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Sample records for preliminary rat study

  1. Identification and preliminary SAR studies of (+)-Geodin as a glucose uptake stimulator for rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seiichi; Okusa, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Akiyo; Ikenoue, Takao; Seki, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Takashi

    2005-09-01

    (+)-Geodin (1) was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 with activity that stimulates glucose uptake by rat adipocytes. Unlike insulin it is active in the presence of wortmannin. Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3) which are the precursors of (+)-geodin biosynthesis were also isolated from the same fungus. Preliminary SAR studies of 1 showed some analogues had enhanced activity. Especially, the activities of racemic geodin and dibromo analogue (7a) were comparable to that of the natural product. Geodin (1), a known fungal metabolite, was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 as an active substance (Fig. 1). Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3), the precursors of 1, were also isolated from the same fungal extract. In this study, preliminary mechanistic insight and SAR are reported.

  2. Exercise induces age-dependent changes on epigenetic parameters in rat hippocampus: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Moysés, Felipe; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Muotri, Alysson Renato; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Regular exercise improves learning and memory, including during aging process. Interestingly, the imbalance of epigenetic mechanisms has been linked to age-related cognitive deficits. However, studies about epigenetic alterations after exercise during the aging process are rare. In this preliminary study we investigated the effect of aging and exercise on DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) and H3-K9 methylation levels in hippocampus from 3 and 20-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two exercise protocols: single session or chronic treadmill protocol. DNMT1 and H3-K9 methylation levels were decreased in hippocampus from aged rats. The single exercise session decreased both DNMT3b and DNMT1 levels in young adult rats, without any effect in the aged group. Both exercise protocols reduced H3-K9 methylation levels in young adult rats, while the single session reversed the changes on H3-K9 methylation levels induced by aging. Together, these results suggest that an imbalance on DNMTs and H3-K9 methylation levels might be linked to the brain aging process and that the outcome to exercise seems to vary through lifespan.

  3. Inhibitory effects of Tualang Honey on experimental breast cancer in rats: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kadir, Erazuliana Abd; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Yahya, Nurul Khaiza; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of Malaysian jungle Tualang Honey (TH) on development of breast cancer induced by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) in rats. Forty nulliparous female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 80 mg/kg DMBA then randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 served as a Control while Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.2, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg bodyweight/day of TH, respectively, for 150 days. Results showed that breast cancers in the TH-treated groups had slower size increment and smaller mean tumor size (≤ 2 cm3) compared to Controls (≤ 8 cm3). The number of cancers developing in TH-treated groups was also significantly fewer (P<0.05). Histological grading showed majority of TH-treated group cancers to be of grade 1 and 2 compared to grade 3 in controls. There was an increasing trend of apoptotic index (AI) seen in TH-treated groups with increasing dosage of Tualang Honey, however, the mean AI values of all TH-treated groups were not significantly different from the Control value (p>0.05). In conclusion, Tualang Honey exerted positive modulation effects on DMBA-induced breast cancers in rats in this preliminary study.

  4. Fluoroquinolones impair tendon healing in a rat rotator cuff repair model: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fox, Alice J S; Schär, Michael O; Wanivenhaus, Florian; Chen, Tony; Attia, Erik; Binder, Nikolaus B; Otero, Miguel; Gilbert, Susannah L; Nguyen, Joseph T; Chaudhury, Salma; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that fluoroquinolone antibiotics predispose tendons to tendinopathy and/or rupture. However, no investigations on the reparative capacity of tendons exposed to fluoroquinolones have been conducted. Fluoroquinolone-treated animals will have inferior biochemical, histological, and biomechanical properties at the healing tendon-bone enthesis compared with controls. Controlled laboratory study. Ninety-two rats underwent rotator cuff repair and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) preoperative (Preop), whereby animals received fleroxacin for 1 week preoperatively; (2) pre- and postoperative (Pre/Postop), whereby animals received fleroxacin for 1 week preoperatively and for 2 weeks postoperatively; (3) postoperative (Postop), whereby animals received fleroxacin for 2 weeks postoperatively; and (4) control, whereby animals received vehicle for 1 week preoperatively and for 2 weeks postoperatively. Rats were euthanized at 2 weeks postoperatively for biochemical, histological, and biomechanical analysis. All data were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Statistical comparisons were performed using either 1-way or 2-way ANOVA, with P < .05 considered significant. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) analysis revealed a 30-fold increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, a 7-fold increase in MMP-13, and a 4-fold increase in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in the Pre/Postop group compared with the other groups. The appearance of the healing enthesis in all treated animals was qualitatively different than that in controls. The tendons were friable and atrophic. All 3 treated groups showed significantly less fibrocartilage and poorly organized collagen at the healing enthesis compared with control animals. There was a significant difference in the mode of failure, with treated animals demonstrating an intrasubstance failure of the supraspinatus tendon during testing

  5. Graft of autologous fibroblasts in gingival tissue in vivo after culture in vitro. Preliminary study on rats.

    PubMed

    Simain-Sato, F; Lahmouzi, J; Heinen, E; Defresne, M P; De Pauw-Gillet, M C; Grisar, T; Legros, J J; Legrand, R

    1999-08-01

    Several grafting techniques and guided tissue regeneration techniques (GTR) have been well-developed in periodontal surgery. However, these techniques could induce pain and side effects, such as a gingival recession during the healing period following the therapy. The graft of a small autologous connective tissue, using non-invasive surgical techniques could yield several benefits for the patients. Our preliminary study explores the feasibility of collecting healthy gingival tissues, culturing them in vitro to amplify rat gingival fibroblasts (RGF) and inoculating the obtained cells into autologous rat gingival tissues in vivo. Gingival tissues samples were cultured as explants as described by Freshney et al. and Adolphe. Confluent cells surrounding explants were detached after 7 d of culture from Petri dishes using 0.05% trypsin and designated "first transferred cells" (T1). At the third passage (T3), cells cultured as monolayer were either examined under microscopy--phase contrast, scanning, or transmission electron--or numerated after trypan blue exclusion test. Autologous RGF labelled with fluorochrome were inoculated at the vestibular and palatine site of gingival tissue close to the superior incisors. In this preliminary study, 12 Wistar rats were used; for each, 2 biopsies were dissected and fixed for phase contrast or fluorescence microscopy. On d 1, 3 and 7 after injection in rat gingival tissues, fluorochrome-labelled cells could be detected in all these.

  6. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora.

  7. Arsenic contents in rats' fur as an indicator of exposure to arsenic. Preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Łoźna, Karolina; Styczyńska, Marzena; Bronkowska, Monika; Figurska-Ciura, Danuta; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    Since arsenic compounds have an affinity to thiol groups their greatest amounts can then be found in the tissues containing sulphur-rich proteins, like beta-keratin in skin, hair and nails. Accumulation of arsenic also depends on the macronutrient content in daily food ration. The deficiency and excess of both the protein and fat may contribute to a higher content of arsenic in the organism, including hair in human or fur in animals. Hair and fur is a good indicator of population exposure to many toxic substances, including arsenic. The degree of arsenic accumulation may depend on the diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of protein and fat in diet on the accumulation of arsenic in rats' fur. A total number of 70 male Buffalo rats (body weight 200 - 220 g, age - 6 weeks) were divided into 10 groups. Rats were housed in plastic cages (4 per cage) in a 12h light/dark cycle for 6 weeks. The diets of different protein and fat contents ware administered to the animals. Five of ten groups of rats received throughout the whole period 10 ppm sodium arsenite dissolved in distilled drinking water (about 250 µg As/animal/day). The arsenic were determined with the method of atomic adsorption spectrometry in conjunction with a graphite-furnace atomize using a Varian AA240FS apparatus. The highest arsenic concentrations were found in fur of rats which were given low protein diet and water with arsenic. The lowest arsenic contents were found in fur of rats, which were given control diet and high protein diet with arsenic in water. Balanced control diet or high protein diet protected organism from arsenic accumulation, only small increase of arsenic content in rats' fur, compared to the control group, was observed. arsenic, rats' fur, protein and fat in diet, exposure to arsenic.

  8. [Histopathological studies of the rat pancreas after prolonged treatment with imuran. Preliminary findings].

    PubMed

    Mansi, C; Savarino, V; Picciotto, A; Testa, R; Dabove, L; Gismondi, C; Celle, G

    1980-01-30

    The AA. have studied the pathological effects on the pancreas of rats after chronic administration of azathioprine (AZA) in different doses. The most significant lesions are flattening of duct epitelium and the presence of protein plugs in the ducts. These pancreatic lesions are significantly more frequent in rate treated with higher doses than in controls and so are dose-dependent.

  9. Oestrogen influence on myogenic satellite cells following downhill running in male rats: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tiidus, P M; Deller, M; Liu, X L

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the effect of oestrogen supplementation in rats on myogenic satellite cell quantities in type I and II muscles following eccentric exercise. Gonad intact adult male rats divided into four groups, oestrogen supplemented (25 mg oestrogen pellet) control (EC), oestrogen supplemented, exercised (EE), sham (no oestrogen) control (SC) and sham, exercised (SE). After 1 week of oestrogen exposure the EE and SE animals performed 90 min of intermittent downhill running (5 min running/2 min rest @-13.5 degrees incline and 17 m min(-1) speed). Seventy-two hours later exercised (EE and SE) and control (EC and SC) animals were killed and blood samples taken and soleus and white (superficial) vastus muscles surgically removed. Histochemical sections of soleus and white vastus muscles were examined for myogenic satellite cell content by use of Pax7 antibody and for neutrophil content by use of haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining procedures. Downhill running resulted in significant elevations in satellite cells and neutrophils detected in both soleus and white vastus muscle samples (P < 0.01). Interestingly, oestrogen supplementation resulted in significantly greater (P < 0.01) post-exercise elevations in satellite cells detected in both soleus and white vastus muscle samples compared with sham (no oestrogen) rats. Increases in neutrophils were significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated in oestrogen supplemented rats relative to sham in soleus but not in white vastus muscles. Oestrogen supplementation in male rats may have accentuated the 72 h post-downhill running increase in Pax7 detected myogenic satellite cell number in both soleus and white vastus muscles relative to unsupplemented rats. The mechanisms and physiological consequences of this effect are yet to be determined.

  10. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    PubMed

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  11. Inflammatory cytokine expression in the quadriceps of rats with posttraumatic knee stiffness: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kemin; Wang, Fei; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Sihai; Han, Xinzuo

    2015-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate cytokine expression in the quadriceps of rats with posttraumatic knee stiffness (PTKS) and to determine the effect of exercise training on these cytokines at different follow-up time points. The PTKS rats were randomly assigned into two even groups. The treatment group received exercise training, while the control group received no treatment. Quadriceps specimens were harvested randomly from each group at 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses were used to assess the protein and mRNA expression levels of the cytokines IL-1, IL-2, TNF-α, COX-1, and COX-2. TNF-α immunostaining did not differ between the treated and control group tissues, whereas weak immunostaining was observed for all other cytokines in the specimens from the treatment group compared with those from the control group at approximately 12 and 20 weeks. The cytokine levels decreased at approximately 8 weeks in the treatment group, whereas these levels remained elevated or plateaued in the control group. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). This study demonstrated that the expression of cytokines IL-1, IL-2, COX-1, and COX-2 increased in the quadriceps of rats with PTKS and that exercise training affected the observed profile trends of these cytokines.

  12. The Antinociceptive Effects of Tualang Honey in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Che Badariah Abd; Ismail, Che Aishah Nazariah; Hussin, Che Maraina Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2014-01-01

    Tualang honey (蜂蜜 Fēng Mì) is known to have anti-inflammatory property, but its antinociceptive property has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we examined the preemptive effects on administering different doses of Tualang honey and prednisolone on the nociceptive response in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7) and each group received either distilled water, Tualang honey (0.2, 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg) or prednisolone (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. The response to noxious thermal stimulus was assessed using tail flick test on Day 10. The well-being of the rats was also assessed by monitoring their food intake and body weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Scheffe's test and P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In tail flick test, the tail flick latency time was significantly higher in the groups that received 1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg of Tualang honey and 10 mg/kg of prednisolone, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in the total food pellet intake in the groups receiving prednisolone and Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) compared to controls; however, the body weight gain was only significantly reduced in the prednisolone group. All the parameters were not significantly affected in the group receiving 0.2 g/kg of Tualang honey. In conclusion, preemptive administration of Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) and prednisolone (10 mg/kg) had reduced the pain responses. The reduced weight gain in the prednisolone group is an unwanted effect due to its metabolic and central actions. Further studies are required to confirm the antinociceptive effects and elucidate the mechanism of antinociceptive action of Tualang honey in the rats. PMID:25379476

  13. The antinociceptive effects of tualang honey in male sprague-dawley rats: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Che Badariah Abd; Ismail, Che Aishah Nazariah; Hussin, Che Maraina Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2014-10-01

    Tualang honey ( Fēng Mì) is known to have anti-inflammatory property, but its antinociceptive property has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we examined the preemptive effects on administering different doses of Tualang honey and prednisolone on the nociceptive response in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7) and each group received either distilled water, Tualang honey (0.2, 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg) or prednisolone (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. The response to noxious thermal stimulus was assessed using tail flick test on Day 10. The well-being of the rats was also assessed by monitoring their food intake and body weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Scheffe's test and P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In tail flick test, the tail flick latency time was significantly higher in the groups that received 1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg of Tualang honey and 10 mg/kg of prednisolone, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in the total food pellet intake in the groups receiving prednisolone and Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) compared to controls; however, the body weight gain was only significantly reduced in the prednisolone group. All the parameters were not significantly affected in the group receiving 0.2 g/kg of Tualang honey. In conclusion, preemptive administration of Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) and prednisolone (10 mg/kg) had reduced the pain responses. The reduced weight gain in the prednisolone group is an unwanted effect due to its metabolic and central actions. Further studies are required to confirm the antinociceptive effects and elucidate the mechanism of antinociceptive action of Tualang honey in the rats.

  14. Cerebral blood flow changes during rat cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest model: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lu; Su, Diansan; Liu, Xiaohua; Lu, Hongyang; Li, Yao; Tong, Shanbao

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) are important techniques often used in complex cardiac surgery for neonates and infants heart diseases. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) serves as an important physiological parameter and provides valuable hemodynamic information during the surgery. Laser speckle imaging (LSI), as an optical imaging technique, can provide full-field CBF information with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In this preliminary study, we acquired the real-time CBF images with a self-developed miniaturized head-mounted LSI system during the whole CPBillHCA rat model. Relative CBF velocity in veins and arteries in bilateral hemispheres dropped significantly during cooling period and reached to nearly zero during arrest period (n = 5). More interestingly, two rats showing more dramatic CBF variations in veins than in arteries during cooling period exhibited severe cerebral edema after surgery. The real-time full-field CBF imaging during the CPBillHCA surgery could add more insights into the operation and be utilized to study the surgical protocols with the ultimate goal ofreducing neurologic injury after surgery.

  15. Effect of rosuvastatin on obesity-induced cardiac oxidative stress in Wistar rats--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Javed A; Bhandari, Uma; Pillai, K K; Haque, S E

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been rising alarmingly and it has now become a global concern causing an enormous economic burden on the health care system. Obesity is generally linked to complications in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg, po) on obesity-induced oxidative stress in high fat-fed Wistar rats. Oral administration of rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 21 days along with high fat diet brought about significant elevation in serum high density lipoprotein and cardiac antioxidant enzymes levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase-, glutathione reductase- and glutathione-S-transferase) while decreasing in serum lactate dehydrogenase, apolipoprotein-B, lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and atherogenic index) and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels. The results were comparable with orlistat, a standard antiobesity drug. These preliminary results for the first time demonstrate that administration of rosuvastatin can be beneficial for the suppression of obesity-induced oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in high fat-fed Wistar rats.

  16. Standardizing therapeutic parameters of acupuncture for pain suppression in rats: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sujung; Lim, Hyungtaeck; Choe, Ilwhan; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2014-01-15

    Despite acupuncture's wide and successful use, it is still considered as lacking scientifically rigorous evidence, especially with respect to its effectiveness. To address this problem, it is necessary to re-examine the practice of acupuncture using scientific methodology. The standardization of acupuncture practices may offer a solution. As a preliminary step towards the standardization of acupuncture stimulation in animal experiments, this study attempted to clarify the various therapeutic parameters that contribute to acupuncture's efficacy. This study identified specific acupoints, temporal point of needling, rotation of the needle, duration of acupuncture, and diameter of the needle as the parameters, through formalin test. In this test, acupuncture was performed on either the ST36 or LR2 point immediately after pain induction and 5 minutes after pain induction. The formalin test yielded no significant suppression of pain in the case of ST36 and LR2 acupuncture stimulation immediately following pain induction. When acupuncture was applied 5 minutes after pain induction, however, the ST36 stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in pain, while the LR2 stimulation produced no change. The duration of acupuncture, but not the diameter of the needle, was also significant. As for the rotation of the needle, there was no significant difference in the pain reduction achieved in the rotation and non-rotation groups. We determined that specific acupoint, temporal point of needling, and duration of treatment are important factors in the inhibition of pain. These finding strongly suggest that in animal experiments, the application of a set of appropriate therapeutic parameters can significantly influence the outcome.

  17. Standardizing therapeutic parameters of acupuncture for pain suppression in rats: preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite acupuncture’s wide and successful use, it is still considered as lacking scientifically rigorous evidence, especially with respect to its effectiveness. To address this problem, it is necessary to re-examine the practice of acupuncture using scientific methodology. The standardization of acupuncture practices may offer a solution. As a preliminary step towards the standardization of acupuncture stimulation in animal experiments, this study attempted to clarify the various therapeutic parameters that contribute to acupuncture’s efficacy. Methods This study identified specific acupoints, temporal point of needling, rotation of the needle, duration of acupuncture, and diameter of the needle as the parameters, through formalin test. In this test, acupuncture was performed on either the ST36 or LR2 point immediately after pain induction and 5 minutes after pain induction. Results The formalin test yielded no significant suppression of pain in the case of ST36 and LR2 acupuncture stimulation immediately following pain induction. When acupuncture was applied 5 minutes after pain induction, however, the ST36 stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in pain, while the LR2 stimulation produced no change. The duration of acupuncture, but not the diameter of the needle, was also significant. As for the rotation of the needle, there was no significant difference in the pain reduction achieved in the rotation and non-rotation groups. Conclusions We determined that specific acupoint, temporal point of needling, and duration of treatment are important factors in the inhibition of pain. These finding strongly suggest that in animal experiments, the application of a set of appropriate therapeutic parameters can significantly influence the outcome. PMID:24422783

  18. Intake of melatonin increases tryptophan hydroxylase type 1 activity in aged rats: Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Moranta, D; Barceló, P; Aparicio, S; Garau, C; Sarubbo, F; Ramis, M; Nicolau, C; Esteban, S

    2014-01-01

    Pineal melatonin is important not only for synchronization of biological rhythms, but also in the ageing process as a potential drug to relieve oxidative damage. During ageing, the nocturnal melatonin production decreases resulting in an increased incidence of disorders. Present in vivo experiments were performed to study the effects of exogenous melatonin chronically administered to old rats on the pineal biosynthesis of melatonin and the precursor serotonin (5-HT) mediated by tryptophan hydroxylase type 1 (TPH-1). Accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) after decarboxylase inhibition was used as a measure of the TPH-1 activity. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA were also quantified by HPLC-ED. As expected, ageing resulted in worsening of different neurochemical parameters. However, chronic intake of melatonin (1mg/kg/day, diluted in drinking water, 4 weeks) increased TPH-1 activity and significantly improved the age-induced deficits in nocturnal melatonin content in the pineal gland. Results suggest that melatonin intake (or melatonin rich foods) may contribute to recover the pineal function preventing the nocturnal descent of 5-HT and melatonin biosynthesis that normally occur in pineal gland as a consequence of ageing. © 2013.

  19. Preliminary toxicity study of dichloromethane extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Obici, Simoni; Otobone, Fernanda Jacques; da Silva Sela, Vânia Ramos; Ishida, Kelly; da Silva, José Carlos; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2008-01-04

    Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Clusiaceae), known as "Pau Santo" or "Saco de Boi" in the central Brazilian plateau region, is used to treat several tropical diseases. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of dichloromethane (DcM) extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems, administered to rodents. In the acute toxicity tests, mice receiving doses of this extract by the oral and intraperitoneal routes, showed reversible effects, with LD50 values of 1503.0 and 538.8 mg/kg, respectively. In the repeated-dose oral (90 days) toxicity tests, male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with different doses of DcM extract (5, 25 or 125 mg/kg). In biochemical and haematological evaluations, the results varied widely in respect to dose and sex, with no linear profile, and did not show clinical correlations. In the histopathological examinations, the groups exhibited some changes, but there were no significant differences between the groups compared to the controls. In conclusion, these investigations appeared to indicate the safety of acute and repeated oral administration of the DcM extract of Kielmeyera coriacea stems, which can therefore be continuously used with safety.

  20. Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Arun, M; Asha, V V

    2007-04-20

    Physalis peruviana is a medicinal herb used by Muthuvan tribes and Tamilian native who reside in the shola forest regions of Kerala, India against jaundice. It was evaluated for its antihepatotoxic, phytochemical analysis and the acute toxicity of the most promising extract in rats. Water, ethanol and hexane extracts of Physalis peruviana (500mg/kg body weight) showed antihepatotoxic activities against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. The ethanol and hexane extracts showed moderate activity compared to water extract, which showed activity at a low dose of 125mg/kg. The results were judged from the serum marker enzymes. Histopathological changes induced by CCl(4) were also significantly reduced by the extract. Further, the extract administration to rats resulted in an increase in hepatic GSH and decrease in MDA. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various components in the crude aqueous extract. The extract was found to be devoid of any conspicuous acute toxicity in rats.

  1. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Duo-Yi; Meng, Lan; Ji, Nan; Luo, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP) in animal models, but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined. We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN) on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI). Methods: The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL). Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group. The contralateral SN served as a control. The MWT and TWL were determined again 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment. On day 14, ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy. Results: Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P = 0.000). In the PRF group, MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P = 0.000), while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05). Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group. Conclusions: Hyperalgesia is relieved, and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP. PMID:25673460

  2. Young Coconut Juice Supplementation Results in Greater Bone Mass and Bone Formation Indices in Ovariectomized Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Morii, Yuko; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Minami, Akira; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Young coconut juice (Cocos nucifera Linn.) (YCJ) has traditionally been consumed to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause by women in Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of YCJ on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Female 10-week-old Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following 4 groups: Baseline, Sham, Ovx, and Ovx + YCJ (n = 10 rats per group). Rats in the Baseline group were sacrificed immediately, and those in the other groups were subjected to either sham operation (Sham) or bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx and Ovx + YCJ). The Ovx + YCJ rats were administered 5×-concentrated YCJ at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight per day. Six weeks after surgery, the rats were sacrificed, and indices of bone mass and bone histomorphometry were measured. The bone mineral density of the left femur was significantly higher in the Ovx + YCJ group compared with the Ovx group. In addition, the Ovx + YCJ group showed significantly higher measurements for bone formation rate compared with the Ovx group. These findings suggest that YCJ supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and thus represents a possible intervention to slow the bone loss observed following menopause.

  3. Preliminary studies of acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain using N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide labelled by the technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Najoua; Said, Nadia Malek; Guizani, Sihem; Essouissi, Imen; Saidi, Mouldi

    2013-05-01

    There is currently great interest in developing radiolabeled substrates for acetylcholinesterase that would be useful in the in vivo imaging of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain has been measured in dementia disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies using (11)C and (18)F-labeled acetylcholine analogues. Our aim was to develop a new 99mTc-labeled acetylcholine analogue: N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc-TPCC) to study acetylcholinesterase activity. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the labelled compound was a substrate for acetylcholinesterase. The hydrolytic rate of this substrate was measured and the specificity was evaluated using the inhibitor BW 284 C51. In rat experiments, the 99mTc-TPCC showed desirable properties for studying the acetylcholinesterase in the rat brain: high hydrolytic rate and a moderate specificity of the substrate for acetylcholinesterase.

  4. [A preliminary study on the effects of the exogenous creatine phosphate on rat masseter muscle after unilateral chew].

    PubMed

    Xu, Long-bo; Wang, Zi-xian; Qi, Dong; Lin, Xue-fen; Ying, Wang-gui; Sun, Sheng-jun; Chen, Bin; Ji, Ping

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of energy therapy on Ca2+ concentration and Ca2+ -ATP enzyme activity in rat master muscle after unilateral chew, and to discuss the protective action of the exogenous creatine phosphate on rat masseter muscle after unilateral chew. The 20 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, A: Creatine phosphate normal control group; B: Creatine phosphate experimental group; C: Saline normal control group; D: Saline experimental group. The Ca2+ concentration were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the activity of the Ca2+ -ATP enzyme were determined by super-micro volume Ca2+ -ATP enzyme kit. (1) The Ca2+ concentration of the extraction side of group D which received the saline injection had significant difference compared with the non-extraction side (P = 0.007), the group C (P = 0.009) and the extraction side of group B (P = 0.01); (2) Ca2+ -ATP enzyme activity of group D were higher than its non-extraction side (P = 0.001), group C (P = 0.003) and the extraction side of group B (P = 0.001); (3) The ultrastructural changes of the rat masseter muscle under transmission electron microscope were as follows: The extraction side of group D have more severe pathological manifestations than non-extraction side. Both the extraction side and the non-extraction side of group B had a similar manifestation to the normal control group. Exogenous energy material, creatine phosphate, may have certain degree of protective effect on rat masseter muscles after unilateral chew. And it may become a possible way to improve the injury of the masseter muscle.

  5. The effect of Cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats (a preliminary study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary total antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats. Methods The study was conducted on 28 male Wistar rats, 7–11 weeks of age and 160 ± 20 g body weight, divided into four groups of seven rats each. The first group receiving normal saline (S), the second group receiving saline and gamma radiation (SR), the third group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% (C), and the fourth group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% and gamma radiation (CR). SR and CR groups were exposed to 15 Gy gamma irradiation for 7 min and 39 s. Rats were intraperitoneally injected each day during the 10-day period of the experiment, and their tongues and lips were examined to assess the incidence and severity of mucositis. The saliva samples were taken from the animals three times on day zero, six, and ten. Results The mean mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the CR than the SR group (P = 0.024), and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the CR group;the difference was statistically significant on the second day (P = 0.027). In the evaluation of salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary antioxidant concentration was significantly higher in the C than the S, SR, and CR groups on the tenth day of the experiment (p <0.05). Conclusion The clinical effects in the CR group seem to be due to antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde; this conclusion, however, requires further investigations. Delayed antioxidant effect in the CR group was evident in ip cinnamaldehyde injection, the exact mechanism is not clear. PMID:23351595

  6. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This six large gunite storage tanks considered as a group is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long-range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives, (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. This report presents the results of the preliminary decommission study for the six gunite storage tanks.

  7. A preliminary study on the absorption of isometamidium chloride (Samorin) in the stomach and small intestine of rat.

    PubMed

    Ogun, C O; Eghianruwa, K I

    1993-04-01

    The levels of absorption of isometamidium chloride (Samorin) in the stomach and intestine of the rat were determined because of problems usually associated with parenteral administration of the drug. The in situ loop method and in situ recirculation technique were used to determine the absorption of the drug in the stomach and intestine respectively. 54.8% of isometamidium chloride was absorbed in the stomach in 30 minutes while 2% was absorbed in the intestine in one hour. These results warrant the comparative study of the blood and tissue concentrations of isometamidium chloride following oral and parenteral administration.

  8. A preliminary in vivo study of the effects of OPN on rat liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaiping; Zhao, Congcong; Chen, Shasha; Li, Xiaofang; Zhang, Ling; Chang, Cuifang; Xu, Cunshuan

    2016-12-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a member of Th1 cytokine secreted by activated lymphocytes and macrophages. However, it deserves to be studied whether OPN could promote cell activation or proliferation, and then facilitate hepatic self-repair during liver regeneration (LR). This study is designed to further reveal the effects of OPN on LR in vivo. Firstly, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot (WB) were utilized to validate the expression profile of endogenous OPN in rat regenerating livers after partial hepatectomy (PH). Then OPN expression vector, two shRNA expression vectors and their respective test vectors were successfully constructed. Afterwards, test vectors were administrated into mouse livers via tail vein to find the more efficient shRNA. Furthermore, OPN expression vector and the more efficient shRNA expression vector were injected into rat regenerating livers, and then the changes in liver regeneration and hepatic microstructure were respectively detected by liver regeneration rate and HE staining, while the expressions of several marker genes were detected by qRT-PCR and WB. Endogenous OPN was strikingly up-regulated in both mRNA and protein level during LR, especially at 12 and 72 h after PH. The shRNA expression vector Opn(313) was found to be more efficient than Opn(887) in silencing the expression of Opn. Then OPN expression vector and Opn(313) were injected into rat remnant livers, and it showed that OPN overexpression aggravated hepatic necrosis and leukocytes infiltration, while OPN silencing inhibited liver regeneration rate and the expressions of PCNA and CCL2, but augmented that of BAX. In conclusion, OPN might enhance inflammation and cell proliferation, attenuate cell apoptosis, and ultimately facilitate liver regeneration at the termination stage of liver regeneration.

  9. 68Ga and 188Re Starch-Based Microparticles as Theranostic Tool for the Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Radiolabeling and Preliminary In Vivo Rat Studies

    PubMed Central

    Drion, Pierre; Meffre, Geneviève; Bernard, Claire; Duwez, Luc; Lepareur, Nicolas; Couturier, Olivier; Hindré, François

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This work aims to develop, validate and optimize the radiolabeling of Starch-Based Microparticles (SBMP) by 188Re and 68Ga in the form of ready-to-use radiolabeling kits, the ultimate goal being to obtain a unique theranostic vector for the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Methods Optimal labeling conditions and composition of freeze-dried kits were defined by monitoring the radiochemical purity while varying several parameters. In vitro stability studies were carried out, as well as an in vivo biodistribution as a preliminary approach with the intra-arterial injection of 68Ga radiolabeled SBMP into the hepatic artery of DENA-induced rats followed by PET/CT imaging. Results Kits were optimized for 188Re and 68Ga with high and stable radiochemical purity (>95% and >98% respectively). The in vivo preliminary study was successful with more than 95% of activity found in the liver and mostly in the tumorous part. Conclusion SBMP are a promising theranostic agent for the Selective Internal Radiation Therapy of Hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27741267

  10. LC-ESI-MS/MS method for bioanalytical determination of osteogenic phytoalexin, medicarpin, and its application to preliminary pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Isha; Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Challagundla, Muralikrishna; Raghuvanshi, Ashutosh; Goel, Atul; Wahajuddin, Muhammad

    2015-09-15

    Medicarpin is the active phytoalexin found in the stem bark of Butea monosperma having potent osteogenic activity. An LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for quantification of medicarpin in rat plasma using liquid-liquid extraction technique and diethyl ether as the extraction solvent. Medicarpin was separated on RP18 column (4.6mm×50mm, 5.0μm) using methanol and 10mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0) in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v) as mobile phase. The method was linear within the concentration range of 1-500ng/mL and its sensitivity was 1ng/mL. The precision value for intra- and inter-day assays and stability assays was within 0.88-14.22% while the accuracy ranged between 87.46-116.0% at all four QC levels. The validated method was successfully applied to study the preclinical pharmacokinetics of medicarpin in rats. Medicarpin showed multiple peak phenomenon upon oral administration. Its oral bioavailability was 17.43%. It was found to be a rapidly absorbed (Tmax=15min), 81.61% protein bound and pH stable compound. The present study provides important information regarding preliminary pharmacokinetics of medicarpin for its further exploration as a potential therapeutic agent.

  11. In vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" phenomenon in rat arterial bloodstream: a preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2014-07-01

    The "black hole," a hypo-echoic hole at the center of the bloodstream surrounded by a hyper-echoic zone in cross-sectional views, has been observed in ultrasound backscattering measurements of blood with red blood cell aggregation in in vitro studies. We investigated whether the phenomenon occurs in the in vivo arterial bloodstream of rats using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system. Longitudinal and cross-sectional ultrasound images of the rat common carotid artery (CCA) and abdominal aorta were obtained using a 40-MHz ultrasound system. A high-frame-rate retrospective imaging mode was employed to precisely examine the dynamic changes in blood echogenicity in the arteries. When the imaging was performed with non-invasive scanning, blood echogenicity was very low in the CCA as compared with the surrounding tissues, exhibiting no hypo-echoic zone at the center of the vessel. Invasive imaging of the CCA by incising the skin and subcutaneous tissues at the imaging area provided clearer and brighter blood echo images, showing the "black hole" phenomenon near the center of the vessel in longitudinal view. The "black hole" was also observed in the abdominal aorta under direct imaging after laparotomy. The aortic "black hole" was clearly observed in both longitudinal and cross-sectional views. Although the "black hole" was always observed near the center of the arteries during the diastolic phase, it dissipated or was off-center along with the asymmetric arterial wall dilation at systole. In conclusion, we report the first in vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" caused by the radial variation of red blood cell aggregation in arterial bloodstream.

  12. Preliminary studies on antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Anand, Prachi; Murali, K Y; Tandon, Vibha; Chandra, Ramesh; Murthy, P S

    2007-08-01

    In the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated separately with aqueous, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts of the seeds of B. nigra, the increase in serum glucose value between 0 and 1 hr of glucose tolerance test (GTT) was the least (29 mg/dl) in aqueous extract treated animals while it was 54, 44 and 44 mg/dl with chloroform, acetone and ethanol extracts respectively. In further studies carried out with aqueous extract, the effective dose was found to be 200 mg/kg body weight in GTT. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract to diabetic animals daily once for one month brought down fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels while in the untreated group FSG remained at a higher value. In the treated animals the increase in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipids was much less when compared with the levels in untreated diabetic controls. These findings suggest that further studies with the aqueous extract of B. nigra seeds on its antidiabetic activity would be useful.

  13. [Effect of Chinese herb medicine compound on bone loss in rats under 3 weeks simulated weightlessness: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Hu, Su-min; Tong, Hai-ying; Fu, Qian; Yang, Jia; Gao, Xue-min; Zhang, Jian-jun

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effect of Chinese herb medicine compound on bone lose in rats under 3 weeks simulated weightlessness, and to observe the synergistic action of other ingredients in the compound on calcium. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, tail-suspend group, tail-suspend and medicine group which took Chinese herb medicine compound (contains Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae, Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Concha Ostreae prepared by acetic acid) by gastric administration. After 3 weeks simulated weightlessness, serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), bone mechanical properties (MEC) were observed. At the end of the experiment, serum Ca and P increased significantly (P<0.01), BMD and BMC of posterior body decreased significantly (P< 0.01) in tail suspend rats, compared with in the control group. In rats of tail suspended and medicine group, the increase degree of serum Ca and P were smaller, BMD and BMC of posterior body increased significantly (P<0.01 or 0.05), and MEC also tend to increase. Bone mass of posterior body lose significantly, with mechanical property significantly decrease in rats after 3 weeks simulated weightlessness. Chinese herb medicine compound is effective to prevent the change of bone. Simple calcium supplement can not prevent simulated weightlessness induced bone loss, therefore other ingredients in the compound may perform synergistic action to calcium (Concha Ostreae prepared by acetic acid).

  14. Preliminary studies on the hypoglycemic effect of Peganum harmala L. Seeds ethanol extract on normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amar B; Chaturvedi, J P; Narender, T; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2008-10-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of variety of human ailments, including antidepression, hallucination, antileishmaniasis etc. We report for first time the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic extract of this plant at two dose levels of 150 and 250mg/kg bw in sucrose challenged normal as well as in rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes. The oral administration of ethanolic extract causes maximum fall of blood glucose level to 22.9% (p<0.05) and 29.4% (p<0.01) respectively with the two doses in normal and 30.3% (p<0.01) and 48.4% (p<0.001) in diabetic rats. The standard drug metformin treated group showed 28.0% (p<0.01) and 45.5% (p<0.001) respectively in normal and diabetic rats. The above results show that the ethanolic extract of P. harmala is as effective as metformin in reducing the blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  15. Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberland, David L.; Agarwal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2008-03-01

    Monitoring of anti-rheumatic drug delivery in experimental models and in human diseases would undoubtedly be very helpful for both basic research and clinical management of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we have investigated the potential of an emerging hybrid imaging technology—photoacoustic tomography—in noninvasive monitoring of anti-TNF drug delivery. After the contrast agent composed of gold nanorods conjugated with Etanercept molecules was produced, ELISA experiments were performed to prove the conjugation and to show that the conjugated anti-TNF-α drug was biologically active. PAT of ex vivo rat tail joints with the joint connective tissue enhanced by intra-articularly injected contrast agent was conducted to examine the performance of PAT in visualizing the distribution of the gold-nanorod-conjugated drug in articular tissues. By using the described system, gold nanorods with a concentration down to 1 pM in phantoms or 10 pM in biological tissues can be imaged with good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. This study demonstrates the feasibility of conjugating TNF antagonist pharmaceutical preparations with gold nanorods, preservation of the mechanism of action of TNF antagonist along with preliminary evaluation of novel PAT technology in imaging optical contrast agents conjugated with anti-rheumatic drugs. Further in vivo studies on animals are warranted to test the specific binding between such conjugates and targeted antigen in joint tissues affected by inflammation.

  16. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities.

  17. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-one low-level liquid radioactive waste collection and storage tanks are part of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. D D of eight of the nine groups of surplus tanks are considered in this report.

  18. A preliminary study on determining the time window of hypothermia cerebral protection in rat cortex by laser speckle flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjia; Li, Qiang; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Li, Pengcheng

    2007-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging technique was used to characterize the spatiotemporal changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in rat cortex induced by the local ultraprofound hypothermia(0°C) with the duration time of 1 min, 2 min, 5 min, 7 min and 10 min. The experimental results showed significant difference of the spatiotemporal characteristics of changes in CBF between short term and long term of ultraprofound hypothermia. For the short duration of ultraprofound hypothermia (1 min, 2 min and 5 min), the hypothermia cause the CBF decrease firstly, and then the CBF increase rapidly when the temperature is recovered to 37°C, exceeding the baseline level and lasting 10+/-3 min, finally return to the baseline. This trend of changes in CBF is similar in the regions of artery, vein and parenchyma, but with different amplitude. For the duration time of 7 min, the changes in CBF also exhibit the similar decrease induced by ultraprofound hypothermia and the rapid increase induced by the temperature recovering, however the increase does not show the overshoot, but only reach around 75% of the baseline level. For the duration of 10 min of ultraprofound hypothermia, the CBF does not increase rapidly when the temperature is recovered to 37°C, but remains at the low level of CBF for 12+/-2 min, and then increases gradually at artery sites, or increases rapidly and then decrease slightly later at the vein and parenchyma sites. Similar as the case in the duration time of 7 min, the final CBF only recovers to about 75% of the baseline level. The experimental results suggest that the CBF can not recover to the baseline after a long duration of ultraprofound hypothermia longer than 7 min.

  19. Hemorrhage Near Fetal Rat Bone: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.

    2006-05-01

    High-intensity ultrasound has shown potential in treating many ailments requiring noninvasive tissue necrosis. However, little work has been done on using ultrasound to ablate pathologies on or near the developing fetus. For example, Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (cyst on lungs), Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (benign tumor on tail bone), and Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (one twin pumps blood to other twin) are selected problems that will potentially benefit from noninvasive ultrasound treatments. Before these applications can be explored, potential ultrasound-induced bioeffects should be understood. Specifically, ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated. An f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day-gestation exteriorized rat fetuses. The ultrasound pulse had a center frequency of 0.92 MHz and pulse duration of 9.6 μs. The fetuses were exposed to 1 of 4 exposure conditions (denoted A, B, C, and D) in addition to a sham exposure. Three of the exposures consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 10 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 6.7 MPa, and pulse repetition frequencies of 100 Hz (A), 250 Hz (B), and 500 Hz (C), corresponding to time-average intensities of 1.9 W/cm2, 4.7 W/cm2, and 9.4 W/cm2, respectively. Exposure D consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 6.7 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 5.0 MPa, and a PRF of 500 Hz corresponding to a time-average intensity of 4.6 W/cm2. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing time-average intensity (i.e., 11% for A, 28% for B, 31% for C, and 19% for D with a 9% occurrence when the fetuses were not exposed). The low overall occurrence of hemorrhaging may be attributed to fetal motion (observed in over half of the fetuses from the backscattered echo during the exposure). The mean hemorrhage sizes were 3.1 mm2 for A, 2.5 mm2 for B, 2.7 mm2 for C, and 5.1 mm2 for D. The larger lesions at D may

  20. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  1. Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nwaehujor, C. O.; Ezeigbo, I. I.; Nwinyi, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280 g) were given an injection of 120 mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9 mmol/L) were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12 h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02 mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01 mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves. PMID:24224091

  2. Preliminary Assessment of the Oral Toxicity of 1-5-Diazido-3-Nitrazapentane, 2- and 6-Week Feeding Study, Male and Female Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    TAB Unanounced Just1ficato 0, Distribution/ •-• ~~Avallabillty Codoegl IL Dfat f dpeelar - -- I. l Y ma DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY U. S. ARMY...May 91 Sep 92 TABLE 3. HEMATOLOGY Hematocrit Hemoglobin Erythrocyte Count Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts Mean Cell Volume Mean Cell ...Hemoglobin Mean Cell Hemoglobin Ccncentration TABLE 4. PREDICTED VERSES ACTUAL DAILY DOSE (MG/ML/DAY) (2-WEEK FEEDING STUDY) DANPE SOLUTIONS (MALE RATS

  3. Reflectance confocal microscopy as a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring of skin containing vascularized composite allograft rejection: A preliminary study on rats.

    PubMed

    Zor, Fatih; Karagoz, Huseyin; Erdemir, Asli Turgut; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Acikel, Cengiz Han; Kapaj, Rezarta; Guzey, Serbulent; Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Isik, Selcuk; Siemionow, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Vascularized composite allografts can undergo immune-mediated rejection, and skin biopsies are needed for monitoring of the transplant. However it is an invasive method, and requires processing time and pathological assessment. The purpose of this study is to use a new noninvasive monitoring method of the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) to determine severity of the allograft rejection on rats. Five groin flap allotransplantation were performed between 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine A was given to the recipients during 10 days after surgery and was ended at the 10th postoperative days to allow acute transplant rejection. Following cessation of CsA, concomitant RCM evaluation and skin biopsy was performed every other day from each animal until total rejection of the allograft. Complete rejection of the allograft took nearly about 10 days and 4 or 5 RCM evaluation and skin biopsy was performed from each rat during this period. A total of 17 specimens were evaluated. A scoring system was developed based on the RCM findings. Skin biopsies were evaluated according to the Banff 2007 working classification criteria. RCM evaluation revealed epidermal irregularity and collagen destruction, however mild perivascular inflammation and degeneration of the basal epidermal layer were observed in early and late rejection period respectively with histopathologic evaluation. High correlation was found between the RCM scores and histopathologic grading. The RCM may be the useful tool to reduce the need for skin biopsy for monitoring of the skin containing vascularized composite allograft. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quantitative analysis of styrene monomer in polystyrene and foods including some preliminary studies of the uptake and pharmacodynamics of the monomer in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Withey, J R

    1976-01-01

    A variety of food containers, drinking cups and cutlery, fabricated from polystyrene (PS) or polystyrene-related plastic, were analyzed for their styrene monomer content. Samples of yogurt, packaged in PS cups, were similarly analyzed and the leaching of styrene monomer from PS containers by some food simulants was also determined. Blood level studies with rats, dosed with styrene monomer by various routes, illustrated uptake phenomena that were dependent on the dose and route of administration and were also affected by the vehicle used to convey the styrene monomer. PMID:1026397

  5. Transarterial embolization combined with RNA interference targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α for hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary study of rat model.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jia-Yan; Xu, Lin-Feng; Wang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Qiao-Sheng; Sun, Hong-Liang; Chen, Yao-Ting

    2017-02-01

    To study whether transarterial embolization (TAE) with RNA interference (RNAi) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) can improve efficacy of TAE in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CBRH-7919 rat hepatoma cell line was used and HCC models of rats were constructed. The siRNA transfection compound was made by mixing specific siRNA and Lipofectamine 2000™. Delivery and transfection of siRNA were administered by injecting iodized oil emulsion (diluted lipiodol and siRNA) via hepatic artery. The expression levels of mRNA and protein were detected using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and western blotting assays, respectively. In vitro experiment, the specific HIF-1α-siRNA was proved to inhibit expression levels of HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) effectively. In animal study, real-time RT-PCR assay showed the average relative mRNA expressions of HIF-1α were 0.31 ± 0.01, 0.65 ± 0.03, 0.46 ± 0.005, and 1.00 ± 0.00 in TAE + siRNA, siRNA, TAE, and control groups, respectively. Western blotting assay showed the average relative protein expressions of HIF-1α were 0.13 ± 0.02, 0.87 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 1.02 ± 0.01 in TAE + siRNA, siRNA, TAE, and control groups, respectively. Compared with control, TAE, and siRNA groups, TAE + siRNA can significantly inhibit protein expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF (P HIF-1α < 0.001; P VEGF < 0.001). Overall survival of rats underwent TAE + siRNA was significantly longer than that of rats treated with TAE monotherapy (P = 0.001). This animal study showed TAE combined with HIF-1α-RNAi could significantly improve efficacy of TAE in treating HCC by inhibiting expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF after TAE treatment.

  6. Creation and Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Knockout Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vaira, Sergio; Yang, Chang; McCoy, Aaron; Keys, Kelly; Xue, Shurong; Weinstein, Edward J.; Novack, Deborah V.

    2012-01-01

    Leptin, a cytokine-like hormone secreted mainly by adipocytes, regulates various pathways centered on food intake and energy expenditure, including insulin sensitivity, fertility, immune system, and bone metabolism. Here, using zinc finger nuclease technology, we created the first leptin knockout rat. Homozygous leptin null rats are obese with significantly higher serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels than wild-type controls. Neither gender produced offspring despite of repeated attempts. The leptin knockout rats also have depressed immune system. In addition, examination by microcomputed tomography of the femurs of the leptin null rats shows a significant increase in both trabecular bone mineral density and bone volume of the femur compared with wild-type littermates. Our model should be useful for many different fields of studies, such as obesity, diabetes, and bone metabolism-related illnesses. PMID:22948215

  7. Development and validation of an LC-ESI-MS/MS approach to determine a highly hydrophobic drug, norcantharidin palmitate, and apply to a preliminary pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Tao, Xiaoguang; Zheng, Qi; Xu, Hang; Zhang, Yu; Lei, Tian; Yin, Tian; He, Haibing; Tang, Xing

    2017-05-12

    In order to investigate the pharmacokinetics of norcantharidin palmitate (NCTD-PAL) in rats, we developed and validated an LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The NCTD-PAL and internal standard (triamcinoloneacetonide palmitate, TAP) were separated on a Phenomenex Kinetex®XB C18 column, and the mobile phase was composed of tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetonitrile (20/80, v/v) and an aqueous phase containing 0.2% ammonium hydroxide at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The ESI interface operated in positive mode was used to acquire the mass spectrometric data, and the transition ions were m/z 635.50 → 168.95 and 673.65 → 397.13 for NCTD-PAL and IS, respectively. The method had a linear range of 10-2000 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of >0.99. The accuracy (RE, %) was within ±10.1%, and the intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD, %) were 10.9 and 13.8%, respectively. The extraction recovery of NCTD-PAL at different concentrations ranged from 89.3 to 102.0%. The validated approach was efficaciously applied to a pharmacokinetic study of NCTD-PAL in rats via intravenous injection. Based on these results obtained, this method is practical and suitable for a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Optical coherence tomography based microangiography for quantitative monitoring of structural and vascular changes in a rat model of acute uveitis in vivo: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis models in rodents are important in the investigation of pathogenesis in human uveitis and the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies for treatment. Quantitative monitoring of ocular inflammation in small animal models provides an objective metric to assess uveitis progression and/or therapeutic effects. We present a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) to a rat model of acute anterior uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. OCT/OMAG is used to provide noninvasive three-dimensional imaging of the anterior segment of the eyes prior to injection (baseline) and two days post-injection (peak inflammation) in rats with and without steroid treatments. OCT imaging identifies characteristic structural and vascular changes in the anterior segment of the inflamed animals when compared to baseline images. Characteristics of inflammation identified include anterior chamber cells, corneal edema, pupillary membranes, and iris vasodilation. In contrast, no significant difference from the control is observed for the steroid-treated eye. These findings are compared with the histology assessment of the same eyes. In addition, quantitative measurements of central corneal thickness and iris vessel diameter are determined. This pilot study demonstrates that OCT-based microangiography promises to be a useful tool for the assessment and management of uveitis in vivo.

  9. Infrared LED light therapy influences the expression of fibronectin and tenascin in skin wounds of malnourished rats--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Ana Paula Cavalcanti; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; Trindade, Renan Ferreira; de Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Carneiro, Tuânia Soares; Cangussú, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of infrared (λ 846±20nm) LED irradiation on the expression profile of the extracellular matrix protein components, tenascin and fibronectin on skin wounds induced in well nourished and malnourished rats. Eighteen albino rats (21 days old) were randomly divided into a well-nourished group (standard diet) and a malnourished group (regional basic diet). After receiving the diet for 70 days, skin wounds were created and the animals were subdivided into three groups: well-nourished control (n=6), malnourished control (n=6), and malnourished+LED irradiated (λ 846±20nm, 100mW, 4J/cm(2)) (n=6). The animals were sacrificed 3 and 7 days after injury and histological sections were immunostained for both proteins. They were examined for the presence, intensity, distribution and pattern of immunolabeling. At 3 days, the distribution of tenascin was shown to be greater in the wound bed of malnourished animals compared to the well-nourished group. The intensity and distribution of tenascin was shown to be lower in the malnourished LED irradiated group compared to the malnourished control. There was a significant difference regarding the presence of fibronectin in the malnourished and well-nourished groups after 7 days (p=0.03). The intensity of fibronectin was slight (100%) in the irradiated group and moderate to intense in the malnourished control group. The results of the present study indicate that infrared LED irradiation modulates positively the expression of tenascin and particularly fibronectin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The depression system: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D E; Dempsey, C W; Song, J H

    1997-01-01

    The learned helplessness paradigm was used to test the notion that lesions of a theatrical depression system in the rat will produce antidepression similar to antidepressive medication. Lateral brain stem lesions were effective in producing antidepression and unilateral lesions were as effective as bilateral lesions. Ibotenic acid lesions were not effective, indicating that the effective target site was in a fiber tract and not a cell nucleus.

  11. Long-term Brain Tissue Monitoring after Semi-brain Irradiation in Rats Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Preliminary Study In vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Cheng, Yu-Shu; Zhou, Zheng-Rong

    2017-04-20

    In head and neck neoplasm survivors treated with brain irradiation, metabolic alterations would occur in the radiation-induced injury area. The mechanism of these metabolic alterations has not been fully understood, while the alternations could be sensitively detected by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this study, we investigated the metabolic characteristics of radiation-induced brain injury through a long-term follow-up after radiation treatment using MRS in vivo. A total of 12 adult Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of 30 Gy radiation treatment to semi-brain (field size: 1.0 cm × 2.0 cm; anterior limit: binocular posterior inner canthus connection; posterior limit: external acoustic meatus connection; internal limit: sagittal suture). Conventional magnetic resonance imaging and single-voxel 1H-MRS were performed at different time points (in month 0 before irradiation as well as in the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th months after irradiation) to investigate the alternations in irradiation field. N-acetylaspartate/choline (NAA/Cho), NAA/creatinine (Cr), and Cho/Cr ratios were measured in the bilateral hippocampus and quantitatively analyzed with a repeated-measures mixed-effects model and multiple comparison test. Significant changes in the ratios of NAA/Cho (F = 57.37, Pg < 0.001), NAA/Cr (F = 54.49, Pg < 0.001), and Cho/Cr (F = 9.78, Pg = 0.005) between the hippocampus region of the irradiated semi-brain and the contralateral semi-brain were observed. There were significant differences in NAA/Cho (F = 9.17, Pt < 0.001) and NAA/Cr (F = 13.04, Pt < 0.001) ratios over time. The tendency of NAA/Cr to change with time showed no significant difference between the irradiated and contralateral sides. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in the Cho/Cr ratio between these two sides. MRS can sensitively detect metabolic alternations. Significant changes of metabolites ratio in the first few months

  12. Two Gifted Rapid Readers--Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schale, Florence C.

    The "page-at-a-glance" reading phenomenon in two gifted readers using only monocular vision was investigated. The specific questions to be answered in this preliminary study were (1) What is the average duration of fixations made by gifted readers while reading a somewhat familiar article? and (2) What degree of comprehension on materials of…

  13. Development and validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method to quantify in plasma the analgesic candidate PT-31 following a preliminary pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Bessegato, T C; Niehues, M; Buqui, G A; Lopes, N P; Pitta, I R; Galdino, S L; Dalla Costa, T

    2016-06-01

    A selective and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method to determine PT-31, an analgesic drug candidate, in rat plasma was developed and validated. Analyses were performed using a UHPLC-MS/MS system equipped with an electrospray ionization interface operating in the positive ionization mode using a C18 reversed-phase column with a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile (68:31, v/v) containing 0.1% acetic acid eluting in a gradient mode with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Plasma samples were deproteinized with cold acetonitrile containing 0.01% TFA (1:2, v/v) and 50 μL of the supernatant were injected into the system. PT-31 and phenytoin (internal standard) retention times were roughly 1.0 and 1.5 min, respectively. Linear standard curves were plotted for the 0.01-10 µg/mL concentration range, with a coefficient of determination > 0.99. The method's precision was over 88%. Maximum intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were 14.6% and 11.6%, respectively. Interfering substances were not detected in the chromatogram, indicating that the method was specific. PT-31 stability was assessed under different temperature and storage settings. The method was used to characterize PT-31 plasma pharmacokinetics following administration of 5 mg/kg i.v. to Wistar rats. Therefore, the method described is sensitive, linear, precise and specific enough to determine PT-31 in preclinical pharmacokinetic investigations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Preliminary study for the OFFELO

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    X-ray Optics-Free FEL Oscillator (OFFELO) has potential of becoming a choice for next generation light sources. Using electron beam for the feedback allows OFFELO to be completely tunable and to combine the peak power of high-gain SASE FELs with extremely narrow bandwidth of the oscillator. While the high-gain X-ray FELs has been studied in depth and has been successfully demonstrated, two other concepts (the transport and the feed-back) involved in OFFELO still need detail studies. In this short paper we focus on the simulation of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. In our initial studies of OFFELO studied the saturation of the system and also its evolution using Genesis 2.0 code with a homemade wrapping code. While and lattice design from the modulator to the radiator, in order to minimize the feedback information loss in transporting the beam.

  15. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  16. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and…

  17. Worker Motivation Study: Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Margaret A.

    Since the Hawthorne Studies gave birth to the human relations approach to management, employee motivation, defined as an intervening variable(s) that accounts for factors within an individual that arouse, maintain, and channel behavior toward a goal, has been of much interest. An attempt was made to replicate the factor structure of the Wherry and…

  18. The Tendon-to-Bone Transition of the Rotator Cuff: A Preliminary Raman Spectroscopic Study Documenting the Gradual Mineralization Across the Insertion in Rat Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    WOPENKA, BRIGITTE; KENT, ALISTAIR; PASTERIS, JILL D.; YOON, YOUNG; THOMOPOULOS, STAVROS

    2009-01-01

    We applied Raman spectroscopy to monitor the distribution of minerals and the degree of mineralization across the tendon–bone insertion site in the shoulders of five rats. We acquired Raman spectra from 100 to 4000 Δcm-1 on individual 1 μm points across the 120 μm wide transition zone of each tissue sample and identified all the peaks detected in pure tendon and in pure bone, as well as in the transition zone. The intensity of the 960 Δcm-1 P–O stretch for apatite (normalized to either the 2940 Δcm-1 C–H stretch or the 1003 Δcm-1 C–C stretch for collagen) was used as an indicator of the abundance of mineral. We relate the observed histological morphology in the tissue thin section with the observed Raman peaks for both the organic component (mostly collagen) and the inorganic component (a carbonated form of the mineral apatite) and discuss spectroscopic issues related to peak deconvolution and quantification of overlapping Raman peaks. We show that the mineral-to-collagen ratio at the insertion site increases linearly (R2 = 0.8 for five samples) over the distance of 120 μm from tendon to bone, rather than abruptly, as previously inferred from histological observations. In addition, narrowing of the 960 Δcm-1 band across the traverse indicates that the crystalline ordering within the apatite increases concomitantly with the degree of mineralization. This finding of mineral gradation has important clinical implications and may explain why the uninjured tendon-to-bone connection of the rotator cuff can sustain very high stress concentrations without failure. Our finding is also consistent with recent mechanical models and calculations developed to better understand the materials properties of this unusually strong interface. PMID:19094386

  19. Prazosin lowers plasma triglyceride concentration in rats: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Reaven, G M; Dall'Aglio, E

    1982-01-01

    Prazosin was administered by intraperitoneal injection (0.3 or 3.0 mg/kg) to normal chow-fed male rats for 14 days. Mean +/- SEM plasma triglyceride levels were lower (p less than 0.001) in the prazosin-treated rats (74 +/- 12 mg/dl and 72 +/- 9 mg/dl) than in saline-injected control rats (115 +/- 11 mg/dl). This effect was associated with commensurate reductions in very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion in prazosin-treated rats. No changes were noted in either plasma total or high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, prazosin was capable of reducing by approximately 50% the elevation in plasma triglyceride concentration produced by a high glucose diet in control rats. The mechanism of the observed effect of prazosin on very low density lipoprotein metabolism in the rat remains to be defined.

  20. Preliminary summary of the ETF conceptual studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Bercaw, R. W.; Pearson, C. V.; Owens, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Power plant studies have shown the attractiveness of MHD topped steam power plants for baseload utility applications. To realize these advantages, a three-phase development program was initiated. In the first phase, the engineering data and experience were developed for the design and construction of a pilot plant, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Results of the ETF studies are reviewed. These three parallel independent studies were conducted by industrial teams led by the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, the General Electric Corporation, and the Westinghouse Corporation. A preliminary analysis and the status of the critical evaluation of these results are presented.

  1. Allogeneic anorectal transplantation in rats: technical considerations and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Flavio H. F.; Waisberg, Daniel R.; Seid, Victor E.; Costa, Anderson C. L.; Chaib, Eleazar; Baptista, Rachel Rossini; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Lanchotte, Cinthia; Cruz, Ruy J.; Araki, Jun; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a challenging condition with numerous available treatment modalities. Success rates vary across these modalities, and permanent colostomy is often indicated when they fail. For these cases, a novel potential therapeutic strategy is anorectal transplantation (ATx). We performed four isogeneic (Lewis-to-Lewis) and seven allogeneic (Wistar-to-Lewis) ATx procedures. The anorectum was retrieved with a vascular pedicle containing the aorta in continuity with the inferior mesenteric artery and portal vein in continuity with the inferior mesenteric vein. In the recipient, the native anorectal segment was removed and the graft was transplanted by end-to-side aorta-aorta and porto-cava anastomoses and end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. Recipients were sacrificed at the experimental endpoint on postoperative day 30. Surviving animals resumed normal body weight gain and clinical performance within 5 days of surgery. Isografts and 42.9% of allografts achieved normal clinical evolution up to the experimental endpoint. In 57.1% of allografts, signs of immunological rejection (abdominal distention, diarrhea, and anal mucosa inflammation) were observed three weeks after transplantation. Histology revealed moderate to severe rejection in allografts and no signs of rejection in isografts. We describe a feasible model of ATx in rats, which may allow further physiological and immunologic studies. PMID:27488366

  2. Preliminary toxicological study of ferric acetyl acetonate

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ (lethal does for 50% of the animals occuring with 30 days after compound administration) values for ferric acetyl acetonate were 584 mg/kg in mice and 995 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, this compound would be considered slightly toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing permanent damage to the cornea (inflammation and scarring resulting in blindness). The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show ferric acetyl acetonate to be deleterious in this regard.

  3. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Leal, Ricardo M. F.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  4. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea: preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Brian J.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Park, Boris H.; Chen, Zhongping; Nelson, J. Stuart

    1999-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to image the internal structure of a rat cochlea. Immediately following sacrifice, the temporal bone of a SPrague-Dawley rat was harvested. Axial OCT cross sectional images (over regions of interest, 1 x 1 mm to 2 x 8 mm) were obtained with a spatial resolution of 10-15 μm. The osseous borders of the lateral membranous labyrinth overlying the cochlea and the scala vestibuli, media, and tympani which were well demarcated by the modiolus, Reissner's and the basilar membranes were clearly identified. OCT can be used to image internal structures in the cochlea without violating the osseous labyrinth, and may potentially be used to diagnose inner ear pathology in vivo in both animal and human subjects.

  5. A computer controlled pulsatile pump: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zwarts, M S; Topaz, S R; Jones, D N; Kolff, W J

    1996-12-01

    A Stepper Motor Driven Reciprocating Pump (SDRP) can replace roller pumps and rotary pumps for cardio pulmonary bypass, hemodialysis and regional perfusion. The blood pumping ventricles are basically the same as ventricles used for air driven artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices. The electric stepper motor uses a flexible linkage belt to produce a reciprocating movement, which pushes a hard sphere into the diaphragm of the blood ventricles. The SDRP generates pulsatile flow and has a small priming volume. The preset power level of the motor driver limits the maximum potential outflow pressure, so the driver acts as a safety device. A double pump can be made by connecting two fluid pumping chambers to opposing sides of the motor base. Each pump generates pulsatile flow. Pressure and flow studies with water were undertaken. Preliminary blood studies showed low hemolysis, even when circulating a small amount of blood up to 16 hours.

  6. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Susana C M; Blakeley, Matthew P; Leal, Ricardo M F; Mitchell, Edward P; Forsyth, V Trevor

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 A on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin-receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  7. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Leal, Ricardo M. F.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste. PMID:18453706

  8. Continuous multiparametric monitoring of brain activities following fluid-percussion injury in rats: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Rogatsky, G; Mayevsky, A; Zarchin, N; Doron, A

    1996-01-01

    Severe head injury can result in a high mortality rate or irreversible brain damage. One technique used to induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) is exposure of the brain to fluid percussion pressure while monitoring the increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). Since brain injury is a multifactorial, pathological, time-dependent state, the multiparametric monitoring approach was adopted for studying fluid percussion effects on the rat brain. A multiprobe assembly (MPA) connected to the brain in vivo (right hemisphere) enabled the simultaneous monitoring of CBF, NADH redox state, extracellular K+, Ca2+, H+ levels as well as DC potential, ECoG and ICP. The animal was connected to the monitoring system and exposed to TBI after a recuperation period of at least 3 hours after the end of the operation. Two typical responses to TBI were recorded in our preliminary experiments. When severe injury was induced, ischemic depolarization (ID) developed, whereas mild or moderate injury led to repetitive spreading depression (SD) cycles. The relationship between the ID and SD observed under TBI is important to the understanding of the mechanism of brain injury. ICP before injury was between 2-6 mm Hg and increased to 20-22 mm Hg 2-3 minutes after the ID. After severe head injury, ICP remained high and in some cases increased to critical values causing death of these animals. Some animals developed seizures at various stages after the TBI. Hyperbaric oxygenation was used as a therapeutic tool to treat severely injured animals. These preliminary results suggest that it is feasible and practical to use the MPA approach for monitoring the brain after TBI.

  9. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  10. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  11. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  12. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  13. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City.

    PubMed

    Frye, M J; Firth, C; Bhat, M; Firth, M A; Che, X; Lee, D; Williams, S H; Lipkin, W I

    2015-03-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of rat SHPS-1

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Aki; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Masato; Ogawa, Akira; Ujita, Sayuri; Adachi, Hiroaki; Okada, Masato; Matozaki, Takashi; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2006-03-01

    The ligand-binding domain of rat SHPS-1 was purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method with the solution-stirring technique. SHPS-1, a receptor-type transmembrane protein, is abundantly expressed in neural and myeloid tissues. The most amino-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain of SHPS-1 plays an important role in a variety of cell functions by binding its ligand CD47. Interaction between SHPS-1 and CD47 is thought to be involved in negative regulation of phagocytosis. The ligand-binding domain of rat SHPS-1 was purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method with the solution-stirring technique. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected from SHPS-1 crystals to 2.8 Å resolution and reduced to primitive hexagonal space group P622. Unit-cell parameters are a = b = 100.5, c = 101.3 Å.

  15. Influence of preliminary exercise training on muscle damage indices in rats after one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for 6 days per week (excluding Sunday) over a 4-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a non-exercise group performed one bout of prolonged (3-h) treadmill exercise for 3 hours at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels differed significantly among the groups. [Conclusion] The preliminary exercise groups showed lower muscle damage and inflammatory response levels than the non-exercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:27390433

  16. NASA Desert RATS 2010: Preliminary results for science operations conducted in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lofgren, G. E.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Abercromby, A. F.

    2013-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with international partners to develop the space architectures and mission plans necessary for human spaceflight beyond Earth orbit. The Apollo missions to the Moon demonstrated conclusively that surface mobility is a key asset that improves the efficiency of human explorers on a planetary surface. NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS), a multi-year series of tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona, has tested a crewed pressurized rover concept referred to as the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). During NASA's Desert RATS 2010, four 2-person crews driving two SEVs collectively conducted 12 days of field exploration in the San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona. They collected 461 samples, with a total mass of 161.2 kg, on 70 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). Each SEV crew traveled over 60 km during their field explorations. This paper illustrates where the actual field sites, or 'science stations', were located, provides a brief description of the types of samples collected at each station, and highlights some of the more interesting sites. Most of the geologic samples collected at Desert RATS 2010 were well documented at the site of collection, and upon delivery to the Johnson Space Center the samples were given a preliminary examination. The samples are available for further study by interested researchers developing scientific instruments for use on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, or for geological investigations of the San Francisco Volcanic Field.

  17. 33. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR HEALY BUILDING, c. 1876 (COURTESY OF THE COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS) - Georgetown University, Healy Building, Thirty-seventh & O Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  19. Effect of unbalanced diets on the long-term metabolism of a toxicant. 1. Lead in rats: preliminary note.

    PubMed

    Baldini, M; Coni, E; Mantovani, A; Stacchini, A; Zanasi, F

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of dietary imbalances on absorption and distribution of lead in the female Sprague-Dawley rat. In this note preliminary results on the relationship between blood concentrations of lead and unbalanced diets are presented. Hyperproteic, hyperglycidic, hyperlipidic and balanced diets were prepared, and most of them included 15 mg/kg lead. Blood samples were collected at day 0, 21, 36, and 95 of the diets and analyzed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Lead uptake as a function of feed consumption was found to decrease in the order: balanced, hyperproteic and hyperglycidic, hyperlipidic diet. On the other hand lead blood levels were as follows (decreasing order): hyperlipidic, hyperproteic, hyperglycidic, balanced. Further research is being carried out on the influences of dietary imbalances on whole-body distribution of lead.

  20. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  1. Human adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of chemically burned rat cornea: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Zeppieri, Marco; Salvetat, Maria Letizia; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela; Bergamin, Natascha; Russo, Rossella; Cavaliere, Federica; Varano, Giuseppe Pasquale; Alcalde, Ignacio; Merayo, Jesús; Brusini, Paolo; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2013-04-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) are multipotent, safe, non-immunogenic and can differentiate into functional keratocytes in situ. The topical use of ADSC derived from human processed lipoaspirate was investigated for treating injured rat cornea. A total of 19 rats were used. Six animals initially underwent corneal lesion experiments with 0.5 N NaOH (right eye) and 0.2 N (left). The 0.2 NaOH protocol was then used in 13 rats. All 26 eyes of 13 rats eyes received topical azythromycin bid for 3 d and divided into five treatment groups (n = 5 eyes/group), which included: control, stem cells, serum, stem + serum and adipose (raw human lipoaspirate). The four treatment groups received topical treatment three times daily for 3 d. Stem cells were isolated and harvested from human lipoaspirate. Topical eye drops were prepared daily with 1 × 10(5) cells/treatment. Fluorescein positive defect area and light microscope assessment was performed at 20, 28, 45, 50 and 74 h. Animals were sacrificed at 74 h for histological evaluation. Data were statistically analyzed for differences amongst groups. The stem cell-treated eyes had significantly smaller epithelial defects at each time point compared to control- and adipose-treated eyes (p < 0.05). This group showed slightly better epithelium healing than the serum and combined group, yet not significantly different. Histology showed that stem cell-treated corneas had complete re-epithelization, with less inflammatory cells and limited fibroblast activation structure compared with the control eyes. Our preliminary results show that topical treatment with ADSC seems to improve corneal wound healing.

  2. Tissue welding with 980-nm diode laser system: preliminary study for determination of optimal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkut, Zeynep D.; Tabakoglu, Haşim Ö.; Bozkulak, Özgüncem; Aksel, Ayla A.; Gulsoy, Murat

    2006-02-01

    In this study, tissue welding with 980-nm laser system, which is first-time in the literature, was performed. Hence, a preliminary study was done to determine optimal parameters for further studies. 1 cm long incisions done on the Wistar rat's dorsal skin were welded. Tissue welding with 980-nm wavelength depends on the degree of photothermal interaction. Thus, different power levels and exposure schedule were investigated. Dorsal sides of all animals were photographed from the date of surgery until they were sacrificed. The clinical examination - opening of wound and presence of infection - was noted. The rats did not show any abnormality on their health, behavior and nutrition manner. As a result, 980-nm diode laser was concluded to be a good candidate for tissue welding applications.

  3. ANTI-PYRETIC ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANTS IN FEMALE ALBINO RATS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, B.; Dhanasekaran, S.; Elango, K.; Sethuraman, M.; Rajan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of the extracts were found to be AE (1000), AB (350) and TA (250) mg. per kg. body weight respectively. Both the root and aerial part fractions of TA displayed a pronounced anti-pyretic activity comparable to the standard drug paracetamol. AB oleoresin fraction was also found to show anti-pyretic effect. These observations however, confirm the folk-medical practices still prevailing among the tribes. PMID:22556707

  4. Preliminary studies of the use of nail as a material for reconstructive or cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Kaakedjian, G

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the biocompatibility and stability of implanted nail as a preliminary step in the assessment of its potential as a material for small scale reconstructive or cosmetic surgery. Rat nails were placed subcutaneously in the back of 12 Lewis rats, which were then sacrificed in groups of 4 at 4, 8, and 12 months for macroscopic and microscopic examination of the implants. A layer of strongly adherent connective tissue, containing inflammatory cells, had formed around the nails at 4 months, but by 8 to 12 months this reaction had subsided, leaving the nails imbedded in connective tissue adhering to the dermal wall, with no evidence of implant rejection, granuloma formation, or degradation. The results suggest that nail merits further study as a surgical implant material, because of its staying power and lack of immunogenicity.

  5. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, A.; Thaakur, Santh Rani

    2008-01-01

    The plant Passiflora foetida (grandilla) has been used mainly for asthma and various neurological disorders by the traditional medicinal practitioners of Chittor District. Since proper information regarding this plant is not available, our efforts were devoted to fix the pharmacognostical parameters and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetid. An attempt was made to fix the macroscopical, microscopical parameters of the leaf, quantitative microscopy, physical constants, behaviour of the powder with chemical reagents and preliminary qualitative phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida were investigated. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, flavanoids and carbohydrates. PMID:22557273

  6. Applying for Your Own Job: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid

    2008-01-01

    This study undertook a small preliminary investigation of the contemporary employment practice of "applying for your own job". There has not yet been a specific study into the effect upon individuals and organisations of the practice of existing employees being required to apply for the same or a similar position in a competitive…

  7. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in man induce aberrant crypt foci in rats: Preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Fard, Sara; Furrer, Rudolf; Archer, Michael C.; Bruce, W. Robert; Lip, HoYin; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J.; Giacca, Adria; Ward, Wendy E.; Femia, A. Pietro; Caderni, Giovanna; Medline, Alan; Banks, Kate

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have demonstrated clear associations between specific dietary and environmental risk factors and incidence of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. An animal model could facilitate such an understanding. Both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of F344 rats. F344 rats were provided with diets that contained putative risk factors for CRC: low calcium and low vitamin D, high iron, high fructose, and decreased light (UV) exposure or a control diet for 14 wk. The rats were then assessed with biochemical measures and by topological examination for evidence of colon abnormalities. Circulating ionized calcium was decreased from 2.85 to 1.69 mmol/L, and ACF were increased from 0.7 to 13.6 lesions/colon (both P < 0.001). Rats exposed to the multiple environmental conditions associated with colon cancer, developed ACF similar to the heterogeneous or ill-defined ACF in the human colon. Heterogeneous ACF are the most frequently seen in humans and are also seen in rats shortly after exposure to the non-genotoxic colon carcinogen, dextransulfate sodium. The rodent model could be used to assess the pathways from diet and environment to colon cancer and to provide guidance for clinical studies. PMID:26709971

  8. Changes in Aquaporin 1 Expression in Rat Urinary Bladder after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Song, Seung Hee; Ahn, Kuyoun; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that facilitate water movement across biological membranes. AQPs are also called water channels, and they have recently been reported to be expressed in rat and human urothelium. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the rat urothelium and AQP1 expression in rat urothelium. Materials and Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g each, n=20) were divided into 2 groups: the sham group (the Con group, n=10) and the partial BOO group (the BOO group, n=10). The BOO group underwent a partial BOO. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 were determined by performing Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on the rat urinary bladder. Results AQP1 immunoreactivity in both the control and the BOO groups was localized in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the lamina propria of the urinary bladder. The protein expression of AQP1 was significantly increased in the BOO group. Conclusions This study showed that BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1. This may imply that AQP1 has a functional role in the detrusor instability that occurs in association with BOO. PMID:20428433

  9. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  10. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  11. Preliminary simulation studies related to the Cerro Prieto Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Rivera, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of preliminary numerical simulations of the behavior of the Cerro Prieto field are discussed. The purpose of these studies is to examine: (1) the effect of using conventional isothermal methods of well test data analysis for geothermal systems, and (2) the influence of recharge from over under underlying aquifers on the temperature of a producing geothermal reservoir. 8 refs.

  12. Student Matriculation: A Proposal to Study a Preliminary Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland, Ronnald W.; Berg, Ernest

    Developed for the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges (CCC) as part of a larger study of academic quality, this report presents a preliminary analysis of student matriculation, a guidance process which brings the student into an agreement with the college for the purpose of achieving the student's educational objectives through…

  13. National Day Care Study: Preliminary Findings and Their Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jeffrey; And Others

    This interim report on the National Day Care Study (NDCS) presents preliminary findings of the 4-year research program designed to answer major policy questions about federal funding of center-based preschool day care. Major NDCS objectives have been to determine the impact of variations in staff-child ratio, group size, and staff size and…

  14. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  15. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  16. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Treesearch

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  17. Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Turner, Paul L.; Freeland, Margaret; Corbin, Sara; Driscoll, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This brief paper reports the results of two observational studies examining the impact of fines for youth tobacco possession on public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings are presented that suggest that when police issued warnings and tickets to reduce underage youth possession of tobacco, in both towns the number of youth smoking in public…

  18. Vapor Inhalation Exposure to Soman in Conscious Untreated Rats: Preliminary Assessment of Neurotoxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-22

    epilepticus and brain damage (de Araujo Furtado et al., 2010; Wasterlain & Chen, 2008). Additional studies investigating the onset and progression of...2008b). Gender difference in the miotic potency of soman vapor in rats. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 27: 123–33. De Araujo Furtado M, Lumley LA, Robison C, et al

  19. Preliminary pharmacological studies on Piper chaba stem bark.

    PubMed

    Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, Md; Shilpi, Jamil Ahmad; Ahmed, Muniruddin; Faiz Hossain, Chowdhury

    2005-06-03

    Piper chaba Hunter (Piperaceae) is a common pepper in the southern part of Bangladesh. Various parts of this plant have been extensively used in different traditional formulations including ayurveda. In order to rationalize the ethnomedical uses of this plant in a number of ailments, the methanol extract of the stem bark was subjected to preliminary evaluation for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, anti-diarrhoeal, effect on gastrointestinal motility and CNS depressant activity in mice and rat at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses. The extract at given doses significantly and dose dependently reduced the frequency of acetic acid induced writhing in mice, prolonged the tail flicking latency in mice, reduced Carrageenan-induced paw edema volume in rat, delayed the onset as well as reduced the frequency of castor oil induced diarrhoeal episodes in mice, decreased gastrointestinal motility as assessed by the charcoal motility test in mice and prolonged pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in mice. However at the same doses, the extract exhibited moderate diuretic activity only at the highest dose.

  20. Decision Support Systems: A Preliminary Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    goal for data management research is an integrated data system -12- _ _...__ _ _ ... ’ . ENGLISH LOGIC FORMAL DATA LISP OR SUBSET (KOWALSKI LANG FOR...studies are indicated to determine if cannonical forms can be used to make vector operations out of operations like COND (from LISP ). Studies of the...W.W., Boyer, Robert S., and Henneman , William H., (1972), "Computer Proofs of Limits Theorems", A.I. Jour., 3, pp. 27-60. 12. Bledsoe, W.W. and

  1. Tetanus seroprevalence among farmers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hayney, Mary S; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Carlberg, Beth M; Buck, Jessica M; Muller, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Farmers are at increased risk of contracting tetanus. However, no difference in immunity to tetanus has been reported between rural and urban dwellers in large epidemiological studies. We hypothesized that tetanus antibody concentrations would be lower in farmers than in nonfarmers within the rural population. We recruited 102 adult subjects attending an agribusiness trade show who identified themselves as farmers in Wisconsin. The nonfarmer group (n = 120) was composed of adults attending the agribusiness show who were not engaged in farming or were participating in another research study. Concentrations of antibody to tetanus toxin (antiTT) in sera were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IBL, Hamburg). AntiTT levels of >0.15 IU/mL were considered protective. The antiTT concentrations for the farmer population (median = 2.74 IU/mL) were much higher than those for the nonfarmer group (median = 1.82 IU/mL) (P<.008). As in other studies, being male, being younger, and having a history of military service were positively correlated with protective antiTT concentrations. However, only farming, age, and the farming-sex interaction term were significantly associated with antiTT concentrations in the multiple-regression model. The farmers we studied had high antiTT concentrations and a high tetanus seroprevalence rate. Occupation may be an important consideration in the development of immunization policies. A broader seroepidemiological study of farmers must be undertaken before any such considerations can be made.

  2. Preliminary study on determining stereotypical motor movements.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Nuno; Rodrigues, José L; Costa, Sandra; Soares, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypical motor movements are one of the most common and least understood behaviors occurring in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). To overcome problems with traditional methods for measuring stereotypical motor movements in persons with ASD, the Kinect sensor from Microsoft and gesture recognition algorithms were used to automatically detect hand flapping. This study provides a valuable tool to monitor stereotypes in order to understand and to cope with this problem. At the end it facilitates to identify behavioral patterns especially relevant when studying interaction skills in children with ASD.

  3. Engineering Technology Education Study. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    This is the half-way report of a 2-year study of engineering technology education that began in August 1969. The various sections include: (1) the history, traditions and transitions of engineering technology education; (2) abstracts of 4 important reports of technology education since 1960; (3) recent trends in the field; (4) goals, objectives,…

  4. Preliminary Study of Child's Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumoto, Kazuko

    1984-01-01

    A naturalistic study looked at the acquisition of English by two Japanese boys, aged 4 and 8 years, during a 2.5-year stay in the United States. Data were collected through observation and transcription of spontaneous speech in daily life. Analysis included a variety of features of language use and of the acquisition process, including attitudes…

  5. Preliminary shuttle structural dynamics modeling design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of a structural dynamics model of the space shuttle are discussed. The model provides for early study of structural dynamics problems, permits evaluation of the accuracy of the structural and hydroelastic analysis methods used on test vehicles, and provides for efficiently evaluating potential cost savings in structural dynamic testing techniques. The discussion is developed around the modes in which major input forces and responses occur and the significant structural details in these modes.

  6. Preliminary study of possible ORELA replacement options

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Martin, J.A.; Horen, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Based on two conceptual design studies performed by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division, the possibilities in terms of accelerator systems for replacing ORELA with a more intense Maxwellian-type continuous-energy neutron source are summarized and discussed. The neutron intensities from ORELA are compared with those from existing or potential accelerator systems used for cross-section and condensed-matter studies. The best replacement options seem to involve a spallation source from 200- to 400-MeV protons on an ORELA-like target. Pulsing and intensity desiderata with such a source are discussed which correspond to a spectrum-averaged 100-fold improved figure of merit over ORELA for TOF measurements with only a tenfold increased source strength. Existing accelerator designs seem to be inadequate for such a source. Consequently, two conceptual designs were developed for this study by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division. The first conceptual design is for a 200-MeV large linac capable of accelerating 1.3 A during a macropulse; this linac standing alone could serve as an ORELA replacement source. The second conceptual design is for a much smaller 250-MeV PIGMI linac with a 28-mA macropulse current which feeds a proton accumulator ring and bunch-compressor transport line. This linac-ring-compressor (LIRIC) option would give a more cost-effective neutron source for cross-section measurements, whereas the large linac, or a modified version of it, would give a much simpler system more suitable for expansion. In particular, both conceptual designs would incorporate the present ORELA building and would provide approximately 100-fold improved neutron sources over ORELA for cross-section measurements. The total estimated cost of the LIRIC system would be $43M (1984), whereas the cost of the large linac would be about a factor of two more. 55 references, 11 figures, 19 tables.

  7. Preliminary Study for Technology Enhanced Learning: Comparative Study of England and Northern Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenekeci, Ebru Heyberi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary study findings from an ongoing PhD study. In this paper, the researcher presents the preliminary study that was carried out with a number of schools in England and Northern Cyprus in order to identify the background or big pictures of each country in terms of available ICT tools that are…

  8. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  9. A preliminary ultrasound study of velar fronting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodzinski, Sylvie M.; Frisch, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound imaging to measure velar consonant closure location, and (2) conduct a thorough study of velar fronting by measuring several productions of velar stops in the context of every English vowel. Word onset velar stops were measured in both words (CV or CVC) and nonwords (VCV) within a carrier phrase. Other coarticulatory influences were minimized by using words with no coda or labial coda consonants (e.g., ``Say a gap again,'' ``Say /oIkoI/ again''). Measurements were made at the point of maximal closure. Closure location was measured using the radial angle from the center of the ultrasound probe to the center of the velar closure. Pilot data for one subject has been analyzed to date. Closure location appears consistent across all central and back vowels. For front vowels, the degree of fronting of the velar appears to be correlated with the frontness of the vowel. Measures of closure location for diphthongs followed the back vowel pattern in the word targets. For nonwords, the closure location was influenced by the preceding diphthong offset quality and the following diphthong onset quality. Theoretical implications for the phonetics/phonology interface will be discussed.

  10. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Preliminary study of disc hydrodynamic polishing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lin, Bin; Zhang, XiaoFeng; Liu, PengFei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles. Fused-silica glass is chosen as the workpiece. After the experiments, an ultrasmooth surface without cracks is obtained. The simulation results principally coincide with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the actual roughness is slightly less than the prediction and smaller particles are more favorable for obtaining a better surface roughness.

  12. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  13. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOTS OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS, LINN.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sourabh; Lavhale, Manish; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    The roots of Cocculus hirsutus (Linn) Diels was analyzed for preliminary phytochemical studies including physical constant (total ash, acid soluble and insoluble ash and moisture content), extractive values in different solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water), and phytochemical tests. The plant is well reputed in traditional system of medicine, present studies will help in further validation and standardization of the plant. PMID:22557132

  14. A preliminary study of tidal current ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenxia; Xia, Dongxing

    1985-06-01

    Tidal current ridges, widely distributed geomorphological phenomena over the continental shelf of the world, are studied. They are formed by tidal current and the trend of their sand bodies runs parallel to the direction of tidal current. There are two types of the plane shapes: the parallel and the fingered. Conditions of forming tidal current ridges are the velocities of tidal current ranging from 1 to 3.5 knots and the supply of abundant sediments. Tidal current ridges often develop in following morphological locations: the bays, estuaries, the mouths of channels, as well as the offshore area with strong tidal current. Tidal current ridges occur generally at a water depth of less than 35 metres. The sediments of tidal current ridges are mainly composed of sand. The grain size of the sediments is uniform and well sorted. The characteristics of grain size of the sand imply that their formation mechanism is similar to that of river sand, that is, both of them are the result of flow movements in a trongth channel controlled by boundary. There is however difference between them that the river sand is formed by one-way flow movement while the tidal current sand by two-way movement. There are two saltation populations in the log-probability curves of tidal current sand, the sorting of first saltation population is better than the second one, and having positive skewness, which differs from beach sand. In the C-M grain size pattern tidal current sand is most found in graded suspension segment. The continental shelves of the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea have favourable conditions for developing tidal current ridges in massive scale and special shape, such as the tidal current ridges in the offshore of Jiangsu, the Gulf of Korea, the shoal of Liaodong, the east and west mouths of the channel of Qiongzhou, Jiaozhou Bay, the shoal of Taiwan, Lingdingyang, the north branch of Changjiang estuary. The studies of them are of vital significance in

  15. Preliminary Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.

  16. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E

    1984-02-01

    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  17. Spectral detection of thalassemia: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thalassemias (Thal) are forms of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorders arising out of mutations in the chromosomes 11 or 16. These disorders lead to poor oxygen delivery to blood vessels and consequent splenomegaly, bone deformities, and shorter life spans. The most common detection methods for Thal are complete blood count (CBC) followed by electrophoresis and molecular diagnosis methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping. These methods involve sophisticated instrumentations and are cumbersome and expensive. Results In this study an innovative spectral detection method, based on the fluorescence spectra of a set of biomolecules (tyrosine, tryptophan, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide and porphyrins) found in blood components is presented. An algorithm based on the spectral features of such biomolecules of blood components of 20 Thal patients (10 female and 10 male) and 18 age adjusted normal controls (4 female and 14 male) demonstrate reasonable level of classification with sensitivity and specificity values exceeding 90%. Conclusion This new technique could be of significant value for Thal detection, diagnosis, and subsequent genetic counselling and could be adapted for use in small primary health centres. PMID:24679334

  18. Preliminary results of orthotopic en bloc uterus and ovary transplantation in the laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Motoc, A; Jiga, L; Ionac, M; Raica, M; Motoc, M; Chiovschi, S

    2003-01-01

    A new experimental model of whole uterus and ovary transplantation in the laboratory rat was achieved. The main goals of this study were concerned with developing and standardizing the microsurgical technique of uterus transplantation in rats and observing the particular cellular patterns of acute allograft rejection at the level of the transplanted graft. Thirty-five orthotopic uterus transplantations were performed. An additional 20 female rats were used for dissection training sessions. Recipients were euthanasied at 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Immediate postoperative survival was 100%. Patency of the microsurgical anastomoses, checked at 24 hours, was 100%. At 72 hours thrombosis occurred in all anastomoses. The explanted uterine grafts were fixed in formaline and analyzed under light microscopy and specific imunohistochemical analysis. The acute allograft rejection has a particular cellular reaction pattern, probably due to the unique diversity of the tissues that compose it. Inflammatory cells like LTCD8+, LBCD20+ and mastocytes tend to agglomerate in the vicinity of nervous and vascular structures, showing no signs of lymphoid tissue disposition like in typical acute rejection. Uterus transplantation in rats has proven to be a valid experiment that allows us to express hope that by further research on transplantation of the uterus gynecologists will be able to introduce an adapted technique in the treatment of specific cases of human female infertility.

  19. Hearing loss in singers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Amanda; Hofmann, Erik; Davis, John; Capo, Joseph; Krane, Natalie; Sataloff, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Singers need good hearing; however, they may be exposed to loud noises during their musical activities. The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence and type of hearing loss (HL) in singers. Retrospective case cohort. Billing records identified patients who had undergone videostroboscopy and audiogram during the same visit over a 3 year period. A singer was defined as anyone who self-identified as a singer (professional or avocational). Age and gender matched nonsingers were used as controls. Patients with otologic diagnoses, surgery, or complaints were excluded. Retrospective chart review was conducted for the presence of HL, type of HL, and pure tones audiogram results. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, Students t test, chi-square test, and Fisher exact test. Of 172 singers (44.7 years, 37.8% male), 31 (17.5%) had HL. Pure tone thresholds for the singers with HL subgroup at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were 21.0, 26.5, and 34.4 dB in the right, and 22.8, 30.3, and 38.8 dB in the left ear, respectively. Older age (P = 0.000000000000001), male gender (P < 0.001), longer number of years of singing (P = 0.0000000003), and baritone voice (P < 0.001) were associated with HL. There was no association with genre of music. When compared with controls, the incidence of HL (19.8%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.300, P = 0.58). Pure tones at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were not significantly different than controls with HL. Most common type of HL in singers was bilateral sensorineural (83.9%), which was significantly higher than controls (39.0%, χ2 = 14.6, P < 0.001). The incidence of HL in singers was 17.5%, which was not significantly different from controls. Bilateral sensorineural HL was most common. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary 2D design study for A&PCT

    SciTech Connect

    Keto, E.; Azevedo, S.; Roberson, P.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing and constructing a tomographic scanner to obtain the most accurate possible assays of radioactivity in barrels of nuclear waste in a limited amount of time. This study demonstrates a method to explore different designs using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In particular, we examine the trade-off between spatial resolution and signal-to-noise. The simulations are conducted in two dimensions as a preliminary study for three dimensional imaging. We find that the optimal design is entirely dependent on the expected source sizes and activities. For nuclear waste barrels, preliminary results indicate that collimators with widths of 1 to 3 inch and aspect ratios of 5:1 to 10:1 should perform well. This type of study will be repeated in 3D in more detail to optimize the final design.

  1. Preliminary dose comparisons for the MRS Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides preliminary information on the radiological doses to the public and the workers for alternative system configurations proposed in the MRS Systems Study. Information published in the MRS Environmental Assessment (DOE 1986) was used as a basis for this analysis. The risk differences between alternative configurations were found to be small and should not be viewed as a major factor in selecting alternative configurations. 1 ref.

  2. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Moore, T. J.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of gaseous contaminants through the working fluid to or from sensitive refractory alloys is theoretically possible during long time operation of Brayton and Stirling space power generation systems which use a gas as the working fluid. A test was designed which could give an answer to whether transport of contaminants through the working fluid was a potential major problem. The findings of that preliminary study are summarized.

  3. Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, Arnold E.; Kohl, Robert C.

    1959-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented covering the performance of a low-speed, five-cylinder piston pump designed for handling boiling hydrogen. This pump was designed for a flow of 55 gallons per minute at 240 rpm with a discharge pressure of 135 pounds per square inch. Tests were made using JP-4 fuel, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Pump delivery and endurance characteristics were satisfactory for the range of operation covered. In connection with the foregoing pump development, the cavitation characteristics of a preliminary visual model, glass-cylinder pump and of a simple reciprocating disk were studied. Subcooling of approximately 0.60 F was obtained from the cavitation produced by reciprocating a disk in boiling nitrogen and in boiling water. The subcooling obtained in a similar manner with liquid hydrogen was somewhat less.

  4. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming.

  5. Litsea Deccanensis Ameliorates Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: Evidence from Biochemical and Histological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bharath P; Kannan, Mari M; Quine, Darlin S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of Litsea deccanensis (MELD) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying cardiac markers, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histological changes. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with MELD (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for a period of 21 days. After 21 days of pretreatment, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol-induced rats showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipid hydro peroxides. The serum lipid levels were altered in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The histopathological findings of the myocardial tissue evidenced myocardial damage in isoproterenol-induced rats. The oral pretreatment with MELD restored the pathological alterations in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The MELD pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation and regulated the lipid profile of the antioxidant system in the isoproterenol-induced rats. An inhibited myocardial necrosis was evidenced by the histopathological findings in MELD pretreated isoproterenol-induced rats. Our study shows that oral pretreatment with MELD prevents isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in myocardial infarction. The presence of phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were confirmed by preliminary phytochemical tests. The reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of the MELD may be the possible reason for it pharmacological actions. PMID:22224035

  6. Litsea deccanensis ameliorates myocardial infarction in wistar rats: evidence from biochemical and histological studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharath P; Kannan, Mari M; Quine, Darlin S

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of Litsea deccanensis (MELD) against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats by studying cardiac markers, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histological changes. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with MELD (100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for a period of 21 days. After 21 days of pretreatment, isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to induce myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol-induced rats showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipid hydro peroxides. The serum lipid levels were altered in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The histopathological findings of the myocardial tissue evidenced myocardial damage in isoproterenol-induced rats. The oral pretreatment with MELD restored the pathological alterations in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats. The MELD pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation and regulated the lipid profile of the antioxidant system in the isoproterenol-induced rats. An inhibited myocardial necrosis was evidenced by the histopathological findings in MELD pretreated isoproterenol-induced rats. Our study shows that oral pretreatment with MELD prevents isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in myocardial infarction. The presence of phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were confirmed by preliminary phytochemical tests. The reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of the MELD may be the possible reason for it pharmacological actions.

  7. Modeled behavior of neuropathic pain with social defect in rats: a preliminary methodology evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian; Feng, Shan Wu; Wang, Fuzhou; Xu, Shiqin

    2014-10-27

    Social defect and chronic pain are 2 major health problems and recent data has demonstrated that they generally exist concurrently. However, a powerful evaluation model on the behavioral change is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the behavioral curves using a statistically modeled trajectory analysis in neuropathic animals with or without social defect exposure. After approval by the institutional animal care committee, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into different interventional groups with 15 animals each. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent spared nerve injury (SNI) to establish the neuropathic pain model, of which the mechanical withdrawal threshold was measured using von Frey filaments for a period of 105 days. Otherwise, a modified version of the resident (Long-Evans rats)-intruder paradigm was applied to produce a social defect animal model through the elevated plus maze (EPM). After raw data collection, we modeled them into a powerful statistical effects analysis to build up the behavioral change tendency in single SNI or in combined SNI and social defect animals. The random and fixed effects analyses of the pain behavior after SNI were successfully modeled and demonstrated a gradient recovery tendency during the 15-week post-injury observational period. Correspondingly, SNI rats exhibited increased social defected symptoms, as indicated by the increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test. In addition, continuous social defect stress for 5 days or 10 days, respectively, partially attenuated and exacerbated SNI-induced allodynia in both random and fixed effects models. Five days but not 10 days social defect ameliorated SNI-associated anxiety-like behavior. These data suggest that statistically powerful analysis of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain is a highly sensitive model to determine the behavioral change tendency and distinguish them among behavior curves with or without social defect, and the combination of SNI with resident

  8. Study of Calcium Dobesilate in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Tejerina; Ruiz; Sanz; Ganado

    1999-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 74% of diabetic patients die of vascular complications. Previous reports have shown that endothelium-dependent relaxation of diabetic vasculature is more sensitive to free radical-induced injury. Calcium dobesilate (DOBE) has been successfully used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The aims of this study were to investigate the in vivo and ex vitro effects of DOBE on both contractile and relaxing responses in isolated diabetic rat aorta. Four groups of rats were used: Wistar rats (Group 0); spontaneously diabetic rats (BB/wor rats) (Group 1); BB/wor rats treated with DOBE 50 mg/kg/day (Group 2); and BB/wor rats treated with 500 mg/kg/day (Group 3). At 180 days after the development of diabetes, the animals were killed and the thoracic aorta were isolated, cleaned off, and mounted in an organ chamber. Two groups of experiments were carried out. In the first group (in vitro), incubation with DOBE 10(-4) in aortic rings isolated from BB/wor rats decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (NA) 10(-6) M (1.21 +/- 0.11 g vs 0.67 +/- 0.01 g P < 0.01, n = 8 in diabetic rings with or without the presence of DOBE 10(-4) M, respectively), and this decrease was prevented by propranolol 10(-6) M (1.20 +/- 0.6 g). DOBE 10(-5) and 10(-4) M increased the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in BB/wor rats [the maximal relaxation with ACh 10(-5) M was 50.0 +/- 5.1 vs 72.0 +/- 11.0 (p < 0.05, n = 8) and 69.0 +/- 7.8 (p < 0.05, n = 8) in BB/wor rats and after the incubation with DOBE 10(-5) and 10(-4) M, respectively], however, incubation with DOBE did not modify the endothelium-independent relaxation in these rats. In the second part of the study (ex vitro), we found an increase in the endothelium-dependent relaxation in arteries from diabetic rats treated with DOBE (Groups 2) compared with Group 1 (BB/wor rats) although we did not find any improvement in the endothelium-independent relaxation. Thus, in

  9. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  10. Preliminary studies on antipyretic and analgesic properties of Taverniera abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Dagne, E; Yenesew, A; Capasso, F; Mascolo, N; Pinto, A

    1990-10-01

    In an attempt to ascertain the pharmacological basis of the use of the marketed traditional drug Taverniera abyssinica A. Rich. (Amharic name Dingetegna), crude extracts as well as purified substances of this plant were tested for their antipyretic and analgesic properties. Antipyretic activity was determined on rats made hyperthermic by yeast injection and analgesic activity was determined by the hot plate, as well as the acetic acid induced writhing, methods. The study showed that the plant possesses significant antipyretic and analgesic activities.

  11. Biocontamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard A.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Korona, F. Adam; Poritz, Darwin; Smith, Jelanie; Wong, Wing

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study that was conducted to review, test, and improve on current space suit biocontamination control. Biocontamination from crew members can cause space suit damage and objectionable odors and lead to crew member health hazards. An understanding of the level of biocontamination is necessary to mitigate its effects. A series of tests were conducted with the intent of evaluating current suit materials, ground and on-orbit disinfectants, and potential commercial off-the-shelf antimicrobial materials. Included in this paper is a discussion of the test methodology, results, and analysis method.

  12. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Hirschkron, R.; Koch, C. C.; Neitzel, R. E.; Vinson, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric design and mission evaluations of advanced turbofan configurations were conducted for future transport aircraft application. Economics, environmental suitability and fuel efficiency were investigated and compared with goals set by NASA. Of the candidate engines which included mixed- and separate-flow, direct-drive and geared configurations, an advanced mixed-flow direct-drive configuration was selected for further design and evaluation. All goals were judged to have been met except the acoustic goal. Also conducted was a performance risk analysis and a preliminary aerodynamic design of the 10 stage 23:1 pressure ratio compressor used in the study engines.

  13. The lived experience of mothering after prison: the preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Margaret O

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological preliminary study was to gain a better understanding of the experience of mothering after prison. In-depth interviewing was conducted with two participants for a period of 4 months after their release from prison. All interviews were focused on the research question, "What has been your experience of mothering since your release from prison?" Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The following four themes emerged: "always the mother,"separation anxiety,"new demands: divided loyalties," and "the honeymoon is over."

  14. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  15. Preliminary Study of a Pull Plug Friction Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, George R.

    1999-01-01

    A pull plug friction weld, simply defined, comprises inserting a rotating cone-shaped cylinder into a somewhat cone-shaped hole in a plate. The rotating plug makes contact with the edge of the plate and the resulting friction generates heat. The temperature of the plate material eventually reaches a magnitude that will cause the plate material at the edge of the hole to flow. This can be termed a temperature dependent plastic flow. The rotation of the plug is terminated, additional pressure is applied and the metal at the interface of the two materials cools and welding occurs. This preliminary study addresses only three aspects of a complete analysis that is multi-faceted. The transient temperature distribution for different pull plug configurations has been studied in some detail even though the initial conditions and boundary conditions may still be deemed tentative. The stress distribution within the pull plug caused by the heating pressure was studied along with a preliminary analysis of the thermoelastic stress distribution caused by friction heating. There are no definitive results for the stress analysis. Additional study will be required.

  16. Preliminary Study of a Pull Plug Friction Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, George R.

    1999-01-01

    A pull plug friction weld, simply defined, comprises inserting a rotating cone-shaped cylinder into a somewhat cone-shaped hole in a plate. The rotating plug makes contact with the edge of the plate and the resulting friction generates heat. The temperature of the plate material eventually reaches a magnitude that will cause the plate material at the edge of the hole to flow. This can be termed a temperature dependent plastic flow. The rotation of the plug is terminated, additional pressure is applied and the metal at the interface of the two materials cools and welding occurs. This preliminary study addresses only three aspects of a complete analysis that is multi-faceted. The transient temperature distribution for different pull plug configurations has been studied in some detail even though the initial conditions and boundary conditions may still be deemed tentative. The stress distribution within the pull plug caused by the heating pressure was studied along with a preliminary analysis of the thermoelastic stress distribution caused by friction heating. There are no definitive results for the stress analysis. Additional study will be required.

  17. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  18. Preliminary evidence of sex differences in behavioral and neural responses to palatable food reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Hildebrandt, Britny A; Culbert, Kristen M; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-03-30

    The female bias in eating disorder prevalence is the largest in all of psychiatry. Binge eating on palatable food (PF) is a core, maladaptive symptom that cuts across all major types of eating disorders and can be studied via animal models. Using an individual differences rat model of binge eating that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) phenotypes, we previously showed that, compared with males, females consume more PF and are more likely to be classified as BEP. One potential explanation for this sex difference is that PF is inherently more rewarding to females, leading to higher rates of binge eating. Here we tested the hypothesis that females have more robust behavioral and neural responses to PF reward than males. Adult male (N=18) and female (N=17) Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the Conditioned Place Preference paradigm using PF as the unconditioned stimulus. Select males (N=9) and females (N=9) were video-recorded during three of the PF-paired conditioning sessions to score feeding behavior. Following CPP, 13 male and 12 female rats were exposed to PF just prior to sacrifice to induce expression of the neural activation marker Fos, and Fos expression was quantified in mesocorticolimbic, hypothalamic, and amygdalar circuits. In the CPP paradigm, females displayed a more robust shift in preference for the chamber paired with PF compared with males, and behavioral analyses revealed that average duration of individual feeding bouts during pairing sessions was longer in females than in males. Fos expression was significantly higher in females vs. males in select regions of the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, with no sex differences in hypothalamic or amygdalar regions. These results provide initial evidence that PF may be more rewarding to females than to males, possibly due to heightened responsiveness of neural substrates that mediate the hedonic and motivational responses to PF, which in part, may underlie sex

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η

    SciTech Connect

    Matozo, Huita C.; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Santos, Maria A. M.; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Fusco, Alfredo; Polikarpov, Igor

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the catalytic domain of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η (rPTPη) is a cysteine-dependent phosphatase which hydrolyzes phosphoester bonds in proteins and other molecules. rPTPη and its human homologue DEP-1 are involved in neoplastic transformations. Thus, expression of the protein is reduced in all oncogene-transformed thyroid cell lines and is absent in highly malignant thyroid cells. Moreover, consistent with the suggested tumour suppression role of PTPη, inhibition of the tumorigenic process occurs after its exogenous reconstitution, suggesting that PTPη might be important for gene therapy of cancers. In this study, the catalytic domain of rPTPη was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected to 1.87 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.46, b = 63.07, c = 111.64 Å, and contains one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  20. A preliminary study for quantitative assessment of upper limb proprioception.

    PubMed

    Contu, Sara; Hussain, Asif; Masia, Lorenzo; Campolo, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Proprioception, or sense of position and movement of the body, strongly correlates with motor recovery of the hemiplegic arm. The evaluation of the awareness of the location of joints in space involves measuring the accuracy of joint-angle replication. Robotic devices allow an accurate manipulation of joint movements necessary to assess proprioceptive status. This study evaluated the proprioceptive performance of healthy subjects by mean of the H-Man, a planar robot designed for upper-limb rehabilitation to gather preliminary normative data for neurorehabilitation applications. Twelve participants were equally divided into Aged and Young groups and were asked to indicate when their dominant hand position matched a predefined target in the contralateral, sagittal and ipsilateral direction. Results indicated a better performance for movements towards the contralateral target in terms of both absolute and signed error while there was not a significant effect of age group. Error variability was not affected by the target location and participants' age. The present study established preliminary proprioceptive metrics that could assist in providing information about the normal range of proprioceptive acuity of healthy subjects of different age.

  1. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  2. Preliminary Study of Plutonium Utilization in AP1000 Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nailatussaadah; Prastyo, Puguh A.; Waris, Abdul; Kurniadi, Rizal; Pramuditya, Syeilendra

    2017-07-01

    Preliminary study of plutonium utilization in AP1000 reactor has been conducted. This study evaluated the standard of Westinghouse AP1000 reactor and ZrB2 as Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber (IFBA). Different fuel compositions of assembly type were analyze in by using SRAC 2006 code system with JENDL 4.0 nuclear data library. This study aiming to compare the neutronics characteristics of an UO2 and an(U,Pu)O2 assembly designs. Some results of the study show that optimal criticality of the fuel assembly can be accomplished by using 5% enrichment of U-235 for UO2 fuel and 8.75% plutonium fraction for(U,Pu)O2 fuel assembly.

  3. Biological phenomena within a pyramid model--a preliminary study on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rao, B G

    1997-01-01

    The Great pyramid of Egypt has evoked a keen interest, both for its architectural marvel and mystical significance. Strange things (viz sharpening of razors, longer shelflife of vegetables, altered states of consciousness in humans) are said to occur within a pyramid constructed in the exact geometric proportion to that of Great Pyramid and kept with any of its diagonals aligned north-south along the magnetic axis of the earth. Not much is available in the literature that have subjected "biological phenomenon within a pyramid" to the scientific scrutiny. This is just a preliminary study with that objective. Wound healing, being a physiological response of the body to injury, the measurement of 'breaking strength' of incisional wound offers an easy, objective method of assessing wound healing. The study consisted a 'control group' and 'a test group', each of 12 albino rats (Wistar). A paramedian 1" incisional wound was created in both the groups. The controls were kept in the usual rat cages while the 'test group' within a wooden pyramid (18" x 28.25" x 26.9"). The breaking strength of the wounds were assessed on the 10th post-wounding day using Kulkarni's modified Lee and Tong method and the results showed a significantly higher value (P < .05) for the test group. Further there was histological evidence of better wound healing in the test group.

  4. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  5. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  6. A study on the effect of multisensory stimulation in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Semprini, Marianna; Boi, Fabio; Tucci, Valter; Vato, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the psychophysical effects of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) coupled to auditory stimulation during a behavioral detection task in rats. ICMS directed to the sensory areas of the cortex can be instrumental in facilitating operant conditioning behavior. Moreover, multisensory stimulation promotes learning by enabling the subject to access multiple information channels. However, the extent to which multisensory information can be used as a cue to make decisions has not been fully understood. This study addressed the exploration of the parameters of multisensory stimulation delivered to behaving rats in an operant conditioning task. Preliminary data indicate that animal decisions can be shaped by online changing the stimulation parameters.

  7. Ecotoxicity of biocomposites based on renewable feedstock - preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Rudnik, E; Milanov, N; Matuschek, G; Kettrup, A

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the work was to study the biodegradation process of biocomposites prepared from renewable resources and the ecotoxicological assessment of their biodegradation products. Biocomposites from modified starch reinforced with various cellulose fibers were prepared by the extrusion process. Biodegradation studies were carried out according to the ISO respirometic method. Ecotoxicity of biodegradation products was assessed by the luminescent bacteria test. It was found that biodegradation of biocomposites was above 60% within 24 days according to the results of respirometric test. Increase in the amount of natural fiber reinforcement, as well as smaller fiber size increased the biodegradability of biocomposites. On the basis of the preliminary results of the ecotoxicological test using luminescent bacteria it seems that the biodegradation products of the biocomposites studied are ecologically safe.

  8. Preliminary decommissioning study reports. Volume 4, Gunite storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This six large gunite storage tanks considered as a group is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long-range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives, (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. This report presents the results of the preliminary decommission study for the six gunite storage tanks.

  9. Tactile cues in continuous operations: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Amanda M; Grandizio, Catherine M; Estrada, Arthur; Crowley, John S

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that tactile displays are an effective tool for augmenting spatial orientation and situation awareness information provided to aircraft operators. The tactile situation awareness system (TSAS) has been shown to improve flight performance in conditions of degraded visual environments and to safely maintain performance during hover over moving targets. The potential for the user to adapt and habituate to the stimulus of tactile display systems has not yet been investigated. Four UH-60 current, rated aviators (all male) participated in the pilot study. Subjects completed four consecutive iterations of a 3-h flight profile consisting of 10 maneuvers, totaling 12 h of continuous flight. Flight performance, tactor information, responses to a discomfort questionnaire, and ratings of fatigue symptoms were recorded. The independent variable in all analyses was session (four levels). The results showed that performance per maneuver and proportion of stimulus cues (measure of response to cues) per maneuver were consistent across sessions using independent-samples Kruskal-Wallis tests. The findings of this preliminary assessment support the use of tactile displays (consistent with parameters of TSAS) in continuous operations since performance and proportion of stimulus cues presented was consistent over a period of 12 h. In conclusion, the system will require further experimental testing, but these preliminary findings do not suggest performance or response to be affected by any adaptation or habituation to the stimulus.

  10. Darkfield orthogonal polarized spectral imaging for studying endovascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, Michal; Beek, Johan F.; Stenback, Karin; Faber, Dirk J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Ince, Can

    2005-02-01

    Due to the limited number of suitable intravital microscopy techniques, relatively little is known about the opto-thermal (endo)vascular responses to selective photothermolysis, used as a default treatment modality for superficial vascular anomalies such as port wine stains, telangiectasias, and hemangiomas. In this preliminary study we present a novel microscopy technique for studying (endo)vascular laser-tissue interactions in vivo, in which conventional orthogonal polarized spectral (OPS) imaging is combined with darkfield (DF) illumination. DFOPS imaging of rat mesenteric vasculature irradiated at increasing powers revealed the following (tissular) responses: formation of translucent aggregates, retrograde flow, gradual and immediate hemostasis, reinstatement of flow, vessel disappearance, and perivascular collagen damage. DFOPS imaging therefore constitutes a useful tool for examining (endo)vascular events following selective photothermolysis.

  11. Transcranial vibro-acoustography can detect traumatic brain injury, in-vivo: Preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Martin W; Dever, David D; Gu, Xiaohan; Ray Illian, P; McClintic, Abbi M; Mehic, Edin; Mourad, Pierre D

    2015-08-01

    Vibro-acoustography (VA) uses two or more beams of confocal ultrasound to generate local vibrations within their target tissue through induction of a time-dependent radiation force whose frequency equals that of the difference of the applied frequencies. While VA has proven effective for assaying the mechanical properties of clinically relevant tissue such as breast lesions and tissue calcifications, its application to brain remains unexplored. Here we investigate the ability of VA to detect acute and focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) in-vivo through the use of transcranially delivered high-frequency (2 MHz) diagnostic focused ultrasound to rat brain capable of generating measurable low-frequency (200-270 kHz) acoustic emissions from outside of the brain. We applied VA to acute sham-control and TBI model rats (sham N=6; TBI N=6) and observed that acoustic emissions, captured away from the site of TBI, had lower amplitudes for TBI as compared to sham-TBI animals. The sensitivity of VA to acute brain damage at frequencies currently transmittable across human skulls, as demonstrated in this preliminary study, supports the possibility that the VA methodology may one day serve as a technique for detecting TBI.

  12. Seeing the Heat: Preliminary Studies of Cryocrystallography Using Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, E. H.; Judge, R. A.; Larson, M.; vanderWoerd, M. J.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As preparation for an extensive study imaging the cryocooling process of macromolecular crystals we have demonstrated the ability to thermally image solid objects and liquids at temperatures far below 273 K. In the case of a large lysozyme crystal qualitative measurements show the cooling process to take about 0.6s with the cooling taking place in a wave from the face of the crystal nearest to the origin of the cryostream, to the point furthest away from the origin. Annealing of this lysozyme crystal, cooled under good cryoprotectant conditions, showed cold striations formed perpendicular to the cooling stream. These striations became more pronounced after successive annealing. Cryocooling of a non-cryoprotected crystal of glucose isomerase displayed an S-shaped cold front wave traveling across the sample. These preliminary results are qualitative but show the power of infrared imaging as a new tool for fundamental and practical cryocrystallography studies.

  13. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  14. Preliminary study on ECT imaging of flames in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Chen, Q.; Xiong, X.; Zhang, Z.; Lei, J.

    2008-09-01

    This preliminary study for the first time investigated the feasibility of tomographic monitoring of flames in porous media, in which the cross-sectional profiles of flames inside a porous medium were imaged by electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). The relationship between the flame ionization and relative permittivity was established as the basis for ECT imaging of flames. Image reconstruction algorithms were discussed and an online iterative method OIOR was selected for image reconstruction. Experimental measurements were carried out and images of the flames were reconstructed. The shape, size and motion of the flames in a porous block were clearly monitored. Also the images correspond clearly to the variations of the combustion intensity. The feasibility of ECT monitoring of flames in porous media is proven by this study.

  15. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  16. Seeing the Heat: Preliminary Studies of Cryocrystallography Using Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, E. H.; Judge, R. A.; Larson, M.; vanderWoerd, M. J.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As preparation for an extensive study imaging the cryocooling process of macromolecular crystals we have demonstrated the ability to thermally image solid objects and liquids at temperatures far below 273 K. In the case of a large lysozyme crystal qualitative measurements show the cooling process to take about 0.6s with the cooling taking place in a wave from the face of the crystal nearest to the origin of the cryostream, to the point furthest away from the origin. Annealing of this lysozyme crystal, cooled under good cryoprotectant conditions, showed cold striations formed perpendicular to the cooling stream. These striations became more pronounced after successive annealing. Cryocooling of a non-cryoprotected crystal of glucose isomerase displayed an S-shaped cold front wave traveling across the sample. These preliminary results are qualitative but show the power of infrared imaging as a new tool for fundamental and practical cryocrystallography studies.

  17. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  18. Preliminary pharmacological activity of the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia barks in rats

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Hajera; Majumder, Rajib; Al Mamun; Alam, Efte Kharul; Jami, Safkath Ibne; Alam, Badrul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Premna integrifolia Linn (Family: Verbenaceae) synonym of Premna serratifolia has tremendous medicinal value. Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia (MEPI) bark to investigate neuropharmacological, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Materials and methods: Neuropharmacology study was done by open field and hole cross test whereas acetic acid writhing test and formalin induced pain was done for analgesic activity of MEPI. Carrageenan induced inflammatory model was considered for anti-inflammatory activity evaluation. Results: A statistically significant (p0.05) decrease in locomotor activity was observed at all doses in the open-field and hole-cross tests. The extract significantly (p0.05) and dose dependently reduced the writhing reflex in the acetic acid-induced writhing test as well as licking response in the formalin induced inflammatory pain. At 200 mg/kg body weight dose, MEPI showed 71.16% inhibition in carrageenan induced anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: The finding of this study suggests that MEPI will provide scientific support for the use of this species in traditional medicine. PMID:25050319

  19. Preliminary pharmacological activity of the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia barks in rats.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Hajera; Majumder, Rajib; Al Mamun; Alam, Efte Kharul; Jami, Safkath Ibne; Alam, Badrul

    2014-05-01

    Premna integrifolia Linn (Family: Verbenaceae) synonym of Premna serratifolia has tremendous medicinal value. Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia (MEPI) bark to investigate neuropharmacological, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Neuropharmacology study was done by open field and hole cross test whereas acetic acid writhing test and formalin induced pain was done for analgesic activity of MEPI. Carrageenan induced inflammatory model was considered for anti-inflammatory activity evaluation. A statistically significant (p0.05) decrease in locomotor activity was observed at all doses in the open-field and hole-cross tests. The extract significantly (p0.05) and dose dependently reduced the writhing reflex in the acetic acid-induced writhing test as well as licking response in the formalin induced inflammatory pain. At 200 mg/kg body weight dose, MEPI showed 71.16% inhibition in carrageenan induced anti-inflammatory activity. The finding of this study suggests that MEPI will provide scientific support for the use of this species in traditional medicine.

  20. Biased attention in childhood anxiety disorders: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Vasey, M W; Daleiden, E L; Williams, L L; Brown, L M

    1995-04-01

    This study provides preliminary tests of two hypotheses: (1) Anxiety-disordered children show an attentional bias toward emotionally threatening stimuli, and (2) normal controls show an attentional bias away from emotionally threatening stimuli. Twelve children, 9 to 14 years of age, with primary diagnoses of anxiety disorder were compared with 12 normal controls matched for age, gender, vocabulary level, and reading ability. Subjects completed a reaction time task that measured visual attention toward threatening versus neutral words. The anxious group showed the predicted attentional bias toward threat words. However, controls did not show the predicted bias away from threat words. These results are the first showing that biased attentional processing occurs among clinically anxious children. The potential role of such an attentional bias in childhood anxiety disorders and future direction for research are discussed.

  1. Preliminary studies of electromagnetic sounding of cometary nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, A.; Warne, L.; Bednarczyk, S.; Elachi, C.

    1978-01-01

    The internal structure of a comet could be determined with a spacecraft borne electromagnetic sounder. A dielectric profile of the comet could be produced in direct analogy with terrestrial glacier and ice sheet sounding experiments. This profile would allow the detection of a rocky core or ice layers if they exist, just as layers in the ice and the bedrock interface have been clearly observed through the Greenland ice sheet. It would also provide a gross estimate of the amount of dust in the icy region. Models for the response of the nucleus and cometary plasma to electromagnetic sounding are developed and used to derive experimental parameters. A point system design was completed. Preliminary engineering study results indicate that the sounder is well within the bounds of current space technology.

  2. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  3. Preliminary Studies of a Phase Modulation Technique for Measuring Chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    The classical method for measuring chromaticity is to slowly modulate the RF frequency and then measuring the betatron tune excursion. The technique that is discussed in this paper modulates instead the phase of the RF and then the chromaticity is obtained by phase demodulating the betatron tune. However, this technique requires knowledge of the betatron frequency in real time in order for the phase to be demodulated. Fortunately, the Tevatron has a tune tracker based on the phase locked loop principle which fits this requirement. A preliminary study with this technique has showed that it is a promising method for doing continuous chromaticity measurement and raises the possibility of doing successful chromaticity feedback with it.

  4. Preliminary study of interaction of clarithromycin with tacrolimus in cats.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Masaaki; Ushio, Taku; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Uzuka, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) is a core immunosuppressive drug in human organ transplantation. In feline kidney transplantation, however, the cost of Tac therapy is a significant obstacle. Clarithromycin (CLM) increases the blood trough level of Tac, effectively reducing the Tac dosage in human transplant patients. The interaction between CLM and Tac in cats has not been reported. In this study, the effect of multiple CLM dosing on the pharmacokinetics of Tac in three healthy cats was investigated. The treatments included Tac at 0.3 mg/kg and Tac at 0.3 mg/kg + multiple-dose CLM at 10 mg/kg. Co-administration of CLM and Tac resulted in significant increases in the oral bioavailability of Tac. These preliminary findings suggest that administration of multiple doses of CLM may decrease the required Tac dosage in Tac-based immunosuppressive therapy used as an alternative to the classic cyclosporine-based protocol for feline renal transplantation.

  5. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  6. Proscriptive Bayesian Programming and Maximum Entropy: a Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Carla Cavalcante

    2008-11-01

    Some problems found in robotics systems, as avoiding obstacles, can be better described using proscriptive commands, where only prohibited actions are indicated in contrast to prescriptive situations, which demands that a specific command be specified. An interesting question arises regarding the possibility to learn automatically if proscriptive commands are suitable and which parametric function could be better applied. Lately, a great variety of problems in robotics domain are object of researches using probabilistic methods, including the use of Maximum Entropy in automatic learning for robot control systems. This works presents a preliminary study on automatic learning of proscriptive robot control using maximum entropy and using Bayesian Programming. It is verified whether Maximum entropy and related methods can favour proscriptive commands in an obstacle avoidance task executed by a mobile robot.

  7. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of quadrupole

  8. Preliminary study of an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on K-edge filters

    SciTech Connect

    Golosio, Bruno; Brunetti, Antonio; Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo; Luca Masala, Giovanni; Meloni, Francesco; Battista Meloni, Giovanni

    2013-08-14

    Digital Subtraction Angiography is commonly affected by artifacts due to the patient movements during the acquisition of the images without and with the contrast medium. This paper presents a preliminary study on an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of two images, obtained using two different filters at the exit of an X-ray tube. One of the two filters (K-edge filter) contains the same chemical element used as a contrast agent (gadolinium in this study). This filter absorbs more radiation with energy just above the so called K-edge energy of gadolinium than the radiation with energy just below it. The other filter (an aluminium filter in this study) is simply used to suppress the low-energy contribution to the spectrum. Using proper calibration curves, the two images are combined to obtain an image of the contrast agent distribution. In the angio-tomographic application of the proposed technique two images, corresponding to the two filter types, are acquired for each viewing angle of the tomographic scan. From the two tomographic reconstructions, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional map of the contrast agent distribution. The technique was tested on a sample consisting of a rat skull placed inside a container filled with water. Six small cylinders with 4.7 mm internal diameter containing the contrast medium at different concentrations were placed inside the skull. In the plain angiographic application of the technique, five out of six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.96%. In the angio-tomographic application, all six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.49%. This preliminary study shows that the proposed technique can provide images of the contrast medium at low concentration without most of the artifacts that are present in images produced by conventional techniques. The results encourage further investigation on the feasibility of a clinical

  9. Preliminary study of an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on K-edge filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosio, Bruno; Oliva, Piernicola; Brunetti, Antonio; Luca Masala, Giovanni; Carpinelli, Massimo; Meloni, Francesco; Battista Meloni, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    Digital Subtraction Angiography is commonly affected by artifacts due to the patient movements during the acquisition of the images without and with the contrast medium. This paper presents a preliminary study on an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of two images, obtained using two different filters at the exit of an X-ray tube. One of the two filters (K-edge filter) contains the same chemical element used as a contrast agent (gadolinium in this study). This filter absorbs more radiation with energy just above the so called K-edge energy of gadolinium than the radiation with energy just below it. The other filter (an aluminium filter in this study) is simply used to suppress the low-energy contribution to the spectrum. Using proper calibration curves, the two images are combined to obtain an image of the contrast agent distribution. In the angio-tomographic application of the proposed technique two images, corresponding to the two filter types, are acquired for each viewing angle of the tomographic scan. From the two tomographic reconstructions, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional map of the contrast agent distribution. The technique was tested on a sample consisting of a rat skull placed inside a container filled with water. Six small cylinders with 4.7 mm internal diameter containing the contrast medium at different concentrations were placed inside the skull. In the plain angiographic application of the technique, five out of six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.96%. In the angio-tomographic application, all six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.49%. This preliminary study shows that the proposed technique can provide images of the contrast medium at low concentration without most of the artifacts that are present in images produced by conventional techniques. The results encourage further investigation on the feasibility of a clinical

  10. A preliminary exploration on DNA methylation of transgene across generations in transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiling; Xu, Wei; Cui, Ye; Ma, Li; Richards, Jendai; Li, Wenzhi; Ma, Yamin; Fu, Guoxing; Bythwood, Tameka; Wang, Yueling; Li, Xu; Song, Qing

    2015-02-06

    Epigenetic heritability is an important issue in the field of genetics and also in the development of many human diseases. In this study, we created a transgenic rat model and investigated the transgenerational methylation patterns in these animals. The transgene DNA fragment was unmethylated before it was injected into the pronucleus, so it is a good model to study the inheritance of DNA methylation patterns. We performed bisulfite sequencing on 23 CpG dinucleotides on the transgene across three generations in two tissues. We observed that the transgene was heavily methylated in the liver (87.53%) from the founder generation, whereas its methylation rate was much lower in the kidney (70.47%). Spearman correlation analysis showed that there was a strong correlation on the methylation status between different generations in the same tissue, which was observed in both liver and kidney, and among all individuals in this pedigree. This study provided some evidence that DNA methylation patterns acquired in the founder animal can be passed to the offspring.

  11. Toxicological studies on tienilic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Oker-Blom, C; Mäkinen, J; Gothoni, G

    1980-07-01

    The subacute oral toxicity of tienilic acid in male and female Sprague--Dawley rats has been studied. Animals were given tienilic acid 0, 30, 120 and 480 mg/kg body weight as a 3% gum arabic suspension for 28 days. At 30 mg tienilic acid blood pressure and serum uric acid decreased. At the two higher dose-levels a slight decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in S-GPT was noticed and there was a significant increase in the liver weight and serum magnesium concentration of male rats, while the liver weight of female rats increased only slightly. On microscopic examination, unicellular necrosis of small groups of liver cells was noted, together with focal round-cell infiltration and some stasis of the two higher dose-levels in some animals. Tienilic acid had no noticeable effects on other organs or parameters.

  12. Preliminary investigation on regulating effects of different TCM treatments on transcription of the correlated genes of liver cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dongyuan; Fang, Zhaoqin; Lu, Hengxin; Li, Haiyan

    2003-03-01

    The regulating effects of TCM treatments including clearing away heat and toxic materials, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, and strengthening the spleen and regulating qi on the oncogene transcription were observed in the liver cancer model rats. The preliminary results indicated that the mRNA levels of H-ras N-ras and K-ras, and signal molecules correlated with the ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway were down-regulated by the different TCM treatments in varying degrees. Also, the regulating effects of the treatments on differently-displayed genes were discrepant. It is suggested that the molecular mechanisms of the TCM treatments for liver cancer was complex with different target genes.

  13. [Capacity for peripheral nerve regeneration. Experimental study--preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Perţea, Mihaela; Luncă, S

    2010-01-01

    Any injury affecting peripheral nerve continuity is followed by a degenerative reaction from nerve itself and its muscule. Nerve regeneration is possibly when the two ends are put in direct contact (direct suture), proximity (autologus or artificial grafts) or through muscle neurotization. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate sciatic nerve degeneration and regeneration in rat after no suture (group 1), direct suture (group 2), nerve grafting (group 3) and muscle neurotization (group 4). Nerve samples were analyzed in optical microscopy at 8 and 16 weeks after surgery and nerve degeneration (group 1), axonal growth (group 2) and neuromuscular regeneration (group 4) were evaluated. Neuromuscular synapses after direct muscular neurotization are to be searched using the cholinesterase test.

  14. Psychotherapy with borderline patients: II. A preliminary cost benefit study.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J; Meares, R

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary cost benefit study of the effect of outpatient psychotherapy, twice a week for 1 year, in 30 borderline patients. Costs to the health system in terms of inpatient care for the year before treatment were compared with the costs for the year following treatment. The cost of hospital admissions for the 30 patients for the year before treatment was $684 346 (range = $0-$143 756/patient). The cost of hospital admissions for the year after treatment was $41 424 (range = $0-$12 333/patient). These figures represent an average decrease in costs per patient of $21 431. By using the schedule fee as the basis, the estimated cost of therapy per patient was approximately $13 000, representing a saving/patient of $8431 or approximately $250 000 over the total cohort in the first year after treatment. This study suggests that there is a significant cost benefit in the appropriate treatment of borderline patients.

  15. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  16. Pharmacognostic standardization and preliminary phytochemical studies of Gaultheria trichophylla.

    PubMed

    Alam, Fiaz; Najum us Saqib, Qazi

    2015-01-01

    Gaultheria trichophylla Royle (Ericaceae) has long been used for various ailments in traditional systems of medicines; most importantly it is used against pain and inflammation. This study determines various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of medicinal plant G. trichophylla. Intact aerial parts, powdered materials, and extracts were examined macro- and microscopically and pharmacognostic standardization parameters were determined in accordance with the guidelines given by the World Health Organization (WHO). Parameters including extractive values, ash values, and loss on drying were determined. Preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence analysis, and chromatographic profiling were performed for the identification and standardization of G. trichophylla. The shape, size, color, odor, and surface characteristics were noted for intact drug and powdered drug material of G. trichophylla. Light and scanning electron microscope images of cross section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical, and fluorescence analysis proved useful tools to differentiate the powdered drug material. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin. The data generated from the present study help to authenticate the medicinally important plant G. trichophylla. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic features may be helpful for establishing the pharmacopeia standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and described along with phytochemical and physicochemical parameters, which could be helpful in further isolation and purification of medicinally important compounds.

  17. Preliminary Trade Study of Phase Change Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Leimkeuhler, Thomas; Quinn, Gregory; Golliher, Eric

    2006-01-01

    For short durations, phase change based heat rejection systems are a very effective way of removing heat from spacecraft. Future NASA vehicles, such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), will require non-radiative heat rejection systems during at least a portion of the planned mission, just as their predecessors have. While existing technologies are available to modify, such as Apollo era sublimators, or the Space Shuttle Flash Evaporator System (FES), several new technologies are under development or investigation to progress beyond these existing heat rejection systems. Examples include the Multi-Fluid Evaporator developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, improvements upon the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator originally developed for the X-38 program, and a Compact Flash Evaporator System (CFES). Other possibilities evaluate new ways of operating existing designs. The new developments are targeted at increasing operating life, expanding the environments in which the system can operate, improving the mass and volume characteristics, or some combination of these or other improvements. This paper captures the process and results of a preliminary trade study performed at Johnson Space Center to compare the various existing and proposed phase change based heat rejection systems for the CEV. Because the new systems are still in development, and the information on existing systems is extrapolation, this trade study is not meant to suggest a final decision for future vehicles. The results of this early trade study are targeted to aid the development efforts for the new technologies by identifying issues that could reduce the chances of selection for the CEV.

  18. Nuclear morphometric analysis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ozdamar, Sükrü Oğuz; Bektaş, Sibel; Erdem Ozdamar, Sevim; Gedikoğlu, Gökhan; Doğan Gün, Banu; Bahadir, Burak

    2007-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are considered a specialized group of mesenchymal neoplasms. In this study, the histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors are compared with nuclear morphometric results. Morphometric nuclear parameters such as mean area, mean roundness factor, mean form ellipse, mean length and mean perimeter were evaluated in hematoxylin and eosin stained slides of 22 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (9 benign and 13 malignant) by using a computer-assisted image analysis system. Morphometric results were compared with tumor behavior and tumor size, the presence of necrosis, mitotic index, and immunohistochemical expressions of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. We found that tumor necrosis was correlated with mean nuclear roundness factor, mean nuclear form ellipse, mean nuclear length and mean nuclear perimeter (p<0.05). Mitotic index was also correlated with mean nuclear roundness factor and mean nuclear form ellipse (p<0.05). However, no correlation was found between morphometric features and gastrointestinal stromal tumor behavior, tumor size, or index of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p53 expressions (p>0.05). In this preliminary study, the relative concordance of the morphometric results and general histomorphologic data exhibited the importance of nuclear morphometric analysis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Studies including larger series of cases investigating detailed nuclear morphometric analysis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors are needed.

  19. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  20. A preliminary study of hyperlipidemia in Bangkok school children.

    PubMed

    Sirikulchayanonta, C; Pavadhgul, P; Chongsuwat, R; Srisorrachata, S

    2006-01-01

    As a preliminary study, we determined the serum lipid profiles among primary school children from four Bangkok schools and identified the risk factors and their association with child lipid profiles. We conducted a cross-sectional study using fasting blood samples and food frequency questionnaires. Overall, there were 40% that had hypercholesterolemia with total cholesterol (TC) at > or = 200 mg/dl and high low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at > or = 130 mg/dl. Overall, 5.4% had high triglyceride (TG) levels at > or = 150 mg/dl. There was no association between lipid profiles and age, gender or nutritional status, except that higher TG levels were found among obese children than others (p < 0.001). The most popular high fat foods were fried chicken, sausages and cakes, in order of preference. Results from this study indicate that Bangkok public primary school children are facing a problem with hyperlipidemia. Build up discipline in healthy eating habits, healthy food choices and physical exercise should pave the way to healthy Thai kids and growing adults with better quality of life.

  1. Hypoglycemic potential of Morus indica. L and Costus igneus. Nak.--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Devi, Vishalakshi D; Urooj, Asna

    2008-08-01

    Powdered leaves (500 mg/kg body weight) of medicinal plants M. indica and C. igneus known to possess therapeutic effect were supplemented to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Leaf powders of both the plants were able to reduce blood glucose levels in the animals by 38 and 21% respectively after 15 days of supplementation. The preliminary results suggest that both the plants possess potent hypoglycemic activity.

  2. A Preliminary Study on Gender Differences in Studying Systems Analysis and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fion S. L.; Wong, Kelvin C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Systems analysis and design is a crucial task in system development and is included in a typical information systems programme as a core course. This paper presented a preliminary study on gender differences in studying a systems analysis and design course of an undergraduate programme. Results indicated that male students outperformed female…

  3. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  4. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos

    2014-10-01

    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (< 8% of I.D.) of the instilled particles. The majority of leaked radiocolloid particles were found in inguinal lymph nodes during the 9 months of follow-up. All the animals tolerated the treatment well; the compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  5. Laboratory study of corrosion of steam generator tubes: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, B.; Organista, M.; Henry, K.; Erre, R.; Gelpi, A.; Cattant, F.; Dupin, M.

    1995-12-31

    The secondary side intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of steam generator tubes often occurs in crevices where impurities are concentrated, due to local elevated temperatures and restricted water flow. From the analysis of tubes pulled from plants, it is believed that alumino-silicates deposits and/or organic species may play a role in the development of IGA in near neutral environments. New observations suggest that similar environments and similar processes are operative inside the corroded grain boundaries. A former study using autoclave tests was mainly devoted to the formation of alumino-silicate deposits similar to those observed in plants. The present work pursued the study of local environments responsible for IGA/SC. It confirms former results on the catalytic decomposition of organic species into acetates and presents more details on the mechanism of formation of alumino-silicate deposits on alloy 600, particularly on the role of iron and, to a lesser extent, nickel cations. It was showed that, under the alumino-silicate deposits and in the presence of some organic species, a non-protective chromium rich layer may grow instead of the usual protective spinel oxide. The mechanism responsible for the formation of this layer is believed to involve interaction between iron and, to a lesser extent, nickel with silica and/or possible interaction between chromium and acetates. Preliminary capsule tests indicate that these conditions may induce the initiation of IGA.

  6. Characterization of burns using hyperspectral imaging technique - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Savastru, Roxana; Manea, Dragos

    2015-02-01

    Surgical burn treatment depends on accurate estimation of burn depth. Many methods have been used to asses burns, but none has gained wide acceptance. Hyperspectral imaging technique has recently entered the medical research field with encouraging results. In this paper we present a preliminary study (case presentation) that aims to point out the value of this optical method in burn wound characterization and to set up future lines of investigation. A hyperspectral image of a leg and foot with partial thickness burns was obtained in the fifth postburn day. The image was analyzed using linear spectral unmixing model as a tool for mapping the investigated areas. The article gives details on the mathematical bases of the interpretation model and correlations with clinical examination pointing out the advantages of hyperspectral imaging technique. While the results were encouraging, further more extended and better founded studies are being prepared before recognizing hyperspectral imaging technique as an applicable method of burn wound assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathology of gastric lesions in donkeys: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Al-Mokaddem, A K; Ahmed, K A; Doghaim, R E

    2015-11-01

    Donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) are important working animals, particularly in countries where the majority of the population lives below the poverty line. Gastric ulceration has been shown to be common in British donkeys but donkeys from other parts of the world have not been as extensively researched. This study was performed as a preliminary overview of the severity and distribution of gastric lesions in mature donkeys and to document which parasites were present. Descriptive study of pathological findings. Stomachs of 35 mature draught donkeys were examined grossly and histopathology samples taken from 5 regions of the gastric mucosa. Gross examination revealed hyperaemia, oedema, erosions and ulcers in addition to parasitic lesions. Histopathological examination revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, vacuolar degeneration of stratified squamous cells, gastritis, erosions, ulcerations, scarring, hyperactivity of mucus glands, periglandular fibroplasia and parasitic granulomes with infestation by Gasterophilus spp. larvae, Habronema spp. and Draschia megastoma. In donkeys, ulceration of the nonglandular regions of the stomach is more prominent than the glandular regions and parasitic infestations were frequent. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-08-15

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  9. Physico-Chemical profile of Puga Khanda: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Baragi, Pramod C.; Baragi, Umapati C.; Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are the oldest known form of medicine in the world. However, the quality control and the assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components. Herbal drugs, singlely or in combinations, contain numerous compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards and the standardization of finished herbal products. Many formulations have been mentioned in Ayurvedic text for Vrushyatwa (aphrodisiac). Puga Khanda is one among such formulations. Aim: To develop preliminary physico-chemical profile of Puga Khanda. Materials and Methods: Puga Khanda was prepared in three batches as per the classical reference mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali. The formulation was subjected for physico-chemical analysis, phytochemical analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The study revealed that organoleptic characters, pH and extractive values of all 3 samples were almost equal. All the samples had 60% of sugar needed for preservation and 2/3rd of it was non reducing sugar. The total alkaloids ranged from 0.002 to 0.004% w/w. In TLC study the entire samples showed similar pattern except the 2nd sample of Puga Khanda. PMID:25364209

  10. Sphenoid sinus microbiota in pituitary apoplexy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Gavin J; Waqar, Mueez; McBain, Andrew J; Gnanalingham, Kanna K

    2017-08-29

    There is a high incidence of abnormal sphenoid sinus changes in patients with pituitary apoplexy (PA). Their pathophysiology is currently unexplored and may reflect an inflammatory or infective process. In this preliminary study, we characterised the microbiota of sphenoid sinus mucosa in patients with PA and compared findings to a control group of surgically treated non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). In this prospective observational study of patients undergoing trans-sphenoidal surgery for PA or NFPA, sphenoid sinus mucosal specimens were microbiologically profiled through PCR-cloning of the 16S rRNA gene. Ten patients (five with PA and five with NFPAs) with a mean age of 51 years (range 23-71) were included. Differences in the sphenoid sinus microbiota of the PA and NFPA groups were observed. Four PA patients harboured Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter spp., N = 3; Escherichia coli, N = 1). In contrast, patients with NFPAs had a sinus microbiota more representative of health, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (N = 2) or Corynebacterium spp. (N = 2). PA may be associated with an abnormal sphenoid sinus microbiota that is similar to that seen in patients with sphenoid sinusitis.

  11. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented.

  12. Archaeoastronomical Information in the Study of Cremation Necropolis: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, J.; Cerde, M. L.; Rodríguez, C.

    2009-08-01

    This work remarks the significance that archaeoastronomical studies have for archaeological research. These studies provide us data about the perception that ancient societies had about astronomical events and how these facts were added to their religious and ideological world. Thus, archaeoastronomy become a valuable source of information when aimed to solve any question involving the ancient societies. We take as reference in this work some of the Late Bronze Age{'}s cremation necropolis, representatives of usually called Urnfields, to check if their design can be related to some celestial phenomena: Can Bech de Baix (Gerona), Can Pitieu-Can Roqueta(Barcelona), Molá (Tarragona), Can Missert (Tarragona), Les Obagues (Tarragona), La Colomina (Lleida) and La Torraza (Navarra). Likewise a new standard in archaeological excavations maps is proposed. This will allow getting the information more available and improving further studies.

  13. A preliminary study of Mars rover/sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council recommends that a Mars Sample Return mission be undertaken before the year 2000. Comprehensive studies of a Mars Sample Return mission have been ongoing since 1984. The initial focus of these studies was an integrated mission concept with the surface rover and sample return vehicle elements delivered to Mars on a single launch and landed together. This approach, to be carried out as a unilateral U.S. initiative, is still a high priority goal in an Augmented Program of exploration, as the SSEC recommendation clearly states. With this background of a well-understood mission concept, NASA decided to focus its 1986 study effort on a potential opportunity not previously examined; namely, a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission which would involve a significant aspect of international cooperation. As envisioned, responsibility for the various mission operations and hardware elements would be divided in a logical manner with clearly defined and acceptable interfaces. The U.S. and its international partner would carry out separately launched but coordinated missions with the overall goal of accomplishing in situ science and returning several kilograms of surface samples from Mars. Important considerations for implementation of such a plan are minimum technology transfer, maximum sharing of scientific results, and independent credibility of each mission role. Under the guidance and oversight of a Mars Exploration Strategy Advisory Group organized by NASA, a study team was formed in the fall of 1986 to develop a preliminary definition of a flight-separable, cooperative mission. The selected concept assumes that the U.S. would undertake the rover mission with its sample collection operations and our international partner would return the samples to Earth. Although the inverse of these roles is also possible, this study report focuses on the rover functions of MRSR because rover operations have not

  14. Calibration Study and Preliminary Results of PRad Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levillain, Maxime; PRad Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The latest measurements of the proton radius through muonic hydrogen Lamb shift show a discrepancy of 7 σ from a global analysis of standard hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic ep -scattering. In order to understand this proton radius puzzle, the PRad experiment successfully took in last June some elastic ep -scattering data at very low Q2 (2 .10-4 to 10-1 GeV2) with very accurate angle and energy measurements to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Before measuring the cross-sections that will be used to extract the electromagnetic form factor GE(Q2) and the proton radius, a very careful calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter (HyCal) must be performed to get a good energy resolution and separate ep -events from M øller events especially at low angle. We will present an extended study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration of this experiment as well as some preliminary results on ep - and ee -scattering processes extracted from the data. The PRad experiment is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153.

  15. Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

    2004-12-01

    Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

  16. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  17. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  18. Lymphangiogenesis in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma - Preliminary Study with Clinicopathological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Benharroch, Daniel; Prinsloo, Isebrand; Gopas, Jacob; Lazarev, Irena

    2016-01-01

    A role for lymphangiogenesis in metastatic breast and prostate cancers has been suggested recently. The relevance of lymphangiogenesis in cancer as a rule, and more specifically in classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is poorly understood in comparison with that of angiogenesis. In a preliminary (pilot) study we have investigated the role of lymphatic vessels growth in 19 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma stained with the D2-40 (podoplanin) antibody. In each case, three lymphatic vessels hot spots were scrutinized twice. Of the 57 hot spots thus identified, we chose 15 at random for photography, microvessel counting and image analysis. We determined the mean perimeter, surface area, major axis length and complexity factor for each hot spot and correlated them with clinical and biological features of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. No correlations were found with clinical features. No associations were noted with the standard immuno-markers of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. However, significant inverse correlations were shown with pRb, BAX and IκB-α expression. The mean lymphatic major axis length was inversely correlated with the complexity factor. Last, we carried out an additional clinicopathological correlation of the expression of pRb, BAX and IκB-α in a cohort of classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients previously published. PMID:27877228

  19. ECG Response of Koalas to Tourists Proximity: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists. PMID:19823679

  20. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-10-12

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists.

  1. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  2. VEGF Expression in Patellar Tendinopathy: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Øystein; Bahr, Roald; Hart, David A.; Duronio, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Vascular function and angiogenesis are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). The purpose of this preliminary study was to address the following questions: Is VEGF expression in the patellar tendon more prevalent in patients with patellar tendinopathy than in individuals with normal, pain-free patellar tendons? Which cell populations express VEGF in normal and tendinopathic tendon? Is there a difference in symptom duration between VEGF+ and VEGF− tendons? We collected patellar tendon tissue from 22 patients undergoing open débridement of the patellar tendon and from 10 patients undergoing intramedullary nailing of the tibia. VEGF expression was assessed immunohistochemically. Relevant inflammatory and repair cell types were immunolabeled. VEGF expression was absent from control tendons, but was present in a subset of patients with histopathological evidence of angiofibroblastic tendinosis. VEGF was expressed in the intimal layer of tendon vessels, but was absent in other cell types. Patients demonstrating VEGF expression in the patellar tendon had a shorter symptom duration (12 ± 7.8 months) than patients with no detectable VEGF (32.8 ± 23.5 months). VEGF may contribute to the vascular hyperplasia that is a cardinal feature of symptomatic tendinosis, particularly in cases with more recent onset. PMID:18459027

  3. Real-time trichromatic holographic interferometry: preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albe, Felix; Bastide, Myriam; Desse, Jean-Michel; Tribillon, Jean-Louis H.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper we relate our preliminary experiments on real- time trichromatic holographic interferometry. For this purpose a CW `white' laser (argon and krypton of Coherent- Radiation, Spectrum model 70) is used. This laser produces about 10 wavelengths. A system consisting of birefringent plates and polarizers allows to select a trichromatic TEM00 triplet: blue line ((lambda) equals 476 nm, 100 mW), green line ((lambda) equals 514 nm, 100 mW) and red line ((lambda) equals 647 nm, 100 mW). In a first stage we recorded a trichromatic reflection hologram with a separate reference beam on a single-layer silver-halide panchromatic plate (PFG 03C). After processing, the hologram is put back into the original recording set-up, as in classical experiments on real-time monochromatic holographic interferometry. So we observe interference fringes between the 3 reconstructed waves and the 3 actual waves. The interference fringes of the phenomenon are observed on a screen and recorded by a video camera at 25 frames per second. A color video film of about 3 minutes of duration is presented. Some examples related to phase objects are presented (hot airflow from a candle, airflow from a hand). The actual results show the possibility of using this technique to study, in real time, aerodynamic wakes and mechanical deformation.

  4. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  5. [Biodegradable catheters for fistula prevention in hypospadias. Experimental preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Ramos, J L; Aldazabal, P; Zuza, E; Sarasúa, J R; Arrieta, A; Villanueva, A; Eizaguirre, I

    2013-04-01

    Continuous technical innovations are not enough to resolve the high incidence of fistula after hypospadias repair. A urethral catheter-tutor made of reabsorbable polymeric biomaterial (RPB) which could be left in situ long enough could reduce the complications. To investigate in an animal model differents RPB to be used in urology. CRL Wistar rats, males, divided into 5 equal groups according to the used polymers: polylactide; lactic-coprolactone copolymer; lactic-glycolic copolymer; simulated; control silicones. Three individuals were sacrificed per group at 4th, 10th and 16th week. In all animals (exceptuating the simulated group), biomaterial was fixed to the bladder wall bylaparotomy. Animals remained in individual housing and kept under daily control of hematuria during the first 15 days and weekly weight and urine control for pH and lactate. After being slaughtered, remaining polymer was collected for chemical analysis and bladder tissue for hystologic study. There was no mortality, hematuria nor other clinical signs. The bladder wall showed a mild foreign body reaction. The values of lactate and pH in urine did not reach toxic levels. Lactic-glycolic was totally reabsorbed by the 10th week and had the lowest degree of calcification. Polylactide and lactic-coprolactone remained intact. The model of urinary bladder has proven useful for studying the degradation of bioresorbable polymers. The analyzed polymers have spent long time to be reabsorbed, so we will have to study new others.

  6. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  7. [Peritoneal equilibration test: Conventional versus adapted. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Zaloszyc, Ariane; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Schaefer, Betti; Doutey, Armelle; Terzic, Joëlle; Menouer, Soraya; Higel, Laetitia; Fischbach, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Conventional automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is prescribed as a repetition of cycles with the same dwell time and the same fill volume. Water and sodium balance remains a common problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis. More recently, adapted automated peritoneal dialysis was described, as a combination of short dwells with a low volume, in order to enhance ultrafiltration, followed by long dwells with a large fill volume to favor solute removal. We performed a preliminary crossover study on 4 patients. The total amount of dialysate was the same, i.e. 2L/m(2) as well as the total duration of the test, i.e. 150 minutes. The conventional test was made with two identical cycles, each cycle had a fill volume of 1L/m(2) and a duration of 75 minutes, while the adapted test was performed with one short cycle, i.e. 30 minutes with a low fill volume, i.e. 0.6L/m(2), followed by a long cycle, i.e. 120 minutes, with a large fill volume, i.e. 1.4L/m(2). Sodium extraction was improved by 29.3mmol/m(2) (169%) in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test. Ultrafiltration was enhanced by 159mL/m(2) (128%) in the adapted test compared to the conventional one. Glucose absorption was decreased by 35% in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test and osmotic conductance was also improved. In conclusion, adapted dialysis may allow for a better volume and sodium balance, since we observed an improvement in sodium extraction and ultrafiltration. This pre-study authorizes an improvement of the European Pediatric Study's protocol on Adapted APD, already started and which will continue in the next months.

  8. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  9. Planning Genomic Study in an Animal Model of Depression: a Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Farnam, Alireza; Fakhari, Ali; Roshangar, Leila; Kahni, Sajjad; Farhang, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Interaction of several genes is responsible for psychiatric diseases such as depression. Despite the numerous microarray studies in this field, findings are controversial and hard to conclude. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly selected to receive Chronic Mild Stress model for 4 weeks. Different aspects of depression were measured by forced swimming test, open field trial and sucrose preference tests in the experience group and controls. Results Sucrose was preferred by 40% of CMS group and 80% of controls (p=0.025). Twenty percent of CMS group and 80% of controls were “active” (p=0.001). Last escape was at minute 238 for CMS group and minute 245 for controls and controls had more escape efforts. Conclusion This paper is a preliminary report of a genomic study on animal model of depression which tries to achieve reliable results by a joint of clinical view with recent techniques. Predicted challenges in this procedure and the solutions as well as the limitations may be helpful for future researches. PMID:23678424

  10. A preliminary pharmacokinetic study of betulin, the main pentacyclic triterpene from extract of outer bark of birch (Betulae alba cortex).

    PubMed

    Jäger, Sebastian; Laszczyk, Melanie N; Scheffler, Armin

    2008-12-18

    During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE) from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 microg/mL respectively), for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p.) and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.). I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 microg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 microg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p.) and dogs (s.c.). In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  11. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  12. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  13. Chemical components of shredded paper insulation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kelman, B J; Swenson, L J; Uppala, L V; Cohen, J M; Millette, J R; Mueller, W F

    1999-03-01

    We conducted an evaluation of shredded paper insulation to identify potentially toxic components. The study was to provide a preliminary characterization of a few samples of insulation currently in use. The following samples were analyzed: previously produced insulation (PPI) containing fire retardants, shredded recycled paper (PPI feedstock), freshly produced insulation (FPI), and insulation which had been installed in a residence (II). Volatile constituents were analyzed by GC-MS from headspace air of samples held at room temperature or heated to 90 degrees C. Extractable constituents were sampled by extracting with methylene chloride, and analyzing by GC-MS. Formaldehyde analysis was done according to EPA Method TO11. Headspace air at room temperature contained no detectable quantities of volatile constituents for any sample measured. In headspace air at 90 degrees C, only PPI contained traces of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes, and FPI traces of toluene. Extracts of PPI contained traces of octadecadienoic acid methyl ester and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes. Extracts of PPI feedstock contained traces of a substituted cyclohexenecarboxylic acid. FPI contained extractable diethyl phthalate (30-50 micrograms/g). Extracts of II contained traces of methyl palmitate, an octadecenoic acid methyl ester, and a phthalate plasticizer. No formaldehyde was detected. PPI was composed of approximately 98 percent paper fiber and 2 percent pre-gelatinized starch. PPI samples agglomerated together with less than 0.01 percent separating from clumps as fine dust. Boron and sodium were expected and confirmed because they were added to PPI and FPI as fire retardants. Chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and silicon were present at detectable concentrations. Study calculations indicate that an occupant would have to completely consume all the fine particles produced from 3.3 kg of insulation per day to

  14. In vivo radioprotection by alpha-TMG: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Satyamitra, M; Devi, P U; Murase, H; Kagiya, V T

    2001-08-08

    alpha-TMG is a novel water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E that has shown excellent antioxidant activity. The parent compound has demonstrated protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in vivo. Hence, the preliminary experiments to determine the radioprotective activity of alpha-TMG were carried out in adult Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity of the drug was studied taking 24h, 72 h and 30 day mortality after a single intraperitoneal injection of 500-2000 mg/kg body weight of the drug. The drug LD(50) for 24h and 72 h/30 day survival were found to be 1120 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The optimum time of drug administration and drug dose-dependent effect on in vivo radiation protection of bone marrow chromosomes was studied in mice. Injection of 600 mg/kg of the drug 15 min before or within 5, 15 or 30min after 3Gy whole body gamma radiation resulted in a significant decrease in the aberrant metaphases percent at 24h post-irradiation; the maximum effect was seen when the drug was given immediately after irradiation. Injection of 200-800 mg/kg TMG within 5 min of irradiation with 3 Gy produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes at 24h after exposure, with a corresponding decrease in the different types of aberrations. The optimum dose for protection without drug toxicity was 600 mg/kg body weight. At this dose, TMG produced 70 and >60% reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and micronucleated erythrocytes, respectively. The high water solubility and effectiveness when administered post-irradiation favor TMG as a likely candidate for protection in case of accidental exposures.

  15. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  16. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  17. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  18. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  19. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  20. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  1. A Preliminary Study of the Burgers Equation with Symbolic Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derickson, Russell G.; Pielke, Roger A.

    2000-07-01

    A novel approach based on recursive symbolic computation is introduced for the approximate analytic solution of the Burgers equation. Once obtained, appropriate numerical values can be inserted into the symbolic solution to explore parametric variations. The solution is valid for both inviscid and viscous cases, covering the range of Reynolds number from 500 to infinity, whereas current direct numerical simulation (DNS) methods are limited to Reynolds numbers no greater than 4000. What further distinguishes the symbolic approach from numerical and traditional analytic techniques is the ability to reveal and examine direct nonlinear interactions between waves, including the interplay between inertia and viscosity. Thus, preliminary efforts suggest that symbolic computation may be quite effective in unveiling the “anatomy” of the myriad interactions that underlie turbulent behavior. However, due to the tendency of nonlinear symbolic operations to produce combinatorial explosion, future efforts will require the development of improved filtering processes to select and eliminate computations leading to negligible high order terms. Indeed, the initial symbolic computations present the character of turbulence as a problem in combinatorics. At present, results are limited in time evolution, but reveal the beginnings of the well-known “saw tooth” waveform that occurs in the inviscid case (i.e., Re=∞). Future efforts will explore more fully developed 1-D flows and investigate the potential to extend symbolic computations to 2-D and 3-D. Potential applications include the development of improved subgrid scale (SGS) parameterizations for large eddy simulation (LES) models, and studies that complement DNS in exploring fundamental aspects of turbulent flow behavior.

  2. Preliminary validation study of the Russian Birmingham Cognitive Screen.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, E; Humphreys, G W; Riddoch, M J; Skvortsov, A A; Weekes, B S

    2017-03-14

    The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) is designed for use with individuals who have acquired language impairment following stroke. Our goal was to develop a Russian version of the BCoS (Rus-BCoS) by translating the battery following cultural and linguistic adaptations and establishing preliminary data on its psychometric properties. Fifty patients with left-hemisphere stroke were recruited, of whom 98% were diagnosed with mild to moderate aphasia. To check whether the Rus-BCoS provides stable and consistent scores, internal consistency, test-retest, and interrater types of reliability were determined. Eight participants with stroke and 20 neurologically intact participants were assessed twice. To inspect the discriminative power of the battery, 63 participants without brain impairment were tested with the Rus-BCoS. Additionally, the Russian version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Quantitative Assessment of Speech in Aphasia, and Luria's Neuropsychological Assessment Battery were used to examine convergent validity, sensitivity, and specificity of the Rus-BCoS. The internal consistency as well as test-retest and interrater reliability of the Rus-BCoS satisfied criteria for the research use. Performance on a majority of tasks in the battery correlated significantly with independently validated tests that putatively measure similar cognitive processes. Critically, all patients with aphasia returned nonzero scores in at least one task in all the Rus-BCoS sections, with the exception of the Controlled Attention section where two patients with severe executive control deficits could not perform. The Rus-BCoS shows promise as a comprehensive cognitive screening tool that can be used by clinicians working with Russian-speaking persons experiencing poststroke aphasia after much further validation and development of reliable normative standards. Given a lack of quantitative neuropsychological assessment tools in Russia, however, we contend the Rus-BCoS offers

  3. Byssinosis in a textile factory in Cameroon: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Takam, J; Nemery, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess the risk of byssinosis in a cotton textile factory in Cameroon a preliminary study was conducted on a random sample of 125 men from production areas and 68 men from non-production areas. Symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire, which also included questions regarding sleep; peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) was measured with a miniature peak flow meter at the end of a working day and total dust concentrations were assessed by static and personal sampling with Casella dust samplers giving values of 6.4 +/- 2.6 mg/m3 (m +/- SD) in production areas and 1.7 +/- 0.7 mg/m3 in control areas. Exposed subjects had significantly more symptoms (particularly in smokers) and lower PEF values than controls (408 +/- 961/min v 468 +/- 701/min, p less than 0.001). Twenty three exposed subjects (18%) reported chest tightness on returning to work after the weekly break (compared with one control, p less than 0.01). Subjects with byssinosis had lower PEF values than those without chest tightness (356 +/- 501/min v 426 +/- 951/min, p less than 0.01), more chronic bronchitis (52% v 6%, p less than 0.001), they were more often smokers (61% v 31%, p less than 0.05), and came generally, though not exclusively, from the opening carding spinning department with the highest concentrations of total dust (8 +/- 2 mg/m3) and an estimated prevalence of byssinosis of 28%. There were no significant differences in sleep related symptoms between the exposed and controls, though the 23 subjects with byssinosis tended to report more snoring (48%), early morning headache (48%), and sleep improvement over the working week (44%) than all the other subjects (28%, 24%, and 24% respectively, p less than 0.1). PMID:3219305

  4. Infrared laser sealing of porcine tissues: preliminary in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Perkins, William C.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    We are exploring infrared (IR) lasers as an alternative energy modality to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices intended to provide rapid surgical hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1470-nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm in 2 s, yielding burst pressures < 1200 mmHg (compared to normal systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg) and thermal coagulation zones < 3 mm (including the seal). This preliminary study describes in vivo testing of a laser probe in a porcine model. A prototype, fiber optic based handheld probe with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on blood vessels < 6 mm diameter using incident 1470-nm laser power of 35 W for 1-5 s. The probe was evaluated for hemostasis after sealing isolated and bundled vasculature of abdomen and hind leg, as well as liver and lung parenchyma. Sealed vessel samples were collected for histological analysis of lateral thermal damage. Hemostasis was achieved in 57 of 73 seals (78%). The probe consistently sealed vasculature in small bowel mesentery, mesometrium, and gastro splenic and epiploic regions. Seal performance was less consistent on hind leg vasculature including saphenous arteries and bundles and femoral and iliac arteries. Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 mm in 8 samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels in vivo. With further improvements in probe design and laser parameter optimization, IR lasers may provide an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices.

  5. Preliminary study of volcano monitoring using geochemical composition of lichen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUAN, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, is bounded with Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which is not active since 200 ka. However, some evidences indicate that the latest explosion of volcanic ash was dated to 5-6 ka as well as TVG is so close to metropolis. The monitoring on TVG is crucial for crisis management. For monitoring TVG, changes of geochemical signal in some volcanic gases and hot springs are currently assessed by monthly sampling. The geochemistry of volcanic gas and hot spring represents a short-term condition on sampling time and is highly controlled by temperature and precipitation on the surface. A long-term average geochemistry will be very helpful to be compared with the results of volcanic gas and hot spring. A bioindicator not only has the ability to store geochemical compositions in their tissues but also has a wide geographical distribution. It is very suitable in this kind of study and lichen is one of the best bioindicators mainly because lichens grow slowly and have a large-scale dependence upon the environment for their nutrition, In TVG, the high SO2 content in the atmosphere results in the absence of fruticose lichen. On the contrary, crustos lichen is the most common species in the study area. For the preliminary analysis, one fruticose, four foliose and four crustos lichens were collected around the major emission centers of volcanic gas. According to the results of ICP-MS analysis, the abundances of heavy metals are generally in the order of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, V, Co and U. Factor analysis (FA) demonstrates that most of the metals show very high loadings in the first factor. This means that the fractionation of metals among different lichen species is minor and the geochemical compositions of lichen are possibly controlled by the same source (atmosphere). The second factor of FA includes Mn, Sr and Ba, which share the same oxidation state of +2 in acidic environment. This factor can describe the variation of Mn, Sr and Ba in the

  6. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  7. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

  8. Comparative analysis between thoracic spinal cord and sacral neuromodulation in a rat spinal cord injury model: a preliminary report of a rat spinal cord stimulation model.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seung-Jae; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kwon, Ji Woong; Yoon, Cheol-Yong; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare a neuroprotective effect of thoracic cord neuromodulation to that of sacral nerve neuromodulation in rat thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) model. Twenty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the normal control group (n=5), SCI with sham stimulation group (SCI, n=5), SCI with electrical stimulation at thoracic spinal cord (SCI + TES, n=5), and SCI with electrical stimulation at sacral nerve (SCI + SES, n=5). Spinal cord was injured by an impactor which dropped from 25mm height. Electrical stimulation was performed by the following protocol: pulse duration, 0.1ms; frequency, 20 Hz; stimulation time, 30 minutes; and stimulation duration at thoracic epidural space and S2 or 3 neural foramina for 4 weeks. Locomotor function, urodynamic study, muscle weights, and fiber cross sectional area (CSA) were investigated. All rats of the SCI + TES group expired within 3 days after the injury. The locomotor function of all survived rats improved over time but there was no significant difference between the SCI and the SCI + SES group. All rats experienced urinary retention after the injury and recovered self-voiding after 3-9 days. Voiding contraction interval was 25.5±7.5 minutes in the SCI group, 16.5±5.3 minutes in the SCI+SES group, and 12.5±4.2 minutes in the control group. The recovery of voiding contraction interval was significant in the SCI + SES group comparing to the SCI group (p<0.05). Muscle weight and CSA were slightly greater in the SCI + SES than in the SCI group, but the difference was not significant. We failed to establish a rat spinal cord stimulation model. However, sacral neuromodulation have a therapeutic potential to improve neurogenic bladder and muscle atrophy.

  9. Vascularized bone marrow transplantation model in rats as an alternative to conventional cellular bone marrow transplantation: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Zamfirescu, D; Popovicu, C; Stefanescu, A; Bularda, A; Popescu, M; Zegrea, I; Lanzetta, M; Lascar, I

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to follow the development of microchimerism after allogeneic vascularized bone marrow transplantation (VBMT) versus conventional bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In one group, a VBMT model consisted of donor Brown Norway rat hind limb heterotopic transplanted on recipient Lewis rats. An intravenous infusion of donor bone marrow cells in suspension equivalent to that grafted in the vascularized femur limb was administered intravenously to recipient rats in the second group. Cellular microchimerism was investigated in recipients of VBMT versus BMT. Donor-derived cells could be detected in VBMT recipients at 30 and 60 days but not in recipients of intravenous suspension of BMC. VBMT provides a theoretical alternative to conventional cellular bone marrow transplantation by addressing crucial clinical problems such as failure of engraftment or graft-versus-host disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone tissue reaction to Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%) in a rodent model: a preliminary SEM study.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Muñoz, Diego F; Sundaram, Paul Antony; Ramírez, Norman

    2007-07-01

    A variety of metals have been used to replace the skeletal framework of human beings. Gamma titanium aluminide (gammaTiAl) has been recently developed as a prospective material for turbine applications. In this preliminary study, the potential of gammaTiAl as a biomaterial was evaluated using an in vivo rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with gammaTiAl cylinders in the femur and observed for an experimental period lasting up to 180 days. The rats were sacrificed after periods of 45, 90 and 180 days. The femurs with the gammaTiAl implants were extracted and examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Normal bone growth processes were observed as early as 45 days after gammaTiAl cylinder implantation. No signs of rejection of the implant metal were observed. In fact, a layered bone growth was observed on the implant metal surface. The bone-metal interface showed signs of tissue growth from original bone to the metal surface. gammaTiAl appears to elicit a normal bone tissue reaction and hence, has potential as a metallic implant material.

  11. Renal Function and Hemodynamic Study in Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kwang; Kang, Sung Kyew

    1995-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the renal function and hemodynamic changes in obesity and hyperinsulinemia which are characteristics of type II diabetes. Methods Studies were carried out in two groups of female Zucker rats. Group 1 rats were obese Zucker rats with hereditary insulin resistance. Group 2 rats were lean Zucker rats and served as controls. In comparison with lean Zucker rats, obese Zucker rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia but normoglycemia. Micropuncture studies and morphologic studies were performed in these rats. Results Functional studies showed that obese Zucker rats exhibited increases in kidney weight and GFR(obese Zucker, 1.23±.07)ml/min; lean Zucker, 0.93±.03ml/min). Micropuncture studies revealed that the increase in GFR in obese Zucker rats was attributable to the increases in the single nephron plasma flow rate and glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure. The glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient was the same in both groups. Morphologic studies revealed that the increase in GFR in obese Zucker rats was associated with an increase in glomerular volume. Conclusions These results suggest that obesity and hyperinsulinemia, which are the characteristics of type II diabetes, can be associated with glomerular hyperfiltration and glomerular capillary hypertension. PMID:7626557

  12. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement.

  13. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  14. Preliminary Fatigue Studies on Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Preliminary information on the complex subject of the fatigue strength of fabricated structural members for aircraft is presented in the test results obtained on several different types of airship girders subjected to axial tension and compression in a resonance fatigue machine. A description of this machine as well as numerous photographs of the fatigue failures are given. There is also presented an extended bibliography on the subject of fatigue strength.

  15. Computing and information sciences preliminary engineering design study

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J O; Pearson, E W; Thomas, J J; Brothers, J W; Campbell, W K; DeVaney, D M; Jones, D R; Littlefield, R J; Peterson, M J

    1991-04-01

    This document presents the preliminary design concept for the integrated computing and information system to be included in the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EMSL is scheduled for completion and occupancy in 1994 or 1995 and will support the DOE environmental mission, in particular hazardous waste remediation. The focus of the report is on the Computing and Information Sciences engineering task of providing a fully integrated state-of-the-art computing environment for simulation, experimentation and analysis in support of molecular research. The EMSL will house two major research organizations, the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) and part of the Environmental Sciences Research Center (ESRC). Included in the report is a preliminary description of the computing and information system to be included. The proposed system architecture is based on a preliminary understanding of the EMSL users' needs for computational resources. As users understand more about the scientific challenges they face, the definition of the functional requirements will change. At the same time, the engineering team will be gaining experience with new computing technologies. Accordingly, the design architecture must evolve to reflect this new understanding of functional requirements and enabling technologies. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. In Situ Oxidation of Liquid Trichloroethylene by Permanganate Solutions: Preliminary Results of Column Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth, Martin H.; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Istok, Jonathan D.; H.J. Morel-Seytoux

    2000-01-11

    In situ oxidation of liquid trichloroethylene by permanganate solutions: Preliminary results of column studies. In: Proceedings of the 19th American Geophysical Union Hydrology Days, H. J. Morel-Seytoux, ed., pp. 411-420. Hydrology Days Pub., Atherton, Ca.

  17. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) disodium salt (BioPQQ™) in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Koura, Seiko; Chung, Catherine; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Roberts, Ashley

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (BioPQQ™), as a supplemental food ingredient, was evaluated in a range of oral toxicity studies in rats including an acute study, a 14-day preliminary and a 28-day repeated-dose study, and a 13-week subchronic study. The median lethal dose of BioPQQ™ was shown to be 1000-2000mg/kg body weight (bw) in male and 500-1000mg/kgbw in female rats. In the 14-day study, high doses of BioPQQ™ resulted in increases in relative kidney weights with associated histopathology in female rats only, while a follow-up 28-day study in female animals resulted in increases in urinary protein and crystals. These findings were reversible, and resolved during the recovery period. In the 13-week study, a number of clinical chemistry findings and histopathological changes were noted, which were deemed to be of no toxicological significance, as the levels were within the historical control range, were not dose-dependent, occurred at a similar frequency in control groups, or only occurred in the control group. Based on these findings, a no-observed-adverse-effect level of 100mg/kgbw/day was determined for BioPQQ™ in rats, the highest dose tested in the 13-week study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong; Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  19. Preliminary investigation of changes in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the rat medial preoptic area following prenatal exposure to fenitrothion.

    PubMed

    Struve, Melanie F; Turner, Katie J; Dorman, David C

    2007-01-01

    In vitro, the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion is a potent competitive androgen receptor antagonist, whereas in vivo it affects the development of the male rat reproductive system. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether prenatal exposure to fenitrothion affects development of the rat sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area (SDN-POA). Pregnant rats (n = 5-6 litters/group) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or fenitrothion (20 or 25 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) from gestation day (GD) 12-21. Offspring were euthanized after reaching sexual maturity (females 60-65 days old and males 96-105 days old) and the SDN-POA volumes determined for two rats/sex/litter. Tremors, increased lacrimation and decreased body weight gain were observed in dams from both fenitrothion exposure groups. Reproductive effects in male offspring, including reduced anogenital distance on postnatal day (PND) 1 and increased retention of areolae (PND 13) were observed following fenitrothion exposure at these dose levels. These effects did not persist into adulthood. There was a dose-related increase in the SDN-POA volume in males and a dose-related decrease in SDN-POA volume in females exposed to fenitrothion. These SDN-POA volume changes contrast with those seen with flutamide, another potent anti-androgen, and suggest that fenitrothion may have mixed endocrine effects on the developing brain.

  20. Chronic study of diacylglycerol oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Soni, M G; Kimura, H; Burdock, G A

    2001-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diacylglycerol oil following long-term administration to rats. Diacylglycerol oil is an edible oil with comparable taste and physicochemical properties of several naturally occurring oils. Diacylglycerol oil can be used as a replacement for any generally used edible oil in the home and has been approved for use in cooking oil in Japan. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed low-fat (1.7%) basal diets containing an edible oil composed of rapeseed, corn, high linoleic safflower and high oleic safflower oils at 5.3% (control group 1); an edible oil composed of rapeseed and soybean oils at 5.3% (control group 2); diacylglycerol oil at 2.65% plus edible oil composed of rapeseed, corn, high linoleic safflower and high oleic safflower oils at 2.65% (low-dose group); and diacylglycerol oil at 5.3% (high-dose group) for 2 years. Interim sacrifices were conducted at weeks 30 and 77 and the study was terminated following 105 weeks of feeding. No compound-related effects were noted on clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, cumulative survival rates, hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights or on microscopic non-neoplastic changes. Compared to control group 2, but not control group 1, there was a significant increase in the number of high-dose group females with either benign or malignant epithelial mammary gland neoplasms. These changes were not considered biologically significant, because the tumor incidence was not similar in control group 1 and 2, and the neoplastic findings were not dose related. In summary, the two-year chronic rat study revealed no toxicologically significant or treatment-related effects of diacylglycerol oil consumption at levels of up to 5.3% in the diet.

  1. Preliminary Studies on Pulsed Electric Field Breakdown of Lead Azide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    subjected to combinations of 400.0 nm irradiation (strongly absorbed by Pb(N_)-) and strong field, for both polarities, again with no effect . It has...II n»Kt*tmy mad I4mtlty by MeeM mmt»mr) .± Lead Azide Electric Field Initiation Contact Effects Surface Effects Radiation Effect ! A9STMACT...reported. Specifically, ws-d4*eu«s the effects of contacts on the initiation of explosives by electric fields, and present preliminary weaouresents

  2. Decontamination of Johnston Island Coral: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kochen, R.L.

    1986-02-17

    A preliminary investigation was completed on the characterization and decontamination of coral samples from Johnston Island. These samples were found to contain individual particles (2 to 0.25 mm) of contaminated coral as well as a piece of contaminated magnetic metal. They ranged in activity from about 70 to 811 nCi Am-241. The decontamination methods investigated were froth flotation, ferrite treatment, attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment and dry sieving. Dry sieving, the more effective technique, separated about 42 wt % of the coral into a decontaminated fraction. This fraction (>4 mm) contained about 0.5% of the total activity. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Preliminary results from a shallow water benthic grazing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, N.L.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2005-01-01

    Despite great improvements in our knowledge on the effects of benthic grazers on seston concentrations in water columns, the effects of different hydrodynamic conditions on grazing rates has not been formulated. This makes it difficult to assess the system-wide effect of the benthic ecosystem on phytoplankton concentrations. Furthermore, it affects our ability to predict the potential success of a benthic species, such as the invasive clams Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis. This paper presents the preliminary results of a control volume approach to elucidate the effect of different hydrodynamic conditions on the grazing rates of Corbicula fluminea.

  4. Salmon fibrin glue in rats: antibody studies.

    PubMed

    Laidmäe, Ivo; Belozjorova, Jevgenia; Sawyer, Evelyn S; Janmey, Paul A; Uibo, Raivo

    2012-01-01

    Fibrin sealants and topical thrombin preparations are often used for haemostatic and sealing applications in clinical practice. Some of these preparations contain coagulation factors from bovine sources. To minimize the risk of infection and immunogenicity connected with mammalian blood products, proteins derived from the plasma of farmed Atlantic salmon have been considered as an alternative to these mammalian sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize the immunogenicity of salmon fibrin glue in an animal model focusing on crossreactivity of IgG antibodies to host endogenous counterparts. After two immunizations with salmon fibrin glue, rats developed antibodies of IgG and IgM type to both fibrin glue components. Weak crossreactivity to endogenous fibrinogen and thrombin was seen in a subset of rats after the second application of salmon proteins. Coagulation tests showed that salmon fibrin application has no effect on coagulation profiles in mammalian hosts, consistent with previous reports that found no evidence of significant crossreactivity with host proteins. These studies support the potential suitability of salmon fibrin glue for the development of preparations with clinical impact. Before human use can be considered, however, additional data about safety of this preparation in other animal models, including large animal studies, should be obtained.

  5. Crossflow instability control on a swept-wing: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, David H.

    1994-01-01

    . tunnel is of interest itself, and will be investigated more thoroughly in the future. With a view to these investigations, the boundary layer traverse mechanism in the 20 x 28 in. tunnel was modified to improve its performance, and strain gauges were mounted on the traverse in order to monitor its deflection during a test. Other preliminary work conducted in the 20 x 28 in. tunnel included the use of an infrared camera system. Previous work with this system showed that transition indeed could be detected, but the signal produced by the crossflow vortices was too weak to be detected. It was hoped that spraying the flat plate with naphthalene would augment the heat transfer associated with the crossflow vortices so that they would show up in a IR image; however, experiments showed that this would not work. Another set of tests was conducted in the 20 x 28 in. tunnel to determine the tripping requirements for a set of airfoil-shaped struts that will be used in the 8 feet TPT experiment. Since the Reynolds number associated with these struts is small, a laminar boundary layer would separate early, causing large fluctuations in the flow field. A turbulent boundary layer would remain attached further back, but tripping from laminar to turbulent flow at low Reynolds number is very difficult. However, trip strip configurations were found that should effectively trip the boundary layer at the required conditions. Currently underway is an investigation of the data acquisition requirements for the 8 feet TPT experiment, with the purpose of the finding the minimum amount of data needed to characterize sufficiently the swept-wing boundary layer. This study is being conducted using a numerically generated data set.

  6. STUDIES ON BARTONELLA MURIS ANEMIA OF ALBINO RATS

    PubMed Central

    Perla, David; Marmorston-Gottesman, J.

    1930-01-01

    Autoplastic splenic transplants were made in adult albino rats 4 weeks and 7 weeks prior to splenectomy and the protective effects against infection with the Bartonella muris anemia observed. 1. One-fourth of the spleen left in situ will protect adult albino rats against the Bartonella muris anemia. 2. Autotransplantation of splenic tissue in adult rats is successful in over 90 per cent of instances. 3. Autoplastic splenic transplants performed 7 weeks prior to splenectomy afford protection against Bartonella muris anemia in more than 50 per cent of instances, whereas 4 week old transplants do not protect. 4. A comparative histological study of the transplants of protected and unprotected rats reveals a regeneration of the pulp cells in the protected rats and an exhaustion destruction of the pulp in the unprotected rats. 5. The reticular cells play a specific rôle in protecting the adult albino rat against Bartonella muris anemia. PMID:19869746

  7. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study. PMID:23277700

  8. Methylphenidate (Ritalin): behavioral studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, Erik P; Taber, Katherine H; Yang, Pamela B; Dafny, Nachum

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome with an onset in childhood characterized by an inability to remain focused or to concentrate for prolonged periods of time. Children suffering from this disease are many times described as either inattentive or as hyperactive-impulsive depending on what form of the disease they manifest. Methylphenidate is the preferred treatment for this behavioral disorder and is used for long term disease management. Much still remains unknown concerning this stimulant and its effects on behavior and future abuse potential are pertinent questions. Since animal models are used to study the mechanism of drug action and rats are used often in drug studies, the objective of this review is to summarize the research reports that mainly have used rats as the model to investigate the action of methylphenidate. Topics discussed in this review include: (1) What effect does a single dose of methylphenidate have on locomotion activity; (2) Does repeated administration of methylphenidate result in tolerance or sensitization; and (3) Does methylphenidate have rewarding properties as measured by the self-administration and condition placed preference paradigms.

  9. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  10. Meaning of free intraperitoneal fluid in small-bowel obstruction: preliminary results using high-frequency microsonography in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Francesca; Berritto, Daniela; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Di Lanno, Imma; Maiorino, Manuela; Saba, Luca; Grassi, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the onset, evolution, and meaning of extraluminal free fluid in a rat model of small-bowel obstruction using high-frequency microsonography. Small-bowel obstruction was surgically created in 8 rats divided into 2 groups of 4 rats each. All rats were examined by high-frequency microsonography to monitor the evolution of small-bowel obstruction and the abdominal sonographic findings. In group 2 rats, the obstruction was resolved 2 hours after surgery. In all rats, free peritoneal fluid was detected just near the obstructed loop after 1 hour and in the hepatorenal recess after 2 hours. These features progressively increased in the following hours in group 1 rats. In group 2, the amount of free fluid decreased shortly after removing the obstruction. Free fluid is an early finding in small-bowel obstruction, and the increase or decrease of its amount is correlated with the worsening or resolution of the obstruction.

  11. Mitochondrial alteration caused by cnidarian toxins: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Arillo, A; Burlando, B; Carli, A M; Mariottini, G L

    1994-12-01

    Cnidarians contain different toxins causing cytotoxic and cytolytic effects probably due to cell membrane alterations. Mitochondria were used here as an experimental model system to characterize the action of cnidarian toxins. Toxin from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata affects the function of rat liver mitochondria. Effects are dose- and time-dependent and they disappear when Ca2+ is absent. This toxin could therefore have a phospholipase-like action, as reported for other cnidarians. Mitochondrial alterations by cnidarian toxins could therefore be a particular case of a general mechanism of toxicity directed towards biological membranes.

  12. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Moore, Thomas J.; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary tests were conducted to determine if interstitial element transport through a circulating helium working fluid was a potential problem in Brayton and Stirling space power systems. Test specimens exposed to a thermal gradient for up to 3000-hr included Nb-1%Zr, a Sm-Co alloy (referred to as SmCo in this paper), Hiperco 50 steel, and alumina to simulate various engine components of the Brayton and Stirling systems. Results indicate that helium transport of interstitial contaminants can be minimized over a 7-yr life with a monometallic Nb-1%Zr design. Exposure with other materials indicated a potential for interstitial contaminant transport. Determination of contamination kinetics and the effects on structural integrity will require additional testing.

  13. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Chronic response to direct myocardial revascularization: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Peter; Zheng, Shi-Ming; Kloner, Robert A.

    1993-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that laser revascularization has long-term benefits on tissue perfusion, perhaps by stimulating angiogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we made 6 transmural channels in rat hearts randomized to either; (1) laser: channels made using a 500 micrometers diameter optic fiber coupled to a holmium:YAG laser, (2) needle: channels made using a 500 micrometers diameter needle, or (3) control: no channels made. Two months later, the rats underwent 90 minutes of coronary artery occlusion followed by 41/2 hours of reperfusion. Prior to the end of the experiment, the artery was reoccluded and the heart perfused with blue dye to detect collateral perfusion within the risk region. Microscopic analysis revealed more dye-containing vessels in needle-treated hearts than in laser or control groups (12 +/- 6*, 3 +/- 1, 2 +/- 1 vessels per field of view, * p < 0.05). Needle channels also appeared to limit necrosis: infarct size was 41 +/- 6* (needle), 61 +/- 6 (laser), 70 +/- 5 (control) % of the risk region in the three groups (*p < 0.05 versus control). Thus, needle- treatment may be capable of reducing infarct size by supplying blood via a collateral circulation apparently stimulated by the channels making process.

  16. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-111 (VEGF-111) and tendon healing: preliminary results in a rat model of tendon injury

    PubMed Central

    Kaux, Jean-François; Janssen, Lauriane; Drion, Pierre; Nusgens, Betty; Libertiaux, Vincent; Pascon, Frédéric; Heyeres, Antoine; Hoffmann, Audrey; Lambert, Charles; Le Goff, Caroline; Denoël, Vincent; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Colige, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis-resistant splice variant of this family, was recently identified. This study aimed at evaluating whether VEGF-111 could have a therapeutic interest in tendon pathologies. Surgical section of one Achilles tendon of rats was performed before a local injection of either saline or VEGF-111. After 5, 15 and 30 days, the Achilles tendons of 10 rats of both groups were sampled and submitted to a biomechanical tensile test. The force necessary to induce tendon rupture was greater for tendons of the VEGF-111 group (p<0.05) while the section areas of the tendons were similar. The mechanical stress was similar at 5 and 15 days in the both groups but was improved for the VEGF-111 group at day 30 (p <0.001). No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of collagen III, tenomodulin and MMP-9. In conclusion, we observed that a local injection of VEGF-111 improves the early phases of the healing process of rat tendons after a surgical section. Further confirmatory experimentations are needed to consolidate our results. PMID:24932443

  17. Iron in hereditary retinal degeneration: PIXE microanalysis. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, C.; Gouget, B.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.; Yefimova, M.; Courtois, Y.; Jeanny, J. C.

    1999-10-01

    Several types of hereditary retinal degeneration with progressive alteration of photoreceptors exist in men and animals. Recent immunohistochemical results have shown strong degradation of transferrin, the protein responsible for iron transport, in retinas of rats with hereditary retinal degeneration. Freeze-dried thin sections of rat retinas from different stages of the disease, and respective coeval control sections, have been analyzed using nuclear microprobe. In this first part of the study, the rat retinas at post-natal stages of 35 and 45 days have been analyzed. The sample preparation and the post-irradiation staining to determine precisely the retinal layers involved are described. Preliminary results of element distributions (K, Ca, Fe) in the rat retina layers are discussed. A very high content of calcium in the choriocapillaris of dystrophic rat retinas was observed. Preliminary results on iron distribution in the rat retina layers are presented.

  18. Perceptions of Underprepared Community College Students Regarding Their Educational Achievement: Preliminary Analysis of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbatis, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This study serves as the preliminary analyses of a pilot study of community college students who persisted through their remedial classes and their programs of study and had attained the associate degree at a multicultural community college. This study is informed by Tinto's academic integration model, Astin's social involvement model and Freire's…

  19. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, C.; Vaska, P.; Schlyer, D.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Park, S.-J.; Stoll, S.; Purschke, M.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; Lee, D.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.; Neill, J.; Kandasamy, A.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Fontaine, R.; Lecomte, R.

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4×8 array of 2.2×2.2×5 mm 3 LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of ˜14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using 18F-FDG and 11C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  20. Contamination of individuals by radon daughters: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H.; Dignam, J.J.

    1988-03-01

    Body radon daughter contamination reflects relative individual respiratory exposures to radon daughters; counts can be related both to household radon levels and to lung cancer risk factors such as sex and tobacco smoking. Radon daughters were counted by gamma spectroscopy from 180 adult residents of eastern Pennsylvania. A seven-position, 35-min scan was conducted in a mobile body counter, generally during afternoon or evening hours. Track-etch detectors for household radon were distributed, and were recovered from 80% of the subjects. Over 75% of the population had environmentally enhanced radon daughter contamination. House radon levels were strongly related, as anticipated, to radon daughter contamination in the 112 subjects for whom both sets of measurements were available (p less than .001); basement measurements were as strongly related to personal contamination as were living area measurements; bedroom measurements were slightly more strongly correlated. Both sex (p less than .02) and cigarette smoking (p less than .01) significantly modified the relationships, after nonlinear adjustment for travel times. Using a logarithmic model, a given house living-area radon level was associated in females with body contamination by radon daughters 2-3 times that in males. Nonsmokers had 2-4 times higher levels of contamination than smokers. Results are for the total of internal and external contamination, these being highly correlated in preliminary experiments. Time usage and activity patterns of the subjects are believed to be important in explaining these findings, and may become important variables in radon risk assessment.

  1. Laparoscopic Herniorrhaphy with Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Using mesh or a synthetic prosthesis during the laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernias has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. A new material, porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS mesh), has been successfully used in canine and rodent animal models with excellent results. This mesh is degradable and resorbable with a marked decrease in the possibility of becoming infected. However, the amount of fibroblast ingrowth is equal to that with polypropylene mesh. Methods: A comparison was made between this new SIS mesh to repair 15 inguinal hernias in 12 patients and polypropylene mesh used in 12 similar patients. A preperitoneal approach with balloon dissection was used in all patients. Results: Demographics were similar in both groups. The results were excellent and compared equally. Complications (seroma, discomfort) were minimal in both groups and were similar. Conclusions: Porcine small intestinal submucosa, SIS mesh, can be used for laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernias. Long-term follow-up will be necessary to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:12166756

  2. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clive, P. J. M.; Chindurza, I.; Ravey, I.; Bass, J.; Boyle, R. J.; Jones, P.; Lang, S. J.; Bradley, S.; Hay, L.; Oldroyd, A.; Stickland, M.

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  3. Utilization of optimal study design for maternal and fetal sheep propofol pharmacokinetics study: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-02-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates.

  4. Utilization of Optimal Study Design for Maternal and Fetal Sheep Propofol Pharmacokinetics Study: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates. PMID:24219004

  5. Subchronic lead feeding study in male rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Duane M; Mielke, Howard W; Heneghan, James B

    2008-10-01

    This study was done to establish baseline information on the bioavailability of low levels of different species of lead by oral feeding in young rats and to compare this with lead-contaminated soils of similar dosage. These results can be used to help establish low-level risk assessments for lead exposure in children. Lead acetate was used in this study as a point of reference because it was considered to be 100% bioavailable. The required amounts of either lead acetate or lead nitrate were added to the control soil of 135 mg/kg lead to match the targeted test soil lead concentrations of 375, 750, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg lead. This lead-contaminated soil was mixed 5% (soil/diet) by weight with a semipurified lab chow diet, which resulted in final dietary lead concentrations of 6.75, 18.75, 37.5, 75, and 150 microg Pb/g diet. Results from this study indicated that (1) the dietary lead concentrations used did not result in any overt signs of lead toxicity (i.e., no significant effect on body weight gain, food consumption, or fecal output), (2) there were significant dose-dependent increases in fecal lead concentration and total fecal lead output, although there were no significant differences among study groups, (3) there was a time-dependent decrease in net whole-body lead uptake from a total group average of 65% at week 1 down to approximately 40% by week 5, and (4) there were no significant differences in terminal blood lead levels among study groups. Results from this study demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in tissue lead concentrations (mug Pb per g tissue weight) for bone, kidney, and liver for all study groups. There were no significant differences between the lead acetate and the test soil study groups at any lead dosages; however, there was a significantly increased lead incorporation into the bones from the lead nitrate study group. In summary, these results demonstrate that rats metabolize and handle lead of relatively small particle size

  6. Sediment Export from Forest Road Turn-outs: A Study Design and Preliminary Results

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the design and preliminary results of a study that evaluates the effects of commonly prescribed forest road runoff control treatments. A study design which utilizes runoff samplers, runoff diversion walls, sediment filter bags, and erosion stakes to evaluate sediment transport through runoff control treatments is documented. The study design will...

  7. Preliminary Studies of a Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Adelman, H. G.; Menees, G. P.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the new era of space exploration, there is a strong need for more efficient, cheaper and more reliable propulsion devices. With dramatic increase in specific impulse, the overall mass of fuel to be lifted into orbit is decreased, and this leads, in turn, to much lower mass requirements at lift-off, higher payload ratios and lower launch costs. The Pulsed Detonation engine (PDE) has received much attention lately due to its unique combination of simplicity, light-weight and efficiency. Current investigations focus principally on its use as a low speed, airbreathing engine, although other applications have also been proposed. Its use as a rocket propulsion device was first proposed in 1988 by the present authors. The superior efficiency of the Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE) is due to the near constant volume combustion process of a detonation wave. Our preliminary estimates suggest that the PDRE is theoretically capable of achieving specific impulses as high as 720 sec, a dramatic improvement over the current 480 sec of conventional rocket engines, making it competitive with nuclear thermal rockets. In addition to this remarkable efficiency, the PDRE may eliminate the need for high pressure cryogenic turbopumps, a principal source of failures. The heat transfer rates are also much lower, eliminating the need for nozzle cooling. Overall, the engine is more reliable and has a much lower weight. This paper will describe in detail the operation of the PDRE and calculate its performance, through numerical simulations. Engineering issues will be addressed and discussed, and the impact on mission profiles will also be presented. Finally, the performance of the PDRE using in-situ resources, such as CO and O2 from the martian atmosphere, will also be computed.

  8. Preliminary Studies of a Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Adelman, H. G.; Menees, G. P.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the new era of space exploration, there is a strong need for more efficient, cheaper and more reliable propulsion devices. With dramatic increase in specific impulse, the overall mass of fuel to be lifted into orbit is decreased, and this leads, in turn, to much lower mass requirements at lift-off, higher payload ratios and lower launch costs. The Pulsed Detonation engine (PDE) has received much attention lately due to its unique combination of simplicity, light-weight and efficiency. Current investigations focus principally on its use as a low speed, airbreathing engine, although other applications have also been proposed. Its use as a rocket propulsion device was first proposed in 1988 by the present authors. The superior efficiency of the Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE) is due to the near constant volume combustion process of a detonation wave. Our preliminary estimates suggest that the PDRE is theoretically capable of achieving specific impulses as high as 720 sec, a dramatic improvement over the current 480 sec of conventional rocket engines, making it competitive with nuclear thermal rockets. In addition to this remarkable efficiency, the PDRE may eliminate the need for high pressure cryogenic turbopumps, a principal source of failures. The heat transfer rates are also much lower, eliminating the need for nozzle cooling. Overall, the engine is more reliable and has a much lower weight. This paper will describe in detail the operation of the PDRE and calculate its performance, through numerical simulations. Engineering issues will be addressed and discussed, and the impact on mission profiles will also be presented. Finally, the performance of the PDRE using in-situ resources, such as CO and O2 from the martian atmosphere, will also be computed.

  9. A Preliminary Study of Seismicity at Ceboruco, Volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2007-12-01

    Ceboruco Volcano is located northwestern of Tepic-Zacoalco graben (Jalisco, Mexico). Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their volcano explosivity index (VEI) and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, during the first cycle the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI is estimated between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome extruded in the interior of the caldera. The dome, called Dos Equis, collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by historic andesitic lava flows located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. In February 2003 as part of an agreement with Nayarit Civil Defense a seismic station was installed in the SW flank of the volcano. The station is equipped with a Marslite (lennartz) digitizer with a 3DLe 1Hz. seismic sensor. Detection system is based on a STA/LTA recording algorithm. More than 2000 small earthquakes have been attributed to various local sources, and some of this earthquakes are possibly located beneath Ceboruco volcano. A preliminary classification separates high frequency and low frequency seismic events. The sources of high frequency earthquakes appear to be distributed as evidenced from waveforms variety and changing S-P arrivals separations. The low frequency seismic events also show varying signatures and some of them exhibit extended coda, including some monochromatic character.

  10. Teratologic studies of prenatal exposure of rats to 915-MHz microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Weinberg, I.; Brent, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant Wistar strain albino rats were used to determine possible teratogenic activity due to chronic exposure with microwave radiation at a field intensity of a 10 mW/cm/sup 2/ at a frequency of 915-MHz microwave radiation. Ten rats were irradiated in a fully characterized anechoic chamber from Days 1 to 21 of gestation. The results of preliminary studies using 20 pregnant rats indicated that this power density was the maximal level which did not cause increased rectal temperature. Twenty-nine pregnant females were used as control animals. On the 22nd day of gestation animals were killed and maternal brain, liver, kidneys, and ovaries were removed, examined, weighed, and fixed in buffered formalin. Fetuses and placentae were removed, examined, weighed, and fixed in Bouin's fixative. All fetuses were examined for malformations using a cross-section dissection methodology.No significant alterations were observed for the following parameters; maternal body weight and weight gain, term maternal organ weight and organ/body weight ratios, resorption rate, abnormality rate, mean term litter size, or mean term fetal weight. No significant teratogenic activity was observed, using these criteria, due to chronic exposure of pregnant rats to 915-MHz continuous wave microwave radiation at a 10 mW/cm/sup 2/ power density.

  11. [Preliminary Study of Necroptosis in Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Pressure Overload].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyue; Qin, Yupei; Lu, Lihui; Tang, Xiaoju; Wu, Wenchao; Fu, Hua; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to observe whether necroptosis is involved in the process of cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload. SD rats underwent transverse abdominal aortic constriction (TAC) operation for establishing cardiac hypertrophy model. The structure and function of the left ventricle of rats were evaluated via echocardiography, left ventricular mass index, the expression of markers of cardiac hypertrophy and histological detection. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the gene and protein expression of receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3, the necroptosis markers) respectively. Four weeks after TAC operation, rat model for cardiac hypertrophy was established. The experimental data showed that the gene and protein expressions of RIPK1 and RIPK3 in the rat heart hypertrophic tissues after TAC for 4 weeks were increased significantly compared with those in the sham group. HE staining showed cardiomyocytes injury and hypertrophy in the hearts of TAC rat models. By transmission electron microscope, we observed that mitochondria of cardiomyocytes were damaged seriously in the TAC models. Treatment with losartan used, the selective antagonist of angiotensin II type I receptor could improve the cardiac function of TAC rats. Moreover, losartan treatment decreased the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 in heart tissues of TAC rats. The results suggest that necroptosis occurrs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy with pressure overload, and losartan could alleviate the cardiac hypertrophy and inhibit necroptosis.

  12. Safety evaluation of arachidonic acid rich Mortierella alpina biomass in albino rats--a subchronic study.

    PubMed

    Nisha, A; Muthukumar, S P; Venkateswaran, G

    2009-04-01

    Safety evaluation of arachidonic acid rich Mortierella alpina biomass was carried out in Wistar rats by acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies. A preliminary acute toxicity study revealed that the biomass was safe at acute doses and that the LD50 exceeded 5000mg/kg BW, the highest dose used in the study. In subchronic study, rats were fed diet containing 0, 2500, 5000, 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000mg/kg, M. alpina biomass for a period of 13 weeks. Results indicated that biomass fortification had a positive influence on growth with no overt toxic effects on the survival, food consumption and body weight gain throughout the treatment interlude. The statistically significant changes in relative organ weights, serum biochemical and hematological indices in M. alpina fed groups' viz., higher relative weights of spleen, liver, brain and ovary in females, reduced hemoglobin concentration in males, elevated WBC counts at highest dose, reduction in serum triglycerides and increased alkaline phosphatase activity were not concomitant with pertinent histopathological changes and hence toxicologically inconsequential. No microscopic or macroscopic lesions attributable to the treatment were manifested in the experimental groups. The results of the present study strongly advocate the safety of M. alpina biomass in rats at levels used in the study.

  13. Identification of Emerging Self-Injurious Behavior in Young Children: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Huete, John M.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a chronic disorder that often begins in early childhood; however, few studies have examined the onset of SIB in young children. This preliminary study reports on the identification, assessment, and observation of SIB in 32 children who had begun to engage in SIB within the previous 6 months. Participants were under…

  14. Preliminary Study: Special Education Doctoral Students' Perceptions of Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Morningstar, Mary E.; Jung, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated 118 special education doctoral students' knowledge of and attitudes toward self-determination. In addition, this study examined the relationship between self-determination coursework and special education doctoral students' perceptions of how well they were prepared for implementing self-determination in their…

  15. Preliminary Design Study of a National Program for Training Skilled Aviation Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    This study supplementing a 1967 study of Arizona State University, recommends preliminary plans for the design of a national training center capable of accommodating 2,200 fliers and aviation technicians and the steps that should be taken to complete the facility by September 1972. Specific recommendations are: (1) negotiations between the…

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of human cyclophilin J

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hao; Huang, Chao-Qun; Liu, He-Li; Han, Yi; Yu, Long; Bi, Ru-Chang

    2005-02-01

    Human cyclophilin J is a member of the cyclophilin family and recent studies have indicated that it plays a role in the formation of liver cancers as a regulation factor or messenger. The preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of human cyclophilin J are reported.

  17. Identification of Emerging Self-Injurious Behavior in Young Children: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Huete, John M.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a chronic disorder that often begins in early childhood; however, few studies have examined the onset of SIB in young children. This preliminary study reports on the identification, assessment, and observation of SIB in 32 children who had begun to engage in SIB within the previous 6 months. Participants were under…

  18. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF TOPICAL HEPATIC HYPOTHERMIA IN A MODEL OF LIVER ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION INJURY IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Abdo, Emilio Elias; Figueira, Estela Regina Ramos; Rocha-Filho, Joel Avancini; Chaib, Eleazar; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Bacchella, Telesforo

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion causes organ damage but it is mandatory in hepatic transplantation, trauma and other complex liver surgeries, when Pringle maneuver is applied to minimize bleeding during these procedures. It is well known that liver ischemia/reperfusion leads to microcirculatory disturbance and cellular injury. In this setting hypothermia is known to reduce oxygen demand, lowering intracellular metabolism. To evaluate the effects of hypothermia in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury, using a new model of topic isolated liver hypothermia. We used male Wistar rats weighting about 250 grams, kept in ad libitum feeding regime and randomly divided into two groups of nine animals: 1) Normothermic group, rats were submitted to normothermic ischemia of the median and left hepatic lobes, with subsequent resection of right and caudate lobes during liver reperfusion; and 2) Hypothermic group, rats were submitted to liver ischemia under hypothermia at 10°C. Liver ischemia was performed for 45 minutes. The animals were euthanized 48 hours after liver reperfusion for blood and liver tissue sampling. The transaminases analyses showed a significant decrease of AST and ALT in Hypothermic group (P<0.01) compared to Normothermic group (1403±1234 x 454±213 and 730±680 x 271±211 U/L, respectively). Histology showed severe necrosis in 50% and mild necrosis in 50% of cases in Normothermic group, but severe necrosis in 10% and mild or absent necrosis 90% of the cases in hypothermic group. A simplified model of liver ischemia/reperfusion that simulates orthotopic liver autotransplantion was demonstrated. Topical hypothermia of isolated hepatic lobules showed liver protection, being a viable and practical method for any kind of in vivo liver preservation study.

  19. Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats: A Comparison of Diagnoses by the RF Study Pathologist and a Recent NTP Review Team, summarized by George Cruzan and submitted to the Methanol Institute

  20. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2. Preliminary program development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary development plan for the Pioneer Venus program is presented. This preliminary plan treats only developmental aspects that would have a significant effect on program cost. These significant development areas were: master program schedule planning; test planning - both unit and system testing for probes/orbiter/ probe bus; ground support equipment; performance assurance; and science integration Various test planning options and test method techniques were evaluated in terms of achieving a low-cost program without degrading mission performance or system reliability. The approaches studied and the methodology of the selected approach are defined.

  1. Oxidative DNA damage is a preliminary step during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Sandra Regina; Noguti, Juliana; Carvalho, Juliana Gonçalves; Oshima, Celina Tijuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative DNA damage during 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution through their drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. The alkaline Comet assay modified with lesion-specific enzymes was used to detect single and double strand breaks, labile sites (SBs), and oxidised purines and pyrimidines. Although no histopathological abnormalities were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure, oxidative DNA damage was detected in the 'normal' oral epithelium. In pre-neoplastic lesions and squamous cell carcinomas induced after 12 and 20 weeks following carcinogen exposure, respectively, oxidative DNA damage was also increased (P < 0.05) when compared to negative control. In conclusion, our results suggest that oxidative DNA damage is an early event during multistep carcinogenesis assay induced by 4NQO. This kind of approach should be considered to persons with high risk of oral cancer, such as in smokers or alcohol consumers.

  2. Reproductive toxicity study with a novel deoxyguanosine analogue (Metacavir) in pregnant SD rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qihui; Chen, Zhengli; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Tang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Our preliminary studies demonstrated that Metacavir has potential to become a new anti-HBV agent. The main targets of the toxic effects of Metacavir, in rhesus monkeys, were gastrointestinal tracts, liver, blood, and kidneys, which were not related to mitochondrial effects. In this study, the maternal toxicity, embryo-fetal developmental toxicity and teratogenicity were studied in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats after intragastric administration of Metacavir (200, 100, 50, 0 mg/kg body weight) during the first 6-15 days of pregnancy. Slower weight gain was observed in 5 out of 21 rats subjected to a 200 mg/kg dose, as well as 2 out of 20 subjected to a 100 mg/kg dose. Compared with the solvent control group, the calibration weight gain in the 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg dosage groups respectively, during first 6-20 pregnant days were significantly different (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Significant dose related adverse effects to other reproductive parameters were not seen in F0 and F1, but the number of stillbirths in high dose group showed notably difference compared with the control group (P < 0.05), while the litter incidence showed no difference. No Metacavir-associated pathological changes were observed. The present research indicated that at a dose of 200 mg/(kg·d) (i.e., 40 times the effective dose in rats), Metacavir shows some maternal toxicity to SD rats. The embryotoxicity in the 200 mg/kg group encompass decreased fetal body weight, and higher fetal mortality rates, compared with the control group. However, the litter incidence showed no statistical difference. All the treated rats displayed normal bone development, no teratogenicity and without adverse effects on fetal development, thus indicating that below a dose of 200 mg/(kg·d) there is no teratogenic side effects.

  3. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  4. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  5. Factorial Structure of the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheing, Gladys L. Y.; Lai, Amy K. M.; Vong, Sinfia K. S.; Chan, Fong H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the preliminary validation results for the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale (PRES). The PRES is a clinical tool developed to measure the expectations about rehabilitation treatment and outcome for people with back pain. Fifty people with chronic back pain were recruited from 11 physiotherapy outpatient…

  6. A Preliminary Study of Job-Related Communications Skills in British Columbia Sawmills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Forest Industries (British Columbia).

    A preliminary study of job-related communications skills in British Columbia sawmills investigated the extent of agreement between reading grade levels of written workplace materials and reading comprehension levels of employees expected to read them. In 1990, 227 employees in 8 sawmills were interviewed with a 52-item structured interview, a…

  7. Occupational Therapy in the Context of Head Start: A Preliminary Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…

  8. Preliminary Study of m(b) Bias at Selected Soviet Seismic Stations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-21

    8217-R66 395 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF M(B) BIRS AT SELECTED SOVIET 1/1 SEISMIC STRTIONS(U) SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP ARLINGTON VR A S RYRLL...earthquakes in each source region was not given in the ,.t 1980 paper, but in the earlier work it ranged from 35 events for Asia and the Mediter - ranean to

  9. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  10. Individual and Family Factors Impacting Diabetic Control for the Adolescent: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Mary; And Others

    Sixteen adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years and their parents participated in a preliminary study on the impact of family and individual factors on diabetes control for the adolescent. It was hypothesized that there was a relationship between the adolescent's perception of adolescent development, social support, depression, family…

  11. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  12. Occupational Therapy in the Context of Head Start: A Preliminary Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…

  13. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  14. School Library Support of Health Education in China: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…

  15. Early Language and Literacy Development among Young English Language Learners: Preliminary Insights from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessingh, Hetty; Elgie, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the preliminary findings of a two-staged empirical study aimed at gaining insights into the variables salient in the early language and literacy development of young English language learners (ELL). Increasingly, young ELL, whether foreign-born or Canadian-born, arrive at school with little developed English-language…

  16. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  17. Developing Parenting Skills through Health Visitors: Preliminary Results from an Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim

    Preliminary results of a study of the extent to which training health visitors in behavior modification techniques improves the effectiveness of their work with families of young children are presented. A total of 14 health visitors were recruited and assigned to training and delay-of-training groups. Selected from case loads, participating…

  18. A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing Racial Diversity in Environmental Education: Preliminary Results

    Treesearch

    Kathy James; Leo H. McAvoy

    1992-01-01

    This study presents preliminary result interviews with people of color working in environmental education and interpretation throughout the United States. The three primary questions asked were these? (1) What path led each individual to a career in environmental education; (2) How does each individual define environmentalism? and (3) What are the primary issues this...

  19. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  20. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  1. Factorial Structure of the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheing, Gladys L. Y.; Lai, Amy K. M.; Vong, Sinfia K. S.; Chan, Fong H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the preliminary validation results for the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale (PRES). The PRES is a clinical tool developed to measure the expectations about rehabilitation treatment and outcome for people with back pain. Fifty people with chronic back pain were recruited from 11 physiotherapy outpatient…

  2. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  3. Factors affecting weight gain and dietary intake in Latino males residing in Mississippi: A preliminary study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research indicates that as Latinos become more acculturated to the United States, their diet changes and they experience weight gain. There is also a high incidence of depression in this population. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the correlations between sociodemographic factor...

  4. ICT and UD: Preliminary Study for Recommendations to Design Accessible University Courses.

    PubMed

    Pagliara, Silvio Marcello; Sánchez Utgé, Marta; De Anna, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the Universal Design in the educational context principles, the experiences gained during the FIRB project "Net@ccessibility" and the high-education courses for teachers' specialization on special education, this research will focus on preliminary studies in order to define the recommendations for designing accessible university courses.

  5. Preliminary Study of Coupling Electrical Energy to Detonation Reaction Zone of Primasheet-1000 Explosive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Preliminary Study of Coupling Electrical Energy to Detonation Reaction Zone of Primasheet-1000 Explosive by Thuvan Piehler, Charles Hummer...1000 Explosive Thuvan Piehler, Charles Hummer, Richard Benjamin, Eugene Summers, and Kevin McNesby Weapons and Materials Research Directorate...5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thuvan Piehler, Charles Hummer, Richard Benjamin, Eugene Summers, Kevin McNesby

  6. Preliminary Observations on Sensitivity and Specificity of Magnetization Transfer Asymmetry for Imaging Myelin of Rat Brain at High Field

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Woong; Choi, Jiye; Cho, Janggeun; Lee, Chulhyun; Jeon, Daejong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) has been often used for imaging myelination. Despite its high sensitivity, the specificity of MTR to myelination is not high because tissues with no myelin such as muscle can also show high MTR. In this study, we propose a new magnetization transfer (MT) indicator, MT asymmetry (MTA), as a new method of myelin imaging. The experiments were performed on rat brain at 9.4 T. MTA revealed high signals in white matter and significantly low signals in gray matter and muscle, indicating that MTA has higher specificity than MTR. Demyelination and remyelination studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of MTA to myelination was as high as that of MTR. These experimental results indicate that MTA can be a good biomarker for imaging myelination. In addition, MTA images can be efficiently acquired with an interslice MTA method, which may accelerate clinical application of myelin imaging. PMID:26413534

  7. Preliminary Observations on Sensitivity and Specificity of Magnetization Transfer Asymmetry for Imaging Myelin of Rat Brain at High Field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Woong; Choi, Jiye; Cho, Janggeun; Lee, Chulhyun; Jeon, Daejong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) has been often used for imaging myelination. Despite its high sensitivity, the specificity of MTR to myelination is not high because tissues with no myelin such as muscle can also show high MTR. In this study, we propose a new magnetization transfer (MT) indicator, MT asymmetry (MTA), as a new method of myelin imaging. The experiments were performed on rat brain at 9.4 T. MTA revealed high signals in white matter and significantly low signals in gray matter and muscle, indicating that MTA has higher specificity than MTR. Demyelination and remyelination studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of MTA to myelination was as high as that of MTR. These experimental results indicate that MTA can be a good biomarker for imaging myelination. In addition, MTA images can be efficiently acquired with an interslice MTA method, which may accelerate clinical application of myelin imaging.

  8. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  9. The Status of Women in Alaska, 1977. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy M.; And Others

    To determine the precise nature and extent of the problem confronting Alaskan women, the Legislature in 1976 directed the Human Rights Commission to conduct a study on the status of women in education, employment, health, and the justice system. This publication contains the results of that study. Data for the study were secured through interviews…

  10. The Status of Women in Alaska, 1977. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy M.; And Others

    To determine the precise nature and extent of the problem confronting Alaskan women, the Legislature in 1976 directed the Human Rights Commission to conduct a study on the status of women in education, employment, health, and the justice system. This publication contains the results of that study. Data for the study were secured through interviews…

  11. Effect of metal fragments in brain on electrical monitoring: In vitro and in vivo rat studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, A.; Bodo, M.; Armonda, R. A.

    2010-04-01

    Preliminary results showed, measurements by rheoencephalography (REG) very promising as a practical, noninvasive continuous monitoring modality of traumatic brain/blast injuries. As the impact of metal fragments on the REG signal is unknown, we report here results of our study .The in vitro study confirmed that impedance pulse amplitude waves do not change in the presence of metal (needles) placed between electrodes. In vivo studies: rats under anesthesia (10 rats, 101 trials) were measured after implantation of EEG and REG electrodes in the brain. Metal fragments were represented by 18 g needles inserted and removed between EEG and REG electrodes. Data were stored in a PC. EEG recording typically showed amplitude decrease; REG showed transitory amplitude increase after placement of a needle into either hemisphere. Removal of needles caused a decrease in REG amplitude after a transitory increase. The change in REG amplitude statistically was non-significant. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation(AR) persisted following placement of metal fragments in rat brain.

  12. Preliminary study of Kelso Dunes using AVIRIS, TM, and AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Pung; Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing of sand dunes helps in the understanding of aeolian process and provides important information about the regional geologic history, environmental change, and desertification. Remotely sensed data combined with field studies are valuable in studying dune morphology, regional aeolian dynamics, and aeolian depositional history. In particular, active and inactive sands of the Kelso Dunes have been studied using landsat TM and AIRSAR. In this report, we describe the use of AVIRIS data to study the Kelso dunes and to compare the AVIRIS information with that from TM and AIRSAR.

  13. Supporting Off-Shore Students: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussin, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of a recent research study into current initiatives to support the learning of non-English speaking background (NESB) transnational students in Asia who are studying off-shore at Australian universities. Learning support and development staff in 12 universities were surveyed using a questionnaire. The survey…

  14. Personality Study of Hawaii Japanese Nonagenarians: Preliminary Findings. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izutsu, Satoru; Rose, Charles L.

    As part of a larger study of the demographics, family, household, health, diet, activity, functioning, and mental ability of older Japanese people living in Hawaii which will be compared to similar studies conducted in Japan, personality data were obtained from 101 noninstitutionalized Japanese with an average age of 92 years, residing in Hawaii.…

  15. Young Children's Perceptions of Scientists: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since the 1950s, there has been a growing body of research dealing with perceptions children have of scientists. Typically, research studies in this area have utilized children's drawings in an effort to discern what those perceptions are. Studies assessing perceptions children have of scientists have shown that children have…

  16. Citations to Wikipedia in Chemistry Journals: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzeal, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the subject of an increasing number of studies. Many of these have focused on the quality of Wikipedia articles and the use of Wikipedia by students. Little research has focused on the use of Wikipedia by scholars. This study helps to fill that gap by examining citations to Wikipedia in chemistry journals from three major…

  17. Personality Study of Hawaii Japanese Nonagenarians: Preliminary Findings. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izutsu, Satoru; Rose, Charles L.

    As part of a larger study of the demographics, family, household, health, diet, activity, functioning, and mental ability of older Japanese people living in Hawaii which will be compared to similar studies conducted in Japan, personality data were obtained from 101 noninstitutionalized Japanese with an average age of 92 years, residing in Hawaii.…

  18. Citations to Wikipedia in Chemistry Journals: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzeal, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the subject of an increasing number of studies. Many of these have focused on the quality of Wikipedia articles and the use of Wikipedia by students. Little research has focused on the use of Wikipedia by scholars. This study helps to fill that gap by examining citations to Wikipedia in chemistry journals from three major…

  19. PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY OF KALANCHOE SPATHULATA DC. ON INFLAMMATORY WOUND

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, C. L.; Yadav, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Here, an attempt is made to study the clinical aspect of Kalanchoe spathulata Dc. It has been observed that would heals rapidly leaving no scar. The study clearly validates the ancient concept of Ayurveda, that without taking the help of surgery, there are several medicinal plants which may cure diseases very well. PMID:22557495

  20. Young Children's Perceptions of Scientists: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since the 1950s, there has been a growing body of research dealing with perceptions children have of scientists. Typically, research studies in this area have utilized children's drawings in an effort to discern what those perceptions are. Studies assessing perceptions children have of scientists have shown that children have…

  1. Suitability of a Freeze Dried Product as a Vehicle for Vitamin Fortification of Military Ration Packs: A Preliminary Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Suitability of a Freeze Dried Product as a Vehicle for Vitamin Fortification of Military Ration Packs: A Preliminary Study...Suitability of a Freeze Dried Product as a Vehicle for Vitamin Fortification of Military Ration Packs: A Preliminary Study Executive...The product selected for fortification was Chicken Tetrazzini. The freshly cooked meal was fortified with each vitamin and with combinations of

  2. NASA Desert RATS 2010: Preliminary Results for Science Operations Conducted in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lofgren, G. E.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Bell, E. R.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with international partners to develop the space architectures and mission plans necessary for human spaceflight beyond earth orbit. These mission plans include the exploration of planetary surfaces with significant gravity fields. The Apollo missions to the Moon demonstrated conclusively that surface mobility is a key asset that improves the efficiency of human explorers on a planetary surface. NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona. Conducted since 1998, these activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in relatively harsh climatic conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable

  3. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Wells, Beric E.; Bao, Jie; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Chun, Jaehun; Karri, Naveen K.; Li, Huidong; Tran, Diana N.

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  4. Pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Mayank; Khaliq, Farah; Singhal, Siddarth; Tandon, O P

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposures to petrol/diesel vapors have been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was planned to assess the pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers (filling attendants) who are continuously exposed to petrol/diesel vapors during duty hours. Thirty healthy non-smoker males working in petrol pump for more than one year formed the study group, while thirty healthy non-smoker males from hospital staff served as control group. The pulmonary functions were assessed using computerized spirometer. The FVC and FEV1 were decreased in the study group while their ratio did not differ much. Both the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were also decreased in the study group. These findings point towards adverse effects of petrol/diesel fumes mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease.

  5. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 2 and appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data to support results obtained in technology assessment studies are presented. Objectives, starting points, and future study tasks are outlined. Key design issues discussed in appendices include: data allocation, transposition network design, fault tolerance and trustworthiness, logic design, processing element of existing components, number of processors, the host system, alternate data base memory designs, number representation, fast div 521 instruction, architectures, and lockstep array versus synchronizable array machine comparison.

  6. [Omeprazole: a new treatment for paranasal sinus polyps in Widal syndrome. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Serra, J; Piñas, J; Arnaiz, J A; Quesada, P; Naches, S; Lorente, J; Carne, X

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary report is made of the potential therapeutic effect of omeprazol in reducing nasosinusal polyps. This study is based on the empirical observation of nasal airflow improvement in patients suffering from nasosinusal polyposis after administering omeprazol. Different phases of the study suggested that patients with Widal's syndrome benefited the most. Based on the results of this study, we have undertaken a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

  7. Nail changes in casted and braced clubfoot: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Kumar, Anubrat; Khanna, Deepshikha; Shaharyar, Abbas; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed at finding whether there are any nail changes specific to treatment in clubfoot. Sixty new, 26 undergoing serial corrective casting, and 247 clubfoot patients using foot abduction braces were prospectively studied. The casted and braced group formed the basis of the study to observe nail changes, if any. The new patients and opposite normal foot (in unilateral casted cases) were taken as controls. Acute paronychia, ingrown toe nail, onychoshizia, onychorrhexis, nail plate concavity, latent onychomadesis, and distal onycholysis were observed in feet undergoing corrective casting and bracing. Micronychia, malalignment and thinning of nail plate were the observed congenital nail anomalies. Nail changes in clubfeet are not infrequent. Certain nail changes might be etiologically linked to casting and bracing. Some of nail changes might require urgent medical care. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  9. Preliminary studies of combustor sensitivity to alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Combustion problems associated with using alternative fuels ground power and aeropropulsion applications were studied. Rectangular sections designed to simulate large annular combustor test conditions were examined. The effects of using alternative fuels with reduced hydrogen content, increased aromatic content, and a broad variation in fuel property characteristics were also studied. Data of special interest were collected which include: flame radiation characteristics in the various combustor zones; the correponding increase in liner temperature from increased radiant heat flux; the effect of fuel bound nitrogen on oxides of nitrogen (NO sub x) emissions; and the overall total effect of fuel variations on exhaust emissions.

  10. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  11. Preliminary study of injection transients in the TPS storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Liu, Y. C.; Y Chen, J.; Chiu, M. S.; Tseng, F. H.; Fann, S.; Liang, C. C.; Huang, C. S.; Y Lee, T.; Y Chen, B.; Tsai, H. J.; Luo, G. H.; Kuo, C. C.

    2017-07-01

    An optimized injection efficiency is related to a perfect match between the pulsed magnetic fields in the storage ring and transfer line extraction in the TPS. However, misalignment errors, hardware output errors and leakage fields are unavoidable. We study the influence of injection transients on the stored TPS beam and discuss solutions to compensate these. Related simulations and measurements will be presented.

  12. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    Nicolls et aZ., 1965). D’Souza and Mistry (1970) studied the uptake of 210Pb in red kidney bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris ). After 15 days in the test...Dooren de Jong, L.E. (1965), "Tolerance of Chiorella vulgaris for Metallic and Non-metallic Ions," Antonie van Leeuw.enhoek, 31, 301-313, in Burrows

  13. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  14. Preliminary study of NAVSTAR/GPS for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, R. D.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The activities conducted as a planning effort to focus attention on the applicability of the global positioning system for general aviation are described. The description of GPS, its impact on economic and functional aspects of general aviation avionics, as well as a declaration of potential extensions of the basic concept have been studied in detail.

  15. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  16. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  17. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  18. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who…

  19. Learning Disabilities in Alcohol-Dependent Adults: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sharyn S.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    The study found that 40 percent of 25 adult alcoholics were found to have had special education, remedial services, or repeated grade failure concurrent with a familial history of alcoholism and current discrepancies indicative of learning disabilities. Results suggest that childhood learning disorders may be related to the development of…

  20. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  1. Functional Communication Training in Rett Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population (Sigafoos et al., 2009). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and…

  2. Telerobotic field geologist - Preliminary results of a feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert E.; Albert-Thenet, Charlotte; Taylor, G. J.; Johnson, Paul; Buzan, Forrest; Ishigo, Joy; Ikehara, Curtis

    1992-01-01

    Results of three laboratory studies conducted to explore the feasibility of developing a telerobot to perform planetary field geology are presented. A total of 72 college students attempted to match each of 15 geologic rock samples viewed either directly or on a TV screen with its matched pair contained in a matrix of 24 rocks which they viewed directly. The first study showed that rocks viewed on TV could be matched at levels well above chance, but significantly less than by direct view. Performance under remote view was improved by adding color and by magnifying the TV image. The second study showed a large decrease in performance when viewing a miniature LCK monitor as compared to a 19-in. CRT monitor of higher resolution. In the third study performance using the 2.9-in. LCK monitor showed only insignificant increases when images were presented in 3D view or when the rock was moved. It is suggested that it is feasible to conduct geologic observations with telerobots, and the critical role that image quality plays in determining performance is demonstrated.

  3. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  4. Problems of Eskimo Relocation for Industrial Employment. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, D. S.

    A study was conducted to determine the reasons for variable success in relocating Eskimo families from rural areas of the northern territories of Canada to southern centers of industrial employment (railways, mining centers). The data were collected by interviewing 105 Eskimos, both male and female, married and single, who had migrated south. The…

  5. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who…

  6. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  7. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 8, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG&G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  8. Preliminary study on flakeboard panels made from aspen slash wood

    Treesearch

    Yan Yu; Alan Rudie; Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    The disposal of forest-thinning residue is one of the major problems for sustainable forest management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the technical possibility of utilizing aspen logging slash wood with a diameter ranging from 50 to 76 mm for flakeboard production. Influences of weight ratio between slash wood and commercial flakes on the selected...

  9. [Bacteriological monitoring of patients with periimplantitis (preliminary study)].

    PubMed

    Pashkova, G S; Nikitin, V V; Isadzhanian, K E; Apkhadze, A R; Zhilenkov, E L

    2014-01-01

    Studied the microflora properties of pockets around implants of 14 patients at the age of 35-68 years old. The research has shown the presence of pathogens, who p included into PRC diagnosis. Lhe research also revealed high prevalence of obligate piriodontak pathogens in areas of inflammation during periimplantitis. with both full and partial adentia.

  10. [Development of rheumatoid arthritis functional handicap assessment questionnaire: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Guermazi, M; Poiraudeau, S; Lefevre-Colau, M M; Revel, M

    2003-06-01

    To construct a handicap assessment questionnaire for rheumatoid arthritis and to determine if the concept of "participation" can replace the one of "handicap". Selection of daily life domains and items was based on the International Classification of Impairment Disability and Handicap "ICIDH" and on some others handicap epidemiological studies. The questionnaire was tested among rheumatoid arthritis patients. The relation between handicap and participation was investigated. Statistics analysis was performed with Systat.9 program. Spearman's correlation coefficient between 2 quantitative variables was examined. Six among the 7 "ICIDH" domains were included in the questionnaire. Each of them was explored with many items. Forty-six items were included; each item was explored in 4 chapters:participation assessment with VAS (Visual Analogical Scale) before rheumatoid arthritis and during the study; difficulties: need of help, environment accessibility, patient's satisfaction, feeling of devalorization; patient's propositions;handicap assessment with VAS; other questions were added in some particular items. Thirty patients were included in the study (23 women), the average age was 51 years. Five patients didn't understand the meaning of "Handicap".This study allows us to eliminate 2 items, to add 2 others and to ameliorate 1 of them. Correlation between handicap and participation was moderate to bad. This questionnaire allows to explore rheumatoid arthritis handicap. Each domain of the daily life can be assessed separately. The main difficulties are the length and the impossibility to be self-administered. Handicap and participation probably assess different concepts or are differently understood by patients.

  11. Preliminary study of ceramic-metal interface in thermal boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremouilles, G.; Derep, J. Luc

    1987-10-01

    The interface of yttrium doped zircon ceramic on NiCrAlY alloy is studied. The different phases in the zircon are examined with electron microscopy. The presence of alumina in the interface is demonstrated. The possibility of damaging the NiCrAlY substrate when using a plasma gun is discussed.

  12. Landmarks in the World Wide Web: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffron, Jennifer K.; Dillon, Andrew; Mostafa, Javed

    1996-01-01

    Outlines results of a pilot study examining what constitutes a landmark in hypertext. Seven subjects began a search task from the same Indiana University School of Library and Information Science Homepage; searches had to be conducted without the use of search engines, and strictly following hypertext links. (Author/AEF)

  13. Telerobotic field geologist - Preliminary results of a feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robert E.; Albert-Thenet, Charlotte; Taylor, G. J.; Johnson, Paul; Buzan, Forrest; Ishigo, Joy; Ikehara, Curtis

    1992-01-01

    Results of three laboratory studies conducted to explore the feasibility of developing a telerobot to perform planetary field geology are presented. A total of 72 college students attempted to match each of 15 geologic rock samples viewed either directly or on a TV screen with its matched pair contained in a matrix of 24 rocks which they viewed directly. The first study showed that rocks viewed on TV could be matched at levels well above chance, but significantly less than by direct view. Performance under remote view was improved by adding color and by magnifying the TV image. The second study showed a large decrease in performance when viewing a miniature LCK monitor as compared to a 19-in. CRT monitor of higher resolution. In the third study performance using the 2.9-in. LCK monitor showed only insignificant increases when images were presented in 3D view or when the rock was moved. It is suggested that it is feasible to conduct geologic observations with telerobots, and the critical role that image quality plays in determining performance is demonstrated.

  14. A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

  15. ADME studies and preliminary safety pharmacology of LDT5, a lead compound for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Noël, F.; Nascimento-Viana, J.B.; Romeiro, L.A.S.; Silva, R.O.; Lemes, L.F.N.; Oliveira, A.S.; Giorno, T.B.S.; Fernandes, P.D.; Silva, C.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties and safety of LDT5, a lead compound for oral treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia that has previously been characterized as a multi-target antagonist of α1A-, α1D-adrenoceptors and 5-HT1A receptors. The preclinical characterization of this compound comprised the evaluation of its in vitro properties, including plasma, microsomal and hepatocytes stability, cytochrome P450 metabolism and inhibition, plasma protein binding, and permeability using MDCK-MDR1 cells. De-risking and preliminary safety pharmacology assays were performed through screening of 44 off-target receptors and in vivo tests in mice (rota-rod and single dose toxicity). LDT5 is stable in rat and human plasma, human liver microsomes and hepatocytes, but unstable in rat liver microsomes and hepatocytes (half-life of 11 min). LDT5 is highly permeable across the MDCK-MDR1 monolayer (Papp ∼32×10-6 cm/s), indicating good intestinal absorption and putative brain penetration. LDT5 is not extensively protein-bound and is a substrate of human CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 but not of CYP3A4 (half-life >60 min), and did not significantly influence the activities of any of the human cytochrome P450 isoforms screened. LDT5 was considered safe albeit new studies are necessary to rule out putative central adverse effects through D2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B receptors, after chronic use. This work highlights the drug-likeness properties of LDT5 and supports its further preclinical development. PMID:27901175

  16. Advanced Analysis of Finger-Tapping Performance: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Barut, Çağatay; Kızıltan, Erhan; Gelir, Ethem; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The finger-tapping test is a commonly employed quantitative assessment tool used to measure motor performance in the upper extremities. This task is a complex motion that is affected by external stimuli, mood and health status. The complexity of this task is difficult to explain with a single average intertap-interval value (time difference between successive tappings) which only provides general information and neglects the temporal effects of the aforementioned factors. Aims: This study evaluated the time course of average intertap-interval values and the patterns of variation in both the right and left hands of right-handed subjects using a computer-based finger-tapping system. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Thirty eight male individuals aged between 20 and 28 years (Mean±SD = 22.24±1.65) participated in the study. Participants were asked to perform single-finger-tapping test for 10 seconds of test period. Only the results of right-handed (RH) 35 participants were considered in this study. The test records the time of tapping and saves data as the time difference between successive tappings for further analysis. The average number of tappings and the temporal fluctuation patterns of the intertap-intervals were calculated and compared. The variations in the intertap-interval were evaluated with the best curve fit method. Results: An average tapping speed or tapping rate can reliably be defined for a single-finger tapping test by analysing the graphically presented data of the number of tappings within the test period. However, a different presentation of the same data, namely the intertap-interval values, shows temporal variation as the number of tapping increases. Curve fitting applications indicate that the variation has a biphasic nature. Conclusion: The measures obtained in this study reflect the complex nature of the finger-tapping task and are suggested to provide reliable information regarding hand performance. Moreover, the

  17. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance.

  18. Preliminary report of an immunological study in urological cancer.

    PubMed

    Serrallach, N; Jimenez, J F; Aguiló, F; Anguera, A; Clavo, M; Orejas, V; Torner, V; Serrate, R

    1975-01-01

    In this study, 32 cases of cancer of the genito-urinary tract are discussed from the viewpoint of immunology. In eight cases treated surgically, there has been no evidence of recurrence over a period of 1-4 years. Those with a good immunological response have a satisfactory course. Patients with a good response have been treated by radical surgery depending on the stage of the tumour, whilst those with a poor response have been treated less radically by reduction of the tumour mass in the hope that a better response may develop. The authors of this report feel that the 'inhibition of the lymphocyte migration test' is a very important factor to evaluate in the study and immunological evolution of the patient. Also, and concerning cases with good immunological response, the poor results after surgery makes us consider the importance and value of blocking factors of the serum closely related to the B type lymphocytes.

  19. Gravity of the New Madrid seismic zone; a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Mo. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  20. Depressed patients’ preferences for type of psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yrondi, Antoine; Rieu, Julie; Massip, Claire; Bongard, Vanina; Schmitt, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment recommendations for depressed patients by the American Psychiatric Association encourage a focus on the patient’s preferences. The focus of this study was the preference of depressed inpatients for the type of psychotherapy. Methods Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes who were hospitalized with a major depressive episode were interviewed at 5-day intervals with the same questions after the depressive episode resolved, as indicated by a score less than 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The selection of items was performed by expert consensus. Results The supportive psychotherapy scores were the highest, followed by psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The two sessions conducted at 5-day intervals showed no significant difference, which reflected the stability of choices and preferences of patients. Conclusion In this study, the patients preferred supportive psychotherapy as first-line therapy compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:26491265

  1. Dissociation and fantasy proneness in psychiatric patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Merckelbach, Harald; à Campo, Joost; Hardy, Solange; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Nonclinical studies found that dissociative experiences are intimately linked to a trait known as fantasy proneness. We examined the links among dissociative symptoms, fantasy proneness, and impulsivity in psychiatric outpatients. Our sample consisted of 22 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, and 19 patients with a major depressive disorder. For the whole sample, levels of dissociation were found to be related to fantasy proneness and impulsivity. There were group differences in dissociative symptoms, with patients with borderline personality disorder reporting more such symptoms than patients with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The overlap between dissociation and fantasy proneness may have important ramifications for studies addressing comorbid phenomena of dissociative symptoms.

  2. A preliminary study of flat-panel displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    Six display technologies that might be of future value in a spacelab workstation are discussed. Some have been developed to the point where they could be used as a computer display while others have not. The display technologies studied are electroluminescents, light-emitting didodes, gas plasma, liquid crystal, electrochromic, and electrophoretic. An explanation of each mechanism is provided along with the state-of-the-art development.

  3. Preliminary results from two international pluvial flood event studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roezer, Viktor; Spekkers, Matthieu; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial floods have caused severe damages to urban dwellings in Europe and elsewhere in recent years. With a predicted increase in extreme weather events as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. These type of flood events, caused by stormwater being unable to enter urban drainage systems or flowing out of urban drainage systems when capacity is exceeded, often happen with little warning and in areas which are often not obviously prone to flooding. Up to now little research was done on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods, as empirical damage data of pluvial flooding is scarce. In this study, results of two telephone surveys are discussed. The surveys comprise interviews with more than 500 flood-affected households in Germany (Münster and Greven) and the Netherlands (Amsterdam), related to the severe rain event of July 28th 2014. Respondents were asked a series of questions about the damage to their building structure and contents, as well as on topics such as early warning, emergency and precautionary measures, building properties and hazard characteristics. The questionnaire was developed with the aim to create a harmonized transnational pluvial flood damage survey that can potentially be extended to other European countries. New indicator variables have been developed to account for different national and regional standards in building structure, early warning, socio-economic data and recovery. The survey data from the German and Dutch case studies are compared with the goal to identify similarities and differences in damage reducing factors and recovery. Water level data and other hazard characteristics are used to form comparable groups out of the German and Dutch sample. Within these groups, regional distinctions in building topology and use are expected to have the strongest impact on differences between reported damage amounts of the two case studies. The newly collected data will be used in

  4. Preliminary space station solar array structural design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, J. T.; Bush, H. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient ways to support the large solar arrays (3,716 square meters which are currently considered for space station use) are examined. An erectable truss concept is presented for the on orbit construction of winged solar arrays. The means for future growth, maintenance, and repair are integrally designed into this concept. Results from parametric studies, which highlight the physical and structural differences between various configuration options are presented. Consideration is given to both solar blanket and hard panel arrays.

  5. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A mixed exhaust, direct drive fan turbofan configuration was selected from four candidates. This choice was based on its ability to exceed study goals of 12% lower thrust specific fuel consumption and 5% lower direct operating cost by the 1990's with commercially acceptable technical risk and relative mechanical simplicity. The evaluation leading to configuration selection is discussed. Necessary technology advancements are identified and related to the goals.

  6. A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.

  7. Parkinson's disease and forced exercise: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Qutubuddin, Abu; Reis, Timothy; Alramadhani, Raed; Cifu, David X; Towne, Alan; Carne, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The concept of forced exercise has drawn attention for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms with anecdotal reports of success. This study sought to ascertain any significant effect of forced exercise using a motorized stationary bicycle when compared to controls on Parkinson's disease symptoms in a blinded, randomized, and controlled setting. Setting. Parkinson's disease outpatient clinic, Veterans Administration Medical Center. Method. We assessed 23 patients (13 experimental and 10 controls) on a number of standard Parkinson's measures at baseline, after participation in eight weeks of twice weekly forced exercise or eight weeks of conventional clinic care, and then after a three-month period had elapsed. Dependent measures were UPDRS-III, Berg Balance Scale, finger taping test, and the PDQ-39. Results. Results did not demonstrate any main effect differences between the exercise and control groups on any measure at any point in time. A within subjects effect was demonstrated for the forced exercise group on overall UPDRS-III scores at the three-month end point. No other within group effects were noted. Results suggest that early enthusiasm for forced exercise may need tempering. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as numerous logistical challenges to this type of study.

  8. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  9. Motor Empathy in Individuals With Psychopathic Traits: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Khvatskaya, Yelena; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2016-10-01

    The present laboratory study examined motor empathy in male and female individuals, who were either high or low on psychopathic traits, drawn from a nonclinical university population. Past findings suggest that psychopathic individuals are impaired in affective empathy, but findings on impairments in cognitive empathy are mixed. Research on motor empathy in psychopathy is scarce. The authors hypothesized that individuals high on psychopathic traits would have deficient motor empathy (similar to affective empathy) related to valenced emotion stimuli because of the automatic nature of motor empathy. Potential participants completed the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R). Participants were chosen for the study on the basis of their PPI-R scores. All participants viewed photographic images drawn from a well-established set of stimuli (the International Affective Picture System) and were video recorded while doing so. Intensity for eight emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, fear, sad, joy, surprise, and neutral) in participants' facial expressions was measured objectively using an automated program, the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox. Individuals high on psychopathic traits as compared with low PPI-R scorers displayed significantly less emotional congruence when viewing negative images. The study results suggest that deficits in motor empathy related to psychopathic trait levels are relatively restricted to negative emotions.

  10. Assessment and attitude of university students about elderly: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, ZA; Ghaedi, FB; Hamissi, JH; Eskandari, S

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitude of dental students towards elderly patients. This approach might increase the responsiveness and need of the geriatric dental education within the undergraduate dental students curriculum, which is the persistent necessity for today communities. Methods & Materials: A cross–sectional study was conducted on 201 students who were randomly selected. The investigation was carried out in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. The attitude of dental students towards elderly was measured with a self-administered questionnaire consisting of an Aging Semantic Differential scale (ASD), which was developed by Rozencranz and Mc Nevin. Results: According to the findings of this study, the students’ attitude remained very positive towards the elderly patients as they showed a strong demand to work with elderly patients. This consisted of a 24 bipolar pair of adjectives that described the attributes of behavioral characteristics thought to be applicable to persons of all ages. Conclusion: According to our finding, the future geriatric dentistry is not towards a weak point in Iran as compared with the undesirable attitudes of dental students in the developed countries.

  11. A preliminary metagenomic study of puer tea during pile fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Changyong; Chen, Chaoyin; Ge, Feng; Liu, Diqiu; Zhao, Shenglan; Chen, Dan

    2013-10-01

    Up to now, there has been no report on the taxonomic and functional analysis of the microbial community in fermenting puer tea by pyrosequencing. In this study, metagenomic pyrosequencing was first used in fermenting puer tea to delineate a relatively comprehensive overview of the microbial taxonomy while also preliminarily characterising the functional ontologies of microbial genes present in puer tea pile fermentation. A total of 251 738 pyrosequencing reads (9197 contigs and 145 402 singletons) were generated by pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed three dominant bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria (30.08%), Proteobacteria (24.47%) and Firmicutes (20.23%), and one dominant eukaryotic phylum, Ascomycota (15.21%) [corrected]. A total of 58 664 hits were categorised into 28 functional subsystems based on the SEED database. Moreover, two categories, 'metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides' and 'biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites', were selectively analysed and 69 enzyme genes were presented in 16 pathways. The dominant microbes of puer tea fermentation were bacteria in the present study, and yeasts rather than moulds accounted for the overwhelming majority of Eukaryota. The analysis of functional genes and metabolic pathways will be helpful for further study of the mechanism of puer tea fermentation at molecular level. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Parkinson's Disease and Forced Exercise: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Timothy; Alramadhani, Raed; Cifu, David X.; Towne, Alan; Carne, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The concept of forced exercise has drawn attention for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms with anecdotal reports of success. This study sought to ascertain any significant effect of forced exercise using a motorized stationary bicycle when compared to controls on Parkinson's disease symptoms in a blinded, randomized, and controlled setting. Setting. Parkinson's disease outpatient clinic, Veterans Administration Medical Center. Method. We assessed 23 patients (13 experimental and 10 controls) on a number of standard Parkinson's measures at baseline, after participation in eight weeks of twice weekly forced exercise or eight weeks of conventional clinic care, and then after a three-month period had elapsed. Dependent measures were UPDRS-III, Berg Balance Scale, finger taping test, and the PDQ-39. Results. Results did not demonstrate any main effect differences between the exercise and control groups on any measure at any point in time. A within subjects effect was demonstrated for the forced exercise group on overall UPDRS-III scores at the three-month end point. No other within group effects were noted. Results suggest that early enthusiasm for forced exercise may need tempering. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as numerous logistical challenges to this type of study. PMID:23853722

  13. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  14. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  15. Preferences, predictions and patient enablement: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The widely used patient enablement instrument (PEI) is sometimes contrasted against measures of patient satisfaction as being a more objective measure of consultation quality, in that it is less likely to be positively influenced by fulfilling pre-existing expectations for specific consultation outcomes (such as prescriptions or referrals). However the relationship between expectation and enablement is underexplored, as is the relationship between ‘expectation’ understood as a patient preference for outcome, and patient prediction of outcome. The aims of the study are to 1) assess the feasibility of measuring the relationship between expectation fulfilment and patient enablement, and 2) measure the difference (if any) between expectation understood as preference, and expectation understood as prediction. Methods A questionnaire study was carried out on 67 patients attending three General Practices in the Australian Capital Territory. Patient preferences and predictions for a range of possible outcomes were recorded prior to the consultation. PEI and the actual outcomes of the consultation were recorded at the conclusion of the consultation. Data analysis compared expectation fulfilment as concordance between the preferred, predicted, and actual outcomes, with the PEI as a dependant variable. Results No statistically significant relationship was found between either preference-outcome concordance and PEI, or prediction-outcome concordance. Statistically insignificant trends in both cases ran counter to expectations; i.e. with PEI (weakly) positively correlated with greater discordance. The degree of concordance between preferred outcomes and predicted outcomes was less than the concordance between either preferred outcomes and actual outcomes, or predicted outcomes and actual outcomes. Conclusions The relationship between expectation fulfilment and enablement remains uncertain, whether expectation is measured as stated preferences for specific

  16. Importance of posture assessment in ankylosing spondylitis. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Roşu, Mihaela Oana; Ancuţa, Codrina; Iordache, Cristina; Chirieac, Rodica

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to perform a screening of patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in order to evaluate the static spinal disorders and correlate the results with the main clinical and functional parameters that characterize this disease. Ninety-five patients diagnosed with AS according to the 1994 New York criteria were screened, and 68 of them (all males) presenting static spinal disorders and on physical therapy programs in different outpatient physical therapy units throughout 2011 entered the study. The distribution of the patients according to static spinal disorders was almost even. There were no statistically significant differences in mean age and disease duration (p>0.05). The assessment oflumbosacral pain in the morning (VAS1) and daytime lumbosacral pain (VAS2) showed a higher scores in patients suffering from kyphoscoliosis than in those with scoliosis (p=0.020), (p=0.000), or kyphosis. Ott and modified Schöber index, and chest expansion, had higher mean values in patients with scoliosis compared with the other postural disorders (p<0.001). Statistically higher mean BASFI values were recorded in patients with kyphoscoliosis (p=0.038), while the mean BASMI values were lower in scoliosis patients (p<0.001). As to the quality of life of AS patients, HAQ-DI index recorded significantly lower mean values for kyphoscoliosis compared with other postural disorders (p<0.001). Our study suggests that posture assessment and implicitly the correction of possible misalignments should be part of the kinetic physical therapy program. Rigorous observing of postural recommendations can prevent the respiratory system complications.

  17. A preliminary study of dengue infection in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Devi, Shamala

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line.

  18. Mesiodistal odontometrics as a distinguishing trait: A comparative preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Narasimha, Vanajakshi China

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination is a vital step in reconstructing an individual profile from unidentified skeletal remnants. Variations in tooth size are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Tooth size variations have been reported among different populations. Aim: To identify the sex by determining the mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of maxillary canines. Objectives: (1) To compare the MD diameter of all maxillary canines — (a) in the entire urban and tribal population, (b) in urban male and urban female populations, (c) in tribal male and tribal female populations, and (d) in the entire male and female populations and (2) To estimate the percentage of sexual dimorphism individually in urban and tribal populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from urban and tribal populations in equal gender ratio were selected in Khammam district, Telangana, for the purpose of this study. After obtaining informed consent, maxillary study models of the selected subjects were made. MD diameters of left and right maxillary canines were measured on casts using vernier calipers. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: (1) The total tribal population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the total urban population, (2) Urban males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than urban females, (3) Tribal males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than tribal females, (4) The entire male population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the entire female population, and (5) The percentage of dimorphism between males and females in individual groups was found to be significant. Conclusion: The study showed maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used as a distinguishing trait for sex determination along with other procedures. PMID:27555727

  19. [Animal health policies and practices in the Americas: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Rojas, H; Stuardo, L; Benavides, D

    2005-08-01

    The Americas have a large population of farm animals, mostly for export. There are diverse production systems distributed over an extensive and varied geography, which hampers efforts to respond to the demands of the different markets. This study provides an overview of the elements influencing animal welfare implementation, such as the requirements of importing countries, the requirements of private agents, the demands of producers and manufacturers, quality promotion policies, the demands of the community, the recommendations of reference bodies and the results of applied research. To explore the level of animal welfare development in the countries of the region, a detailed case study was made of Chile, in addition to a survey of the Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the Americas. An analysis was made of progress with the issues considered by the OIE as priorities, namely humane slaughter for human consumption, transport and killing for disease control purposes. Furthermore, the study considers various aspects of production which the OIE has not included up to now. It also explores the status of research and producer and consumer perceptions of the issue. The results reveal that the level of development and implementation of animal welfare differs from one country to another. While the adoption of animal welfare regulations certainly relates to all the above-mentioned aspects, the one which appears to have the most impact is the export of livestock products to certain markets. Although there is great interest in improving animal welfare conditions, this calls for the general characteristics of animal husbandry in the various countries to be taken into account. While some livestock production in the Americas follows world patterns, many countries still find it difficult to integrate good animal welfare practices, owing to specific geographical, social and cultural situations that are reflected in local livestock development

  20. Regenerative Therapies for Equine Degenerative Joint Disease: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment. PMID:24465787

  1. A preliminary phenomenological study of being hypnotized and hypnotizing.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick James

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents phenomenological research conducted following Woodard's phenomenological and perceptual research methodology for understanding hypnotic experiencing. The research emphasizes examining the internal experiencings of individuals involved in hypnotic experiencing. Examples are presented of Individual Situated Structures and the General Structures from both a group of 8 participants who hypnotized their clients and another group of 17 individuals who volunteered to be hypnotized. The explicated themes identified in hypnotic experiencing (the hypnotic relationship, phenomenology of trance, use of imagination, problem with psychic energy, a gestalt of experiencing, and linear-nonlinear experiencing) are discussed. The author discusses limitations of this study and suggestions for further work.

  2. Conditioning arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Payne, T J; Etscheidt, M; Corrigan, S A

    1990-01-01

    This study represents an attempt to classically condition arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake. A smoker either smoked or mock-smoked a cigarette in two discriminative contexts for 20 sessions. The contingencies were reversed during an additional last two sessions. Measures of heart rate, skin temperature, and puff duration were monitored during all sessions. Results suggested that both manipulations of smoke delivery and context cues were related to puff duration. The pattern of psychophysiological reactivity was mixed and not easily interpreted. This experimental paradigm may be useful in the investigation of conditioning factors underlying addictive behaviors.

  3. Preliminary Study of Uranium Oxide Dissolution in Simulated Lung Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    34 Eidson attributed the initial dissolution phase to the ammyiium diuranate component of the yellow cake. 19Follow-up animal inhalation studies, using... Sodium chloride 6.019 " Potassium chloride 0.298 Sodium phosphate, dibasic, anhydrous 0.142 Sodium sulfate, anhydrous 0.071 Calcium chloride, dih•,drate...0.368 Sodium acetate, trihydrate 0.953 ’ Sodium bicarbonate 2.604 Sodium citrate, dihydrate 0.097 6 A ".d increase the rate of solution, 95 per cent of

  4. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  5. Spherical Cryogenic Hydrogen Tank Preliminary Design Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    A structural analysis, sizing optimization, and weight prediction study was performed by Collier Research Corporation and NASA Glenn on a spherical cryogenic hydrogen tank. The tank consisted of an inner and outer wall separated by a vacuum for thermal insulation purposes. HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation), a commercial automated structural analysis and sizing software package was used to design the lightest feasible tank for a given overall size and thermomechanical loading environment. Weight trade studies were completed for different panel concepts and metallic and composite material systems. Extensive failure analyses were performed for each combination of dimensional variables, materials, and layups to establish the structural integrity of tank designs. Detailed stress and strain fields were computed from operational temperature changes and pressure loads. The inner tank wall is sized by the resulting biaxial tensile stresses which cause it to be strength driven, and leads to an optimum panel concept that need not be stiffened. Conversely, the outer tank wall is sized by a biaxial compressive stress field, induced by the pressure differential between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum between the tanks, thereby causing the design to be stability driven and thus stiffened to prevent buckling. Induced thermal stresses become a major sizing driver when a composite or hybrid composite/metallic material systems are used for the inner tank wall for purposes such as liners to contain the fuel and reduce hydrogen permeation.

  6. Preliminary studies on immobilization of lipase using chicken eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, S.; Serri, N. A.; Hena, S.; Tajarudin, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    A few advantages of enzyme immobilization are reusability of expensive enzyme, improvement of stability and activity compared to crude enzyme. Various organic components can be used as carrier for enzyme immobilization such as chicken eggshell. It can be used as a carrier for immobilization as its mineral component mostly contains of calcium carbonate. In the present study, Tributyrin method was used to test enzyme activity of Rhizomucour Miehei, Candida Antarctica and Candida Rugosa. Rhizomucour Miehei shows the highest enzyme activity (360.8 mol/min/mL lipase) and was used in further experiment. Experiment was continued to study incubation time for lipase immobilization on eggshell (1-4 hours) and reaction time of esterification of sugar ester (0-72 hours). Two hours incubation time for lipase immobilization was observed and gives the highest yield of sugar ester (78.13%). Fructose and stearic acid as substrate was used for the production of sugar ester. The highest percentage of sugar ester production was shown at 36 hours of reaction time.

  7. Bioimpedance for pain monitoring during cutaneous photodynamic therapy: Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mikolajewska, Patrycja; Rømoen, Ola Taarud; Martinsen, Orjan G; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan; Grimnes, Sverre; Juzeniene, Asta

    2011-12-01

    Pain is a well-known problem associated with light exposure during topical photodynamic therapy (PDT). Different methods for dealing with the pain have been developed over the past years, ranging from cooling with air or water to nerve blocking. However, the mechanisms responsible for the pain induction have not yet been fully understood. This study aims to evaluate bioimpedance in situ measurements of human skin as a method to shed light on pain-inducing real-time changes during light exposure during topical PDT. Cream containing 20% aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was applied on forearms of ten healthy human volunteers. After 24h incubation, the cream was removed and the spots were exposed to red laser light (636nm, 300mW/cm(2)). During light exposure bioimpedance measurements with a 4-electrode set-up were taken at two frequencies (10Hz and 100kHz). A significant drop in skin impedance at high and low frequencies coincided with onset of pain during light exposure of spots treated with ALA. A similar drop was not observed for controls. Bioimpedance spectroscopy can provide valuable data for real-time observation of changes in skin, and may contribute to an increased understanding of the mechanisms responsible for induction of pain during topical PDT. Future studies are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Preliminary study of Dioscorea bulbifera plantlet microtuber in vitro induction].

    PubMed

    Hong, Sen-Rong; Yin, Ming-Hua

    2014-04-01

    In order to provide a theoretical basis for the microtuber factory production and its germplasm resources preservation, in vitro induction of Dioscorea bulbifera plantlet microtubers was studied. Through plant tissue culture technique and single factor experiment method, stems with buds of Dioscorea bulbifera plantlets as explants, the effects of various factors such as sugar, inorganic salt, cultivation mode, activated carbon and physiological state of stems with buds on in vitro induction of Dioscorea bulbifera microtubers were studied. The optimal sugar of Dioscorea bulbifera microtuber in vitro induction was 60 g/L sucrose or 90 g/L white sugar. The best inorganic salt concentration of Dioscorea bulbifera microtuber in vitro induction was MS. The best culture method of Dioscorea bulbifera microtuber in vitro induction was solid-liquid double layer culture. Activated carbon had a significant effect on Dioscorea bulbifera microtuber in vitro induction, whose optimum concentration was 0.03%. More mature the stem with buds was, the shorter the time of microtuber formation need. This experiment establishes a rapid method of Dioscorea bulbifera microtuber in vitro induction for the first time,which provides a new way for the application of Dioscorea bulbifera microtubers in agricultural production.

  9. Psychophysiological patterns during cell phone text messaging: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Mei; Peper, Erik

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the psychophysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of the non-texting hand; and respiration from the thorax and abdomen. The counter-balanced procedure consisted of a 2 min pre-baseline, 1 min receiving text messages, 2 min middle baseline, 1 min sending text messages and 2 min post-baseline. The results indicated that all subjects showed significant increases in respiration rate, heart rate, SC, and shoulder and thumb SEMG as compared to baseline measures. Eighty-three percentage of the participants reported hand and neck pain during texting, and held their breath and experienced arousal when receiving text messages. Subjectively, most subjects were unaware of their physiological changes. The study suggests that frequent triggering of these physiological patterns (freezing for stability and shallow breathing) may increase muscle discomfort symptoms. Thus, participants should be trained to inhibit these responses to prevent illness and discomfort.

  10. Ultrasonic nebulization atmospheric pressure glow discharge - Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greda, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (μAPGD) generated between a small-sized He nozzle jet anode and a flowing liquid cathode was coupled with ultrasonic nebulization (USN) for analytical optical emission spectrometry (OES). The spatial distributions of the emitted spectra from the novel coupled USN-μAPGD system and the conventional μAPGD system were compared. In the μAPGD, the maxima of the intensity distribution profiles of the atomic emission lines Ca, Cd, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na and Sr were observed in the near cathode region, whereas, in the case of the USN-μAPGD, they were shifted towards the anode. In the novel system, the intensities of the analytical lines of the studied metals were boosted from several to 35 times. As compared to the conventional μAPGD-OES with the introduction of analytes through the sputtering and/or the electrospray-like nebulization of the flowing liquid cathode solution, the proposed method with the USN introduction of analytes in the form of a dry aerosol provides improved detectability of the studied metals. The detection limits of metals achieved with the USN-μAPGD-OES method were in the range from 0.08 μg L- 1 for Li to 52 μg L- 1 for Mn.

  11. Overcoming Underrepresentation of Women Physics Teachers in Cameroon: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyomo, M.; Kom, G. H.; Siebatcheu, B.; Asse, M. L.; Woulache, R.; Mvoudjo, E.

    2009-04-01

    At a time when much energy is being spent all over the world to bring women into the fast-developing world of science, it is regrettable that these efforts are still at their genesis in Cameroon. It is however, worth noting that efforts geared toward the education of the girl child are yielding fruit, even if much remains to be done in rural areas. The only unfortunate revelation is that increase in the number of young girls in scientific classes observed in high school is not reflected at the tertiary level in physics. Thus, young women are almost completely absent when it comes to recruiting lecturers and researchers in the subject. It is time a serious study is carried out on the status of the woman physicist in Cameroon. It is time to evaluate the importance of the woman physicist to our society and to the field of study as well. It is also necessary to develop a new policy geared toward encouraging young girls to take up a career in physics.

  12. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Brugnera, Cibele; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Greters, Mário Edvin; Basta, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR). To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard™ biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS) of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG), which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard™ for ten days, and a control group (CG), which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), were used. After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p=0.007) and C6 (p=0.01). On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p=0.04). The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p=0.04). The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard™ system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    PubMed

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  14. Preliminary Attitude Control Studies for the ASTER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victorino Sarli, Bruno; Luís da Silva, André; Paglione, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    This work discusses an attitude control study for the ASTER mission, the first Brazilian mission to the deep space. The study is part of a larger scenario that is the development of optimal trajectories to navigate in the 2001 SN263 asteroid system, together with the generation of orbit and attitude controllers for autonomous operation. The spacecraft attitude is defined from the orientation of the body reference system to the Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) of a circular orbit around the Alpha asteroid. The rotational equations of motion involve the dynamic equations, where the three angular speeds are generated from a set of three reaction wheels and the gravitational torque. The rotational kinematics is represented in the Euler angles format. The controller is developed via the linear quadratic regulator approach with output feedback. It involves the generation of a stability augmentation (SAS) loop and a tracking outer loop, with a compensator of desired structure. It was chosen the feedback of the p, q and r angular speeds in the SAS, one for each reaction wheel. In the outer loop, it was chosen a proportional integral compensator. The parameters are tuned using a numerical minimization that represents a linear quadratic cost, with weightings in the tracking error and controls. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear model. For small angle manoeuvres, the linear results with reaction wheels or thrusters are reasonable, but, for larger manoeuvres, nonlinear control techniques shall be applied, for example, the sliding mode control.

  15. Manufacture of nanoparticles from bone: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated a mechanical processing method using vibratory milling to reduce the particle size of bone ash to produce hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles from bovine bone. Bovine femurs were cleaned of soft tissue, cut into small pieces, heated to 600 deg for 24 h, and ground into a coarse powder. A 50 wt% suspension was prepared, vibratory milled for 18 h, and then the milled suspension was filter pressed, dried, and ground into powder. The powder was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, which confirmed the particle size and the chemical composition of the powder-matched HA. The results of this study qualitatively showed that it is possible to produce HA nanoparticles from bone. This research explores a "green" manufacturing process that reuses a scrap material from the food industry and reduces the use of chemical precursors for synthetic nanoparticle synthesis. Such HA powder can potentially be used as a bone substitute and for coating orthopedic and dental implants.

  16. [Preliminary study on pollination biology of Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengjun; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Xu, Hongjian; Ma, Hongliang; Miao, Yuanyuan

    2012-02-01

    Current study on the pollination biology of Tulipa edulis was conducted to investigate its pollination characteristics and to provide references for artificial domestication and breeding of T. edulis. Flowering dynamics, pollinators, morphology and structure of flower were observed. Different methods were adopted to evaluate the pollen vitality, and benzidine-H2O2 method was used for estimation of the stigma receptivity. Breeding system was evaluated based on out-crossing index (OCI) , pollen-ovule ratio (P/O) and the results of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination studies. The flower of T. edulis showed typical characteristics of Liliaceae. The pollen remained viable to some extent during all the anthesis and peaked within three days after blossoming. Stigma acceptability peaked in the first day of blossom and dwindled away in the next four days. The type of breeding system of T. edulis was facultative xenogamy, three species of Halictus are the main pollination insects. The type of breeding system of T. edulis was facultative xenogamy, withal cross-pollination give priority to self-pollination, and the insects play a main role on the pollination of T. edulis, further validation are needed to judge if the wind is helpful to pollination.

  17. Preliminary 1H NMR study on archaeological waterlogged wood.

    PubMed

    Maccotta, Antonella; Fantazzini, Paola; Garavaglia, Carla; Donato, Ines D; Perzia, Patrizia; Brai, Maria; Morreale, Filippa

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Relaxation (MRR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are powerful tools to obtain detailed information on the pore space structure that one is unlikely to obtain in other ways. These techniques are particularly suitable for Cultural Heritage materials, because they use water 1H nuclei as a probe. Interaction with water is one of the main causes of deterioration of materials. Porous structure in wood, for example, favours the penetration of water, which can carry polluting substances and promote mould growth. A particular case is waterlogged wood from underwater discoveries and moist sites; in fact, these finds are very fragile because of chemical, physical and biological decay from the long contact with the water. When wood artefacts are brought to the surface and directly dried in air, there is the collapse of the cellular structures, and wood loses its original form and dimensions and cannot be used for study and museum exhibits. In this work we have undertaken the study of some wood finds coming from Ercolano's harbour by MRR and MRI under different conditions, and we have obtained a characterization of pore space in wood and images of the spatial distribution of the confined water in the wood.

  18. Magnetic field studies by Voyager 2 - Preliminary results at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Lepping, R. P.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1982-01-01

    Results of Voyager 2 studies of the magnetosphere and planetary magnetic field of Saturn are presented. Magnetometer studies have confirmed the results obtained by Voyager 1, indicating the magnetic field to be that of a centered dipole of moment 0.21 gauss Saturn radii-cubed, tilted approximately 0.8 deg from the rotation axis and a maximum measured field intensity of 1187 nT at latitude 17.3 deg N just before periapsis. Voyager 2 observed multiple bow shock and magnetopause crossings during its inbound and outbound trajectories, which were complementary to those of Voyager 1, including magnetopause crossing at 18.5 Saturn radii on the inbound trajectory, and at 48.4-50.9 Saturn radii outbound indicative of magnetospheric expansion due to changing solar wind conditions. Throughout the outbound passage, the magnetospheric field was observed to be relatively steady and smooth, with no evidence for any azimuthal asymmetry or magnetic anomaly. Results thus are incapable of accounting for the observed periodic modulation of the Saturnian kilometric radio emissions.

  19. Preliminary noise tradeoff study of a Mach 2.7 cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.; Maglieri, D. J. (Editor); Raney, J. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computer codes in the areas of preliminary sizing and enroute performance, takeoff and landing performance, aircraft noise prediction, and economics were used in a preliminary noise tradeoff study for a Mach 2.7 design supersonic cruise concept. Aerodynamic configuration data were based on wind-tunnel model tests and related analyses. Aircraft structural characteristics and weight were based on advanced structural design methodologies, assuming conventional titanium technology. The most advanced noise prediction techniques available were used, and aircraft operating costs were estimated using accepted industry methods. The 4-engines cycles included in the study were based on assumed 1985 technology levels. Propulsion data was provided by aircraft manufacturers. Additional empirical data is needed to define both noise reduction features and other operating characteristics of all engine cycles under study. Data on VCE design parameters, coannular nozzle inverted flow noise reduction and advanced mechanical suppressors are urgently needed to reduce the present uncertainties in studies of this type.

  20. Quality assurance of canine vaginal cytology: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Copley, D; England, G C W

    2010-08-01

    Regulatory controls of quality assurance in veterinary laboratories are less common than in human reproduction laboratories and the intra- and inter-technician variation in the assessment of canine vaginal cytology has not been reported. This study was designed to determine whether variation in classification of vaginal epithelial cells and interpretation of vaginal cytology smears existed within and between technicians in a canine reproductive laboratory. Sixteen vaginal cytology smears representing different known stages of the oestrous cycle were examined twice by one experienced technician and three inexperienced technicians in a blinded random order study design. Seven assessments were made; counting and classifying one hundred vaginal epithelial cells into four morphological classifications and assessment of three cellular categories. Technicians also interpreted their results and reported the stage of the cycle they thought each slide represented. In addition, selected samples were sent to four external commercial laboratories for interpretation. For the experienced technician, intra-technician variation was low for the morphological classifications and cellular assessments (r = 0.69-0.95). There was more intra-technician variation between results from Examination One and Examination Two for the inexperienced technicians (r = 0.53-0.92 where correlations were found). When inexperienced technicians' results were compared to results from the experienced technician, the inter-technician variation was low; results were correlated for 17 of the 21 observations (four morphological classifications and three cellular assessments across the three technicians) (r = 0.38-0.87). When technician interpretations of stage of the oestrous cycle were compared to the known stage of the cycle for each smear, the experienced technician correctly interpreted 19 of the 32 smears, whilst the three inexperienced technicians correctly interpreted 14, 16, and 18 of the 32 smears. The

  1. Antioxidants as adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid disease. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Helmy, M; Shohayeb, M; Helmy, M H; el-Bassiouni, E A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic value of adding a high dose of vitamin E or an antioxidant combination to the treatment regimen of the rheumatoid disease. The study was carried out on 30 patients with rheumatoid disease diagnosed according to the criteria of American Rheumatism Association (ARA), subvided into three equal groups. Patients in group I received a standard treatment of intramuscular methotrexate (CAS 59-05-2; 12.5 mg/week), oral sulphasalazine (CAS 599-79-1; 0.5 g b.i.d.) and indometacin (CAS 53-86-1; 100 mg suppository at bed-time). In group II the patients received the standard treatment plus a combination of antioxidants. Patients in group III received a high dose of vitamin E (400 mg t.i.d.) in addition to the standard treatment. The disease state was evaluated using Ritchle's articular score index and the duration of morning stiffness. Laboratory evaluations included the rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), plasma levels of vitamin E and malonedialdehyde (MDA), and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In the group receiving the standard regimen, the patients started to feel tangible improvement by the end of the second month. With adjuvant therapy of either the antioxidant combination or a high dose of vitamin E the symptoms of arthritis were better controlled from the first month. By the end of the second month, the values of the three monitoring tests were significantly decreased indicating better control of the disease. The percentage increase in the activity of GPx was highest in patients taking the antioxidant combination and least in those taking the standard treatment. The decrease in plasma MDA followed the same pattern. With adjuvant therapy, the vitamin E level in plasma increased with the duration of treatment. The results obtained in the present study are encouraging. The clinical improvement and the shift in the disease indices towards normal make the use of antioxidants as

  2. Functional communication training in rett syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Byiers, Breanne J; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J

    2014-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population ( Sigafoos et al., 2009 ). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) methods for teaching 3 individuals (ages 15-47 years) with classic RTT novel communicative behaviors. Using single-case experimental designs, functional reinforcers were identified (FA) and each participant quickly learned to activate a voice-output switch to obtain a reinforcer (FCT). These results suggest that individuals with classic RTT can learn novel communicative responses, which has important implications for future intervention research.

  3. Cognitive processes in criminal profile construction: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N; Middledorp, Jenny; Try, Andrew C

    2005-12-01

    This study undertook an empirically based examination of the cognitive processes associated with the accurate construction of a criminal psychological profile. This was accomplished by comparing the abilities of profilers and nonprofilers in two simulated profiling exercises that measured both profile accuracy and an individual's performance on various tests of memory and comprehension related to the case materials presented in each exercise. The results of these experiments suggest that an incremental relationship exists between comprehension of the case materials and accuracy of the profiles generated. In addition, the findings provide some tentative indications that the comprehension of case material in a narrative (i.e., written) format is an integral cognitive function to proficient profiling.

  4. Sleep, sleepiness and school start times: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Donn; Bijwadia, Jagdeep; Schilling, Dana; Applebaugh, Gwendolyn

    2003-01-01

    High school students are reported to be excessively sleepy, resulting in decreased academic performance, increased psycho-social problems and increased risk of morbidity and mortality from accidents. Early school start times have been noted to contribute to this problem. This report attempts to confirm the relationship of early school start times with decreased sleep and increased sleepiness. We examined sophomore and junior students in 2 local high schools with different start times and measured the amount of time slept and sleepiness. We found that students at the early start school reported reduced sleep time and more sleepiness than their counterparts at the later starting school. Early school start times are associated with student reports of less sleep and increased sleepiness. Further studies in larger groups are recommended in view of the potential significant impact of sleep deprivation in this age group.

  5. Cognitive impairment in patients with chronic fatigue: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, E; Cope, H; David, A

    1993-01-01

    Subjective impairment of memory and concentration is a frequent complaint in sufferers from chronic fatigue. To study this, 65 general practice attenders identified as having chronic fatigue were administered a structured psychiatric interview and a brief screening battery of cognitive tests. Subjective cognitive impairment was strongly related to psychiatric disorder, especially depressed mood, but not fatigue, anxiety, or objective performance. Simple tests of attention and concentration showed some impairment but this was influenced by both fatigue and depression. Subjects with high levels of fatigue performed less well on a memory task requiring cognitive effort, even in the absence of depression. There was no evidence for mental fatiguability. The relationship between depression, fatigue, and cognitive function requires further research. PMID:8331359

  6. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  7. Blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in crack smokers. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Greenebaum, E; Copeland, A; Grewal, R

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed on heavily pigmented pulmonary cytologic specimens from 14 hospital patients to determine the clinical features distinguishing these cases. The lavage fluid or sputum in each case was turbid and gray or black, exceeding the blackness usually seen in heavy tobacco smokers dwelling in the same urban environment. Excessive carbonaceous material was observed in the cytoplasm of pulmonary alveolar macrophages or the extracellular compartment of the smears. The latter feature is not seen in cigarette smokers. Many other pigmentary sources were ruled out, including melanin, hemosiderin, medicinal charcoal, India ink, and hematoxylin crystals. The common feature of the patients was that they recently or currently smoked the crack form of cocaine heavily; five patients also had positive toxicologic results for cocaine at admission. The authors suggest that blackened bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicates the possibility of crack cocaine smoking and the associated sequelae, particularly when the carbonaceous material is present in the extracellular compartment.

  8. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented.

  9. [Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in optic nerve atrophy. A preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Zobina, L V; Orlovskaia, L S; Sokov, S L; Sabaeva, G F; Kondé, L A; Iakovlev, A A

    1990-01-01

    Magnetotherapy effects on visual functions (vision acuity and field), on retinal bioelectric activity, on conductive vision system, and on intraocular circulation were studied in 88 patients (160 eyes) with optic nerve atrophy. A Soviet Polyus-1 low-frequency magnetotherapy apparatus was employed with magnetic induction of about 10 mT, exposure 7-10 min, 10-15 sessions per course. Vision acuity of patients with its low (below 0.04 diopters) values improved in 50 percent of cases. The number of patients with vision acuity of 0.2 diopters has increased from 46 before treatment to 75. Magnetotherapy improved ocular hemodynamics in patients with optic nerve atrophy, it reduced the time of stimulation conduction along the vision routes and stimulated the retinal ganglia cells. The maximal effect was achieved after 10 magnetotherapy sessions. A repeated course carried out in 6-8 months promoted a stabilization of the process.

  10. Shuttle infrared telescope facility (SIRTF) preliminary design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An overall picture of the SIRTF system is first presented, including the telescope, focal plane instruments, cryogen supply, shuttle and spacelab support subsystems, mechanical and data interfaces with the vehicles, ground support equipment, and system requirements. The optical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the telescope are then evaluated, followed by a description of the SIRTF internal stabilization subsystem and its interface with the IPS. Expected performance in the shuttle environment is considered. Tradeoff studies are described, including the Gregorian versus the Cassegrain telescope, aperture diameter tradeoff, a CCD versus an image dissector for the star tracker, the large ambient telescope versus the SIRTF, and a dedicated gimbal versus the IPS. Operations from integration through launch and recovery are also discussed and cost estimates for the program are presented.

  11. A preliminary study of pulse-laser powered orbital launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsurayama, Hiroshi; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2009-10-01

    An air-breathing pulse-laser powered orbital launcher has been proposed as an alternative to conventional chemical launch systems. The aim of the present study is to assess its feasibility through the estimation of its achievable payload mass per unit beam power and launch cost. A transfer trajectory from the ground to a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) is proposed, and the launch trajectory to its geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) is computed using the realistic performance modeled in the pulsejet, ramjet, and rocket flight modes of the launcher. Results show that the launcher can transfer 0.084 kg of payload per 1 MW beam power to a geosynchronous earth orbit. The cost becomes a quarter of existing systems if one can divide a single launch into 24,000 multiple launches.

  12. Preliminary Exploratory Study of Different Phase II Collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Lari, L.; Assmann, R.W.; Bertarelli, A.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dallocchio, A.; Ferrari, A.; Mauri, M.; Roesler, S.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, Vasilis; Doyle, J.E.; Keller, L.; Lundgren, S.A.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Smith, J.C.; Lari, L.; /LPHE, Lausanne

    2011-11-02

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system is installed and commissioned in different phases, following the natural evolution of the LHC performance. To improve cleaning efficiency towards the end of the low beta squeeze at 7TeV, and in stable physics conditions, it is foreseen to complement the 30 highly robust Phase I secondary collimators with low impedance Phase II collimators. At this stage, their design is not yet finalized. Possible options include metallic collimators, graphite jaws with a movable metallic foil, or collimators with metallic rotating jaws. As part of the evaluation of the different designs, the FLUKA Monte Carlo code is extensively used for calculating energy deposition and studying material damage and activation. This report outlines the simulation approach and defines the critical quantities involved.

  13. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 7, Subsystem concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  14. Optimization of ultrasound scanner characteristics: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, S C; Evans, J A

    1993-07-01

    It is generally accepted that different transducer characteristics are optimal for different examinations, but it is not always obvious which other scanner/transducer parameters, e.g. signal processing should be selected for a given examination. We have examined noise and grey-level parameters for two specific anatomical sections (one showing the liver and right kidney and one showing the uterus) using a combination of subjective and objective assessment. The results confirm that the images chosen for this study have different requirements in terms of noise and grey-scale processing. The uterus image requires a large range of greys assigned to the lower level echoes and requires low noise levels. The liver/kidney image was not affected by noise levels in the systems used and required the lower amplitude grey-levels to be compressed, liberating a greater range of greys for the higher amplitude echoes.

  15. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF METHODS TO CHEMICALLY BIND ZINC

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2011-06-10

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first two experimental tasks were completed. The results of the third experimental task are reported here. This task was conducted to determine if the zinc vapors could be chemically bound on two non hydrogen active substrates. Based on a thermodynamic study copper and cobalt were the most favorable for capturing zinc without forming hydrides. Within the experimental parameters tested, which include temperatures of 350, 400, and 450 C at pressures of nominally 20-40 millitorr, the zinc deposited on the both copper screen and cobalt rods but did not react to form a compound. The conditions that were tested are not prototypic and additional testing under higher vacuum conditions, i.e., .01 millitorr, may enhance the reactivity of the surfaces and is recommended.

  16. Wind energy in electric power production, preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lento, R.; Peltola, E.

    1984-01-01

    The wind speed conditions in Finland have been studied with the aid of the existing statistics of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. With the aid of the statistics estimates on the available wind energy were also made. Eight hundred wind power plants, 1.5 MW each, on the windiest west coast would produce about 2 TWh energy per year. Far more information on the temporal, geographical and vertical distribution of the wind speed than the present statistics included is needed when the available wind energy is estimated, when wind power plants are dimensioned optimally, and when suitable locations are chosen for them. The investment costs of a wind power plant increase when the height of the tower or the diameter of the rotor is increased, but the energy production increases, too. Thus, overdimensioning the wind power plant in view of energy needs or the wind conditions caused extra costs. The cost of energy produced by wind power can not yet compete with conventional energy, but the situation changes to the advantage of wind energy, if the real price of the plants decreases (among other things due to large series production and increasing experience), or if the real price of fuels rises. The inconvinience on the environment caused by the wind power plants is considered insignificant. The noise caused by the plant attenuates rapidly with distance. No harmful effects to birds and other animals caused by the wind power plants have been observed in the studies made abroad. Parts of the plant getting loose during an accident, or ice forming on the blades are estimated to fly even from a large plant only a few hundred meters.

  17. Oxidative damage in young alcohol drinkers: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela; Cortés-Couto, Miriam; Martínez-Rizo, Abril Bernardette; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Velázquez-Fernández, Jesús Bernardino

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative damage (OD) biomarkers have been used to evaluate metabolic stress undergone by alcoholic individuals. In alcoholic patients, these biomarkers are usually measured at late stages, i.e., when the alcoholic patients are showing clear signs of impaired hepatic function. OD biomarkers are sensitive indicators of impaired metabolic function, and might be useful in early stages of alcohol consumption to identify individuals who are at greater risk of damage in later stages of alcohol consumption. The aim of the present work was to evaluate some OD biomarkers in young people at early stages of alcohol consumption. The study was carried out in a group of young people (18-23 years old) who drank alcohol, Youngsters Exposed to Alcohol (YEA) with an average intake of 118 g of ethanol/week, and a control group (CG) of non-drinkers. Blood counts, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, oxidative damage to DNA, and lipid peroxidation were determined in both groups. The anthropometric and blood parameters of both groups were similar and no clinical symptoms of hepatic damage were observed. Nevertheless, ADH activity, lipid peroxidation, and percentage of damaged DNA cells were higher in the YEA group than in the control group. In contrast, GSH-Px activity was lower in the YEA group than in the control group. Alteration in OD biomarkers can be found in individuals with 4-5 years of alcohol drinking history. To our knowledge, this is the first study giving evidence of OD in individuals at early stages of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Weight loss and P wave dispersion: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Anna Giulia; Grecchi, Ilaria; Muggia, Chiara; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if therapeutic weight loss reduces P wave dispersion. 20 obese patients (10 males and 10 females), part of a randomized clinical trial, were examined over a 6 month period. They were treated with a diet, aiming at 5% weight loss at the 6th month. After physical examination, they underwent laboratory tests, bioelectrical impedance analysis and a electrocardiogram (ECG). ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then magnified 400 times. We examined at baseline and at the 6th month, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion and heart rate. Comparing responders (patients who lost 5% of weight at t6) and not responders (who lost less than 5%), responders showed a significant reduction of P wave dispersion value (-0.38 [SD: 0.35] mm equal to -32.3 [SD: 11.3] % p=0.00001). All responders present a reduction of P wave dispersion, while for not-responders this is no longer evident. Finally, a good degree of correlation (r=0.54) between P wave dispersion difference and the decrease of weight was noticed. Females have a better response in P dispersion reduction strictly connected with their weight loss with a good correlation, (r=0.7, p=0.002), versus a moderate correlation evidenced in males (r=0.5, p=0.011). P wave duration and dispersion are significantly reduced in patients who lost more than 5% of weight and this decrease is highly related to the extent of weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Preliminary Study of Surface Temperature Cold Bias in COAMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H-N S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Aluzzi, F J

    2001-04-27

    It is well recognized that the model predictability is more or less hampered by the imperfect representations of atmospheric state and model physics. Therefore, it is a common problem for any numerical models to exhibit some sorts of biases in the prediction. In this study, the emphasis is focused on the cold bias of surface temperature forecast in Naval Research Laboratory's three-dimensional mesoscale model, COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System). Based on the comparison with the ground station data, there were two types of ground temperature cold biases identified in LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) operational forecasts of COAMPS over the California and Nevada regions during the 1999 winter and the 2000 spring. The first type of cold bias appears at high elevation regions covered by snow, and its magnitude can be as large as 30 F - 40 F lower than observed. The second type of cold bias mainly exists in the snow-free clear-sky regions, where the surface temperature is above the freezing point, and its magnitude can be up to 5 F - 10 F lower than observed. These cold biases can affect the low-level stratification, and even the diurnal variation of winds in the mountain regions, and therefore impact the atmospheric dispersion forecast. The main objective of this study is to explore the causes of such cold bias, and to further the improvement of the forecast performance in COAMPS. A series of experiments are performed to gauge the sensitivity of the model forecast due to the physics changes and large-scale data with various horizontal and vertical resolutions.

  20. Self-acceptance of stuttering: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    De Nardo, Thales; Gabel, Rodney M; Tetnowski, John A; Swartz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between self-acceptance of stuttering and (1) psychosocial factors (self-esteem, hostility towards others, emotional support, and perceived discrimination); (2) treatment history (support group participation, therapy duration, and perceived therapy success); and (3) previously reported variables in self-acceptance of stuttering, which include age and stuttering severity. Participants were 80 adults who stutter who were recruited with assistance from the National Stuttering Association and Board Certified Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed an electronic survey composed of an acceptance of stuttering scale, psychosocial scales, and a participant information questionnaire. Statistical analysis identified significant correlations between participants' reports of self-acceptance of stuttering and self-esteem, perceived discrimination, hostility towards others, and perceived therapy outcome. Self-esteem was positively correlated with self-acceptance, while hostility towards others and perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with self-acceptance. Participants who perceived their therapy outcome to be successful were significantly more likely to report higher levels of self-acceptance. No significant relationships were found between self-acceptance of stuttering and support group participation, emotional support, stuttering severity, and participant age. This exploratory investigation has provided a foundation for future studies on the self-acceptance of stuttering. The findings indicate common psychosocial variables in self-acceptance of stuttering and of other disabilities. The significant relationships between self-acceptance of stuttering and psychosocial and therapeutic variables found need to be further explored to identify its causalities and clinical implications. The reader will be able to (1) discuss the importance of assessing self-acceptance of stuttering, (2) summarize the literature on self

  1. Spa therapy for generalized osteoarthritis: an open, observational, preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Erol, Fatma Begüm; Forestier, Romain J; Güneri, Fulya Demircioğlu; Karagülle, M Zeki; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-01-01

    Open, prospective study to evaluate the effect of spa therapy on generalized osteoarthritis (GOA). Patients diagnosed as GOA were recruited from a private outpatient clinic. The treatment protocol was designed with 6 different spa modalities, 3 for each consecutive day, during 18 days. Interventions were Berthollet's technique (local mineral water cloud application), peloidotherapy, hydrotherapy, under water /standard (dry) massage, supervised water exercise, bath in hydro-massage pool, bath in tub with hydro-jets, free immersion in mineral water pool. The primary outcome was a clinically relevant improvement in 50% of patients at the end of the treatment. Statistical analyses were based on intention-to-treat method. Health care providers were blinded to the study. Ninety nine patients were included between March 7th-April 29th 2011 and all were analyzed for the primary outcome. Clinically relevant improvement was observed in 61% of the patients at the end of the treatment, and 68% at the 8th month. Patient acceptable symptom state was achieved in 33% of the patients at the 3rd week and 75% at the 8th month and Outcome Measures in Rheumatology-Osteoarthritis Research Society International Criteria (OMERACT-OARSI criteria) response in 41% of the patients at the 3rd week and 19% at the 8th month. Improvement was also observed in other judgment criteria evaluating pain, function and quality of life and continued until the 8th month for some of the parameters. No serious adverse effect was observed. Spa treatment may improve the clinical status of patients with GOA and seems to be well tolerated. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  3. Preliminary study of a wing-tip vortex using laser velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, R. K.; Mcalister, K. W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements have been made in the wake of a semi-span NACA 0015 airfoil with emphasis on the region of the wing tip vortex. The spanwise and streamwise velocity components were measured using a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The purpose of the study was to initiate the operation of a laser velocimeter system and to perform preliminary wake measurements in preparation for a more extensive study of the structure and near field development of a tip vortex.

  4. A preliminary study on the dielectric constant of WPC based on some tropical woods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, L. H. L.; Chua, P. H.; Hon, Y. S.; Lee, E.

    The use of WPC as an important insulating material is studied by determining its dielectric constant. The variation of dielectric constant with moisture content is also investigated. Preliminary results show that all untreated woods studied have a higher dielectric constant than their polymer composites with the exception of Kapur and Keruing. It is therefore postulated that the presence of polymers has led to a decrease in the number of polarizable units. Such a material may be useful commercially.

  5. Weldon Spring, Missouri, Raffinate Pits 1, 2, 3, and 4: Preliminary grout development screening studies for in situ waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.; Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.; West, G.A.

    1987-04-01

    Results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's initial support program to develop a preliminary grout formula to solidify in situ the Weldon Spring waste are presented. The screening study developed preliminary formulas based on a simulated composite waste and then tested the formulas on actual waste samples. Future data needs are also discussed. 1 ref., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Studies on the antihyperlipidemic properties of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit in rats.

    PubMed

    Ambili, Savithri; Subramoniam, Appian; Nagarajan, Natesan Shanmugam

    2009-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. fruit and its extracts were screened for antihypercholesterolemic activity using Triton-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats as a model. The fruit and its water extract, but not alcohol and hexane extracts, showed remarkable antihypercholesterolemic activity. An active fraction, which showed activity at a low dose of 0.8 mg/kg, was purified from the water extract. An active component was isolated from the active fraction, which showed optimum activity at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg. The efficacy of the fruit was tested in chronic high-fat diet fed hyperlipidemic rats. The fruit (125 mg/kg) as well as its water extract (50 mg/kg) were found to be effective in lowering lipids in the high-fat diet fed rats. The fruit was subjected to preliminary general toxicity evaluation in mice. Oral administration of the fruit homogenate daily for 15 days did not result in any toxic symptoms up to a dose of 1 g/kg studied. Thus, this fruit can be used as a dietary ingredient to prevent as well as treat hyperlipidemia.

  7. Clinoptilolite for Treatment of Dyslipidemia: Preliminary Efficacy Study.

    PubMed

    Cutovic, Milisav; Lazovic, Milica; Vukovic-Dejanovic, Vesna; Nikolic, Dejan; Petronic-Markovic, Ivana; Cirovic, Dragana

    2017-09-01

    A tribomechanically activated clinoptilolite (natural aluminosilicate mineral) has been used to increase growth in meat-producing animals, as an adjuvant in cancer therapy, and a heavy metal remover in humans. Because of its unique cation exchanging and chelating properties, we hypothesized that clinoptilolite may be beneficial for the treatment of dyslipidemia in the manner similar to bile acid sequestrants. Thus, specific aims of this pilot study were to orally administer clinoptilolite in different doses and granule size combinations to determine magnitude and time profile of changes in blood lipids. A phase I/IIa prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, dose/granule size-ranging study (treatment phase 8 weeks, follow-up 6 weeks). Blood lipids were examined every 2 weeks. Outpatient clinic of a university-affiliated hospital. Forty-one subjects (all white, mean age 57.6 ± 6.8 years, 17 women) with blood lipids above the normative limits divided into three groups. A tribomechanically activated clinoptilolite was administered in three dose/grind combinations: 6 g/day of fine grind (6gF), 6 g/day of coarse grind (6gC), and 9 g/day of coarse grind (9gC). Blood concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and triglycerides (TG). For the 3 groups combined, all lipid fractions significantly improved after 8 weeks of treatment (20-25%, p < 0.001), which reversed to baseline after 6 weeks of clinoptilolite withdrawal. Early (week 2) and the most pronounced decrease in TC and LDLc was observed in the 6gF group (19% and 23% in week 8, respectively), with no difference in HDLc and TG between the three dose/grind groups. No side effects were reported. These pilot results suggest that oral administration of clinoptilolite may improve lipid profile in individuals with dyslipidemia, which warrants further investigations.

  8. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow reservoir

  9. Preliminary Study of Methods for Upgrading USGS Antarctic Seismological Capability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, L. Gary

    1982-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate potential methods for obtaining higher quality seismic data from Antarctica. Currently, USGS-sponsored WWSSN stations are located at Scott Base, Sanae Base, and at South Pole Station. Scott and Sanae Stations are located near the coast; data obtained from coastal installations are normally degraded by noise generated by ocean wave action on the coast. Operations at South Pole are rather difficult because of the severe environmental characteristics and the extended logistics which are required to provide supplies and operating personnel to its remote location. Short-period data quality from Pole Station has been moderately high with a short-period magnification of 100K at 1Hz. Long-period magnifications have been rather low (<1K @ 15 s period). Recent relocation of the seismic recording facilities at South Pole Station as a result of the construction of a completely new station facility has caused serious degradation of the data quality due to faulty installation techniques. Repairs have been implemented to remedy these deficiencies and to regain the data quality which existed before the move to new facilities. However, the technology being used at South Pole Station is of WWSSN vintage; as a result it is about 20 years old. Much has been learned about achieving higher magnifications since the WWSSN was designed. This study will evaluate the feasibility of applying recent technological advances to Antarctic seismology. Seismological data from the Antarctic Continent is important to the world's seismological community because of the Antarctic's unique geographic position on the globe. Land masses are scarce in that part of the world; the Antarctic sits right in the middle of the void. Therefore, its data are important for completing the data set for the southern hemisphere. Upgrading the USGS seismic capability in the Antarctic should also prove to be a wise investment from another point of view. Although the initial

  10. Assessing the quality of clinical teaching: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Conigliaro, Rosemarie L; Stratton, Terry D

    2010-04-01

    Evaluations in the clinical arena are fraught with problems. Current assessments of clinical teaching typically measure attributes of clinical teachers in overly broad terms, are often subjective and often succumb to the halo effect. This is in contradistinction to measurements of lectures, workshops or online educational content, which can more readily be assessed using objective criteria. As a result, clinical evaluations are often insufficient to provide focused feedback, guide faculty development or identify specific areas for clinical teachers to implement change and improvement. The aim of our study was to offset these limitations. We developed a structured, 15-item objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)-type checklist of discrete teaching behaviours intended to be: (i) observable; (ii) applicable to multiple disciplines, and (iii) reliably identifiable. Our goal was to test and utilise this checklist as an objective assessment of clinical teaching across a range of in-patient teaching rounds experiences. During 2007-2008, pairs of external raters on two separate occasions observed nine attending physicians during actual in-patient paediatrics and internal medicine ward rounds at a large, academic medical centre. Observers documented the extent to which specific teaching behaviours did or did not occur. The internal consistency of the 15-item checklist was good (alpha = 0.85). A two-facet, partially nested G study found the generalisability of ratings to be generally acceptable, but inter-rater reliability varied greatly between occasions and across individual checklist items. Despite attempts to identify discrete and observable target behaviours, placing observers on rounds to detect these behaviours may not be as straightforward as it would seem. Clinical teaching may be a more inherently subjective process, based on different teaching styles of faculty staff. However, a set of objective checklist items to be completed by trained observers on

  11. Preliminary Study on Water Filled Tank Perforation by Rod Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin-Ke; Guo, Zi-Tao; Mu, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Wei

    2009-06-01

    The effects of fluid structure interactions resulting from the impact of a fluid filled tank is of the interests for engineers from both the military and civilian field, where hydrodynamic-ram (HRAM) phenomena is well known. And it is believed HRAM is responsible for the vulnerability and the possible catastrophic failure of the whole tank. Thus HRAM is related to the majority concerns on this topic, where the targets were usually assumed to be thin. In order to investigate the influence of water on the crashworthiness of a tank with relatively thick walls, 3 ballistic shots on the water filled tank with two 3 mm 2A12 aluminum plates as front and back target and 4 shots on the tank without any water by 12.7 mm rods were conducted. The failure patterns were indentified from the tests and the difference in the failure mechanism was further studied by a series of detailed numerical simulations on the corresponding tests in hydro-code AUTODYN-2D by using both the coupled Lagrange-Euler technology and the SPH method. And also, the challenge of numerical simulation in this field is addressed.

  12. Preliminary study of visual effect of multiplex hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huaiping; Xiong, Bingheng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueguo

    2004-06-01

    The process of any movement of real object can be recorded and displayed by a multiplex holographic stereogram. An embossing multiplex holographic stereogram and a multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram have been made by us, the multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram reconstructs the dynamic 2D line drawing of speech organs, the embossing multiplex holographic stereogram reconstructs the process of an old man drinking water. In this paper, we studied the visual result of an embossing multiplex holographic stereogram made with 80 films of 2-D pictures. Forty-eight persons of aged from 13 to 67 were asked to see the hologram and then to answer some questions about the feeling of viewing. The results indicate that this kind of holograms could be accepted by human visual sense organ without any problem. This paper also discusses visual effect of the multiplex holography stereograms base on visual perceptual psychology. It is open out that the planar multiplex holograms can be recorded and present the movement of real animal and object. Not only have the human visual perceptual constancy for shape, just as that size, color, etc... but also have visual perceptual constancy for binocular parallax.

  13. NEOWISE STUDIES OF ASTEROIDS WITH SLOAN PHOTOMETRY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Hand, E.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; Tholen, D. J.; McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Walker, R.

    2012-01-20

    We have combined the NEOWISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to study the albedos of 24,353 asteroids with candidate taxonomic classifications derived using Sloan photometry. We find a wide range of moderate to high albedos for candidate S-type asteroids that are analogous to the S complex defined by previous spectrophotometrically based taxonomic systems. The candidate C-type asteroids, while generally very dark, have a tail of higher albedos that overlaps the S types. The albedo distribution for asteroids with a photometrically derived Q classification is extremely similar to those of the S types. Asteroids with similar colors to (4) Vesta have higher albedos than the S types, and most have orbital elements similar to known Vesta family members. Finally, we show that the relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m is higher for D-type asteroids and suggest that their red visible and near-infrared spectral slope extends out to these wavelengths. Understanding the relationship between size, albedo, and taxonomic classification is complicated by the fact that the objects with classifications were selected from the visible/near-infrared Sloan Moving Object Catalog, which is biased against fainter asteroids, including those with lower albedos.

  14. Preliminary Study of Advanced Turboprops for Low Energy Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.; Strack, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The fuel savings potential of advanced turboprops (operational about 1985) was calculated and compared with that of an advanced turbofan for use in an advanced subsonic transport. At the design point, altitude 10.67 km and Mach 0.80, turbine-inlet temperature was fixed at 1590 K while overall pressure ratio was varied from 25 to 50. The regenerative turboprop had a pressure ratio of only 10 and an 85 percent effective rotary heat exchanger. Variable camber propellers were used with an efficiency of 85 percent. The study indicated a fuel savings of 33 percent, a takeoff gross weight reduction of 15 percent, and a direct operating cost reduction of 18 percent was possible when turboprops were used instead of the reference turbofan at a range of 10 200 km. These reductions were 28, 11, and 14 percent, respectively, at a range of 5500 km. Increasing overall pressure ratio from 25 to 50 saved little fuel and slightly increased takeoff gross weight.

  15. Magnetic field studies by voyager 1: preliminary results at saturn.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Lepping, R P; Connerney, J E; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Neubauer, F M

    1981-04-10

    Magnetic field studies by Voyager 1 have confirmed and refined certain general features of the Saturnian magnetosphere and planetary magnetic field established by Pioneer 11 in 1979. The main field of Saturn is well represented by a dipole of moment 0.21 +/- 0.005 gauss-R(s)(3) (where 1 Saturn radius, R(s), is 60,330 kilometers), tilted 0.7 degrees +/- 0.35 degrees from the rotation axis and located within 0.02 R(s) of the center of the planet. The radius of the magnetopause at the subsolar point was observed to be 23 R(s) on the average, rather than 17 R(s). Voyager 1 discovered a magnetic tail of Saturn with a diameter of approximately 80 R(s). This tail extends away from the Sun and is similar to type II comet tails and the terrestrial and Jovian magnetic tails. Data from the very close flyby at Titan (located within the Saturnian magnetosphere) at a local time of 1330, showed an absence of any substantial intrinsic satellite magnetic field. However, the results did indicate a very well developed, induced magnetosphere with a bipolar magnetic tail. The upper limit to any possible internal satellite magnetic moment is 5 x 10(21) gauss-cubic centimeter, equivalent to a 30-nanotesla equatorial surface field.

  16. Magnetic field studies by voyager 2: preliminary results at saturn.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M

    1982-01-29

    Further studies of the Saturnian magnetosphere and planetary magnetic field by Voyager 2 have substantiated the earlier results derived from Voyager 1 observations in 1980. The magnetic field is primarily that of a centered dipole (moment = 0.21 gauss-RS(3); where one Saturn radius, RS, is 60,330 kilometers) tilted approximately 0.8 degrees from the rotation axis. Near closest approach to Saturn, Voyager 2 traversed a kronographic longitude and latitude range that was complementary to that of Voyager 1. Somewhat surprisingly, no evidence was found in the data or the analysis for any large-scale magnetic anomaly in the northern hemisphere which could be associated with the periodic modulation of Saturnian kilometric radiation radio emissions. Voyager 2 crossed the magnetopause of a relatively compressed Saturnian magnetosphere at 18.5 RS while inbound near the noon meridian. Outbound, near the dawn meridian, the magnetosphere had expanded considerably and the magnetopause boundary was not observed until the spacecraft reached 48.4 to 50.9 RS and possibly beyond. Throughout the outbound magnetosphere passage, a period of 46 hours (4.5 Saturn rotations), the field was relatively steady and smooth showing no evidence for any azimuthal asymmetry or magnetic anomaly in the planetary field. We are thus left with a rather enigmatic situation to understand the basic source of Saturnian kilometric radiation modulation, other than the small dipole tilt.

  17. Magnetic field studies at jupiter by voyager 2: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Lepping, R P; Burlaga, L F; Behannon, K W; Neubauer, F M

    1979-11-23

    Data from the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 2 have yielded on inbound trajectory observations of multiple crossings of the bow shock and magnetosphere near the Jupiter-sun line at radial distances of 99 to 66 Jupiter radii (RJ) and 72 to 62 RJ, respectively. While outbound at a local hour angle of 0300, these distances increase appreciably so that at the time of writing only the magnetopause has been observed between 160 and 185 RJ. These results and the magnetic field geometry confirm the earlier conclusion from Voyager I studies that Jupiter has an enormous magnetic tail, approximately 300 to 400 RJ in diameter, trailing behind the planet with respect to the supersonic flow of the solar wind. Addi- tional observations of the distortion of the inner magnetosphere by a concentrated plasma show a spatial merging of the equatorial magnetodisk current with the cur- rent sheet in the magnetic tail. The spacecraft passed within 62,000 kilometers of Ganymede (radius = 2,635 kilometers) and observed characteristic fluctuations in- terpreted tentatively as being due to disturbances arising from the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Ganymede.

  18. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-01-01

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms. PMID:28178227

  19. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  20. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05-0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  1. A Preliminary Neuroimaging Study of Preschool Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    E.M., Mahone; D., Crocetti; M.E., Ranta; A., Gaddis; M., Cataldo; K.J., Slifer; M.B., Denckla; S.H., Mostofsky

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder which, by current definition, has onset prior to age 7 years. MRI studies have provided some insight into brain differences associated with ADHD, but thus far have almost exclusively focused on children ages 7 years and older. To better understand the neurobiological development of ADHD, cortical and subcortical brain development should be systematically examined in younger children presenting with symptoms of the disorder. High resolution anatomical (MPRAGE) images, acquired on a 3.0T scanner, were analyzed in a total of 26 preschoolers, ages 4–5 years (13 with ADHD, 13 controls, matched on age and sex). The ADHD sample was diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria, and screened for language disorders. Cortical regions were delineated and measured using automated methods in Freesurfer; basal ganglia structures were manually delineated. Children with ADHD showed significantly reduced caudate volumes bilaterally; in contrast, there were no significant group differences in cortical volume or thickness in this age range. After controlling for age and total cerebral volume, left caudate volume was a significant predictor of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive symptom severity. Anomalous basal ganglia, particularly caudate, development appears to play an important role among children presenting with early onset symptoms of ADHD. PMID:21660881

  2. A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

  3. Firearm fatalities. A preliminary study report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Amiri, A; Sanaei-Zadeh, H; Towfighi Zavarei, H; Rezvani Ardestani, F; Savoji, N

    2003-09-01

    During the one-year period from March 2002 to March 2003 there were 89 firearm fatalities investigated by the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran in Tehran. We determined the characteristics of these 89 firearm deaths which comprised 0.83% of all postmortem examinations. Of these, 60.7% were homicides, 30.3% suicides, 4.5% accidental, and 4.5% unclassifiable. Most victims were young male. Military rifles were responsible for almost all suicides, whereas in homicide handguns were the preferred weapons. The most common site of entrance wounds in suicides were the under the chin (37%) and chest (25.9%). In homicide group, 42.6% of entrance wounds were located in the head. The suicidal gunshots were fired from contact/near contact range in 84.6% while this was the case in only two cases of the homicides. All but one of the suicides were committed at the garrisons or police stations. The unique pattern of suicide that was found in this series was not similar to that reported in earlier studies. We believe our pattern of firearm fatalities must be in great part due to the Iran's strict gun control regulations and cultural background.

  4. A Preliminary study on the seismic conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhen; Xie, Lili

    2014-08-01

    The seismic conceptual design is an essential part of seismic design codes. It points out that the term "seismic conceptual design" should imply three aspects, i.e., the given concept itself, the specific provisions related to the given concept and the designing following the provisions. Seismic conceptual design can be classified into two categories: the strict or traditional seismic conceptual design and the generalized seismic conceptual design. The authors are trying to define for both conceptual designs their connotations and study their characteristics, in particular, the differences between them. Authors emphasize that both conceptual designs sound very close, however, their differences are apparent. The strict conceptual designs are usually worked out directly from engineering practice and/or lessons learnt from earthquake damage, while the generalized conceptual designs are resulted in a series of visions aiming to realize the general objectives of the seismic codes. The strict conceptual designs, (traditional conceptual designs) are indispensable elements of seismic codes in assuring designed structures safer and the generalized conceptual designs are playing key roles in directing to a more advanced and effective seismic codes.

  5. Preliminary hydrochemical study of Ronda ultramafic massif (South Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, Iñaki; Urresti, Begoña; Jiménez, Pablo; Martos, Sergio; José Durán, Juan; Benavente, José; Carrasco, Francisco; Pedrera, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During 2015 more than 70 springs related to the peridotite outcrops of the Ronda mountainous massif, South Spain, have been identified. The field work included "in situ" measurements of physical-chemical parameters (T, EC, pH), and water sampling for major components and stable isotopes of water and DIC. The hydrogeochemical study allowed us to characterize different flow systems: (1) springs with very low to medium electrical conductivities (200-700 μS/cm) and pH below 9.0, and (2) springs with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH above 9.0. The first group of springs are supposed to be linked with surface and subsurface flows. The hydrogeochemical reactions that determine their composition are characterized by the low solubility of minerals, atmospheric CO2 (open system) and active serpentinization reactions that supplies hundreds of ppm of Mg2+. All of them are waters of HCO3-Mg or HCO3-Mg-Na type. The second group of springs drains water with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH over 9. In general, these springs are associated to deep flows connected to regional faults or major tectonic features. Deeper flow enhances water-rock interaction and time of contact, so this system evolves towards a closed system to O2 and CO2. All these waters are old or older than the first group and show reducing features and are of Na-Cl or OH-Ca type.

  6. A preliminary study of patient comfort associated with customised mouthguards

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, C.; Kinirons, M.; Geary, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare patient perception of custom made mouthguards of ideal and less than ideal designs in terms of their comfort and "wearability". METHOD: A mouthguard of ideal design (A) and one incorporating common design faults of underextension and unadjusted occlusion (B) were provided for 22 active sportsmen and women. They were not informed of the details of the design or the status of the protector. Half the participants were asked to wear mouthguard A first and the other half wore B first, each worn for one hour on two consecutive nights. Questionnaires were used to evaluate and rate the comfort and wearability of each mouthguard. RESULTS: Eighteen people completed the study. The ideal appliance was rated as significantly more retentive and comfortable overall and specifically was more comfortable to lips, gums, and tongue. It was also recognised as being less bulky, less likely to keep the teeth apart, or to cause pain in the jaw muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Comfort is likely to be increased if mouthguards are extended labially to within 2 mm of the vestibular reflection, adjusted to allow even occlusal contact, rounded at the buccal peripheries, and tapered at the palatal edges. 


 PMID:10378071

  7. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique. PMID:27125874

  8. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-02-07

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms.

  9. Preliminary piloted simulation studies of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Robert A.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Ragsdale, W. A.

    1994-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing a lifting body vehicle, designated the HL-20, as one option of the proposed Personnel Launch System for NASA's future manned access to space requirements. Data derived from wind-tunnel and computational fluid dynamics analyses of the conceptual design led to the derivation of a flight simulator model to investigate the potential flight characteristics of the HL-20. A simulation investigation was initiated to determine if satisfactory unpowered horizontal landings could be accomplished. Control law design and trajectory development were directed toward this end. The study uncovered several deficiencies subsequently corrected through design changes, and it validated the predicted subsonic aerodynamic properties. Expanding the investigation to the Mach 4 to Mach 1 regime revealed flight characteristics necessitating the development of innovative control techniques. This article will present the significant results uncovered to date by flight simulator evaluations of a lifting body class of vehicle, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of flight simulation as an integrated part of the conceptual design phase.

  10. Segmentation and quantification for Alzheimer's disease (AD): a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Zhuge, Ying; Moonis, Gul; Clark, Christopher

    2003-05-01

    Alzheimer's is a progressive brain disease and is clinically characterized by cognitive symptoms that, in combination with behavioral disturbances, significantly interfere with activities of daily living. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of developing volumetric measures of the structural damage and atrophy of brain derived from multiprotocol MR imaging. Our approach first applies intensity inhomogeneity correction and intensity standardization to PD and T2 weighted MR images to create base images for quantitative image analysis. Then, vectorial scale-based fuzzy connectedness segmentation (VSFCS) and morphological operations are applied to the base images to extract masks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM), and white matter (WM), and further to create a clean and accurate intracranial (IC) mask. After separating CSF from brain parenchyma (BP), VSFCS is applied to BP (PD and T2) images to generate pure GM and WM masks, and then subtracting these pure from the BP mask to detect AD lesions. This method was applied to a set of conventional PD and T2 weighted MR images that were obtained from 5 patients with probable AD and 5 healthy normal control subjects. The segmented images of individual brain tissue regions (CSF, GM, WM, and AD lesion) are consistent with a Neuroradiologist's examination. The quantitative analysis shows that patients with AD have more atrophy. The mean value of the volume of brain parenchyma of patients with AD is about 10% less than that of healthy controls.

  11. The meanings of delusions in dementia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava; Ben-Israel, Joshua; Garfinkel, Doron

    2011-08-30

    One of the common symptoms of dementia is delusions. Due to a biological conceptualization of the behaviors represented as delusions, these are classified as psychotic symptoms. This is a qualitative and quantitative study aiming to describe the delusions experienced by older persons with dementia and the context of occurrence, and to elucidate their etiology. Participants were 74 nursing home residents aged 65 and over, diagnosed with dementia, from nine nursing homes in Israel. Participants with delusions were found to have significantly more difficulties in performing ADLs, and poorer vision and hearing. Based on assessment using the BEHAVE-AD, six categories of delusions were examined: 1. One's house is not one's home, 2. Theft, 3. Danger, 4. Abandonment, 5. Misidentification, and 6. Other non-paranoid. Common themes appeared across delusions including reality, disorientation, re-experience of past events, loneliness and insecurity, boredom, and trigger. Current results suggest that delusions may not represent psychotic symptoms for most participants, because they sometimes represented reality, or were neither firm nor incontrovertible. Thus, utilizing the term delusion relegates the person's behavior to the domain of severe psychiatric phenomena and precludes understanding its true meaning. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Left nucleus accumbens atrophy in deficit schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Pietro; Dacquino, Claudia; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-08-30

    A question that remains to be answered is whether schizophrenia can be characterized by a single etiopathophysiology or whether separate sub-syndromes should be differentiated to define specific mechanisms for each sub-type. Individuals affected by the deficit subtype of schizophrenia (DSZ) display avolitional/amotivational features that respond poorly to conventional treatments. Characterizing DSZ from a neuroanatomical point of view may help clarify this issue and develop new treatment strategies. To determine if DSZ is associated with structural alterations in specific deep grey matter structures linked to its key clinical features, 22 DSZ patients, 22 non-deficit schizophrenia (NDSZ) patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for a case-control cross-sectional study. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all subjects and volumes of deep grey matter structures were measured using FreeSurfer. DSZ patients displayed smaller left accumbens volumes compared to both NDSZ patients and HC. Moreover, age and duration of illness were significantly associated with lower volume of the left accumbens in DSZ but not in NDSZ. Findings indicate that DSZ is associated with lower volume of the nucleus accumbens in the dominant hemisphere. This is consistent with the psychopathological features and functional impairments present in DSZ and thus indicates a potential mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  14. Innovation and adaptation in a Turkish sample: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oner, B

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the representations of adaptation and innovation among adults in Turkey. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a sample of 20 Turkish adults (10 men, 10 women) from various occupations. The participants' ages ranged from 21 to 58 years. Results of content analysis showed that the representation of innovation varied with the type of context. Innovation was not preferred within the family and interpersonal relationship contexts, whereas it was relatively more readily welcomed within the contexts of work, science, and technology. This finding may indicate that the concept of innovation that is assimilated in traditional Turkish culture has limits. Contents of the interviews were also analyzed with respect to M. J. Kirton's (1976) subscales of originality, efficiency, and rule-group conformity. The participants favored efficient innovators, whereas they thought that the risk of failure was high in cases of inefficient innovation. The reasons for and indications of the representations of innovativeness among Turkish people are discussed in relation to their social structure and cultural expectations.

  15. A preliminary study on how hypohydration affects pain perception.

    PubMed

    Bear, Tracey; Philipp, Michael; Hill, Stephen; Mündel, Toby

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent health issue with one in five people suffering from some form of chronic pain, with loss of productivity and medical costs of chronic pain considerable. However, the treatment of pain can be difficult, as pain perception is complex and can be affected by factors other than tissue damage. This study investigated the effect of hypohydration (mild, voluntary dehydration from ∼24 h of limiting fluid intake, mimicking someone drinking less than usual) on a person's pain perception. Seventeen healthy males (age 27 ± 5 years) visited the laboratory on three occasions, once as a familiarization and then twice again while either euhydrated (urine specific gravity: 1.008 ± 0.005) or hypohydrated (urine specific gravity: 1.024 ± 0.003, and -1.4 ± 0.9% body mass). Each visit, they performed a cold pressor test, where their feet were placed in cold water (0-3 °C) for a maximum of 4 min. Measures of hydration status, pain sensitivity, pain threshold, and catastrophization were taken. We found that hypohydration predicted increased pain sensitivity (β = 0.43), trait pain catastrophizing, and baseline pain sensitivity (β = 0.37 and 0.47, respectively). These results are consistent with previous research, and suggest that a person's hydration status may be an important factor in their perception of acute pain. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Robotic consolle for ocular surgery: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Russo, Sheila; Menciassi, Arianna; Fortuna, Damiano

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has recently been improved by the use of robot-assisted procedures in several medical fields. Among the ocular surgeries there are a few examples of sophisticated vitreoretinal procedures, while robotic-assisted surgery of the anterior eye segment is still under study. In this paper we propose a new approach to the robotic assisted ocular surgery: a CO2 laser system is equipped with a micromanipulator and scanner, and it is proposed to induce photothermal effects for the removal of neoformations. A sensorized tool is connected to the patient eye and to the robotic arm. This tool is equipped with force and position sensors: by the use of the spatial information from the robotic console and from the patient it is possible to control the position of the target itself and to block it in the correct position for performing surgery. The system is provided by a feedback alarm that remove the block of the patient head in any moment. The optimized robotic consolle can be used in performing scleral cuts and in the treatment of pterigium or neoformations.

  17. A preliminary study on drought events in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Nahrawi, Siti Aishah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Zahari, Marina

    2014-06-01

    In this research, the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to represent the dry condition in Peninsular Malaysia. To do this, data of monthly rainfall from 75 stations in Peninsular Malaysia is used to obtain the SPI values at scale one. From the SPI values, two drought characteristics that are commonly used to represent the dry condition in an area that is the duration and severity of a drought period are identified and their respective values calculated for every station. Spatial mappings are then used to identify areas which are more likely to be affected by longer and more severe drought condition from the results. As the two drought characteristics may be correlated with each other, the joint distribution of severity and duration of dry condition is considered. Bivariate copula model is used and five copula models were tested, namely, the Gumbel-Hougard, Clayton, Frank, Joe and Galambos copulas. The copula model, which best represents the relationship between severity and duration, is determined using Akaike information criterion. The results showed that the Joe and Clayton copulas are well-fitted by close to 60% of the stations under study. Based on the results on the most appropriate copula-based joint distribution for each station, some bivariate probabilistic properties of droughts can then be calculated, which will be continued in future research.

  18. A preliminary study of the distribution of plankton using hologrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Krantz, E. P.; Lampitt, R. S.; Rogerson, A.; Watson, J.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution and dynamics of particles in the aquatic environment play an important role in the modelling of bio-geochemical processes. Previous work on the measurement of such particles, which vary in size from tens of micrometres (individual cells) to several centimetres (aggregates such as 'marine snow'), has mainly used electronic counting or conventional photography coupled with image analysis. Here we report on an initial study of the use of holographic mensuration, otherwise known as hologrammetry, for the enumeration, sizing and spatial distribution determination of plankton. We present results on imaging plankton in water tanks using both in-line and off-axis pulsed-laser holography. In this work, we have recorded in-line holograms in a volume of 2400 cm 3 of water with a resolution of better than 20 μm and off-axis holograms in a volume of 36000 cm 3 with a resolution of 140 μm. In both cases, identifiable images of plankton were obtained and precise spatial coordinates determined from the in-line holograms.

  19. Preliminary study of synergism of acid rain and diflubenzuron

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.J.S.; Clark, J.M.; Edman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Diflubenzuron{sup 1} (Dimilin{reg_sign}) was used on over 7 million acres in the U.S. in 1990 to control forest pests, particularly the gypsy moth. This chitin synthesis inhibitor affects insects and other anthropods. It is a restricted use pesticide due to its nontarget effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates. The effects of a single aerial application on nontarget aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were reviewed by Eisler (1992). Crustacea and immature insects (especially the true flies, mosquitoes, midges and black flies) are the most sensitive nontarget aquatic organisms to diflubenzuron. Diflubenzuron, N-[[4-(chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide, is not the only mortality factor aquatic organisms face from human pollution. Acid deposition is a frequent stress factor in freshwater habitats in the Northeast USA. Acidic pulses can drop vernal pools (e.g., temporary, springtime, snowmelt pools) to pH levels below 3.0. Aquatic invertebrates vary in their tolerance to acidification. Reduced pH completely eliminates some species. A combination of stress factors could lead to synergistic effects, over and above the impact seen with a single stressor. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are synergist effects of diflubenzuron and lowered pH on the mortality of a nontarget aquatic organism. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  20. A preliminary study of CO2 sequestration of cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Lee, H.; Hwang, J.; Oh, J.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, CO2 capture and storage technologies to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere have been extensively studied because global warming is a worldwide issue. Waste cement is a potential raw material for mineral carbonation. In general, carbonation refers a calcite forming reaction in hydrated cement. The carbonation of portlandite in hydrated cement is very straightforward. However, the carbonation of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate: CaO-SiO2-H2O) composing the largest portion of hydrated cement involved in complex reactions and is a key to increase the carbonation efficiency of waste cement. The present study was conducted to have basic information for utilizing waste cement as a raw material for CO2 sequestration. Cement paste was made with W:C= 6:4 and stored for 28 days in water bath. The prepared cement paste was pulverized, and fine grains sizing less than 0.15mm was used for experiment. For the direct aqueous carbonation experiment, 15g of sample is reacted with 200 ml of 1M NaHCO3 in 500ml HDPE bottle. 1M NaCl and 0.25 M MgCl2 was used for additives after leaching test with 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5M NaCl and MgCl2 solutions, and the carbonation efficiency of these additives was evaluated. After reaction, the reacted cement paste and supernatant solution were separated from centrifuging at 5000rpm. The reacted cement paste was analyzed with XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM/EDS. The supernatant solution was filtered with 0.45um membrane filter, and nitric acid was added to lower 2 for preventing calcite precipitation. Then, chemical composition of solution was analyzed with ICP-OES. The leaching of Ca ion is increased with increasing NaCl concentration and is maximized at 1M solution. Extremely small leaching of Si ion indicates that NaCl feebly affect on the carbonation of CSH. The leaching of Ca ion in MgCl2 solution is 10 times greater than in NaCl solution and is maximized at 0.5M solution. The increased Ca leaching is probably caused by the decalcification of

  1. Iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine in onychomycosis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Amichai, B; Nitzan, B; Mosckovitz, R; Shemer, A

    2010-01-01

    Background Onychomycosis is a common disease; topical treatment is usually poorly effective, while systemic treatment is more effective but may be associated with side-effects. Iontophoretic drug delivery may improve drug penetration through the nail and lead to better therapeutic results. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical treatments with terbinafine HCl delivered with or without an iontophoretic patch in patients with onychomycosis of the toenails. Methods Patients enrolled into the study were divided randomly into two groups. Group A was treated with terbinafine and an iontophoretic patch (at a constant current density of 100 microA cm(-2)). Group B was treated with terbinafine without iontophoresis. Treatment was overnight wear, every day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Follow-up period was 8 weeks from the end of treatment. Results A significant clinical response was recorded in patients of group A (active group). The percentage of patients having healthy toenail growth of more than 1.5 mm at the end of treatment was 40% compared with 11% in patients treated with terbinafine without current (passive group). The percentage of patients having fungal elements (KOH) in nail specimens decreased significantly at 8 weeks following the completion of treatment: 16% in the active group vs. 53% in the passive group. Patients in the active group reported a tingling sensation that is expected when using an iontophoretic drug delivery treatment. Conclusions The delivery of terbinafine under an electrical current of 100 microA cm(-2) appears to be efficacious and safe and is well tolerated for the treatment of nail onychomycosis.

  2. Characterizing human retinotopic mapping with conformal geometry: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Duyan; Shi, Jie; Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Yalin

    2014-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to measure the retinotopic organization of early visual cortex in the human brain. Previous studies have identified multiple visual field maps (VFMs) based on statistical analysis of fMRI signals, but the resulting geometry has not been fully characterized with mathematical models. Here we test whether VFMs V1 and V2 obey the least restrictive of all geometric mappings; that is, whether they are anglepreserving and therefore maintain conformal mapping. We measured retinotopic organization in individual subjects using standard traveling-wave fMRI methods. Visual stimuli consisted of black and white, drifting checkerboards comprising rotating wedges and expanding rings to measure the cortical representations of polar angle and eccentricity, respectively. These representations were then projected onto a 3D cortical mesh of each hemisphere. By generating a mapped unit disk that is conformal of the VFMs using spherical stereographic projection and computing the parameterized coordinates of the eccentricity and polar angle gradients, we computed Beltrami coefficients to check whether the mapping from the visual field to the V1 and V2 cortical representations is conformal. We find that V1 and V2 exhibit local conformality. Our analysis of the Beltrami coefficient shows that selected regions of V1 and V2 that contain reasonably smooth eccentricity and polar angle gradients do show significant local conformality, warranting further investigation of this approach for analysis of early and higher visual cortex. These results suggest that such a mathematical model can be used to characterize the early VFMs in human visual cortex.

  3. Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Yin; Wong, Man Sang

    2008-05-20

    Poor postures of the spine have been considered in association with a number of spinal musculoskeletal disorders, including structural deformity of the spine and back pain. Improper posturing for the patients with spinal disorders may further deteriorate their pain and deformities. Therefore, posture training has been proposed and its rationale is to use the patient's own back muscles to keep the spine within the natural curvature. A posture training device may help to facilitate this therapeutic approach by providing continuous posture monitoring and feedback signals to the patient when "poor" posture is detected. In addition, the users of the device may learn good postural habits that could carry over into their whole life. A smart garment with integrated accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect postural changes in terms of curvature variation of the spine in the sagittal and coronal planes, has been developed with intention to facilitate posture training. The smart garment was evaluated in laboratory tests and with 5 normal subjects during their daily activities. Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system is < 1 degrees and < 1.5 degrees in static and dynamic tilting measurements respectively. The results showed that the smart garment could facilitate subjects to prevent prolonged poor postures of the spine, especially the posture of the lumbar spine in which at least 40% of the time in poor posture were reduced. The smart garment has been developed to be a portable and user-friendly trunk posture monitoring system and it could be used for collection of the trunk posture information and provision of instant feedback to the user if necessary for posture training purpose. The current pilot study demonstrated that the posture of normal subjects could be monitored and trained via this smart garment. With further clinical investigations, this system could be considered in some flexible spinal deformities such as scoliosis and kyphosis.

  4. Understanding the communicative impairments in schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Colle, Livia; Angeleri, Romina; Vallana, Marianna; Sacco, Katiuscia; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pragmatic abilities of patients with schizophrenia in a variety of pragmatic phenomena expressed through different communicative means (language, gestures, and paralinguistic modality). For this purpose we used the Assessment Battery of Communication (ABaCo; Sacco et al., 2008). The ABaCo is a validated clinical tool for assessing pragmatic skills, which comprises five evaluation scales-linguistic, extralinguistic, paralinguistic, context, and conversational-investigating both comprehension and production of the main pragmatic phenomena involved in a communicative exchange, such as direct and indirect speech acts, irony, deceit, the violation of Grice's maxims, topic management, and turn-taking. The battery was administered to a group of seventeen patients with schizophrenia, and matched healthy controls. We expected the clinical group to perform widely worse than the control group in the different pragmatic dimensions investigated. Results showed that patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than controls on all the five scales of the battery, both in comprehension and production tasks. Moreover, the results within each scale showed a differentiated performance in the clinical group among the pragmatic phenomena, with irony assessed as the most difficult task. The implications of these results for research and treatment in schizophrenia are discussed. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) summarize thepreliminary assessment of pragmatic impairments in patients with schizophrenia; (2) describea variegated communicative profile regarding different pragmatic phenomena; and (3) discuss the planning and evaluating specific rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NEOWISE STUDIES OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRICALLY CLASSIFIED ASTEROIDS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; Tholen, D.; McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.

    2011-11-10

    The NEOWISE data set offers the opportunity to study the variations in albedo for asteroid classification schemes based on visible and near-infrared observations for a large sample of minor planets. We have determined the albedos for nearly 1900 asteroids classified by the Tholen, Bus, and Bus-DeMeo taxonomic classification schemes. We find that the S-complex spans a broad range of bright albedos, partially overlapping the low albedo C-complex at small sizes. As expected, the X-complex covers a wide range of albedos. The multiwavelength infrared coverage provided by NEOWISE allows determination of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m relative to the visible albedo. The direct computation of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m enables a new means of comparing the various taxonomic classes. Although C, B, D, and T asteroids all have similarly low visible albedos, the D and T types can be distinguished from the C and B types by examining their relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m. All of the albedo distributions are strongly affected by selection biases against small, low albedo objects, as all objects selected for taxonomic classification were chosen according to their visible light brightness. Due to these strong selection biases, we are unable to determine whether or not there are correlations between size, albedo, and space weathering. We argue that the current set of classified asteroids makes any such correlations difficult to verify. A sample of taxonomically classified asteroids drawn without significant albedo bias is needed in order to perform such an analysis.

  6. Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai Yin; Wong, Man Sang

    2008-01-01

    Background Poor postures of the spine have been considered in association with a number of spinal musculoskeletal disorders, including structural deformity of the spine and back pain. Improper posturing for the patients with spinal disorders may further deteriorate their pain and deformities. Therefore, posture training has been proposed and its rationale is to use the patient's own back muscles to keep the spine within the natural curvature. A posture training device may help to facilitate this therapeutic approach by providing continuous posture monitoring and feedback signals to the patient when "poor" posture is detected. In addition, the users of the device may learn good postural habits that could carry over into their whole life. Methods A smart garment with integrated accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect postural changes in terms of curvature variation of the spine in the sagittal and coronal planes, has been developed with intention to facilitate posture training. The smart garment was evaluated in laboratory tests and with 5 normal subjects during their daily activities. Results Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system is < 1° and < 1.5° in static and dynamic tilting measurements respectively. The results showed that the smart garment could facilitate subjects to prevent prolonged poor postures of the spine, especially the posture of the lumbar spine in which at least 40% of the time in poor posture were reduced. Conclusion The smart garment has been developed to be a portable and user-friendly trunk posture monitoring system and it could be used for collection of the trunk posture information and provision of instant feedback to the user if necessary for posture training purpose. The current pilot study demonstrated that the posture of normal subjects could be monitored and trained via this smart garment. With further clinical investigations, this system could be considered in some flexible spinal deformities such as

  7. Optical Quality and Related Factors in Ocular Hypertension: Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jing; Yang, Yan-Ning; Huang, Lin-Ying; Wang, Bo; Han, Yu-Can; Yan, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the optical quality and related factors in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods. This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 12 eyes with OHT and 20 control eyes underwent testing with Optical Quality Analysis System II (OQAS II) to evaluate the modulation transfer function cut off frequency (MTF cutoff), the Strehl 2D ratio (SR), objective scatter index (OSI), tear-film mean OSI (TFOSI), and the OQAS values (OV100%,OV20%, and OV9%). Results. The optical quality of patients with OHT declined, with lower MTF cutoff (OHT 36.86 ± 7.11 cpd , controls 48.50 ± 4.04 cpd, t = -4.60, P < 0.05), lower SR (OHT 0.22 ± 0.04, controls 0.27 ± 0.05, t = -2.72, P < 0.05), lower OV100% (OHT 1.26 ± 0.25, controls 1.61 ± 0.14, t = -4.03, P < 0.05), lower OV20% (OHT 1.27 ± 0.27, controls 1.72 ± 0.20, t = -4.00, P < 0.05), and lower OV9% (OHT 1.30 ± 0.25, controls 1.69 ± 0.32, t = -2.28, P < 0.05). There were not any statistically significant differences in OSI and TFOSI. The MTF cutoff in patients with OHT was correlated significantly with age (r = -0.59, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Optical quality of patients with OHT is reduced, with lower MTF cutoff, SR, OV100%, OV20%, and OV9%. MTF cutoff is negatively related to age.

  8. Preliminary fsLIBS study on bone tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ruby K.; Smith, Zachary J.; Panchal, Ripul R.; Bishop, John W.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) to discriminate between normal and cancerous bone, with implications to femtosecond laser surgery procedures. The main advantage of using femtosecond lasers for surgery is that the same laser that is being used to ablate can also be used for a feedback system to prevent ablation of certain tissues. For bone tumor removal, this technique has the potential to reduce the number of repeat surgeries that currently must be performed due to incomplete removal of the tumor mass. In this paper, we performed fsLIBS on primary bone tumor, secondary tumor in bone, and normal bone. These tissues were excised from consenting patients and processed through the UC Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. For comparison, each tumor sample had a matched normal bone sample. fsLIBS was performed to characterize the spectral signatures of each tissue type. A minimum of 20 spectra were acquired for each sample. We did not detect significant differences between the fsLIBS spectra of secondary bone tumors and their matched normal bone samples, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of secondary bone tumors, with normal and cancerous tissue intermingling. However, we did observe an increase in the fsLIBS magnesium peak intensity relative to the calcium peak intensity for the primary bone tumor samples compared to the normal bone samples. These results show the potential of using femtosecond lasers for both ablation and a real-time feedback control system for treatment of primary bone tumors. PMID:26713199

  9. Functional illiteracy among emergency department patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jolly, B T; Scott, J L; Feied, C F; Sanford, S M

    1993-03-01

    To determine the ability of emergency department patients to understand common written discharge instructions and the level of reading difficulty of standard discharge instructions. The study was performed in two parts. In part 1, subjects were asked to read one set of standard written discharge instructions. Then, with the instructions to refer to, subjects were asked to answer five questions about the instructions. A subject's level of success was correlated with age, sex, and highest level of education. In part 2, 47 sets of standard written discharge instructions from six different EDs were computer analyzed using five commonly used readability formulas. Results were reported as grade levels. The ED of a large inner-city university hospital. The subjects for part 1 were 400 adult ED patients who presented on randomly selected days. Part 1: A significant proportion of patients failed to answer correctly at least four of five questions. Patients educated beyond high school demonstrated higher levels of success than did those with less education. A trend was noted for younger subjects to perform better than older subjects. The answers to the three most frequently missed questions were contained within areas of difficult sentence structure or long paragraphs containing large amounts of information. Part 2: The average grade level required to understand instruction sheets ranged from 6.0 to 13.4. More difficult instruction sheets tended to contain numerous multi-syllabic words, long sentences, and difficult sentence structure. A significant proportion of ED patients have a demonstrable inability to understand common written instructions. ED instruction sheets are written at a level of difficulty that is out of the readable range for many patients. Health care providers should strive to simplify written materials and to develop new methods for instructing those for whom current written materials have no meaning.

  10. A Preliminary Study on Black Colored Potsherds from Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Y. S.; Yi-Chang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Black colored potsherds from the archaeological sites of late Neolithic (3500-2000 BP) and Iron Age (1400-800 BP) exhibit the minor phase in the number of antiques, however, they represent a specific symbol on the religious rites and social stratum in the archaeological and cultural contents of Taiwan. A lot of efforts focused on morphological and decorative styles of the black pottery have been made in previous archaeological works. In this study, multiple analytical techniques including micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and micro X-ray florescence spectroscopy (μXRF) were applied to 11 potsherds found at eleven archaeological sites across Taiwan to understand the raw materials, production techniques, and the possible interactions and exchange system among ancient societies. Ten mineral phases including α-quartz, amorphous carbon, anatase, plagioclase, etc., were identified from Raman spectra. The presence of amorphous carbon indicates that pottery was fired under reducing conditions. Pyroxene minerals were present in some potsherds, suggesting that raw materials were not sourced locally, and perhaps further indicating trading or people migration activities in ancient periods. XRD measurements and μXRF analyses were used as complementary techniques to obtain mineral and chemical compositions. XRD measurements show that quartz, albite, biotite, and gypsum were present in potsherds. Chemically, SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, Fe2O3, and CaO are the main constituents. The correlation plots of these main compositions show that pottery raw material can subdivide into three group which were related to different areas and ages. However, it need more detailed investigation to decipher this issue.

  11. Multianalyte markers of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Faith; Schroeder, Jennifer; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Bahn, Sabine; Yolken, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have identified altered molecular profiles in blood samples from individuals with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder using multianalyte immunoassay platforms but there has been little comparison of the two groups in the same investigation. A total of 337 participants including 146 with schizophrenia, 79 with bipolar disorder, and 112 non-psychiatric controls had a blood sample drawn from which 166 analytes were measured. The initial dataset was split; classification models were developed in a training dataset and their performance evaluated in a test dataset. Principal component analysis was used to generate factor scores that were then compared between the groups. In a training set, a total of 7 independent factors were generated using 29 markers that were both normally distributed and significantly associated with diagnosis. Many of these analytes are components of the immune system and involved in the inflammatory response to infectious agents and foreign antigens. Two of the seven principal component scores discriminated between individuals with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder; additional factors distinguished individuals with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from control individuals, while two factors were not significantly different between any of the diagnostic groups. In a test dataset, the schizophrenia vs. control Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis shows an overall accuracy of 77% for schizophrenia vs. bipolar disorder, 84% for schizophrenia vs. controls, and 72% for bipolar disorder vs. An increased understanding of the role of altered pathways in serious psychiatric disorders may lead to novel methods for disease diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Occlusal traits in developmental dyslexia: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Perillo, Letizia; Esposito, Maria; Contiello, Mariarosaria; Lucchese, Alessandra; Santini, Annamaria Chiara; Carotenuto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to assess the orthodontic features in children affected by developmental dyslexia (DD). Patients and methods A total of 28 children affected by DD (22 boys, six girls; mean age: 9.78 ± 1.69 years) were compared with 51 healthy children (38 boys, 13 girls; mean age 9.41 ± 1.48; range 7–10 years). Reading and writing skills were evaluated along with orthodontic features. Results The DD and control groups were not significantly different in terms of total intelligence quotient (P = 0.441) and writing skills (P = 0.805 and P = 0.240, respectively), whereas significant differences were observed between the DD group and control group in both word reading (2.018 ± 1.714 vs 0.917 ± 0.563; P = 0.000) and non-word reading (2.537 ± 1.543 vs 0.862 ± 0.244; P = 0.000). Moreover, for many orthodontic features, there was no significant difference between the two groups; only in prevalence of diastemas (57.14%, P = 0.006), midline diastemas (46.42%, P = 0.007), overbite > 4 mm (71.42%, P = 0.006) and overjet > 4 mm (53.57%, P = 0.001), was there a statistically significant difference. According to univariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of diastemas (odds ratio [OR] 4.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61–11.65), midline diastemas (OR 4.68; 95% CI 1.61–13.43), an overbite >4 mm (OR 1.75; 95% CI 0.64–4.71), or an overjet >4 mm (OR 2.76; 95% CI 1.06–7.20) seems to play a role in the relationship between occlusal abnormalities and DD in children. Conclusion Children with DD tend to present with altered dental features, particularly in the area of the incisors, suggesting that a persistently different tongue kinematic profile may thus affect both the developmental variability of the tongue and lip and the occlusion. PMID:24009421

  13. Shock absorption in lumbar disc prosthesis: a preliminary mechanical study.

    PubMed

    LeHuec, J C; Kiaer, T; Friesem, T; Mathews, H; Liu, M; Eisermann, L

    2003-08-01

    Lumbar disc prostheses have been used in treating symptomatic degenerative disc diseases. A few prostheses of the ball-socket design are currently available for clinical use, the joint mechanism being materialized either with a hard polymer core or a metal-to-metal couple. Other prostheses of "shock absorber" design were not available at the time of the study. The objective of this work was to establish whether there was a difference in the shock absorption capacity between a device having an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene center core and a device having a metal-on-metal bearing. Vibration and shock loading were applied to two lumbar total disc prostheses: PRODISC, manufactured by Spine Solutions, and MAVERICK Total Disc Replacement, manufactured by Medtronic Sofamor Danek. The shock absorption capacity of the device was evaluated by comparing the input and the output force measurements. The disc prosthesis was mounted onto a test apparatus. Each side of the device was equipped with a force sensor. The input shock load and the output resulting forces were simultaneously measured and recorded. The loading force pattern included 1). a static preload of 350 N plus an oscillating vibration of 100 N with frequency sweeping from 0 to 100 Hz and 2). a sudden shock load of 250 N applied over a 0.1-second interval. Both input and output signal data were processed and were transformed into their frequency spectrums. The vibration and shock transmissibility of the device, defined as the ratio of the output spectrum over the input spectrum, were calculated in sweeping the frequency from 0 to 100 Hz. The phase deviation was calculated to characterize the shock absorber effects. For both tested devices under vibration and shock loading, the phase angle displacement between the input and the output signals was 10 degrees. Under oscillating vibration loading, both tested devices had a transmission ratio higher than 99.8%. Over the frequency interval 1-100 Hz, the

  14. Preliminary Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek

    2005-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density, high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. The ATR has large irradiation test volumes located in high flux areas. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth with a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2–s. As a result, the ATR is a representative candidate for assessing the necessary modifications and evaluating the subsequent operating effects associated with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was developed for the fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. Using the current HEU 235U enrichment of 93.0 % as a baseline, an analysis can be performed to determine the LEU uranium density and 235U enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield an equivalent Keff between the HEU core and a LEU core versus effective full power days (EFPD). The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model will be used to optimize the 235U loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in Keff between the HEU and LEU core can be minimized for operation at 150 EFPD with a total core power of 115 MW. The Monte-Carlo with ORIGEN-2 (MCWO) method was used to calculate Keff versus EFPDs. The MCWO-calculated results for the LEU case demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the LEU core conversion designer should be able to optimize the 235U content of each fuel plate, so that the Keff and relative radial fission heat flux profile are similar to the reference ATR HEU case. However, to demonstrate that the LEU core fuel cycle performance can meet the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) safety requirements, a further study will be required in order to investigate the detailed radial, axial, and azimuthal heat flux profile variations versus EFPDs.

  15. Wing design for a civil tiltrotor transport aircraft: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the design of the wing-box structure for a civil tiltrotor transport aircraft. The wing structural weight is to be minimized subject to structural and aeroelastic constraints. The composite wing-box structure is composed of skin, stringers, ribs, and spars. The design variables include skin ply thicknesses and orientations and spar cap and stringer cross-sectional areas. With the total task defined, an initial study was conducted to learn more about the intricate dynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of the tiltrotor aircraft and their roles in the wing design. Also, some work was done on the wing finite-element modeling (via PATRAN) which would be used in structural analysis and optimization. Initial studies indicate that in order to limit the wing/rotor aeroelastic and dynamic interactions in the preliminary design, the cruise speed, rotor system, and wing geometric attributes must all be held fixed.

  16. A Preliminary Cost Study of the Dual Mode Inverter Controller

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.

    2005-01-28

    }, L{sub slot}, and L{sub endturns}. PM motors inherently have a lower inductance because of the increase in effective air gap caused by the magnet, which is in the denominator of the equation for L{sub gap}. L{sub gap} accounts for about half of the phase inductance. Because of the low inductance, there is a propensity for currents to exceed the motor's rated value. DMIC solves this problem for low-inductance PM motors and, in addition, provides a number of safety features that protect against uncontrolled generator mode operation [8,9]; however, the DMIC topology adds a pair of anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three phases, thereby introducing additional silicon costs as well as additional voltage drops during operation. It poses the tradeoff question; under what conditions can the beneficial features of DMIC offset its additional silicon cost and voltage drop losses? The purpose of this report is to address the tradeoff question. Sections of the report will: (1) review the role of self-inductance in performance and control of PM motors, (2) discuss the bounding inductances for motors with trapezoidal back-emfs under CPA control, (3) discuss the bounding inductances for trapezoidal back-emfs under DMIC, (4) discuss the bounding inductances for the PM synchronous motor (PMSM), (5) present the analysis showing how DMIC minimizes current in PMSMs, (6) present the results of a cost study conducted for two motors driven using a CPA inverter and for two motors driven using DMIC, (7) discuss estimating life cycle cost benefits, and (8) present conclusions.

  17. Pulmonary noradrenergic innervation of rat and monkey: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    El-Bermani, Al-Walid I.

    1978-01-01

    El-Bermani, Al-Walid I. (1978).Thorax, 33, 167-174. Pulmonary noradrenergic innervation of rat and monkey: a comparative study. The noradrenergic innervation of rat and monkey lungs was studied using the fluorescence histochemical method for norepinephrine of Falck (1962). In both species the noradrenergic nerves enter the lung at the hilum in association with the bronchial arteries. Major differences were noted in the distribution and pattern of these nerves, the most important of which are as follows: (1) Noradrenergic nerves have terminal varicosities in all divisions of the rat bronchial artery but are varicose in only the medium and small bronchial arteries of the monkey. (2) Noradrenergic terminals (varicosities) are in direct association with the bronchial smooth muscle in the monkey, but in the rat most of the noradrenergic nerves pass through the smooth muscle layer without forming terminal varicosities. Smooth muscle noradrenergic innervation is seen only at bifurcation points. (3) In the monkey pulmonary artery, noradrenergic terminals are restricted to the adventitio-medial junction while they appear in the media of the rat pulmonary artery. (4) Noradrenergic terminals are present in all pulmonary vein divisions of the monkey whereas in the rat the large pulmonary veins lack noradrenergic nerves. Both rat and monkey bronchial arteries and pulmonary veins were found to have adrenergic terminal varicosities deep in the medial layer. The rat pulmonary artery also has such medial terminations. In both species there is a preponderance of noradrenergic terminals in the vasa vasorum, and we think that this may be important in regulating the delivery of humoral substances to vascular walls. Images PMID:96545

  18. Manual lymph drainage attenuates frontal EEG asymmetry in subjects with psychological stress: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jung-Myo; Kim, Sung-Joong

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of manual lymph drainage (MLD) of the neck on frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in subjects with psychological stress. [Subjects] Thirteen subjects with psychological stress participated in the study. [Methods] Subjects received MLD of the neck for 15 min. [Results] Analysis of the frontal asymmetry index showed that the energy shift in the alpha frequency band from the left hemisphere to the right hemisphere after MLD resulted in greater left-side activation (positive asymmetry values), which could be related to the positive emotional state observed particularly in the F7-F8 area. [Conclusion] These preliminary findings suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated after MLD.

  19. Preliminary Study of 20 MWth Experiment Power Reactor based on Pebble Bed Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwanto, Dwi; Permana, Sidik; Pramuditya, Syeilendra

    2017-07-01

    In this study, preliminary design calculations for experimental small power reactor (20 MWt) based on Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) are performed. PBR technology chosen due to its advantages in neutronic and safety aspects. Several important parameters, such as fissile enrichment, number of fuel passes, burnup and effective multiplication factor are taken into account in the calculation to find neutronic characteristics of the present reactor design.

  20. Kinetic Studies on Photodeposition of Polydiacetylene Thin Film from Solution: Preliminary Determination of the Rate Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Armstrong, S.; Witherow, W. K.; Frazier, D. O.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary kinetic studies were undertaken on the photodeposition of thin films of a polydiacetylene derivative of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline from monomer solutions onto quartz substrates. Solutions of the monomer, DAMNA, in 1,2-dichloroethane at various concentrations were irradiated at 364 nm using an argon-ion laser at several intensities. It was found that the rate of polydiacetylene (PDAMNA) film photodeposition varies linearly with UV light intensity and as the square root of monomer concentration.

  1. Learning Science Using AR Book: A Preliminary Study on Visual Needs of Deaf Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megat Mohd. Zainuddin, Norziha; Badioze Zaman, Halimah; Ahmad, Azlina

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that is projected to have more significant role in teaching and learning, particularly in visualising abstract concepts in the learning process. AR is a technology is based on visually oriented technique. Thus, it is suitable for deaf learners since they are generally classified as visual learners. Realising the importance of visual learning style for deaf learners in learning Science, this paper reports on a preliminary study of on an ongoing research on problems faced by deaf learners in learning the topic on Microorganisms. Being visual learners, they have problems with current text books that are more text-based that graphic based. In this preliminary study, a qualitative approach using the ethnographic observational technique was used so that interaction with three deaf learners who are participants throughout this study (they are also involved actively in the design and development of the AR Book). An interview with their teacher and doctor were also conducted to identify their learning and medical problems respectively. Preliminary findings have confirmed the need to design and develop a special Augmented Reality Book called AR-Science for Deaf Learners (AR-SiD).

  2. Behavioral study of whisker-mediated vibration sensation in rats.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Mehdi; Diamond, Mathew E; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2012-01-17

    Rats use their vibrissal sensory system to collect information about the nearby environment. They can accurately and rapidly identify object location, shape, and surface texture. Which features of whisker motion does the sensory system extract to construct sensations? We addressed this question by training rats to make discriminations between sinusoidal vibrations simultaneously presented to the left and right whiskers. One set of rats learned to reliably identify which of two vibrations had higher frequency (f(1) vs. f(2)) when amplitudes were equal. Another set of rats learned to reliably identify which of two vibrations had higher amplitude (A(1) vs. A(2)) when frequencies were equal. Although these results indicate that both elemental features contribute to the rats' sensation, a further test found that the capacity to discriminate A and f was reduced to chance when the difference in one feature was counterbalanced by the difference in the other feature: Rats could not discriminate amplitude or frequency whenever A(1)f(1) = A(2)f(2). Thus, vibrations were sensed as the product Af rather than as separable elemental features, A and f. The product Af is proportional to a physical entity, the mean speed. Analysis of performance revealed that rats extracted more information about differences in Af than predicted by the sum of the information in elemental differences. These behavioral experiments support the predictions of earlier physiological studies by demonstrating that rats are "blind" to the elemental features present in a sinusoidal whisker vibration; instead, they perceive a composite feature, the speed of whisker motion.

  3. Study of antiurolithiatic activity of Asparagus racemosus on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Narumalla; Chikkannasetty, Somashekara S; Govindadas, Damodaram; Devasankaraiah, Golla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus on urolithiasis in rats. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Ethylene glycol (EG) 0.75% and ammonium chloride (AC) 2% in drinking water were fed to all groups (Groups II-VI) except normal control (Group I) rats for 10 days to induce urolithiasis. Group III-VI rats were treated with ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus at doses 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg, respectively, for 10 days. Positive control (Group II) rats were treated with EG/AC alone. Group I rats were administered drinking water and distilled water (6 μl/g) by gavage. After 10 days, blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, urea, and creatinine. The kidneys were removed and sectioned for histopathological examination. The data were presented as mean ± standard error of mean and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's "t"-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conventional windows software was used for statistical analysis. The rats treated with ethanolic extract of A. racemosus at doses 800 and 1600 mg/ kg significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, urea, and creatinine. Histopathology of the kidneys in Groups V and VI revealed less tissue damage and were almost similar to Group I rats. The ethanolic extract of A. racemosus has protective effect against urolithiasis.

  4. Impact of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy on Gut Microbiota in F344 Rats: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Ho; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate changes in gut microbiota composition following long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. Methods Twenty-four-week-old F344 rats were fed diets with (n=6) or without (n=5) lansoprazole for 50 weeks. Profiles of luminal microbiota in the terminal ileum were then analyzed. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed using an FLX genome sequencer (454 Life Sciences/Roche). Results Rats treated with lansoprazole showed significantly reduced body weights compared to controls (lansoprazole-treated rats and controls, 322.3±15.3 g vs 403.2±5.2 g, respectively, p<0.001). However, stool frequencies and consistencies did not differ between the two groups. The composition of the gut microbiota in lansoprazole-treated rats was quite different from that of the controls. In the controls, the microbiota profiles obtained from the terminal ileum showed a predominance of Proteobacteria (93.9%) due to the abundance of Escherichia and Pasteurella genera. Conversely, lansoprazole-treated rats showed an elevated population of Firmicutes (66.9%), which was attributed to an increased ratio of Clostridium g4 to Lactobacillus genera. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that long-term administration of PPI may cause weight loss and changes to the microbiota in the terminal ileum. PMID:27458177

  5. The presence of TNF-alpha and TNFR1 in aseptic root resorption. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Curl, Linda; Sampson, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    It is hypothesised that osteoprotegerin (OPG), as an osteoclast antagonist, may offer molecular control over the process of orthodontic root resorption. Previous work investigating OPG in a rat periodontal ligament (PDL) ankylosis model found no inhibitory effect on osteoclasts and odontoclasts when given at a recommended dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. It was considered that traumatically-induced PDL inflammation produces mediators and cytokines with the ability to stimulate clast cell differentiation and counter the effects of OPG. The present study investigated the presence of Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptor Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 (TNFR1) in a PDL sterile inflammatory model. Dry ice was applied for 15 minutes to the upper right first molar crown of eighteen, 8-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats of which 9 were injected with OPG at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight at the time of freezing. After 7 days, the rats were sacrificed and each maxilla processed for immunohistochemical identification of TNF-alpha and TNFR1. Results showed the presence of root resorption in varying amounts and locations in both experimental and control rats. Reparative processes appeared greater in the OPG-treated rats, often with the presence of an ankylotic union. Immunolabelling showed the presence of TNF-alpha and TNFR1 in the sterile inflammation located mainly in the interradicular PDL area. More definitive labelling appeared in OPG-treated rats. The results indicated that TNF-alpha, and its receptor TNFR1, by their presence, may modify OPG effectiveness by offering an alternative pathway for osteoclast formation, which counters the anti-resorptive effects of OPG.

  6. Stuttering on function words in bilingual children who stutter: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Byrd, Courtney T; Bedore, Lisa M; Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests young monolingual children who stutter (CWS) are more disfluent on function than content words, particularly when produced in the initial utterance position. The purpose of the present preliminary study was to investigate whether young bilingual CWS present with this same pattern. The narrative and conversational samples of four bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking CWS were analysed. All four bilingual participants produced significantly more stuttering on function words compared to content words, irrespective of their position in the utterance, in their Spanish narrative and conversational speech samples. Three of the four participants also demonstrated more stuttering on function compared to content words in their narrative speech samples in English, but only one participant produced more stuttering on function than content words in her English conversational sample. These preliminary findings are discussed relative to linguistic planning and language proficiency and their potential contribution to stuttered speech.

  7. Preliminary study on enhancing waste management best practice model in Malaysia construction industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaludin, Amril Hadri; Karim, Nurulzatushima Abdul; Noor, Raja Nor Husna Raja Mohd; Othman, Nurulhidayah; Malik, Sulaiman Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Construction waste management (CWM) is the practice of minimizing and diverting construction waste, demolition debris, and land-clearing debris from disposal and redirecting recyclable resources back into the construction process. Best practice model means best choice from the collection of other practices that was built for purpose of construction waste management. The practice model can help the contractors in minimizing waste before the construction activities will be started. The importance of minimizing wastage will have direct impact on time, cost and quality of a construction project. This paper is focusing on the preliminary study to determine the factors of waste generation in the construction sites and identify the effectiveness of existing construction waste management practice conducted in Malaysia. The paper will also include the preliminary works of planned research location, data collection method, and analysis to be done by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help in developing suitable waste management best practice model that can be used in the country.

  8. Subchronic toxicity study on soy isoflavones in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Zhong; Cui, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Wei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Li, Ning

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the subchronic toxicity of soy isoflavones (SIF) in male rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, 10 rats per group. SIF were given to rats in different groups by gavage at dose of 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.5, and 4.5 g/kg bw, respectively for 13 weeks. Clinical manifestations, body weight, and food consumption were observed weekly. At the end of the study, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, total testosterone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were tested, and histopathological examinations were performed. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities or treatment-related clinical signs were identified during the study. As compared with the control group, significantly lower body weights and food consumption were observed in 1.5 and 4.5 g/kg bw groups. In clinical chemistry tests, triglyceride was significantly decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased in all SIF-treated groups. Total testosterone levels were significantly lower in 0.50, 1.50, and 4.5 g/kg bw dose groups than in the control group. Microscopic examination showed that the mammary glands exhibited hyperplasia and excreted latex in rats of the 4.5 g/kg bw group. No changes attributable to treatment of SIF in other parameters were found. SIF at high dosages caused significant endocrine disruption in male rats. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of SIF to male rats in this study is considered to be 0.20 g/kg bw.

  9. Volume 1. Preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers. Volume 2. Revised preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide a preliminary design concept for a Flux Monitor Spectrometer (FMS) for use at the X Ray Astrophysics Facility (XRAF) during High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) testing that met the requirements of SAO-AXAF-88-025 dated July 31, 1991. The calibration test team determined that the spectral resolution of the FMS had to be greater than or equal to twice that of all the AXAF spectrometers throughout the 0.1 to 10 KeV range of x-ray energies. Since this effectively doubled the resolution required by SAO-AXAF-88-025, a change order was approved by the Marshall Space Flight Center and given to Radiation Sciences to revise their study.

  10. Collaborative Care for Patients With Severe Personality Disorders: Preliminary Results and Active Ingredients From a Pilot Study (Part I).

    PubMed

    Stringer, Barbara; van Meijel, Berno; Karman, Pieter; Koekkoek, Bauke; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2015-07-01

    To test if a collaborative care program (CCP) with nurses in a coordinating position is beneficial for patients with severe personality disorders. A pilot study with a comparative multiple case study design using mixed methods investigating active ingredients and preliminary results. Most patients, their informal caregivers, and nurses value (parts of) the CCP positively; preliminary results show a significant decrease in severity of borderline symptoms. With the CCP, we may expand the supply of available treatments for patients with (severe) personality disorders, but a larger randomized controlled trial is warranted to confirm our preliminary results. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity Study of n-pentane in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Kyu; Cho, Hae-Won; Han, Jeong-Hee; Lee, Sung-Bae; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Rim, Kyung-Taek; Yang, Jeong-Sun

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted in order to obtain information concerning the health hazards that may result from a 13 week inhalation exposure of n-pentane in Sprague-Dawley rats. This study was conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing of chemicals No. 413 'Subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study (as revised in 2009)'. The rats were divided into 4 groups (10 male and 10 female rats in each group), and were exposed to 0, 340, 1,530, and 6,885 ppm n-pentane in each exposure chamber for 6 hour/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks. All of the rats were sacrificed at the end of the treatment period. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, locomotion activity, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights, and histopathology were assessed. During the period of testing, there were no treatment related effects on the clinical findings, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, relative organ weight, and histopathological findings. The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of n-pentane is evaluated as being more than 6,885 ppm (20.3 mg/L) in both male and female rats. n-pentane was not a classified specific target organ toxicity in the globally harmonized classification system (GHS).

  12. Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity Study of n-pentane in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hae-Won; Han, Jeong-Hee; Lee, Sung-Bae; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Rim, Kyung-Taek; Yang, Jeong-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to obtain information concerning the health hazards that may result from a 13 week inhalation exposure of n-pentane in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing of chemicals No. 413 'Subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study (as revised in 2009)'. The rats were divided into 4 groups (10 male and 10 female rats in each group), and were exposed to 0, 340, 1,530, and 6,885 ppm n-pentane in each exposure chamber for 6 hour/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks. All of the rats were sacrificed at the end of the treatment period. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, locomotion activity, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights, and histopathology were assessed. Results During the period of testing, there were no treatment related effects on the clinical findings, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, relative organ weight, and histopathological findings. Conclusion The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of n-pentane is evaluated as being more than 6,885 ppm (20.3 mg/L) in both male and female rats. n-pentane was not a classified specific target organ toxicity in the globally harmonized classification system (GHS). PMID:23019535

  13. THE FEASIBILITY AND EFFICACY OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE WITH OLDER CANCER SURVIVORS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    LaStayo, Paul C.; Larsen, Stephanie; Smith, Sheldon; Dibble, Lee; Marcus, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Older individuals who have survived cancer, and the commensurate treatment, often experience a reduced quality of life in part due to their impaired muscular abilities and deficits in mobility. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of resistance exercise via negative, eccentrically-induced work (RENEW) with older cancer survivors. Methods Older cancer survivors with a perception of moderate muscle weakness and fatigue participated in 12 weeks of RENEW. Measures of feasibility included: 1) the participant’s ability to progress the total amount of work of RENEW; 2) whether peak knee extension torque production became impaired; and 3) whether RENEW induced leg muscle pain as measured on a visual analog scale. The preliminary measure of efficacy included: the performance of a timed up and go mobility test. Results The participants significantly increased the total average work per week over the 12 weeks of RENEW. Participants increased (p<0.001) their work ~3-fold from week 3 (7.6± 5.1 kJ) to week 12 (22.1±14.8kJ) without muscle pain over the 12 week RENEW training period. Knee extension peak torque production improved (11%) significantly (p=0.02) (pretest: 248 ±92 N; posttest: 275±99 N) after 12 weeks of RENEW. The time to perform the TUG test improved (14%) significantly (p<0.001) (pretest: 8.4±2.7; posttest: 7.2±2.3 s) after 12 weeks of RENEW, suggesting preliminary efficacy. Conclusion Collectively, RENEW appears feasible and potentially efficacious for older, weak and fatigued cancer survivors. Implications for Cancer Survivors The use of eccentric muscle exercise may be ideally suited for older cancer survivors due to its high force and low energetic cost capabilities. PMID:21155509

  14. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF`s diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble).

  15. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  16. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  17. A composite design for transition from a preliminary to a full-scale study.

    PubMed

    Lachin, John M; Younes, Naji

    2007-11-30

    In drug development, a sequence of studies are conducted to evaluate effectiveness (or efficacy) and safety, such as a Phase II study to assess pharmacological activity or safety that is then followed by a definitive Phase III study to assess clinical effectiveness. Rather than conducting separate successive studies, we describe a design in which the patients enrolled in a preliminary (e.g. Phase II) study are continued into a subsequent full-scale (e.g. Phase III) study. This design also applies to a study that uses an internal pilot with a preliminary assessment of efficacy or safety. The combined preliminary to full-scale design potentially reduces the total numbers of patients required and the total duration of the program. The design allows a futility or safety stopping boundary for the preliminary study result that is specified in terms of a lower critical Z-value (Z(L)) and the pursuant type II error probability incurred under a specified alternative hypothesis of a beneficial effect or no toxicity at that stage. This boundary also leads to a deflation of the type I error probability for the final test at the completion of the full-scale study, such that a critical value for the final test (Z(F)) can be determined that provides the desired level of the type I error probability exactly. Thus, it is possible to determine sample sizes at the two stages, and critical values Z(L) and Z(F) that provide specified type I and II error probabilities for the combined study. We describe the design using large-sample normally distributed Z-tests at the two phases, including a test for means, or proportions or survival times, or combinations thereof, such as a test for means at Phase II followed by a test for proportions at Phase III. We compare the properties of this design versus the conduct of two successive studies, and explore the factors that influence the operating characteristics of the design. We also discuss the practical considerations in the implementation of

  18. Behavioral study of whisker-mediated vibration sensation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Mehdi; Diamond, Mathew E.; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Rats use their vibrissal sensory system to collect information about the nearby environment. They can accurately and rapidly identify object location, shape, and surface texture. Which features of whisker motion does the sensory system extract to construct sensations? We addressed this question by training rats to make discriminations between sinusoidal vibrations simultaneously presented to the left and right whiskers. One set of rats learned to reliably identify which of two vibrations had higher frequency (f1 vs. f2) when amplitudes were equal. Another set of rats learned to reliably identify which of two vibrations had higher amplitude (A1 vs. A2) when frequencies were equal. Although these results indicate that both elemental features contribute to the rats’ sensation, a further test found that the capacity to discriminate A and f was reduced to chance when the difference in one feature was counterbalanced by the difference in the other feature: Rats could not discriminate amplitude or frequency whenever A1f1 = A2f2. Thus, vibrations were sensed as the product Af rather than as separable elemental features, A and f. The product Af is proportional to a physical entity, the mean speed. Analysis of performance revealed that rats extracted more information about differences in Af than predicted by the sum of the information in elemental differences. These behavioral experiments support the predictions of earlier physiological studies by demonstrating that rats are “blind” to the elemental features present in a sinusoidal whisker vibration; instead, they perceive a composite feature, the speed of whisker motion. PMID:22219358

  19. Auxiliary payload power system study for space processing applications payloads. Preliminary requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary designs, specifications, and programmatic data for the auxiliary payload power system (APPS) are presented. The APPS concept is an independent system to be carried in the Orbiter's cargo bay having the capability of housing and supporting space processing applications (SPA) experiment payloads and augmenting Spacelab power and heat rejection capabilities as required in the performance of these experiments.

  20. Preliminary toxicology study of 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The calculated acute oral LD 30/50 (lethal dose for 50% of the animals occurring within 30 days after compound administration) value for 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DATZ) was 863 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, DATZ would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for rats. The calculated acute oral LD [sub 30/50] value was 2,288 mg/kg in mice and would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for mice. Skin application studies using rabbits demonstrated DATZ to be a nonirritant. The eye study using rabbits disclosed DATZ to be a very mild irritant. The sensitization study using guinea pigs did not show DATZ to have potential sensitizing properties.