented their fundamental frequency parameters; however, in 25% of the sample, sound parameters remained unaltered after 3 or more weeks of treatment. To our knowledge the present preliminary study is the first one performed on follow-up of hypothyroid newborns and indicates that both central and peripheral damage might influence the pattern of crying in untreated hypothyroid infants. PMID:11019791

  5. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  6. [Pituitary function of dysgenesic femal rats. Studies with grafting method].

    PubMed

    Vanhems, E; Busquet, J

    1975-01-01

    Misulban administered to pregnant rats on the 15th day of gestation provoked gonadal dysgenesia in the offspring. Study of the pituitary function of dysgenesic female rats, realized by grafting method, showed gonadotrophic hypersecretion.

  7. Preliminary pharmacological activity of the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia barks in rats

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Hajera; Majumder, Rajib; Al Mamun; Alam, Efte Kharul; Jami, Safkath Ibne; Alam, Badrul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Premna integrifolia Linn (Family: Verbenaceae) synonym of Premna serratifolia has tremendous medicinal value. Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia (MEPI) bark to investigate neuropharmacological, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Materials and methods: Neuropharmacology study was done by open field and hole cross test whereas acetic acid writhing test and formalin induced pain was done for analgesic activity of MEPI. Carrageenan induced inflammatory model was considered for anti-inflammatory activity evaluation. Results: A statistically significant (p0.05) decrease in locomotor activity was observed at all doses in the open-field and hole-cross tests. The extract significantly (p0.05) and dose dependently reduced the writhing reflex in the acetic acid-induced writhing test as well as licking response in the formalin induced inflammatory pain. At 200 mg/kg body weight dose, MEPI showed 71.16% inhibition in carrageenan induced anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: The finding of this study suggests that MEPI will provide scientific support for the use of this species in traditional medicine. PMID:25050319

  8. Results of preliminary Microwave Multi-Applications Payload (MMAP) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the microwave multi-applications payload (MMAP) system for the Spacelab has been carried out. The initial objectives of this study have been to determine the minimum equipment requirements of the MMAP and the feasibility of placing the numerous large aperture antennas in the Spacelab. The study was begun by reviewing the experimental objectives and techniques and determining areas of commonality. Emphasis was given to the determination of common RF equipment requirements. These requirementers were considered after agreement among the experiments had been reached on limiting the number of frequencies to be used in the system. This was done so that the number of antennas, transmitters, and receivers could be minimized. The electronics system block diagram and the antenna configurations were considered in some details. It was concluded that the MMAP is feasible and can be an economical method of achieving a large number of experimental goals.

  9. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  10. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way. PMID:21667381

  11. Recurrent laryngeal nerve histopathology in spastic dysphonia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dedo, H H; Izdebski, K; Townsend, J J

    1977-01-01

    Spastic dysphonia is a severe voice disorder ordinarily described as psychogenic. Organic-neurologic changes secondary to central or peripheral nervous system involvement have also been postulated and led recently to the surgical treatment of spastic dysphonia by unilateral section of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This study reports the histologic findings from these resections of the RLN from patients with an average 9.5 years duration of spastic dysphonia. Thirty percent of the RLNs examined demonstrated significant abnormalities as compared to age-matched controls. Although no reactive changes were noted by light microscopy, groups of fibers which did not stain for myelin or axons were found in RLNs from patients with spastic dysphonia. A preliminary ultrastructural study of these areas in one RLN revealed sheets of unmyelinated axons. These findings suggest an organic basis for spastic dysphonia at least in some patients.

  12. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  13. Telemetric motor activity in children. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Foster, F G; McPartland, R J; Kupfer, D J

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight telemetric mobility sensing system was used to study the relationship between high levels of motor activity during free-play and school performance. Among the 21 normal children, there was a significant correlation between high ankle motor activity during free-play, poor school achievement, the presence of neurological soft signs, and a poor self-image. Those normals whose free-play ankle activity was above the mean, also had significantly more errors and performed at a significantly lower level on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test than children whose activity was below the mean. This preliminary study suggests that the telemetric mobility sensing system can be easily applied to children to assess clinically relevant components of psychomotor activity.

  14. Preliminary study: isotopic safeguards techniques (IST) LMFBR fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P. J.; Kroc, T. K.

    1980-06-01

    This memorandum presents the preliminary results of the effort to investigate the applicability of isotope correlation techniques (ICT), formulated for the LWR system, to the LMFBR fuel cycle. The detailed isotopic compositional changes with burnup developed for the CRBR was utilized as the reference case. This differs from the usual LMFBR design studies in that the core uranium is natural uranium rather than depleted. Nevertheless, the general isotopic behavior should not differ significantly and does allow an initial insight into the expected behavior of isotopic correlations for the LMFBR power systems such as: the U.K. PFR and reprocessing plant; the French Phenix and Superphenix; and the US reference conceptual design studies (CDS) of homogeneous and heterogeneous LMFBR systems as they are developed.

  15. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of quadrupole

  16. Preliminary study of an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on K-edge filters

    SciTech Connect

    Golosio, Bruno; Brunetti, Antonio; Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo; Luca Masala, Giovanni; Meloni, Francesco; Battista Meloni, Giovanni

    2013-08-14

    Digital Subtraction Angiography is commonly affected by artifacts due to the patient movements during the acquisition of the images without and with the contrast medium. This paper presents a preliminary study on an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of two images, obtained using two different filters at the exit of an X-ray tube. One of the two filters (K-edge filter) contains the same chemical element used as a contrast agent (gadolinium in this study). This filter absorbs more radiation with energy just above the so called K-edge energy of gadolinium than the radiation with energy just below it. The other filter (an aluminium filter in this study) is simply used to suppress the low-energy contribution to the spectrum. Using proper calibration curves, the two images are combined to obtain an image of the contrast agent distribution. In the angio-tomographic application of the proposed technique two images, corresponding to the two filter types, are acquired for each viewing angle of the tomographic scan. From the two tomographic reconstructions, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional map of the contrast agent distribution. The technique was tested on a sample consisting of a rat skull placed inside a container filled with water. Six small cylinders with 4.7 mm internal diameter containing the contrast medium at different concentrations were placed inside the skull. In the plain angiographic application of the technique, five out of six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.96%. In the angio-tomographic application, all six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.49%. This preliminary study shows that the proposed technique can provide images of the contrast medium at low concentration without most of the artifacts that are present in images produced by conventional techniques. The results encourage further investigation on the feasibility of a clinical

  17. Preliminary study of an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on K-edge filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosio, Bruno; Oliva, Piernicola; Brunetti, Antonio; Luca Masala, Giovanni; Carpinelli, Massimo; Meloni, Francesco; Battista Meloni, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    Digital Subtraction Angiography is commonly affected by artifacts due to the patient movements during the acquisition of the images without and with the contrast medium. This paper presents a preliminary study on an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of two images, obtained using two different filters at the exit of an X-ray tube. One of the two filters (K-edge filter) contains the same chemical element used as a contrast agent (gadolinium in this study). This filter absorbs more radiation with energy just above the so called K-edge energy of gadolinium than the radiation with energy just below it. The other filter (an aluminium filter in this study) is simply used to suppress the low-energy contribution to the spectrum. Using proper calibration curves, the two images are combined to obtain an image of the contrast agent distribution. In the angio-tomographic application of the proposed technique two images, corresponding to the two filter types, are acquired for each viewing angle of the tomographic scan. From the two tomographic reconstructions, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional map of the contrast agent distribution. The technique was tested on a sample consisting of a rat skull placed inside a container filled with water. Six small cylinders with 4.7 mm internal diameter containing the contrast medium at different concentrations were placed inside the skull. In the plain angiographic application of the technique, five out of six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.96%. In the angio-tomographic application, all six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.49%. This preliminary study shows that the proposed technique can provide images of the contrast medium at low concentration without most of the artifacts that are present in images produced by conventional techniques. The results encourage further investigation on the feasibility of a clinical

  18. Histomorphometric study on growing condyle of rat.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out the histomorphometric assay on the mandibular condylar tissue of the growing rats. Male rats of the Wistar strain at the age of 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks were used. All rats were injected intravenously with tetracycline and calcein, respectively. They were killed 12 hours after calcein injection. Before embedding in acrylic resin, 3 reference points were marked directly on each condyle to establish the reference plane for the histomorphometry on the ground section. After preparing the ground section, the growth rate of the condyle was obtained by measuring the distance of the two different fluorescent labeling lines. Furthermore, the age-related changes of the relative distribution of the bone, calcified cartilage and prebone (uncalcified bone matrix) were measured under a light microscope by using a grid on the eyepiece reticle. The number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were also calculated in the same specimen. The following results were obtained: The thickness of the cartilaginous layer and the growth rate of the endochondral bone formation decreased with age. The relative ratio of the bone area in the subchondral tissue increased constantly with age. PMID:3457644

  19. Preliminary Trade Study of Phase Change Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Leimkeuhler, Thomas; Quinn, Gregory; Golliher, Eric

    2006-01-01

    For short durations, phase change based heat rejection systems are a very effective way of removing heat from spacecraft. Future NASA vehicles, such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), will require non-radiative heat rejection systems during at least a portion of the planned mission, just as their predecessors have. While existing technologies are available to modify, such as Apollo era sublimators, or the Space Shuttle Flash Evaporator System (FES), several new technologies are under development or investigation to progress beyond these existing heat rejection systems. Examples include the Multi-Fluid Evaporator developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, improvements upon the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator originally developed for the X-38 program, and a Compact Flash Evaporator System (CFES). Other possibilities evaluate new ways of operating existing designs. The new developments are targeted at increasing operating life, expanding the environments in which the system can operate, improving the mass and volume characteristics, or some combination of these or other improvements. This paper captures the process and results of a preliminary trade study performed at Johnson Space Center to compare the various existing and proposed phase change based heat rejection systems for the CEV. Because the new systems are still in development, and the information on existing systems is extrapolation, this trade study is not meant to suggest a final decision for future vehicles. The results of this early trade study are targeted to aid the development efforts for the new technologies by identifying issues that could reduce the chances of selection for the CEV.

  20. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  1. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.; Bergman, W.; Beason, D.

    1994-07-18

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blowout. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  2. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  3. Archaeoastronomical Information in the Study of Cremation Necropolis: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, J.; Cerde, M. L.; Rodríguez, C.

    2009-08-01

    This work remarks the significance that archaeoastronomical studies have for archaeological research. These studies provide us data about the perception that ancient societies had about astronomical events and how these facts were added to their religious and ideological world. Thus, archaeoastronomy become a valuable source of information when aimed to solve any question involving the ancient societies. We take as reference in this work some of the Late Bronze Age{'}s cremation necropolis, representatives of usually called Urnfields, to check if their design can be related to some celestial phenomena: Can Bech de Baix (Gerona), Can Pitieu-Can Roqueta(Barcelona), Molá (Tarragona), Can Missert (Tarragona), Les Obagues (Tarragona), La Colomina (Lleida) and La Torraza (Navarra). Likewise a new standard in archaeological excavations maps is proposed. This will allow getting the information more available and improving further studies.

  4. Comparative Analysis Between Thoracic Spinal Cord and Sacral Neuromodulation in a Rat Spinal Cord Injury Model: A Preliminary Report of a Rat Spinal Cord Stimulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kwon, Ji Woong; Yoon, Cheol-Yong; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to compare a neuroprotective effect of thoracic cord neuromodulation to that of sacral nerve neuromodulation in rat thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) model. Methods Twenty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the normal control group (n=5), SCI with sham stimulation group (SCI, n=5), SCI with electrical stimulation at thoracic spinal cord (SCI + TES, n=5), and SCI with electrical stimulation at sacral nerve (SCI + SES, n=5). Spinal cord was injured by an impactor which dropped from 25mm height. Electrical stimulation was performed by the following protocol: pulse duration, 0.1ms; frequency, 20 Hz; stimulation time, 30 minutes; and stimulation duration at thoracic epidural space and S2 or 3 neural foramina for 4 weeks. Locomotor function, urodynamic study, muscle weights, and fiber cross sectional area (CSA) were investigated. Results All rats of the SCI + TES group expired within 3 days after the injury. The locomotor function of all survived rats improved over time but there was no significant difference between the SCI and the SCI + SES group. All rats experienced urinary retention after the injury and recovered self-voiding after 3-9 days. Voiding contraction interval was 25.5±7.5 minutes in the SCI group, 16.5±5.3 minutes in the SCI+SES group, and 12.5±4.2 minutes in the control group. The recovery of voiding contraction interval was significant in the SCI + SES group comparing to the SCI group (p<0.05). Muscle weight and CSA were slightly greater in the SCI + SES than in the SCI group, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion We failed to establish a rat spinal cord stimulation model. However, sacral neuromodulation have a therapeutic potential to improve neurogenic bladder and muscle atrophy. PMID:24757451

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) disodium salt (BioPQQ™) in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Koura, Seiko; Chung, Catherine; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Roberts, Ashley

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (BioPQQ™), as a supplemental food ingredient, was evaluated in a range of oral toxicity studies in rats including an acute study, a 14-day preliminary and a 28-day repeated-dose study, and a 13-week subchronic study. The median lethal dose of BioPQQ™ was shown to be 1000-2000mg/kg body weight (bw) in male and 500-1000mg/kgbw in female rats. In the 14-day study, high doses of BioPQQ™ resulted in increases in relative kidney weights with associated histopathology in female rats only, while a follow-up 28-day study in female animals resulted in increases in urinary protein and crystals. These findings were reversible, and resolved during the recovery period. In the 13-week study, a number of clinical chemistry findings and histopathological changes were noted, which were deemed to be of no toxicological significance, as the levels were within the historical control range, were not dose-dependent, occurred at a similar frequency in control groups, or only occurred in the control group. Based on these findings, a no-observed-adverse-effect level of 100mg/kgbw/day was determined for BioPQQ™ in rats, the highest dose tested in the 13-week study.

  6. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented.

  7. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-08-15

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  8. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  9. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos

    2014-10-01

    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (< 8% of I.D.) of the instilled particles. The majority of leaked radiocolloid particles were found in inguinal lymph nodes during the 9 months of follow-up. All the animals tolerated the treatment well; the compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  10. A preliminary study of Mars rover/sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council recommends that a Mars Sample Return mission be undertaken before the year 2000. Comprehensive studies of a Mars Sample Return mission have been ongoing since 1984. The initial focus of these studies was an integrated mission concept with the surface rover and sample return vehicle elements delivered to Mars on a single launch and landed together. This approach, to be carried out as a unilateral U.S. initiative, is still a high priority goal in an Augmented Program of exploration, as the SSEC recommendation clearly states. With this background of a well-understood mission concept, NASA decided to focus its 1986 study effort on a potential opportunity not previously examined; namely, a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission which would involve a significant aspect of international cooperation. As envisioned, responsibility for the various mission operations and hardware elements would be divided in a logical manner with clearly defined and acceptable interfaces. The U.S. and its international partner would carry out separately launched but coordinated missions with the overall goal of accomplishing in situ science and returning several kilograms of surface samples from Mars. Important considerations for implementation of such a plan are minimum technology transfer, maximum sharing of scientific results, and independent credibility of each mission role. Under the guidance and oversight of a Mars Exploration Strategy Advisory Group organized by NASA, a study team was formed in the fall of 1986 to develop a preliminary definition of a flight-separable, cooperative mission. The selected concept assumes that the U.S. would undertake the rover mission with its sample collection operations and our international partner would return the samples to Earth. Although the inverse of these roles is also possible, this study report focuses on the rover functions of MRSR because rover operations have not

  11. Methylphenidate (Ritalin): behavioral studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Erik P; Taber, Katherine H; Yang, Pamela B; Dafny, Nachum

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome with an onset in childhood characterized by an inability to remain focused or to concentrate for prolonged periods of time. Children suffering from this disease are many times described as either inattentive or as hyperactive-impulsive depending on what form of the disease they manifest. Methylphenidate is the preferred treatment for this behavioral disorder and is used for long term disease management. Much still remains unknown concerning this stimulant and its effects on behavior and future abuse potential are pertinent questions. Since animal models are used to study the mechanism of drug action and rats are used often in drug studies, the objective of this review is to summarize the research reports that mainly have used rats as the model to investigate the action of methylphenidate. Topics discussed in this review include: (1) What effect does a single dose of methylphenidate have on locomotion activity; (2) Does repeated administration of methylphenidate result in tolerance or sensitization; and (3) Does methylphenidate have rewarding properties as measured by the self-administration and condition placed preference paradigms.

  12. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists. PMID:19823679

  13. Hypoallergenic properties of donkey's milk: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Vincenzetti, Silvia; Foghini, Laura; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Polzonetti, Valeria; Cammertoni, Natalina; Beghelli, Daniela; Polidori, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is an abnormal immunological response to cow milk proteins, which results in IgE-mediated reactions. The therapeutic strategy to respond to CMPA envisages the total elimination of milk or the administration of cow's milk substitutes. For this reason the use of milk from other mammalian species was tested. Among them, donkey's milk proved to be the best alternative in feeding infants affected by CMPA, since its chemical composition is comparable to human milk. In this work an in vitrostudy was performed in order to analyze the IgE reactivity to milk protein allergens from cow, donkey and goat. In particular, immunoblotting experiments using sera from milk-allergic and non-allergic adult volunteers were conducted with the aim of verifying the hypoallergenic property of donkey's milk. This study provided a preliminary evidence of the hypoallergenicity of donkey's milk when compared to bovine and goat milk. Considering the obtained results, it would be possible to develop a sensitive diagnostic method for CMPA detection, based on chromatographic and immunoblotting analysis.

  14. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  15. Normal use levels of respirable cosmetic talc: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aylott, R I; Byrne, G A; Middleton, J D; Roberts, M E

    1979-06-01

    Synopsis This preliminary study was undertaken to provide data from which a more comprehensive investigation to establish the safety in-use of cosmetic talcs could be designed. Methods for collecting and analysing respirable talc generated during the use of loose face powder and adult and baby dusting powders were established. Respirable particles in the air were separated from larger size particles by means of a cyclone and were collected on membrane filters. The collected dust was dissolved in acid and the solution was analysed for magnesium by atomic absorption spectroscopy. From the results the concentrations of talc in the air samples were calculated. The method was used to monitor the in-use levels of a range of cosmetic talcs. Mean concentrations in air sampled for 5 min from the start of use of Chinese grades and Italian 00000 grades of talc formulated for use as loose face powder, adult dusting powder and baby dusting powder were 0.48, 1.13 and 0.21 mg m(-3), respectively. Higher levels were found with micronised adult dusting powder (mean concentration 1.9 mg m(-3)). There was no evidence that the presence of perfume in the talc or the ambient relative humidity in the range 54-74% during use affected the levels of respirable talc, but high relative humidity <90% reduced the amount of respirable talc.

  16. Chemical components of shredded paper insulation: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Swenson, L.J.; Uppala, L.V.; Cohen, J.M.; Millette, J.R.; Mueller, W.F.

    1999-03-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of shredded paper insulation to identify potentially toxic components. The study was to provide a preliminary characterization of a few samples of insulation currently in use. The following samples were analyzed: previously produced insulation (PPI) containing fire retardants, shredded recycled paper (PPI feedstock), freshly produced insulation (FPI), and insulation which had been installed in a residence (II). Volatile constituents were analyzed by GC-MS from headspace air of samples held at room temperature or heated to 90 C. Extractable constituents were sampled by extracting with methylene chloride, and analyzing by GC-MS. Formaldehyde analysis was done according to EPA Method TO11. Headspace air at room temperature contained no detectable quantities of volatile constituents for any sample measured. In headspace air at 90 C, only PPI contained traces of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes, and FPI traces of toluene. Extracts of PPI contained traces of octadecadienoic acid methyl ester and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes. Extracts of PPI feedstock contained traces of a substituted cyclohexenecarboxylic acid. FPI contained extractable diethyl phthalate. Extracts of (II) contained traces of methyl palmitate, an octadecenoic acid methyl ester, and a phthalate plasticizer. Boron and sodium were expected and confirmed because they were added to PPI and FPI as fire retardants. Chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and silicon were present at detectable concentrations.

  17. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  18. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  19. Planning Genomic Study in an Animal Model of Depression: a Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Farnam, Alireza; Fakhari, Ali; Roshangar, Leila; Kahni, Sajjad; Farhang, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Interaction of several genes is responsible for psychiatric diseases such as depression. Despite the numerous microarray studies in this field, findings are controversial and hard to conclude. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly selected to receive Chronic Mild Stress model for 4 weeks. Different aspects of depression were measured by forced swimming test, open field trial and sucrose preference tests in the experience group and controls. Results Sucrose was preferred by 40% of CMS group and 80% of controls (p=0.025). Twenty percent of CMS group and 80% of controls were “active” (p=0.001). Last escape was at minute 238 for CMS group and minute 245 for controls and controls had more escape efforts. Conclusion This paper is a preliminary report of a genomic study on animal model of depression which tries to achieve reliable results by a joint of clinical view with recent techniques. Predicted challenges in this procedure and the solutions as well as the limitations may be helpful for future researches. PMID:23678424

  20. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  1. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  2. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10‑8 m3 kg‑1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  3. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A Preliminary Feasibility Study On Seismic Monitoring Of Polymer Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P. K.; Park, C.; Lim, B.; Nam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polymer flooding using water with soluble polymers is an enhanced oil recovery technique, which intends to maximize oil-recovery sweep efficiency by minimizing fingering effects and as a result creating a smooth flood front; polymer flooding decreases the flow rates within high permeability zone while enhances those of lower permeabilities. Understanding of fluid fronts and saturations is critical to not only optimizing polymer flooding but also monitoring the efficiency. Polymer flooding monitoring can be made in single well scale with high-resolution wireline logging, in inter-well scale with tomography, and in reservoir scale with surface survey. For reservoir scale monitoring, this study makes a preliminary feasibility study based on constructing rock physics models (RPMs), which can bridge variations in reservoir parameters to the changes in seismic responses. For constructing RPMs, we change reservoir parameters with consideration of polymer flooding to a reservoir. Time-lapse seismic data for corresponding RPMs are simulated using a time-domain staggered-finite-difference modeling with implementation of a boundary condition of conventional perfect match layer. Analysis on time-lapse seismic data with respect to the changes in fluid front and saturation can give an insight on feasibility of surface seismic survey to polymer flooding. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2012T100201588). Myung Jin Nam was partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST) (No. 2011-0014684).

  5. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  6. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  7. Genetic study of host factors in gastrocarcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Morino, K; Ohgaki, H; Matsukura, N; Kawachi, T; Sugimura, T

    1982-01-01

    The effects of genetic factors on gastrocarcinogenesis in rats were studied by giving 83 micrograms/ml of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the drinking-water to ACI strain rats, Buffalo strain rats, and their F1 hybrid rats for eight months. Animals were sacrificed on the 505th experimental day and examined histologically. The incidences of gastric carcinoma were as follows (no. of carcinoma-bearing rats/no. of effective animals): ACI rats, 86% (12/14) of males and 53% (9/17) of females; Buffalo rats, 19% (3/16) of males and 0% (0/13) of females; F1 hybrids between ACI and Buffalo rats, 23% (7/30) of males and 3% (1/32) of females. The incidence of gastric carcinoma in F1 hybrids was significantly lower than that in ACI rats but not significantly different from that in Buffalo rats. These results suggest that resistance to gastrocarcinogenesis by MNNG is an autosomally dominant trait.

  8. Preliminary study of volcano monitoring using geochemical composition of lichen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUAN, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, is bounded with Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which is not active since 200 ka. However, some evidences indicate that the latest explosion of volcanic ash was dated to 5-6 ka as well as TVG is so close to metropolis. The monitoring on TVG is crucial for crisis management. For monitoring TVG, changes of geochemical signal in some volcanic gases and hot springs are currently assessed by monthly sampling. The geochemistry of volcanic gas and hot spring represents a short-term condition on sampling time and is highly controlled by temperature and precipitation on the surface. A long-term average geochemistry will be very helpful to be compared with the results of volcanic gas and hot spring. A bioindicator not only has the ability to store geochemical compositions in their tissues but also has a wide geographical distribution. It is very suitable in this kind of study and lichen is one of the best bioindicators mainly because lichens grow slowly and have a large-scale dependence upon the environment for their nutrition, In TVG, the high SO2 content in the atmosphere results in the absence of fruticose lichen. On the contrary, crustos lichen is the most common species in the study area. For the preliminary analysis, one fruticose, four foliose and four crustos lichens were collected around the major emission centers of volcanic gas. According to the results of ICP-MS analysis, the abundances of heavy metals are generally in the order of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, V, Co and U. Factor analysis (FA) demonstrates that most of the metals show very high loadings in the first factor. This means that the fractionation of metals among different lichen species is minor and the geochemical compositions of lichen are possibly controlled by the same source (atmosphere). The second factor of FA includes Mn, Sr and Ba, which share the same oxidation state of +2 in acidic environment. This factor can describe the variation of Mn, Sr and Ba in the

  9. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

  10. Infrared laser sealing of porcine tissues: preliminary in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Perkins, William C.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    We are exploring infrared (IR) lasers as an alternative energy modality to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices intended to provide rapid surgical hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1470-nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm in 2 s, yielding burst pressures < 1200 mmHg (compared to normal systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg) and thermal coagulation zones < 3 mm (including the seal). This preliminary study describes in vivo testing of a laser probe in a porcine model. A prototype, fiber optic based handheld probe with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on blood vessels < 6 mm diameter using incident 1470-nm laser power of 35 W for 1-5 s. The probe was evaluated for hemostasis after sealing isolated and bundled vasculature of abdomen and hind leg, as well as liver and lung parenchyma. Sealed vessel samples were collected for histological analysis of lateral thermal damage. Hemostasis was achieved in 57 of 73 seals (78%). The probe consistently sealed vasculature in small bowel mesentery, mesometrium, and gastro splenic and epiploic regions. Seal performance was less consistent on hind leg vasculature including saphenous arteries and bundles and femoral and iliac arteries. Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 mm in 8 samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels in vivo. With further improvements in probe design and laser parameter optimization, IR lasers may provide an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices.

  11. A Preliminary Study of the Burgers Equation with Symbolic Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derickson, Russell G.; Pielke, Roger A.

    2000-07-01

    A novel approach based on recursive symbolic computation is introduced for the approximate analytic solution of the Burgers equation. Once obtained, appropriate numerical values can be inserted into the symbolic solution to explore parametric variations. The solution is valid for both inviscid and viscous cases, covering the range of Reynolds number from 500 to infinity, whereas current direct numerical simulation (DNS) methods are limited to Reynolds numbers no greater than 4000. What further distinguishes the symbolic approach from numerical and traditional analytic techniques is the ability to reveal and examine direct nonlinear interactions between waves, including the interplay between inertia and viscosity. Thus, preliminary efforts suggest that symbolic computation may be quite effective in unveiling the “anatomy” of the myriad interactions that underlie turbulent behavior. However, due to the tendency of nonlinear symbolic operations to produce combinatorial explosion, future efforts will require the development of improved filtering processes to select and eliminate computations leading to negligible high order terms. Indeed, the initial symbolic computations present the character of turbulence as a problem in combinatorics. At present, results are limited in time evolution, but reveal the beginnings of the well-known “saw tooth” waveform that occurs in the inviscid case (i.e., Re=∞). Future efforts will explore more fully developed 1-D flows and investigate the potential to extend symbolic computations to 2-D and 3-D. Potential applications include the development of improved subgrid scale (SGS) parameterizations for large eddy simulation (LES) models, and studies that complement DNS in exploring fundamental aspects of turbulent flow behavior.

  12. Byssinosis in a textile factory in Cameroon: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Takam, J; Nemery, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess the risk of byssinosis in a cotton textile factory in Cameroon a preliminary study was conducted on a random sample of 125 men from production areas and 68 men from non-production areas. Symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire, which also included questions regarding sleep; peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) was measured with a miniature peak flow meter at the end of a working day and total dust concentrations were assessed by static and personal sampling with Casella dust samplers giving values of 6.4 +/- 2.6 mg/m3 (m +/- SD) in production areas and 1.7 +/- 0.7 mg/m3 in control areas. Exposed subjects had significantly more symptoms (particularly in smokers) and lower PEF values than controls (408 +/- 961/min v 468 +/- 701/min, p less than 0.001). Twenty three exposed subjects (18%) reported chest tightness on returning to work after the weekly break (compared with one control, p less than 0.01). Subjects with byssinosis had lower PEF values than those without chest tightness (356 +/- 501/min v 426 +/- 951/min, p less than 0.01), more chronic bronchitis (52% v 6%, p less than 0.001), they were more often smokers (61% v 31%, p less than 0.05), and came generally, though not exclusively, from the opening carding spinning department with the highest concentrations of total dust (8 +/- 2 mg/m3) and an estimated prevalence of byssinosis of 28%. There were no significant differences in sleep related symptoms between the exposed and controls, though the 23 subjects with byssinosis tended to report more snoring (48%), early morning headache (48%), and sleep improvement over the working week (44%) than all the other subjects (28%, 24%, and 24% respectively, p less than 0.1). PMID:3219305

  13. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  14. Preliminary design study of astronomical detector cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of an astronomical detector cooling system for possible use in the NASA C-141 Airborne Infrared Observatory is presented. The system consists of the following elements: supercritical helium tank, Joule-Thomson supply gas conditioner, Joule-Thomson expander (JTX), optical cavity dewar, optical cavity temperature controller, adjustable J-T discharge gas pressure controller, and vacuum pump.

  15. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  16. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-07-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study.

  17. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study. PMID:23277700

  18. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, C.; Vaska, P.; Schlyer, D.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Park, S.-J.; Stoll, S.; Purschke, M.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; Lee, D.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.; Neill, J.; Kandasamy, A.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Fontaine, R.; Lecomte, R.

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4×8 array of 2.2×2.2×5 mm 3 LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of ˜14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using 18F-FDG and 11C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  19. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement.

  20. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  1. Preliminary Fatigue Studies on Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Preliminary information on the complex subject of the fatigue strength of fabricated structural members for aircraft is presented in the test results obtained on several different types of airship girders subjected to axial tension and compression in a resonance fatigue machine. A description of this machine as well as numerous photographs of the fatigue failures are given. There is also presented an extended bibliography on the subject of fatigue strength.

  2. (D, L) polylactide microspheres as embolic agent. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Flandroy, P; Grandfils, C; Collignon, J; Thibaut, A; Nihant, N; Barbette, S; Jerome, R; Teyssie, P

    1990-01-01

    Owing to their shape, accurately calibrated microspheres appear to be very suitable material for distal embolization. Moreover, the biocompatible (D, L) polyactide (PLA) microspheres possess two other valuable advantages: easy adjustment of their biodegradation rate, and incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents during their production. The authors describe the preparation of these (D, L) PLA microspheres and their clinical applications as a preliminary step to arterial chemoembolization. PMID:2234391

  3. Preliminary decommissioning study reports. Volume 5, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.

    1984-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts, in general, are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification for that choice, and (3) provide a preliminary description of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. Because of several issues which cannot be evaluated quantitatively at this time, this report on the MSRE does not select a ``most probable decommissioning mode`` but rather discusses the issues and representative alternatives for disposal of the MSRE fuel salts and decommissioning of the facility. A budget and schedule representative of the types of activities likely to be required is also suggested for preliminary use in the SFMP Long Range Plan.

  4. A preliminary study of the Ria de Aveiro plume dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, R.; Sousa, M. C.; Vaz, N.; deCastro, M.; Dias, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last years several studies have been performed about the hydrodynamic and the water properties transport in the Ria de Aveiro lagoon, but none of them had the focus on the dispersal of the lagoon plume into the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. This buoyant plume injects less dense water in to the ocean during the ebbing, which penetrates onto the coastal zone generating an offshore movement in the surface layer. The structure of the estuarine plume is usually characterized by a buoyant bulge, propagating radially form the lagoon inlet. Its shape depends on several factors: density differences between ocean and estuarine water; bathymetric changes and meteorological parameters variability, in particular of the wind direction and intensity. The main objective of this study is to perform a preliminary study of the Ria de Aveiro estuarine plume, as well as its qualitative assessment during extreme river discharges conditions (maximum and minimum) and also a typical estuarine inflow/outflow value for the Winter (January). A baroclinic finite volume numerical model, MOHID was implemented separately to the Ria de Aveiro and to the adjacent coast. The lagoon application was performed in a 2D mode, and has the purpose of quantifying the flow (and its properties) that the Ria de Aveiro injects into the ocean. The coastal application consisted in a numerical implementation using a three level baroclinic nesting model. The model domain includes the whole Iberian Peninsula using a realistic coastline and bottom topography. Initial ocean stratification and tide are from the MERCATOR solution and FES Global tidal solution, respectively. The hourly lagoon discharge, previously calculated through the model runs of the Ria de Aveiro estuarine model, was imposed in the lagoon mouth location of the coastal application, in order to allow the study of the estuarine plume dynamics. The model results were compared with satellite images, to assess the models performance. For an intense

  5. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong; Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  6. Preliminary studies on the toxicity and metabolism of palladium and platinum.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W; Hysell, D; Hall, L; Campbell, K; Stara, J

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary data are given on the LD50 of PdCl2 following different routes of exposure and on the LD50 of PtCl4 following intravenous exposure. The retention, tissue distribution, and excretion of 103Pd and 191Pt in rats was determined following oral, intravenous, intratracheal, and inhalation exposure. The highest retention for both 103Pd and 191Pt was obtained following intravenous dosing, and the lowest retention occurred after oral dosing. Following a single oral dose, almost all of the 103Pd and 191Pt was excreted in the feces due to nonabsorption, whereas after intravenous dosing, similar quantities were excreted in both the urine and feces. Tissues containing the highest concentrations of these metals were the kidney, spleen and liver. Following intravenous dosing of pregnant rats, a small amount of 103Pd and 191Pt was found in the fetuses. PMID:50942

  7. Retinol kinetics in unsupplemented and vitamin A-retinoic acid supplemented neonatal rats: a preliminary model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Libo; Wray, Amanda E.; Green, Michael H.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) metabolism in neonates is virtually uncharacterized. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model of VA metabolism in unsupplemented and VA-supplemented neonatal rats. On postnatal day 4, pups (n = 3/time) received 11,12-[3H]retinol orally, in either oil (control) or VA combined with retinoic acid (VARA) [VA (∼6 mg/kg body weight) + 10% retinoic acid]. Plasma and tissues were collected at 14 time points up to 14 days after dose administration. VARA supplementation rapidly, but transiently, increased total retinol mass in plasma, liver, and lung. It decreased the peak fraction of the dose in plasma. A multi-compartmental model developed to fit plasma [3H]retinol data predicted more extensive recycling of retinol between plasma and tissues in neonates compared with that reported in adults (144 vs. 12–13 times). In VARA pups, the recycling number for retinol between plasma and tissues (100 times) and the time that retinol spent in plasma were both lower compared with controls; VARA also stimulated the uptake of plasma VA into extravascular tissues. A VARA perturbation model indicated that the effect of VARA in stimulating VA uptake into tissues in neonates is both dramatic and transient. PMID:24711633

  8. Time course of cyclosporine and ist motabolites in blood, liver and spleen of naive Lewis rats: comparison with preliminary data obtained in transplanted animals.

    PubMed

    Wacher, V J; Liu, T; Roberts, J P; Ascher, N L; Benet, L Z

    1995-05-01

    the time course of intravenously administered cyclosporine (1 mg kg-1) and its metabolite AM1, AM9, and AM1c were examined in the blood, liver, and spleen of naive Lewis rats. Cyclosporine concentration versus time data for all three tissues were qualitatively similar, following a biexponential model C = Ae-gamma 1t + Be-gamma 2t with maximum cyclosporine concentrations reached at 1 h. Whole-blood cyclosporine clearance, terminal half-life, mean residence time, steady state volume of distribution, and hepatic extraction ratio (calculated from blood data) were similar to previously reported results. Cyclosporine in the liver showed the largest area under the concentration-time curve, mean residence time, and disposition and terminal half-lives. Spleen cyclosporine mean residence time and and terminal half-life were not significantly different from blood parameters. Metabolites AM1, AM9, and AM1c showed almost parallel time courses in all three tissues. The hydroxylated derivative AM9 was the major metabolite found in all tissues, with twofold greater levels in the liver compared to the blood and spleen. Slightly less AM1 was found in the liver relative to blood and spleen, where it was present in equal amounts. AM1c levels in the liver were not different from those in the spleen and were greater than observed for blood. The results obtained above were reflected in preliminary studies using liver transplanted rats treated with multiple doses of cyclosporine. Both blood and liver biopsy levels of CyA, AM1, and AM9 post-transplant showed twofold to fourfold decreases from day 3 ( samples taken 4 h post-CyA-dose) and concentrations were not significantly different from similarly sampled naive controls. More importantly, the metabolite/CyA ratios did not vary significantly between liver and blood in the two groups. For naive rats, and liver transplanted animals not undergoing rejection, changes in blood cyclosporine levels seem to predict variations in tissue

  9. Preliminary study of superconducting bulk magnets for Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Hiroki

    Recent development shows that melt-processed YBaCuO (Y123) or Rare Earth (RE)123 superconductors have a high Jc at 77 K and high magnetic field, leading to high field application as a superconducting quasi-permanent bulk magnet with the liquid nitrogen refrigeration. One of the promising applications is a superconducting magnet for the magnetically levitated (Maglev) train. We discuss a superconducting bulk magnet for the Maglev train in the aspect of a preliminary design of the bulk magnet and also processing for (L)REBaCuO bulk superconductors and their characteristic superconducting properties.

  10. Decontamination of Johnston Island Coral: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kochen, R.L.

    1986-02-17

    A preliminary investigation was completed on the characterization and decontamination of coral samples from Johnston Island. These samples were found to contain individual particles (2 to 0.25 mm) of contaminated coral as well as a piece of contaminated magnetic metal. They ranged in activity from about 70 to 811 nCi Am-241. The decontamination methods investigated were froth flotation, ferrite treatment, attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment and dry sieving. Dry sieving, the more effective technique, separated about 42 wt % of the coral into a decontaminated fraction. This fraction (>4 mm) contained about 0.5% of the total activity. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Access to regulatory information in Malaysia - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Razak, D A

    1996-01-01

    In 1984 Malaysia introduced legislation pertaining to drug regulatory control under The Control of Drugs and Cosmetics Regulations, 1984. A decade after its implementation, the general drug situation in the country has improved considerably and this is reflected in the number of drugs registered using the criteria of quality, safety and efficacy. However, not much attention has been paid to the question of access to regulatory information. This paper reports a preliminary survey on access to regulatory information in Malaysia, and examines the process of drug registration since the implementation of the 1984 regulations.

  12. Preliminary results from a shallow water benthic grazing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, N.L.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2005-01-01

    Despite great improvements in our knowledge on the effects of benthic grazers on seston concentrations in water columns, the effects of different hydrodynamic conditions on grazing rates has not been formulated. This makes it difficult to assess the system-wide effect of the benthic ecosystem on phytoplankton concentrations. Furthermore, it affects our ability to predict the potential success of a benthic species, such as the invasive clams Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis. This paper presents the preliminary results of a control volume approach to elucidate the effect of different hydrodynamic conditions on the grazing rates of Corbicula fluminea.

  13. Crossflow instability control on a swept-wing: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, David H.

    1994-01-01

    . tunnel is of interest itself, and will be investigated more thoroughly in the future. With a view to these investigations, the boundary layer traverse mechanism in the 20 x 28 in. tunnel was modified to improve its performance, and strain gauges were mounted on the traverse in order to monitor its deflection during a test. Other preliminary work conducted in the 20 x 28 in. tunnel included the use of an infrared camera system. Previous work with this system showed that transition indeed could be detected, but the signal produced by the crossflow vortices was too weak to be detected. It was hoped that spraying the flat plate with naphthalene would augment the heat transfer associated with the crossflow vortices so that they would show up in a IR image; however, experiments showed that this would not work. Another set of tests was conducted in the 20 x 28 in. tunnel to determine the tripping requirements for a set of airfoil-shaped struts that will be used in the 8 feet TPT experiment. Since the Reynolds number associated with these struts is small, a laminar boundary layer would separate early, causing large fluctuations in the flow field. A turbulent boundary layer would remain attached further back, but tripping from laminar to turbulent flow at low Reynolds number is very difficult. However, trip strip configurations were found that should effectively trip the boundary layer at the required conditions. Currently underway is an investigation of the data acquisition requirements for the 8 feet TPT experiment, with the purpose of the finding the minimum amount of data needed to characterize sufficiently the swept-wing boundary layer. This study is being conducted using a numerically generated data set.

  14. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells.

  15. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells. PMID:6354463

  16. Jet injection of a monoclonal antibody: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hogan, N Catherine; Cloutier, A M; Hunter, I W

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent a major group of biotherapeutics. The high concentration and volume of drug administered together with a shift to administration via the subcutaneous route have generated interest in alternative delivery technologies. The feasibility of using a novel, highly controllable jet injection technology to deliver a mAb is presented. The effect of delivery parameters on protein structure were evaluated and compared with delivery using a conventional needle and syringe. Injection of mAb into a rat model showed that jet injection using the device resulted in more rapid absorption and longer duration of exposure.

  17. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  18. A preliminary study of the modified Ericsson for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, J.; Louis, J. F.; Juhasz, A.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modifications of the Ericsson cycle are analyzed for their application as high power, compact and reliable space power systems. They use the same components as the technologically advanced and reliable Brayton system. These modifications approximate the Ericsson cycle's isothermal expansion by several stages of expansion with reheat and the isothermal compression by several compression stages with intercooling. Preliminary cycle analysis including non-ideal components indicates potential advantages in both power per unit area and efficiency over the Brayton system. Evaluation of the system mass indicates a significant mass and radiator area advantage of a Modified Ericsson cycle using one reheat and one expansion stage when a high temperature titanium radiator is used. Whereas the configuration using one reheat and one intercooling with two stages of compression and expansion provided the lowest mass per unit power using a lower temperature aluminum radiator.

  19. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Preliminary study on the RF tuning of CSNS DTL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xue-Jun; Li, A.-Hong; Xiao, Yong-Chuang; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Hua-Chang; Gong, Ke-Yun; Fu, Shi-Nian

    2014-02-01

    In the R&D of the CSNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL), the first unit tank with 28 drift tubes has been developed. The axial accelerating field is ramped from 2.2 MV/m to 3.1 MV/m in this tank. The required field flatness is less than ±2% with the standard deviation of 1% for the beam dynamics; the field stability should be less than 1% for machine stable operation. After successful alignment, RF tuning was carried out focusing on the field profile measurement. Four slug tuners and eleven post couplers were applied in this procedure. The ramped field and required stability had been achieved by fine adjustment of the slug tuners and post couplers. In this paper, the preliminary tuning results are presented and discussed.

  1. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Moore, Thomas J.; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary tests were conducted to determine if interstitial element transport through a circulating helium working fluid was a potential problem in Brayton and Stirling space power systems. Test specimens exposed to a thermal gradient for up to 3000-hr included Nb-1%Zr, a Sm-Co alloy (referred to as SmCo in this paper), Hiperco 50 steel, and alumina to simulate various engine components of the Brayton and Stirling systems. Results indicate that helium transport of interstitial contaminants can be minimized over a 7-yr life with a monometallic Nb-1%Zr design. Exposure with other materials indicated a potential for interstitial contaminant transport. Determination of contamination kinetics and the effects on structural integrity will require additional testing.

  2. [Orthodontic tooth movement under extracorporeal shock wave therapy: the characteristics of the inflammatory reaction--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Hazan-Molina, H; Kaufman, H; Reznick, Z A; Aizenbud, D

    2011-07-01

    Extracorporeal generated shock waves were introduced in medical therapy approximately 20 years ago in order to disintegrate kidney stones. Over the last 10 years, extracorporeal generated shock waves have been used to stimulate healing processes. No report to date has examined its influence on different inflammation mediators and growth factors in the periodontium. Orthodontic tooth movement is a model including the induction of an aseptic inflammation and its resolution. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the periodontium cytokine concentration fluctuations after induction of orthodontic force with and without extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in a rat model. An orthodontic appliance was fabricated and applied between the molars and the incisors of rats. The rats were treated by a single episode of 1000 shock waves and gingival crevicular fluid was collected for 3 days. The concentration of typical acute phase cytokines was evaluated by ELISA assay. Of the three tested cytokines, IL-1beta was the only detected cytokine along the study timeframe. IL-1beta concentration rose in both the treated and non treated shockwave groups on the first day, however it was statistically significantly higher in the treated group on day 2. On day 3, IL-1beta concentrations in both groups decreased and reached a lower level in the treated group, revealing a statistically significant difference than its level on the previous day. The application of ESWT during orthodontic force induction enhances IL-1beta production as part of mechanical forces transduction triggering a biologic response, which may contribute to accelerated periodontal remodeling and therefore foreshortening the orthodontic tooth movement period.

  3. [Orthodontic tooth movement under extracorporeal shock wave therapy: the characteristics of the inflammatory reaction--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Hazan-Molina, H; Kaufman, H; Reznick, Z A; Aizenbud, D

    2011-07-01

    Extracorporeal generated shock waves were introduced in medical therapy approximately 20 years ago in order to disintegrate kidney stones. Over the last 10 years, extracorporeal generated shock waves have been used to stimulate healing processes. No report to date has examined its influence on different inflammation mediators and growth factors in the periodontium. Orthodontic tooth movement is a model including the induction of an aseptic inflammation and its resolution. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the periodontium cytokine concentration fluctuations after induction of orthodontic force with and without extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in a rat model. An orthodontic appliance was fabricated and applied between the molars and the incisors of rats. The rats were treated by a single episode of 1000 shock waves and gingival crevicular fluid was collected for 3 days. The concentration of typical acute phase cytokines was evaluated by ELISA assay. Of the three tested cytokines, IL-1beta was the only detected cytokine along the study timeframe. IL-1beta concentration rose in both the treated and non treated shockwave groups on the first day, however it was statistically significantly higher in the treated group on day 2. On day 3, IL-1beta concentrations in both groups decreased and reached a lower level in the treated group, revealing a statistically significant difference than its level on the previous day. The application of ESWT during orthodontic force induction enhances IL-1beta production as part of mechanical forces transduction triggering a biologic response, which may contribute to accelerated periodontal remodeling and therefore foreshortening the orthodontic tooth movement period. PMID:21939106

  4. Four weeks of mobility after 8 weeks of immobility fails to restore normal motion: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Guy; Zhou, Jian; Uhthoff, Hans K; Laneuville, Odette

    2008-05-01

    Prolonged immobilization reduces passive range of motion of joints creating joint contractures. Whether and to what extent these iatrogenic contractures can be reduced is unknown. We raised three questions using an animal model: What degree of contracture remains at the end of a defined remobilization period? Do contractures in sham-operated and immobilized joints differ? What is the contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee extension? We immobilized one knee of 11 adult male rats in flexion to induce a joint contracture; 10 control animals underwent a sham operation. After 8 weeks, the internal fixation device was removed, and the animals were allowed to resume unrestricted activity for 4 weeks at the end of which the knee range of motion was measured with standardized torques. The mean flexion contracture was higher in the immobilized group (51.9 degrees +/- 2.8 degrees ) than in the sham-operated group (18.9 degrees +/- 2.1 degrees ). Eighty-eight percent of the contractures remained in the immobilized group after dividing skin and muscle, suggesting an important contribution of the posterior knee capsule in limiting knee mobility. Based on our preliminary study the range of motion of rat knees immobilized for 8 weeks remained substantially reduced after a 4-week period of unassisted remobilization.

  5. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  6. Studies on proteolytic activities in heart muscle of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dahlmann, B; Metzinger, H; Reinauer, H

    1982-06-01

    Induction of diabetes mellitus in rats following injection of streptozotocin caused reduction in rate of gain of heart weight, of protein and of DNA content in the first two weeks. During the same time interval the overall activity of acid proteinases (cathepsin D), of alkaline proteinases and of proteinase inhibitors was measured in heart muscle homogenates. No statistically significant differences were detected compared with the proteinase activities in control rats. In contrast, total aminopeptidase activity in diabetic hearts was consistently lower than in control hearts. Earlier studies on rat skeletal muscles have shown that induction of diabetes mellitus is followed by a substantial increase of alkaline proteinase as well as aminopeptidase activities. These findings are contrasted by present data obtained with heart muscle of diabetic rats, suggesting that this tissue responds differently to insulin deficiency.

  7. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, M; Hojo, H; Teramoto, S; Maita, K

    1998-05-01

    Teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, were conducted in rats and rabbits. Methyl bromide was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally to groups of 24 copulated female Crj:CD (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-15 of gestation and to groups of 18 artificially inseminated female Kbl:JW rabbits at 0, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal rats and rabbits were euthanized on respective days 20 and 27 of gestation. Foetuses were examined for survival, growth and teratological alterations. Maternal toxicity was evident in the high-dose groups for both species. In these groups, maternal body weight gains and food consumption were significantly decreased during the dosing and post-dosing periods. Necropsy of maternal rats also revealed erosive lesions in the stomach and the surrounding organs. However, no treatment-related adverse effects were found in foetuses of the treated groups for both rat and rabbit studies. These results led to the conclusion that methyl bromide was not foetotoxic or teratogenic to rat and rabbit foetuses up to dose levels of 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, at which maternal toxicity was evident for both species.

  8. Autoradiographic studies of the rat renotropic system.

    PubMed

    Castillo, O; Robertson, D; Goldin, H; Preuss, H G

    1980-01-01

    Rat sera, 10-30 h after unilateral nephrectomy (UNI), enhance 3H-thymidine ("3H-Tdr) incorporation into DNA of incubating renal tissue from control rats. Stimulation is even greater when extracts from remaining growing kidneys 20 h after UNI are combined with sera from rats after UNI. UNI extracts, i.e., extracts from the kidney remaining after uninephrectomy, are nonstimulatory alone. UNI sera and UNI sera plus UNI extracts could theoretically augment 3H-Tdr incorporation into renal DNA via dilutional means rather than enhanced DNA synthesis. To determine if our results were secondary to enhanced DNA synthesis, we performed our in vitro assay using the labelling of nuclei via autoradiography as another index. The addition of UNI sera compared to sera from sham-operated rats (SHAM) in seven paired experiments enhanced incorporation of 3H-Tdr into DNA by 30% (p less than 0.02) and the addition of both UNI sera and UNI extracts compared to SHAM sera and SHAM extracts enhanced incorporation by 48% (p less than 0.001). Unlike a dilutional effect, nuclear labelling also increased in these same seven experiments: UNI sera versus SHAM sera increased 25% (p less than 0.05) and UNI sera + UNI extracts versus SHAM sera + SHAM extracts increased 37% (p less than 0.01). We conclude that UNI sera and UNI sera + UNI extracts enhance 3H-Tdr incorporation into DNA by augmenting DNA synthesis, driving cells into the "S" phase. The use of 3H-Tdr incorporation into DNA in our assay does estimate DNA synthesis.

  9. Preliminary Studies of a Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Adelman, H. G.; Menees, G. P.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the new era of space exploration, there is a strong need for more efficient, cheaper and more reliable propulsion devices. With dramatic increase in specific impulse, the overall mass of fuel to be lifted into orbit is decreased, and this leads, in turn, to much lower mass requirements at lift-off, higher payload ratios and lower launch costs. The Pulsed Detonation engine (PDE) has received much attention lately due to its unique combination of simplicity, light-weight and efficiency. Current investigations focus principally on its use as a low speed, airbreathing engine, although other applications have also been proposed. Its use as a rocket propulsion device was first proposed in 1988 by the present authors. The superior efficiency of the Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE) is due to the near constant volume combustion process of a detonation wave. Our preliminary estimates suggest that the PDRE is theoretically capable of achieving specific impulses as high as 720 sec, a dramatic improvement over the current 480 sec of conventional rocket engines, making it competitive with nuclear thermal rockets. In addition to this remarkable efficiency, the PDRE may eliminate the need for high pressure cryogenic turbopumps, a principal source of failures. The heat transfer rates are also much lower, eliminating the need for nozzle cooling. Overall, the engine is more reliable and has a much lower weight. This paper will describe in detail the operation of the PDRE and calculate its performance, through numerical simulations. Engineering issues will be addressed and discussed, and the impact on mission profiles will also be presented. Finally, the performance of the PDRE using in-situ resources, such as CO and O2 from the martian atmosphere, will also be computed.

  10. A Preliminary Study of Seismicity at Ceboruco, Volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2007-12-01

    Ceboruco Volcano is located northwestern of Tepic-Zacoalco graben (Jalisco, Mexico). Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their volcano explosivity index (VEI) and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, during the first cycle the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI is estimated between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome extruded in the interior of the caldera. The dome, called Dos Equis, collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by historic andesitic lava flows located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. In February 2003 as part of an agreement with Nayarit Civil Defense a seismic station was installed in the SW flank of the volcano. The station is equipped with a Marslite (lennartz) digitizer with a 3DLe 1Hz. seismic sensor. Detection system is based on a STA/LTA recording algorithm. More than 2000 small earthquakes have been attributed to various local sources, and some of this earthquakes are possibly located beneath Ceboruco volcano. A preliminary classification separates high frequency and low frequency seismic events. The sources of high frequency earthquakes appear to be distributed as evidenced from waveforms variety and changing S-P arrivals separations. The low frequency seismic events also show varying signatures and some of them exhibit extended coda, including some monochromatic character.

  11. [Preliminary study on substitution of Antelope Horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-09-01

    To study the protective effect of Danqi Piantan capsule ( DPC) and its antelope horn substitution (DPCAS) on the cerebral ischemia, in order to preliminary study the possibility of replacing antelope horn with artificial bezoar. In this study, the left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was adopted. Totally 150 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the sham operation group, the model group, the Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn (DPCRA) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn and with double artificial bezoar (DPCDB) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The MCAO model was prepared 1 h later after the administration on the 5th day. At 24 h after the operation, the inner canthus blood was collected to determine the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the endothelin (ET) content. At 72 h after the operation, the cerebral infarct size and the cerebral index were determined by TTC-staining. The fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to detect brain Bcl-2, Caspase-3, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions. The mmunohistochemical method was used to detect ICAM-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 expressions in ischemic penumbra. According to the results, compared with the model group, DPCDB and DPC groups showed almost consistent results, indicating both of the two group can significantly improved cerebral infarction index and cerebral index (P < 0.05), increase the serum SOD activity (P < 0.05), decrease the serum ET level and Caspase-3 expression, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions in brain tissues (P < 0.05) and expressions of ICAM-1, IL-1,6, TNF-α, IL-6 positive cells in ischemic penumbra (P < 0.05) and increase the Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.05). The DPCRA group showed much lower impacts on indexes than DPCDB and DPC groups. This suggests that DPCDB and DPC reveal similar efficacies and antelope horn in

  12. [Preliminary study on substitution of Antelope Horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-09-01

    To study the protective effect of Danqi Piantan capsule ( DPC) and its antelope horn substitution (DPCAS) on the cerebral ischemia, in order to preliminary study the possibility of replacing antelope horn with artificial bezoar. In this study, the left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was adopted. Totally 150 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the sham operation group, the model group, the Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn (DPCRA) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn and with double artificial bezoar (DPCDB) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The MCAO model was prepared 1 h later after the administration on the 5th day. At 24 h after the operation, the inner canthus blood was collected to determine the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the endothelin (ET) content. At 72 h after the operation, the cerebral infarct size and the cerebral index were determined by TTC-staining. The fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to detect brain Bcl-2, Caspase-3, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions. The mmunohistochemical method was used to detect ICAM-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 expressions in ischemic penumbra. According to the results, compared with the model group, DPCDB and DPC groups showed almost consistent results, indicating both of the two group can significantly improved cerebral infarction index and cerebral index (P < 0.05), increase the serum SOD activity (P < 0.05), decrease the serum ET level and Caspase-3 expression, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions in brain tissues (P < 0.05) and expressions of ICAM-1, IL-1,6, TNF-α, IL-6 positive cells in ischemic penumbra (P < 0.05) and increase the Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.05). The DPCRA group showed much lower impacts on indexes than DPCDB and DPC groups. This suggests that DPCDB and DPC reveal similar efficacies and antelope horn in

  13. Battery energy storage: A preliminary assessment of national benefits (the Gateway Benefits Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Zaininger, H.; Hurwitch, J.; Badin, J.

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

  14. Preliminary Design Study of a National Program for Training Skilled Aviation Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    This study supplementing a 1967 study of Arizona State University, recommends preliminary plans for the design of a national training center capable of accommodating 2,200 fliers and aviation technicians and the steps that should be taken to complete the facility by September 1972. Specific recommendations are: (1) negotiations between the…

  15. Preliminary Study: Special Education Doctoral Students' Perceptions of Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Morningstar, Mary E.; Jung, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated 118 special education doctoral students' knowledge of and attitudes toward self-determination. In addition, this study examined the relationship between self-determination coursework and special education doctoral students' perceptions of how well they were prepared for implementing self-determination…

  16. Identification of Emerging Self-Injurious Behavior in Young Children: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Huete, John M.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a chronic disorder that often begins in early childhood; however, few studies have examined the onset of SIB in young children. This preliminary study reports on the identification, assessment, and observation of SIB in 32 children who had begun to engage in SIB within the previous 6 months. Participants were under…

  17. A Preliminary Study of Guided Math in Title I Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Katherine Roberts

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to provide a preliminary examination of the relationship between the implementation of Guided Math and student achievement in Title I schools as measured by the percentage of students who met or exceeded the standard for the Georgia Mathematics CRCT. The study examined data from thirty Title I elementary schools in one suburban…

  18. NASA Desert RATS 2010: Preliminary Results for Science Operations Conducted in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lofgren, G. E.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Bell, E. R.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with international partners to develop the space architectures and mission plans necessary for human spaceflight beyond earth orbit. These mission plans include the exploration of planetary surfaces with significant gravity fields. The Apollo missions to the Moon demonstrated conclusively that surface mobility is a key asset that improves the efficiency of human explorers on a planetary surface. NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona. Conducted since 1998, these activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in relatively harsh climatic conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable

  19. Inhalation toxicity of soman vapor in non-anesthetized rats: a preliminary assessment of inhaled bronchodilator or steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael W; Wong, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Ashley; Devorak, Jennifer L; Alves, Derron A; Murphy, Gleeson; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory toxicity, injury and treatment following vapor inhalational exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) soman (GD) were examined in non-anesthetized rats. This study exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300g) to 520, 560, 600, 825 or 1410mg×min/m(3) of soman in a customized head-out inhalation system. Signs of CWNA-induced cholinergic crises were observed in all soman-exposed animals. The LCt50 of vaporized soman as determined by probit analysis was 593.1mg×min/m(3). All animals exposed to 825 and 1410mg×min/m(3) developed severe convulsions and died within 4-8min post-exposure. Edema measured by wet/dry weight ratio of the left lung lobe increased in a dose-dependent manner in all soman-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were inhibited dose-dependently in soman-exposed groups at 24h. A significant increase in total BAL protein was observed in soman-exposed animals at all doses. AChE activity was inhibited in lung and whole brain tissues in all soman-exposed animals. Histopathological analysis of the lungs of animals exposed to 600mg×min/m(3) of soman revealed prominent morphological changes including alveolar histiocytosis, hemorrhage and inflammation consisting of neutrophilic exudate. Exposure of animals to 600mg×min/m(3) of soman followed by treatment with two actuations for 10s of Combivent (21μg of ipratropium bromide and 120μg of albuterol sulfate) and Symbicort (80μg budesonide and 4.5μg formoterol) by inhalation into a modified metered dose inhaler (MDI) 10min post-exposure resulted in increased minute volume, but did not decrease mortality. These results indicate that inhalation exposure to soman vapor causes acute respiratory toxicity and injury in untreated, un-anesthetized rats and that inhalation treatment with Combivent or Symbicort did improve the respiratory outcomes, but did not influence lethality. PMID:23886498

  20. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  1. [Cytological study of the kidney ischemic lesions in rats].

    PubMed

    Aunapuu, M; Roosaar, P; Suuroia, T; Arend, A

    2007-01-01

    The course of reparative regeneration after 5/6 nephrectomy and use of low-dose radiation has been studied by means of light and electron microscopy. The experiments were performed on 30 male Wistar rats. All animal procedures were conducted after approval of the protocol by the animal Studies Ethics Committee of the University of Tartu. Renal ablation was then accomplished by right nephrectomy and selective ligation of extrarenal branches of the left renal artery such that approximately 2/3 of the left kidney was infracted. All together 30 rats were randomised after the surgery and divided into two groups matched for age and body weight at week 0 and studied during 2, 4 and 8 weeks: groups I (nephrectomized, n = 15), groups II (nephrectomized and irradiated, n = 15). Left kidney of II groups rats was irradiated (60Co) 24 h after surgery in anaesthetized (Brietal) animals with 3 Gy in a single dose. As a result of experimentally induced ischemia destruction of renal corpuscles, perishing of tubular epithelial cells and and proliferation of connective tissue is followed. Reparative regeneration is based on aseptic inflammation, duration of its phases depends on the extent of organ impairment. In nephrectomized rats parallel to reparative regeneration, necrosis and deposition of calcium is found in the cortical substance. Calcium plays important role in kidney metabolism and its increased content is characteristic to degenerative changes. The experiments reveal that use of low-dose radiation does not accelerate process of reparative regeneration in rat kidney.

  2. Impact of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy on Gut Microbiota in F344 Rats: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Ho; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate changes in gut microbiota composition following long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. Methods Twenty-four-week-old F344 rats were fed diets with (n=6) or without (n=5) lansoprazole for 50 weeks. Profiles of luminal microbiota in the terminal ileum were then analyzed. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed using an FLX genome sequencer (454 Life Sciences/Roche). Results Rats treated with lansoprazole showed significantly reduced body weights compared to controls (lansoprazole-treated rats and controls, 322.3±15.3 g vs 403.2±5.2 g, respectively, p<0.001). However, stool frequencies and consistencies did not differ between the two groups. The composition of the gut microbiota in lansoprazole-treated rats was quite different from that of the controls. In the controls, the microbiota profiles obtained from the terminal ileum showed a predominance of Proteobacteria (93.9%) due to the abundance of Escherichia and Pasteurella genera. Conversely, lansoprazole-treated rats showed an elevated population of Firmicutes (66.9%), which was attributed to an increased ratio of Clostridium g4 to Lactobacillus genera. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that long-term administration of PPI may cause weight loss and changes to the microbiota in the terminal ileum. PMID:27458177

  3. Multigeneration study of FD & C Blue No. 2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Borzelleca, J F; Goldenthal, E I; Wazeter, F X

    1986-02-01

    In a three-generation reproduction study, groups of ten male and 20 female Charles River CD rats were fed FD & C Blue No. 2 at dietary levels providing intakes of 0.0, 2.5, 25, 75 and 250 mg/kg body weight/day. Slightly bluish-coloured fur was noted in rats at the 250-mg/kg/day dose level and bluish-green-coloured faeces were produced by rats in the 75- and 250-mg/kg/day groups. The gestation, viability and lactation indices of all litters were comparable for the control and treated groups. The fertility indices for female rats in the 2.5- and 25-mg/kg/day groups were significantly lower than those for control females in the case of the F2 litters. However, there was no reduction in the female fertility indices for the F2 litters at the two higher dosage levels, nor for the F1 and F3 litters at any dosage level. Although fertility indices were reduced for some groups of male rats in the F2b and F2c litters, these changes were not considered to be compound-related. Examination of the ovaries and uteri of all dams killed on day 19 of gestation of the F2c and F3c litters revealed no gross anatomical abnormalities. No unusual changes were observed in the stillborn pups or in pups dying during the study. There were no compound-related gross or microscopic pathological lesions in any of the F1 or F3a rats that were killed and necropsied, and no compound-related organ-weight variations were recorded in the F1 parental rats.

  4. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2. Preliminary program development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary development plan for the Pioneer Venus program is presented. This preliminary plan treats only developmental aspects that would have a significant effect on program cost. These significant development areas were: master program schedule planning; test planning - both unit and system testing for probes/orbiter/ probe bus; ground support equipment; performance assurance; and science integration Various test planning options and test method techniques were evaluated in terms of achieving a low-cost program without degrading mission performance or system reliability. The approaches studied and the methodology of the selected approach are defined.

  5. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  6. The Status of Women in Alaska, 1977. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy M.; And Others

    To determine the precise nature and extent of the problem confronting Alaskan women, the Legislature in 1976 directed the Human Rights Commission to conduct a study on the status of women in education, employment, health, and the justice system. This publication contains the results of that study. Data for the study were secured through interviews…

  7. Assessing the Parents of Juvenile Offenders: A Preliminary Validation Study of the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Clark C.; Glaser, Brian A.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study is a preliminary investigation into the development of a parent self-report instrument, the Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ). A large pool of items was rationally derived from a model of parent competency and then administered to 243 parents of children who were making appearances in juvenile court. Exploratory…

  8. School Library Support of Health Education in China: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…

  9. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  10. Factorial Structure of the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheing, Gladys L. Y.; Lai, Amy K. M.; Vong, Sinfia K. S.; Chan, Fong H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the preliminary validation results for the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale (PRES). The PRES is a clinical tool developed to measure the expectations about rehabilitation treatment and outcome for people with back pain. Fifty people with chronic back pain were recruited from 11 physiotherapy outpatient…

  11. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  12. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  13. The Development of a Computer Model for Projecting Statewide College Enrollments: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rensselaer Research Corp., Troy, NY.

    The purpose of this study was to develop the schema and methodology for the construction of a computerized mathematical model designed to project college and university enrollments in New York State and to meet the future increased demands of higher education planners. This preliminary report describes the main structure of the proposed computer…

  14. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  15. Factors affecting weight gain and dietary intake in Latino males residing in Mississippi: A preliminary study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research indicates that as Latinos become more acculturated to the United States, their diet changes and they experience weight gain. There is also a high incidence of depression in this population. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the correlations between sociodemographic factor...

  16. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  17. A Preliminary Study of Teachers' Perceptions of Sex Education in Hong Kong Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yuk Ching

    2006-01-01

    In Hong Kong, once a British colony, sex has traditionally been viewed as taboo and, as such, seldom talked about or openly discussed in public. As a result, there is reluctance on the part of most pre-to-secondary schools to implement sex education. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of preschool sex…

  18. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  19. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of pentachlorophenol in rats.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R S; Maronpot, R M; Bucher, J R; Haseman, J K; Toft, J D; Hejtmancik, M R

    1999-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as an herbicide, algaecide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. A 28-day toxicity study of PCP in F344/N rats of both sexes was conducted to select dose levels for a carcinogenicity study. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1600, or 3200 ppm PCP in feed for 28 days. The incidences of minimal to mild hepatocyte degeneration in males and females exposed to 400 ppm or greater and the incidences of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy in the 3200-ppm groups were increased. For carcinogenicity studies, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 PCP for 2 years. A stop-exposure group of 60 male and 60 female rats received 1000 ppm of PCP in feed for 52 weeks and control feed thereafter for the remainder of the 2-year studies; 10 male and 10 female rats were evaluated at 7 months. Survival of 600-ppm males was significantly greater than that of the controls; survival of all other exposed groups was similar to that of the control groups. Mean body weights of the 400- and 600-ppm groups were generally less than those of the controls throughout the studies. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCP in male or female rats fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 ppm for 2 years. Stop-exposure study males and females regained a transitory body weight reduction by the end of the 2 year study, and males had better survival than the controls. At a 7-month interim evaluation, the incidences of centrilobular hypertrophy in stop-exposure males and females exceeded those in the controls. At 2 years, malignant mesothelioma originating from the tunica vaginalis was present in 9 1000-ppm males and 1 control male (p = 0.014). Nasal squamous cell carcinomas were present in five 1000-ppm males and 1 control male. This incidence was not significantly increased but exceeded the historical control range (0-4%). Based on the increased

  20. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of pentachlorophenol in rats.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R S; Maronpot, R M; Bucher, J R; Haseman, J K; Toft, J D; Hejtmancik, M R

    1999-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as an herbicide, algaecide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. A 28-day toxicity study of PCP in F344/N rats of both sexes was conducted to select dose levels for a carcinogenicity study. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1600, or 3200 ppm PCP in feed for 28 days. The incidences of minimal to mild hepatocyte degeneration in males and females exposed to 400 ppm or greater and the incidences of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy in the 3200-ppm groups were increased. For carcinogenicity studies, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 PCP for 2 years. A stop-exposure group of 60 male and 60 female rats received 1000 ppm of PCP in feed for 52 weeks and control feed thereafter for the remainder of the 2-year studies; 10 male and 10 female rats were evaluated at 7 months. Survival of 600-ppm males was significantly greater than that of the controls; survival of all other exposed groups was similar to that of the control groups. Mean body weights of the 400- and 600-ppm groups were generally less than those of the controls throughout the studies. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCP in male or female rats fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 ppm for 2 years. Stop-exposure study males and females regained a transitory body weight reduction by the end of the 2 year study, and males had better survival than the controls. At a 7-month interim evaluation, the incidences of centrilobular hypertrophy in stop-exposure males and females exceeded those in the controls. At 2 years, malignant mesothelioma originating from the tunica vaginalis was present in 9 1000-ppm males and 1 control male (p = 0.014). Nasal squamous cell carcinomas were present in five 1000-ppm males and 1 control male. This incidence was not significantly increased but exceeded the historical control range (0-4%). Based on the increased

  1. Young Children's Perceptions of Scientists: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since the 1950s, there has been a growing body of research dealing with perceptions children have of scientists. Typically, research studies in this area have utilized children's drawings in an effort to discern what those perceptions are. Studies assessing perceptions children have of scientists have shown that children have…

  2. Supporting Off-Shore Students: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussin, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of a recent research study into current initiatives to support the learning of non-English speaking background (NESB) transnational students in Asia who are studying off-shore at Australian universities. Learning support and development staff in 12 universities were surveyed using a questionnaire. The survey…

  3. Citations to Wikipedia in Chemistry Journals: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzeal, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the subject of an increasing number of studies. Many of these have focused on the quality of Wikipedia articles and the use of Wikipedia by students. Little research has focused on the use of Wikipedia by scholars. This study helps to fill that gap by examining citations to Wikipedia in chemistry journals from three major…

  4. Disciplinary Culture, Bibliometrics, and Historical Studies: Preliminary Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Anne L.; Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses bibliometrics and its relationship to historical studies in order to examine community formation of scientific and scholarly communication through institutional affiliation. A history journal is investigated and reveals an institutional and geographical mapping of the contributors. (Author/LRW)

  5. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 2 and appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data to support results obtained in technology assessment studies are presented. Objectives, starting points, and future study tasks are outlined. Key design issues discussed in appendices include: data allocation, transposition network design, fault tolerance and trustworthiness, logic design, processing element of existing components, number of processors, the host system, alternate data base memory designs, number representation, fast div 521 instruction, architectures, and lockstep array versus synchronizable array machine comparison.

  6. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Electron spin resonance studies of the ovary of the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Roy S.; Curtis, Joseph C.

    1988-11-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of rat ovaries, isolated ovarian compartments, and ovarian subcellular fractions were compared with spectra of rat adrenals. Rat ovaries were found to exhibit ESR signals similar to those previously described in studies of mammalian adrenal and testis. Observations were made at 113 K in an anaerobic environment. ESR signals of the low-spin ferric cytochrome P-450, the non-heme protein ferredoxin, and the non-heme glycoprotein transferrin were consistently observed in whole ovaries. The first two signals were detected in mitochondrial fractions isolated from ovaries, while only cytochrome P-450 was detected in microsomal fractions. Signals from ferredoxin and cytochrome P-450 were also consistently observed in both whole adrenals and adrenal mitochondrial fractions. However, in the microsomal fraction only cytochrome P-450 was present. The g values for the cytochrome P-450 and ferredoxin signals found in this study of ovaries were identical to those previously reported and also found in this study in spectra of rat adrenals. The concentration of ferredoxin per milligram wet mass in rat ovaries appears to be only one-sixth of that in the rat adrenal. The concentration of cytochrome P-450 appears to be only one-ninth of that in the adrenal. Signals from ferredoxin were detected in all ovarian compartments except granulosa cells isolated from Graafian follicles. The third signal, that of transferrin, while often observed in the spectra of whole ovaries, has been attributed to residual blood in the tissues examined. The effects of oxygen on these spectra has been found to be considerable and is discussed.

  8. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  9. Preliminary cutting and drilling studies using new generation lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Sze, J.S.; Dragon, E.P.; Hargrove, R.S.

    1992-02-20

    High power and radiance dye lasers developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory show promise for material processing tanks. Evaluation using welding heat flow models suggest significant increases in precision and speed are expected. We developed tooling and instrumentation to diagnose important parameters including spot geometry and optical train quality. We started processing studies to determine the viability of these lasers of cutting and drilling. We used titanium alloys first in the studies due to the availability of comparable parametric studies in the technical literature. Results show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye lasers. The high radiance beam produces low distortion and small heat-affected zones. We have accomplished very high aspect ratios and micron scale kerfs and holes. Through continued system improvement and process optimization, we believe that submicron levels will be achieved.

  10. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Wells, Beric E.; Bao, Jie; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Chun, Jaehun; Karri, Naveen K.; Li, Huidong; Tran, Diana N.

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  11. [Histological studies of normal and pathological furcations in the rat].

    PubMed

    Mattout, P; Rachlin, G

    1978-06-01

    In order to study the histological structure of healthy and pathological furcations in the rat, two groups of animals were submitted to two different diets: one normal and one rich in sucrose. In the first group, certain particularities were demonstrated in the periodontal ligament in the interradicular region: the fibrous network was very loose in this zone and the fibrous insertions were essentially cemento-cemental and not cemento-osseous. In the rats submitted to the high sucrose diet, a disequilibrium was noted between the apposition zones and the zones in bone and cementum resorption.

  12. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-11-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

  13. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  14. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who work in…

  15. Methods Courses, So What? Preliminary Findings of a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard J.; Flores-Duenas, Leila; Rossi, Pamela

    This study examined influences that preservice literacy teacher education courses and sustained relationships with literacy researchers had on the literacy practices of three preservice teachers during student teaching and their subsequent self-efficacy and performance as literacy teachers during their first teaching years. Data collected during…

  16. From Numbers to Action: A Preliminary Study of Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Shelia Parker; Greenlee, Harry

    This study examined retention at Christopher Newport University (CNU) in Newport News, Virginia, focusing on the demographic characteristics of those students who left the university as well as the reasons why they left. A total of 159 students who had attended CNU during the 1994-95 academic year but who did not re-enroll in the fall of 1995 were…

  17. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  18. Experimental Treatment of Early Stuttering: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Marie-Christine J.; Kielstra-Van der Schalk, Carine J.; Boelens, Harrie

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study compared two treatments for stuttering in preschool-age children. Thirty children were randomly assigned to either a Lidcombe Program (LP) treatment or a Demands and Capacities Model (DCM) treatment. Stuttering frequencies and severity ratings were obtained immediately before and after treatment (12 weeks). The stuttering…

  19. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  20. Problems of Eskimo Relocation for Industrial Employment. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, D. S.

    A study was conducted to determine the reasons for variable success in relocating Eskimo families from rural areas of the northern territories of Canada to southern centers of industrial employment (railways, mining centers). The data were collected by interviewing 105 Eskimos, both male and female, married and single, who had migrated south. The…

  1. Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

  2. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 8, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG&G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  3. Functional Communication Training in Rett Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population (Sigafoos et al., 2009). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and…

  4. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  5. Advanced Analysis of Finger-Tapping Performance: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Barut, Çağatay; Kızıltan, Erhan; Gelir, Ethem; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The finger-tapping test is a commonly employed quantitative assessment tool used to measure motor performance in the upper extremities. This task is a complex motion that is affected by external stimuli, mood and health status. The complexity of this task is difficult to explain with a single average intertap-interval value (time difference between successive tappings) which only provides general information and neglects the temporal effects of the aforementioned factors. Aims: This study evaluated the time course of average intertap-interval values and the patterns of variation in both the right and left hands of right-handed subjects using a computer-based finger-tapping system. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Thirty eight male individuals aged between 20 and 28 years (Mean±SD = 22.24±1.65) participated in the study. Participants were asked to perform single-finger-tapping test for 10 seconds of test period. Only the results of right-handed (RH) 35 participants were considered in this study. The test records the time of tapping and saves data as the time difference between successive tappings for further analysis. The average number of tappings and the temporal fluctuation patterns of the intertap-intervals were calculated and compared. The variations in the intertap-interval were evaluated with the best curve fit method. Results: An average tapping speed or tapping rate can reliably be defined for a single-finger tapping test by analysing the graphically presented data of the number of tappings within the test period. However, a different presentation of the same data, namely the intertap-interval values, shows temporal variation as the number of tapping increases. Curve fitting applications indicate that the variation has a biphasic nature. Conclusion: The measures obtained in this study reflect the complex nature of the finger-tapping task and are suggested to provide reliable information regarding hand performance. Moreover, the

  6. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance. PMID:11765249

  7. Naked foot marks - a preliminary study of identification factors.

    PubMed

    Qamra, S R; Sharma, B P; Kaila, P

    1980-01-01

    Footprints of 725 apparently healthy subjects (395 males and 330 females) between the ages of 18 and 30 years were obtained. A number of measurements were taken on each footprint and converted into suitable indices to overcome the problems of registration, recording and observation. Minimum and maximum probability values for each index and combined probabilities were calculated. From the data, it was found that the maximum combined frequency of an individual in the population was of the order of 10(-4) and the minimum combined consideration crease marks and other characteristic features. Thus the present study indicates that combined probabilities could provide reasonably reliable circumstantial evidence to link the criminal with the crime. Humps and creases, which often confer individuality on a print, form additional features of the study.

  8. Promotion of mindfulness in psychotherapists in training: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Grepmair, Ludwig; Mitterlehner, Ferdinand; Loew, Thomas; Nickel, Marius

    2007-11-01

    This study examined whether the promotion of mindfulness in psychotherapists in training can influence the treatment results of their patients. The therapeutic course and treatment results of 196 inpatients, who were treated during a nine week period by nine psychotherapists in training, were compared: in the first phase of the study, the treatment group without (CG, historical control group, n=55), and in the second phase the treatment group with, (MFG, n=58) therapists who were currently practicing Zen meditation. The results of treatment were examined (according to the intent-to-treat principle) with the Session Questionnaire for General and Differential Individual Psychotherapy (STEP), the Questionnaire of Changes in Experience and Behaviour (VEV) and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R), and showed significantly better results in the MFG.

  9. Gravity of the New Madrid seismic zone; a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Mo. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  10. Preliminary cutting and drilling studies using new generation lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Sze, J.S.; Dragon, E.P.; Hargrove, R.S.

    1992-02-20

    High power and radiance dye lasers developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory show promise for material processing tasks. Evaluation using welding heat flow models suggests significant increases in precision and speed are expected. We developed tooling and instrumentation to diagnose important parameters including spot geometry and optical train quality. We started processing studies to determine the viability of these lasers for cutting and drilling. We used titanium and stainless steel alloys for testing due to the availability of comparable parametric studies in the technical literature. Results show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye lasers. The high radiance beam produces low distortion and small heat-affected zone. We have accomplished very high aspects ratios and micron scale kerfs and holes. Through continued system improvement and process optimization, we believe that submicron levels will be realized.

  11. Preliminary results from two international pluvial flood event studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roezer, Viktor; Spekkers, Matthieu; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial floods have caused severe damages to urban dwellings in Europe and elsewhere in recent years. With a predicted increase in extreme weather events as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. These type of flood events, caused by stormwater being unable to enter urban drainage systems or flowing out of urban drainage systems when capacity is exceeded, often happen with little warning and in areas which are often not obviously prone to flooding. Up to now little research was done on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods, as empirical damage data of pluvial flooding is scarce. In this study, results of two telephone surveys are discussed. The surveys comprise interviews with more than 500 flood-affected households in Germany (Münster and Greven) and the Netherlands (Amsterdam), related to the severe rain event of July 28th 2014. Respondents were asked a series of questions about the damage to their building structure and contents, as well as on topics such as early warning, emergency and precautionary measures, building properties and hazard characteristics. The questionnaire was developed with the aim to create a harmonized transnational pluvial flood damage survey that can potentially be extended to other European countries. New indicator variables have been developed to account for different national and regional standards in building structure, early warning, socio-economic data and recovery. The survey data from the German and Dutch case studies are compared with the goal to identify similarities and differences in damage reducing factors and recovery. Water level data and other hazard characteristics are used to form comparable groups out of the German and Dutch sample. Within these groups, regional distinctions in building topology and use are expected to have the strongest impact on differences between reported damage amounts of the two case studies. The newly collected data will be used in

  12. A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.

  13. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  14. Preliminary study for pixel identification on a modular gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluri, A.; Atzeni, G.; Ucci, A.; Cusanno, F.; Massari, R.

    2014-02-01

    Our group has recently investigated and produced new scintigraphic prototypes based on advanced scintillation structure. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the use of scintillation matrices with size equal to the overall area of the Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube (PSPMT), to design a modular gamma camera and study the solution of the dead area problems optimizing the overall pixel identification. In this paper we investigate the response of different combinations with crystals integrated within tungsten structure, coupled with H8500, R8900-C12 and R11265-M64 Hamamatsu PSPMTs. Several scintillation matrices, whose dimensions match to the physical area of the PSPMT, have been analysed so that we have also studied limits of detection for the elements of the matrix in the critical zones of the PSPMT, i.e. corners and borders. In order to enhance the detectability of scintillation elements we improved the light collection by depositing metallic layers or treating the tungsten structure with different coating materials, and shaping the external elements of the scintillation matrices. The results have shown good energy resolution and the proposed method can be applied in medical imaging for obtaining high efficiency scintillation devices.

  15. Parkinson's disease and forced exercise: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Qutubuddin, Abu; Reis, Timothy; Alramadhani, Raed; Cifu, David X; Towne, Alan; Carne, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The concept of forced exercise has drawn attention for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms with anecdotal reports of success. This study sought to ascertain any significant effect of forced exercise using a motorized stationary bicycle when compared to controls on Parkinson's disease symptoms in a blinded, randomized, and controlled setting. Setting. Parkinson's disease outpatient clinic, Veterans Administration Medical Center. Method. We assessed 23 patients (13 experimental and 10 controls) on a number of standard Parkinson's measures at baseline, after participation in eight weeks of twice weekly forced exercise or eight weeks of conventional clinic care, and then after a three-month period had elapsed. Dependent measures were UPDRS-III, Berg Balance Scale, finger taping test, and the PDQ-39. Results. Results did not demonstrate any main effect differences between the exercise and control groups on any measure at any point in time. A within subjects effect was demonstrated for the forced exercise group on overall UPDRS-III scores at the three-month end point. No other within group effects were noted. Results suggest that early enthusiasm for forced exercise may need tempering. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as numerous logistical challenges to this type of study.

  16. Preliminary studies on cryopreservation of snakehead (Channa striata) embryos.

    PubMed

    Mohd Sharifuddin, M; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, Channa striata embryos. The specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of C. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. Embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), 1M ethylene glycol (EG), 1M methanol (MeOH) and 0.1M sucrose solutions at different temperatures for a period of time. Embryos were kept at 24 °C (control), 15 °C, 4 °C and -2 °C for 5 min, 1h and 3h. Following these treatments, the embryos were then transferred into a 24 °C water bath until hatch to evaluate the hatching rate. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of hatching rate in both developmental stages following exposure to 4 °C and -2 °C at 1h and 3h exposure in each treatment. Heartbeat stage was more tolerant against chilling at -2 °C for 3h exposure in Me2SO followed by MeOH, sucrose and EG. Further studies will be conducted to find the best method to preserve embryos for long term storage.

  17. Preliminary studies on cryopreservation of snakehead (Channa striata) embryos.

    PubMed

    Mohd Sharifuddin, M; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, Channa striata embryos. The specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of C. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. Embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), 1M ethylene glycol (EG), 1M methanol (MeOH) and 0.1M sucrose solutions at different temperatures for a period of time. Embryos were kept at 24 °C (control), 15 °C, 4 °C and -2 °C for 5 min, 1h and 3h. Following these treatments, the embryos were then transferred into a 24 °C water bath until hatch to evaluate the hatching rate. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of hatching rate in both developmental stages following exposure to 4 °C and -2 °C at 1h and 3h exposure in each treatment. Heartbeat stage was more tolerant against chilling at -2 °C for 3h exposure in Me2SO followed by MeOH, sucrose and EG. Further studies will be conducted to find the best method to preserve embryos for long term storage. PMID:24726775

  18. A preliminary study of the associations among preterm infant behaviors.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Chang, Ling-Hua

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether relationships exist among various preterm infant behaviors. The study used an exploratory method design. Twenty infants were bathed and a total of 120 baths were video recorded and observed to measure preterm infant behaviors based on the frequency that behaviors occurred. The frequency was measured by using the preterm infant behavioral coding scheme developed for the study. Pearson Correlation Coefficients were used to analyze the behavioral data and examine whether the relationships among these behaviors were significant. The interrater reliability of the behavioral variables ranged from .82 to .99. There were highly positive correlations between the stress behaviors. There was, however, negative correlation between the stress behaviors and the stable behavior (sucking). The occurrences of the stress behaviors were associated with the state of " eyes open " and "fuss or crying". Knowing the associations may enhance NICU nurses ' abilities to identify preterm infant behaviors. While interacting with preterm infants, nurses can sensitively and actively sense preterm infant signals, prevent or ameliorate the early threats to an infant ' s life, and adjust care to support the infant ' s growth and development.

  19. Preliminary in vivo studies on the osteogenic potential of bone morphogenetic proteins delivered from an absorbable puttylike polymer matrix.

    PubMed

    Andriano, K P; Chandrashekar, B; McEnery, K; Dunn, R L; Moyer, K; Balliu, C M; Holland, K M; Garrett, S; Huffer, W E

    2000-01-01

    This article describes preliminary in vivo studies evaluating the osteogeneic potential of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) delivered from an absorbable puttylike polymer matrix. In the first study, bovine-derived bone morphogenetic proteins were incorporated in an polymer matrix consisting of 50:50 poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. The matrix was implanted in an 8 mm critical-size calvarial defect created in the skull of adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5 per treatment group). After 28 days, the implant sites were removed and examined for new bone formation, polymer degradation, and tissue reaction. Gamma-irradiated polymer matrices appeared to give more bone formation than nonirradiated samples (histological analysis; 2. 76 + 1.34 mm(2) of bone versus 1.30 + 0.90 mm(2) of bone, respectively and x-ray analysis; 27.2 + 15.9 mm(2) of bone versus 20. 7 + 16.7 mm(2) of bone, respectively) and less residual polymer (0.0 + 0.0 versus 0.2 + 0.4, respectively). The polymer implants with bone morphogenetic protein also gave less inflammatory response than the polymer controls (gamma irradiated polymer/BMP = 1.8 + 0.4 and nonirradiated polymer/BMP = 1.2 + 0.4 versus polymer only = 3.0 + 1. 2, respectively). However, despite trends in both the x-ray and histological data there was no statistical difference in the amount of new bone formed among the four treatment groups (P > 0.05). This was most likely due to the large variance in the data scatter and the small number of animals per group. In the second animal study, bovine-derived BMPs and the polymeric carrier were gamma irradiated separately, at doses of 1.5 or 2.5 Mrad, and their ability to form bone in a rat skull onlay model was evaluated using Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5 per treatment group). Histomorphometry of skull caps harvested 28 days after implantation showed no significant differences as compared to non-irradiated samples, in implant area, new bone area, and percent new bone (P

  20. Mesiodistal odontometrics as a distinguishing trait: A comparative preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Narasimha, Vanajakshi China

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination is a vital step in reconstructing an individual profile from unidentified skeletal remnants. Variations in tooth size are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Tooth size variations have been reported among different populations. Aim: To identify the sex by determining the mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of maxillary canines. Objectives: (1) To compare the MD diameter of all maxillary canines — (a) in the entire urban and tribal population, (b) in urban male and urban female populations, (c) in tribal male and tribal female populations, and (d) in the entire male and female populations and (2) To estimate the percentage of sexual dimorphism individually in urban and tribal populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from urban and tribal populations in equal gender ratio were selected in Khammam district, Telangana, for the purpose of this study. After obtaining informed consent, maxillary study models of the selected subjects were made. MD diameters of left and right maxillary canines were measured on casts using vernier calipers. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: (1) The total tribal population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the total urban population, (2) Urban males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than urban females, (3) Tribal males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than tribal females, (4) The entire male population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the entire female population, and (5) The percentage of dimorphism between males and females in individual groups was found to be significant. Conclusion: The study showed maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used as a distinguishing trait for sex determination along with other procedures. PMID:27555727

  1. Noninvasive mechanical body contouring: a preliminary clinical outcome study.

    PubMed

    Ersek, R A; Mann, G E; Salisbury, S; Salisbury, A V

    1997-01-01

    L.P.G.'s Endermologie is a massage method consisting of positive pressure rolling, in conjunction with applied negative pressure to both the, skin and subcutaneous tissues (L.P.G. Endermologie U.S.A., 3101 North Federal Highway, Suite 301 Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33306, U.S.A., (800) 222-3911). Devised in France during the 1970s, L.P.G.'s original purpose was to soften scars and standardize physical therapy; however, patients treated with the L.P.G. machine also showed an improvement in body contour and skin texture. Since then, several thousand machines have been in use in France as an alternative method for altering fat distribution in the subcutaneous plane. The authors began a study to determine the safety and efficacy of this machine. This study is composed of 22 women between the ages of 24 and 48. All 22 women completed at least seven sessions of treatments. Six of these 22 women completed all 14 sessions of the prescribed treatments. The study group exhibited a wide range of body habitus, initial weights, and final results. Of the 22 women who completed seven sessions of treatment, three had an increase in body weight and a mean index (see Materials and Methods) reduction in body diameter of 1.38 cm (0.5 in). Three of the six patients who completed all 14 treatment sessions had an increase in body weight and a mean index reduction in body diameter of 2.85 cm (1.12 in). All but one of the patients had a decrease in their mean body diameter index, regardless of their loss or gain in weight.

  2. A preliminary study of dengue infection in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Devi, Shamala

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line.

  3. Magnetic field studies by Voyager 1 - Preliminary results at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Lepping, R. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Confirmation and refinement of Saturnian magnetosphere features established by the Pioneer 11 emission are claimed for Voyager 1 magnetic field studies of the planet. The radius of the magnetopause at the subsolar point is 23 Saturn radii, and a magnetic tail of 80 Saturn radii diameter was discovered. The tail extends away from the sun and is similar to both type II comet tails and the terrestrial and Jovian magnetic tails. Data from Voyager's very close flyby of Titan, which is located within the Saturn magnetosphere, shows an absence of any substantial, intrinsic satellite magnetic field.

  4. A preliminary phenomenological study of being hypnotized and hypnotizing.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick James

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents phenomenological research conducted following Woodard's phenomenological and perceptual research methodology for understanding hypnotic experiencing. The research emphasizes examining the internal experiencings of individuals involved in hypnotic experiencing. Examples are presented of Individual Situated Structures and the General Structures from both a group of 8 participants who hypnotized their clients and another group of 17 individuals who volunteered to be hypnotized. The explicated themes identified in hypnotic experiencing (the hypnotic relationship, phenomenology of trance, use of imagination, problem with psychic energy, a gestalt of experiencing, and linear-nonlinear experiencing) are discussed. The author discusses limitations of this study and suggestions for further work. PMID:16342574

  5. Preliminary study of digital image correlation based optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Vuong, Barry; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Victor

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) provides deformation or material properties mapping of soft tissue, which is important for morphological and pathological studies of the tissue. An OCE technique is developed based on digital image correlation. System calibration and measurement error evaluation are performed. The displacement measurement of 0.6 μm to over 100 μm was obtained through a phantom experiment. The capability of this OCE technique for differentiation of stiffness was evaluated by imaging a two-components phantom. OCE imaging of an aneurysm sample shows promising results for characterization of composites of aneurismal wall in the future.

  6. Radio frequency compatibility between IRS and SPOT 3: Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondin, M.

    1986-01-01

    The RF compatibility between the Indian satellite IRS and SPOT 3 during launch and first orbits, with the hypothesis of a double launch on Ariane 4 was studied. Results are given in carrier-to-interference ratios for the TM and TC links. Concerning intersatellite compatibility, there can be a problem during the first orbit, when the intersatellite distance is only 2 m: the TC of each satellite is interfered with by the TM of the other satellite. Concerning satellites/Earth stations compatibility, there is no problem for the TM links and for the TC links.

  7. Magnetic field studies by Voyager 2 - Preliminary results at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Lepping, R. P.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1982-01-01

    Results of Voyager 2 studies of the magnetosphere and planetary magnetic field of Saturn are presented. Magnetometer studies have confirmed the results obtained by Voyager 1, indicating the magnetic field to be that of a centered dipole of moment 0.21 gauss Saturn radii-cubed, tilted approximately 0.8 deg from the rotation axis and a maximum measured field intensity of 1187 nT at latitude 17.3 deg N just before periapsis. Voyager 2 observed multiple bow shock and magnetopause crossings during its inbound and outbound trajectories, which were complementary to those of Voyager 1, including magnetopause crossing at 18.5 Saturn radii on the inbound trajectory, and at 48.4-50.9 Saturn radii outbound indicative of magnetospheric expansion due to changing solar wind conditions. Throughout the outbound passage, the magnetospheric field was observed to be relatively steady and smooth, with no evidence for any azimuthal asymmetry or magnetic anomaly. Results thus are incapable of accounting for the observed periodic modulation of the Saturnian kilometric radio emissions.

  8. Ultrasonic nebulization atmospheric pressure glow discharge - Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greda, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (μAPGD) generated between a small-sized He nozzle jet anode and a flowing liquid cathode was coupled with ultrasonic nebulization (USN) for analytical optical emission spectrometry (OES). The spatial distributions of the emitted spectra from the novel coupled USN-μAPGD system and the conventional μAPGD system were compared. In the μAPGD, the maxima of the intensity distribution profiles of the atomic emission lines Ca, Cd, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na and Sr were observed in the near cathode region, whereas, in the case of the USN-μAPGD, they were shifted towards the anode. In the novel system, the intensities of the analytical lines of the studied metals were boosted from several to 35 times. As compared to the conventional μAPGD-OES with the introduction of analytes through the sputtering and/or the electrospray-like nebulization of the flowing liquid cathode solution, the proposed method with the USN introduction of analytes in the form of a dry aerosol provides improved detectability of the studied metals. The detection limits of metals achieved with the USN-μAPGD-OES method were in the range from 0.08 μg L- 1 for Li to 52 μg L- 1 for Mn.

  9. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  10. Preliminary studies on immobilization of lipase using chicken eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, S.; Serri, N. A.; Hena, S.; Tajarudin, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    A few advantages of enzyme immobilization are reusability of expensive enzyme, improvement of stability and activity compared to crude enzyme. Various organic components can be used as carrier for enzyme immobilization such as chicken eggshell. It can be used as a carrier for immobilization as its mineral component mostly contains of calcium carbonate. In the present study, Tributyrin method was used to test enzyme activity of Rhizomucour Miehei, Candida Antarctica and Candida Rugosa. Rhizomucour Miehei shows the highest enzyme activity (360.8 mol/min/mL lipase) and was used in further experiment. Experiment was continued to study incubation time for lipase immobilization on eggshell (1-4 hours) and reaction time of esterification of sugar ester (0-72 hours). Two hours incubation time for lipase immobilization was observed and gives the highest yield of sugar ester (78.13%). Fructose and stearic acid as substrate was used for the production of sugar ester. The highest percentage of sugar ester production was shown at 36 hours of reaction time.

  11. Static Balance in Patients with Vestibular Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Hossein; Abtahi, Seyed Hamid Reza; Fereshtenejad, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Vestibular system is indicated as one of the most important sensors responsible for static and dynamic postural control. In this study, we evaluated static balance in patients with unilateral vestibular impairments. Materials and Methods. We compared static balance control using Kistler force plate platform between 10 patients with unilateral vestibular impairments and 20 normal counterparts in the same sex ratio and age limits (50 ± 7). We evaluated excursion and velocity of center of pressure (COP) and path length in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) planes with eyes open and with eyes closed. Results. There was no significant difference between COP excursions in ML and AP planes between both groups with eyes open and eyes closed (p value > 0.05). In contrast, the difference between velocity and path length of COP in the mentioned planes was significant between both groups with eyes open and eyes closed (p value < 0.05). Conclusions. The present study showed the static instability and balance of patients with vestibular impairments indicated by the abnormal characteristics of body balance. PMID:27379198

  12. Preliminary 1H NMR study on archaeological waterlogged wood.

    PubMed

    Maccotta, Antonella; Fantazzini, Paola; Garavaglia, Carla; Donato, Ines D; Perzia, Patrizia; Brai, Maria; Morreale, Filippa

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Relaxation (MRR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are powerful tools to obtain detailed information on the pore space structure that one is unlikely to obtain in other ways. These techniques are particularly suitable for Cultural Heritage materials, because they use water 1H nuclei as a probe. Interaction with water is one of the main causes of deterioration of materials. Porous structure in wood, for example, favours the penetration of water, which can carry polluting substances and promote mould growth. A particular case is waterlogged wood from underwater discoveries and moist sites; in fact, these finds are very fragile because of chemical, physical and biological decay from the long contact with the water. When wood artefacts are brought to the surface and directly dried in air, there is the collapse of the cellular structures, and wood loses its original form and dimensions and cannot be used for study and museum exhibits. In this work we have undertaken the study of some wood finds coming from Ercolano's harbour by MRR and MRI under different conditions, and we have obtained a characterization of pore space in wood and images of the spatial distribution of the confined water in the wood. PMID:16485652

  13. Overcoming Underrepresentation of Women Physics Teachers in Cameroon: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyomo, M.; Kom, G. H.; Siebatcheu, B.; Asse, M. L.; Woulache, R.; Mvoudjo, E.

    2009-04-01

    At a time when much energy is being spent all over the world to bring women into the fast-developing world of science, it is regrettable that these efforts are still at their genesis in Cameroon. It is however, worth noting that efforts geared toward the education of the girl child are yielding fruit, even if much remains to be done in rural areas. The only unfortunate revelation is that increase in the number of young girls in scientific classes observed in high school is not reflected at the tertiary level in physics. Thus, young women are almost completely absent when it comes to recruiting lecturers and researchers in the subject. It is time a serious study is carried out on the status of the woman physicist in Cameroon. It is time to evaluate the importance of the woman physicist to our society and to the field of study as well. It is also necessary to develop a new policy geared toward encouraging young girls to take up a career in physics.

  14. Preliminary design study of a high resolution meteor radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.; Geller, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    A design study for a high resolution meteor radar system is carried out with the objective of measuring upper atmospheric winds and particularly studying short period atmospheric waves in the 80 to 120 km altitude region. The transmitter that is to be used emits a peak power of 4 Mw. The system is designed to measure the wind velocity and height of a meteor trail very accurately. This is achieved using a specially developed digital reduction procedure to determine wind velocity and range together with an interferometer for measuring both the azimuth and elevation angles of the region with a long baseline vernier measurement being used to refine the elevation angle measurement. The resultant accuracies are calculated to be + or - 0.9 m/s for the wind, + or - 230 m for the range and + or - 0.12 deg for the elevation angle, giving a height accuracy of + or - 375 m. The prospects for further development of this system are also discussed.

  15. Preliminary 1H NMR study on archaeological waterlogged wood.

    PubMed

    Maccotta, Antonella; Fantazzini, Paola; Garavaglia, Carla; Donato, Ines D; Perzia, Patrizia; Brai, Maria; Morreale, Filippa

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Relaxation (MRR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are powerful tools to obtain detailed information on the pore space structure that one is unlikely to obtain in other ways. These techniques are particularly suitable for Cultural Heritage materials, because they use water 1H nuclei as a probe. Interaction with water is one of the main causes of deterioration of materials. Porous structure in wood, for example, favours the penetration of water, which can carry polluting substances and promote mould growth. A particular case is waterlogged wood from underwater discoveries and moist sites; in fact, these finds are very fragile because of chemical, physical and biological decay from the long contact with the water. When wood artefacts are brought to the surface and directly dried in air, there is the collapse of the cellular structures, and wood loses its original form and dimensions and cannot be used for study and museum exhibits. In this work we have undertaken the study of some wood finds coming from Ercolano's harbour by MRR and MRI under different conditions, and we have obtained a characterization of pore space in wood and images of the spatial distribution of the confined water in the wood.

  16. Sleep Stage Coordination of Respiration and Swallowing: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Kentaro; Nohara, Kanji; Takai, Etsuko; Sakai, Takayoshi; Fleetham, John A; Ayas, Najib T; Lowe, Alan A; Almeida, Fernanda R

    2016-08-01

    Swallowing is an important physiological response that protects the airway. Although aspiration during sleep may cause aspiration pneumonia, the mechanisms responsible have not yet been elucidated. We evaluated the coordination between respiration and swallowing by infusing water into the pharynx of healthy young adults during each sleep stage. Seven normal subjects participated in the study. During polysomnography recordings, to elicit a swallow we injected distilled water into the pharynx during the awake state and each sleep stage through a nasal catheter. We assessed swallow latency, swallow apnea time, the respiratory phase during a swallow, the number of swallows, and coughing. A total number of 79 swallows were recorded. The median swallow latency was significantly higher in stage 2 (10.05 s) and stage 3 (44.17 s) when compared to awake state (4.99 s). The swallow latency in stage 3 showed a very wide interquartile range. In two subjects, the result was predominantly prolonged compared to the other subjects. There was no significant difference in the swallow apnea time between sleep stages. The presence of inspiration after swallowing, repetitive swallowing, and coughing after swallowing was more frequent during sleep than when awake. This study suggests that the coordination between respiration and swallowing as a defense mechanism against aspiration was impaired during sleep. Our results supported physiologically the fact that healthy adult individuals aspirate pharyngeal secretions during sleep. PMID:27338262

  17. A preliminary study of airborne microbial biodiversity over Peninsular Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K A; McCartney, H A; Lachlan-Cope, T A; Pearce, D A

    2004-07-01

    This study used PCR-based molecular biological identification techniques to examine the biodiversity of air sampled over Rothera Point (Antarctic Peninsula). 16S rDNA fragments of 132 clones were sequenced and identified to reveal a range of microorganisms, including cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, diatom plastids and other uncultivated bacterial groups. Matches for microorganisms that would be considered evidence of human contamination were not found. The closest matches for many of the sequences were from Antarctic clones already in the databases or from other cold environments. Whilst the majority of the sequences are likely to be of local origin, back trajectory calculations showed that the sampled air may have travelled over the Antarctic Peninsula immediately prior to reaching the sample site. As a result, a proportion of the detected biota may be of non-local origin. Conventional identification methods based on propagule morphology or culture are often inadequate due to poor preservation of characteristic features or loss of viability during airbome transfer. The application of molecular biological techniques in describing airbome microbial biodiversity represents a major step forward in the study of airborne biota over Antarctica and in the distribution of microorganisms and propagules in the natural environment.

  18. Spherical Cryogenic Hydrogen Tank Preliminary Design Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    A structural analysis, sizing optimization, and weight prediction study was performed by Collier Research Corporation and NASA Glenn on a spherical cryogenic hydrogen tank. The tank consisted of an inner and outer wall separated by a vacuum for thermal insulation purposes. HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation), a commercial automated structural analysis and sizing software package was used to design the lightest feasible tank for a given overall size and thermomechanical loading environment. Weight trade studies were completed for different panel concepts and metallic and composite material systems. Extensive failure analyses were performed for each combination of dimensional variables, materials, and layups to establish the structural integrity of tank designs. Detailed stress and strain fields were computed from operational temperature changes and pressure loads. The inner tank wall is sized by the resulting biaxial tensile stresses which cause it to be strength driven, and leads to an optimum panel concept that need not be stiffened. Conversely, the outer tank wall is sized by a biaxial compressive stress field, induced by the pressure differential between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum between the tanks, thereby causing the design to be stability driven and thus stiffened to prevent buckling. Induced thermal stresses become a major sizing driver when a composite or hybrid composite/metallic material systems are used for the inner tank wall for purposes such as liners to contain the fuel and reduce hydrogen permeation.

  19. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  20. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 7, Subsystem concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  1. a Preliminary Study on Mechanism of Lai Inversion Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Li, J.; Liu, Q.; Yang, L.

    2012-07-01

    Many parameters, such as albedo, vegetation index and leaf area index (LAI) inversed from satellite images, often get saturated when the surface vegetation cover reaches a certain high level. In order to analyze the saturation phenomena in parameter inversion, we analyze the changing of canopy reflectance and backscattering with increasing of LAI through PROSAIL and MIMICS model respectively. The results show that the canopy reflectances get saturated when LAI exceed 3, and the crown backscatters have strong relationship with biomass, which changes at various incident angles and frequencies. When LAI>3, the reflectance variations between red band and near-infrared band were no longer obvious with the vegetation growing, which directly leaded to the vegetation indices and LAI saturation. This paper is an exploratory research about the LAI saturation, and the reducing saturation methods still need further studies.

  2. Preliminary study of effectiveness of aloe vera in scabies treatment.

    PubMed

    Oyelami, O A; Onayemi, A; Oyedeji, O A; Adeyemi, L A

    2009-10-01

    In an open, non-comparative study carried out between August and December 2002 at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 5 patients with scabies were successfully treated with crude gel of Aloe vera; thereafter the efficacy of the extract was compared with that of benzoate lotion among 30 patients. Sixteen patients were treated with Aloe vera and 14 patients had benzyl benzoate lotion. Itching was still present in 3 patients in the benzyl benzoate group and in 2 patients in the Aloe vera group after 2 courses of treatment. The scabietic lesions virtually disappeared in all of them. None of these patients had any noticeable side effects. It is concluded that Aloe vera gel is as effective as benzyl benzoate in the treatment of scabies.

  3. Shuttle infrared telescope facility (SIRTF) preliminary design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An overall picture of the SIRTF system is first presented, including the telescope, focal plane instruments, cryogen supply, shuttle and spacelab support subsystems, mechanical and data interfaces with the vehicles, ground support equipment, and system requirements. The optical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the telescope are then evaluated, followed by a description of the SIRTF internal stabilization subsystem and its interface with the IPS. Expected performance in the shuttle environment is considered. Tradeoff studies are described, including the Gregorian versus the Cassegrain telescope, aperture diameter tradeoff, a CCD versus an image dissector for the star tracker, the large ambient telescope versus the SIRTF, and a dedicated gimbal versus the IPS. Operations from integration through launch and recovery are also discussed and cost estimates for the program are presented.

  4. Preliminary study of silicon photomultipliers for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindi, V.; Del Guerra, A.; Levi, G.; Quadrani, L.; Sbarra, C.

    2007-03-01

    The new photodetector Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) promises to meet the needs of a space particle physics experiment: these are low weight, low consumption, resistance to radiation damage, constant performance for a long time and, for spectrometry applications, insensitivity to magnetic fields. Samples of SiPM have been studied in laboratory, by means of the same characterization methods adopted to calibrate the 192 PMTs of the AMS Time Of Flight (TOF). A detailed simulation was made in order to model the SiPM response for the various experimental conditions. The results of the measurements and simulation are shown. A comparison between SiPM and photomultiplier performances supports the use of these new detectors in conjunction with scintillators in TOF techniques for future space missions.

  5. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented.

  6. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented. PMID:26113552

  7. Magnitude of relationship between burnout and absenteeism: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the influence of guilt related to a negative attitude toward patients and its relation with burnout and absenteeism. The sample consisted of 717 nursing professionals. Depersonalization was evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Guilt was evaluated by one item. To estimate Absenteeism, participants were asked about the number of workdays they had missed in the past year. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses make it possible to conclude that guilt explains work absenteeism, and the interaction between depersonalization and guilt (Incr. R2 = .008, p < .05) indicates significant differences in the number of work days missed in the last year. Conclusions are limited, as these effects are quite weak: all variables together only explain about 4% of the shared variance in absenteeism. Researchers might assess whether feelings of guilt help explain the relationship between burnout and symptoms such as absenteeism.

  8. Preliminary Exploratory Study of Different Phase II Collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Lari, L.; Assmann, R.W.; Bertarelli, A.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dallocchio, A.; Ferrari, A.; Mauri, M.; Roesler, S.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, Vasilis; Doyle, J.E.; Keller, L.; Lundgren, S.A.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Smith, J.C.; Lari, L.; /LPHE, Lausanne

    2011-11-02

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system is installed and commissioned in different phases, following the natural evolution of the LHC performance. To improve cleaning efficiency towards the end of the low beta squeeze at 7TeV, and in stable physics conditions, it is foreseen to complement the 30 highly robust Phase I secondary collimators with low impedance Phase II collimators. At this stage, their design is not yet finalized. Possible options include metallic collimators, graphite jaws with a movable metallic foil, or collimators with metallic rotating jaws. As part of the evaluation of the different designs, the FLUKA Monte Carlo code is extensively used for calculating energy deposition and studying material damage and activation. This report outlines the simulation approach and defines the critical quantities involved.

  9. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF METHODS TO CHEMICALLY BIND ZINC

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2011-06-10

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first two experimental tasks were completed. The results of the third experimental task are reported here. This task was conducted to determine if the zinc vapors could be chemically bound on two non hydrogen active substrates. Based on a thermodynamic study copper and cobalt were the most favorable for capturing zinc without forming hydrides. Within the experimental parameters tested, which include temperatures of 350, 400, and 450 C at pressures of nominally 20-40 millitorr, the zinc deposited on the both copper screen and cobalt rods but did not react to form a compound. The conditions that were tested are not prototypic and additional testing under higher vacuum conditions, i.e., .01 millitorr, may enhance the reactivity of the surfaces and is recommended.

  10. Polarization in Thermal Emission from Hot Jupiters: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Natraj, Vijay; Yung, Yuk; Spurr, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Scattering of thermal emission from a deep, hot region by high altitude atmospheric particles induces polarization in the scattered light. However, symmetries on a spherical planet with a uniform spatial distribution of scattering particles usually result in zero net polarization. If the symmetry is broken, either by rotation induced oblateness or by spatially inhomogeneous cloud or haze particle distributions, polarization may become observable. Additionally, variation of temperatures across the planetary disc could also contribute to asymmetries, giving us a new way to measure the day-night temperature contrast on hot exoplanets. We perform modeling studies using a multiple scattering, radiative transfer model for polarized light to understand how to distinguish between various symmetry breaking phenomena and map an observed polarization to a specific atmospheric state. The models can be used to predict the most suitable candidates for observation, and once observations are available, to retrieve various parameters of interest.

  11. Preliminary study of a possible automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, W. L.; Winfrey, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Navigation and control laws for a possible automatic landing system have been investigated. The system makes use of data from an inertial table and either an airborne or ground radar to generate signals that guide the airplane to a landing. All landing maneuvers take place within a zone that extends 6000 m out from the touchdown point, 4000 m on each side of the runway center line, and 540 m high. The results show that the system can adequately control the airplane on steep, curved decelerating approaches to a landing that takes place with small errors from the desired landing point and desired airplane attitude. The system studied would interface well with the scanning beam microwave landing system (MLS). The use of this system with the MLS makes it possible to incorporate an independent landing monitor.

  12. Functional communication training in rett syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Byiers, Breanne J; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J

    2014-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population ( Sigafoos et al., 2009 ). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) methods for teaching 3 individuals (ages 15-47 years) with classic RTT novel communicative behaviors. Using single-case experimental designs, functional reinforcers were identified (FA) and each participant quickly learned to activate a voice-output switch to obtain a reinforcer (FCT). These results suggest that individuals with classic RTT can learn novel communicative responses, which has important implications for future intervention research.

  13. [Preliminary study on HLA-B genotyping by oligonucleotide chips].

    PubMed

    Lan, Ke; Hu, Shou-Wang; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Hui; Guan, Wei; Ding, Yu; Sun, Ou-Jun; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2003-04-01

    HLA genes constitute a highly polymorphic multigene system. In the present study, HLA-B oligonucleotide chips were manufactured by using a set of sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes derived from polymorphic regions in exon 2 and exon 3 of HLA-B gene spotted by microarrayer onto the aldehyde modified glass slides. In addition, the sequenced HLA-B gene clones used as standard samples were amplified from exon 2 and exon 3 by PCR. Together with the correct hybridization and wash conditions, the PCR products were bound with the array probes on the chip, and the hybridization patterns were transformed to HLA-B genotypes. The results showed that the genotypes of standard samples by the HLA-B oligonucleotide chips were completely identical with the sequenced clones. In conclusion, the oligonucleotide chip method presented here for HLA-B genotyping is a rapid, accurate, sensitive and attractive high throughput biochemical way.

  14. Preliminary noise tradeoff study of a Mach 2.7 cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.; Maglieri, D. J. (Editor); Raney, J. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computer codes in the areas of preliminary sizing and enroute performance, takeoff and landing performance, aircraft noise prediction, and economics were used in a preliminary noise tradeoff study for a Mach 2.7 design supersonic cruise concept. Aerodynamic configuration data were based on wind-tunnel model tests and related analyses. Aircraft structural characteristics and weight were based on advanced structural design methodologies, assuming conventional titanium technology. The most advanced noise prediction techniques available were used, and aircraft operating costs were estimated using accepted industry methods. The 4-engines cycles included in the study were based on assumed 1985 technology levels. Propulsion data was provided by aircraft manufacturers. Additional empirical data is needed to define both noise reduction features and other operating characteristics of all engine cycles under study. Data on VCE design parameters, coannular nozzle inverted flow noise reduction and advanced mechanical suppressors are urgently needed to reduce the present uncertainties in studies of this type.

  15. A preliminary study in medical anthropology in Brunei, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Wolf, T D

    1978-01-01

    Nine rural village communities in the jungle of Brunei, Borneo were studied to ascertain possible effects of rapid social change on the health of the inhabitants. The social mores and religious beliefs of the rural tribes--Iban, Dusun, and Punan--have undergone but little change over many hundreds of years. During the past three decades, however, enormous social pressures for change have envolved from extraordinary economic prosperity of the region, due to the exploitation of large discoveries of oil and gas. Much of the money has been invested in health care, with the result that malaria, typhus and other tropical scourges have been virtually wiped out. Child and maternal mortality have been reduced to the standards of some of the healthiest countries in the world. The young of the formerly illiterate population are being rapidly educated in new schools scattered throughout the nation. New roads are penetrating the jungle and a thriving lumber industry has been established. Motor boats for the rivers, T.V. and even a national airline have been added. Despite these incursions a vigorous proseletizing by the Moslem and to a lesser extent by the Christian church, the villagers have held tenaciously to their ancient animistic beliefs. Living in long houses, they have also been able to maintain a tightly cohesive patriarchal family structure. Against this background there is as yet little or no evidence of the major diseases of Western society--coronary artery disease and hypertension, although most forms of cancer are commonly encountered. Brunei offers a splendid opportunity to test the putative relationship of chronic vascular disease to social structure and a way of life. Future studies may be made prospectively as the almost inevitable breakdown of old customs and patterns of living occurs in the face of rapid modernization. PMID:565915

  16. A Preliminary Study of Surface Temperature Cold Bias in COAMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H-N S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Aluzzi, F J

    2001-04-27

    It is well recognized that the model predictability is more or less hampered by the imperfect representations of atmospheric state and model physics. Therefore, it is a common problem for any numerical models to exhibit some sorts of biases in the prediction. In this study, the emphasis is focused on the cold bias of surface temperature forecast in Naval Research Laboratory's three-dimensional mesoscale model, COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System). Based on the comparison with the ground station data, there were two types of ground temperature cold biases identified in LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) operational forecasts of COAMPS over the California and Nevada regions during the 1999 winter and the 2000 spring. The first type of cold bias appears at high elevation regions covered by snow, and its magnitude can be as large as 30 F - 40 F lower than observed. The second type of cold bias mainly exists in the snow-free clear-sky regions, where the surface temperature is above the freezing point, and its magnitude can be up to 5 F - 10 F lower than observed. These cold biases can affect the low-level stratification, and even the diurnal variation of winds in the mountain regions, and therefore impact the atmospheric dispersion forecast. The main objective of this study is to explore the causes of such cold bias, and to further the improvement of the forecast performance in COAMPS. A series of experiments are performed to gauge the sensitivity of the model forecast due to the physics changes and large-scale data with various horizontal and vertical resolutions.

  17. Preliminary studies on the treatment of wastewater from biomass gasification.

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Roksana; Chrubasik, Maciej; Stelmach, Sławomir; Sajdak, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents completed research on the purification of undiluted raw water and organic condensates obtained in biomass thermal conversion processes such as gasification, which are rarely addressed in published studies. However, similar studies involving the characterization and purification of aqueous solutions obtained from process gas treatment after the gasification of biomass are available. Condensation of water-organic condensate from process gas helps to reduce the amount of water required by the purification process and the cost of the process technology and water consumption. Oil scrubbers can be used in this case instead of water scrubbers. In this case, the obtained condensate must be subjected to purification processes. This paper presents the results of our research, possible methods of treatment (chemical and biological methods), and the approximate cost of the reagents required for the purification of condensate for specific assumed degrees of purification. The best results from the chemical purification using the Fenton method were obtained with the ratio V(H2O2)/V(cond.) = 6.0 and the ratio V(H2O2)/Fe = 0.0375. To prevent precipitation of ferric hydroxide, this value can be reduced 20-fold, which reduces the total degree of purification to 90%. The cost of almost complete cleaning of tested condensates was calculated to be approximately 2000 USD per/m(3). This cost can be reduced by a factor of approximately four assuming 100% cleaning for 2-furaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and phenol; acetaldehyde, propane-2-one (acetone), methanol and acetic acid are oxidized by 50%.

  18. Preliminary studies on the treatment of wastewater from biomass gasification.

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Roksana; Chrubasik, Maciej; Stelmach, Sławomir; Sajdak, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents completed research on the purification of undiluted raw water and organic condensates obtained in biomass thermal conversion processes such as gasification, which are rarely addressed in published studies. However, similar studies involving the characterization and purification of aqueous solutions obtained from process gas treatment after the gasification of biomass are available. Condensation of water-organic condensate from process gas helps to reduce the amount of water required by the purification process and the cost of the process technology and water consumption. Oil scrubbers can be used in this case instead of water scrubbers. In this case, the obtained condensate must be subjected to purification processes. This paper presents the results of our research, possible methods of treatment (chemical and biological methods), and the approximate cost of the reagents required for the purification of condensate for specific assumed degrees of purification. The best results from the chemical purification using the Fenton method were obtained with the ratio V(H2O2)/V(cond.) = 6.0 and the ratio V(H2O2)/Fe = 0.0375. To prevent precipitation of ferric hydroxide, this value can be reduced 20-fold, which reduces the total degree of purification to 90%. The cost of almost complete cleaning of tested condensates was calculated to be approximately 2000 USD per/m(3). This cost can be reduced by a factor of approximately four assuming 100% cleaning for 2-furaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and phenol; acetaldehyde, propane-2-one (acetone), methanol and acetic acid are oxidized by 50%. PMID:26184898

  19. Posterior shoulder pain and anterior instability: a preliminary clinical study.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Alessandro; Conti, Marco; Borroni, Mario; Massazza, Giuseppe; Vinci, Enzo; Franceschi, Giorgio; Garofalo, Raffaele

    2008-02-01

    Different clinical tests have been suggested in the literature as significant indicators of anterior shoulder instability. Sometimes patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability may show some muscular guarding thus making the evaluation of specific clinical tests very difficult. These patients may also report a medical history with posterior shoulder pain that can be also elicited during some clinical manoeuvres. From September 2005 to September 2006 we prospectively studied patients who underwent an arthroscopic anterior capsuloplasty. Shoulder clinical examination was performed including anterior shoulder instability tests (drawer, apprehension and relocation tests). Furthermore the exam was focused on the presence of scapular dyskinesia and posterior shoulder pain. The patients were also evaluated with ASES, Rowe, SST (Simple Shoulder Test), Constant and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) scoring system preoperatively and at the latest follow-up time. In the period of this study we observed 16 patients treated for anterior gleno-humeral arthroscopic stabilisation, who preoperatively complained also of a posterior scapular pain. The pain was referred at the level of lower trapezium and upper rhomboids tendon insertion on the medial border of the scapula. It was also reproducible upon local palpation by the examiner. Four of these patients also referred pain in the region of the insertion of the infraspinatus and teres minor. After arthroscopic stabilisation the shoulder was immobilised in a sling with the arm in the neutral rotation for a period of 4 weeks. A single physician supervised shoulder rehabilitation. After a mean time of 6.8 months of follow-up, all the shoulder scores were significantly improved and, moreover, at the same time the patients referred the disappearance of the posterior pain. Posterior scapular shoulder pain seems to be another complaint and sign that can be found in patients affected by anterior shoulder instability

  20. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow reservoir

  1. Preliminary study of malaria incidence in Nouakchott, Mauritania

    PubMed Central

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Abdallahi, Mohamed Ould; Ba, Hâmpaté; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Trape, Jean-François; Salem, Ali Ould Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. However, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data. Methods Between April and August 2007, a study on malaria incidence was carried out in Nouakchott city. A total of 237 febrile outpatients, from all Nouakchott districts, attending the two main hospitals of the city were investigated. Finger prick and blood dried filter paper samples were performed to prepare thick and thin films and nested-PCR for malaria parasite species identification and density. The accuracy of diagnosis of 'presumptive malaria', assigned by clinicians and based on fever and other malaria suggestive symptoms, was assessed. Entomological investigations based on morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheline species were conducted in Dar Naïm district. Results Malaria prevalence rate was 25.7% (61/237), the majority of positive blood slides as well as nested-PCR products were due to Plasmodium vivax 70.5% (43/61) and Plasmodium ovale 24.6% (15/61). Two malaria patients, both with P. vivax, have never travelled out of Nouakchott and seem likely to have been autochthonous (3.3%). Of the 237 individuals included in the survey, 231(97.5%) were clinically diagnosed and treated as malaria cases. 26.4% of clinically diagnosed cases were positive for Plasmodium using microscopic examination and PCR. Thus, false positive cases constituted 73.6% (170/231) of the clinically diagnosed malaria cases. The search for mosquito vectors in Dar Naïm district allowed morphological and molecular identification of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that, during the hot and dry season, Plasmodium species responsible of recurrent malaria (P. vivax and P. ovale) are the dominant species in Nouakchott city and autochthonous malaria cases exist but are rare. Clinical diagnosis of malaria has a very

  2. Preliminary Study of Methods for Upgrading USGS Antarctic Seismological Capability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, L. Gary

    1982-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate potential methods for obtaining higher quality seismic data from Antarctica. Currently, USGS-sponsored WWSSN stations are located at Scott Base, Sanae Base, and at South Pole Station. Scott and Sanae Stations are located near the coast; data obtained from coastal installations are normally degraded by noise generated by ocean wave action on the coast. Operations at South Pole are rather difficult because of the severe environmental characteristics and the extended logistics which are required to provide supplies and operating personnel to its remote location. Short-period data quality from Pole Station has been moderately high with a short-period magnification of 100K at 1Hz. Long-period magnifications have been rather low (<1K @ 15 s period). Recent relocation of the seismic recording facilities at South Pole Station as a result of the construction of a completely new station facility has caused serious degradation of the data quality due to faulty installation techniques. Repairs have been implemented to remedy these deficiencies and to regain the data quality which existed before the move to new facilities. However, the technology being used at South Pole Station is of WWSSN vintage; as a result it is about 20 years old. Much has been learned about achieving higher magnifications since the WWSSN was designed. This study will evaluate the feasibility of applying recent technological advances to Antarctic seismology. Seismological data from the Antarctic Continent is important to the world's seismological community because of the Antarctic's unique geographic position on the globe. Land masses are scarce in that part of the world; the Antarctic sits right in the middle of the void. Therefore, its data are important for completing the data set for the southern hemisphere. Upgrading the USGS seismic capability in the Antarctic should also prove to be a wise investment from another point of view. Although the initial

  3. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05-0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique. PMID:27125874

  4. A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

  5. Segmentation and quantification for Alzheimer's disease (AD): a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Zhuge, Ying; Moonis, Gul; Clark, Christopher

    2003-05-01

    Alzheimer's is a progressive brain disease and is clinically characterized by cognitive symptoms that, in combination with behavioral disturbances, significantly interfere with activities of daily living. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of developing volumetric measures of the structural damage and atrophy of brain derived from multiprotocol MR imaging. Our approach first applies intensity inhomogeneity correction and intensity standardization to PD and T2 weighted MR images to create base images for quantitative image analysis. Then, vectorial scale-based fuzzy connectedness segmentation (VSFCS) and morphological operations are applied to the base images to extract masks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM), and white matter (WM), and further to create a clean and accurate intracranial (IC) mask. After separating CSF from brain parenchyma (BP), VSFCS is applied to BP (PD and T2) images to generate pure GM and WM masks, and then subtracting these pure from the BP mask to detect AD lesions. This method was applied to a set of conventional PD and T2 weighted MR images that were obtained from 5 patients with probable AD and 5 healthy normal control subjects. The segmented images of individual brain tissue regions (CSF, GM, WM, and AD lesion) are consistent with a Neuroradiologist's examination. The quantitative analysis shows that patients with AD have more atrophy. The mean value of the volume of brain parenchyma of patients with AD is about 10% less than that of healthy controls.

  6. Magnetic field studies at jupiter by voyager 2: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Lepping, R P; Burlaga, L F; Behannon, K W; Neubauer, F M

    1979-11-23

    Data from the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 2 have yielded on inbound trajectory observations of multiple crossings of the bow shock and magnetosphere near the Jupiter-sun line at radial distances of 99 to 66 Jupiter radii (RJ) and 72 to 62 RJ, respectively. While outbound at a local hour angle of 0300, these distances increase appreciably so that at the time of writing only the magnetopause has been observed between 160 and 185 RJ. These results and the magnetic field geometry confirm the earlier conclusion from Voyager I studies that Jupiter has an enormous magnetic tail, approximately 300 to 400 RJ in diameter, trailing behind the planet with respect to the supersonic flow of the solar wind. Addi- tional observations of the distortion of the inner magnetosphere by a concentrated plasma show a spatial merging of the equatorial magnetodisk current with the cur- rent sheet in the magnetic tail. The spacecraft passed within 62,000 kilometers of Ganymede (radius = 2,635 kilometers) and observed characteristic fluctuations in- terpreted tentatively as being due to disturbances arising from the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Ganymede.

  7. Magnetic field studies by voyager 1: preliminary results at saturn.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Lepping, R P; Connerney, J E; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Neubauer, F M

    1981-04-10

    Magnetic field studies by Voyager 1 have confirmed and refined certain general features of the Saturnian magnetosphere and planetary magnetic field established by Pioneer 11 in 1979. The main field of Saturn is well represented by a dipole of moment 0.21 +/- 0.005 gauss-R(s)(3) (where 1 Saturn radius, R(s), is 60,330 kilometers), tilted 0.7 degrees +/- 0.35 degrees from the rotation axis and located within 0.02 R(s) of the center of the planet. The radius of the magnetopause at the subsolar point was observed to be 23 R(s) on the average, rather than 17 R(s). Voyager 1 discovered a magnetic tail of Saturn with a diameter of approximately 80 R(s). This tail extends away from the Sun and is similar to type II comet tails and the terrestrial and Jovian magnetic tails. Data from the very close flyby at Titan (located within the Saturnian magnetosphere) at a local time of 1330, showed an absence of any substantial intrinsic satellite magnetic field. However, the results did indicate a very well developed, induced magnetosphere with a bipolar magnetic tail. The upper limit to any possible internal satellite magnetic moment is 5 x 10(21) gauss-cubic centimeter, equivalent to a 30-nanotesla equatorial surface field.

  8. Magnetic field studies by voyager 2: preliminary results at saturn.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1982-01-29

    Further studies of the Saturnian magnetosphere and planetary magnetic field by Voyager 2 have substantiated the earlier results derived from Voyager 1 observations in 1980. The magnetic field is primarily that of a centered dipole (moment = 0.21 gauss-RS(3); where one Saturn radius, RS, is 60,330 kilometers) tilted approximately 0.8 degrees from the rotation axis. Near closest approach to Saturn, Voyager 2 traversed a kronographic longitude and latitude range that was complementary to that of Voyager 1. Somewhat surprisingly, no evidence was found in the data or the analysis for any large-scale magnetic anomaly in the northern hemisphere which could be associated with the periodic modulation of Saturnian kilometric radiation radio emissions. Voyager 2 crossed the magnetopause of a relatively compressed Saturnian magnetosphere at 18.5 RS while inbound near the noon meridian. Outbound, near the dawn meridian, the magnetosphere had expanded considerably and the magnetopause boundary was not observed until the spacecraft reached 48.4 to 50.9 RS and possibly beyond. Throughout the outbound magnetosphere passage, a period of 46 hours (4.5 Saturn rotations), the field was relatively steady and smooth showing no evidence for any azimuthal asymmetry or magnetic anomaly in the planetary field. We are thus left with a rather enigmatic situation to understand the basic source of Saturnian kilometric radiation modulation, other than the small dipole tilt.

  9. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique. PMID:27125874

  10. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  11. Depression and ways of coping with stress: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Orzechowska, Agata; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Talarowska, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Background Coping with stress is defined as all activities undertaken by a human in a stressful situation. The effect of stress on depression, its role in triggering the subsequent phases of the disease, and the factors that mediate the stress-depression relationship become more and more often subjects of research in psychiatry and psychology. Factors important for the formation of depressive symptoms and disease progression are significantly associated with coping strategies used in the face of stress. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the most popular strategies of coping with stress in people with depression in comparison to healthy subjects. Material/Methods Initial research was carried on 80 patients aged from 20 to 66 years with a diagnosis of depression. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects aged 22 to 57 years. Analysis of the most popular strategies of coping with stress was performed with the Multiphasic Inventory for Measuring Coping (COPE) by Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub. Results In contrast with healthy people, patients with depression in stressful situations more often use strategies based on avoidance and denial and have more difficulties in finding positive aspects of stressful events. Conclusions Depression may be an important factor in the negative assessment of one’s own ability to cope with difficult situations and can aggravate a tendency to perceive stressful events as overwhelming. PMID:24270182

  12. NEOWISE STUDIES OF ASTEROIDS WITH SLOAN PHOTOMETRY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Hand, E.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; Tholen, D. J.; McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Walker, R.

    2012-01-20

    We have combined the NEOWISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to study the albedos of 24,353 asteroids with candidate taxonomic classifications derived using Sloan photometry. We find a wide range of moderate to high albedos for candidate S-type asteroids that are analogous to the S complex defined by previous spectrophotometrically based taxonomic systems. The candidate C-type asteroids, while generally very dark, have a tail of higher albedos that overlaps the S types. The albedo distribution for asteroids with a photometrically derived Q classification is extremely similar to those of the S types. Asteroids with similar colors to (4) Vesta have higher albedos than the S types, and most have orbital elements similar to known Vesta family members. Finally, we show that the relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m is higher for D-type asteroids and suggest that their red visible and near-infrared spectral slope extends out to these wavelengths. Understanding the relationship between size, albedo, and taxonomic classification is complicated by the fact that the objects with classifications were selected from the visible/near-infrared Sloan Moving Object Catalog, which is biased against fainter asteroids, including those with lower albedos.

  13. Preliminary study of synergism of acid rain and diflubenzuron

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.J.S.; Clark, J.M.; Edman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Diflubenzuron{sup 1} (Dimilin{reg_sign}) was used on over 7 million acres in the U.S. in 1990 to control forest pests, particularly the gypsy moth. This chitin synthesis inhibitor affects insects and other anthropods. It is a restricted use pesticide due to its nontarget effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates. The effects of a single aerial application on nontarget aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were reviewed by Eisler (1992). Crustacea and immature insects (especially the true flies, mosquitoes, midges and black flies) are the most sensitive nontarget aquatic organisms to diflubenzuron. Diflubenzuron, N-[[4-(chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide, is not the only mortality factor aquatic organisms face from human pollution. Acid deposition is a frequent stress factor in freshwater habitats in the Northeast USA. Acidic pulses can drop vernal pools (e.g., temporary, springtime, snowmelt pools) to pH levels below 3.0. Aquatic invertebrates vary in their tolerance to acidification. Reduced pH completely eliminates some species. A combination of stress factors could lead to synergistic effects, over and above the impact seen with a single stressor. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are synergist effects of diflubenzuron and lowered pH on the mortality of a nontarget aquatic organism. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Preliminary study of visual effect of multiplex hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huaiping; Xiong, Bingheng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueguo

    2004-06-01

    The process of any movement of real object can be recorded and displayed by a multiplex holographic stereogram. An embossing multiplex holographic stereogram and a multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram have been made by us, the multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram reconstructs the dynamic 2D line drawing of speech organs, the embossing multiplex holographic stereogram reconstructs the process of an old man drinking water. In this paper, we studied the visual result of an embossing multiplex holographic stereogram made with 80 films of 2-D pictures. Forty-eight persons of aged from 13 to 67 were asked to see the hologram and then to answer some questions about the feeling of viewing. The results indicate that this kind of holograms could be accepted by human visual sense organ without any problem. This paper also discusses visual effect of the multiplex holography stereograms base on visual perceptual psychology. It is open out that the planar multiplex holograms can be recorded and present the movement of real animal and object. Not only have the human visual perceptual constancy for shape, just as that size, color, etc... but also have visual perceptual constancy for binocular parallax.

  15. Robotic consolle for ocular surgery: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Russo, Sheila; Menciassi, Arianna; Fortuna, Damiano

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has recently been improved by the use of robot-assisted procedures in several medical fields. Among the ocular surgeries there are a few examples of sophisticated vitreoretinal procedures, while robotic-assisted surgery of the anterior eye segment is still under study. In this paper we propose a new approach to the robotic assisted ocular surgery: a CO2 laser system is equipped with a micromanipulator and scanner, and it is proposed to induce photothermal effects for the removal of neoformations. A sensorized tool is connected to the patient eye and to the robotic arm. This tool is equipped with force and position sensors: by the use of the spatial information from the robotic console and from the patient it is possible to control the position of the target itself and to block it in the correct position for performing surgery. The system is provided by a feedback alarm that remove the block of the patient head in any moment. The optimized robotic consolle can be used in performing scleral cuts and in the treatment of pterigium or neoformations.

  16. Preliminary hydrochemical study of Ronda ultramafic massif (South Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, Iñaki; Urresti, Begoña; Jiménez, Pablo; Martos, Sergio; José Durán, Juan; Benavente, José; Carrasco, Francisco; Pedrera, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During 2015 more than 70 springs related to the peridotite outcrops of the Ronda mountainous massif, South Spain, have been identified. The field work included "in situ" measurements of physical-chemical parameters (T, EC, pH), and water sampling for major components and stable isotopes of water and DIC. The hydrogeochemical study allowed us to characterize different flow systems: (1) springs with very low to medium electrical conductivities (200-700 μS/cm) and pH below 9.0, and (2) springs with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH above 9.0. The first group of springs are supposed to be linked with surface and subsurface flows. The hydrogeochemical reactions that determine their composition are characterized by the low solubility of minerals, atmospheric CO2 (open system) and active serpentinization reactions that supplies hundreds of ppm of Mg2+. All of them are waters of HCO3-Mg or HCO3-Mg-Na type. The second group of springs drains water with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH over 9. In general, these springs are associated to deep flows connected to regional faults or major tectonic features. Deeper flow enhances water-rock interaction and time of contact, so this system evolves towards a closed system to O2 and CO2. All these waters are old or older than the first group and show reducing features and are of Na-Cl or OH-Ca type.

  17. Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Farah; Singh, Pawan; Chandra, Prakash; Gupta, Keshav; Vaney, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection. PMID:22315811

  18. Left nucleus accumbens atrophy in deficit schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Pietro; Dacquino, Claudia; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-08-30

    A question that remains to be answered is whether schizophrenia can be characterized by a single etiopathophysiology or whether separate sub-syndromes should be differentiated to define specific mechanisms for each sub-type. Individuals affected by the deficit subtype of schizophrenia (DSZ) display avolitional/amotivational features that respond poorly to conventional treatments. Characterizing DSZ from a neuroanatomical point of view may help clarify this issue and develop new treatment strategies. To determine if DSZ is associated with structural alterations in specific deep grey matter structures linked to its key clinical features, 22 DSZ patients, 22 non-deficit schizophrenia (NDSZ) patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for a case-control cross-sectional study. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all subjects and volumes of deep grey matter structures were measured using FreeSurfer. DSZ patients displayed smaller left accumbens volumes compared to both NDSZ patients and HC. Moreover, age and duration of illness were significantly associated with lower volume of the left accumbens in DSZ but not in NDSZ. Findings indicate that DSZ is associated with lower volume of the nucleus accumbens in the dominant hemisphere. This is consistent with the psychopathological features and functional impairments present in DSZ and thus indicates a potential mechanism. PMID:27322868

  19. Preliminary study on HA coating percutaneously implanted in bone.

    PubMed

    Yang, B C; Weng, J; Li, X D; Yang, Z J; Feng, J M; Chen, J Y; Zhang, X D

    1999-10-01

    A comparative investigation on the possibility of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating and pure Ti column to form biological sealing with skin tissue was completed in this study. HA coating and pure Ti column were percutaneously implanted in the tibia of rabbits. Compared with titanium (Ti) implant, HA coating forms epithelial sealing with skin tissue at 6 weeks postoperatively, while the Ti implant may loosen from the implanted site and be lost. The Ti column loosing rate at this time was 50%. However, once the Ti implant becomes fixed with the bone tissue, it can form epithelial sealing with skin tissue just like the HA coating, at 8 weeks postoperatively. At 8 weeks postoperatively, the epithelial sealing is not destroyed in spite of the fact that the HA coating is biodegraded. Our results show that the HA coating can become fixed with the bone faster than the Ti, which is beneficial for epithelial sealing formation. The main role of HA coating for epithelial sealing is beneficial for sealing at the initial period after it is implanted.

  20. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  1. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  2. A preliminary study of CO2 sequestration of cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Lee, H.; Hwang, J.; Oh, J.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, CO2 capture and storage technologies to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere have been extensively studied because global warming is a worldwide issue. Waste cement is a potential raw material for mineral carbonation. In general, carbonation refers a calcite forming reaction in hydrated cement. The carbonation of portlandite in hydrated cement is very straightforward. However, the carbonation of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate: CaO-SiO2-H2O) composing the largest portion of hydrated cement involved in complex reactions and is a key to increase the carbonation efficiency of waste cement. The present study was conducted to have basic information for utilizing waste cement as a raw material for CO2 sequestration. Cement paste was made with W:C= 6:4 and stored for 28 days in water bath. The prepared cement paste was pulverized, and fine grains sizing less than 0.15mm was used for experiment. For the direct aqueous carbonation experiment, 15g of sample is reacted with 200 ml of 1M NaHCO3 in 500ml HDPE bottle. 1M NaCl and 0.25 M MgCl2 was used for additives after leaching test with 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5M NaCl and MgCl2 solutions, and the carbonation efficiency of these additives was evaluated. After reaction, the reacted cement paste and supernatant solution were separated from centrifuging at 5000rpm. The reacted cement paste was analyzed with XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM/EDS. The supernatant solution was filtered with 0.45um membrane filter, and nitric acid was added to lower 2 for preventing calcite precipitation. Then, chemical composition of solution was analyzed with ICP-OES. The leaching of Ca ion is increased with increasing NaCl concentration and is maximized at 1M solution. Extremely small leaching of Si ion indicates that NaCl feebly affect on the carbonation of CSH. The leaching of Ca ion in MgCl2 solution is 10 times greater than in NaCl solution and is maximized at 0.5M solution. The increased Ca leaching is probably caused by the decalcification of

  3. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF NORMOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC AND DYSLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ON DIABETIC RAT.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Mir Mohammad Reza Seyed; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Mahmudi, Roziahanim

    2016-01-01

    Tinospora crispa is an indigenous medicinal plant belonging to Menispermaceae family, known localy as "akar patawali" or as "akar seruntum". Different parts of this plant are used for various therapeutic purposes for treatment of hypertension, stimulation of appetite, protection from mosquito bites and to treat ailments like jaundice, wounds, intestinal worms and skin infections, tooth and stomach aches, coughs, asthma and pleurisy. The stems were washed, dried, pulverized using Wiley Laboratory Mill apparatus and stored in dry air-tight plastic containers until use. Then, they were extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and finally with water by maceration. The solvent was evaporated from each extract (using rotary evaporator), dried extract were stored at -4°C until used. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and each group having 6 animals for two sets of experiments. In the first test, healthy rats were treated orally with the plant extracts (1 g/kg) suspended in Tween 80. In the second test, the diabetic rats were fasted overnight. The test groups of 6 diabetic rats were treated orally with extracts of Tinospora crispa (1 g/kg), glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) and 10% Tween 80, (10 mL/kg), respectively. In these results, there was no significant effect on blood glucose levels in normal rats treated with different extracts of Tinospora crispa. The water extract of Tinospora crispa decreased the glucose levels in diabetic rats and has the ability to reduce lipid profile in diabetic rats as compared to control diabetic rats. PMID:27008807

  4. [Preliminary studies on the rabbit oviductin "DPF-1"].

    PubMed

    Shen, H; Liu, C J; Gu, Z; Lu, J N; Cheng, G X; Tso, J K

    1996-12-01

    Anti-rabbit 64 kDa oviductin (named Development Promoting Factor-1, DPF-1) antibody could inhibit totally the early development of mouse fertilised eggs cultured in the conditioned medium derived from the rabbit oviduct mucosa epithelial cells, revealed that DPF-1 synthesized and secreted from rabbit oviduct mucosa has a function to overcome the developmental block of early mouse embryos. It seems that DPF-1 consists of a group of polypeptide isoforms, since its isoelectric points are ranging from 7.2 to 8.1 (Fig. 3). The synthesis and secretion of DPF-1 was not dependent on either 17 beta-estradiol or progesterone (Fig. 7), it can pass through zona pellucida easily and associate tightly with the early embryonic cell membrane (Fig. 6). By using Western blotting method, we found that DPF-1 was not appeared in the tissues of liver, heart, lung, spleen, uterus, ovary, small intestine, skeleton muscle and brain, but in that of oviduct (Fig. 4): some DPF-1 homologous molecules were also revealed in the oviduct tissues of mouse and golden hamster, their apparent molecular weights were 32 kDa, 72 kDa in mouse, and 49 kDa, 68 kDa in golden hamster (Fig. 5). Results obtained from the in vivo anti-fertility experiment, namely to analyse the anti-fertility effect in adult female mice after active immunization with DPF-1, showed that the fertility decreased significantly as compared to those of controls (p < 0.01) (Table 1). DPF-1 and its in vivo "loss of function" evidence we obtained will encourage us to study the mechanism of DPF-1 in overcoming the developmental block of early embryos, and its role in transition from maternal to embryonic control of early development.

  5. NEOWISE STUDIES OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRICALLY CLASSIFIED ASTEROIDS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; Tholen, D.; McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.

    2011-11-10

    The NEOWISE data set offers the opportunity to study the variations in albedo for asteroid classification schemes based on visible and near-infrared observations for a large sample of minor planets. We have determined the albedos for nearly 1900 asteroids classified by the Tholen, Bus, and Bus-DeMeo taxonomic classification schemes. We find that the S-complex spans a broad range of bright albedos, partially overlapping the low albedo C-complex at small sizes. As expected, the X-complex covers a wide range of albedos. The multiwavelength infrared coverage provided by NEOWISE allows determination of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m relative to the visible albedo. The direct computation of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m enables a new means of comparing the various taxonomic classes. Although C, B, D, and T asteroids all have similarly low visible albedos, the D and T types can be distinguished from the C and B types by examining their relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m. All of the albedo distributions are strongly affected by selection biases against small, low albedo objects, as all objects selected for taxonomic classification were chosen according to their visible light brightness. Due to these strong selection biases, we are unable to determine whether or not there are correlations between size, albedo, and space weathering. We argue that the current set of classified asteroids makes any such correlations difficult to verify. A sample of taxonomically classified asteroids drawn without significant albedo bias is needed in order to perform such an analysis.

  6. Immune enhancing nutrition in traumatic brain injury - A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Painter, Thomas J; Rickerds, Jennifer; Alban, Rodrigo F

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Certain patients appear to benefit when they receive immune enhancing additives, such as glutamine, arginine, and omega-3 fatty acids. We hypothesized that TBI patients given enteral feedings containing these supplements may have improved nutrition measures and infection rates when compared to standard tube feedings. This is a retrospective review of patients from a Level-One trauma center from July 2009 to July 2013. A total of 240 TBI patients received either an immune enhancing nutrition (IEN) formula (n = 126), or a standard formula (SF) (n = 114) based on the attending surgeon's preference. Data collected included demographic information, infection information and outcome measures. Patients were similar in terms of age, ISS, head AIS, and initial prealbumin level. Patients receiving IEN were found to have lower rates of blood stream infections (10.3% vs 19.3%, p < 0.05), whereas pneumonia and UTI rates were similar between groups. In addition, both groups had similar rates of all-cause mortality and hospital length of stay, however IEN patients spent longer in the ICU and on ventilators. In TBI patients receiving IEN, prealbumin levels were higher at the second, third, and fourth week of admission (week 2 - 22.2 vs 17.4, p = 0.006; week 3 - 24.6 vs 20.1, p = 0.04; week 4 - 26.3 vs 22.1, p = 0.19; week 5 - 25.8 vs 20.3, p = 0.21). This study suggests that patients with traumatic brain injury who receive IEN are more likely to have increased prealbumin levels perhaps reflecting improved nutrition throughout their hospital stay and may show some benefit in rates of infections, particularly in bacteremia.

  7. Preliminary studies for the development of superconducting composite wires

    SciTech Connect

    Provenzano, V.; Henshaw, W.F.; Edelstein, A.S.; Imam, M.A.; Osofsky, M.S.; Skelton, E.F.; Qadri, S.B.; Singh, A.K.

    1989-03-01

    The results presented in this paper are part of a larger research and development effort, the basic aim of which is to develop high T/sub c/ superconducting wires and thin-gauge panels with large current carrying capacity. This research and development uses some of the knowledge and experience gained during the past several years in developing and optimizing fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs). That is, deposition and consolidation techniques, similar to those employed for MMCs, allow the synthesis of high T/sub c/ superconducting components with engineered thermal and mechanical properties. In this initial study Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on MgO coupons, on pyrolytic graphite and on silicon wafers. Also, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O layers were deposited on platinum wires and MgO coupons by dipping the wires and the coupons into a molten pool of the superconducting oxide. It was found that the morphology and the superconducting properties of the sputtered films on the MgO substrates were strongly dependent on the sputtering conditions and the post-annealing treatments, whereas the sputtered films on graphite and silicon did not superconduct. Sputtering of films on MgO in argon resulted in the formation of crystallites in the form of terraced islands with a preferred orientation. Sputtering in a mixture of argon and oxygen resulted in films which were more uniform. Annealing the films in the temperature range of 750 to 865/sup 0/C resulted in highly textured crystallites with part of the film becoming superconducting at 115K. The dipped wires and MgO coupons were annealed for 12 hours at 850/sup 0/C followed by air quench to room temperature. The onset of superconductivity occurred at 115K for the wire and at 110K for the MgO coupons with zero resistance for both types of specimens at about 80K.

  8. Preliminary study of pancreatic cancer associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Ai, Fulu; Hua, Xiangdong; Liu, Yefu; Lin, Jie; Feng, Zhaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship about Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and pancreatic, and this study was set to investigate how H. pylori infection is correlated with pancreatic cancer and provide references for the clinical prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. 56 cases of pancreatic cancer patients admitted to the hospital from August 2012 to August 2013 were collected as the observation group. The anti-Hp IgG (H. pylori-specific antibodies), Hp IgM (H. pylori antibodies), and CagA-Hp-IgG (H. pylori serotoxin-associated protein a antibody) in the serum were measured and compared with the related indicators of control group (60 cases of healthy subjects). The H. pylori infection rate was 64.29% in the observation group, and that in the control group was 46.67%. Our results showed that the H. pylori infection rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, which was statistically different (P < 0.01). The positive rate of CagA-Hp in the observation group was 38.88, and 21.53% in the control group, for which the observation group was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The occurrence of H. pylori infection in patients with pancreatic cancer was also positively correlated with the smoking history and the history of chronic pancreatitis (P < 0.05). Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and the patients with positive CagA-Hp have the higher risk, so the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection would be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  9. Directional reflectance analysis for identifying counterfeit drugs: Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Koprowski, Robert; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2016-05-30

    The WHO estimates that up to 10% of drugs on the market may be counterfeit. In order to prevent intensification of the phenomenon of drug counterfeiting, the methods for distinguishing genuine medicines from fake ones need to be developed. The aim of this study was to try to develop simple, reproducible and inexpensive method for distinguishing between original and counterfeit medicines based on the measurement of directional reflectance. The directional reflectance of 6 original Viagra(®) tablets (Pfizer) and 24 (4 different batches) counterfeit tablets (imitating Viagra(®)) was examined in six spectral bands: from 0.9 to 1.1 μm, from 1.9 to 2.6 μm, from 3.0 to 4.0 μm, from 3.0 to 5.0 μm, from 4.0 to 5.0 μm, from 8.0 to 12.0 μm, and for two angles of incidence, 20° and 60°. Directional hemispherical reflectometer was applied to measure directional reflectance. Significant statistical differences between the directional reflectance of the original Viagra(®) and counterfeit tablets were registered. Any difference in the value of directional reflectance for any spectral band or angle of incidence identifies the drug as a fake one. The proposed method of directional reflectance analysis enables to differentiate between the real Viagra(®) and fake tablets. Directional reflectance analysis is a fast (measurement time under 5s), cheap and reproducible method which does not require expensive equipment or specialized laboratory staff. It also seems to be an effective method, however, the effectiveness will be assessed after the extension of research. PMID:26977587

  10. Characterizing human retinotopic mapping with conformal geometry: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Duyan; Shi, Jie; Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Yalin

    2014-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to measure the retinotopic organization of early visual cortex in the human brain. Previous studies have identified multiple visual field maps (VFMs) based on statistical analysis of fMRI signals, but the resulting geometry has not been fully characterized with mathematical models. Here we test whether VFMs V1 and V2 obey the least restrictive of all geometric mappings; that is, whether they are anglepreserving and therefore maintain conformal mapping. We measured retinotopic organization in individual subjects using standard traveling-wave fMRI methods. Visual stimuli consisted of black and white, drifting checkerboards comprising rotating wedges and expanding rings to measure the cortical representations of polar angle and eccentricity, respectively. These representations were then projected onto a 3D cortical mesh of each hemisphere. By generating a mapped unit disk that is conformal of the VFMs using spherical stereographic projection and computing the parameterized coordinates of the eccentricity and polar angle gradients, we computed Beltrami coefficients to check whether the mapping from the visual field to the V1 and V2 cortical representations is conformal. We find that V1 and V2 exhibit local conformality. Our analysis of the Beltrami coefficient shows that selected regions of V1 and V2 that contain reasonably smooth eccentricity and polar angle gradients do show significant local conformality, warranting further investigation of this approach for analysis of early and higher visual cortex. These results suggest that such a mathematical model can be used to characterize the early VFMs in human visual cortex.

  11. Preliminary Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek

    2005-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density, high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. The ATR has large irradiation test volumes located in high flux areas. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth with a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2–s. As a result, the ATR is a representative candidate for assessing the necessary modifications and evaluating the subsequent operating effects associated with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was developed for the fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. Using the current HEU 235U enrichment of 93.0 % as a baseline, an analysis can be performed to determine the LEU uranium density and 235U enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield an equivalent Keff between the HEU core and a LEU core versus effective full power days (EFPD). The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model will be used to optimize the 235U loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in Keff between the HEU and LEU core can be minimized for operation at 150 EFPD with a total core power of 115 MW. The Monte-Carlo with ORIGEN-2 (MCWO) method was used to calculate Keff versus EFPDs. The MCWO-calculated results for the LEU case demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the LEU core conversion designer should be able to optimize the 235U content of each fuel plate, so that the Keff and relative radial fission heat flux profile are similar to the reference ATR HEU case. However, to demonstrate that the LEU core fuel cycle performance can meet the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) safety requirements, a further study will be required in order to investigate the detailed radial, axial, and azimuthal heat flux profile variations versus EFPDs.

  12. Second vowel formant relationship to adduction: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanrahan, Kevin G.

    cases, but overall the data was inconclusive. Further study is needed to clarify.

  13. Vietnam head injury study. Preliminary analysis of the functional and anatomical sequelae of penetrating head trauma.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, J K; Smutok, M A

    1983-12-01

    An overview is presented of the multidisciplinary design, specific methods of motor and functional assessment, and selected preliminary data trends from the Vietnam Head Injury Study. This longitudinal study combines analyses of retrospective records with current, comprehensive inpatient examinations and investigates the anatomical and functional sequelae of penetrating head trauma in 700 Vietnam Veterans at an average of 14 years after injury. Preliminary data analysis of results from the first 160 subjects demonstrates good functional recovery despite large brain lesions. Motor abnormalities have persisted in 28 percent of the sample and are correlated with lesions involving the frontoparietal area of the cortex and the deep midline brain structures. Design concepts and long-term outcome trends will be useful to therapists in neurological rehabilitation. The study provides a model for health-team members interested in designs for longitudinal collection of outcome data.

  14. Subchronic inhalation neurotoxicity studies of ethyl acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Greg R; Hansen, John F; Leung, Hon-Wing

    2003-12-01

    Rats were exposed to 0, 350, 750 or 1500 ppm of ethyl acetate by inhalation for 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Functional observational battery (FOB) and motor activity tests occurred on non-exposure days during weeks 4, 8 and 13, after which tissues were microscopically examined for neuropathology. A subset of rats was monitored during a 4-week recovery period. Exposure to 750 and 1500 ppm, diminished behavioral responses to unexpected auditory stimuli during the exposure session and appeared to be an acute sedative effect. There were no signs of acute intoxication 30 min after exposure sessions ended. Rats exposed to 750 and 1500 ppm had reduced body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, which fully or partially recovered within 4 weeks. Reductions in body weight gain and feed efficiency were observed in male rats exposed to 350 ppm. The principal behavioral effect of subchronic exposure was reduced motor activity in the 1500 ppm females, an effect that was not present after the 4-week recovery period. All other FOB and motor activity parameters were unaffected, and no pathology was observed in nervous system tissues. Operant sessions were conducted in another set of male rats preconditioned to a stable operant baseline under a multiple fixed ratio-fixed interval (FR-FI) schedule of food reinforcement. FR response rate, FR post-reinforcement pause duration, and the pattern of FI responding were not affected during or after the exposure series. In contrast, within-group FI rate for the treatment groups increased over time whereas those of the controls decreased. A historical control group, however, also showed a similar pattern of increase, indicating that these changes did not clearly represent a treatment-related effect. Results from these studies indicate a LOEL of 350 ppm for systemic toxicity based on the decreased body weight gain in male rats, and a LOEL of 1500 ppm for neurotoxicity based on the transient reduction in

  15. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats.

  16. Preliminary study of quinine pharmacokinetics in pregnant women with malaria-HIV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Kayentao, Kassoum; Guirou, Etienne A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Venkatesan, Meera; Plowe, Christopher V; Parsons, Teresa L; Hendrix, Craig W; Nyunt, Myaing M

    2014-03-01

    Pregnant women bear the greatest burden of malaria-human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Previous studies suggest that interaction with antiretroviral drugs may compromise antimalarial pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes. We conducted a preliminary clinical study to assess quinine pharmacokinetics in Malian pregnant women with acute malaria who reported taking nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Of seven women, six had stable concentrations of nevirapine in the plasma and one had none. Quinine concentrations were lower, and its metabolite 3-hydroxyquinine higher, in the six women with nevirapine than in the one without, and quinine concentrations were below the recommended therapeutic range in 50% of the women. This preliminary observation warrants further research to understand the impact of long-term antiretroviral therapy on the treatment of acute malaria.

  17. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing (/sup 3/H)-biotin and (/sup 14/C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 ..mu..M biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host.

  18. Assessment of protein allergenicity: studies in brown norway rats.

    PubMed

    Knippels, Léon M J; Penninks, André H

    2002-05-01

    For the safety evaluation of genetically engineered crops, the potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein(s) has become an important issue. There is, however, no universal and reliable test system for the evaluation of the allergic sensitizing ability of food proteins. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the development of animal models. This paper summarizes the results of a promising food allergy model developed in Brown Norway (BN) rats. The results demonstrate that BN rats can be sensitized via the relevant oral route of exposure. Daily gavage dosing of the animals with several food proteins, without the use of adjuvants, resulted in significant antigen-specific IgE responses. In addition, the profile of allergens recognized by the immune system of the BN rat, appeared comparable to the profile of allergens recognized by allergic humans. Besides oral sensitization, local and systemic immune-mediated effects, such as increased gastrointestinal permeability, decreased breathing frequency, and decreased blood pressure, could also be observed in the sensitized animals after an oral challenge. All together, these observations suggest that this BN rat model might provide a suitable animal model to study the allergenicity of food proteins in humans.

  19. Kinetic Studies on Photodeposition of Polydiacetylene Thin Film from Solution: Preliminary Determination of the Rate Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Armstrong, S.; Witherow, W. K.; Frazier, D. O.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary kinetic studies were undertaken on the photodeposition of thin films of a polydiacetylene derivative of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline from monomer solutions onto quartz substrates. Solutions of the monomer, DAMNA, in 1,2-dichloroethane at various concentrations were irradiated at 364 nm using an argon-ion laser at several intensities. It was found that the rate of polydiacetylene (PDAMNA) film photodeposition varies linearly with UV light intensity and as the square root of monomer concentration.

  20. Learning Science Using AR Book: A Preliminary Study on Visual Needs of Deaf Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megat Mohd. Zainuddin, Norziha; Badioze Zaman, Halimah; Ahmad, Azlina

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that is projected to have more significant role in teaching and learning, particularly in visualising abstract concepts in the learning process. AR is a technology is based on visually oriented technique. Thus, it is suitable for deaf learners since they are generally classified as visual learners. Realising the importance of visual learning style for deaf learners in learning Science, this paper reports on a preliminary study of on an ongoing research on problems faced by deaf learners in learning the topic on Microorganisms. Being visual learners, they have problems with current text books that are more text-based that graphic based. In this preliminary study, a qualitative approach using the ethnographic observational technique was used so that interaction with three deaf learners who are participants throughout this study (they are also involved actively in the design and development of the AR Book). An interview with their teacher and doctor were also conducted to identify their learning and medical problems respectively. Preliminary findings have confirmed the need to design and develop a special Augmented Reality Book called AR-Science for Deaf Learners (AR-SiD).

  1. Derivatives of benzimidazole: vasodilator activity of 2-(p-chloro-alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole hydrochloride. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Demenge, P; Carraz, G; Luu Duc, C; Silice, C

    1979-01-01

    The effects of 2-(p-chloro-alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole hydrochloride (HBBPC) have been studied in the rabbit and rat. Most of these studies were performed comparatively with reference vasodilators and papaverine. HBBPC vasodilator activity is nearly the same as that of papaverine in the isolated rabbit ear. The characteristic of the vasoactive action of HBBPC seems to reside in its duration. The mechanism of action of HBBPC seems of peripheral type, that is to say it acts on the vascular smooth muscle.

  2. Accumulation and effects of sulfadimethoxine in Salix fragilis L. plants: a preliminary study to phytoremediation purposes.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Lucia; Meggio, Franco; La Rocca, Nicoletta; Ferro, Stefania; Ghisi, Rossella

    2012-04-01

    The application of manure to fertilize arable lands is one of the major means through which veterinary sulfonamides (SAs) enter the environment. Little is known about the capacity of woody plants to phytoremediate this class of antibiotics. To this purpose we performed preliminary studies to evaluate Salix fragilis L. response to sulfadimethoxine (SDM) by investigating both its ability to absorb and tolerate doses of SDM found in fresh faeces of treated calves. Forty cuttings were exposed to either 0, 0.5, 1, or 2 mM of SDM for one month. Decreases in photosynthetic electron transport rate and net CO2 assimilation after 25 days for the higher SDM concentrations were noticed. Moreover, alterations in root morphology of treated plants were observed and further investigated through electron microscopy. However, collected data revealed high root accumulation potential. These preliminary results are promising as they demonstrate that Salix fragilis L. can both absorb and tolerate high concentrations of SAs. PMID:22567719

  3. Preliminary toxicology study of 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The calculated acute oral LD 30/50 (lethal dose for 50% of the animals occurring within 30 days after compound administration) value for 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DATZ) was 863 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, DATZ would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for rats. The calculated acute oral LD {sub 30/50} value was 2,288 mg/kg in mice and would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for mice. Skin application studies using rabbits demonstrated DATZ to be a nonirritant. The eye study using rabbits disclosed DATZ to be a very mild irritant. The sensitization study using guinea pigs did not show DATZ to have potential sensitizing properties.

  4. Preliminary toxicology study of 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The calculated acute oral LD 30/50 (lethal dose for 50% of the animals occurring within 30 days after compound administration) value for 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DATZ) was 863 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, DATZ would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for rats. The calculated acute oral LD [sub 30/50] value was 2,288 mg/kg in mice and would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for mice. Skin application studies using rabbits demonstrated DATZ to be a nonirritant. The eye study using rabbits disclosed DATZ to be a very mild irritant. The sensitization study using guinea pigs did not show DATZ to have potential sensitizing properties.

  5. Assessment of Patient Experience with Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, David O.; McKiever, Monique E.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Jacobson, Barbara; Penson, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Systematically moving toward patient-centered care for unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) requires comprehensive understanding of the variability of actual patient experiences. This rigorous qualitative study assesses UVFI-related disability and proposes a preliminary taxonomy of UVFI patient experience. Study Design 1) Semi-structured interviews, 2) taxonomy development Methods Consecutive UVFI patients presenting July - September 2012 prospectively underwent open-ended interviews investigating how UVFI affected their quality of life (QOL) and had caused disability. Comments reported by >20% were synthesized into axes based on content similarity. Variables were arranged into a preliminary taxonomy of UVFI patient experience, which was evaluated for four attributes of face validity. Results The majority of 39 patients had “extensive” baseline voice use (56%) and an iatrogenic etiology (62%). Taxonomy of patient experience included 3 main axes of symptomatic classification: 1) voice, 2) swallowing, and 3) breathing - all with intrinsic (physical, emotional) and extrinsic (social) sub-axes that describe major impacts on QOL. Voice complaints were 100% penetrant, while breathing and swallowing symptoms afflicted 76% and 66% of interviewees. Of affected patients, solid and liquid dysphagia was experienced by 70% and 63%. Of dyspneic patients, shortness of breath existed with talking (97%) and exercise (72%). Persistent throat congestion (76%), weakened cough (62%), globus (62%), and dysfunctional valsalva (41%) were frequent. Conclusion Patient experience with UVFI has been incompletely characterized. This qualitative assessment and preliminary taxonomy highlight several related patient experiences not well documented in the literature or incorporated into currently available metrics. PMID:24739444

  6. Volume 1. Preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers. Volume 2. Revised preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide a preliminary design concept for a Flux Monitor Spectrometer (FMS) for use at the X Ray Astrophysics Facility (XRAF) during High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) testing that met the requirements of SAO-AXAF-88-025 dated July 31, 1991. The calibration test team determined that the spectral resolution of the FMS had to be greater than or equal to twice that of all the AXAF spectrometers throughout the 0.1 to 10 KeV range of x-ray energies. Since this effectively doubled the resolution required by SAO-AXAF-88-025, a change order was approved by the Marshall Space Flight Center and given to Radiation Sciences to revise their study.

  7. Immunocytochemical study of the ultimobranchial tubule in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Conde, E; Moreno, A M; Martin-Lacave, I; Fernandez, A; Galera, H

    1992-03-01

    A systematic immunohistochemical study of the ultimobranchial tubule (UBT) has been carried out in 45 Wistar rats of different ages (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60 and 120 days). The existence of calcitonin immunoreactive cells in the UBT wall has been demonstrated in a 5-days old rat. In addition, immunohistochemical studies for thyroglobulin revealed positive staining in follicular cells connected to the UBT and, occasionally, in isolated cells lying within solid clusters from the UBT. These last results together with the continued and repeated existence of numerous mitosis and PAS (+) microfollicles, apparently rising from the UBT, support the hypothesis that the ultimobranchial body (UBB) may contribute partially to the formation of a part of the follicular component.

  8. Proteomic study on usnic-acid-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zhao, Xiaoping; Lu, Xiaoyan; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Yi

    2012-07-25

    Usnic acid, a lichen metabolite, is used as a dietary supplement for weight loss. However, clinical studies have shown that usnic acid causes hepatotoxicity. The present study aims to investigate the mechanism of usnic acid hepatotoxicity in vivo. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to analyze the expression profiles of differentially regulated and expressed proteins in rat liver after usnic acid administration. The results reveal the differential expression of 10 proteins in usnic-acid-treated rats compared to the normal controls. These proteins are associated with oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and several other molecular pathways. The endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria may be the primary targets of usnic-acid-induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Preventive effect of Spirulina maxima on the fatty liver induced by a fructose-rich diet in the rat, a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    González de Rivera, C; Miranda-Zamora, R; Díaz-Zagoya, J C; Juárez-Oropeza, M A

    1993-01-01

    Cyanobacteria Spirulina maxima from Texcoco Lake in Mexico was administered as a 5% component of a purified diet, to Wistar rats together with a high percentage of fructose (60%) and its effect on several lipid fractions of plasma and liver was studied and compared to those of rats fed purified diets containing 60% of glucose or 60% of fructose. A preventive effect of Spirulina maxima on the fructose-induced increase of the liver triglycerides level was observed together with an elevation of the phospholipid concentration in this tissue. On the other hand Spirulina maxima produced a plasma cholesterol level even lower than that observed in the control group.

  10. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  11. First metacarpal resurfacing with polyvinyl alcohol implant in osteoarthritis: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Taleb, C; Berner, S; Mantovani Ruggiero, G

    2014-06-01

    Osteoarthritis of first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint is a condition that is frequently encountered in hand surgery. If conservative treatment fails, several surgical procedures are available ranging from arthroscopic debridement to total joint arthroplasty. This study focuses on a new resurfacing technique for the base of the first metacarpal using a polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel implant. Our preliminary study found good clinical outcomes and no inflammatory reaction after a follow-up of 30 months. However prospective studies with a longer follow-up and more patient are needed to confirm these results.

  12. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF`s diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble).

  13. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  14. THE FEASIBILITY AND EFFICACY OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE WITH OLDER CANCER SURVIVORS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    LaStayo, Paul C.; Larsen, Stephanie; Smith, Sheldon; Dibble, Lee; Marcus, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Older individuals who have survived cancer, and the commensurate treatment, often experience a reduced quality of life in part due to their impaired muscular abilities and deficits in mobility. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of resistance exercise via negative, eccentrically-induced work (RENEW) with older cancer survivors. Methods Older cancer survivors with a perception of moderate muscle weakness and fatigue participated in 12 weeks of RENEW. Measures of feasibility included: 1) the participant’s ability to progress the total amount of work of RENEW; 2) whether peak knee extension torque production became impaired; and 3) whether RENEW induced leg muscle pain as measured on a visual analog scale. The preliminary measure of efficacy included: the performance of a timed up and go mobility test. Results The participants significantly increased the total average work per week over the 12 weeks of RENEW. Participants increased (p<0.001) their work ~3-fold from week 3 (7.6± 5.1 kJ) to week 12 (22.1±14.8kJ) without muscle pain over the 12 week RENEW training period. Knee extension peak torque production improved (11%) significantly (p=0.02) (pretest: 248 ±92 N; posttest: 275±99 N) after 12 weeks of RENEW. The time to perform the TUG test improved (14%) significantly (p<0.001) (pretest: 8.4±2.7; posttest: 7.2±2.3 s) after 12 weeks of RENEW, suggesting preliminary efficacy. Conclusion Collectively, RENEW appears feasible and potentially efficacious for older, weak and fatigued cancer survivors. Implications for Cancer Survivors The use of eccentric muscle exercise may be ideally suited for older cancer survivors due to its high force and low energetic cost capabilities. PMID:21155509

  15. Auxiliary payload power system study for space processing applications payloads. Preliminary requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary designs, specifications, and programmatic data for the auxiliary payload power system (APPS) are presented. The APPS concept is an independent system to be carried in the Orbiter's cargo bay having the capability of housing and supporting space processing applications (SPA) experiment payloads and augmenting Spacelab power and heat rejection capabilities as required in the performance of these experiments.

  16. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  17. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise.

    PubMed

    Muths, E; Reichman, O J

    1996-08-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly "stronger" bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  18. Achilles tendinosis – a morphometrical study in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael Duarte; Glazebrook, Mark Anthony; Campos, Vinicius Castro; Vasconcelos, Anilton Cesar

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the morphopathogenesis of Achilles tendinosis, using a rat model and presenting quantitative analysis of time-dependent histological changes. Thirty Wistar rats were used, randomly split in experimental and control groups. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to a treadmill running scheme. Five animals of each group were euthanized at four, eight and sixteen weeks. Achilles tendons were collected and processed routinely for histopath sections. Slides were stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin, Picrosirius Red, Alcian Blue, AgNOR, TUNEL and evaluated morphometrically. Cellular density decreased slightly along the time and was higher in the experimental group than in controls at fourth, eighth and sixteenth weeks. Fiber microtearing, percentual of reticular fibers and glycosaminoglycans content increased along the time and were higher in experimental group than in controls at all-time intervals. AgNOR labeling here interpreted as a marker of transcription activity was higher in the experimental groups than in controls at all-time intervals. Apoptotic cells were more frequent and diffusely distributed in tendinosis samples than in control groups. These results suggest that as mechanical overload is becoming chronic, cellular turnover and matrix deposition increases leading to tendinosis. The combination of staining techniques and morphometry used here to describe the evolution of lesions occurring in a rat model system has proved to be suited for the study of induced Achilles tendinosis. PMID:22076169

  19. Housing and Health in Europe: Preliminary Results of a Pan-European Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, Xavier R.; Braubach, Matthias; Moissonnier, Brigitte; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Röbbel, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe has undertaken a large study to evaluate housing and health in 7 European cities. Methods. Survey tools were used to obtain information about housing and living conditions, health perception, and health status from a representative sample of the population in each city. Results. In Forli, Italy, the first city studied, preliminary findings indicate some important potential links between housing and health. Conclusions. These findings, when combined with those from the remaining European cities, will likely generate concrete recommendations for the allocation of resources to programs that can improve housing and health. PMID:12948980

  20. Shuttle ground operations efficiencies/technologies study. Volume 4: Preliminary Issues Database (PIDB) catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Preliminary Issues Database (PIDB) was assembled very early in the study as one of the fundamental tools to be used throughout the study. Data was acquired from a variety of sources and compiled in such a way that the data could be easily sorted in accordance with a number of different analytical objectives. The system was computerized to significantly expedite sorting and make it more usable. The information contained in the PIDB is summarized and the reader is provided with the capability to manually find items of interest.

  1. Preliminary study on improvement of cementitious grout thermal conductivity for geothermal heat pump applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    Preliminary studies were preformed to determine whether thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts used to backfill heat exchanger loops for geothermal heat pumps could be improved, thus improving efficiency. Grouts containing selected additives were compares with conventional bentonite and cement grouts. Significant enhancement of grout alumina grit, steel fibers, and silicon carbide increased the thermal conductivity when compared to unfilled, high solids bentonite grouts and conventional cement grouts. Furthermore, the developed grouts retained high thermal conductivity in the dry state, where as conventional bentonite and cement grouts tend to act as insulators if moisture is lost. The cementitious grouts studied can be mixed and placed using conventional grouting equipment.

  2. The preliminary study of the quench protection of an MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juster, F. P.; Berriaud, C.; Bonelli, A.; Pasquet, R.; Przybilski, H.; Schild, T.; Scola, L.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of general studies currently carried out at CEA/Saclay in collaboration with Sigmaphi Company on dry MgB2 magnet operating at 10 K and medium range field, 1 T up to 4 T., we plan to build a prototype-coil with a commercial MgB2 wire. This coil, the nominal axial magnetic field of which is 1 tesla, will be placed in a 3 teslas background field generated by a classical NbTi coil. This paper deals with the preliminary quench protection studies including stability and quench propagation modeling.

  3. Preliminary study of the pyrolysis of steam classified municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sebghati, J M; Eley, M H

    1997-01-01

    Steam classified municipal solid waste (MSW) has been studied for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. A preliminary study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system (in cooperation with Plasma Energy Applied Technology Inc., Huntsville, AL) to convert the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. Using a feed rate of 50 lbs/h, 300 lbs of the material was pyrolysized. The major components of this pyrolysis gas were H(2), CO, and CO(2). A detailed presentation of the emission data along with details on the system used will be presented. PMID:18576067

  4. Microemulsion-based drug delivery system for transnasal delivery of Carbamazepine: preliminary brain-targeting study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmin Bharatbhai; Patel, Mrunali Rashmin; Bhatt, Kashyap K; Patel, Bharat G; Gaikwad, Rajiv V

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the development and evaluation of Carbamazepine (CMP)-loaded microemulsions (CMPME) for intranasal delivery in the treatment of epilepsy. The CMPME was prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method and characterized for physicochemical parameters. All formulations were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (technetium) and biodistribution of CMP in the brain was investigated using Swiss albino rats. Brain scintigraphy imaging in rats was also performed to determine the uptake of the CMP into the brain. CMPME were found crystal clear and stable with average globule size of 34.11 ± 1.41 nm. (99m)Tc-labeled CMP solution (CMPS)/CMPME/CMP mucoadhesive microemulsion (CMPMME) were found to be stable and suitable for in vivo studies. Brain/blood ratio at all sampling points up to 8 h following intranasal administration of CMPMME compared to intravenous CMPME was found to be 2- to 3-fold higher signifying larger extent of distribution of the CMP in brain. Drug targeting efficiency and direct drug transport were found to be highest for CMPMME post-intranasal administration compared to intravenous CMP. Rat brain scintigraphy also demonstrated higher intranasal uptake of the CMP into the brain. This investigation demonstrates a prompt and larger extent of transport of CMP into the brain through intranasal CMPMME, which may prove beneficial for treatment of epilepsy.

  5. Optimising the design of preliminary toxicity studies for pharmaceutical safety testing in the dog.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Combes, Robert; Depelchin, Olympe; Jacobsen, Soren Dyring; Hack, Ruediger; Luft, Joerg; Lammens, Lieve; von Landenberg, Friedrich; Phillips, Barry; Pfister, Rudolf; Rabemampianina, Yvon; Sparrow, Susan; Stark, Claudia; Stephan-Gueldner, Markus

    2005-03-01

    A working party, comprising two animal welfare organisations and some 12 pharmaceutical companies in Europe, was established to minimise the use of the dog in safety testing. As first step, the participants defined the major objectives of preliminary dose-range finding/MTD toxicity studies in non-rodents, defined the principles and requirements for this study type and agreed on a proposal for an optimised study design, based on collective experience of conducting such studies in industry, involving an evaluation of 100 individual study data sets. The suggested study design is explained and described, and reflects current best practice in the pharmaceutical industry in Europe. The implementation of such an optimised design is believed to result in a reduction in the overall numbers of animals used for this purpose, without jeopardising the scientific rationale and usefulness of the studies for informing the conduct of later regulatory studies.

  6. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshama, Said Said; EL-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose. PMID:26941796

  7. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Elshama, Said Said; El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose. PMID:26941796

  8. [Study of pharmacokinetics of digoxin in ovariectomized rats model].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yong-wen; Qin, Hong-yan; Rao, Zhi; Zhang, Guo-qiang; Ma, Yan Rong; Wei, Yu-Hui; Wu, Xin-an

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the change of plasma concentration of digoxin (DIG) in rats with ovariectomy. Twelve female SD rats were randomly assigned into ovariectomized group and sham group (n = 6). All rats plasma was collected after a single dose of 2 mg x kg(-1) DIG administrated orally, serum DIG concentration was determined by LC-MS/MS. The level of P-gp in the intestinal was analyzed by Western blotting. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed on each individual using DAS 2.0 practical pharmacokinetic software. Compared with the sham group, C(max) of ovariectomized group decreased significantly (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference of AUC(0-t), and the level of P-gp was elevated in ovariectomized group. It was found that C(max) of DIG was significantly reduced after ovariectomy, and the change was associated with the decreased level of estrogen, which contributes to the increased level of P-gp. PMID:27169283

  9. 13-week oral toxicity study of vinyl laurate in rats.

    PubMed

    Lina, Ben A R; Messinger, Horst; Bär, Albert

    2015-02-01

    Vinyl laurate (VL) is used as a monomer in the production of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer, a component of chewing gum base. The safety of VL was examined in a 13-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats. VL was administered in corn coil by daily gavage (5 ml/kg bw/d) to four main groups (10 rats/sex) at doses of 0 (vehicle only), 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. The control and high-dose group comprised an additional 5 rats/sex which were kept untreated for a further 4 weeks until sacrifice (recovery groups). In addition to standard parameters, male and female fertility parameters were determined as well. There were no mortalities and treatment-related clinical signs. Neurobehavioral observations and motor activity assessment, ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weights, feed and water intakes, blood cell counts, coagulation time, standard clinical chemical parameters and urinalyses, absolute and relative organ weights at the end of the treatment as well as macroscopic examination at necropsy and microscopic examination of standard organs and tissues did not show any treatment-related changes. Female and male fertility parameters (estrus cyclicity, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, sperm motility and morphology) were not affected by the treatment. Accordingly, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for VL was determined to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d, i.e. the highest dose level tested. PMID:25445296

  10. Carcinogenesis Studies of Cresols in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, J.M.; Bucher, J.R.; Peckham, J.C.; Kissling, G.E.; Hejtmancik, M.R.; Chhabra, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Cresols, monomethyl derivatives of phenol, are high production chemicals with potential for human exposure. The three isomeric forms of cresol are used individually or in mixtures as disinfectants, preservatives, and solvents or as intermediates in the production of antioxidants, fragrances, herbicides, insecticides, dyes, and explosives. Carcinogenesis studies were conducted in groups of 50 male F344/N rats and 50 female B6C3F1 mice exposed to a 60:40 mixture of m and p cresols (m-/p-cresol) in feed. Rats and mice were fed diets containing 0, 1500, 5000, or 15,000 ppm and 0, 1000, 3000, or 10,000 ppm, respectively. Survival of each exposed group was similar to that of their respective control group. Mean body weight gains were depressed in rats exposed to 15,000 ppm and in mice exposed to 3000 ppm and higher. A decrease of 25% over that of controls for the final mean body weight in mice exposed to 10,000 ppm appeared to be associated with lack of palatability of the feed. A marginally increased incidence of renal tubule adenoma was observed in the 15,000 ppm-exposed rats. The increased incidence was not statistically significant, but did exceed the range of historical controls. No increased incidence of hyperplasia of the renal tubules was observed; however, a significantly increased incidence of hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium associated with an increased incidence of nephropathy was observed at the high exposure concentration. The only significantly increased incidence of a neoplastic lesion related to cresol exposure observed in these studies was that of squamous cell papilloma in the forestomach of 10,000 ppm-exposed mice. A definitive association with irritation at the site-of-contact could not be made because of limited evidence of injury to the gastric mucosa at the time of necropsy. However, given the minimal chemical-related neoplastic response in these studies, it was concluded that there was no clear evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats

  11. The molecular systemic and local effects of intra-tendinous injection of Platelet Rich Plasma in tendinosis: preliminary results on a rat model with ELISA method

    PubMed Central

    Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Louedec, Liliane; Lenet, Marie Paule Jacob; Pesquer, Lionel; Blaise, Elvind; Perozziello, Anne; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Moinard, Maryse; Meyer, Philippe; Serfaty, Jean Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose the aim of our study was thus to quantify the effect of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection on systemic and local growth factors and to identify molecular markers in a rat model of patellar and Achilles tendinosis treated with PRP. Material and method twenty two rats were used for the study. Two healthy rats were used as control (T−). We induced tendinosis (T+) in 20 rats (80 tendons by injecting under ultrasonography (US) guidance Collagenase 1® (day 0 = D0, patellar=40 and Achilles=40). At D3, these 20 rats with tendinosis were separated in treatment by either PRP (PRPT+, n=28), physiological serum (PST+, n=28, control) US-guided intratendinous injection, or without no PRP or PS (T+, n=24, control of natural evolution of tendinopathy). Follow-up at D7, D13, D18 and D25 using serum sample and local tendon removal with ELISA technics and comparison between the 3 groups were performed. Results during biological follow up, comparison of all serum samples of PRPT+, PST+ and T+ groups showed no significant modification of their biological markers at D7, D13, D18 and D25 (p>0.22). Comparison of immunological sample tendon markers of PRPT+, PST+ and T+ groups also showed no significant modification of markers at D7, D13, D18 and D25 (p>0.16) considering each biological marker and also all subgroups confounded. Conclusion our study strongly suggests that a single intratendinous US-guided injection of PRP in Achilles and patellar T+ doesn’t increase biological markers such as growth factors compared to a control group in mid-term and long-term follow-up. PMID:26261788

  12. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous) and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required. PMID:22640030

  13. The Suitability of Propofol Compared with Urethane for Anesthesia during Urodynamic Studies in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moheban, Adam A; Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A

    2016-01-01

    Urethane anesthesia preserves many reflex functions and is often the preferred anesthetic for urodynamic studies in rats. Because of the toxicity profile of urethane, its use as an anesthetic typically is limited to acute and terminal investigations. Alternative anesthetic options are needed for longitudinal studies of micturition reflexes in rats. In this study, we evaluated propofol anesthesia administered at constant rate infusion at different planes of anesthesia in rats for combined cystometrography and external urethral sphincter (EUS) EMG in rats. No reflex micturition was noted after rats received 100%, 80%, or 60% of a previously reported anesthetic dose of propofol. At 40% of the standard propofol dose, a subset of rats showed reflex voiding, with bladder contractions and associated EUS EMG activity. In contrast, urethane anesthesia at a surgical plane allowed for reflex voiding with bladder contractions and EUS activation. Latency to leaking or voiding was longer in rats under propofol anesthesia than in those under urethane anesthesia. In a subset of rats with reflex voiding under propofol anesthesia, voiding efficiency was decreased compared with that of rats anesthetized with urethane. We conclude that propofol anesthesia suppresses micturition reflexes in rats more efficiently than did urethane. Propofol is a suitable anesthetic for longitudinal studies in rats, but its use for urodynamic evaluations is limited in these animals due to its marked suppression of both bladder contractions and EUS EMG activation. PMID:26817985

  14. The Suitability of Propofol Compared with Urethane for Anesthesia during Urodynamic Studies in Rats.

    PubMed

    Moheban, Adam A; Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A

    2016-01-01

    Urethane anesthesia preserves many reflex functions and is often the preferred anesthetic for urodynamic studies in rats. Because of the toxicity profile of urethane, its use as an anesthetic typically is limited to acute and terminal investigations. Alternative anesthetic options are needed for longitudinal studies of micturition reflexes in rats. In this study, we evaluated propofol anesthesia administered at constant rate infusion at different planes of anesthesia in rats for combined cystometrography and external urethral sphincter (EUS) EMG in rats. No reflex micturition was noted after rats received 100%, 80%, or 60% of a previously reported anesthetic dose of propofol. At 40% of the standard propofol dose, a subset of rats showed reflex voiding, with bladder contractions and associated EUS EMG activity. In contrast, urethane anesthesia at a surgical plane allowed for reflex voiding with bladder contractions and EUS activation. Latency to leaking or voiding was longer in rats under propofol anesthesia than in those under urethane anesthesia. In a subset of rats with reflex voiding under propofol anesthesia, voiding efficiency was decreased compared with that of rats anesthetized with urethane. We conclude that propofol anesthesia suppresses micturition reflexes in rats more efficiently than did urethane. Propofol is a suitable anesthetic for longitudinal studies in rats, but its use for urodynamic evaluations is limited in these animals due to its marked suppression of both bladder contractions and EUS EMG activation.

  15. Stress responses after pediatric bone marrow transplantation: preliminary results of a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Stuber, M L; Nader, K; Yasuda, P; Pynoos, R S; Cohen, S

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of a longitudinal prospective study of young children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress were seen in these children up to 12 months after transplant. The bone marrow transplantation survivors demonstrated more denial and avoidance and fewer arousal symptoms than has been noted in children traumatized by a violent life threat, such as a sniper attack. These data suggest the use of post-traumatic stress as a model in understanding some of the symptoms of pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and may be applicable to other children exposed to the double life threat of serious illness and intensive medical intervention.

  16. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P < .05), and increased angulation tended to decrease impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  17. Sensorized pacifier to quantify the rhythmicity of non-nutritive sucking: A preliminary study on newborns.

    PubMed

    Grassi, A; Cecchi, F; Guzzetta, A; Laschi, C

    2015-08-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is one of the most significant spontaneous actions of infants. The suction/expression rhythmicity of NNS remains unknown. We developed a sensorized pacifier for an objective measurement of NNS. Two miniaturized digital pressure sensors are embedded into a commercial pacifier and they acquired suction and expression pressures simultaneously. Experimental tests with nine newborns confirmed that our device is suitable for the measurement of the natural NNS behavior and for the extrapolation of parameters related to the suction/expression rhythmicity. Preliminary results encourage future studies to evaluate the possibility to use these parameters as indicators of oral feeding readiness of premature infants. PMID:26738001

  18. Incorporation of tramadol drug into Li-fluorohectorite clay: A preliminary study of a medical nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, L.; Hernández, D.; de Ménorval, L. Ch.; Pérez, I.; Altshuler, E.; Fossum, J. O.; Rivera, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the last years, clays have been increasingly explored as hosts for drugs. In the present paper, we have been able to host the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Tramadol, into the clay Li-fluorohectorite (Li-Fh). We preliminary evaluate its incorporation by means of UV spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Our results indicate that the clay hosts the drug molecule in its interlayer space. We suggest a set of parameters to guarantee an efficient incorporation process. Future studies will concentrate on the release of the drug from the clay nanofluid.

  19. A preliminary and qualitative metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of fish from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Paula M; Santos, Felipe A; Padilha, Cilene C F; Vieira, José C S; Zara, Luiz F; de M Padilha, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings for a metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of the fish species from Amazonas, Brazil, after protein separation by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent evaluation of mercury by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra revealed mercury in two protein spots. The mercury-containing protein spots showed molecular weights of 20.8 ± 0.7 and 19.8 ± 0.5 kDa and isoelectric points of 5.6 ± 0.2 and 7.5 ± 0.3, respectively.

  20. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BIOMARKER RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...

  1. Physical and Dosimetric Optimization of Laser Equipment in Dermatology: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Soriani, A.; D'Alessio, D.; Cattelan, V.; Cameli, N.; Mariano, M.; Ungania, S.; Guerrisi, M.; Strigari, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the correlation between clinical set-up at present used in the treatment of specific skin conditions and laser beam absorbed power in the tissue. This study focused on the CO2 and Nd-Yag laser equipment used in the daily clinical practice in the Department of Dermatology of San Gallicano Institute in Rome. Different types of tissue-equivalent material with various water and haemoglobin concentrations were tested to evaluate laser beam attenuation power. In particular, thinly sliced pork loin, of uniform consistency and without fat, was selected for its high content of haemoglobin to mimic human tissues. An optical power meter was used to measure the power or energy of a laser beam. During measurements, the tissue equivalent phantoms were positioned on the detector head and the laser beam was orthogonally oriented. The results of two experimental set-ups are reported here. The dependence of residual power (W) as a function of ex vivo tissue thickness (mm) for different laser output powers was studied. Data were fitted by a parametric logistic equation. These preliminary data allow for more accurately determining the energy fraction released from lasers to the tissues in order to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25295246

  2. REPETITIVE TMS COMBINED WITH EXPOSURE THERAPY FOR PTSD: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Benson, Brenda E.; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Geraci, Marilla; Post, Robert M.; McCann, Una

    2009-01-01

    Treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes exposure therapy and medications, but some patients are refractory. Few studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for anxiety or PTSD exist. In this preliminary report, rTMS was combined with exposure therapy for PTSD. Nine subjects with chronic, treatment-refractory PTSD were studied in a placebo controlled, cross-over design of imaginal exposure therapy with rTMS (1Hz) versus sham. PTSD symptoms, serum and twenty-four hour urine were obtained and analyzed. Effect sizes for PTSD symptoms were determined using Cohen’s d. Active rTMS showed a larger effect size of improvement for hyperarousal symptoms compared to sham; 24-hour urinary norepinephrine and serum T4 increased; serum prolactin decreased. Active rTMS with exposure may have symptomatic and physiological effects. Larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings and verify whether rTMS plus exposure therapy has a role in the treatment of PTSD. PMID:18455908

  3. Predicting methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Blair A; Coghill, David; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is established as the main pharmacological treatment for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whilst MPH is generally a highly effective treatment, not all patients respond, and some experience adverse reactions. Currently, there is no reliable method to predict how patients will respond, other than by exposure to a trial of medication. In this preliminary study, we sought to investigate whether an accurate predictor of clinical response to methylphenidate could be developed for individual patients, using sociodemographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures. Of the 43 boys with ADHD included in this proof-of-concept study, 30 were classed as responders and 13 as non-responders to MPH, with no significant differences in age nor verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) between the groups. Here we report the application of a multivariate analysis approach to the prediction of clinical response to MPH, which achieved an accuracy of 77% (p = 0.005). The most important variables to the classifier were performance on a 'go/no go' task and comorbid conduct disorder. This preliminary study suggested that further investigation is merited. Achieving a highly significant accuracy of 77% for the prediction of MPH response is an encouraging step towards finding a reliable and clinically useful method that could minimise the number of children needlessly being exposed to MPH.

  4. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Vasovic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Todorovic, Ljubomir; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients’ reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (p<0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly higher with FTS when compared to control treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this preliminary study, transdermal system with fentanyl significantly reduced postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Key words:Analgesia, fentanyl, transdermal administration, third molar surgery, acute pain, postoperative care. PMID:27475691

  5. Preliminary study on quality evaluation of pecans with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Cao, Wei; Mathanker, Sunil; Zhang, Weili; Wang, Ning

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports a preliminary work on a feasibility study of applying terahertz (THz) technology for pecan quality evaluation. A set of native pecan nuts collected in 2009 were used during the experiment. Each pecan nutmeat was manually sliced at a thickness of about 1mm, 2mm, and 3mm and a size of about 2cm (length) ×1cm (width). Pecan shell and inner separator were also cut into the same size. The absorption spectra for the nutmeat slices, shell, and inner separator were collected using a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) developed by a group of researchers at Oklahoma State University. The test results show that nutmeat, shell, and inner separator had different absorption characteristics within the bandwidth of 0.2-2.0 THz. To study the capability of insect damage detection of the THz spectroscopy, the absorption spectra of insects (living manduca sexta and dry pecan weevil) were also collected. Due to high water contents in the insects, very obvious spectral characteristics were found. The results from the preliminary study show a potential of THz technology applied for quality detection of bio-products. However, since bio-products mostly have high water content and are handled under an environment with certain levels of water content, practical issues needs to be further investigated to make the THz technology a feasible tool for quality evaluation.

  6. Raman spectroscopy and SERS analysis of ovarian tumour derived exosomes (TEXs): a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Gubbins, Luke; Weiner Gorzel, Karolina; Sharma, Shiva; Kell, Malcolm; McCann, Amanda; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Here we report a preliminary study based on the application of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to investigate the compositional differences between exosomes derived from ovarian carcinoma cells (cell line A2780) grown in normoxia (normal O2 conditions) and hypoxia (1% O2 conditions). Exosomes are integral to cell signalling, and are of interest in the study of how cells communicate within their environment. We are particularly interested in identifying whether hypoxia induced senescent cells can communi- cate via exosomes with neighbouring tumour cells, thereby causing them to become senescent and therefore radio and chemo resistant. With this goal in mind, we performed a preliminary study on the application of Raman spectroscopy and SERS to analyse the biomolecular fingerprint of both groups of exosomes and to investigate whether there exists a different biomolecular composition associated with exosomes derived from hypoxic cells in comparison to those from normoxic cells. We also applied multivariate statistical techniques for the classification of both groups of exosomes.

  7. Electrophysiological study in the infraorbital nerve of the rat: Spontaneous and evoked activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarracín, A. L.; Farfán, F. D.; Felice, C. J.

    2007-11-01

    In this work we present some studies in the afferent nerve of the rat vibrissae. Studies on spontaneous activity (SA) in this sensorial system are of long data. Nevertheless, SA recordings in the nerve of a single vibrissa have not been made until present. In this work, we use an algorithm based on signal decomposition with Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to analyse the discharges of two nerves. The action potentials of both nerves were detected and the firing rates were calculated. These results suggest that the firing rate of one vibrissa innervation is low considering that this nerve contains hundred of fibers. In addition, we present preliminary studies suggesting important effects of the hair shaft length in the afferent discharge during the vibrissae movements. The experiments consisted in recording the nerve activity after the vibrissae were sectioned at two different levels. The results showed important differences in the signal energy contents. It suggests that the hair shaft length would produce a differential activation of the mechanoreceptors located in the vibrissae follicle.

  8. Development of an online automatic computed radiography dose data mining program: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Curtise K C; Sun, Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have reported the computed radiography (CR) dose creep problem and therefore the need to have monitoring processes in place in clinical departments. The objective of this study is to provide a better technological solution to implement a regular CR dose monitoring process. An online automatic CR dose data mining program which can be applied to different systems was developed based on freeware and existing softwares in the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) server. The program was tested with 69 CR images. This preliminary study shows that the program addresses the major weaknesses of some existing studies including involvement of manual procedures in the monitoring process and being only applicable to a single manufacturer's CR images. The proposed method provides an efficient and effective solution to implement a CR dose monitoring program regularly in busy clinical departments to regulate the dose creep problem so as to reinforce the 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principle. PMID:19640604

  9. Aspartame and dizziness: preliminary results of a prospective, nonblinded, prevalence and attempted cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Gulya, A J; Sessions, R B; Troost, T R

    1992-09-01

    Aspartame is a low-calorie food sweetener recently approved by the FDA for general human consumption. One of us (AJG) treated a patient whose symptoms of episodic vertigo and continuous unsteadiness resolved upon ceasing aspartame intake. A literature review revealed that although dizziness has been associated with aspartame intake, no systematic study of the problem exists. As an initial attempt to ascertain the prevalence of aspartame-related dizziness in an otolaryngologic clinic, we elected to study prospectively all patients entering with the complaint of vertigo by means of a standardized questionnaire. Those patients determined to consume aspartame were further studied in a nonblinded manner to see if aspartame intake could be correlated to symptomatology. A cross-over limb was also attempted, but no patient would participate. This presentation details the case history of the propositus patient and the preliminary results of the currently ongoing prospective study.

  10. Antidepressant response to aripiprazole augmentation associated with enhanced FDOPA utilization in striatum: a preliminary PET study.

    PubMed

    Conway, Charles R; Chibnall, John T; Cumming, Paul; Mintun, Mark A; Gebara, Marie Anne I; Perantie, Dana C; Price, Joseph L; Cornell, Martha E; McConathy, Jonathan E; Gangwani, Sunil; Sheline, Yvette I

    2014-03-30

    Several double blind, prospective trials have demonstrated an antidepressant augmentation efficacy of aripiprazole in depressed patients unresponsive to standard antidepressant therapy. Although aripiprazole is now widely used for this indication, and much is known about its receptor-binding properties, the mechanism of its antidepressant augmentation remains ill-defined. In vivo animal studies and in vitro human studies using cloned dopamine dopamine D2 receptors suggest aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist; in this preliminary neuroimaging trial, we hypothesized that aripiprazole's antidepressant augmentation efficacy arises from dopamine partial agonist activity. To test this, we assessed the effects of aripiprazole augmentation on the cerebral utilization of 6-[(18)F]-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (FDOPA) using positron emission tomography (PET). Fourteen depressed patients, who had failed 8 weeks of antidepressant therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, underwent FDOPA PET scans before and after aripiprazole augmentation; 11 responded to augmentation. Whole brain, voxel-wise comparisons of pre- and post-aripiprazole scans revealed increased FDOPA trapping in the right medial caudate of augmentation responders. An exploratory analysis of depressive symptoms revealed that responders experienced large improvements only in putatively dopaminergic symptoms of lassitude and inability to feel. These preliminary findings suggest that augmentation of antidepressant response by aripiprazole may be associated with potentiation of dopaminergic activity.

  11. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  12. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Kling, G. W.

    2012-08-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hotspots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hotspots.

  13. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Scrivens, Richard; Röhrich, Jörg

    2014-02-15

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  14. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a Spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas related to the final definition and preliminary design study of the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) were covered: (1) proposal organization, personnel, schedule, and project management, (2) proposed configurations, (3) study objectives, (4) ACPL experiment program listing and description, (5) mission/flight flexibility and modularity/commonality, (6) study plan, and (7) description of following tasks: requirement analysis and definition task flow, systems analysis and trade studies, subsystem analysis and trade studies, specifications and interface control documents, preliminary design task flow, work breakdown structure, programmatic analysis and planning, and project costs. Finally, an overview of the scientific requirements was presented.

  15. The liver toxicity biomarker study: phase I design and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    McBurney, Robert N; Hines, Wade M; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Beger, Richard D; Moland, Carrie L; Han, Tao; Fuscoe, James C; Chang, Ching-Wei; Chen, James J; Su, Zhenqiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Tong, Weida; Booth, Shelagh A; Balasubramanian, Raji; Courchesne, Paul L; Campbell, Jennifer M; Graber, Armin; Guo, Yu; Juhasz, Peter J; Li, Tricin Y; Lynch, Moira D; Morel, Nicole M; Plasterer, Thomas N; Takach, Edward J; Zeng, Chenhui; Beland, Frederick A

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the primary adverse event that results in withdrawal of drugs from the market and a frequent reason for the failure of drug candidates in development. The Liver Toxicity Biomarker Study (LTBS) is an innovative approach to investigate DILI because it compares molecular events produced in vivo by compound pairs that (a) are similar in structure and mechanism of action, (b) are associated with few or no signs of liver toxicity in preclinical studies, and (c) show marked differences in hepatotoxic potential. The LTBS is a collaborative preclinical research effort in molecular systems toxicology between the National Center for Toxicological Research and BG Medicine, Inc., and is supported by seven pharmaceutical companies and three technology providers. In phase I of the LTBS, entacapone and tolcapone were studied in rats to provide results and information that will form the foundation for the design and implementation of phase II. Molecular analysis of the rat liver and plasma samples combined with statistical analyses of the resulting datasets yielded marker analytes, illustrating the value of the broad-spectrum, molecular systems analysis approach to studying pharmacological or toxicological effects.

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles: a new tool for antibiotic delivery to sinonasal tissues. Results of preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, K; Stolyar, S; Lopatin, A

    2015-04-01

    Herein we examined the toxicity, penetration properties and ability of Fe2O3·nH2O magnetic nanoparticles extracted from silt of the Borovoye Lake (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) to bind an antibiotic. Experimental studies were carried out using magnetic nanoparticles alone and after antibiotic exposure in tissue samples from nasal mucosa, cartilage and bone (in vitro). Toxicity of particles was studied in laboratory animals (in vivo). Tissues removed at endonasal surgery (nasal mucosa, cartilage and bone of the nasal septum) were placed in solution containing nanoparticles and exposed to a magnetic field. Distribution of nanoparticles was determined by Perls' reaction. After intravenous injection, possible toxic effects of injected nanoparticles on the organs and tissues of rats were evaluated by histological examination. Binding between the nanoparticles and antibiotic (amoxicillin clavulanate) was studied using infrared spectroscopy. In 30 in vitro experiments, magnetisation of Fe2O3·nH2O nanoparticles resulted in their diffuse infiltration into the mucosa, cartilage and bone tissue of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Intravenous injection of 0.2 ml of magnetic nanoparticles into the rat's tail vein did not result in any changes in parenchymatous organs, and the nanoparticles were completely eliminated from the body within 24 hours. The interaction of nanoparticles with amoxicillin clavulanate was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy. Positive results of experimental studies provide a basis for further clinical investigations of these magnetic nanoparticles and their use in otorhinolaryngology.

  17. Preliminary study of corrosion mechanisms of actinides alloys: calibration of FT-IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Magnien, Veronique; Cadignan, Marx; Faivret, Olivier; Rosa, Gaelle

    2008-07-01

    In situ analyzes of gaseous atmospheres could be performed by FT-IR spectroscopy in order to study the corrosion reactions of actinides. Nevertheless experimental conditions and the nature of studied species have a strong effect on IR absorption laws. Thus a prior calibration of our set-up is required to obtain an accurate estimation of gas concentration. For this purpose, the behavior of several air pure gases has been investigated according to their concentration from IR spectra. Reproducible results revealed subsequent increases of the most significant peak areas with gas pressure and small deviations from Beer Lambert's law. This preliminary work allowed to determine precise absorption laws for each studied pure gas in our in situ experimental conditions. Besides our FT-IR set-up was well suitable to quantitative analysis of gaseous atmosphere during corrosion reactions. Finally the effect of foreign gas will be investigated through more complex air mixtures to obtain a complete calibration network. (authors)

  18. Selection and durability of seal materials for a bedded salt repository: preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report details preliminary results of both experimental and theoretical studies of cementitious seal materials for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. Effects of changes in bulk composition and environment upon phase stability and physical/mechanical properties have been evaluated for more than 25 formulations. Bonding and interfacial characteristics of the region between host rock and seal material or concrete aggregate and cementitious matrix for selected formulations have been studied. Compatibilities of clays and zeolites in brines typical of the SE New Mexico region have been investigated, and their stabilities reviewed. Results of these studies have led to the conclusion that cementitious materials can be formulated which are compatible with the major rock types in a bedded salt repository environment. Strengths are more than adequate, permeabilities are consistently very low, and elastic moduli generally increase only very slightly with time. Seal formulation guidelines and recommendations for present and future work are presented. 73 references, 25 figures, 61 tables.

  19. Diversity of Alticinae in Oaxaca, Mexico: A preliminary study (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)1

    PubMed Central

    Furth, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This is a preliminary study of the diversity of the Flea Beetles (Alticinae) of the Mexican state of Oaxaca based on fieldwork by the author in 1991, 1997, and 2010, the literature, and specimens in several institutional collections. The number of genera and species for Mexico as well as for Oaxaca increased significantly from previous studies. There are now 625 species in 90 genera recorded from Mexico with 275 species in 68 genera recorded from Oaxaca. There are 113 species known only from the state of Oaxaca and another 38 species known only from Oaxaca and the surrounding states. Oaxaca has a relatively high diversity as well as a high percentage of endemism. This study also demonstrates the effects of how even a small amount of fieldwork together with extracting specimen data from institutional collections can significantly increase the total faunistic and diversity knowledge of an area. A complete list of the genera and species known from Oaxaca is included. PMID:24163579

  20. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  1. Diversity of Alticinae in Oaxaca, Mexico: A preliminary study (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Furth, David G

    2013-01-01

    This is a preliminary study of the diversity of the Flea Beetles (Alticinae) of the Mexican state of Oaxaca based on fieldwork by the author in 1991, 1997, and 2010, the literature, and specimens in several institutional collections. The number of genera and species for Mexico as well as for Oaxaca increased significantly from previous studies. There are now 625 species in 90 genera recorded from Mexico with 275 species in 68 genera recorded from Oaxaca. There are 113 species known only from the state of Oaxaca and another 38 species known only from Oaxaca and the surrounding states. Oaxaca has a relatively high diversity as well as a high percentage of endemism. This study also demonstrates the effects of how even a small amount of fieldwork together with extracting specimen data from institutional collections can significantly increase the total faunistic and diversity knowledge of an area. A complete list of the genera and species known from Oaxaca is included.

  2. Two-coordinate terminal zinc hydride complexes: synthesis, structure and preliminary reactivity studies.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Michael J C; Middleton, Ewart; Kefalidis, Christos E; Dange, Deepak; Juckel, Martin M; Maron, Laurent; Jones, Cameron

    2016-08-18

    The first examples of essentially two-coordinate, monomeric zinc hydride complexes, LZnH (L = -N(Ar)(SiR3)) (Ar = C6H2{C(H)Ph2}2R'-2,6,4; R = Me, R' = Pr(i) (L'); R = Pr(i), R' = Me (L*); R = Pr(i), R' = Pr(i) (L(†))) have been prepared and shown by crystallographic studies to have near linear N-Zn-H fragments. The results of computational studies imply that any PhZn interactions in the compounds are weak at best. Preliminary reactivity studies reveal the compounds to be effective for the stoichiometric hydrozincation and catalytic hydrosilylation of carbonyl compounds. PMID:27499232

  3. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype. PMID:24184606

  4. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype.

  5. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  6. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Scannapieco, Antonio F.; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3D mapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  7. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-22

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  8. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Alexandra; Botzung, Anne; Gounot, Daniel; Sellal, François; Blanc, Frédéric; de Seze, Jerome; Manning, Liliann

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI). We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI) in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients. PMID:23125932

  9. Preliminary study of the pilot's workload during emergency procedures in helicopters air operations.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Flávio G V; Ribeiro, Selma L O

    2012-01-01

    Military air operations and law enforcement operations in helicopters are examples of activities that require high performance of the operator. This article aimed at presenting a preliminary analysis of data obtained in the initial study in order to validate the instruments and the research protocol that focuses on the analysis of the workload imposed on helicopter pilots in emergency situations. The research was conducted in an environment of real flight training and used the NASA-TLX Scale to assess the workload and an interview guide to obtain reports on the main tasks performed. Preliminary data obtained is related to the participation of 10 (ten) volunteer pilots with experience in different types of helicopters. Four scenarios involving helicopter emergency procedures of HB-350 "Squirrel" were outlined. For this article, the analysis used only the data regarding the Physical and Mental Demands of the NASA-TLX Scale. Preliminarily, the results indicate that the "time pressure" as a factor contributing to increase mental requirement in emergency situations in flight, and that this increase was reflected in the request of mental processes such as: identification of the breakdown, attention and monitoring parameters. Future steps include extending the sample and adding physiological tools to better understand the effects of these types of emergencies on pilot performance and flight safety.

  10. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oller, Adriana R; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m(3) nickel metal powder (MMAD=1.8 microm, GSD=2.4 microm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m(3) nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies. PMID:18822311

  11. Effects of Idazoxan on Alcohol Pharmacokinetics and Intoxication: A Preliminary Human Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo; Davidson, Dena; Swift, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preliminary basic and human studies suggest that the α2-adrenergic antagonist idazoxan may represent a novel medication for alcohol dependence (AD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the co-administration of idazoxan with alcohol and explore whether pharmacokinetics (PK) and biobehavioral (Pharmacodynamics, PD) mechanisms of idazoxan may alter alcohol's effects. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomized human laboratory study. Ten social drinkers were dosed, in two different alcohol challenge sessions (ACS), with a single oral dose of idazoxan (40-mg) or placebo, followed by a fixed alcohol dose 60 minutes later. Participants returned after a one-week wash-out and they were crossed over to the opposite medication condition. Results There were no significant differences in adverse events (AEs) between idazoxan and placebo. Moreover, during the ACS paradigm, 40-mg idazoxan was well tolerated with no significant autonomic effects compared to placebo; idazoxan reduced the peak blood alcohol level (Cmax) (p<.01) and time to peak (tmax) (p<.05) compared to placebo. A PK/PD model aligned the biobehavioral effects, demonstrating that the co-administration of 40-mg idazoxan with alcohol, decreased alcohol-related stimulation (p<.05) and increased alcohol-related sedation (p<.05). Conclusions This study supports the safety and tolerability of 40-mg idazoxan when co-administered with alcohol. Additionally, this study suggests that idazoxan may alter the biphasic effects of alcohol by decreasing stimulation and increasing sedation. These findings have implications for further investigation of using idazoxan as a probe to develop potential novel medications to treat alcoholic patients. PMID:25833022

  12. Collagen studies in newborn rat kidneys with incomplete ureteric obstruction.

    PubMed

    Haralambous-Gasser, A; Chan, D; Walker, R G; Powell, H R; Becker, G J; Jones, C L

    1993-09-01

    Collagen studies in newborn rats with incomplete ureteric obstruction were performed to describe and quantify changes in collagen deposition resulting from urinary tract obstruction at an early developmental age. Incomplete ureteric obstruction was created in three-day-old rats by placing the left ureter in a tunnel formed by the psoas muscle, and sham-operated controls underwent a laparotomy. The rats were sacrificed at 10, 17, 24 or 31 days. Collagen types I, III, IV, and V were localized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, the total collagen content of the kidney was quantitated using hydroxyproline analysis, and collagen types I and III were quantitated using cyanogen bromide (CNBr) peptide analysis. Increased immunofluorescent staining for all of the collagens was found in the diffusely widened medullary interstitium of the obstructed kidney, and more focally in the cortical interstitium. Collagen types I, III and V, but not collagen type IV, were also found in bands in the interstitium at the junction of the cortex with the medulla. Increased staining for collagen type IV was found in thickened and tortuous tubular basement membranes (TBM) of the obstructed kidneys. The total collagen content of the obstructed kidney was significantly increased compared to the amounts in both the contralateral kidneys and in the kidneys from sham-operated controls at 24 and 31 days of age (P < 0.01 in each case, Wilcoxon matched pairs rank sum test and Mann Whitney U-test, respectively). The amount of collagen in the kidneys correlated with the degree of hydronephrosis (Spearman correlation test, r = 0.78, P < 0.02). CNBr peptide analysis demonstrated that over 50% of the collagen in the normal neonatal rat kidney was collagen type I and approximately 25% was collagen type III. In the obstructed kidneys most of the collagen was also collagen type I and collagen type III, although the proportion of total collagen comprised by these collagen types was decreased compared

  13. Glucose metabolism in the newborn rat. Temporal studies in vivo.

    PubMed

    Snell, K; Walker, D G

    1973-04-01

    1. The concentrations of plasma d-glucose, l-lactate, free fatty acids and ketone bodies and of liver glycogen were measured in caesarian-delivered newborn rats at time-intervals up to 4h after delivery. Glucose and lactate concentrations decreased markedly during the first hours after delivery, but there was a delay of 60-90min before significant glycogen mobilization occurred. 2. The specific radioactivity of plasma d-glucose was measured as a function of time for up to 75min after the intraperitoneal injection of d-[6-(14)C]glucose and d-[6-(3)H]glucose into caesarian-delivered rats at 0, 1 and 2h after delivery. Calculations revealed that there was an appreciable rate of glucose formation at all ages studied, but immediately after delivery this was exceeded by the rate of glucose utilization. Around 2h post partum the rate of glucose utilization decreased dramatically and this coincided with a reversal of the immediately postnatal hypoglycaemia. 3. The specific radioactivity of plasma l-lactate and the incorporation of (14)C into plasma d-glucose and liver glycogen was measured as a function of time after the intraperitoneal injection of l-[U-(14)C]lactate into rats immediately after delivery. The logarithm of the specific radioactivity of plasma l-[U-(14)C]lactate decreased linearly with time for at least 60min after injection and the calculated rate of lactate utilization exceeded the rate of lactate formation. 4. (14)C incorporation into plasma d-glucose was maximal from 30-60min after injection of l-[U-(14)C]lactate and the amount incorporated at 60min was 23% of that present in plasma lactate. Although (14)C was also incorporated into liver glycogen the amount was always less than 3% of that present in plasma glucose. 5. The results are discussed in relationship to the adaptation of the newly born rat to the extra-uterine environment and the possible involvement of gluconeogenesis at this time before feeding is established.

  14. Evaluation of monophosphoryl lipid A as an immune adjuvant for photodynamic therapy in a rat sarcoma model: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1999-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment option for several forms of human cancer, and like traditional chemotherapy and ionizing radiation therapy, PDT alone is not curative for some cases. Recent efforts have aimed at developing strategies for adjuvant therapy for PDT. Given the nature of PDT-mediated cell damage, immunotherapy is a promising adjuvant for long-term control of solid tumors. A candidate immune stimulant for use with PDT is monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA), a non-toxic fraction of the endotoxin molecule. The hypothesis is that adjuvant MLA immunotherapy with PDT will improve local tumor control and prevent growth of subsequently implanted tumor cells when compared to PDT alone. To date, no significant differences in circulating leukocyte populations or tumor infiltrating lymphocyte populations have been identified in 9L tumor-bearing F344 rats after systemic administrations of MLA. Likewise, no significant difference has been identified in local tumor control following PDT of 9L tumors with or without adjuvant MLA. Further results are pending.

  15. Preliminary engineering study: Quick opening valve MSFC high Reynolds number wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    FluiDyne Engineering Corporation has conducted a preliminary engineering study of a quick-opening valve for the MSFC High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel under NASA Contract NAS8-35056. The subject valve is intended to replace the Mylar diaphragm system as the flow initiation device for the tunnel. Only valves capable of opening within 0.05 sec. and providing a minimum of 11.4 square feet of flow area were considered. Also, the study focused on valves which combined the quick-opening and tight shutoff features in a single unit. A ring sleeve valve concept was chosen for refinement and pricing. Sealing for tight shutoff, ring sleeve closure release and sleeve actuation were considered. The resulting cost estimate includes the valve and requisite modifications to the facility to accommodate the valve as well as the associated design and development work.

  16. Preliminary Study of OCD and Health Disparities at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Tom; Vera, Beatriz; Perez, Oriana

    2007-01-01

    The widespread and devastating nature of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) sharply contrasts with the paucity of research involving Mexican Americans and Mexicans who suffer from this condition. This mixed-methods preliminary study was intended to provide initial data and to pilot the procedures for a larger investigation of the cultural identification, symptomatology, health concerns, coping mechanisms, and quality of life of Mexican Americans and Mexicans with OCD living in the U.S.-Mexico border region of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. For the sample of six participants, whose symptoms ranged from moderate to extreme, OCD was associated with marked impairment in quality of life, particularly in terms of social functioning, an area of central importance for many Mexican Americans and Mexicans. Areas of further study were identified, with the aim of developing culturally sensitive interventions to decrease health disparities involving OCD. PMID:17917689

  17. Preliminary risk assessment of radon in groundwater: a case study from Eskisehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Galip; Gasparon, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the radon concentrations in the water supplies of a residential area of central west Anatolia, Turkey. This research provides a preliminary risk assessment for inhabitants in the study area which can be applied for other regions. In 14 out of the 19 water supplies analysed, radon concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level (11.1 Bq l(-1)). The total annual effective doses of 10 for the wet season and 14 for the dry season out of the 19 water supplies are greater than the values recommended by EPA [Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1999) < http://www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/docs/federal/402-r-99-001.pdf >] (0.1 mSv a(-1)). The elevated radon concentrations in water resources are most probably linked with geological origin which contains significant amounts of radioactive minerals.

  18. Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in molten salt reactor miniFUJI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, A.

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in 25MWth and 50MWth of miniFUJI MSR (molten salt reactor) has been carried out. In this study, a very high enriched uranium that we called weapon grade uranium has been employed in UF4 composition. The 235U enrichment is 90 - 95 %. The results show that the 25MWth miniFUJI MSR can get its criticality condition for 1.56 %, 1.76%, and 1.96% of UF4 with 235U enrichment of at least 93%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the 50 MWth miniFUJI reactor can be critical for 1.96% of UF4 with 235U enrichment of at smallest amount 95%. The neutron spectra are almost similar for each power output.

  19. A Preliminary Study on the Vapor/Mist Phase Lubrication of a Spur Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphates have been the primary compounds used in vapor/mist phase lubrication studies involving ferrous bearing material. Experimental results have indicated that the initial formation of an iron phosphate film on a rubbing ferrous surface, followed by the growth (by cationic diffusion) of a lubricious pyrophosphate-type coating over the iron phosphate, is the reason organophosphates work well as vapor/mist phase lubricants. Recent work, however, has shown that this mechanism leads to the depletion of surface iron atoms and to eventual lubrication failure. A new organophosphate formulation was developed which circumvents surface iron depletion. This formulation was tested by generating an iron phosphate coating on an aluminum surface. The new formulation was then used to vapor/mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox in a preliminary study.

  20. Preliminary Structural Sizing and Alternative Material Trade Study of CEV Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steve M.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary structural sizing and alternate material trade study for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM). This critical CEV component will house the astronauts during ascent, docking with the International Space Station, reentry, and landing. The alternate material design study considers three materials beyond the standard metallic (aluminum alloy) design that resulted from an earlier NASA Smart Buyer Team analysis. These materials are graphite/epoxy composite laminates, discontinuously reinforced SiC/Al (DRA) composites, and a novel integrated panel material/concept known as WebCore. Using the HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation) structural sizing software and NASTRAN finite element analysis code, a comparison is made among these materials for the three composite CM concepts considered by the 2006 NASA Engineering and Safety Center Composite Crew Module project.

  1. Preliminary Study on Willingness to Pay for Environmentally Certified Wood Products Among Consumers in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Shukri; Lukhman Ibrahim, Muhamad

    Consumers are expected to demand and would be willing to pay a price premium for environment-friendly products stemming from the growing global environmental consumerism. While consumers in the developed countries are reported to be willing to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products, there is hardly any study on consumers` willingness in other markets. This preliminary study examines consumer willingness to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products in Malaysia. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 100 systematically-sampled, mall-intercepted respondents. Results indicated that some 38% of the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 14.4% more for environmentally certified wood products.

  2. Preliminary study on detection of irradiated foodstuffs from the Romanian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Chirita, Daniel; Savu, Diana; Elisabeta Secu, Corina; Mihai, Radu; Secu, Mihai; Ponta, Corneliu

    2007-08-01

    In order to fulfil the European task for market survey in food irradiation the first Romanian laboratory for detection of irradiated foodstuffs was established at IRASM Irradiation Centre. In this preliminary study, a wide range of Romanian food samples (spices, vegetables and meat) gamma irradiated at IRASM have been studied using different detection methods: (1) DNA comet assay, (2) thermoluminescence (TL) and (3) electron spin resonance (ESR) for foodstuffs containing bone or cellulose. The results suggest that there is no general available detection method and there is no perfect detection method. In conclusion, in order to carry out a correct identification of radiation treatment of a food sample it is recommended to use at least two standardised detection methods.

  3. Preliminary study of spectral features of normal and malignant cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Farooq, W. A.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-04-01

    In this study the fluorescence emission spectra of normal and malignant cell cultures were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 290 nm, corresponding to the higher fluorescence intensity at 350 nm (due to tryptophan) of three malignant cells and normal cells. Similarly, Stokes shift spectra were recorded for normal and malignant cell cultures with a shift, Δλ, of 70 nm. The Stokes shift shows the existence of discriminating features between normal and carcinoma cell lines due to the higher concentration of phenylalanine and tryptophan in carcinoma cell lines which are completely absent in normal cell lines. Hence, both the emission spectra and the Stokes shift spectra showed considerably different spectral features between the normal and malignant cells. The preliminary studies indicate the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy for cancer detection using the spectral features of biofluorophores.

  4. Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in molten salt reactor miniFUJI

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, A.

    2014-09-30

    Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in 25MWth and 50MWth of miniFUJI MSR (molten salt reactor) has been carried out. In this study, a very high enriched uranium that we called weapon grade uranium has been employed in UF{sub 4} composition. The {sup 235}U enrichment is 90 - 95 %. The results show that the 25MWth miniFUJI MSR can get its criticality condition for 1.56 %, 1.76%, and 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at least 93%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the 50 MWth miniFUJI reactor can be critical for 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at smallest amount 95%. The neutron spectra are almost similar for each power output.

  5. Using Financial Ratios to Select Companies for Tax Auditing: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghescu, Dorina; Kallio, Minna; Back, Barbro

    Tax auditing procedures include an investigation of the accounting records of a company and of other sources of information in order to assess whether the taxation has been based on correct and complete information. When there are found discrepancies between the accounting information and the real situation, the taxation should be corrected so that the eventual tax defaults are assessed and debited. The paper analyzes to what extent the financial performance of a company can be used as an indicator of tax defaults. We focus on one type of tax, namely employer's contribution, and four financial ratios. We evaluate the model in a study of Finnish companies by using a binomial logistic regression analysis. The study is exploratory and at a preliminary stage.

  6. Methylene chloride: a 2-year inhalation toxicity and oncogenicity study in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, K.D.; Burek, J.D.; Bell, T.J.; Kociba, R.J.; Rampy, L.W.; McKenna, M.J.

    1988-07-01

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 50, 200, or 500 ppm methylene chloride for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were elevated in a dose-dependent (less than linear) manner in rats exposed to 50-500 ppm methylene chloride. Histopathologic lesions related to methylene chloride exposure were confined to the liver and mammary tissue of rats. An increased incidence of hepatocellular vacuolization was observed in male and female rats exposed to 500 ppm methylene chloride. Female rats exposed to 500 ppm methylene chloride also had an increased incidence of multinucleated hepatocytes and number of spontaneous benign mammary tumors/tumor-bearing rat (adenomas, fibromas, and fibroadenomas with no progression toward malignancy); the incidence of benign mammary tumors in female rats exposed to 50 or 200 ppm methylene chloride was comparable to historical control values. No increase in the number of any malignant tumor type was observed in rats exposed to concentrations as high as 500 ppm methylene chloride. Additional groups of female rats were exposed to 500 ppm methylene chloride for the first 12 months or the last 12 months of the 24-month study. The response observed in female rats exposed to 500 ppm for the first 12 months was the same as that observed in female rats exposed to 500 ppm for 2 years. Conversely, the response observed in female rats exposed to 500 ppm during the last 12 months of the study was similar to that observed in control animals. Based upon the results of this study, the no-adverse-effect level for chronic inhalation exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats was judged to be 200 ppm methylene chloride.

  7. Preliminary Feasibility Study of the Solar Observation Payloads for STSAT-CLASS Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yong-Jae; Cho, Kyung-Seok; Jin, Ho; Chae, Jong-Chul; Lee, Sung-Ho; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Yeon-Han; Park, Young-Deuk

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary feasibility studies on three types of solar observation payloads for future Korean Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT) programs. The three candidates are (1) an UV imaging telescope, (2) an UV spectrograph, and (3) an X-ray spectrometer. In the case of UV imaging telescope, the most important constraint seems to be the control stability of a satellite in order to obtain a reasonably good spatial resolution. Considering that the current pointing stability estimated from the data of the Far ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS) onboard the Korean STSAT-1, is around 1 arc minutes/sec, we think that it is hard to obtain a spatial resolution sufficient for scientific research by such an UV Imaging Telescope. For solar imaging missions, we realize that an image stabilization system, which is composed of a small guide telescope with limb sensor and a servo controller of secondary mirror, is quite essential for a very good pointing stability of about 0.1 arcsec. An UV spectrograph covering the solar full disk seems to be a good choice in that there is no risk due to poor pointing stability as well as that it can provide us with valuable UV spectral irradiance data valuable for studying their effects on the Earth's atmosphere and satellites. The heritage of the FIMS can be a great advantage of developing the UV spectrograph. Its main disadvantage is that two major missions are in operation or scheduled. Our preliminary investigations show that an X-ray spectrometer for the full disk Sun seems to be the best choice among the three candidates. The reasons are : (1) high temporal and spectral X-ray data are very essential for studying the acceleration process of energetic particles associated with solar flares, (2) we have a good heritage of X-ray detectors including a rocket-borne X-ray detector, (3) in the case of developing countries such as India and Czech, solar X-ray spectrometers were selected as their early stage satellite

  8. Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project: comprehensive chronic rat study.

    PubMed

    Condie, L W; Lauer, W C; Wolfe, G W; Czeh, E T; Burns, J M

    1994-11-01

    The health effects testing program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project was designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater in comparison with Denver's present high-quality drinking water. The 1 x 10(6) gal/day treatment plant provided 500-fold concentrates of water that had been treated by multiple processes to remove microbial and chemical contaminants. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to the complex mixture solutions for up to 2 yr to evaluate chronic toxicity and oncogenicity effects. The following parameters were evaluated: clinical observations, survival rate, growth, food and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross autopsy and histopathological examination of all lesions, major tissues and organs. Clinical pathology, gross pathology, and microscopic pathology conducted at wk 26 and 65 and at the end of the study did not reveal any findings that could be considered to be treatment related. Administration of drinking water concentrates at up to 500 times the original concentration in the original water samples to F344 rats for up to 104 wk did not result in any overt toxicological or carcinogenic effects. PMID:7959456

  9. A study of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gaull, Gerald E.; Gaitonde, M. K.

    1967-01-01

    1. In a study of the metabolism of l-[35S]methionine in vivo, the labelled sulphur compounds of rat liver and brain were separated first by ion-exchange chromatography into two fractions containing (i) free sulphur amino acids such as methionine, cystathionine, cyst(e)ine and homocyst(e)ine and (ii) glutathione. 2. Two-dimensional paper chromatography with butan-1-ol–acetic acid or propionic acid–water in the first direction and 80% acetone or acetone–ethyl methyl ketone–water in the second direction was found superior to other solvent systems for separating the sulphur amino acids. 3. At 10min. after injection of [35S]methionine only a small part of the 35S was found combined in free methionine or other free sulphur amino acids. 4. Evidence was obtained of the presence of adenosyl[35S]methionine and adenosyl[35S]homocysteine in perchloric acid extracts of rat liver and brain. 5. The trans-sulphuration pathway was active in brain as well as in liver. PMID:6030290

  10. Single dose toxicity study of IRDye 800CW in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Milton V.; Draney, Daniel; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Olive, D. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Fluorophore-labeled contrast imaging agents are moving toward clinical use as aids in nodal staging and intraoperative resection of tumors. Near-infrared fluorophores with defined toxicity properties will be needed before these agents can be translated to the clinic. The near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW is frequently used in its N-hydroxysuccinamide (NHS) ester form for labeling these agents. Following conjugation or breakdown of a labeled ligand, excess NHS ester is converted to the carboxylate form. We report here the results of a preliminary toxicity study on IRDye 800CW carboxylate in preparation for its use as a labeling moiety for targeted contrast agents. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were given a single intravenous or intradermal administration of IRDye 800CW carboxylate; indocyanine green was used as a comparative control. Following administration of varying doses of either the dyes or saline, animals were observed for up to fourteen days during which time, hematological, clinical chemistry, enzymological, and histological testing was performed on animal subgroups. Under the conditions tested, a single administration of IRDye 800CW carboxylate intravenously at dose levels of 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg intradermally produced no pathological evidence of toxicity. A dose of 20 mg/kg was identified as the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) following IV or ID routes of administration of IRDye 800CW.

  11. Study of the effects of ozone in emphysematous rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dormans, J.A.; van Bree, L.; Boere, A.J.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of short-term exposure to ozone on control and elastase-induced emphysematous rats were examined to investigate whether emphysema would change the pulmonary susceptibility to oxidant air pollution. Emphysema was induced in rats after a single intratracheal instillation of 0.2 IU elastase/g body weight. Histologically, panacinar emphysema was apparent at 2, 4, 8, and 16 wk, that is, the total duration of the experiment. The diagnosis was confirmed by morphometry: the mean linear intercepts (MLI) of elastase-treated rats were significantly increased at all observation times, whereas the internal surface areas (ISA) of the elastase-treated rats were significantly decreased. In addition, pulmonary function tests provided supportive evidence for the diagnosis of emphysema. Respiratory system compliance and functional residual capacity showed a significant increase in elastase-treated rats. No differences in inspiratory capacity or in forced vital capacity between control rats and elastase-treated rats were observed. The above data are indicative for a rat model for elastase-induced emphysema. Short-term exposure to ozone of elastase-treated rats revealed panacinar emphysema, including an inflammatory response in the centroacinar region. No differences in MLI as well as in ISA between ozone-exposed rats (with or without emphysema) and their respective controls were observed. Short-term exposure to ozone induced an identical, significant increase in protein content, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in lungs of normal and emphysematous rats. Moreover, these results strongly suggest that emphysematous rats are not more susceptible to ozone than nonemphysematous rats.

  12. Effect of training level and blood flow restriction on thermal parameters: Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Lucas; Bezerra, Ewertton; Paladino, Kayo; dos Santos, João Otacílio Libardoni; Priego Quesada, Jose I.; Rossato, Mateus

    2016-11-01

    Training with blood flow restriction could lead to an effect on skin temperature. Additionally, this effect could be higher in people with lower physical fitness level due to their lower capacity of heat loss. The aim of this preliminary study was therefore to evaluate the effects of training experience on the acute and chronic thermal skin responses after performing exercise with and without blood flow restriction. The study included ten men, of these, five were trained. All subjects performed tests and re-tests for maximum strength (1 repetition maximum) through unilateral leg extensions (right thigh at 45 ± 6.7 kg and left thigh at 45.5 ± 8.1 kg, p > 0.05). The protocol consisted of four sets to concentric failure, with one-minute rest intervals between sets at an intensity corresponding to 40% of 1 RM. There were 7-day intervals between experimental sessions (150 mmHg versus unrestricted flow restriction). The thermal images were made before the protocol (pre), immediately after the end of the series (post), and 24 h afterward (post 24 h). When comparing temperature variation (Δ exercise and Δ 24 h) between groups, it was observed that the trained participants showed a greater drop in temperature 24 h after exercise with 150 mmHg restriction (confidence interval: 95% of Δ 24 h [-0.2 to -0.9 °C]) compared to untrained subjects (p = 0.006 and ES > 1.5, confidence interval: 95% Δ 24 h [-0.1 to 0.6 °C].) In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that training experience interferes with the chronic cutaneous thermal temperature of the anterior thigh when strength training associated with blood flow restriction 150 mmHg was performed.

  13. Preliminary study on radio-chemo-induced oral mucositis and low level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo; Clini, Fabio; Cella, Luigi; Vescovi, Paolo; Oppici, Aldo

    2012-09-01

    Background: Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of antineoplastic radiation and drug therapy: its incidence in onco-hematological radio-chemotreated patients is variable between 50 and 100% and its impact on this populations is directly linked with the experience of intense pain causing reduction and modification of therapy regimens, decreased survival rates and increased cost of care. Purpose: Aim of this study is the preliminary evaluation of a Low Level Laser therapy (LLLT) protocol on healing process of oral mucositis and on pain and quality of life of patients experiencing this dramatic side-effect. Materials and methods: Patients were evaluated and treated at the Unita` Operativa Semplice Dipartimentale di Odontostomatologia e Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale of the Hospital of Piacenza were they were treated for primary disease with protocols of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. LLLT protocol was performed with a diode laser (808 nm -XD Smile - Fotona -Slovenia) on a two weeks-6 treatments schedule with power of 0.5 W and application of 30 seconds. Mucositis grading was scored on the basis of WHO classification by two blind operators at each treatment and at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. Pain and capability of deglutition were described by patients by means questionnaires based on Visual Analogue Scale, Numerical Rating Scale and Quality of Life. Results: A relevant improvement of healing of oral mucositis, in terms of reduction of grading score, and of pain, swallowing discomfort and quality of life was recorded. Discussion and conclusion: Results of this preliminary study are encouraging for the realization of larger studies focused on the application of LLLT protocols in management of radio-chemotreated patients with oral mucositis.

  14. Inflammation and metabolic changes in first episode psychosis: preliminary results from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Russell, Alice; Ciufolini, Simone; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Gaughran, Fiona; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Mondelli, Valeria

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with psychosis, and may confer greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. Such abnormalities are associated with inflammation in the general population, and there is increasing evidence for elevated inflammation in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). The aim of this preliminary study is to examine the effect of changes in inflammation, as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), on metabolic changes in a three-month longitudinal study in a FEP sample. Fifty-three FEP patients from in- and out-patient services in South London, England, were included in this longitudinal study. Social and clinical data were collected, and fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements (weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile and gluco-metabolic parameters) were obtained at baseline and at three-month follow-up. Correlation analyses showed that those with increases in hsCRP over the three-month period also had increases in triglyceride levels (r=0.49, p=0.02). No association was observed with other lipid profile, or gluco-metabolic parameters, across the whole sample. Increases in weight and BMI were also associated with increases in triglyceride levels (r=0.33, p=0.02; and r=0.31, p=0.03, respectively); however, a multiple linear regression analysis found that the effects of inflammation on triglycerides were independent from the effect of changes in weight, and from the baseline inflammatory state. Our preliminary findings suggest that those patients experiencing greater increases in inflammation early on in the course of their illness may be at greater risk of developing short-term metabolic abnormalities, in particular dyslipidaemia, independent of weight-gain. Future work should investigate the use of inflammatory markers to identify patients in greater need of physical health interventions. PMID:26100489

  15. [Morphometric and immunohistochemical studies of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hereditary microphthalmic rat].

    PubMed

    Sugita, S; Ohsawa, K

    1992-10-01

    Morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were performed on hereditary microphthalmic rats. In normal rats, the number of cells and the volume of the SCN were 11, 631 and 6.7 x 10(-2) mm3 (an average taken from 12 SCNs). However, the neuronal population and volume of the SCN in hereditary microphthalmic rats were 7,450 and 4.5 x 10(-2) mm3 (an average taken from 14 SCNs), respectively. There were no significant differences in the size of neurons between normal and microphthalmic SCN neurons. Immunohistochemical studies showed that a considerable number of antivasopressin positive neurons were present in microphthalmic rats, despite their lack of the optic nerve. However, further detailed studies revealed that the number of antivasopressin positive neurons present in microphthalmic rats was only 68% of those found in normal rats. These findings suggest that the complete development of the SCN and vasopressin neurons depends on the visual input.

  16. [Safety evaluation of micronomicin. III. Teratogenicity studies in rats].

    PubMed

    Hara, T; Nishikawa, S; Miyazaki, H; Ohguro, Y

    1983-01-01

    Micronomicin (MCR) is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by Micromonospora sagamiensis var. nonreducans which was isolated from soil collected at Sagamihara by Nara et al. The purified antibiotic showed a close similarity to gentamicin C complex in physical and chemical properties. The antibacterial activity of MCR is broad-spectrum and almost equal to that of gentamicin C complex. MCR exhibits particularly high activity against Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia, etc. and high activity against some Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to gentamicin C1a. Teratogenicity studies of MCR in rats were carried out by intravenous injection for safety evaluation (Dose; 25, 50 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg). The results of studies are as follows. 1. Fetal malformation attributable to MCR was not observed at any dose. 2. Suppression of maternal weight gain was observed at the dose levels of 50 mg/kg and over. 3. There was no adverse effect on new borns at any dose.

  17. Comparative 90-day dietary study of paraffin wax in Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Griffis, L C; Twerdok, L E; Francke-Carroll, S; Biles, R W; Schroeder, R E; Bolte, H; Faust, H; Hall, W C; Rojko, J

    2010-01-01

    Highly refined mineral hydrocarbons (MHCs) such as low melting point paraffin wax (LMPW) and low viscosity white oils can cause inflammatory changes in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of the Fischer-344 (F-344) rat. In contrast, only minimal MLN changes are seen in the Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rat with no changes in the liver. In this study, the response of female F-344 and S-D rats was compared after 90days dietary treatment with 0%, 0.2% or 2% LMPW. Effects in the F-344 rats were significantly greater than in the S-D rats: increased liver and splenic weights and inflammatory changes (hepatic microgranulomas) in these tissues were observed only in the F-344 rats. Microgranulomas in the MLNs were observed in both strains but the effects were substantially greater in the F-344 rats. Cellular markers of inflammation were examined in a subset of rats from each group using immunohistochemical staining. An increase in staining for CD3 (T-cells), CD8a (suppresser/cytotoxic T-cells) and CD4 (helper T-cells) correlated with an increase in lymphoid cells in the livers of treated F-344 rats. The majority of macrophages in the hepatic microgranulomas of treated F-344 rats were negative for the ED2 marker, indicating a likely origin from non-resident macrophages. Electron microscopy showed Kupffer cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in treated F-344 rats. However, lysozyme staining (indicating activation of epithelioid macrophages) decreased with increasing granuloma size. Non-ED2 expressing cells may have been recruited but not sufficiently activated to be lysozyme positive. Inflammatory changes in the cardiac mitral valve noted in previous studies of LMPW were also seen in the F-344 rats in this study but not in the S-D rats. Chemical analysis showed that MHC accumulated in livers from treated F-344 but not S-D rats and the concentration was more than 2-fold greater in MLNs from the F-344 than from the S-D rats. The F-344 appears to be more immunologically sensitive to

  18. A preliminary study on the safeguardability of a Korean advanced pyro-processing facility (KAPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Thomas, K.E.; Marlow, J.B.; Menlove, H.O.; Ko, W.I.; Yang, M.S.; Park, S.W.

    2007-07-01

    A preliminary study on the safeguardability of the Korean Advanced Pyro-processing Facility (KAPF) was performed. The main processes of the facility include voloxidation, electrolytic reduction, electrorefining, electrowinning, and salt recycling with a transuranic (TRU) recovery process. The subprocesses and material flow of the conceptually designed KAPF with a unit capacity of 100 tHM/year were analysed, and subsequently, the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. Uncertainty in material accounting was evaluated with designed MBA and KMP, together with measurement uncertainties of analytic methods identified for the KAPF. It was found that the major safeguards challenges were Pu input accountability and U/Pu inventory measurement at each subprocess. The continuous association of Pu with Cm presents measurement options in both cases. It was concluded that a safeguards system for the KAPF could be designed to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency's comprehensive safeguards objective. (authors)

  19. Effects of Sensitive Electrical Stimulation Based Cueing in Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sijobert, Benoît; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Andreu, David; Verna, Claudia; Geny, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of a sensitive cueing on Freezing of Gait (FOG) and gait disorders in subjects suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD). 13 participants with Parkinson’s disease were equipped with an electrical stimulator and a foot mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU). An IMU based algorithm triggered in real time an electrical stimulus applied on the arch of foot at heel off detection. Starting from standing, subjects were asked to walk at their preferred speed on a path comprising 5m straight, u-turn and walk around tasks. Cueing globally decreased the time to achieve the different tasks in all the subjects. In “freezer” subjects, the time to complete the entire path was reduced by 19%. FOG events occurrence was lowered by 12% compared to baseline before and after cueing. This preliminary work showed a positive global effect of an electrical stimulation based cueing on gait and FOG in PD. PMID:27478565

  20. Preliminary design study of a quiet, high flow fan (QHF) stage. [turbofans - quiet engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Kisner, L. S.; Delaney, R. A.; Beguhn, A. A.; Frye, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Concepts selected to reduce fan generated noise in a turbofan are presented. Near-sonic flow at the fan inlet to reduce upstream propagated noise and the use of long-chord vanes to reduce downstream noise is discussed. The near-sonic condition at the rotor inlet plane was achieved by designing for high specific mass flow and by maintaining the high flow at reduced power by variable stators and variable fan exhaust nozzle. The long-chord vanes reduce response to unsteady flow. The acoustic design showed that long-chord stators would significantly reduce turbofan source noise and that other stator design parameters have no appreciable effect on noise for the spacing and chord length of the turbofan design. Four rig flow paths studied in the aerodynamic preliminary design are discussed. Noise prediction results indicate that a turbofan powered aircraft would be under federal air regulations levels without any acoustic treatment.

  1. Compressed sensing sodium MRI of cartilage at 7T: Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madelin, Guillaume; Chang, Gregory; Otazo, Ricardo; Jerschow, Alexej; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium MRI has been shown to be highly specific for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in articular cartilage, the loss of which is an early sign of osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative sodium MRI techniques are therefore under development in order to detect and assess early biochemical degradation of cartilage, but due to low sodium NMR sensitivity and its low concentration, sodium images need long acquisition times (15-25 min) even at high magnetic fields and are typically of low resolution. In this preliminary study, we show that compressed sensing can be applied to reduce the acquisition time by a factor of 2 at 7T without losing sodium quantification accuracy. Alternatively, the nonlinear reconstruction technique can be used to denoise fully-sampled images. We expect to even further reduce this acquisition time by using parallel imaging techniques combined with SNR-improved 3D sequences at 3T and 7T.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis chorismate mutase

    SciTech Connect

    Qamra, Rohini; Prakash, Prachee; Aruna, Bandi; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Mande, Shekhar C.

    2005-05-01

    Chorismate mutase from M. tuberculosis has been crystallized. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies reveal the occurrence of a dimeric molecule in the crystal asymmetric unit. Chorismate mutase catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine in bacteria, fungi and higher plants. The recent re-annotation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome has revealed the presence of a duplicate set of genes coding for chorismate mutase. The mycobacterial gene Rv1885c bears <20% sequence homology to other bacterial chorismate mutases, thus serving as a potential target for the development of inhibitors specific to the pathogen. The M. tuberculosis chorismate mutase was crystallized in space group C2 and the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function calculations revealed the presence of two monomers in the asymmetric unit.

  3. Preliminary In Vitro Study on O-Ring Wear in Mini-Implant-Retained Overdentures.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Carolina Andrade; Souza, Raphael Freitas; Cunha, Tatiana Ramirez; Vecchia, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Bruniera, João Felipe; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary in vitro study evaluated the simulated retention force of O-rings used for mini-implant overdenture treatment and the effect of mechanical fatigue corresponding to 6 months of wear. A mandibular overdenture analog device was attached to two mini-implants and underwent a tensile strength test before and after the application of insertion-removal and simulated masticatory cycles. Insertion-removal cycles led to a retention loss of 24%, whereas masticatory cycles did not influence retention. Micro-CT scans showed minor deformation following mechanical cycling, but the changes were milder than those observed in similar clinical specimens. Both experimental loading methods led to physical changes in the O-rings, which explains in part the similar clinically observed wear. PMID:27479342

  4. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. PMID:24695590

  5. Effects of Sensitive Electrical Stimulation Based Cueing in Parkinson's Disease: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Sijobert, Benoît; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Andreu, David; Verna, Claudia; Geny, Christian

    2016-06-13

    This study aims to investigate the effect of a sensitive cueing on Freezing of Gait (FOG) and gait disorders in subjects suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). 13 participants with Parkinson's disease were equipped with an electrical stimulator and a foot mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU). An IMU based algorithm triggered in real time an electrical stimulus applied on the arch of foot at heel off detection. Starting from standing, subjects were asked to walk at their preferred speed on a path comprising 5m straight, u-turn and walk around tasks. Cueing globally decreased the time to achieve the different tasks in all the subjects. In "freezer" subjects, the time to complete the entire path was reduced by 19%. FOG events occurrence was lowered by 12% compared to baseline before and after cueing. This preliminary work showed a positive global effect of an electrical stimulation based cueing on gait and FOG in PD. PMID:27478565

  6. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  7. Effects of space environment on structural materials - A preliminary study and development of materials characterization protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miglionico, C.; Stein, C.; Murr, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary study of materials exposed in space in LEO for nearly six years in the NASA Long-Duration Exposure Facility is presented. It is demonstrated that it will be necessary to isolate surface debris and reaction products from materials exposed in space. Replication techniques originally designed for electron microscopy examination of surfaces can be applied to lift off and isolate such surface features. Debris and reaction products were examined through a variety of analytical techniques, including the surface morphology by SEM, and internal microstructures by STEM and TEM, EDS, and SAD. The results illustrate the role that atomic oxygen and micrometeorites play in surface alteration and reaction in LEO space environments, as well as the role of debris created from other proximate materials.

  8. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  9. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a 2S albumin seed protein from Lens culinaris

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Pankaj; Gaur, Vineet; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-08-01

    A 2S albumin from L. culinaris was purified and crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies were carried out. Lens culinaris (lentil) is a widely consumed high-protein-content leguminous crop. A 2S albumin protein (26.5 kDa) has been identified using NH{sub 2}-terminal sequencing from a 90% ammonium sulfate saturation fraction of total L. culinaris seed protein extract. The NH{sub 2}-terminal sequence shows very high homology to PA2, an allergy-related protein from Pisum sativum. The 2S albumin protein was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals of the 2S seed albumin obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and were indexed in space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.6, c = 135.2 Å.

  10. A preliminary study on viral decontamination of chicken serum using gamma-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hamar, Gergely; Misák, Ferenc; Palya, Vilmos; de Foucauld, Jean

    2010-05-01

    A preliminary experiment was carried out to determine whether a decontamination procedure using gamma irradiation, similar to that adopted in the European guideline for bovine serum contaminated by pestivirus, could be applied to chicken serum. Chicken sera spiked with known amounts of enveloped and non-enveloped chicken viruses were gamma irradiated. The remaining live viruses were then measured by titration and the virus reduction capacity of the irradiation process was established for both enveloped and non-enveloped virus models. In parallel with the irradiation procedure, a classical in vivo extraneous agent test was also evaluated in order to see if it has the capacity to detect low enough levels of live viruses to be used for testing irradiated serum. The results suggest that the principles of the bovine serum decontamination procedure may be applied to chicken serum. Further studies are required to determine if this process would provide an acceptable solution for the viral 'decontamination' of chicken serum.

  11. Preliminary Sizing Study of Ares-I and Ares-V Liquid Hydrogen Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Stanley T.; Harper, David W.

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary sizing study of two cryogenic propellant tanks was performed using a FORTRAN optimization program to determine weight efficient orthogrid designs for the tank barrels sections only. Various tensile and compressive failure modes were considered, including general buckling of cylinders with a shell buckling knockdown factor. Eight independent combinations of three design requirements were also considered and their effects on the tanks weight. The approach was to investigate each design case with a variable shell buckling knockdown factor, determining the most weight efficient combination of orthogrid design parameters. Numerous optimization analyses were performed, and the results presented herein compare the effects of the different design requirements and shell buckling knockdown factor. Through a series of comparisons between design requirements or shell buckling knockdown factors, the relative change in overall tank barrel weights is shown. The findings indicate that the design requirements can substantually increase the tank weight while a less conservative shell buckling knockdown factor can modestly reduce the tank weight.

  12. Preliminary experimental and numerical study of transient characteristics for a Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, F.-C.; Pai, C.-F.; Chien, S. B.; Chen, J. S.

    To establish a tool for computer-aided design, a preliminary experimental and numerical study of transient characteristics for a Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocooler is developed in the present work. A simplified transient one-dimensional model of momentum and energy transport is used to simulate the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The computational results for cool-down time agree with the experimental data. The transient temperature variations of high pressure gas, tube wall, low pressure gas, glass Dewar and mandrel at the grid point near the valve exit are shown. From the spatial temperature distributions of high and low pressure gases along the finned tube at the moment of cool-down, it is proposed that the J-T cooler currently used may be reduced in terms of both size and weight; factors which are very important in a miniature J-T cryocooler.

  13. A preliminary study of a cryogenic equivalence principle experiment on Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, C. W. F.; Worden, P. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Weak Equivalence Principle is the hypothesis that all test bodies fall with the same acceleration in the same gravitational field. The current limit on violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle, measured by the ratio of the difference in acceleration of two test masses to their average acceleration, is about 3 parts in one-hundred billion. It is anticipated that this can be improved in a shuttle experiment to a part in one quadrillion. Topics covered include: (1) studies of the shuttle environment, including interference with the experiment, interfacing to the experiment, and possible alternatives; (2) numerical simulations of the proposed experiment, including analytic solutions for special cases of the mass motion and preliminary estimates of sensitivity and time required; (3) error analysis of several noise sources such as thermal distortion, gas and radiation pressure effects, and mechanical distortion; and (4) development and performance tests of a laboratory version of the instrument.

  14. Preliminary Neutronic Study of D2O-cooled High Conversion PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary neutronics analysis of tight-pitch D2O-cooled high-conversion PWRs loaded with MOX fuel aiming at high Pu conversion and negative void coefficient. SCALE6.1 has been exclusively utilized for this study. The analyses are performed in two separate parts. The first part of this paper investigates the performance of axial and internal blankets and seeks break-even or near-breeder core even without the presence of radial blankets. The second part of this paper performs sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected systems in order to analyze the characters of this high-conversion PWR from different aspects.

  15. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  16. Preliminary feasibility study of a multi-Phobos encounter experiment during the Viking extended mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, R. H.; Blanchard, R. C.; Daniels, E. F.

    1974-01-01

    The Viking '75 Mission to Mars is reported which permits a truly unique opportunity to explore the natural satellite, Phobos, from distances measured in tens of kilometers. A preliminary feasibility study has been made which shows that a science mission involving a Phobos close encounter is technically feasible and within the capabilities of the current Viking design. For less than 20 m/s, the Viking Orbiter can provide approximately two 40-day periods of close observation of Phobos, with the first encounter period in January and the second in March, 1977. Multi-pass images of the entire satellite from nearly all aspect angles and with resolution on the order of 10 meters are possible. Close encounters will permit mass determinations to an accuracy of tens of percent. These experiments can be performed in series with the nominal mission; thus, providing complementary scientific information without compromising the original mission and science objectives.

  17. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preliminary Pharmacokinetics Studies of a New Diclofenac Prodrug without Gastric Ulceration Effect

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Moreira, Vanessa; Campos, Michel Leandro; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; de Castro Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Teixeira, Catarina; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Chin, Chung Man

    2012-01-01

    Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE2 levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy. PMID:23203127

  18. Subcutaneous administration of paclitaxel in dogs with cancer: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniella M; Franciosi, Aline I; Pezzini, Paula C F; Guérios, Simone D

    2015-08-01

    Intravenous paclitaxel has been underused in dogs due to severe and acute hypersensitivity reactions. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of paclitaxel and its safety are unknown. In this preliminary study, SC administration of paclitaxel was evaluated for hypersensitivity reactions and toxicity in 21 dogs with advanced cancer. Dogs received 1 to 5 paclitaxel doses, ranging from 85 to 170 mg/m(2), SC every 14 or 21 days. A total of 40 paclitaxel doses were administered and none of the 21 dogs developed systemic or acute local hypersensitivity reactions. Severe skin lesions at the injection site developed in 2 dogs after the 4th injection at the same location. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 50% of the dogs 5 days after the first treatment at 115 mg/m(2) (n = 14). Two animals developed Grade 5 diarrhea and died likely due to hemodynamic failure or sepsis. Paclitaxel can be administered SC in dogs with no hypersensitivity reaction.

  19. Rice and sushi cravings: a preliminary study of food craving among Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Sakura

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a preliminary version of the Food Craving Inventory for Japanese (FCI-J) and to investigate the phenomenon of food craving among Japanese females. One hundred and eighty-five female college students completed newly developed FCI-J. Factor analysis yielded conceptual factors that were interpreted as sweets, snacks, western foods, sushi, and rice. Test-retest and internal consistency analyses indicated a good reliability for both total score and score of subscales. In addition, results showed that the FCI-J has a good content, concurrent, construct, and discriminant validity. It is noteworthy that "rice craving" may be characteristic among Asian rice consuming countries, and that there are considerable "sushi cravers" in Japan. These findings suggested that the craving for some kind of food is influenced by the tradition of food products and cultures.

  20. Prescription-event monitoring. A preliminary study of benoxaprofen and fenbufen.

    PubMed

    Inman, W H

    1984-01-01

    Prescription-Event Monitoring (PEM) has been established at the Drug Surveillance Research Unit of the University of Southampton as a low-cost technique for ascertaining the pattern of events, whether drug-related or not, in large general practice cohorts. The reporting of "events" without the need for an opinion about the probability that they may be adverse drug reactions (ADRs) removes much of the uncertainty inherent in voluntary ADR reporting systems. Numerators (adverse events) and denominators (the number of prescriptions), enable estimates of incidence to be derived from the data. Where related drugs are studied concurrently, differences in the pattern of events may signal important differences in their safety or efficacy . A successful large-scale preliminary exercise involving nearly 9 000 doctors and 16 000 patients is described. PMID:6234753

  1. Speed and accuracy of facial expression classification in avoidant personality disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Kim, Kwanguk; Herr, Nathaniel R; Smoski, Moria J; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R; Kosson, David S

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to examine whether individuals with avoidant personality disorder (APD) could be characterized by deficits in the classification of dynamically presented facial emotional expressions. Using a community sample of adults with APD (n = 17) and non-APD controls (n = 16), speed and accuracy of facial emotional expression recognition was investigated in a task that morphs facial expressions from neutral to prototypical expressions (Multi-Morph Facial Affect Recognition Task; Blair, Colledge, Murray, & Mitchell, 2001). Results indicated that individuals with APD were significantly more likely than controls to make errors when classifying fully expressed fear. However, no differences were found between groups in the speed to correctly classify facial emotional expressions. The findings are some of the first to investigate facial emotional processing in a sample of individuals with APD and point to an underlying deficit in processing social cues that may be involved in the maintenance of APD. PMID:22448805

  2. Rapid maxillary expansion assisted by palatal mini-implants in adolescents - preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chane-Fane, Caroline; Darqué, François

    2015-03-01

    Our preliminary clinical study compares the transverse skeletal and dento-alveolar modifications occurring after rapid maxillary expansion with purely dental anchorage or with dental anchorage assisted by palatal mini-implants, in endognathic adolescents aged 12 to 17. Nine patients were treated by means of tooth- and implant-supported expansion, and 7 others by means of a purely tooth-borne expander. The changes, 4 months after expansion, were measured on impressions and front-view X-rays in the 2 groups, and on three-dimensional X-rays for 6 patients treated by tooth- and implant-supported expansion. In our sample, tooth- and implant-supported expansion preserved the alveolar bone of 14/24 and gave rise to less buccal tipping of 16/26 than purely tooth-borne expansion.

  3. Compressed Sensing Sodium MRI of Cartilage at 7T: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Chang, Gregory; Otazo, Ricardo; Jerschow, Alexej; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium MRI has been shown to be highly specific for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in articular cartilage, the loss of which is an early sign of osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative sodium MRI techniques are therefore under development in order to detect and assess early biochemical degradation of cartilage, but due to low sodium NMR sensitivity and its low concentration, sodium images need long acquisition times (15 to 25 min) even at high magnetic fields and are typically of low resolution. In this preliminary study, we show that compressed sensing can be applied to reduce the acquisition time by a factor of 2 at 7T without losing sodium quantification accuracy. Alternatively, the nonlinear reconstruction technique can be used to denoise fully-sampled images. We expect to even further reduce this acquisition time by using parallel imaging techniques combined with SNR-improved 3D sequences at 3T and 7T. PMID:22204825

  4. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  5. Spirulina acceptability trials in rats. A study for the ``Melissa'' life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquille, N.; Emeis, J. J.; de Chambure, D.; Binot, R.; Tamponnet, C.

    1994-11-01

    Groups of five rats were fed for sixteen weeks a slightly deficient diet, supplemented with 0-40% of a dried preparation of the blue-green alga Spirulina as a protein source. Control groups were fed a normal rat diet. No significant differences between groups were found in food intake, growth rate or carbon dioxide production. All animals remained apparently healthy, and had similar organ weights. The study suggests taht Spirulina may be used as a protein source in rat diets.

  6. A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S

    1997-11-01

    The pharmacological activity of nine commercial essential oils was studied on the rat isolated phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation and compared with activity on field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum preparations. The essential oils at final bath concentrations of 2 x 10(-5) and 2 x 10(-4) g/ml produced four different effects on skeletal muscle, whilst only a contracture with or without a decrease in response to field stimulation in smooth muscle. The first type of effect on skeletal muscle involved a contracture and inhibition of the twitch response to nerve stimulation shown by a sample of clary sage, dill, fennel, frankincense and nutmeg; a second, shown by thyme produced a contracture without a change in the twitch response; a third, shown by lavender reduced the twitch response alone and the fourth, shown by camphor, increased the size of the twitch response. Angelica root oil at the highest concentration studied showed no response on skeletal muscle. PMID:9421254

  7. Histomorphometric Study of Alveolar Bone Healing in Rats Fed a Boron-Deficient Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone healing after tooth extraction in rats is a suitable experimental model to study bone formation. Thus, we performed a study to determine the effects of boron (B) deficiency on bone healing by using this model. Weanling Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (+B; 3 mg B/kg diet), and ...

  8. [Ketanserin and random skin flaps. An experimental study in the rat].

    PubMed

    Achouche, J; Teisseire, B; Laccourreye, O; Hadjean, E

    1994-04-01

    This prospective randomised study in a rodent model was designed to analyse the value of a serotonin antagonist, ketanserin, on the survival of random skin flaps in Wistar rats. Our study demonstrates the statistical value of this molecule. The surface of skin necrosis was statistically lower in the group of rats treated with pre and post operative subcutaneous injection of ketanserin.

  9. Preliminary results of the scientific experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The scientific equipment and experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite are described, including various ground controls and the lab unit for studies at the descent vehicle landing site. Preliminary results are presented of the physiological experiment with rats, biological experiments with drosophila and higher and lower plants, and radiation physics and radiobiology studies for the planning of biological protection on future space flights. The most significant conclusion from the preliminary data is that rats tolerate space flight better with an artificial force of gravity.

  10. PRELIMINARY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF VISUAL COGNITION AND MEMORY. STUDIES IN CINE-PSYCHOMETRY, FINAL REPORT, PART I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEIBERT, WARREN F.; AND OTHERS

    PRELIMINARY ANALYSES WERE UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THE POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION OF MOTION PICTURE FILMS TO FACTOR ANALYTIC STUDIES OF HUMAN INTELLECT. OF PRIMARY CONCERN WERE THE OPERATIONS OF COGNITION AND MEMORY, FORMING TWO OF THE FIVE OPERATION COLUMNS OF GUILFORD'S "STRUCTURE OF INTELLECT." THE CORE REFERENCE FOR THE STUDY WAS DEFINED AS THE…

  11. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic…

  12. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Bortezomib-induced painful neuropathy in rats: a behavioral, neurophysiological and pathological study in rats.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Cristina; Canta, Annalisa; Carozzi, Valentina A; Chiorazzi, Alessia; Oggioni, Norberto; Gilardini, Alessandra; Ceresa, Cecilia; Avezza, Federica; Crippa, Luca; Marmiroli, Paola; Cavaletti, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor showing strong antitumor activity against many tumors, primarily multiple myeloma. Bortezomib-induced neuropathic pain is the main side effect and the dose-limiting factor of the drug in clinical practice. In order to obtain a pre-clinical model to reproduce the characteristic pain symptoms in bortezomib-treated patients, we developed an animal model of bortezomib-induced nociceptive sensory neuropathy. In this study, bortezomib (0.15 or 0.20mg/kg) was administered to Wistar rats three times/week for 8 weeks, followed by a 4 week follow-up period. At the end of the treatment period a significant decrease in weight gain was observed in the treated groups vs. controls, and hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. After the treatment period, both doses of bortezomib induced a severe reduction in nerve conduction velocity and demonstrated a dose-cumulative effect of the drug. The sensory behavioral assessment showed the onset of mechanical allodynia, while no effect on thermal perception was observed. Sciatic nerves and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were collected at the end of the 8-week treatment and at the end of the follow-up period. The pathological examination revealed a dose-dependent axonopathy of the unmyelinated fibers in nerves of treated animals. No pathological alteration in most of DRG satellite cells and neurons was observed. Therefore, this animal model may be useful for studying the neurotoxicity and pain onset mechanisms related to bortezomib treatment.

  14. Astrometric telescope facility. Preliminary systems definition study. Volume 3: Cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobeck, Charlie (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF) Preliminary System Definition Study conducted in the period between March and September 1986 are described. The main body of the report consists primarily of the charts presented at the study final review which was held at NASA Ames Research Center on July 30 and 31, 1986. The charts have been revised to reflect the results of that review. Explanations for the charts are provided on the adjoining pages where required. Note that charts which have been changed or added since the review are dated 10/1/86; unchanged charts carry the review date 7/30/86. In addition, a narrative summary is presented of the study results and two appendices. The first appendix is a copy of the ATF Characteristics and Requirements Document generated as part of the study. The second appendix shows the inputs to the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base submitted in May 1986. The report is issued in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary of the ATF mission, strawman design, and study results. Volume 2 contains the detailed study information. Volume 3 has the ATF cost estimate, and will have limited distribution.

  15. Two-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats with methoxychlor.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Hiroaki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Ken L; Shimizu-Endo, Naoko; Araki, Masayuki; Takeuchi-Kashimoto, Yukiko; Saka, Machiko; Teramoto, Shoji

    2012-03-01

    A two-generation reproduction toxicity study was conducted in rats with a reference estrogenic pesticide, methoxychlor, to validate the sensitivity and competency of current guidelines recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for predicting reproductive toxicity of the test compound based on estrogenic endocrine disrupting effects. Both sexes of SD rats were exposed to methoxychlor in the diet at concentrations of 0, 10, 500 and 1500 ppm for two successive generations. The present study has successfully detected estrogenic activities and reproductive toxicities of methoxychlor, as well as its systemic toxicity. Body weights, body weight gains and food consumption of both sexes of animals were suppressed significantly in the 500 and 1500 ppm groups. Typical reproductive toxicities observed in females of these groups included, but were not limited to, prolonged estrous cycle, reduced fertility, decreased numbers of implantation sites and newborns, decreased ovary weights and/or increased incidences of cystic ovary. Uterine weights of weanlings increased significantly in these groups, suggesting that the sensitivity of this parameter for predicting estrogenic ability of the test compound is comparable to that of the uterotrophic assay. Reproductive toxicities of methoxychlor seemed less potent in males than in females. Methoxychlor delayed preputial separation and significantly reduced sperm counts and reproductive organ weights of males of the 500 and/or 1500 ppm groups; however, most males that failed to impregnate females in the same group showed normal fertility when they were re-mated with untreated females. Neither systemic nor reproductive toxicities appeared in the 10 ppm group.

  16. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnOSM20(+) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

  17. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5-19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

  18. Imaging and sensing based on dual-pulse nonlinear photoacoustic contrast: a preliminary study on fatty liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chao; Xie, Zhixing; Fabiilli, Mario; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    We developed a simple and effective contrast for tissue characterization based on the recently proposed dual-pulse nonlinear photoacoustic technology. The new contrast takes advantage of the temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter of tissue and involves a dual-pulse laser excitation process. A short pulse first heats the sample and causes a temperature jump, which then leads to the change of Grüneisen parameter and amplitude of the photoacoustic signal of the second pulse. For different tissues, the induced rate or trend of change is expected to be different, which constitutes the basis of the new contrast. Preliminary phantom experiment in blood and lipid mixtures and in vitro experiment in fatty rat liver have demonstrated that the proposed contrast has the capability of fast characterization of lipid-rich and blood-rich tissues.

  19. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, J

    2008-10-23

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials [1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF{sub 4} or ThF{sub 4} or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF{sub 3} or PuF{sub 4} as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory

  20. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oller, Adriana R. Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 {mu}m, GSD = 2.4 {mu}m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

  1. A wireless beta-microprobe based on pixelated silicon for in vivo brain studies in freely moving rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märk, J.; Benoit, D.; Balasse, L.; Benoit, M.; Clémens, J. C.; Fieux, S.; Fougeron, D.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Janvier, B.; Jevaud, M.; Genoux, A.; Gisquet-Verrier, P.; Menouni, M.; Pain, F.; Pinot, L.; Tourvielle, C.; Zimmer, L.; Morel, C.; Laniece, P.

    2013-07-01

    The investigation of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the functional specificity of brain regions requires the development of technologies that are well adjusted to in vivo studies in small animals. An exciting challenge remains the combination of brain imaging and behavioural studies, which associates molecular processes of neuronal communications to their related actions. A pixelated intracerebral probe (PIXSIC) presents a novel strategy using a submillimetric probe for beta+ radiotracer detection based on a pixelated silicon diode that can be stereotaxically implanted in the brain region of interest. This fully autonomous detection system permits time-resolved high sensitivity measurements of radiotracers with additional imaging features in freely moving rats. An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) allows for parallel signal processing of each pixel and enables the wireless operation. All components of the detector were tested and characterized. The beta+ sensitivity of the system was determined with the probe dipped into radiotracer solutions. Monte Carlo simulations served to validate the experimental values and assess the contribution of gamma noise. Preliminary implantation tests on anaesthetized rats proved PIXSIC's functionality in brain tissue. High spatial resolution allows for the visualization of radiotracer concentration in different brain regions with high temporal resolution.

  2. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum

    PubMed Central

    Panti-May, Jesús A.; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S. A.; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G.; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C.; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N.; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013–2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  3. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  4. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  5. Preliminary study on the variation of radon-222 inside greenhouse of Shouguang county, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Xu, Xianqin; Li, Wanwei; Wang, Fei; Hai, Chunxu

    2016-03-01

    Studies on radon have become the focus of indoor radiation. In this study, we chose greenhouse to be the study field, the research aims to: (1) explore the diurnal variation of radon concentration inside greenhouse in Shouguang county, China; (2) pre-analyze the relationship between radon concentration, temperature and relative humidity, and shed light on the radon behavior characteristic inside greenhouse; (3) verify the feasibility of calculating radon radiation dose by using short-period detected radon concentrations in typical months in Shouguang county. The following conclusions were drawn. Firstly, the average radon levels in typical months in Shouguang county are all much higher than that in ordinary dwellings in China, diurnal and seasonal variations in radon levels are observed inside greenhouse. Secondly, temperature and relative humidity may play a role indirectly through affecting soil moisture and other factors. The mechanism need to be further studied. Thirdly, radon concentrations detected in typical months are still useful in preliminary estimation of radon radiation dose for vegetable-plant farmers in Shouguang county. PMID:26771243

  6. Restriction of neck flexion using soft cervical collars: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Aker, Peter D; Randoll, Martine; Rheault, Chantal; O’Connor, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the use of dropped neck flexion as a manoeuvre to test the restrictive abilities of two different types of soft collars, an Airway soft cervical collar and a handmade cervical rough. The range of neck flexion of 40 asymptomatic subjects aged 20-29 was assessed, both with and without collar wear, using a Spinal Rangiometer. Dropped neck flexion is described as possibly being more representative of the type of movement that a patient with neck pain will undergo, and hence a more useful manoeuvre to employ when testing for the restrictive abilities of soft cervical collars. The mean dropped flexion was 64 degrees without collar wear, 58 degrees with the Airway soft collar, and 34 degrees with the cervical rough. Only the cervical rough provided both statistically (p < 0.001) and clinically (> 15°) significant restriction of dropped neck flexion. The comfort, preparation time, and ease of application of each of these collars is not addressed in this study, and may reflect on use in clinical practice. This preliminary study provides insight and pilot data for future studies in this area. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3

  7. Preliminary study on the variation of radon-222 inside greenhouse of Shouguang county, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Xu, Xianqin; Li, Wanwei; Wang, Fei; Hai, Chunxu

    2016-03-01

    Studies on radon have become the focus of indoor radiation. In this study, we chose greenhouse to be the study field, the research aims to: (1) explore the diurnal variation of radon concentration inside greenhouse in Shouguang county, China; (2) pre-analyze the relationship between radon concentration, temperature and relative humidity, and shed light on the radon behavior characteristic inside greenhouse; (3) verify the feasibility of calculating radon radiation dose by using short-period detected radon concentrations in typical months in Shouguang county. The following conclusions were drawn. Firstly, the average radon levels in typical months in Shouguang county are all much higher than that in ordinary dwellings in China, diurnal and seasonal variations in radon levels are observed inside greenhouse. Secondly, temperature and relative humidity may play a role indirectly through affecting soil moisture and other factors. The mechanism need to be further studied. Thirdly, radon concentrations detected in typical months are still useful in preliminary estimation of radon radiation dose for vegetable-plant farmers in Shouguang county.

  8. Will environmental interventions affect the level of mastery motivation among children with disabilities? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim

    2015-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities tend to demonstrate lower levels of mastery motivation in comparison with typically developing children. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of physical and social environmental interventions on the mastery motivation of children with disabilities. Participants included 19 children (from two classes) with disabilities between the ages of 2-4 years from an educational rehabilitation centre. The Individualized Assessment of Mastery Motivation was used to assess the level of mastery motivation; the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised and the Teacher-Child Interaction Observation were used to assess the physical and social environments. A counterbalance study design was used such that the children from the two classes received two phases of intervention, social and physical environmental interventions. The study's results point to the advantage of the social intervention, over the physical one, in improving the child's mastery motivation. However, the results lend support for the efficacy of using both aspects of environmental changes to the overall persistent score. The study findings, although preliminary, demonstrate the efficacy of providing both social and physical environmental interventions to improve mastery motivation.

  9. Effectiveness of Chronic Disease Self-management Program in Japan: preliminary report of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Keiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Yonekura, Yuki; Togari, Taisuke; Abbott, Fusae K; Homma, Mieko; Park, Minjeong; Kagawa, Yumi

    2010-12-01

    This is the preliminary report of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-management Program in Japan by comparing changes in health outcomes at the baseline and 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. The program is a patient-centered educational program for the self-management of chronic conditions. The study's participants were recruited from among the attendees of the program workshops. During the study period (August 2006 to May 2007), 18 workshops were held and 128 attendees agreed to participate in the study. The health outcomes that were measured included health status, self-management behaviors, utilization of health services, self-efficacy, satisfaction with daily living, and clinical indicators. These indicators were further analyzed by disease type: diabetes, rheumatic disease, and cardiovascular disease/dyslipidemia. The findings indicated statistically significant positive changes in health distress, coping with symptoms, stretching exercises, communication with the physician, and satisfaction with daily living. The positive changes were especially remarkable among the groups with diabetes and rheumatic disease. These findings suggest that the Chronic Disease Self-management Program can be effective for Japanese people with chronic conditions.

  10. [Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of traditional plants against E. coli].

    PubMed

    Blech, M F; Guillemin, F; Baure, L; Hartemann, P

    1991-09-01

    The microbiological quality of drinking water is a major public health priority in developing countries. As an alternative proposal to chemical treatment of water, we have studied the antibacterial effectiveness against E. coli of plants traditionally used for antisepsis. Traditional plants were freshly sampled from Burkina Faso and Vietnam. Two of them, Tamarinier and Derris elliptica respectively, were selected for the study. Various part of the plants, i.e. seeds, cloves and fruits were prepared in both decoction and maceration. Their antibacterial activity was assessed using standardized preparations of E. coli (Pasteur 792) in water (10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) germs/ml). Some preparations of Tamarinier showed encouraging results, whereas Derris elliptica was uneffective. Solutions of Tamarinier seeds produced a 4.5 log decrease of the germ concentration in standardized 10(7) germs/ml preparation. Decoction and maceration are still effective 24 h after a 10(4) bacteria/ml overloading. On the other hand, acid pH of clove and fruit solutions explains the slight effectiveness (1 log UFC/g of dry extract/48 h) of these solutions. Though the results are not meeting with the AFNOR requirements for disinfection, this preliminary study demonstrates a bacteriostatic effect of traditional plants against E. coli in water. Further study is needed to valid this property in the field. PMID:1953933

  11. Preliminary clinical nursing leadership competency model: a qualitative study from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Supamanee, Treeyaphan; Krairiksh, Marisa; Singhakhumfu, Laddawan; Turale, Sue

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative study explored the clinical nursing leadership competency perspectives of Thai nurses working in a university hospital. To collect data, in-depth interviews were undertaken with 23 nurse administrators, and focus groups were used with 31 registered nurses. Data were analyzed using content analysis, and theory development was guided by the Iceberg model. Nurses' clinical leadership competencies emerged, comprising hidden characteristics and surface characteristics. The hidden characteristics composed three elements: motive (respect from the nursing and healthcare team and being secure in life), self-concept (representing positive attitudes and values), and traits (personal qualities necessary for leadership). The surface characteristics comprised specific knowledge of nurse leaders about clinical leadership, management and nursing informatics, and clinical skills, such as coordination, effective communication, problem solving, and clinical decision-making. The study findings help nursing to gain greater knowledge of the essence of clinical nursing leadership competencies, a matter critical for theory development in leadership. This study's results later led to the instigation of a training program for registered nurse leaders at the study site, and the formation of a preliminary clinical nursing leadership competency model.

  12. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  13. A preliminary study of containment concepts for aircraft landing on elevated STOL-ports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haviland, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary study of containment systems for aircraft landing on elevated STOL-ports was conducted as part of an overall study of human acceptance problems associated with STOL operations. The study included a survey and feasibility study of different concepts and a computer analysis of four arrestment systems. The principal conclusion was that a system referred to as the FAA system appears to offer the greatest promise. In this system, standard arresting gear cables are stretched across the roof-top, at roughly 100-foot intervals, but are shielded over the 100-foot-wide primary landing strip. Thus a pilot can land with an arresting hook down, but will not contact the cable unless he swerves off the landing strip, either because he has made a bad landing, or because his landing gear has failed. It was also noted that a suitable curb or guard rail should be developed. Presently available arresting gears and nylon net barriers were considered satisfactory for the overshoot problem.

  14. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O.; Hunter, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  15. Preliminary studies of Pliocene speleothems from the Nullarbor Plain, southwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellman, Safana; Drysdale, Russell; Woodhead, Jon; Hellstrom, John

    2015-04-01

    The Pliocene (~2.58-5.33 Ma) is an important time interval for study of the Earth's climate system due to its potential as an analogue for future climates. However, there is a significant lack of terrestrial archives of palaeoclimate information for this period, and even fewer reliable estimates of palaeotemperature. There is also a distinct lack of data from Southern Hemisphere locations. This project is part of a larger study that aims to address these gaps by providing palaeohydrological and palaeotemperature reconstructions for the Pliocene using speleothems obtained from caves beneath the Nullarbor Plain, southern Australia. While to date, studies have largely focused on broad scale features for the entire Pliocene, this project will provide high-resolution records for specific time intervals (i.e. individual stalagmite growth periods) within this time frame. This research will provide a unique dataset of Pliocene climate that will have practical applications in informing the next generation of climate models future climate change. U-Pb dating of numerous Nullarbor speleothems shows that their growth spans from the late Miocene, through the Pliocene, and into the Pleistocene (Woodhead et al. in prep). A preliminary high-resolution study of two stalagmites (BT and M2) from Matilda Cave, both dated using the U-Pb method, will be presented. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion analyses were undertaken on both stalagmites. Modern rainfall samples from the region will be used to isotopically fingerprint dominant sources of modern precipitation, providing a basis on which to interpret conditions at the time of speleothem deposition. The presence of fluid inclusions suitable for analysis appears to be variable both spatially within the cave, and temporally. Thus sample BT provided water contents consistently too low for accurate fluid inclusion analyses, while sample M2 provided utilisable water contents during some growth periods but not in others. While the

  16. Preliminary studies of groundwater flow and migration of uranium isotopes around the Oklo natural reactors (Gabon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulhoat, Pierre; Gallien, Jean Paul; Louvat, Didier; Moulin, Valérie; l'Henoret, Pascal; Guérin, Roland; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Gurban, Ioana; Smellie, John A. T.; Winberg, Anders

    1996-02-01

    In specific zones of the Oklo uranium deposit, critically was naturally reached 2 Ga ago. This site thus provides a unique opportunity to show whether the stable nuclear reaction end-products have remained or not in the vicinity of the reactor zones after the termination of nuclear reactions. In addition, the evaluation of the stability of the uraninite matrix over very long periods of time provides information on the possible long-term stability of waste forms such as spent fuel. The Commission of the European Communities initiated in 1991 the Oklo Natural Analogue Programme, a part of which is devoted to present-day migration studies. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) supports this programme, with special interest in the Bangombe reactor, a shallow reaction zone possibly affected by surficial alteration processes. The Oklo study comprises hydrogeology, groundwater chemistry, isotopic analyses (environmental isotopes, U series, 235U/ 238U), and modelling. Two sites are being thoroughly investigated: the less perturbed OK84 reactor zone in Okelobondo (200 m south from Oklo) and the Bangombe reactor zone, 30 km south of Oklo. We focus our study on uranium migration from these reactor zones, using tracers such as the 235U/ 238U isotope ratio. After preliminary field campaigns, a conceptual model was constructed, both for Okelobondo and Bangombe. For this purpose, groundwaters have been characterised for three years in different areas around Oklo: Okelobondo groundwaters in mines and boreholes and surface waters, and Bangombe, both in boreholes and surface waters. Detailed investigations were then conducted in order to validate our conceptual models, and finally to enabling us to model U migration from the reaction zones, and to evaluate the performance assessment of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. After the presentation of regional and local geology and hydrogeology, we give a complete description and interpretation of

  17. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF TCDD ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG EVANS RATS: A TWO GENERATIONAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have demonstrated variable effects on mammary gland development in rat offspring exposed to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1 ug/kg, gavage) on day 15 of gestation. We have characterized these effects in Long Evans rats, in both one and two-generational...

  18. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in canine pyoderma cases in primary care veterinary practices in Canada: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Daniel; Goulding, Fiona; Langelier, Ken; Magyar, Gabor; McCurdy, Les; Milstein, Moe; Nielsen, Kia; Villemaire, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma in dogs is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus spp., and significant emergence of methicillin resistance in staphylococcal pyoderma has been reported. This preliminary study of the prevalence of methicillin resistance in canine pyoderma cases in Canadian primary care veterinary practices revealed that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were present in 12.1% of 149 staphylococcal positive skin culture cases. PMID:26483585

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR AN IMPROVED INFORMATION TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR METRO LIBRARIES. METRO MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION SERIES, NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORCHAND, CHARLES A.

    THIS PRELIMINARY STUDY OF A COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AMONG THE APPROXIMATELY FIFTY AFFILIATES OF THE NEW YORK METROPOLITAN REFERENCE AND RESEARCH LIBRARY AGENCY, INC. (METRO) PROVIDES AN OUTLINE FOR AN INITIAL INFORMATION TRANSFER NETWORK WITHIN A FIFTY MILE RADIUS OF TIMES SQUARE. THE TECHNIQUE OFFERED IS THE MORCHAND INFORMATION…

  20. Co-Opting Science: A Preliminary Study of How Students Invoke Science in Value-Laden Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Letting students deliberate on socio-scientific issues is a tricky affair. It is yet unclear how to assess whether, or even support that, students weave science facts into value-laden socio-scientific deliberations without committing the naturalistic fallacy of deducing "ought" from "is". As a preliminary step, this study investigated how Danish…