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Sample records for preliminary study evaluating

  1. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who…

  2. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who…

  3. Preliminary study on quality evaluation of pecans with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Cao, Wei; Mathanker, Sunil; Zhang, Weili; Wang, Ning

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports a preliminary work on a feasibility study of applying terahertz (THz) technology for pecan quality evaluation. A set of native pecan nuts collected in 2009 were used during the experiment. Each pecan nutmeat was manually sliced at a thickness of about 1mm, 2mm, and 3mm and a size of about 2cm (length) ×1cm (width). Pecan shell and inner separator were also cut into the same size. The absorption spectra for the nutmeat slices, shell, and inner separator were collected using a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) developed by a group of researchers at Oklahoma State University. The test results show that nutmeat, shell, and inner separator had different absorption characteristics within the bandwidth of 0.2-2.0 THz. To study the capability of insect damage detection of the THz spectroscopy, the absorption spectra of insects (living manduca sexta and dry pecan weevil) were also collected. Due to high water contents in the insects, very obvious spectral characteristics were found. The results from the preliminary study show a potential of THz technology applied for quality detection of bio-products. However, since bio-products mostly have high water content and are handled under an environment with certain levels of water content, practical issues needs to be further investigated to make the THz technology a feasible tool for quality evaluation.

  4. Nubac Disc Arthroplasty: Preclinical Studies and Preliminary Safety and Efficacy Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Matthew; Pimenta, Luis; Werner, Dieter; Reyes-Sanchez, Alejandro; Balsano, Massimo; Agrillo, Umberto; Coric, Domagoj; Davenport, Kenneth; Yuan, Hansen

    2007-01-01

    Background Disc arthroplasty is gaining popularity for treatment of low-back pain caused by degenerative disc disease (DDD). It can involve total disc replacement or partial disc or nucleus replacement (or augmentation). Compared with total disc replacement, nucleus replacement is less invasive, has less surgical risk, has faster postoperative recovery, and doesn't “burn bridges” should further surgery be required. However, nucleus replacement has a high risk of implant expulsion because the device is not fixed to the vertebrae. Nubac is the first polyetheretherketone (PEEK)-on-PEEK articulated disc arthroplasty device designed to optimally restore the lumbar anatomy and biomechanics. Methods ISO 10993 standards were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the PEEK material. Chemical and thermal–mechanical tests and in vivo study assessed PEEK's biostability after exposure to high g irradiation and harsh oxidative conditions. Biomechanical tests to evaluate kinematic properties and anatomical restoration of the implanted lumbar motion segments and implant expulsion risk assessments were performed with a human cadaveric model. Because of the novelty of PEEK-on-PEEK as a self-mating articulating material, extensive wear tests were conducted with unidirectional and coupled motions. Static and fatigue strength also were tested. Animal study with a baboon model was conducted with gross, radiographic, biomechanical, and histological evaluations at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Preliminary clinical data were collected through a prospective multicenter cohort study. Results PEEK demonstrated exceptional biocompatibility and biodurability. Nubac restored disc height and motion segment range of motion. The unique articulating design of the Nubac demonstrated low risk of implant expulsion in a human cadaveric model. Wear tests showed that the Nubac has minimal wear and compares favorably to other disc arthroplasty materials. The Nubac also had excellent static and

  5. Novel anti-inflammatory agents targeting CXCR4: Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and preliminary pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bai, Renren; Liang, Zhongxing; Yoon, Younghyoun; Salgado, Eric; Feng, Amber; Gurbani, Saumya; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2017-08-18

    CXCR4 plays a crucial role in the inflammatory disease process, providing an attractive means for drug targeting. A series of novel amide-sulfamide derivatives were designed, synthesized and comprehensively evaluated. This new scaffold exhibited much more potent CXCR4 inhibitory activity, with more than 70% of the compounds showed notably better binding affinity than the reference drug AMD3100 in the binding assay. Additionally, in the Matrigel invasion assay, most of our compounds significantly blocked the tumor cell invasion, demonstrating superior efficacy compared to AMD3100. Furthermore, compound IIj blocked mice ear inflammation by 75% and attenuated ear edema and damage substantially in an in vivo model of inflammation. Western blot analyses revealed that CXCR4 modulator IIj significantly blocked CXCR4/CXCL12-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, compound IIj had no observable cytotoxicity and displayed a favourable plasma stability in our preliminary pharmacokinetic study. The preliminary structure-activity relationships were also summarized. In short, this novel amide-sulfamide scaffold exhibited potent CXCR4 inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. These results also confirmed that developing modulators targeting CXCR4 provides an exciting avenue for treatment of inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Space solar power. Description of concept, results of preliminary studies, requirements for evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The nation is actively pursuing alternate sources of energy because of the problems or concerns related to obtaining required energy for the future from oil, gas, nuclear, and coal sources. Solar energy is an obvious candidate for consideration. Its use in the past has been limited by the relative cost of collecting and converting solar energy into electrical power. The increasing costs of other energy sources will make solar energy more attractive. During recent years a new concept for the collection of solar energy has been developed. This concept involves the location of solar power stations in space. The concept, results of preliminary studies, and requirements for space evaluation of such a project are discussed.

  7. Ultra-high-speed studies of shock phenomena in a miniaturized system: A preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory-scale experimental test system for small-scale of shock phenomena has been assembled. This system uses a variety of miniature test platforms in which shock loading is provided by laser-driven flyer impact. Acceptor materials include thin-film explosives and high-density metal foils. Optical access is provided for high-speed optical diagnostics such as optically recording velocity interferometry and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. The experimental assembly for Raman studies features a common laser source for both flyer generation and excitation of Raman scattering (to achieve high timing precision) and a detection scheme that uses the coupling fiber for the excitation source to collect with high efficiency backscattered Raman light. Preliminary system evaluation experiments indicate that detailed particle velocity studies of the dynamic material properties of high-density metals under short-pulse, high-strain-rate loading can be performed in a miniaturized test configuration. Single-pulse Raman studies on shock compressed thin film explosives also appear feasible if the thickness and grain structure of these films can be tailored to enhance the Raman scattering signal sufficiently. Possible improvements in the experimental design and a number of likely applications of these techniques are also discussed.

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  10. Stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks: A preliminary study evaluating alcohol and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W

    2017-06-01

    The use of drug purchase tasks to measure drug demand in human behavioral pharmacology and addiction research has proliferated in recent years. Few studies have systematically evaluated the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks to demonstrate that demand metrics are specific to valuation of or demand for the commodity under study. Stimulus selectivity is broadly defined for this purpose as a condition under which a specific stimulus input or target (e.g., alcohol, cigarettes) is the primary determinant of behavior (e.g., demand). The overall goal of the present study was to evaluate the stimulus selectivity of drug purchase tasks. Participants were sampled from the Amazon.com's crowdsourcing platform Mechanical Turk. Participants completed either alcohol and soda purchase tasks (Experiment 1; N = 139) or cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks (Experiment 2; N = 46), and demand metrics were compared to self-reported use behaviors. Demand metrics for alcohol and soda were closely associated with commodity-similar (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly alcohol use) but not commodity-different (e.g., alcohol demand and weekly soda use) variables. A similar pattern was observed for cigarette and chocolate demand, but selectivity was not as consistent as for alcohol and soda. Collectively, we observed robust selectivity for alcohol and soda purchase tasks and modest selectivity for cigarette and chocolate purchase tasks. These preliminary outcomes suggest that demand metrics adequately reflect the specific commodity under study and support the continued use of purchase tasks in substance use research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Case study of preliminary cyclic load evaluation and triaxial soil testing in offshore wind farm planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Daniel; Ossig, Benjamin; Kreiter, Stefan; Kouery, Saed; Moerz, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    In 2020 Germany aims to produce 20% of its electrical power trough renewable energy sources. Assigned Offshore Wind farms in the German exclusive economic zone of the North- and the Baltic Sea are important step toward a fulfilment of this goal. However the save erecting of 5-6 MW wind power plants (total construction size: > 200m) in water depth of around 40 m is related to unprecedented technical, logistical and financial challenges. With an intended lifetime expectation of 50 years for the foundations, construction materials and the soils around the foundation are subject to high and continued stresses from self-weight, waves, wind and current. These stresses are not only static, but have also a significant cyclic component. An estimated 250 million cyclic load changes may lead to an accumulation of plastic deformation in the soil that potentially may affect operability or lifespan of the plant. During a preliminary geotechnical site survey of one of the largest (~150 km2) offshore wind project sites within the German Bight (~45 km North off the island Juist) a total of 16 drill cores with in situ cone penetration data and a total sample length of ~800 m where recovered. Preliminary foundation designs and static self weight and lateral load calculations were used to design a cycling triaxial lab testing program on discrete natural soil samples. Individual tests were performed by foundation type and at vertical and lateral load maxima to evaluate the long-term soil behaviour under cyclic load. Tests have been performed on granular, cohesive and intermediate natural soils. Following an introduction to the unique MARUM triaxial apparatus and testing conditions, the cyclic triaxial test results are shown and explained. Furthermore cyclic shear strength and stiffness are compared to their static counterparts. Unique soil behaviour like abrupt partial failure, pore pressure response and unexpected in part load independent cyclic deformation behaviour is discussed and

  12. Developing Parenting Skills through Health Visitors: Preliminary Results from an Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim

    Preliminary results of a study of the extent to which training health visitors in behavior modification techniques improves the effectiveness of their work with families of young children are presented. A total of 14 health visitors were recruited and assigned to training and delay-of-training groups. Selected from case loads, participating…

  13. Evaluation of additive effects of hydrolyzed jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) esters and glycerol: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jaimi; Marshall, Brooke; Gacula, Maximo; Rheins, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol has long served the topical prescriptive and personal care industry as a versatile and functional active and inactive ingredient. In skin care products, it acts primarily as an emollient, softening the skin through robust humectant hydration action. Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters K-20W (K-20W) have been shown to increase skin hydration and improve sensory skin "feel" when included in a variety of skin, hair, and nail care cosmetic/personal care formulations. The addition of glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters provides a substantial long-acting 24 h (moisturizing) skin hydration effect for topical products. A small pilot study was conducted to support the "proof of concept" that an enhanced, additive role exists between these two ingredients resulting in a long-term (24 h) skin moisturization effect. Topical treatments were applied to the skin (lower leg) of subjects, and evaluations were made at baseline and 8- to 24-h post-application. Skin hydration data were obtained via bio-instrumental transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements and expert clinical skin grading, including standardized digital clinical photography. Clinical skin grading evaluations and TEWL measurements found that significantly lower evaporative (P < 0.05) TEWL values occurred in the topical formulations containing 3.75% glycerol and 1.25% K-20W (hydrolyzed jojoba esters) than with glycerol alone in a standard base skin care lotion at 8 and 24 h posttreatment. This preliminary data "proof of concept" supports the position that glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters work in tandem to enhance skin moisturization for at least 24 h. This unique moisturizing potential may prove valuable in the future development of cosmetic and over-the-counter/prescriptive topical products, including new medicaments containing botanicals. This fact is further reinforced with the recent greater commercial use and demand for defined safe botanicals in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical topical formulations

  14. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  15. Evaluation of Liver Stiffness After Radioembolization by Real-Time ShearWave™ Elastography: Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bas, Ahmet; Samanci, Cesur; Gulsen, Fatih Cantasdemir, Murat; Kabasakal, Levent; Kantarci, Fatih; Numan, Furuzan

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of ShearWave™ elastography (SWE) for the assessment of liver fibrosis after radioembolization (RE) in patients with liver malignancies.Materials and MethodsWe prospectively examined the effects of SWE before and after RE in 17 adult patients, from June 2012 to September 2013. All patients underwent SWE within 1 month before and 3 months (96.3 ± 22.9 days) after RE. Measurements were taken in segments III, IV, V, and VI (lateral/medial left lobe and anterior/posterior right lobe, respectively). Liver stiffness was studied in the 39 treated segments.ResultsThe mean stiffness of liver tissue according to the pre-RE SWE measurements was not different from the post-RE SWE measurements in the segments that did not undergo RE. Conversely, segments treated with RE were significantly stiffer according to the post-RE SWE measurements (mean SWE 17.4 kPa) than according to the baseline measurements (7.0 kPa) (p < 0.001). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and preexisting infection with hepatitis B and C viruses had higher pre-embolization stiffness, and the post-embolization stiffness of the treated segments in these patients was higher than that in the remainder of the study population.ConclusionThese data suggest that SWE measurements of liver stiffness increase as early as the third month after RE. SWE could be used as a noninvasive complementary imaging method for preliminary assessment of liver fibrosis before and after RE.

  16. AISIM Evaluation - Preliminary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The current focus of Project 522C is on the evaluation of an interactive simulation modeling system called AISIM (Automated Interactive Simulation ... Modeling ). The purpose of this system is to assist systems engineers to perform conceptual phase systems engineering activities and analyses. A major

  17. Evaluation of the Role of Probiotics in Endodontic Treatment: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohora, Aarti; Kokate, Sharad

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The principal goal of endodontics is the prevention of periapical infection. Acute and chronic apical periodontitis occur due to the persistence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans harboring the root canal systems of the teeth. The concept of the use of probiotics in addressing endodontic disease is new and has not been studied adequately. On the basis of the success of probiotics in periodontal treatment, this preliminary work was performed (a) to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of probiotics against common endodontic pathogens, i.e. E. faecalis and C. albicans, and (b) to evaluate the potential use of probiotic therapy as an additive in endodontic treatment procedures. Materials and Methods: Two commercial probiotics were selected and evaluated based upon the numbers and concentration of organisms. Pathogenic test organisms were C. albicans (ATCC 10231) and E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Phase 1 of the study was conducted by agar cup method test to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the selected probiotics against E. faecalis and C. albicans by measuring zones of inhibition (ZOI) in mm. Microorganisms from probiotic samples were isolated following manufacturer's instructions. Pathogenic organisms were set to a 0.1 McFarland standard challenge. Circular wells of 8 mm diameter were punched in each of the poured plates. Appropriately diluted test samples were added to the above-punched wells. The volume of the solution added to each well was 100 μl. The plates were incubated in an upright position at 37°C for 24 hours under aerobic conditions. Post incubation, ZOI was measured (mm). Phase 2 was conducted by mixing 9 ml of 30% poloxamer 407 and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth in a test tube with 500 μl of either E. faecalis or C. albicans set at an optical density (OD) of 0.252, together with 500 μl of test probiotic strain, set at a respective OD. Samples were then incubated at 37°C for

  18. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preliminary Pharmacokinetics Studies of a New Diclofenac Prodrug without Gastric Ulceration Effect

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Moreira, Vanessa; Campos, Michel Leandro; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; de Castro Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Teixeira, Catarina; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Chin, Chung Man

    2012-01-01

    Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE2 levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy. PMID:23203127

  19. Pulseless Oximetry: A Preliminary Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Thomas K; Gupta, Pragya; Stoy, Sean P; Carlese, Anthony; Goldstein, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Pulse oximetry fails when pulsations are weak or absent, common in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). We developed a method to measure arterial oxygenation (Sao2) noninvasively in pulseless patients with LVADs. The technique involves 5- to 10-s occlusions of radial and ulnar arteries on one hand. A fingertip is transilluminated alternately with light-emitting diodes emitting 660 nm (red) and 905 nm (infrared). During the approximately 1 s after release of occlusion, changing attenuance of each wavelength is measured and their red/infrared arterial blood attenuance ratio (R/IR) calculated. We studied five normal subjects breathing hyperoxic, normoxic, or hypoxic gas mixtures to establish a calibration curve, using standard pulse oximetry as the gold standard. We also studied seven pulseless patients with LVADs (two studied twice) at clinically determined oxygenation. Normal subject data showed close correlation of oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo2) with R/IR, (Spo2 = 111 - [26.7 × R/IR]; R2 = 0.975). For patients with LVADs, predicted Sao2 (from the calibration curve) tended to underestimate measured Sao2 (from arterial blood) by a clinically insignificant 1.1 ± 1.6 percentage points (mean ± SD), maximum 3.4 percentage points. Preliminary results in a small number of patients demonstrate that pulseless oximetry can be used to estimate arterial saturation with acceptable accuracy. A noninvasive oximeter that does not rely on pulsatile flow would be a valuable advance in assessing oxygenation in patients with LVADs, for whom the only current option is arterial puncture, which is painful, risks arterial injury, and only provides a snapshot evaluation of oxygenation.

  20. Selected Findings from Phase III-B. BTES. Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study. Supplement. Preliminary Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charles W.; And Others

    This series of six papers concerning the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES) starts with Teaching Behaviors, Academic Learning Time and Student Achievement: An Overview of Phase III-B of the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study by the project director, Charles Fisher. As an introduction, it describes a model of classroom instruction based on…

  1. Upper limb vibration prototype with sports and rehabilitation applications: development, evaluation and preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Richard D.; Aphale, Sumeet S.; Cardinale, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Vibration stimulation as an exercise intervention has been studied increasingly for its potential benefits and applications in sports and rehabilitation. Vibratory exercise devices should be capable of generating highly precise and repeatable vibrations and should be capable of generating a range of vibration amplitudes and frequencies in order to provide different training protocols. Many devices used to exercise the upper body provide limited variations to exercise regimes mostly due to the fact that only vibration frequency can be controlled. The authors present an upper limb vibration exercise device with a novel actuator system and design which attempts to address these limitations. Preliminary results show that this device is capable of generating highly precise and repeatable vibrations with independent control over amplitude and frequency. Furthermore, the results also show that this solution provides a higher neuromuscular stimulation (i.e. electromyography activity) when compared with a control condition. The portability of this device is an advantage, and though in its current configuration it may not be suitable for applications requiring higher amplitude levels the technology is scalable. PMID:28261493

  2. Structural study and preliminary biological evaluation on the collagen hydrogel crosslinked by γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Huang, Xin; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2012-11-01

    Under γ-irradiation, concentrated collagen solutions yielded collagen hydrogels and liquid products. The molecular structure of collagen hydrogels and the source of the liquid products were studied. Furthermore, preliminary biological properties of the hydrogels were investigated. The results revealed that crosslinking occurred to form collagen hydrogel and the crosslinking density increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose, and the collagen hydrogels showed enhanced mechanical properties. Meanwhile, collagen underwent radiation degradation and water was squeezed out from hydrogel by contraction of hydrogel, yielding liquid products. Collagen hydrogels induced by γ-irradiation maintained the backbone structure of collagen, and tyrosine partially involved in crosslinking. The irradiated collagen hydrogels have higher denatured temperature, can promote fibroblasts proliferation, and their degradation rate in vivo depended on the absorbed dose. The comprehensive results suggested that the collagen hydrogels prepared by radiation crosslinking preserved the triple helical conformation, possessed improved thermal stability and mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility, which is expected to favor its application as biomaterials. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Upper limb vibration prototype with sports and rehabilitation applications: development, evaluation and preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Amit Narahar; Neilson, Richard D; Aphale, Sumeet S; Cardinale, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Vibration stimulation as an exercise intervention has been studied increasingly for its potential benefits and applications in sports and rehabilitation. Vibratory exercise devices should be capable of generating highly precise and repeatable vibrations and should be capable of generating a range of vibration amplitudes and frequencies in order to provide different training protocols. Many devices used to exercise the upper body provide limited variations to exercise regimes mostly due to the fact that only vibration frequency can be controlled. The authors present an upper limb vibration exercise device with a novel actuator system and design which attempts to address these limitations. Preliminary results show that this device is capable of generating highly precise and repeatable vibrations with independent control over amplitude and frequency. Furthermore, the results also show that this solution provides a higher neuromuscular stimulation (i.e. electromyography activity) when compared with a control condition. The portability of this device is an advantage, and though in its current configuration it may not be suitable for applications requiring higher amplitude levels the technology is scalable.

  4. Computed tomography in the evaluation of penetrating neck trauma: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gracias, V H; Reilly, P M; Philpott, J; Klein, W P; Lee, S Y; Singer, M; Schwab, C W

    2001-11-01

    Penetrating neck trauma has traditionally been evaluated by surgical exploration and/or invasive diagnostic studies. We hypothesized that computed tomography (CT), used as an early diagnostic tool to accurately determine trajectory, would direct or eliminate further studies or procedures in stable patients with penetrating neck trauma. Retrospective case series. Academic, urban, level I trauma center. Hemodynamically stable patients without hard signs of vascular injury or aerodigestive violation who had sustained penetrating trauma to the neck. Patients underwent a spiral CT as an initial diagnostic study after initial evaluation in the trauma bay. Further invasive studies were directed by CT findings. Number of invasive studies performed. Twenty-three patients were identified during the 30-month period. Nineteen patients sustained gunshot wounds; 3, shotgun wounds; and 1, a stab wound. One patient died of a cranial gunshot wound. Three isolated zone I, 1 isolated zone II, 9 isolated zone III, and 10 multiple neck zone trajectories were evaluated. Thirteen patients were identified by CT to have trajectories remote from vital structures and required no further evaluation. Ten patients underwent angiography. Only 2 underwent bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy. Four patients were discharged from the emergency department; 7 other patients were discharged within 24 hours. No adverse patient events occurred before, during, or after CT scan. Computed tomography in stable selected patients with penetrating neck trauma appears safe. Invasive studies can often be eliminated from the diagnostic algorithm when CT demonstrates trajectories remote from vital structures. As a result, efficient evaluation and early discharge from the trauma bay or emergency department can be realized. Further prospective study of CT scan after penetrating neck trauma is needed.

  5. Marzano Program for Building Academic Vocabulary: Preliminary Report of the 2004-2005 Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial findings from the 2004-2005 evaluation study of the program titled Building Academic Vocabulary (BAV). The theory and research supporting the development of this program are articulated in "Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement" (Marzano, 2004). Briefly, the basic assumption underlying the BAV…

  6. Design and evaluation of a patient website to reduce crowding in emergency departments: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Schiro, Jessica; Marcilly, Romaric; Leroy, Nicolas; Wawrzyniak, Clément; Martinot, Alain; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to identify the information useful to support a patients' EDs' choice in order to design a patient Web-based system. For that purpose, a focus group and a formative user test have been performed. The results show that five types of information can be relevant. The spontaneous favored information is the "distance" to EDs. The "Wait time", that is sanctified in literature, is only used in a second time. A larger summative evaluation should be planned to evaluate and validate the befits of this kind of tool.

  7. Evaluation of Cutaneous Findings in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Kaya Erdogan, Hilal; Fıdan, Saniye Tulin; Bulur, Isil; Karapınar, Tekden; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan

    2017-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by attention, concentration, mobility, and impulse control problems and is among the most frequently seen psychiatric disorders during childhood. Our aim was to evaluate cutaneous findings in children and adolescents with ADHD. In our study we found that onychophagy, traumatic skin changes, atopy and related symptoms, certain birthmarks, and acne were frequent cutaneous findings in children with ADHD. Although a limitation is the lack of a control group, ADHD is very common, and our study suggests that further studies of cutaneous findings and ADHD are warranted.

  8. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation critera plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. The evaluation and selection process involves the following functions: (1) determining if a configuration can satisfy basic STME requirements (yes/no); (2) defining the evaluation criteria; (3) selecting the criteria relative importance or weighting; (4) determining the weighting sensitivities; and (5) establishing a baseline for engine evaluation. The criteria weighting and sensitivities are cost related and are based on mission models and vehicle requirements. The evaluation process is used as a coarse screen to determine the candidate engines for the parametric studies and as a fine screen to determine concept(s) for conceptual design. The criteria used for the coarse and fine screen evaluation process is shown. The coarse screen process involves verifying that the candidate engines can meet the yes/no screening requirements and a semi-subjective quantitative evaluation. The fine screen engines have to meet all of the yes/no screening gates and are then subjected to a detailed evaluation or assessment using the quantitative cost evaluation processes. The option exists for re-cycling a concept through the quantitative portion of the screening and allows for some degree of optimization. The basic vehicle is a two stage LOX/HC, LOX/LH2 parallel burn vehicle capable of placing 150,000 lbs in low Earth orbit (LEO).

  9. Hyperacuity test to evaluate vision through dense cataracts: research preliminary to a clinical study in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoch, Jay M.; Giraldez, Maria J.; Huang, Doahua; Hirose, Hiroshi; Knowles, Richard A.; Namperumalsamy, P.; LaBree, Lauri; Azen, Stanley P.

    1995-03-01

    Using high luminance point-of-light stimuli, Vernier judgments can be made in the presence of markedly degraded retinal imagery. Without coaching, observers perform center-of-gravity assessments of relative locations of degraded point images. We seek to defined, presurgery, individuals who will derive the most benefit from advanced cataract removal (a form of triage), and to determine which of two cataractous eyes has the better postsurgical visual prognosis. There are incredible and growing backlogs of patients with severe cataracts (and other dense media opacities) in the developing world, and generally, limited resources are available for provision of health care. Postcataract surgical failure rates for good visual function are often high, and only one eye is operated on in over 95% of indigent patients treated. Prior to initiating advanced studies in the developing world, at Berkeley we conducted preliminary research on Vernier acuity test techniques on normal adult subjects. We sought to determine the number of repeat trials necessary; to compare a two-point and a three-point Vernier display; to determine the shape of the measured response function at large gap separations between test points (required when testing advanced cataract patients); to assess the effect(s) of a broad range of uncorrected refractive errors on outcomes; and to consider means to minimize refraction-based errors. From these and prior data and analyses, we defined a protocol for use in the developing world. Using a newly designed and rugged precision instrument, these tests were repeated on an advanced cataract population at Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Although we had much prior experience in India, the initial protocol required major revision on site. Necessary changes in test methods and analytical approaches were made, and next stages in this program were planned. And a new and simple gap `visual acuity' (gap `VA') test was added to the protocol, which greatly facilitated

  10. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.

  11. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This six large gunite storage tanks considered as a group is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long-range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives, (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. This report presents the results of the preliminary decommission study for the six gunite storage tanks.

  12. Computer–Based Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers: Preliminary Results from Two Evaluation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna H Oxstrand

    2013-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. nuclear industry are collaborating on a research effort aimed to augment the existing guidance on computer-based procedure (CBP) design with specific guidance on how to design CBP user interfaces such that they support procedure execution in ways that exceed the capabilities of paper-based procedures (PBPs) without introducing new errors. Researchers are employing an iterative process where the human factors issues and interface design principles related to CBP usage are systematically addressed and evaluated in realistic settings. This paper describes the process of developing a CBP prototype and the two studies conducted to evaluate the prototype. The results indicate that CBPs may improve performance by reducing errors, but may increase the time it takes to complete procedural tasks.

  13. Social cognition psychometric evaluation (SCOPE) in people with early psychosis: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Kelsey A; Pinkham, Amy E; Harvey, Philip D; Kelsven, Skylar; Penn, David L

    2017-03-14

    Social cognition is an important outcome in schizophrenia research. Unfortunately, there has been a lack of consensus regarding which measures of social cognition best capture this domain of functioning. The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study was developed to address the need for a battery of measures that have sound psychometric properties and can be implemented in clinical trials for individuals with chronic schizophrenia. The current study expands upon the SCOPE study by examining the psychometric properties of the eight candidate measures administered to individuals early in the course of psychosis. Thirty-eight stable outpatients with first episode psychosis and thirty-nine healthy controls completed the battery at baseline and one-month follow-up assessments. The SCOPE battery was evaluated on a collection of psychometric properties, including: (1) Reliability - including test-retest and internal consistency, (2) Between group differences, (3) Utility as a repeated measure, (4) Relationship to social and occupational functioning, (5) Incremental validity - variance in functioning beyond neurocognition, and (6) Feasibility - including practicality of administration and tolerability. Social cognition accounted for substantially more variance in functional outcome than neurocognition. Only one measure, the Hinting task, displayed adequate psychometric properties to be recommended for use in clinical research with first episode psychosis. The remaining candidate measures would require modifications before implementation or cannot be recommended for use in clinical research with first episode psychosis.

  14. Evaluation of Nitinol Stents Using a 3-Dimensional Printed Superficial Femoral Artery Model: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Girsowicz, Elie; Georg, Yannick; Seiller, Hélène; Lejay, Anne; Thaveau, Fabien; Heim, Frédéric; Chakfe, Nabil

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical tests assessing Nitinol stents used for the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are designed without taking into account their deployment environments. The objectives of this study were (1) to create normal and pathologic femoral artery models, (2) to run mechanical tests reproducing the stresses of the SFA, and (3) to study and compare Nitinol stents in those conditions. Femoral artery models with identical mechanical properties to the SFA were created using the 3-dimensional printing technology. Those models were designed with and without an asymmetric focal 50% stenosis. Three mechanical tests (bending-compression, bending-compression-torsion, and multiple bending tests) were created and 1 flexible stent was tested, of 6 and 7-mm diameter. Three samples of the stent, LifeStent (Bard(®)), were deployed and tested in the models. Stents alone were evaluated in the same conditions. The analysis focused on the comparison of rheologic curves, level of kink, and the energy deployed for each stent to kink. In the 3 tests, all stents deployed in the models presented a kink during their evaluation. When tested alone, during the compression-bending and bending-compression-torsion tests, no plicature was observed. During the multiple bending test, the energy deployed to plicature for the stent tested alone was of 1.4 ± 0.10 and 2.84 ± 0.1 J compared with 9.7 ± 0.6 and 8.25 ± 0.6 J when deployed in the model for the Lifestent 6 × 80 and 7 × 80 mm, respectively. For all of these 3 tests, 6-mm diameter stents exhibited a level of kink and energy of kink higher than 7 mm stents. The behavior of the stents changed in the stenosed model whatever diameter is taken into account. Analysis of the rheologic curves showed a decrease in the inflection of the curve related to the plication. In the bending-compression test, the presence of a stenosis lead to an early plication of the model, with less deployed kinking energy whereas in the bending

  15. A Preliminary Guide for Conducting Naturalistic Evaluation in Studying Museum Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Robert L.; Tymitz, Barbara L.

    This document presents guidelines for use by museum staff members as they evaluate their institutional capabilities and programs. Guidelines are based on a new evaluation perspective--naturalistic evaluation--which can help museum staff assess their programs in a more interpretative, less judgmental way. Naturalistic evaluation is characterized by…

  16. Evaluating an experimental dentifrice containing chloramine-T: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, Camila; Landi, Flávio; Ribas, José Paulo; Panzeri, Heitor; Lara, Elza Helena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an experimental dentifrice (CH) containing an antimicrobial agent (1% chloramine-T). A clinical, fully randomised, double-blind comparative study was designed for 30 selected patients aged 15 to 50 years, with no periodontal disease, decay or other oral diseases, good general health and the presence of dental plaque and sulcus bleeding. Baseline Turesky modified plaque index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were scored for all patients. Volunteers randomly received the experimental dentifrice (CH) or a commercial-brand dentifrice containing triclosan (TR). Both dentifrices were provided in identical, number-labelled tubes, and the subjects were instructed to use the supplied dentifrice only for their usual oral hygiene, three times a day for a duration of 7 days. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI and SBI were assessed again. The data obtained were subjected to the Kruskal– Wallis test, followed by Dunn's post hoc test. After 7-day use of dentifrices, the PI scores diminished significantly for both evaluated dentifrices. The SBI values decreased significantly for both experimental and commercial-brand dentifrices. Both dentifrices reduced PI and SBI. By comparing the experimental and gold-standard dentifrice, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the PI and SBI scores after their use, suggesting that they exerted a similar effect on the oral health indexes.

  17. Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for evaluation of gastric mucosal blood flow: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocquillon, Nicolas; Mordon, Serge R.; Mathieu, D.; Maunoury, Vincent; Marechal, Xavier-Marie; Neviere, Remi; Wattel, Francis; Chopin, Claude

    1999-02-01

    Microcirculatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract appear to be a major compound of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome secondary to sepsis or septic shock. A better analysis of mucosal hypoperfusion in critically ill patients with sepsis may be helpful for the comprehension of this high mortality-associated syndrome. Fluorescence endoscopy has been recognized as a non-invasive method for both spatial and temporal evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion. We performed this imaging technique during routine gastric endoscopy in patients with sepsis criteria. The study included gastric observation and appearance time of gastric fluorescence after an intravenous 10% sodium - fluorescein bolus. Qualitative analysis of high fluorescence areas was compared with mucosal blood flow measurements by laser - Doppler flowmetry. We concluded that the fluorescence endoscopic imaging in critically ill patients with sepsis may reveal spacial and temporal differences in the mucosal microcirculation distribution.

  18. Preliminary biological evaluation and mechanism of action studies of selected 2-arylindoles against glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Saurabh; Akbar, Zaheer; Harris, Frederick; Karakoula, Katherine; Lea, Robert; Rowther, Farzana; Warr, Tracy; Snape, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    A series of related 2-arylindoles have been evaluated for their anticancer activity against a range of glioblastoma cell lines using a number of different cell-based assays to determine cell viability after treatment with the compounds. The best indoles, which showed comparable activity to cisplatin against a U87MG cell line in the MTS assay, were taken forward and initial studies suggest that their mechanism of action is consistent with the generation of reactive oxygen species followed by autophagic cell death. Furthermore, activity was also observed in glioblastoma short-term cell cultures for the best lead compound and in some cases gave low micromolar IC50s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The evaluation of local oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with pityriasis versicolor: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Ozturk, Perihan

    2016-11-01

    Yeast of Malassezia, members of the microbiologic flora of the skin, cause pityriasis versicolor and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other superficial dermatoses. The mechanisms by which the yeast cause these dermatoses, however, are not yet clear, and there have been no studies on the interaction between fungi and keratinocytes, especially the effects of fungi on the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species by human keratinocytes. This is the first study we aimed to evaluate the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in affected skin areas in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Sixty pityriasis versicolor patients and 60 healthy subjects as control group were enrolled. Scraping samples were obtained from the lesional skin areas in patients and from the normal skin areas in controls. The distribution of lesions of pityriasis versicolor was mild in all patients. We have isolated two Malassezia species: M. furfur being isolated in 75% of patients, followed by M. globosa (25%). The levels of oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers were significantly higher in patients than the controls (P < 0.001). Our results demonstrated that pityriasis versicolor is associated with significant alteration in oxidant/antioxidant balance. It might be secondary consequence of pityriasis versicolor infection or contributing factor in its pathogenesis.

  20. Simulation approach for the evaluation of tracking accuracy in radiotherapy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Mori, Shinichiro; Sanada, Sigeru

    2013-01-01

    Real-time tumor tracking in external radiotherapy can be achieved by diagnostic (kV) X-ray imaging with a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). It is important to keep the patient dose as low as possible while maintaining tracking accuracy. A simulation approach would be helpful to optimize the imaging conditions. This study was performed to develop a computer simulation platform based on a noise property of the imaging system for the evaluation of tracking accuracy at any noise level. Flat-field images were obtained using a direct-type dynamic FPD, and noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis was performed. The relationship between incident quantum number and pixel value was addressed, and a conversion function was created. The pixel values were converted into a map of quantum number using the conversion function, and the map was then input into the random number generator to simulate image noise. Simulation images were provided at different noise levels by changing the incident quantum numbers. Subsequently, an implanted marker was tracked automatically and the maximum tracking errors were calculated at different noise levels. The results indicated that the maximum tracking error increased with decreasing incident quantum number in flat-field images with an implanted marker. In addition, the range of errors increased with decreasing incident quantum number. The present method could be used to determine the relationship between image noise and tracking accuracy. The results indicated that the simulation approach would aid in determining exposure dose conditions according to the necessary tracking accuracy.

  1. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  2. Shelf-life evaluation of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Khemuka, Nidhi; Galib, R.; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Savīryatā-avadhi (shelf life) of different Ayurvedic dosage forms is described in Śārṅgadharasaṃhitā. Though the concepts have a strong background, we seek to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms. An attempt has been made in the present study to evaluate shelf-life of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules. Materials and Methods: Raw materials were procured from Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar and utilized after proper authentication in pharmacognosy lab. The avaleha and its granules were prepared in the departmental laboratory following classical guidelines and subjected to accelerated stability studies. Results: Both the products were found to be free from microbial contamination. Heavy metals were within the prescribed limit. Changes in physico-chemical profiles at different intervals are insignificant. On extrapolation of the observations, the shelf life of avaleha was found to be18 months and 27 months to the granules. Conclusion: Stability of granules was found to be comparatively higher than the avaleha. This observation may be exclusive to Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha. Studies on other avalehas and their granules need to be carried out to confirm this preliminary observation. PMID:26865742

  3. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  4. Evaluation of stomatognathic problems in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (osteogenesis imperfecta - oi) - preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Smoląg, Danuta; Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Małgorzata; Sułko, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    According to epidemiological data, muscular dysfunctions of the masticatory system occur in 15-23% of the population. Preventive examinations of functional disorders of the stomatognathic system are, therefore, of particular importance. A distinct group of patients exposed to dysfunctions in the area of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus comprises those with genetic diseases characterised by disorders in collagen formation. One of such diseases is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and dentinogenesis imperfecta that usually goes together with the former. The objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency with which particular disorders of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus occur within the group of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. The study was performed on patients of the Orthopaedic Clinic of the Polish-American Paediatric Institute in Kraków. The mean age of the children was 7.9 years. In all the cases, a genetic diagnosis of OI has been confirmed. The research methods were based on an in-depth interview on family diseases, pregnancy, postnatal period, feeding, subjective assessment of dysfunctions in the stomatognathic system. An examination of the deformations in the stomatognathic system and the skeleton was conducted, as well as an examination of the trauma and tone of the jaw. The relationship between breastfeeding and swallowing and speech disorders was also evaluated. The impact of intubation on mandibular ranges was investigated. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis on the basis of which conclusions were drawn concerning disorders in the stomatognathic system which tend to occur in children with OI. The renunciation of breastfeeding significantly contributes to sucking and swallowing disorders, rumen disorders, as well as biomechanical disorders in the temporomandibular joint. A significant dependence between breastfeeding and swallowing problems was found, whereas there was no such dependence with respect to

  5. Evaluation of hyponatraemia in patients with tick-borne encephalitis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Czupryna, Piotr; Moniuszko, Anna; Garkowski, Adam; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Guziejko, Katarzyna; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2014-04-01

    Hyponatraemia is one of the most frequently observed, but sometimes overlooked, electrolyte disorder. Patients with meningitis are predisposed to develop hypovolaemic hyponatraemia. However, hyponatraemia in meningitis may also be caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper differentiation of these pathomechanisms is crucial in patient's treatment as dehydration requires fluid supplementation, while SIADH is treated with fluid restriction. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of frequency, potential causes, and risk factors of hyponatraemia in patients with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). A total of 61 patients (22 women, 39 men) aged 18-80 years, with a history of TBE was included in the study. Hyponatraemia was diagnosed when sodium concentration was below 135 mmol/l. Hyponatraemia was considered mild when sodium concentration was 130-134 mmol/l, moderate when 125-129 mmol/l, and severe when <125 mmol/l. Among the 61 patients, hyponatraemia was observed in 41% (25 patients). In 20 patients (33%), hyponatraemia was mild, in 3 (5%) it was moderate, and in 2 (3%) severe. Two patients with severe hyponatraemia and one with moderate hyponatraemia fulfilled the SIADH criteria. In the non-SIADH patients, sodium concentration normalized within 1-2 (1.1±0.2) days while in the SIADH group, the disturbances lasted for 4-8 (6±2) days. Sodium concentration correlated with patients age (R Spearmann - 0.27, p<0.05). There were no significant differences as far as gender or clinical form of the disease are concerned. Hyponatraemia, usually mild, is a common disorder in the course of TBE, although it is not significantly more frequent than in other hospitalized patients. Dehydration seems to be the main cause of hyponatraemia in the course of TBE. SIADH is a less common cause of hyponatraemia in the course of TBE, although it should be taken into consideration as the treatment differs significantly. Patients >60 years of

  6. A Preliminary Evaluation of Student Preparation for the Study of Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ronald W.; Landesman, Edward M.

    This report explores the student background characteristics that might be associated with success or failure in calculus and evaluates the effectiveness of remedial mathematics education. The sample consisted of two groups at the University of California, Santa Cruz: (1) all students (105) who took first quarter calculus in spring, 1985; and (2)…

  7. Preliminary Study on Establishing the New System of Assessment and Evaluation Of "Athletic Physiology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the light of the problems existing in assessment of the course of "athletic physiology" in universities at present, this article makes reflections upon the assessment mode of students for this course and takes a general survey on development of the evaluation system by comprehensively employing both the quantitative method and…

  8. Evaluation of Extraction Site Dimensions and Density Using Computed Tomography Treated With Different Graft Materials: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Cavdar, Filiz Hyusein; Keceli, Huseyin Gencay; Hatipoglu, Hasan; Demiralp, Burak; Caglayan, Feriha

    2017-04-01

    The preliminary human study was designed to evaluate extraction site changes using CT after socket preservation (SP) with different materials. Fifty-two sockets from 17 Turkish individuals (8 women and 9 men; mean age 44.70 ± 9.99 years) localized at the maxillary anterior area were treated with demineralized bone matrix + collagen membrane (CM) (N = 14), hydroxyapatite bone substitute (HBS) + CM (N = 14), CM (N = 13), or left empty (N = 11). CT scans were taken 10 and 120 days after the procedure. Horizontal and vertical socket dimensions and Hounsfield unit (HU) values were evaluated. First 3 groups showed a significant horizontal decrease from day 10 to 120. No significant change was detected in vertical socket dimension. For both horizontal and vertical, no intergroup difference was detected at days 10 and 120. At days 10 and 120, HU values in HBS + CM group were significantly higher compared with others. Apical and coronal HU values were not different at any period. Even if it did not provide better socket dimensions, HBS + CM treatment brought higher tissue density and thus, can be recommended to increase the bone quality and implant success after SP in upper anterior area.

  9. An exploratory study with preliminary results: The development and evaluation of a Genetics Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hott, Adam M.

    Modern science education reform includes the development of standards and recommendations for content as well as the development and evaluation of pedagogy, but demonstrates limited assessment of student knowledge. Student knowledge assessment is an important factor in measuring the scientific literacy of current students. Concept inventories have been developed and used for the past fourteen years to assess non-science major student conceptual understanding of a content area. Inventories have been developed in the fields of physics, astronomy, chemistry and biology. The development and evaluation of a Genetics Concept Inventory (GCI) is presented here. The reliability estimate of 0.62 is supported by a respected panel of genetics educators' revisions, no significant gender bias, and the ability of junior and senior biology majors to outperform the non-science majors. Pretest/Posttest comparisons show a significant increase in five of six genetics content areas as well as a 9% increase on the overall percent score for the instrument. Although the Genetics Concept Inventory presented here needs further modification and testing, it is the first step in the development of a quality assessment tool for genetics content.

  10. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT) is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese), which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis. PMID:23151362

  11. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  12. A new surgical strategy for treatment of tongue squamous cell carcinoma based on anatomic study with preliminary clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhen-Hu; Wu, Han-Jiang; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Kai; Gong, Zhao-Jian; He, Zhi-Jing; Peng, Jie

    2015-10-01

    This study characterized the infiltration of primary tumors along the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), to create a new surgical strategy that is suitable for most stages. A preliminary evaluation of this novel surgical approach was also conducted. An anatomic study of macroscopic specimens from 10 human cadavers and 100 OTSCC patients was conducted. The anatomic characteristics of the primary tumors and the origin and distribution of fibers of the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles were observed and measured. After initial treatment with curative intent, the 100 patients were regularly followed-up with clinical examination and imaging. Based on the anatomic characteristics of the primary tumors and tongue muscles, a new surgical approach was developed, and was described as muscle anatomy tongue surgery (MATS). MATS proved suitable for almost all stages of OTSCC. According to the morphology of the invasive tumor front, the 100 cases were divided into four types. The rate of 2-year local disease control was 98%, locoregional control 86%, disease-free survival 85%, and overall survival 89%. Tongue functions were perfectly recovered in more than 60% of the patients. Application of the principles of MATS to the treatment of OTSCC proved suitable for almost all stages of the disease. MATS is a novel surgical technique that may improve outcomes in tongue cancer surgery. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of a Field and Non-Field Based Social Studies Preservice Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.; Vansickle, Ronald L.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of pre-service social studies teachers in field and non-field based methods courses indicated no significant differences with regard to teaching skills, attitudes, or behaviors teachers should exhibit in the classroom. (Author/DB)

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of a Field and Non-Field Based Social Studies Preservice Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.; Vansickle, Ronald L.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of pre-service social studies teachers in field and non-field based methods courses indicated no significant differences with regard to teaching skills, attitudes, or behaviors teachers should exhibit in the classroom. (Author/DB)

  15. Apply radiomics approach for early stage prognostic evaluation of ovarian cancer patients: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danala, Gopichandh; Wang, Yunzhi; Thai, Theresa; Gunderson, Camille; Moxley, Katherine; Moore, Kathleen; Mannel, Robert; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin; Qiu, Yuchen

    2017-03-01

    Predicting metastatic tumor response to chemotherapy at early stage is critically important for improving efficacy of clinical trials of testing new chemotherapy drugs. However, using current response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) guidelines only yields a limited accuracy to predict tumor response. In order to address this clinical challenge, we applied Radiomics approach to develop a new quantitative image analysis scheme, aiming to accurately assess the tumor response to new chemotherapy treatment, for the advanced ovarian cancer patients. During the experiment, a retrospective dataset containing 57 patients was assembled, each of which has two sets of CT images: pre-therapy and 4-6 week follow up CT images. A Radiomics based image analysis scheme was then applied on these images, which is composed of three steps. First, the tumors depicted on the CT images were segmented by a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, a total of 115 features were computed from the segmented tumors, which can be grouped as 1) volume based features; 2) density based features; and 3) wavelet features. Finally, an optimal feature cluster was selected based on the single feature performance and an equal-weighed fusion rule was applied to generate the final predicting score. The results demonstrated that the single feature achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.838+/-0.053. This investigation demonstrates that the Radiomic approach may have the potential in the development of high accuracy predicting model for early stage prognostic assessment of ovarian cancer patients.

  16. The development and evaluation of alternative communication strategies to facilitate interactions with Somali refugees in primary care: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marianne J; Evans, D Gareth; Mohamed, Zeinab; Caress, Ann-Louise

    2006-01-01

    The work reported in this paper forms part of a larger project to develop and evaluate alternative forms of communication to facilitate cross-cultural consultations in primary care. As a case study and proof-of-concept, work was conducted with Somali refugees who tend to experience significant communication difficulties in primary care consultations. The alternative communication methods developed in this study originate from the field of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). These methods may include non-verbal communication or aided communication using a mix of pictographic symbols, bilingual text and digitised (recorded) or synthetic speech. These can be delivered on a range of paper-based or computer-based devices. A paper-based and computer-based method was developed to assess whether a group of literate and illiterate Somalis were able to answer a set of questions using these tools. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess whether either of these communication methods were suitable for further evaluation in primary care consultations. Twenty Somalis were presented with three communication tools and were asked a set of general questions in Somali which they had to answer using each tool: (1) a paper-based communication book containing symbols and bilingual text labels; (2) a laptop PC with mouse pad containing the same symbols, text labels and augmented with digitised Somali speech; (3) a tablet PC with touch screen containing the same software and digitised Somali speech. These two computer-based delivery platforms were compared for ease of use among a participant group who are likely to have little computing experience. Each task was timed and scored for level of correctness; feedback was gained from Somalis and experimenters' observations were noted. Participants clearly found the computerised devices with Somali speech output easier to use and more acceptable than the simpler paper-based device.

  17. A preliminary study of microcapsule suspension for hemolysis evaluation of artificial organs.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, O; Yamane, T; Tsunemoto, N; Nishida, M; Tsutsui, T; Jikuya, T

    1999-03-01

    A microcapsule suspension, a substitute for animal blood in hemolysis tests, has been developed for evaluation of the absolute hemolytic properties of circulatory artificial organs. The microcapsule suspension was made by dispersing microcapsule slurry into an ethylene glycol sodium chloride solution. The microcapsule slurry was composed of a leuco dye solution and polyurethane membrane made by the reaction between aliphatic poly-isocyanate and polyamine by interfacial polycondensation. The microcapsule was a small particle containing dye inside. The microcapsule suspension was white; the diameter of the microcapsules was from 5 to 100 microns. The specific gravity of the suspension was 1.024, and the membrane was elastic. The fluid showed Newtonian characteristics, different from animal blood, and its viscosity was approximately 5.8 mPa.s. After the microcapsules were destroyed, the leuco dye was extracted with n-hexane from the suspension and was measured by spectroscopy after being colored with acid ethanol. Hemolysis can be regarded as a fatigue fracture of cell membranes rather than a static fracture. The destruction of microcapsules by a Potter type tissue grinder was observed at a low stroke number region and was compared to rat blood. Moreover, hemolysis tests of a commercially available centrifugal blood pump and the prototype of our centrifugal pump for mechanism checks were carried out with bovine blood. The hemolysis level of the prototype pump increased with time while the hemolysis level of the commercial blood pump did not change as much as that of the control when both pumps were tested with the microcapsule suspension. These results are similar to tests utilizing bovine blood. Therefore, hemolysis tests of circulatory artificial organs completed with microcapsule suspension are expected to provide results similar to tests with animal blood.

  18. A comparative evaluation of the Adaptive knee and Catech knee joints: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jepson, F; Datta, D; Harris, I; Heller, B; Howitt, J; McLean, J

    2008-03-01

    The Adaptive knee joint is a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee that incorporates both pneumatic and hydraulic control in one electronic unit. Pneumatic control is said to provide control during swing phase and the hydraulic control during the stance phase of the gait. This hybrid controller is triggered by a computer contained within the knee that responds to input from force, time and angle sensors. The microprocessor then selects an appropriate speed and stability setting. The Catech knee joint is a conventional hydraulic knee joint. The aim of this study was to compare the Adaptive and Catech knee joints in established trans-femoral amputees. The patients meeting the inclusion criteria were all established trans-femoral amputees using the Catech knee joint. The study was carried out by performing gait analysis, assessing energy requirements using the Physiological Cost Index (PCI) and using questionnaires. There was no significant benefit gained from the use of the Adaptive knee over the Catech knee joint in our small study group.

  19. Diffusion kurtosis imaging evaluating epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal carcinoma xenografts model: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanhuan; Shen, Wenbin; Zhang, Caiyuan; Cui, Yanfen; Li, Jinning; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Weibo; Wang, Dengbin

    2017-09-12

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in aggravating invasiveness and metastatic behavior of colorectal cancer (CRC). Identification of EMT is important for structuring treatment strategy, but has not yet been studied by using noninvasive imaging modality. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced diffusion weighted model that could reflect tissue microstructural changes in vivo. In this study, EMT was induced in CRC cells (HCT116) by overexpressing Snail1 gene. We aimed to investigate the value of DKI in identifying EMT in CRC and decipher the correlations between DKI-derived parameters and EMT biomarker E-cadherin and cell proliferative index Ki-67 expression. Our results revealed that HCT116/Snail1 cells presented changes consistent with EMT resulting in significant increase in migration and invasion capacities. DKI could identify CRC with EMT, in which the DKI-derived parameter diffusivity was significantly lower, and kurtosis was significantly higher than those in the CRC/Control. Diffusivity was negatively and kurtosis was positively correlated with Ki-67 expression, whereas diffusivity was positively and kurtosis was negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression. Therefore, our study concluded that DKI can identify EMT in CRC xenograft tumors. EMT-contained CRC tumors with high Ki-67 and low E-cadherin expression were vulnerable to have lower diffusivity and higher kurtosis coefficients.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of the Pathomechanisms of Dysphagia After Occipitospinal Fusion: Kinematic Analysis by Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study.

    PubMed

    Kaneyama, Shuichi; Sumi, Masatoshi; Takabatake, Masato; Kasahara, Koichi; Kanemura, Aritetsu; Koh, Akihiro; Hirata, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    Kinematic analysis of swallowing function using videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). The aims of this study were to analyze swallowing process in the patients who underwent occipitospinal fusion (OSF) and elucidate the pathomechanism of dysphagia after OSF. Although several hypotheses about the pathomechanisms of dysphagia after OSF were suggested, there has been little tangible evidence to support these hypotheses since these hypotheses were based on the analysis of static radiogram or CT. Considering that swallowing is a compositive motion of oropharyngeal structures, the etiology of postoperative dysphagia should be investigated through kinematic approaches. Each four patients with or without postoperative dysphagia (group D and N, respectively) participated in this study. For VFSS, all patients were monitored to swallow 5-mL diluted barium solution by fluoroscopy, and then dynamic passing pattern of the barium solution was analyzed. Additionally, O-C2 angle (O-C2A) was measured for the assessment of craniocervical alignment. O-C2A in group D was -7.5 degrees, which was relatively smaller than 10.3 degrees in group N (P = 0.07). In group D, all cases presented smooth medium passing without any obstruction at the upper cervical level regardless of O-C2A, whereas the obstruction to the passage of medium was detected at the apex of mid-lower cervical ocurvature, where the anterior protrusion of mid-lower cervical spine compressed directly the pharyngeal space. In group N, all cases showed smooth passing of medium through the whole process of swallowing. This study presented that postoperative dysphagia did not occur at the upper cervical level even though there was smaller angle of O-C2A and demonstrated the narrowing of the oropharyngeal space towing to direct compression by the anterior protrusion of mid-lower cervical spine was the etiology of dysphagia after OSF. Therefore, surgeon should pay attention to the alignment of mid-cervical spine as well as

  1. Volumetric breast density evaluation by ultrasound tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a preliminary comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myc, Lukasz; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Ranger, Bryan; Lupinacci, Jessica; Schmidt, Steven; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2010-03-01

    Since a 1976 study by Wolfe, high breast density has gained recognition as a factor strongly correlating with an increased incidence of breast cancer. These observations have led to mammographic density being designated a "risk factor" for breast cancer. Clinically, the exclusive reliance on mammography for breast density measurement has forestalled the inclusion of breast density into statistical risk models. This exclusion has in large part been due to the ionizing radiation associated with the method. Additionally, the use of mammography as valid tool for measuring a three dimensional characteristic (breast density) has been criticized for its prima facie incongruity. These shortfalls have prompted MRI studies of breast density as an alternative three-dimensional method of assessing breast density. Although, MRI is safe and can be used to measure volumetric density, its cost has prohibited its use in screening. Here, we report that sound speed measurements using a prototype ultrasound tomography device have potential for use as surrogates for breast density measurement. Accordingly, we report a strong positive linear correlation between volume-averaged sound speed of the breast and percent glandular tissue volume as assessed by MR.

  2. Evaluation of Effective Transmission of Light Through Alveolar Bone: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Guiselini, Monalisa Jacob; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Mascaro, Marcelo Betti; Mesquita-Ferrari, aquel Agnelli; da Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; França, Cristiane Miranda; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to determine the effective transmission of 660 and 780 nm lasers through mandibular and maxillary alveolar bones in the buccal-lingual/ palatal direction. Methods: The laser probe was positioned in direct contact with the surface of the anterior, middle and posterior regions of each bone (5 dried maxillae and 5 mandibles) and the power meter was positioned on the bone wall opposite to the radiated wall for the measure of the remaining energy passing through the bone tissue. Ten measurements were performed with each laser at each irradiated point. Results: Transmitted power was significantly higher in bones irradiated with 780 nm laser. Tendencies toward greater average power transmitted in the anterior region of both bones at both wavelengths were also observed. Conclusion: Dosimetry and the choice of light source may be adjusted according to the anatomic region of the alveolar bone to be treated. PMID:28144435

  3. Evaluation of anterior mediastinal solid tumors by CT perfusion: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Selim; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Dikici, Atilla Süleyman; Erşen, Ezel; Yıldırım, Onur; Samancı, Cesur; Batur, Şebnem; Çebi Olgun, Deniz; Kantarcı, Fatih; Akman, Canan

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to assess the role of computed tomography (CT) perfusion in differentiation of thymoma from thymic hyperplasia, lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and lung cancer invading anterior mediastinum. In this study, 25 patients with an anterior mediastinal lesion underwent CT perfusion imaging from January 2015 to February 2016. Diagnoses included thymoma (n=7), thymic hyperplasia (n=8), lymphoma (n=4), thymic carcinoma (n=3), and invasive lung cancer (n=3). Lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and lung cancer were grouped as malignant tumors for statistical analysis. Values for blood flow, blood volume, and permeability surface were measured in CT perfusion. Blood flow and blood volume values were higher in thymoma in comparison to thymic hyperplasia; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Blood volume values were significantly higher in thymoma (mean, 11.4 mL/100 mL; range, 5.2-20.2 mL/100 mL) compared with lymphoma (mean, 5.3 mL/100 mL; range, 2.5-7.2 mL/100 mL) (P = 0.023). Blood flow and blood volume values were significantly higher in thymoma compared with non-thymoma malignant tumors (P = 0.025). CT perfusion is helpful in differentiating thymoma from non-thymoma malignancies including lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and invasive lung cancer involving the anterior mediastinum.

  4. Evaluation of anterior mediastinal solid tumors by CT perfusion: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Selim; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Dikici, Atilla Süleyman; Erşen, Ezel; Yıldırım, Onur; Samancı, Cesur; Batur, Şebnem; Olgun, Deniz Çebi; Kantarcı, Fatih; Akman, Canan

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the role of computed tomography (CT) perfusion in differentiation of thymoma from thymic hyperplasia, lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and lung cancer invading anterior mediastinum. METHODS In this study, 25 patients with an anterior mediastinal lesion underwent CT perfusion imaging from January 2015 to February 2016. Diagnoses included thymoma (n=7), thymic hyperplasia (n=8), lymphoma (n=4), thymic carcinoma (n=3), and invasive lung cancer (n=3). Lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and lung cancer were grouped as malignant tumors for statistical analysis. Values for blood flow, blood volume, and permeability surface were measured in CT perfusion. RESULTS Blood flow and blood volume values were higher in thymoma in comparison to thymic hyperplasia; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Blood volume values were significantly higher in thymoma (mean, 11.4 mL/100 mL; range, 5.2–20.2 mL/100 mL) compared with lymphoma (mean, 5.3 mL/100 mL; range, 2.5–7.2 mL/100 mL) (P = 0.023). Blood flow and blood volume values were significantly higher in thymoma compared with non-thymoma malignant tumors (P = 0.025). CONCLUSION CT perfusion is helpful in differentiating thymoma from non-thymoma malignancies including lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and invasive lung cancer involving the anterior mediastinum. PMID:27924778

  5. Evaluation of Exercise Tolerance in Dialysis Patients Performing Tai Chi Training: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bulińska, Katarzyna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Kowalska, Joanna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Ochmann, Bartosz; Pawlaczyk, Weronika; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have poor physical performance and exercise capacity due to frequent dialysis treatments. Tai Chi exercises can be very useful in the area of rehabilitation of people with ESRD. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in ESRD patients participating in 6-month Tai Chi training. Patients and Methods. Twenty dialysis patients from Wroclaw took part in the training; at the end of the project, 14 patients remained (age 69.2 ± 8.6 years). A 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and spiroergometry were performed at the beginning and after 6 months of training. Results. After 6 months of Tai Chi, significant improvements were recorded in mean distance in the 6MWT (387.89 versus 436.36 m), rate of perceived exertion (7.4 versus 4.7), and spiroergometry (8.71 versus 10.08 min). Conclusions. In the ESRD patients taking part in Tai Chi training, a definite improvement in exercise tolerance was recorded after the 6-month training. Tai Chi exercises conducted on days without dialysis can be an effective and interesting form of rehabilitation for patients, offering them a chance for a better quality of life and fewer falls and hospitalisations that are the result of it. PMID:27547228

  6. Design and Evaluation of Potentiometric Principles for Bladder Volume Monitoring: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Fan, Wen-Jia; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chun-Lung; Wei, Wei-Feng; Peng, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and wireless transmission technology have led to the development of various implantable sensors for real-time monitoring of bladder conditions. Although various sensing approaches for monitoring bladder conditions were reported, most such sensors have remained at the laboratory stage due to the existence of vital drawbacks. In the present study, we explored a new concept for monitoring the bladder capacity on the basis of potentiometric principles. A prototype of a potentiometer module was designed and fabricated and integrated with a commercial wireless transmission module and power unit. A series of in vitro pig bladder experiments was conducted to determine the best design parameters for implementing the prototype potentiometric device and to prove its feasibility. We successfully implemented the potentiometric module in a pig bladder model in vitro, and the error of the accuracy of bladder volume detection was <±3%. Although the proposed potentiometric device was built using a commercial wireless module, the design principles and animal experience gathered from this research can serve as a basis for developing new implantable bladder sensors in the future. PMID:26039421

  7. An evaluation of coral lophelia pertusa mucus as an analytical matrix for environmental monitoring: A preliminary proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Provan, Fiona; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Larssen, Eivind; Uleberg, Kai-Erik; Sydnes, Magne O; Lyng, Emily; Øysæd, Kjell Birger; Baussant, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    For the environmental monitoring of coral, mucus appears to be an appropriate biological matrix due to its array of functions in coral biology and the non-intrusive manner in which it can be collected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using mucus of the stony coral Lophelia pertusa (L. pertusa) as an analytical matrix for discovery of biomarkers used for environmental monitoring. More specifically, to assess whether a mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approach can be applied to characterize the protein composition of coral mucus and changes related to petroleum discharges at the seafloor. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) screening analyses of orange and white L. pertusa showed that the mucosal protein composition varies significantly with color phenotype, a pattern not reported prior to this study. Hence, to reduce variability from phenotype difference, L. pertusa white individuals only were selected to characterize in more detail the basal protein composition in mucus using liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In total, 297 proteins were identified in L. pertusa mucus of unexposed coral individuals. Individuals exposed to drill cuttings in the range 2 to 12 mg/L showed modifications in coral mucus protein composition compared to unexposed corals. Although the results were somewhat inconsistent between individuals and require further validation in both the lab and the field, this study demonstrated preliminary encouraging results for discovery of protein markers in coral mucus that might provide more comprehensive insight into potential consequences attributed to anthropogenic stressors and may be used in future monitoring of coral health.

  8. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-one low-level liquid radioactive waste collection and storage tanks are part of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. D D of eight of the nine groups of surplus tanks are considered in this report.

  9. Evaluation of the therapeutic results of actinic keratosis treated with topical 5% fluorouracil by reflectance confocal laser microscopy: preliminary study*

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Priscila; Maia, Marcus; Rodrigues, Sarita Bartholomei; Marta, Alessandra Cristina; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Topical treatment for actinic keratosis with 5% fluorouracil has a recurrence rate of 54% in 12 months of follow-up. This study analyzed thirteen actinic keratoses on the upper limbs through confocal microscopy, at the time of clinical diagnosis and after 4 weeks of treatment with fluorouracil. After the treatment was established and evidence of clinical cure was achieved, in two of the nine actinic keratoses, confocal microscopy enabled visualization of focal areas of atypical honeycomb pattern in the epidermis indicating therapeutic failure. Preliminary data suggest the use of confocal microscopy as a tool for diagnosis and therapeutic control of actinic keratosis. PMID:26131881

  10. Self Instructional Material in Physiology: A Preliminary Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Mary

    1978-01-01

    Examines the preliminary evaluation of self-instructional material in physiology designed as remedial work by medical students. The materials are now used by science, veterinary, dental, and postgraduate medical students and have been distributed to 20 countries. Evaluation results indicate the materials are effective methods of study.

  11. Outline and Preliminary Evaluation of the Classical Digital Library Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.; Gibson, Ian E.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the classical digital library model, which is derived from traditional practices of library and information science professionals, as an alternative to the database retrieval model. Reports preliminary results from an evaluation study of library and information professionals and endusers involved with primary care medicine. (AEF)

  12. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  13. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  14. On Evaluating Language Proficiency Gain in Study Abroad Environments: An Empirical Study of American Students of Russian (A Preliminary Analysis of Data).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, Richard D.; And Others

    A preliminary report on a long-term empirical investigation of advanced language acquisition in a study-abroad environment is presented. The project is based on an American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR) longitudinal study of the gains in Russian language competence demonstrated by American students in semester-long language programs in…

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes with Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in De Novo Coronary Artery Disease: Results of the MANIPAL-FLEX Study

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Jayesh; Pai, Umesh; Shetty, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the MANIPAL-FLEX study was to evaluate the feasibility, preliminary safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation, in de novo coronary artery disease, using clinical and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) follow-ups. Methods. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, single-arm study that enrolled 189 patients with de novo coronary artery disease who were treated with the Supraflex SES. Of 189 patients enrolled, the first 61 consecutive patients who consented to a 9-month follow-up evaluation by QCA, irrespective of presence of symptoms, were to be followed up with angiography at 9 months. The primary endpoint of the study was target lesion failure (TLF), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization during 12-month follow-up after the index procedure. Results. The mean age of the study population was 58 ± 11 years, with 51.3% (97/189) of hypertensive patients. Total of 66 lesions, analyzed by offline QCA, showed good scaffolding of the target vessel with in-stent late lumen loss at 9 months of 0.18 ± 0.23 mm. The observed TLF at 30-day, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up were 2 (1.1%), 6 (3.2%), and 10 (5.3%), respectively. Conclusion. This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent. PMID:27597929

  16. Gellan gum injectable hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering applications: in vitro studies and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, João T; Santos, Tírcia C; Martins, Luís; Picciochi, Ricardo; Marques, Alexandra P; Castro, António G; Neves, Nuno M; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L

    2010-01-01

    Gellan gum is a polysaccharide that we have previously proposed for applications in the cartilage tissue engineering field. In this work, gellan gum hydrogels were tested for their ability to be used as injectable systems using simple processing methods, able to deliver and maintain chondrocytes by in situ gelation, and support cell viability and production of extracellular matrix (ECM). Rheological measurements determined that the sol-gel transition occurred near the body temperature at 39 degrees C, upon temperature decrease, in approximately 20 s. Gellan gum discs shows a storage compression modulus of around 80 kPa at a frequency of 1 Hz by dynamic mechanical analysis. Human articular chondrocytes were encapsulated in the gels, cultured in vitro for total periods of 56 days, and analyzed for cell viability and ECM production. Calcein AM staining showed that cell kept viable after 14 days and the histological analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that hyaline-like cartilage ECM was synthesized. Finally, the in vivo performance of the gellan gum hydrogels, in terms of induced inflammatory reaction and integration into the host tissue, was evaluated by subcutaneous implantation in Balb/c mice for 21 days. Histological analysis showed a residual fibrotic capsule at the end of the experiments. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed that the gels were stable throughout the experiments while evidencing a tendency for decreasing mechanical properties, which was consistent with weight measurements. Altogether, the results demonstrate the adequacy of gellan gum hydrogels processed by simple methods for noninvasive injectable applications toward the formation of a functional cartilage tissue-engineered construct and originally report the preliminary response of a living organism to the subcutaneous implantation of the gellan gum hydrogels. These are the two novel features of this work.

  17. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  18. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  19. Preliminary summary of the ETF conceptual studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Bercaw, R. W.; Pearson, C. V.; Owens, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Power plant studies have shown the attractiveness of MHD topped steam power plants for baseload utility applications. To realize these advantages, a three-phase development program was initiated. In the first phase, the engineering data and experience were developed for the design and construction of a pilot plant, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Results of the ETF studies are reviewed. These three parallel independent studies were conducted by industrial teams led by the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, the General Electric Corporation, and the Westinghouse Corporation. A preliminary analysis and the status of the critical evaluation of these results are presented.

  20. EVALUATION OF A COMBINATION OF A UNANI PHARMACOPEAL PREPARATION (ITRIFAL USTUKHUDOOS) WITH CLOVES (QARANFAL) IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS – A PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed Asif; Khan, A.B.; Siddiqui, M.Y.; Latafat, T.; Kidwai, T.

    2003-01-01

    Allergic Rhinitis is typically characterized by sneezing, rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, nasal, conjunctival & pharyngeal itching and lacrimation all occurring in a temporal relation to allergen exposure. The peak incidence of this disease occurs in childhood and adolescence, with most of the cases belonging to the atopic category. There is a high incidence of patients of allergic rhinitis attending the outdoor sections of Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College Hospital. Many of them are dissatisfied with conventional anti-histaminic drugs. An open study was carried out on 20 such patients aged between 15 to 50 years to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a unani pharmacopeal preparation [Itrifal ustukhudoos] added with cloves [qaranfal]. Preliminary clinical study showed promising results. The study is into the next phase in which a comparative double-blind trial is being conducted with this combination and Allegra (Fexofenadine hydrochloride). PMID:22557103

  1. Proposal and Evaluation of a Telerehabilitation Platform Designed for Patients With Partial Rotator Cuff Tears: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To propose and evaluate the effectiveness of a telerehabilitation platform designed for patients with rotator cuff (RC) tears. Methods During the first study phase, a virtual service platform that included information on RC tear pathology, joint care, and a series of instructions regarding therapeutic exercise was designed and created. Subsequently, in the clinical phase, a quasi-experimental study was performed. The platform was tested on patients and evaluated at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months with respect to their pain levels and functionality on the Constant-Murley (CM) scale. Results Eleven patients were included, 5 women and 6 men, with a median age of 55 years (range, 42–68 years). Pain diminished from a baseline value of 64 mm (range, 40–80 mm) to 16 mm (range, 0–30 mm) at 6 months (p<0.001). Points on the CM scale rose from a baseline value of 54 points (range, 51–66 points) to 85 points (range, 70–100 points) at 6 months (p=0.001). Functionality in daily living and work activities, movement, and strength exhibited significant changes at 6 months (p<0.05). Conclusion Significant changes were observed in pain and functionality in this group of participants who used a telerehabilitation platform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that included a specific program for RC tears. PMID:27606278

  2. Preliminary reliability evaluation of flip chip on flex interconnect technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Jack J.; Virmani, Naresh

    1997-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the flip-chip-on-flex (FCOF) interconnection process in order to determine its feasibility for space flight applications. The key objectives were to: develop and apply simple and cost effective process steps needed to manufacture FCOFs and build test samples; perform a preliminary technology validation, and determine any initial environmental or application risks. The FCOF was shown to be simpler and more economical than other chip interconnection schemes.

  3. [Preliminary comparative study of the personality disorder evaluation DIP instrument with the semi-structured SCID-II interview].

    PubMed

    Massoubre, C; Bonnefond, H; Grosselin, A; Nelva, A; Pellet, J; Lang, F

    2009-12-01

    This work deals with the comparative study of two standardised instruments, which can be used to diagnose personality disorders (PD): the SCID-II and the DIP. Each instrument used as a self-questionnaire followed by a semi-structured interview by the same clinician was applied to 21 patients suffering from PD. The DIP (DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality), which is a recent instrument, consists of a self-questionnaire (DIP-Q) and a semi-structured interview (DIP-I), created by Bodlund and Ottosson. It makes it possible to evaluate PD from criteria based on the DSM-IV as well as the ICD-10. We translated it into French then evaluated it in comparison with another instrument, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PD (SCID-II) whose validity was demonstrated by Bouvard. For the self-questionnaire (SCID-auto), we used CUNGI'S computerised version. The present version of the semi-structured interview SCID-E (French translation by Bouvard et al.) evaluates the 10 PD of the DSM-IV, the depressive personality and the passive-aggressive personality, included in the DSM-IV appendix B. The DIP-Q questionnaire is made up of 140 right/wrong items referring to the 10 PD of the DSM-IV and the eight disorders of the ICD-10. The DIP-I is the self-structured interview created by Ottosson et al. and it is built on the same pattern as the SCID-II. It provides diagnoses for all DSM-IV and/or ICD-10 PD as well as the schizotypic disorder. The DIP-I is usually preceded by a general "scan" interview in order to assess an existing personality disorder corresponding to Axis I of the DSM-IV or the ICD-10. In our study, we substituted a Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) questionnaire for this interview. Twenty-four patients suffering from one or several PD were chosen among ambulatory or out-patients by clinicians from the Saint-Etienne Psychiatric University Hospital Center. The diagnosis was not revealed to the examiner during the study. The subjects filled in

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Clinical and Radiographic Success of Formocresol, Propolis, Turmeric Gel, and Calcium Hydroxide on Pulpotomized Primary Molars: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Shivayogi M; Kukreja, Pratibha; Hugar, Shweta S; Gokhale, Niraj; Assudani, Harsha

    2017-01-01

    Despite various advents in technology, the present era marks a shift to phytotherapeutics and alternative modalities to conventional endodontic treatments. Newer endodontic modalities have been developed inculcating the ancient system of medicine. The present study was done to compare and evaluate the clinical pulp response and radiographic signs after pulpotomy in four groups of primary molar teeth treated with formocresol (control), propolis extract, turmeric gel, and calcium hydroxide respectively. Following ethical clearance, 90 primary molar teeth in 45 pediatric patients, aged between 4 and 9 years, were selected for pulpotomy. These were then randomly divided by split-mouth technique into two groups as experimental (propolis extract/turmeric gel/calcium hydroxide) and control (formocresol) groups. The patients were followed up for 6 months for clinical and radiographic signs and symptoms to evaluate the success of treatment. A comparable clinical and radiographic success rate was seen with all experimental groups as compared to the control (formocresol) group. With concerns about the safety of formocresol appearing in the dental and medical literature for more than 20 years, the materials used in this study can be considered as promising alternatives for formocresol in pediatric endodontic treatment. Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Hugar SS, Gokhale N, Assudani H. Comparative Evaluation of Clinical and Radiographic Success of Formocresol, Propolis, Turmeric Gel, and Calcium Hydroxide on Pulpotomized Primary Molars: A Preliminary Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):18-23.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Clinical and Radiographic Success of Formocresol, Propolis, Turmeric Gel, and Calcium Hydroxide on Pulpotomized Primary Molars: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Hugar, Shivayogi M; Hugar, Shweta S; Gokhale, Niraj; Assudani, Harsha

    2017-01-01

    Aims Despite various advents in technology, the present era marks a shift to phytotherapeutics and alternative modalities to conventional endodontic treatments. Newer endodontic modalities have been developed inculcating the ancient system of medicine. The present study was done to compare and evaluate the clinical pulp response and radiographic signs after pulpotomy in four groups of primary molar teeth treated with formocresol (control), propolis extract, turmeric gel, and calcium hydroxide respectively. Materials and methods Following ethical clearance, 90 primary molar teeth in 45 pediatric patients, aged between 4 and 9 years, were selected for pulpotomy. These were then randomly divided by split-mouth technique into two groups as experimental (propolis extract/turmeric gel/calcium hydroxide) and control (formocresol) groups. The patients were followed up for 6 months for clinical and radiographic signs and symptoms to evaluate the success of treatment. Results A comparable clinical and radiographic success rate was seen with all experimental groups as compared to the control (formocresol) group. Conclusion With concerns about the safety of formocresol appearing in the dental and medical literature for more than 20 years, the materials used in this study can be considered as promising alternatives for formocresol in pediatric endodontic treatment. How to cite this article Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Hugar SS, Gokhale N, Assudani H. Comparative Evaluation of Clinical and Radiographic Success of Formocresol, Propolis, Turmeric Gel, and Calcium Hydroxide on Pulpotomized Primary Molars: A Preliminary Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):18-23. PMID:28377649

  6. The Healthy for Life Taekwondo Pilot Study: A Preliminary Evaluation of Effects on Executive Function and BMI, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Bryars, Tracy; Sirisinahal, Swetha; Salim, Nimrah; Arastoo, Sara; Emmerson, Natasha; Kang, Daniel; Shim, Lois; Wong, Doug; Kang, Chang Jin

    2013-01-01

    There is growing consensus that exercise improves cognitive functioning, but research is needed to identify exercise interventions that optimize effects on cognition. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate Taekwondo implemented in public middle school physical education (PE). Two classes were randomly assigned to either: five sessions per week of PE or three sessions of PE and two sessions of Taekwondo. In PE sessions, evidence-based curriculum to address the Presidential Core Fitness Guidelines and California Physical Fitness Tests was implemented. Taekwondo sessions included traditional techniques and forms taught in an environment emphasizing respect and self-control. Sixty students were evaluated at baseline and during the last week of the intervention (nine months later). Differences in mean residualized change scores for parent-rated inhibitory behavioral control yielded a significant, large effect size (d =.95, p =.00), reflecting greater improvement among Taekwondo students. Results from an executive function computer-administered task revealed greater accuracy on the congruent trial (d = 2.00, p = .02) for Taekwondo students. Differences in mean residualized change scores for BMI z scores yielded a moderate, non-significant effect size (d = − .51, p = .16). The majority of Taekwondo students reported positive perceptions of Taekwondo and perceived self-improvement in self-control and physical fitness. Results suggest that Taekwondo is an exercise program that improves cognitive functioning and is both feasible and acceptable to implement in a public school setting. PMID:24563664

  7. The Healthy for Life Taekwondo Pilot Study: A Preliminary Evaluation of Effects on Executive Function and BMI, Feasibility, and Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Lakes, Kimberley D; Bryars, Tracy; Sirisinahal, Swetha; Salim, Nimrah; Arastoo, Sara; Emmerson, Natasha; Kang, Daniel; Shim, Lois; Wong, Doug; Kang, Chang Jin

    2013-10-01

    There is growing consensus that exercise improves cognitive functioning, but research is needed to identify exercise interventions that optimize effects on cognition. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate Taekwondo implemented in public middle school physical education (PE). Two classes were randomly assigned to either: five sessions per week of PE or three sessions of PE and two sessions of Taekwondo. In PE sessions, evidence-based curriculum to address the Presidential Core Fitness Guidelines and California Physical Fitness Tests was implemented. Taekwondo sessions included traditional techniques and forms taught in an environment emphasizing respect and self-control. Sixty students were evaluated at baseline and during the last week of the intervention (nine months later). Differences in mean residualized change scores for parent-rated inhibitory behavioral control yielded a significant, large effect size (d =.95, p =.00), reflecting greater improvement among Taekwondo students. Results from an executive function computer-administered task revealed greater accuracy on the congruent trial (d = 2.00, p = .02) for Taekwondo students. Differences in mean residualized change scores for BMI z scores yielded a moderate, non-significant effect size (d = - .51, p = .16). The majority of Taekwondo students reported positive perceptions of Taekwondo and perceived self-improvement in self-control and physical fitness. Results suggest that Taekwondo is an exercise program that improves cognitive functioning and is both feasible and acceptable to implement in a public school setting.

  8. Evaluation of the functional effects of a course of Bobath therapy in children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Knox, Virginia; Evans, Andrew Lloyd

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate functional effects of Bobath therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifteen children with a diagnosis of CP were recruited (9 males, 6 females; mean age 7 years 4 months, SD 2 years 8 months; age range 2 to 12 years). Types of motor disorder were as follows: spastic quadriplegia (n=9); spastic diplegia (n=4); athetoid quadriplegia (n=1), and ataxia (n=1). Participants were distributed across the following Gross Motor Function Classification levels: level I, n=1; level II, n=4; level III, n=5; level IV, n=4; and level V, n=1. Children awaiting orthopaedic intervention were excluded. A repeated measures design was used with participants tested with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) at 6-weekly intervals (baseline, before and after Bobath therapy, and follow-up). As the data were of ordinal type, non-parametric statistics were used, i.e. Wilcoxon's test. Participants showed a significant improvement in scores in the following areas following Bobath therapy compared with the periods before and after Bobath therapy: GMFM total score (p=0.009); GMFM goal total (p=0.001); PEDI self care skills (p=0.036); and PEDI caregiver assistance total score (p=0.012). This demonstrates that in this population, gains were made in motor function and self care following a course of Bobath therapy.

  9. The Medical Symptom Validity Test in the evaluation of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom soldiers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Shepard, Polly H; Williams, Amanda L; Davis, Jeremy J; Adams, Kenneth M

    2009-03-01

    The clinical utility of the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) for soldiers returning from service in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom was preliminarily investigated through retrospective chart review. Results showed that 17%, or 4 of 23, Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom patients at a Polytrauma Network Site (Level 2), performed below cut-offs on the MSVT. On "easy" subtests of the MSVT, the group of individuals who failed the MSVT performed significantly worse than the group of individuals who passed. However, there were no significant group differences on the "hard" subtests of the MSVT. When the profiles of individuals who failed the MSVT were examined, none of them met the criteria for the Dementia Profile. These preliminary findings and additional test data supported the conclusion that participants who failed the MSVT were exhibiting diminished symptom validity, suggesting that the specificity of the MSVT was 100%.

  10. [Evaluation of preliminary grades and credits in nurse training programs].

    PubMed

    Darmann-Finck, Ingrid; Duveneck, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In the federal state of Bremen preliminary grades were included to the extent of 25 % in written, oral and practical final grades during the time period 2009-2014. The evaluation focuses on the effects of preliminary grades on the scale of final grades and the performance of learners as well as on the assessment of the appropriateness of final grades. A mixed-methods design was employed that consisted of a quasi-experimental study comprising of surveys of students and teachers of comparative and model courses as well as a qualitative study using group discussions. The results confirm that preliminary grades lead to a minimal improvement of the final grades of some exclusively low-achieving students. The assessment of appropriateness hardly changed. From both learners' and teachers' point of view there is still great dissatisfaction concerning the practical final grades. With regard to learning habits an increased willingness to learn new skills on the one hand and a partly increased performance pressure on the other hand were demonstrated. On the basis of these research results, the authors recommend the regular introduction of preliminary marks into the nursing training. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. USE OF THE MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE (MCID) FOR EVALUATING TREATMENT OUTCOMES WITH TMJMD PATIENTS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY1

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Megan; Choi, Yun Hee; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Haggard, Rob; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Buschang, Peter; Gatchel, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD) is one of the most prevalent types of musculoskeletal disorders. The major goal of the study was to more objectively quantify clinically meaningful relief for TMJMD treatment outcomes by using the new metric of minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Pre- to post-treatment changes on a number of self-report measures were evaluated in a cohort of 101 acute TMJMD patients. An anchor-based MCID approach was employed, with an objective chewing performance measure serving as the clinical outcome of interest. Using a Receiver Operating Curve analysis, it was found that the Physical Component Scale (PCS) of the SF-36 was the most robust self-report measure to use as the MCID in a TMJMD patient population. PMID:22919263

  12. Flow cytometric evaluation of red blood cell chimerism after bone marrow transplantation in Iranian patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shaiegan, Mojgan; Hadjati, Esmerdis; Aghaiipour, Mahnaz; Iravani, Masoud; David, Gaelle; Bernard, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mixed red cells population and red blood cell chimerism after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Red blood cell chimerism after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was analyzed using a series of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (BioAtlantic, France) directed against ABH, Rh (D, C, E, c, e), Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Ss antigens on blood samples of 14 patients with hematologic disorders undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, by flow cytometric method on days 15, 30, and 60 after transplantation. All patients showed expression of donor red cell antigens within days 15 - 30 after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Graft versus host disease and ABO incompatibility did not affect the expression of chimerism. Flow cytometric analysis is a simple, accurate, and valuable test which is of significant help in monitoring chimerism in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of oral function in acute and recovery phase of idiopathic facial palsy; a preliminary controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Kamo, H; Kobayashi, A; Abe, S; Okada-Ogawa, A; Noma, N; Kukimoto, N; Omori, H; Nakazato, H; Kishi, H; Ikeda, M; Imamura, Y

    2013-06-01

    Patients with peripheral facial palsy frequently complain of fluid leakage and food retention during meals. We investigated oral function during eating in adults with peripheral facial palsy. A prospective two-phase controlled observational study. Data were collected at the ENT clinic in Nihon University Itabashi Hospital (patients) and Nihon University Dental Hospital (controls) between September 2009 and August 2011 and analysed at the Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences in Nihon University School of Dentistry. Fourteen patients with acute idiopathic facial palsy and 14 controls completed Study 1. Sixteen patients with acute idiopathic facial palsy and 16 controls completed Study 2. In Study 1, oral vestibular cleansing capability was assessed by measuring the amount of rice remaining in the oral vestibule after mastication. In Study 2, masticatory efficiency was evaluated by measuring glucose eluted from gummy jelly during chewing. These oral functions were observed at the first visit and final visit (after patients with facial palsy had recovered). Oral vestibular cleansing capability at the first visit was significantly decreased by facial palsy (P < 0.001 versus healthy volunteers and P < 0.001 versus contralateral side) but recovered as facial muscular function improved (P = 0.034). There was a significant correlation between improvement in paralysis and decreased food retention (r = -0.528, P = 0.010). At the first visit, masticatory efficiency on the affected side was significantly lower than that of controls (P = 0.002) but had mostly recovered after resolution of facial palsy (P = 0.033). Oral functions were decreased by peripheral facial palsy. Oral vestibular cleansing capability was more significantly associated than masticatory efficiency with facial muscle function. Our data suggest that peripheral facial palsy impairs eating and worsens oral hygiene, which may result in oral disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A preliminary study to evaluate postural improvement in subjects with scoliosis: active therapeutic movement version 2 device and home exercises using the Mulligan's mobilization-with-movement concept.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Clare; Diaz, Rafael; Lopez, Geoff; Marki, Nicholas; Olivio, Ben

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if the use of Active Therapeutic Movement Version 2 (ATM2) device and home exercises using the Mulligan's mobilization-with-movement concept by subjects with scoliosis would result in postural improvement and to document any changes in trunk range of motion and quality of life. Forty-three subjects between the ages of 12 to 75 years were recruited for the study. Each subject underwent a low back evaluation along with specific measurements for their scoliosis. Subjects participated in a 4-week intervention, 2 times a week consisting of treatment utilizing the ATM2 and were also given a home exercise program to mimic the specific movement(s) they performed on the ATM2. Photographic assessment of posture was taken before and after the intervention. Subjects were surveyed during the initial assessment and again at the final intervention using the following outcome measures: Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire, Short-Form Health Survey-36, Oswestry Disability Index, and a Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Results were significant for most of the variables measured. Subjects gained improvement in spinal ranges of motion for all directions except for flexion and extension (most subjects had reference range of flexion and extension at the beginning of the study). Most subjects had improved pelvic alignment after the intervention. Before and after photographs demonstrated improved posture. Subjective measurements of pain, disability, and quality of life improved. Results of this preliminary study showed improvement for selected variables. The use of ATM2 and home exercises using the Mulligan's mobilization-with-movement concept by subjects with scoliosis appears to be a potentially viable conservative treatment alternative to address various findings associated with scoliosis, including posture improvement. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary cone-beam computed tomography study evaluating dental and skeletal changes after treatment with a mandibular Schwarz appliance.

    PubMed

    Tai, Kiyoshi; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Park, Jae Hyun; Tai, Hisako; Miyajima, Kuniaki; Choi, Matthew; Kai, Lisa M; Mishima, Katsuaki

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Schwarz appliance with a new method of superimposing detailed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. The subjects were 28 patients with Angle Class I molar relationships and crowding; they were randomly divided into 2 groups: 14 expanded and 14 nonexpanded patients. Three-dimensional Rugle CBCT software (Medic Engineering, Kyoto, Japan) was used to measure 10 reference points before treatment (T0) and during the retention period of approximately 9 months after 6 to 12 months of expansion (T1). Cephalometric and cast measurements were used to evaluate the treatments in both groups. Also, the mandibular widths of both groups were measured along an axial plane at 2 levels below the cementoenamel junction from a CBCT scan. Differences between the 2 groups at T0 and T1 were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney U test. The dental arch (including tooth root apices) had expanded; however, alveolar bone expansion was only up to 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction. There was a statistically significant (P <0.05) difference between the groups in terms of crown, cementoenamel junction, root, and upper alveolar process. However, no significant (P >0.05) differences were observed in the interwidths of the mandibular body, zygomatic bones, condylar heads, or mandibular antegonial notches. In the mandibular cast measurements, arch crowding and arch perimeter showed statistically significant changes in the expanded group. The buccal mandibular width and lingual mandibular width values had significant changes as measured from a point 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The findings suggest that the Schwarz appliance primarily affected the dentoalveolar complex, but it had little effect on either the mandibular body or any associated structures. In addition, the molar center of rotation was observed to be below the root apex. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of psychometric properties of the Finnish Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index: Oulu-BPD-Study.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Virpi; Lindeman, Sari; Arntz, Arnoud; Hakko, Helinä

    2013-10-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe disorder decreasing the functional ability of the patient and places an extensive burden on the healthcare system. There is a need for a reliable and valid instrument with which unstable recent BPD symptoms can be assessed in a short-term perspective, and which is applicable for clinical evaluations and treatment-outcome research. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index IV (BPDSI-IV) interview in a sample of Finnish BPD patients. Our study is a part of the randomized, monocentre Oulu-BPD trial, which compares the effectiveness of treatment by experts with treatment as usual. Patients (n = 71) were enrolled in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The BPDSI-IV was used to assess recent manifestations of BPD. The internal consistency of the BPDSI-IV in the Finnish patient sample was analysed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and mean item-total correlation. Discriminant validity was examined by comparing the Finnish BPD patient sample with the Dutch BPD patient and non-patient samples. The Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.58 to 0.79 being highest in Dissociation and lowest in Relationships. A total of five subscales out of nine exceeded the acceptable limit (≥ 0.70). With respect to mean item-total correlation, seven out of nine subscales had an acceptable correlation ≥ 0.30. The BPDSI-IV interview was applied for the first time in a Finnish sample of BPD patients. It appears to be a useful instrument for measuring and following the severity and the change of symptoms of patients with BPD.

  17. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. in mice: A preliminary experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Latha, K.; Rammohan, B.; Sunanda, B. P. V.; Maheswari, M. S. Uma; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anxiolytic effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous extract in mice. To compare the antianxiety activity of CS against standard drug diazepam (3 mg/kg). Materials and Methods: After obtaining Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approval, Swiss albino mice (18–25 g) of either sex were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Dried powder of CS leaves was boiled with distilled water, cooled, filtered, placed on a hotplate for complete evaporation, finally weighed and stored. The control group, test group, and standard drugs group received saline, CS extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), diazepam (3 mg/kg), respectively, by oral feeding. The antianxiety effect was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) in mice. Results: In EPM, it implied that CS 50 mg/kg (Group III), 100 mg/kg (Group IV), and 200 mg/kg (Group V) significantly (P < 0.001) increases the number of entries in open arms compared to control. The time spent in open arms also increased in all the doses of CS extract significantly. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates statistically significant dose-dependent antianxiety activity of CS leaves. PMID:26109787

  18. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage.

  19. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. in mice: A preliminary experimental study.

    PubMed

    Latha, K; Rammohan, B; Sunanda, B P V; Maheswari, M S Uma; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the anxiolytic effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous extract in mice. To compare the antianxiety activity of CS against standard drug diazepam (3 mg/kg). After obtaining Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approval, Swiss albino mice (18-25 g) of either sex were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Dried powder of CS leaves was boiled with distilled water, cooled, filtered, placed on a hotplate for complete evaporation, finally weighed and stored. The control group, test group, and standard drugs group received saline, CS extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), diazepam (3 mg/kg), respectively, by oral feeding. The antianxiety effect was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) in mice. In EPM, it implied that CS 50 mg/kg (Group III), 100 mg/kg (Group IV), and 200 mg/kg (Group V) significantly (P < 0.001) increases the number of entries in open arms compared to control. The time spent in open arms also increased in all the doses of CS extract significantly. The current study demonstrates statistically significant dose-dependent antianxiety activity of CS leaves.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of three commercial coil products for protection efficacy against Anopheles gambiae from southern Ghana: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Avicor, S W; Wajidi M, F F; Jaal, Z

    2015-06-01

    Residents in irrigated urban agricultural sites face numerous mosquito problems such as increased mosquito populations and reduced insecticides susceptibility due to the creation of mosquito breeding sites and agricultural use of insecticides and hence require effective protective products against them. In this study, the protection effectiveness of three pyrethroid formulated mosquito coils of Malaysian origin against Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an irrigated urban agricultural site in Ghana were evaluated for their potential use. Sucrose fed An. gambiae s.l. were exposed to insecticide-containing coils in a 70 cm x 70 cm x 70 cm glass chamber to assess the insecticidal effect of the coils. The 0.005% metofluthrin coil caused the most rapid knockdown of 50% of the test mosquitoes. The mean lethal effect of the coils on An. gambiae s.l. were as follows; 0.005% metofluthrin (86%), 0.3% d-allethrin (74.33%), 0.15% d-trans allethrin (72%) and the 0.25% d-allethrin reference coil (69%). The 0.005% metofluthrin coil achieved the highest insecticidal effect on An. gambiae s.l. compared to the other coils and hence performed better than the others as an anti-mosquito product. All the three test coils were effective against An. gambaie s.l. from the irrigated agricultural site compared to the reference coil.

  1. Evaluation of ultrasound synthetic aperture imaging using bidirectional pixel-based focusing: preliminary phantom and in vivo breast study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choye; Yoon, Changhan; Park, Jong-Ho; Lee, Yuhwa; Kim, Won Hwa; Chang, Jung Min; Choi, Byung Ihn; Song, Tai-Kyong; Yoo, Yang-Mo

    2013-10-01

    In medical ultrasound imaging, lateral resolution is limited when using a fixed transmit focusing. Various synthetic aperture (SA) techniques, in which two-way dynamic focusing is enabled by utilizing prebeamformed radio-frequency (RF) data have been proposed for improving the spatial resolution. However, SA methods were not extensively evaluated in terms of their clinical performance. In this paper, a phantom and an in vivo evaluation of the SA method with bidirectional pixel-based focusing (BiPBF) is presented in comparison with the conventional beamforming. The performance of the proposed SA-BiPBF was assessed with a blind study and the established breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS), in addition to measuring contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Prebeamformed RF data were acquired from a tissue mimicking phantom (Model 040, CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA, USA) and from patients with breast lesions by using a commercial ultrasound scanning system with a linear array transducer equipped with a research package and parallel data acquisition system (SonixTouch, SonixDAQ, and L14-5/38, Ultrasonix Corp., Canada). In phantom and in vivo experiments, a default setting of a breast preset was applied (e.g., the center frequency of 10 MHz and acoustic output of MI = 0.66). In phantom experiment, the SA-BiPBF method showed higher CNR and SNR values compared to the conventional method (3.4 and 23.9 dB versus 3.1 and 15.8 dB, respectively). In addition, the lateral resolution and penetration depth were increased by 95.4% and 40.3%, respectively. Consistent with the phantom experiment, in the in vivo experiment with ten patients, the CNR value for the SA method was 3.3 ± 0.5 compared to 2.8 ± 0.8 for the conventional method. Similarly, the SNR values with the SA-BiPBF and conventional methods were 34.0 ± 3.6 and 27.2 ± 3.4 dB, respectively. From the experiments, it was shown in side-by-side comparisons that the image quality of the SA

  2. Preliminary evaluations of a spoken web enabled care management platform.

    PubMed

    Padman, Rema; Beam, Erika; Szewczyk, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Telephones are a ubiquitous and widely accepted technology worldwide. The low ownership cost, simple user interface, intuitive voice-based access and long history contribute to the wide-spread use and success of telephones, and more recently, that of mobile phones. This study reports on our preliminary efforts to leverage this technology to bridge disparities in the access to and delivery of personalized health and wellness care by developing and evaluating a Spoken Web enabled Care Management solution. Early results with two proxy evaluations and a few visually impaired users highlight both the potential and challenges associated with this novel, voice-enabled healthcare delivery solution.

  3. Determination of phenytoin in sections of head hair: a preliminary study to evaluate the history of drug use.

    PubMed

    Tsatsakis, A M; Psillakis, T; Stefis, A; Assithianakis, P; Vlahonikolis, I G; Michalodimitrakis, M N; Helidonis, E

    1998-12-01

    Phenytoin (PH) levels were determined in the head hair of twenty five patients (fourteen males and eleven females, aged from five to seventy seven years old) who were receiving this drug chronically. The assay method involved sectional hair analysis by dissolution and liquid phase extraction procedures, using both high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and immunoassay (Abbott TDx) techniques. Five sections were studied, the first being the one closet to the root. The phenytoin levels of the hair sections ranged: a) 1st: 0.68 to 39.56 micrograms/g (mean 16.12 micrograms/g), b) 2nd: 0.85 to 34.15 micrograms/g (mean 9.45 micrograms/g), c) 3rd: 1.33 to 27.90 micrograms/g (mean 3.72 micrograms/g), d) 4th: 1.10 to 10.96 micrograms/g (mean 3.04 micrograms/g) and e) 5th: 1.05 to 7.00 micrograms/g (mean 2.84 micrograms/g) according to the HPLC analysis. The immunoassay technique gave similar results. The mean values of phenytoin in the hair sections according to the immunoassay technique were: 16.28; 9.47; 3.77; 3.22; 2.97 micrograms/g, respectively from the 1st to the 5th section. A reduction of drug concentrations in hair from the first to the consecutive segments was observed. Higher amounts of phenytoin were deposited in black, untreated hair in comparison to blond brown or grey hair. Phenytoin concentrations in hair sections correlated with the oral daily dosage of the drug. Our data indicate to the use of hair testing as a marker of the dosage history and evaluation of the compliance of patients under long treatment with phenytoin.

  4. Is lecture dead? A preliminary study of medical students' evaluation of teaching methods in the preclinical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Zinski, Anne; Blackwell, Kristina T C Panizzi Woodley; Belue, F Mike; Brooks, William S

    2017-09-22

    To investigate medical students' perceptions of lecture and non-lecture-based instructional methods and compare preferences for use and quantity of each during preclinical training. We administered a survey to first- and second-year undergraduate medical students at the University of Alabama School of Medicine in Birmingham, Alabama, USA aimed to evaluate preferred instructional methods.  Using a cross-sectional study design, Likert scale ratings and student rankings were used to determine preferences among lecture, laboratory, team-based learning, simulation, small group case-based learning, large group case-based learning, patient presentation, and peer teaching. We calculated mean ratings for each instructional method and used chi-square tests to compare proportions of first- and second-year cohorts who ranked each in their top 5 preferred methods. Among participating students, lecture (M=3.6, SD=1.0), team based learning (M=4.2, SD=1.0), simulation (M=4.0, SD=1.0), small group case-based learning (M=3.8, SD=1.0), laboratory (M=3.6, SD=1.0), and patient presentation (M=3.8, SD=0.9) received higher scores than other instructional methods. Overall, second-year students ranked lecture lower (χ(2)(1, N=120) =16.33, p<0.0001) and patient presentation higher (χ(2)(1, N=120) =3.75, p=0.05) than first-year students. While clinically-oriented teaching methods were preferred by second-year medical students, lecture-based instruction was popular among first-year students. Results warrant further investigation to determine the ideal balance of didactic methods in undergraduate medical education, specifically curricula that employ patient-oriented instruction during the second preclinical year.

  5. Evaluating the improvements of the BOLAM meteorological model operational at ISPRA: A case study approach - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Lastoria, B.; Accadia, C.; Flavoni, S.

    2009-04-01

    Fritsch. A fully updated serial version of the BOLAM code has been recently acquired. Code improvements include a more precise advection scheme (Weighted Average Flux); explicit advection of five hydrometeors, and state-of-the-art parameterization schemes for radiation, convection, boundary layer turbulence and soil processes (also with possible choice among different available schemes). The operational implementation of the new code into the SIMM model chain, which requires the development of a parallel version, will be achieved during 2009. In view of this goal, the comparative verification of the different model versions' skill represents a fundamental task. On this purpose, it has been decided to evaluate the performance improvement of the new BOLAM code (in the available serial version, hereinafter BOLAM 2007) with respect to the version with the Kain-Fritsch scheme (hereinafter KF version) and to the older one employing the Kuo scheme (hereinafter Kuo version). In the present work, verification of precipitation forecasts from the three BOLAM versions is carried on in a case study approach. The intense rainfall episode occurred on 10th - 17th December 2008 over Italy has been considered. This event produced indeed severe damages in Rome and its surrounding areas. Objective and subjective verification methods have been employed in order to evaluate model performance against an observational dataset including rain gauge observations and satellite imagery. Subjective comparison of observed and forecast precipitation fields is suitable to give an overall description of the forecast quality. Spatial errors (e.g., shifting and pattern errors) and rainfall volume error can be assessed quantitatively by means of object-oriented methods. By comparing satellite images with model forecast fields, it is possible to investigate the differences between the evolution of the observed weather system and the predicted ones, and its sensitivity to the improvements in the model code

  6. Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Program and/or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

  7. Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Program and /or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

  8. Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Program and /or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  10. Preliminary evaluation of implantable MOSFET radiation dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Beddar, A S; Salehpour, M; Briere, T M; Hamidian, H; Gillin, M T

    2005-01-07

    In this paper, we report on measurements performed on a new prototype implantable radiation detector that uses metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) designed for in vivo dosimetry. The dosimeters, which are encapsulated in hermetically sealed glass cylinders, are used in an unbiased mode during irradiation, unlike other MOSFET detectors previously used in radiotherapy applications. They are powered by radio frequency telemetry for dose measurements, obviating the need for a power supply within each capsule. We have studied the dosimetric characteristics of these MOSFET detectors in vitro under irradiation from a 60Co source. The detectors show a dose reproducibility generally within 5% or better, with the main sources of error being temperature fluctuations occurring between the pre- and post-irradiation measurements as well as detector orientation. A better temperature-controlled environment leads to a reproducibility within 2%. Our preliminary in vitro results show clearly that true non-invasive in vivo dosimetry measurements are feasible and can be performed remotely using telemetric technology.

  11. Studies on medicinal herbs for cognitive enhancement based on the text mining of Dongeuibogam and preliminary evaluation of its effects.

    PubMed

    Pak, Malk Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Ahn, Sung Min; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-02-17

    In literature on Korean medicine, Dongeuibogam (Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine), published in 1613, represents the overall results of the traditional medicines of North-East Asia based on prior medicinal literature of this region. We utilized this medicinal literature by text mining to establish a list of candidate herbs for cognitive enhancement in the elderly and then performed an evaluation of their effects. Text mining was performed for selection of candidate herbs. Cell viability was determined in HT22 hippocampal cells and immunohistochemistry and behavioral analysis was performed in a kainic acid (KA) mice model in order to observe alterations of hippocampal cells and cognition. Twenty four herbs for cognitive enhancement in the elderly were selected by text mining of Dongeuibogam. In HT22 cells, pretreatment with 3 candidate herbs resulted in significantly reduced glutamate-induced cell death. Panax ginseng was the most neuroprotective herb against glutamate-induced cell death. In the hippocampus of a KA mice model, pretreatment with 11 candidate herbs resulted in suppression of caspase-3 expression. Treatment with 7 candidate herbs resulted in significantly enhanced expression levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein. Number of proliferated cells indicated by BrdU labeling was increased by treatment with 10 candidate herbs. Schisandra chinensis was the most effective herb against cell death and proliferation of progenitor cells and Rehmannia glutinosa in neuroprotection in the hippocampus of a KA mice model. In a KA mice model, we confirmed improved spatial and short memory by treatment with the 3 most effective candidate herbs and these recovered functions were involved in a higher number of newly formed neurons from progenitor cells in the hippocampus. These established herbs and their combinations identified by text-mining technique and evaluation for effectiveness may have value in further experimental and clinical

  12. Psychometric evaluation of the stress scale for parents with cleft lip and/or palate children--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ruoh-Lih; Wang, Shiaw-Ling; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Chin, Chi-Chun

    2010-09-01

    To develop the Stress Scale for Parents With Cleft Lip and/or Palate Children in Taiwan and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale with a group of parents who have children with cleft lip and/or palate. In phase 1, qualitative procedures were conducted in constructing the item pool for the Stress Scale for Parents With Cleft Lip and/or Palate Children. Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed in phase 2. Outpatient department of a children's hospital in northern Taiwan. Phase 1 included 21 parents of children with cleft lip and/or palate. Phase 2 included 184 parents of children with cleft lip and/or palate. The item pool was developed by interview, content analysis, and literature review. Problematic items were identified by item analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity. Reliabilities were evaluated by Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients. Thirty-three items with a content validity index greater than .80 were recognized. They were grouped into four categories by exploratory factor analysis and accounted for 42.34% of the total variance. Internal consistency reliability was high for the total scale (Cronbach α = .90) and ranged from .71 to .84 on the subscales. Test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient was .94 on the total scale (p < .0001, 95% confidence interval) and from .90 to .96 for the subscales. The Stress Scale for Parents With Cleft Lip and/or Palate Children appears to be a reliable tool with strong evidence of content and construct validity that may be useful in assessing parental stress in the caretakers of children with cleft lip and/or palate.

  13. Evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer patients using real-time CT-navigated ultrasonography: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Na, Dae Kwon; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Kook, Shin Ho; Park, Hee Jin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of real-time neck computed tomography (CT)-guided ultrasonography (US) in detecting cervical neck lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We retrospectively reviewed data from 176 patients (mean age, 43 years; range, 23 to 74 years) with surgically confirmed PTC who underwent preoperative US, neck CT, and neck CTguided US. We then compared the sensitivities and diagnostic accuracies of each of the three above modalities in detecting cervical LNM. Preoperative US showed 17.3% sensitivity and 58.5% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM compared with 64.3% sensitivity and 89.2% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral neck LNM. Neck CT showed 23.5% sensitivity and 55.7% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM and 71.4% sensitivity with 90.9% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral neck LNM. CT-guided US exhibited 37.0% sensitivity and 63.1% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM compared with 92.9% sensitivity and 96.0% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral LNM. CT-guided US showed higher diagnostic accuracy with superior sensitivity in detecting central and lateral LNM than did US (P<0.001, P=0.011) and CT (P=0.026, P=0.063). Neck CT-guided US is a more accurate technique with higher sensitivity for detecting cervical LNM than either US or CT alone. Therefore, our data indicate that neck CT-guided US is an especially useful technique in preoperative examinations.

  14. Optimizing scintigraphic evaluation of split renal function in living kidney donors using the geometric mean method: a preliminary retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Sarah; Baeder, Michael; Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian; Steffen, Ingo Guenter; Magheli, Ahmed; Miller, Kurt; Kempkensteffen, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    Accurate assessment of pre-transplant split renal function in candidates for living kidney donation is indispensable for side-selection and a sufficient long-term residual renal function. To analyse the need of depth correction in the assessment of split renal function in potential living kidney donors. In 13 consecutive patients screened for living kidney donation split renal function was measured with four different methods including conventional posterior MAG-3-scintigraphy, the geometric mean method in MAG-3-scintigraphy, MAG-3-scintigraphy with CT-based depth correction and CT-volumetry. Correlation and agreement of methods were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman method. Despite good correlation and agreement between the different radioisotopic methods there were clinically relevant differences in split renal function in 2/13 patients (15 %) between conventional posterior MAG-3 scan and the geometric mean method. The best correlation was found between the two scintigraphic methods with depth correction. Comparing radioisotopic methods with CT-volumetry, significant differences were found in up to 6/13 patients (46 %). Our results clearly indicate that in the case of living kidney donation further assessment concerning the accuracy and reliability of measuring split renal function is necessary. As there are no differences in duration of examination, costs and radiation exposure between techniques with and without depth correction, but clinically relevant differences in up to 46 % of patients, kidney depth should be incorporated in daily clinical practice of living kidney donor evaluation. The geometric mean method could significantly improve future patient assessment in cases of living kidney donation.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Short Anger Management Group for Special Education Teachers in Greece: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Moberly, Nicholas J.; Tsiligiannis, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a psychoeducational group for Greek special education teachers, all but one of whom reported experiencing anger in class. An anger management program was designed, which included a short, four-session package to be given within two weeks. The results of a pretest-posttest comparison revealed reductions in…

  16. Quantitative evaluation of bronchial enhancement: preliminary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Godoy, Myrna C. B.; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    It has been known for several years that airflow limitations in the small airways may be an important contributor to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Quantification of wall thickness has lately gained attention thanks to the use of high resolution CT, with novel approaches focusing on automated methods that can substitute for visual assessment [1, 2]. While increased thickening of the wall is considered evidence of inflammatory disease, we hypothesize that there may be additional ways to detect and quantify inflammation, specifically the uptake of contrast material. In this preliminary investigation, we selected patients with documented chronic airway inflammation, and for whom pre and post contrast datasets were available. On targeted reconstruction of right upper and lower lobes, we selected airways with no connections to surrounding structures, and used a modified Full-Width-Half-Max method for quantification of lumen diameter, wall thickness, and wall density. Matching airway locations on the pre- and postcontrast cases were compared. Airways from patients without airway disease served as a control. Results for the airway disease cases showed an average enhancement of 72 HU within the airway walls, with a standard deviation of 59 HU. In the control group the average enhancement was 16 HU with standard deviation of 22 HU. While this study is limited in number of cases, we hypothesize that quantification of contrast uptake is an additional factor to consider in assessing airway inflammation. At the same time we are currently investigating whether enhancement can be measured via a "contrast" map created with dual energy scanning, where a 3-value decomposition algorithm differentiates iodine from other materials. This technique would eliminate both the need for a pre-contrast scan, and the task of matching airway locations on pre- and post- scans.

  17. Radiochemical studies, pre-clinical investigation and preliminary clinical evaluation of (170)Tm-EDTMP prepared using in-house freeze-dried EDTMP kit.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapas; Shinto, Ajit; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai K; Sarma, Haladhar D; Mohammed, Sahiralam Khan; Mitra, Arpit; Lad, Sangita; Rajan, M G R; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-01-05

    The objective of the present work is to formulate (170)Tm-EDTMP using an in-house freeze-dried EDTMP kit and evaluate its potential as a bone pain palliation agent. Patient dose of (170)Tm-EDTMP was prepared with high radiochemical purity using the lyophilized kit at room temperature within 15min. Pre-clinical evaluation in normal Wistar rats revealed selective skeletal accumulation with extended retention. Preliminary clinical investigation in 8 patients with disseminated skeletal metastases exhibited selective uptake in the bone and retention therein for a long duration.

  18. Natural history studies for the preliminary evaluation of Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, L; Cristofaro, M; Tronci, C; Smith, L

    2008-10-01

    We studied the life history, geographic distribution, behavior, and ecology of Larinus filiformis Petri (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in its native range to determine whether it is worthy of further evaluation as a classical biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae). Larinus filiformis occurs in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Bulgaria and has been reared only from C. solstitialis. At field sites in central and eastern Turkey, adults were well synchronized with the plant, being active from mid-May to late July and ovipositing in capitula (flowerheads) of C. solstitialis from mid-June to mid-July. Larvae destroy all the seeds in a capitulum. The insect is univoltine in Turkey, and adults hibernate from mid-September to mid-May. In the spring, before adults begin ovipositing, they feed on the immature flower buds of C. solstitialis, causing them to die. The weevil destroyed 25-75% of capitula at natural field sites, depending on the sample date. Preliminary host specificity experiments on adult feeding indicate that the weevil seems to be restricted to a relatively small number of plants within the Cardueae. Approximately 57% of larvae or pupae collected late in the summer were parasitized by hymenopterans [Bracon urinator, B. tshitsherini (Braconidae) and Exeristes roborator (Ichneumonidae), Aprostocetus sp. (Eulophidae), and unidentified species of Eurytomidae and Ormyridae]. This weevil may be a better choice than the other capitula insects already established in the United States, particularly in colder parts of the plant's range.

  19. Clinical evaluation of the electronic nose in the diagnosis of ear, nose and throat infection: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shykhon, M E; Morgan, D W; Dutta, R; Hines, E L; Gardner, J W

    2004-09-01

    The term electronic nose describes an electronic system that is able to mimic the human sense of smell. Electronic noses have been developed over the last 10 or more years to perform a variety of identification tasks in various industries. More recently electronic noses have attracted new interest in their application in the field of medical diagnosis. The aim of this study is to explore the use of an electronic nose to identify and classify pathogens associated with ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections. In this study 90 bacterial swab samples were collected from 90 patients with ENT infections. Some of these samples were analysed immediately with a commercial electronic nose (Cyranose C320). Similar numbers of swabs were also taken from the same site of infection and were sent for microbiology culture and sensitivity. The electronic nose diagnosis was compared with the microbiology diagnosis and it was found that the electronic nose diagnosis was correct in 88.2 per cent of the cases, which is an encouraging result.

  20. Comparative study of kanamycin sulphate microparticles and nanoparticles for intramuscular administration: preparation in vitro release and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sanaul; Devi, V Kusum; Pai, Roopa S

    2016-11-01

    Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. KS is polycationic, a property responsible for KS poor oral absorption half-life (2.5 h) and rapid renal clearance, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. The current study aimed to develop KS-loaded PLGA vitamin-E-TPGS microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) to reduce the dosing frequency and dose-related adverse effect. In vitro release was sustained up to 10 days for KS PLGA-TPGS MPs and 13 days for KS PLGA-TPGS NPs in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4. The in vivo pharmacokinetic test in Wistar rats showed that the AUC0-∞ of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs (280.58 μg/mL*min) was about 1.62-fold higher than that of KS PLGA-TPGS MPs (172.30 μg/mL*min). Further, in vivo protein-binding assay ascribed 1.20-fold increase in the uptake of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs through the alveolar macrophage (AM). The studies, therefore, could provide another useful tool for successful development of KS MPs and NPs.

  1. Evaluating seasonal dynamics of bacterial communities in marine fish aquaculture: a preliminary study before applying phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Salvador, Sara; Arrojado, Cátia; Silva, Yolanda; Santos, Ana L; Cunha, Angela; Gomes, Newton C M; Gomes, Newton; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-04-01

    The increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in common pathogenic bacteria and the concern about the spreading of antibiotics in the environment bring the need to find new methods to control fish pathogens. Phage therapy represents a potential alternative to antibiotics, but its use in aquaculture requires a detailed understanding of bacterial communities, namely of fish pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in this study the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, microbiological water quality and disease-causing bacteria were followed in a marine aquaculture system of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Analysis of the bacterial diversity of the water samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments indicates that the bacterial community structure varied seasonally, showing a higher complexity during the warm season. The diversity of the main fish pathogenic bacteria, assessed by DGGE targeting the Vibrio genus, showed lower seasonal variation, with new dominating populations appearing mainly in the spring. Bacterial indicators, faecal coliforms and enterococci, enumerated by the filter-membrane method, also varied seasonally. The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) results showed that the specific groups of bacteria varied during the study period and that the non-indigenous Enterobactereaceae family was the most abundant group followed by Vibrio and Aeromonas. The seasonal variation detected in terms of density and structure of total and pathogenic bacterial communities demonstrates the need for a careful monitoring of water through the year in order to select the suitable phages to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria. The spring season seems to be the critical time period when phage therapy should be applied.

  2. Clinical evaluation and serum concentration of zuclopenthixol acetate in psychotic Asian patients: a single-dose preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tan, C H; Low, B L; Ng, L L; Khoo, Y M; Lee, H S

    1993-04-01

    Nineteen acutely disturbed psychotic Asian patients were treated with a single intramuscular injection of 50 mg of zuclopenthixol acetate in Viscoleo. Patients were assessed clinically before and after treatment using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Serum zuclopenthixol and the inactive geometric isomer trans(E)-clopenthixol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after intramuscular injection. All patients improved, with the BPRS being significantly reduced (p < 0.001) at 72 h after injection. Adverse effects were generally few. The mean +/- SEM serum zuclopenthixol concentrations at 24, 48, and 72 h were 19.9 +/- 2.8, 31.5 +/- 4.5, and 17.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms/L, respectively. trans(E)-Clopenthixol concentrations ranged from negligible to 39.5 micrograms/L. This study confirms that a single intramuscular injection of 50 mg is adequate for managing severely disturbed psychotic patients for the first 3 days. The serum zuclopenthixol concentrations attained in the Asian patients were higher than those reported in Caucasian psychiatric patients. In some patients, a considerable amount of zuclopenthixol had been transformed to trans(E)-clopenthixol.

  3. Evaluation of maternal liver elasticity by acoustic radiation force impulse elastosonography in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a preliminary descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Orkun; Karaman, Erbil; Arslan, Harun; Kolusarı, Ali; Yıldızhan, Recep; Ozgokce, Mesut; Batur, Abdussamet; Akbudak, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    To compare maternal liver elasticity scores by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastosonography in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies and its association with the severity of the disease. Forty-two healthy, 33 mild, 33 severe preeclamptic and 28 pregnant women with Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets (HELLP) syndrome were included into the study. Maternal liver elasticity was measured by ARFI elastosonography at the first day of puerperium. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of the patients were retrieved from the medical records. The ARFI-Mean liver elastosonography scores of controls and mild preeclamptic women were lower than severe preeclamptic and HELLP syndrome women (p: 0.001). The mean ARFI elastosonography score >1.22 m/s indicated the effect of severe preeclampsia on maternal liver elasticity with 72.7% sensitivity and 74.7% specificity (Area under curve [AUC], 0.835, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.757-0.913). The mean ARFI elastosonography score >1.31 m/s indicated the effect of HELLP syndrome on maternal liver elasticity with 78.6% sensitivity and 75.9% specificity (AUC, 0.794, 95% CI, 0.695-0.892). The maternal liver becomes stiffer in severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome measured by ARFI elastosonography. The increased maternal liver ARFI scores may alert the obstetrician about the possible maternal puerperal morbidity.

  4. Electron microscopic evaluation and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment: A preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect

    I J van Rooyen; D E Janney; B D Miller; J L Riesterer; P A Demkowicz

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Post-irradiation examination of coated particle fuel from the AGR-1 experiment is in progress at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this presentation a brief summary of results from characterization of microstructures in the coating layers of selected irradiated fuel particles with burnup of 11.3% and 19.3% FIMA will be given. The main objective of the characterization were to study irradiation effects, fuel kernel porosity, layer debonding, layer degradation or corrosion, fission-product precipitation, grain sizes, and transport of fission products from the kernels across the TRISO layers. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy were used. A new approach to microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates is also briefly demonstrated. The characterization emphasized fission-product precipitates in the SiC-IPyC interface, SiC layer and the fuel-buffer interlayer, and provided significant new insights into mechanisms of fission-product transport. Although Pd-rich precipitates were identified at the SiC-IPyC interlayer, no significant SiC-layer thinning was observed for the particles investigated. Characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentration Ag in precipitates with significantly higher concentrations of contain Pd and U. Different approaches to resolving this problem are discussed. Possible microstructural differences between particles with high and low releases of Ag particles are also briefly discussed, and an initial hypothesis is provided to explain fission-product precipitate compositions and locations. No SiC phase transformations or debonding of the SiC-IPyC interlayer as a result of irradiation were observed. Lessons learned from the post-irradiation examination are described and future actions are recommended.

  5. Physical activities of Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): preliminary longitudinal case-control study historical evaluation of possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Marianne E; Lee, Amanda Jane; Burwell, R Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge there are no publications that have evaluated physical activities in relation to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) other than sports scolioses. In a preliminary longitudinal case-control study, mother and child were questioned and the children examined by one observer. The aim of the study was to examine possible risk factors for AIS. Two study groups were assessed for physical activities: 79 children diagnosed as having progressive AIS at one spinal deformity centre (66 girls, 13 boys) and a Control Group of 77 school children (66 girls, 11 boys), the selection involving six criteria. A structured history of physical activities was obtained, every child allocated to a socioeconomic group and examined for toe touching. Unlike the Patients, the Controls were not X-rayed and were examined for surface vertical spinous process asymmetry (VSPA). Statistical analyses showed progressive AIS to be positively associated with social deprivation, early introduction to indoor heated swimming pools and ability to toe touch. AIS is negatively associated with participation in dance, skating, gymnastics or karate and football or hockey classes, which might suggest preventive possibilities. There is a significantly increased independent odds of AIS in children who went to an indoor heated swimming pool within the first year of life (odds ratio 3.88, 95% CI 1.77-8.48; p = 0·001). Furthermore fourteen (61%) Controls with VSPA compared with 9 (17%) Controls without VSPA had been introduced to the swimming pool within their first year of life (P < 0.001). Early exposure to indoor heated swimming pools for both AIS and VSPA, suggests that the AIS findings do not result from sample selection.

  6. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 1: System trades study and design methodology plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The System Trades Study and Design Methodology Plan is used to conduct trade studies to define the combination of Space Shuttle Main Engine features that will optimize candidate engine configurations. This is accomplished by using vehicle sensitivities and engine parametric data to establish engine chamber pressure and area ratio design points for candidate engine configurations. Engineering analyses are to be conducted to refine and optimize the candidate configurations at their design points. The optimized engine data and characteristics are then evaluated and compared against other candidates being considered. The Evaluation Criteria Plan is then used to compare and rank the optimized engine configurations on the basis of cost.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety evaluation of azithromycin in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Leclere, M; Magdesian, K G; Cole, C A; Szabo, N J; Ruby, R E; Rhodes, D M; Edman, J; Vale, A; Wilson, W D; Tell, L A

    2012-12-01

    Azithromycin is widely used in foals but has not been studied in adult horses. The goals of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetic profile and to make a preliminary assessment of the safety of azithromycin in adult horses. Azithromycin was administered intravenously (5 mg/kg) and intragastrically (10 mg/kg) to six healthy mares in a crossover design. Serial plasma samples, blood neutrophils, and pulmonary macrophages were collected for the measurement of azithromycin concentrations. Azithromycin was also administered orally (10 mg/kg) once a day for 5 days to five healthy mares for preliminary evaluation of safety in adult horses. The bioavailability of azithromycin following intragastric administration was 45 ± 12%. Concentrations within peripheral neutrophils and bronchoalveolar macrophages were several fold higher than that of plasma. Mild decreases in appetite (n = 3) and alterations in fecal consistency (n = 3) were noted following repeated oral administration. The pharmacokinetic profiles of azithromycin in adult horses, especially the slow elimination rate and intraneutrophil and intrapulmonary macrophage accumulation, demonstrate that it is conducive to use in this age group. Because of the gastrointestinal alterations noted, further studies are warranted before azithromycin can be recommended for use in adult horses.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of anti-phospholipid syndrome: a preliminary prospective study of phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies in an at-risk patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    Heikal, N M; Jaskowski, T D; Malmberg, E; Lakos, G; Branch, D W; Tebo, A E

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)G/IgM autoantibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) were evaluated individually and in combination with criteria anti-phospholipid (aPL) tests in a prospectively ascertained cohort of patients at risk for anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). One hundred and sixty (160) consecutive requests for lupus anti-coagulant (LAC) from the University of Utah Health Sciences Center were identified during 8 weeks. Of these, 104 unique patients had additional requests for cardiolipin (aCL) and/or beta2 glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) IgG and/or IgM; samples were retained and analysed for aPS/PT, aCL and/or aβ2GPI IgG and IgM antibodies. Following testing, a comprehensive chart review was performed and patients categorized according to their clinical diagnosis. Individual and combined sensitivities, specificities, odd ratios (OR), diagnostic accuracy for specific tests or combinations by receiver operating characteristic (ROC), area under the curve (AUC) analyses and correlations between test results were determined. The sensitivities of aPS/PT IgG/IgM (54·6/45·5%) were lower than LAC (81·8%) but higher relative to aCL IgG/IgM (27·3/0%) or aβ2GPI IgG/IgM (27·3/0%). The best correlation between LAC and any aPL test was observed with aPS/PT (P = 0·002). There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracies for any panel with LAC: LAC/aβ2GPI IgG/aCL IgG [AUC 0·979, OR 475·4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 23·1–9056·5, P = 0·0001 and LAC/aβ2GPI IgG/aPS/PT IgG or LAC/aPS/PT IgG/aCL IgG (AUC 0·962, OR 265·3, 14·2–4958·2, P = 0·0001). The high correlation between LAC and aPS/PT IgG/IgM in this preliminary study suggest that this marker may be useful in the evaluation of APS. More studies to determine the optimal aPL antibody tests combination are needed. PMID:25522978

  9. Preliminary evaluation of hybrid titanium composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. L.; Progar, D. J.; Johnson, W. S.; St.clair, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical response of hybrid titanium composite laminates (HTCL) was evaluated at room and elevated temperatures. Also, the use of an elastic-plastic laminate analysis program for predicting the tensile response from constituent properties was verified. The improvement in mechanical properties achieved by the laminates was assessed by comparing the results of static strength and constant amplitude fatigue tests to those for monolithic titanium sheet. Two HTCL were fabricated with different fiber volume fractions, resin layer thicknesses, and resins. One panel was thicker and was more poorly bonded in comparison to other. Consequently, the former had a lower tensile strength, while fewer cracks grew in this panel and at a slower rate. Both panels showed an improvement in fatigue life of almost two orders of magnitude. The model predictions were also in good agreement with the experimental results for both HTCL panels.

  10. Holmium:YAG laser stapedotomy: preliminary evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubig, Ingrid M.; Reder, Paul A.; Facer, G. W.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated the use of a pulsed Holmium:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.09 micrometers ) laser- fiber microsurgical system for laser stapedotomy. This system ablates human stapes bones effectively with minimal thermal damage. The study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the Ho:YAG laser (Schwartz Electro Optics, Inc., Orlando, FL) for stapedotomy and to evaluate temperature changes within the cochlea during the ablation process. Human cadaveric temporal bones were obtained and the stapes portion of the ossicular chain was removed. A 200 micrometers diameter low OH quartz fiber was used to irradiate these stapes bones in an air environment. The laser was pulsed at 2 Hz, 250 microsecond(s) ec pulse width and an irradiance range of 100 - 240 J/cm2 was used to ablate holes in the stapes footplate. The resultant stapedotomies created had smooth 300 micrometers diameter holes with a minimum of circumferential charring. Animal studies in-vivo were carried out in chinchillas to determine the caloric spread within the cochlea. A 0.075 mm Type T thermocouple was placed in the round window. Average temperature change during irradiation of the stapes footplate recorded in the round window was 3.6 degree(s)C. The data suggest that stapedotomy using the Ho:YAG laser can result in a controlled ablation of the stapes footplate with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding stapes. Optical coupling using fiberoptic silica fibers is an ideal method for delivering laser energy to the stapes during stapedotomy.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of evaluation of the efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment using resolvable sanitizing liquid: a case study in Changchun.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianling; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhao, Nan; Sheng, Lianxi; Zhao, Yuanhui; Tang, Zhanhui

    2011-12-01

    The physical, chemical, and biological indices of aircraft liquid wastes collected from multiple airplanes at Longjia Airport, Changchun, China were measured according to "Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard," evaluating treatment efficiency of resolvable sanitizing liquid. The results indicate that, after being treated by the resolvable sanitizing liquid, the indices of all first-class pollutants met the requirements of the standard, while among the second-class pollutants, the suspension content, biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days, and chemical oxygen demand as well as the contents of amino nitrogen, total phosphorus, anionic surfactants, total copper, absorbable organic halogen, and phenolic compounds did not reach the discharge standard. Particularly, the level of fecal coliform bacteria in the aircraft liquid wastes can meet the standard specification by adding more than 1 mL/L resolvable sanitizing liquid. The aircraft wastewater treated by resolvable sanitizing liquid cannot be directly discharged back into the environment as well as urban drainage systems.

  12. Two Gifted Rapid Readers--Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schale, Florence C.

    The "page-at-a-glance" reading phenomenon in two gifted readers using only monocular vision was investigated. The specific questions to be answered in this preliminary study were (1) What is the average duration of fixations made by gifted readers while reading a somewhat familiar article? and (2) What degree of comprehension on materials of…

  13. Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J C

    1988-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Preliminary study for the OFFELO

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    X-ray Optics-Free FEL Oscillator (OFFELO) has potential of becoming a choice for next generation light sources. Using electron beam for the feedback allows OFFELO to be completely tunable and to combine the peak power of high-gain SASE FELs with extremely narrow bandwidth of the oscillator. While the high-gain X-ray FELs has been studied in depth and has been successfully demonstrated, two other concepts (the transport and the feed-back) involved in OFFELO still need detail studies. In this short paper we focus on the simulation of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. In our initial studies of OFFELO studied the saturation of the system and also its evolution using Genesis 2.0 code with a homemade wrapping code. While and lattice design from the modulator to the radiator, in order to minimize the feedback information loss in transporting the beam.

  15. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of the Full-Purpose Partnership Schoolwide Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joshua S.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Abell, Amy K.

    2008-01-01

    The full-purpose partnership (FPP) schoolwide model primarily focuses on prevention and early intervention. This model brings the tenets of service coordination directly into the school and focuses efforts to involve families from a strengths perspective before behavioral issues become significant. A preliminary evaluation has shown that this…

  17. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation of vortex extraction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, T. R.; Kottler, Jr., R. J.; Jennings, D. M.

    1980-04-01

    Two innovative vortex extraction devices - the Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) and the Vortex Augmentor Concept (VAC) - are critically evaluated to provide a preliminary assessment of their technical and economic viability as compared to conventional horizontal axis wind energy systems. This assessment was carried out over a wide range of power output levels and augmentation ratios appropriate to each of the concepts.

  18. Formative Evaluation: Estimating Preliminary Outcomes and Testing Rival Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Smith, Adrienne A.; Kershaw, David C.; Zulli, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Performance-based accountability along with budget tightening has increased pressure on publicly funded organizations to develop and deliver programs that produce meaningful social benefits. As a result, there is increasing need to undertake formative evaluations that estimate preliminary program outcomes and identify promising program components…

  19. Individualization for Education at Scale: MIIC Design and Preliminary Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Christopher G.; Rill, Ruediger; Ha, Sangtae; Chiang, Mung; Smith, Robert; Ju, William

    2015-01-01

    We present the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of our Adaptive Educational System (AES): the Mobile Integrated and Individualized Course (MIIC). MIIC is a platform for personalized course delivery which integrates lecture videos, text, assessments, and social learning into a mobile native app, and collects clickstream-level…

  20. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  1. Sonographic evaluation of pediatric localized scleroderma: preliminary disease assessment measures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our earlier work in the ultrasonograpy of localized scleroderma (LS) suggests that altered levels of echogenicity and vascularity can be associated with disease activity. Utrasound is clinically benign and readily available, but can be limited by operator dependence. We present our efforts to standardize image acquisition and interpretation of pediatric LS to better evaluate the correlation between specific sonographic findings and disease activity. Methods Several meetings have been held among our multi-center group (LOCUS) to work towards standardizing sonographic technique and image interpretation. Demonstration and experience in image acquisition were conducted at workshop meetings. Following meetings in 2007, an ultrasound measure was developed to standardize evaluation of differences in echogenicity and vascularity. Based upon our initial observations, we have labeled this an ultrasound disease activity measure. This preliminary measure was subsequently evaluated on over 180 scans of pediatric LS lesions. This review suggested that scoring levels should be expanded to better capture the range of observed differences. The revised levels and their definitions were formulated at a February 2009 workshop meeting. We have also developed assessments for scoring changes in tissue thickness and lesion size to better determine if these parameters aid evaluation of disease state. Results We have standardized our protocol for acquiring ultrasound images of pediatric LS lesions. A wide range of sonographic differences has been seen in the dermis, hypodermis, and deep tissue layers of active lesions. Preliminary ultrasound assessments have been generated. The disease activity measure scores for altered levels of echogenicity and vascularity in the lesion, and other assessments score for differences in lesion tissue layer thickness and changes in lesion size. Conclusions We describe the range of sonographic differences found in pediatric LS, and present our

  2. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and…

  3. Worker Motivation Study: Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Margaret A.

    Since the Hawthorne Studies gave birth to the human relations approach to management, employee motivation, defined as an intervening variable(s) that accounts for factors within an individual that arouse, maintain, and channel behavior toward a goal, has been of much interest. An attempt was made to replicate the factor structure of the Wherry and…

  4. Hydrogen-enrichment-concept preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    A hydrogen-enriched fuels concept for automobiles is described and evaluated in terms of fuel consumption and engine exhaust emissions through multicylinder (V-8) automotive engine/hydrogen generator tests, single cylinder research engine (CFR) tests, and hydrogen-generator characterization tests. Analytical predictions are made of the fuel consumption and NO/sub x/ emissions which would result from anticipated engine improvements. The hydrogen-gas generator, which was tested to quantify its thermodynamic input-output relationships was used for integrated testing of the V-8 engine and generator.

  5. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of enantiomeric morphinans.

    PubMed

    Sromek, Anna W; Provencher, Brian A; Russell, Shayla; Chartoff, Elena; Knapp, Brian I; Bidlack, Jean M; Neumeyer, John L

    2014-02-19

    A series of levo- and dextromorphinan pairs have been synthesized and evaluated for their affinities to the mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel, and sigma 1 and 2 receptors. It was found that levo isomers tended to have higher affinities at the opioid receptors and moderate to high affinities to the NMDA and sigma receptors, while dextro isomers tended to have lower affinities to the opioid receptors but comparatively higher affinities to the NMDA and sigma receptors. This series of compounds have interesting and complex pharmacological profiles, and merit further investigation as potential therapies for drug abuse treatment.

  6. Technology and outpatient review: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Henderson, M; Cline, J L

    1990-06-01

    Most health care utilization and cost control programs focus on inpatient care or on high-cost, catastrophic illnesses or injuries. Recently, however, Parkside Health Management Corporation has developed a utilization review program that targets treatments and high-technology procedures performed primarily in an outpatient setting, as well as specific inpatient procedures not included in other review programs. These include chiropractic, podiatric, and physical therapy treatments; cesarean section; and endoscopy, ultrasound in pregnancy, and lithotripsy. The treatments/procedures examined in this program, called Technology and Outpatient Review (TOR), account for approximately 6% of claims expenses. Bigel Institute for Health Policy researchers are evaluating a pilot test to determine TOR's effect on health care costs and utilization, appropriateness, and patient satisfaction.

  7. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study

    DOE PAGES

    Kane, J. J.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Craft, A. E.; ...

    2016-02-05

    In this study, 3-D image analysis when combined with a non-destructive examination technique such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a highly quantitative tool for the investigation of a material’s structure. In this investigation 3-D image analysis and X-ray CT were combined to analyze the microstructure of a preliminary subsized fuel compact for the Transient Reactor Test Facility’s low enriched uranium conversion program to assess the feasibility of the combined techniques for use in the optimization of the fuel compact fabrication process. The quantitative image analysis focused on determining the size and spatial distribution of the surrogate fuel particles andmore » the size, shape, and orientation of voids within the compact. Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles occupied 0.8% of the compact by volume with a log-normal distribution of particle sizes with a mean diameter of 39 μm and a standard deviation of 16 μm. Roughly 39% of the particles had a diameter greater than the specified maximum particle size of 44 μm suggesting that the particles agglomerate during fabrication. The local volume fraction of particles also varies significantly within the compact although uniformities appear to be evenly dispersed throughout the analysed volume. The voids produced during fabrication were on average plate-like in nature with their major axis oriented perpendicular to the compaction direction of the compact. Finally, the microstructure, mainly the large preferentially oriented voids, may cause a small degree of anisotropy in the thermal diffusivity within the compact. α∥/α⊥, the ratio of thermal diffusivities parallel to and perpendicular to the compaction direction are expected to be no less than 0.95 with an upper bound of 1.« less

  8. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, J. J.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Craft, A. E.; Roney, T. J.; Morrell, S. R.

    2016-02-05

    In this study, 3-D image analysis when combined with a non-destructive examination technique such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a highly quantitative tool for the investigation of a material’s structure. In this investigation 3-D image analysis and X-ray CT were combined to analyze the microstructure of a preliminary subsized fuel compact for the Transient Reactor Test Facility’s low enriched uranium conversion program to assess the feasibility of the combined techniques for use in the optimization of the fuel compact fabrication process. The quantitative image analysis focused on determining the size and spatial distribution of the surrogate fuel particles and the size, shape, and orientation of voids within the compact. Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles occupied 0.8% of the compact by volume with a log-normal distribution of particle sizes with a mean diameter of 39 μm and a standard deviation of 16 μm. Roughly 39% of the particles had a diameter greater than the specified maximum particle size of 44 μm suggesting that the particles agglomerate during fabrication. The local volume fraction of particles also varies significantly within the compact although uniformities appear to be evenly dispersed throughout the analysed volume. The voids produced during fabrication were on average plate-like in nature with their major axis oriented perpendicular to the compaction direction of the compact. Finally, the microstructure, mainly the large preferentially oriented voids, may cause a small degree of anisotropy in the thermal diffusivity within the compact. α∥/α⊥, the ratio of thermal diffusivities parallel to and perpendicular to the compaction direction are expected to be no less than 0.95 with an upper bound of 1.

  9. Meteorologic factors and subjective sleep continuity: a preliminary evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Juhi; Grandner, Michael; Crittenden, Crista; Smith, Michael T.; Perlis, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken to evaluate whether environmental factors other than bright light influence the individual’s ability to initiate and maintain sleep. In the present analyses, nine meteorologic variables were evaluated for their possible relationship to self-reported sleep continuity in a sample of 43 subjects over a period of 105 days. In this preliminary analysis, high barometric pressure, low precipitation, and lower temperatures were significantly correlated with good sleep continuity. Interestingly, ambient light and lunar phase were not found to be strongly associated sleep diary measures.

  10. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun; Erdos, Geza; Huang, Shaohua; Kenniston, Thomas; Falo, Louis D; Gambotto, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E) fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl). The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA). The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%). No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease.

  11. Polylactide-based paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles fabricated by dispersion polymerization: characterization, evaluation in cancer cell lines, and preliminary biodistribution studies.

    PubMed

    Adesina, Simeon K; Holly, Alesia; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Capala, Jacek; Akala, Emmanuel O

    2014-08-01

    The macromonomer method was used to prepare cross-linked, paclitaxel-loaded polylactide (PLA)-polyethylene glycol (stealth) nanoparticles using free-radical dispersion polymerization. The method can facilitate the attachment of other molecules to the nanoparticle surface to make it multifunctional. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectra confirm the synthesis of PLA macromonomer and cross-linking agent. The formation of stealth nanoparticles was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The drug release isotherm of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles shows that the encapsulated drug is released over 7 days. In vitro cytotoxicity assay in selected breast and ovarian cancer cell lines reveal that the blank nanoparticle is biocompatible compared with medium-only treated controls. In addition, the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles exhibit similar cytotoxicity compared with paclitaxel in solution. Confocal microscopy reveals that the nanoparticles are internalized by MCF-7 breast cancer cells within 1 h. Preliminary biodistribution studies also show nanoparticle accumulation in tumor xenograft model. The nanoparticles are suitable for the controlled delivery of bioactive agents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. Polylactide-based Paclitaxel-loaded Nanoparticles Fabricated by Dispersion Polymerization: Characterization, Evaluation in Cancer Cell Lines, and Preliminary Biodistribution Studies

    PubMed Central

    Adesina, Simeon K.; Holly, Alesia; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Capala, Jacek; Akala, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    The macromonomer method was used to prepare crosslinked, paclitaxel-loaded polylactide-polyethylene glycol (stealth) nanoparticles using free-radical dispersion polymerization. The method can facilitate the attachment of other molecules to the nanoparticle surface to make it multifunctional. Proton NMR and FT-IR spectra confirm the synthesis of polylactide macromonomer and crosslinking agent. Formation of stealth nanoparticles was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The drug release isotherm of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles shows that the encapsulated drug is released over 7 days. In vitro cytotoxicity assay in selected breast and ovarian cancer cell lines reveal that the blank nanoparticle is biocompatible compared to medium-only treated controls. In addition, the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles exhibit similar cytotoxicity compared to paclitaxel in solution. Confocal microscopy reveals that the nanoparticles are internalized by MCF-7 breast cancer cells within one hour. Preliminary biodistribution studies also show nanoparticle accumulation in tumour xenograft model. The nanoparticles are suitable for the controlled delivery of bioactive agents. PMID:24961596

  13. Preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Kushta tutia: A Unani Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Mohd; Chaudhary, Shahid Shah; Imtiyaz, Shaikh; Rahman, Khaleequr; Zaman, Roohi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Kushta is an important solid dosage form of Unani system of medicine used to treat various ailments. Very small particle size of kushta is responsible for its rapid absorption in body leading to instant therapeutic actions. Kushta tutia (KT) is one such renowned formulation used by hakims for successful management of various disorders. However, there is lack of scientific work on KT. Objectives: The present study was performed to evaluate KT physicochemically by testifying it on classical tests along with modern scientific techniques. Materials and Methods: Tutia was first detoxified as per classical literature. It was triturated with water and dried, afterwards subjected to calcination in furnace rather than cow dung cakes due to isolation of material being heated and better temperature control. Finished product was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics including preliminary tests mentioned in classical literature. Results: Floating and finger test were positive. Curd test showed no discoloration after 48 h. These findings indicate correct preparation of KT according to classical literature. Bulk density (0.96 ± 0.00 g/ml); tapped density (1.53 ± 0.00 g/ml); Hausner ratio (0.62 ± 0.00), compressibility index (37.52 ± 0.19%); loss of weight on drying (0.08 ± 0.00%); pH of 1 and 10% (5.20 ± 0.00) and 5.62 ± 0.00, respectively); total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash values 95.75 ± 0.09, 6.57 ± 0.02, and 45.02 ± 0.20%, respectively; and extractive values 0.85 ± 0.02% were reported in KT. Conclusion: Since this work has not been reported earlier, the results obtained could be considered as the standard for KT for future studies. PMID:25336845

  14. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  15. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies and system concepts for testing the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L. ); Feizollahi, F. ); Del Signore, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  16. METODO, a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in heroin-addicted patients undergoing a methadone maintenance treatment: preliminary results at baseline evaluation.

    PubMed

    D'Egidio, Pietro Fausto; Bignamini, Emanuele; De Vivo, Enrico; Leonardi, Claudio; Pieri, Maria Chiara; González-Saiz, Francisco; Lucchini, Alfio

    2013-12-01

    METODO (methadone efficacy therapy optimization dosage on-going) is a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in 500 heroin-addicted patients taking a methadone maintenance treatment, enrolled through 2010 to 2011 in five Italian sites, observed over 2 years. The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale has been used for the evaluation of the "adequacy" of the methadone dosage and to stratify patients in adequate and not adequate groups. The treatment efficacy has been evaluated in correlation to the dosage adequacy during the visits. Moreover, patients have been evaluated according to the retention rate and duration of retention in treatment and a series of questionnaires.

  17. Evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations based on mutation specific immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung cancer: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepali; Iqbal, Sobuhi; Walia, Ritika; Malik, Prabhat; Cyriac, Sunu; Mathur, Sandeep R.; Sharma, Mehar C.; Madan, Karan; Mohan, Anant; Bhalla, Ashu; Pathy, Sushmita; Kumar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Studies have shown that immunohistochemical (IHC) staining using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation specific antibodies, is an easy and cost-effective, screening method compared with molecular techniques. The purpose of present study was to assess the percentage positivity of IHC using EGFR mutation specific antibodies in lung biopsy samples from patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). Methods: Two hundred and six biopsies of primary lung ADC were subjected to EGFR mutation specific antibodies against del E746-A750 and L858R. Detection of EGFR mutation done by high resolution melting analysis (HRM) was used as gold standard. A concordance was established between molecular and IHC results. Frequency of IHC positivity was assessed. Results: Of the 206 patients, 129 were male and 77 were female patients, with a mean age of 54.1 yr. Fifty five (26.6%) patients (36 men; 19 women) showed positivity for IHC of del E746-A750 (33) and L858R (22). HRM results were available in 14 patients which showed EGFR mutations in correspondence with del E746-750 or L858R in 64.2 per cent cases. Positive cases on HRM were further confirmed by DNA sequencing and fragment analysis. Three patients showed exon20 variation. Two cases were negative for mutation. The genotype of del E746-750 mutation was more common than L858R. A concordance was established between molecular mutation and IHC in 85.7 per cent cases. Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study from India mutation specific IHC was used for assessment of mutation status of EGFR. Although the number tested was small, a good concordance was observed between molecular EGFR mutation and IHC expression. IHC methodology is a potentially useful tool to guide clinicians for personalized treatment in lung ADC, especially where facilities for molecular analysis are not readily available and for use in small biopsies where material is scant for molecular tests. PMID:27241644

  18. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Hirschkron, R.; Koch, C. C.; Neitzel, R. E.; Vinson, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric design and mission evaluations of advanced turbofan configurations were conducted for future transport aircraft application. Economics, environmental suitability and fuel efficiency were investigated and compared with goals set by NASA. Of the candidate engines which included mixed- and separate-flow, direct-drive and geared configurations, an advanced mixed-flow direct-drive configuration was selected for further design and evaluation. All goals were judged to have been met except the acoustic goal. Also conducted was a performance risk analysis and a preliminary aerodynamic design of the 10 stage 23:1 pressure ratio compressor used in the study engines.

  19. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Existing Student Study Team Processes in Selected Volunteer Special Education Local Plan Areas, School Districts, and Schools in California: A Descriptive Evaluation Study. Draft Preliminary Findings. Working Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moger, Roxanne L.

    The paper is the third of a series of working papers developed by a project which conducted a cooperative study of existing student study team (SST) processes in nine California special education local plan areas. The working papers augment the final report by providing detailed descriptions of the methods used and the preliminary findings. This…

  1. Evaluation of soil erosion as a basis of sediment yield in mountainous catchments: a preliminary study in the River Douro Basin (Northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Anabela; Martinho Lourenço, José M.; Parker, Andrew; Alencoão, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The River Corgo drains a meso-scale mountainous rural catchment with an area of 295 km2, underlain by crystalline rocks, in a temperate climate, which integrates the transboundary River Douro Basin, in the northeast of Portugal. A geochemical survey on oxic fluvial sediments of the river network shows considerable contents of metals associated to the finer particles (< 63um). The results on the study of the sediment properties indicate that these are essentially detrital in origin, derived from soils and weathering products. Moreover, taking into account the hydrological pattern of the catchment, the seasonal and spatial variability of metal contents associated to the sediments suggests that the control of metal in the sediments by their mineralogical, geochemical and physical properties is governed primarily at the level of the basin soils system, especially in the Wet Period, when the sediments are frequently remobilised (Reis, 2010). Although the soil particles are a common pathway of transport and entrance of metals in the fluvial network by runoff derived erosion, this mechanism is naturally more marked in mountainous catchments. Modelling sediment and adsorbed contaminant transport within catchments can help to identify possible contaminant sources, as well as to estimate the delivered quantities of eroded material and associated contaminants. In catchments with the described morphological features, monitoring the transport of sediments poses some issues concerning: (a) the low mass yield of suspended sediment from river water, under low-flow conditions; (b) the maintenance of the sediment sampler's devices in the streams, in periods of high-flow or storm events. This study describes the preliminary results of a GIS-based mass balance model of overland sediment transport to the River. The erosion, the first step of sediment transport, was estimated by an empirical model - The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The objective was to construct a GIS based

  2. Covalent modification of a melanoma-derived antigenic peptide with a natural quinone methide. Preliminary chemical, molecular modelling and immunological evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Douat-Casassus, Céline; Marchand-Geneste, Nathalie; Diez, Elisabeth; Aznar, Céline; Picard, Philippe; Geoffre, Serge; Huet, Aline; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Gervois, Nadine; Jotereau, Francine; Quideau, Stéphane

    2006-05-01

    A LigandFit shape-directed docking methodology was used to identify the best position at which the melanoma-derived MHC class-I HLA-A2-binding antigenic peptide ELAGIGILTV could be modified by attaching a small molecule capable of fitting at the interface of complementary determining regional (CDR) loops of a T-cell receptor (TCR) while triggering T-cell responses. The small molecule selected here for determining the feasibility of this alternative track to chemical alteration of antigenic peptides was the electrophilic quinone methide (+)-puupehenone (), a natural product that belongs to a family of marine metabolites capable of expressing immunomodulatory activities. A preliminary chemical reactivity model study revealed the efficacy of the thiol group of a cysteine (C) side-chain in its nucleophilic addition reaction with in a regio- and diastereoselective manner. The best TCR/HLA-A2 ligand [i.e., ELAGCGILTV-S-puupehenol ()] then identified by the LigandFit docking procedure was synthesized and used to pulse HLA-A2(+) T2 cells for T-cell stimulation. Among the ELAGIGILTV-specific T-cell clones we tested, five of them recognized the conjugate in spite of its low binding affinity for the HLA-A2 molecules. The resulting T-cell stimulation was determined through the intracytoplasmic secretion of IFN-gamma and the percentage of T-cells thus activated. These highly encouraging results indicate that small non-peptidic natural product-derived molecules attached onto the central part of an antigenic peptide can fit at the TCR/HLA-A2 interface with induction of T-cell responses.

  3. 78 FR 8522 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Evaluation of the Potential Risk From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Evaluation of the Potential Risk From Volatilization... review of chlorpyrifos and opens a public comment period on this document. Registration review is EPA's... has completed a preliminary volatilization assessment for chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing...

  4. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Leal, Ricardo M. F.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  5. Evaluation of a Short-Term Computer-Assisted Training Programme for the Remediation of Attentional Deficits after Brain Injury: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauggel, S.; Niemann, T.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated a computer-assisted training program used by four patients (ages 40 to 53) who had attentional deficits caused by cerebrovascular accident and closed head injury. Patients demonstrated improvements in training tasks, attention, and visual memory, but no improvements in two verbal memory tests and a general intelligence test.…

  6. Preliminary evaluation of alternative ethanol/water separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Donovan, J.M.; Cysewski, G.R.; Petty, S.E.; Maxham, J.V.

    1981-05-01

    Preliminary evaluation indicates that separation of ethanol and water can be accomplished with less energy than is now needed in conventional distillation processes. The state of development for these methods varies from laboratory investigation to commercially available processes. The processes investigated were categorized by type of separation depending on their ability to achieve varying degrees of ethanol/water separation. The following methods were investigated: ethanol extraction with CO/sub 2/ (the A.D. Little process); solvent extraction of ethanol; vacuum distillation; vapor recompression distillation; dehydration with fermentable grains; low temperature blending with gasoline; molecular sieve adsorption; and reverse osmosis.

  7. A computer controlled pulsatile pump: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zwarts, M S; Topaz, S R; Jones, D N; Kolff, W J

    1996-12-01

    A Stepper Motor Driven Reciprocating Pump (SDRP) can replace roller pumps and rotary pumps for cardio pulmonary bypass, hemodialysis and regional perfusion. The blood pumping ventricles are basically the same as ventricles used for air driven artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices. The electric stepper motor uses a flexible linkage belt to produce a reciprocating movement, which pushes a hard sphere into the diaphragm of the blood ventricles. The SDRP generates pulsatile flow and has a small priming volume. The preset power level of the motor driver limits the maximum potential outflow pressure, so the driver acts as a safety device. A double pump can be made by connecting two fluid pumping chambers to opposing sides of the motor base. Each pump generates pulsatile flow. Pressure and flow studies with water were undertaken. Preliminary blood studies showed low hemolysis, even when circulating a small amount of blood up to 16 hours.

  8. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  9. Improving eating disorders mental health literacy: a preliminary evaluation of the "Should I say something?" workshop.

    PubMed

    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Bentley, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A repeated measures, uncontrolled, preliminary evaluation of a single 3-hour workshop-"Should I Say Something?"-aimed at improving eating disorders mental health literacy, was conducted in a sample of 177 university undergraduates. Following participation in the workshop, significant increases in eating disorder recognition and knowledge, and significant decreases in stigmatizing attitudes, were reported by participants. Moreover, 85% of participants reported that they provided assistance to someone whom they suspected had a mental health condition, including an eating disorder, during the 3-month follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that "Should I Say Something?" may be effective in improving the mental health literacy of young people.

  10. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Susana C M; Blakeley, Matthew P; Leal, Ricardo M F; Mitchell, Edward P; Forsyth, V Trevor

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 A on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin-receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  11. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Leal, Ricardo M. F.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste. PMID:18453706

  12. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  13. Evaluation of high pressure Freon decontamination. I. Preliminary tests

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-10-31

    High-pressure Freon blasting techniques are being evaluated for applications involving the removal of non-adherent radioactive particulate contamination at SRP. Very little waste is generated by this technique because the used Freon can be easily distilled and reused. One of the principle advantages of this technique is that decontaminated electrical equipment can be returned to service immediately without drying, unlike high-pressure water blasting techniques. Preliminary scoutin tests evaluating high-pressure Freon blasting for decontamination at SRP were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, October 12 and 13. DWPF-type contamination (raw sludge plus volatiles) and separations area-type contamination (diluted boiling point (47.6/sup 0/C) allow it to rapidly separate from higher boiling contaminants via distillation with filtration to remove particulate material, and distillation with condensation, the solvent may be recovered for indefinite reuse while reducing the radioactive waste to a minimum. 3 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  14. Biocontamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard A.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Korona, F. Adam; Poritz, Darwin; Smith, Jelanie; Wong, Wing

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study that was conducted to review, test, and improve on current space suit biocontamination control. Biocontamination from crew members can cause space suit damage and objectionable odors and lead to crew member health hazards. An understanding of the level of biocontamination is necessary to mitigate its effects. A series of tests were conducted with the intent of evaluating current suit materials, ground and on-orbit disinfectants, and potential commercial off-the-shelf antimicrobial materials. Included in this paper is a discussion of the test methodology, results, and analysis method.

  15. Preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the space shuttle. [preliminary nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements are presented for some 134 potential fracture-critical structural areas identified, for the entire space shuttle vehicle system, as those possibly needing inspection during refurbishment/turnaround and prelaunch operations. The requirements include critical area and defect descriptions, access factors, recommended NDE techniques, and descriptive artwork. Requirements discussed include: Orbiter structure, external tank, solid rocket booster, and thermal protection system (development area).

  16. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  17. Preliminary study of acoustic analysis for evaluating speech-aid oral prostheses: Characteristic dips in octave spectrum for comparison of nasality.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Liang; Hung, Chao-Ho; Chen, Po-Yueh; Chen, Wei-Chang; Hung, Shih-Han

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic analysis is often used in speech evaluation but seldom for the evaluation of oral prostheses designed for reconstruction of surgical defect. This study aimed to introduce the application of acoustic analysis for patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) due to oral surgery and rehabilitated with oral speech-aid prostheses. The pre- and postprosthetic rehabilitation acoustic features of sustained vowel sounds from two patients with VPI were analyzed and compared with the acoustic analysis software Praat. There were significant differences in the octave spectrum of sustained vowel speech sound between the pre- and postprosthetic rehabilitation. Acoustic measurements of sustained vowels for patients before and after prosthetic treatment showed no significant differences for all parameters of fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonics ratio, formant frequency, F1 bandwidth, and band energy difference. The decrease in objective nasality perceptions correlated very well with the decrease in dips of the spectra for the male patient with a higher speech bulb height. Acoustic analysis may be a potential technique for evaluating the functions of oral speech-aid prostheses, which eliminates dysfunctions due to the surgical defect and contributes to a high percentage of intelligible speech. Octave spectrum analysis may also be a valuable tool for detecting changes in nasality characteristics of the voice during prosthetic treatment of VPI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Clinical Variability in Arch Wires: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Mechanical and Surface Characteristics of Two Different Sized Rectangular Stainless Steel Wires

    PubMed Central

    Vena, Alessandro; Carey, Jason; Badawi, Hisham

    2007-01-01

    Experimental characterization of arch wires has been performed in many previous studies; however with the advent of new arch wire materials being introduced, some new experimental methods and characterization are required. Since literature is available for comparison, this paper examines mechanical and physical characteristics of steel arch wires to quantify their variability in engineering terms. Furthermore, the effect of wire size on properties was evaluated using two of the most common wire sizes. Finally, manufacturing consistency was verified by testing samples from different lots. PMID:19662123

  19. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  20. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  1. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  2. Time-series analysis of lung texture on bone-suppressed dynamic chest radiograph for the evaluation of pulmonary function: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Rie; Matsuda, Hiroaki; Sanada, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    The density of lung tissue changes as demonstrated on imagery is dependent on the relative increases and decreases in the volume of air and lung vessels per unit volume of lung. Therefore, a time-series analysis of lung texture can be used to evaluate relative pulmonary function. This study was performed to assess a time-series analysis of lung texture on dynamic chest radiographs during respiration, and to demonstrate its usefulness in the diagnosis of pulmonary impairments. Sequential chest radiographs of 30 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD; 100 kV, 0.2 mAs/pulse, 15 frames/s, SID = 2.0 m; Prototype, Konica Minolta). Imaging was performed during respiration, and 210 images were obtained over 14 seconds. Commercial bone suppression image-processing software (Clear Read Bone Suppression; Riverain Technologies, Miamisburg, Ohio, USA) was applied to the sequential chest radiographs to create corresponding bone suppression images. Average pixel values, standard deviation (SD), kurtosis, and skewness were calculated based on a density histogram analysis in lung regions. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually located in the lungs, and the same ROIs were traced by the template matching technique during respiration. Average pixel value effectively differentiated regions with ventilatory defects and normal lung tissue. The average pixel values in normal areas changed dynamically in synchronization with the respiratory phase, whereas those in regions of ventilatory defects indicated reduced variations in pixel value. There were no significant differences between ventilatory defects and normal lung tissue in the other parameters. We confirmed that time-series analysis of lung texture was useful for the evaluation of pulmonary function in dynamic chest radiography during respiration. Pulmonary impairments were detected as reduced changes in pixel value. This technique is a simple, cost-effective diagnostic tool for the evaluation of regional

  3. Evaluation of Internal Echogenic Pattern of Masseter in Subjects with Myofascial Pain/ Myositis, Oral Submucous Fibrosis, Chewers, Bruxers and Healthy Individuals- A Preliminary Ultrasonographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Raghunandan Iyengar, Asha; Patil, Seema; Guddannanavar Karibasappa, Ganga; Beloor Vasudev, Subash; Kumar Joshi, Revan

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The masseter is generally involved in myofascial pain, myositis, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), bruxism, and in subjects with habitual tobacco/arecanut chewing. In all the above conditions, changes in the internal echogenic pattern on ultrasonography of the muscle may be observed. Purpose: The present study aimed at evaluating the internal echogenic pattern of masseter by ultrasonography in subjects with various conditions affecting masster muscle. Materials and Method: The study subjects were categorized into 5 groups consisting of 20 subjects each with the following conditions; Group 1: myofascial pain or myositis, Group 2: oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group 3: habitual chewing of tobacco/arecanut without OSMF, Group 4: bruxism. Group 5 consisted of 20 healthy subjects. An ultrasonographic examination of masseter was performed in all subjects and the echogenic pattern was classified into Types I, II and III. The images were examined by two observers and inter-observer variability was assessed. Differences in internal echogenic pattern between study groups and control group was evaluated using Chi- square test. Results: A good inter observer agreement was noted (k value= 0.8). An equal distribution of Types II and III echogenic pattern was noted in myofascial pain/myositis group. Type II was predominant in subjects with OSMF, habitual tobacco/arecanut chewing and bruxism. Type I was predominant in controls. The echogenic pattern differed significantly from controls in subjects with myofascial pain/myositis and OSMF (p=0.00001*, 0.0237* respectively), whereas in subjects with habitual tobacco/ arecanut chewing and bruxism, it did not differ significantly from controls (p=0.2482, 0.1223 respectively). Conclusion: Ultrasonographic examination of the echogenic pattern may help in understanding the nature of the disease process affecting the masseter muscle in various conditions. PMID:27942553

  4. Evaluation of Internal Echogenic Pattern of Masseter in Subjects with Myofascial Pain/ Myositis, Oral Submucous Fibrosis, Chewers, Bruxers and Healthy Individuals- A Preliminary Ultrasonographic Study.

    PubMed

    Raghunandan Iyengar, Asha; Patil, Seema; Guddannanavar Karibasappa, Ganga; Beloor Vasudev, Subash; Kumar Joshi, Revan

    2016-12-01

    The masseter is generally involved in myofascial pain, myositis, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), bruxism, and in subjects with habitual tobacco/arecanut chewing. In all the above conditions, changes in the internal echogenic pattern on ultrasonography of the muscle may be observed. The present study aimed at evaluating the internal echogenic pattern of masseter by ultrasonography in subjects with various conditions affecting masster muscle. The study subjects were categorized into 5 groups consisting of 20 subjects each with the following conditions; Group 1: myofascial pain or myositis, Group 2: oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group 3: habitual chewing of tobacco/arecanut without OSMF, Group 4: bruxism. Group 5 consisted of 20 healthy subjects. An ultrasonographic examination of masseter was performed in all subjects and the echogenic pattern was classified into Types I, II and III. The images were examined by two observers and inter-observer variability was assessed. Differences in internal echogenic pattern between study groups and control group was evaluated using Chi- square test. A good inter observer agreement was noted (k value= 0.8). An equal distribution of Types II and III echogenic pattern was noted in myofascial pain/myositis group. Type II was predominant in subjects with OSMF, habitual tobacco/arecanut chewing and bruxism. Type I was predominant in controls. The echogenic pattern differed significantly from controls in subjects with myofascial pain/myositis and OSMF (p=0.00001*, 0.0237* respectively), whereas in subjects with habitual tobacco/ arecanut chewing and bruxism, it did not differ significantly from controls (p=0.2482, 0.1223 respectively). Ultrasonographic examination of the echogenic pattern may help in understanding the nature of the disease process affecting the masseter muscle in various conditions.

  5. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  6. Non-invasive Evaluation of NAFLD with Indocyanine Green Clearance Test: a Preliminary Study in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Danin, Pierre Eric; Anty, Rodolphe; Patouraux, Stephanie; Raucoules-Aimé, Marc; Gugenheim, Jean; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Iannelli, Antonio

    2017-09-05

    Overweight and obesity dramatically increased in the last years. Hepatic complication of obesity, integrated in the term of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is a spectrum of abnormality ranging from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), potentially leading to cirrhosis. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard to evaluate the stage of NAFLD; however, the procedure is invasive. The indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test is performed since years to assess hepatic function before partial hepatectomy, or after liver transplantation. This study was designed to detect liver complications with the ICG clearance test in a population of obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery. In a prospective cohort study, morbidly obese individuals receiving bariatric surgery with scheduled hepatic biopsies were investigated. Liver function was determined by the ICG test preoperatively, and blood samples were collected. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained for each patient and classified according to the NAFLD activity score (NAS) by a single pathologist that was blinded to the results of the ICG test. Twenty-six patients were included (7 male and 19 female). The mean age of participants was 45.8 years; the mean body mass index was 41.4 kg/m(2). According to the NAS, 6 (23.1%) patients revealed manifest NASH, and 5 patients were considered borderline (19.2%). A closed correlation was observed between the ICG clearance test and hepatic steatosis (r = 0.43, p = 0.03), NAS (r = 0.44, p = 0.025), and fibrosis (r = 0.49, p = 0.01). In obese patients, non-invasive evaluation of liver function with the indocyanine green clearance test correlated with histological features of NAFLD. This may detect non-invasively hepatopathy in obese population and could motive biopsy.

  7. A Serious Games Platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation with Preliminary Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rego, Paula Alexandra; Rocha, Rui; Faria, Brígida Mónica; Reis, Luís Paulo; Moreira, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Serious Games have evolved substantially, solving problems in diverse areas. In particular, in Cognitive Rehabilitation, Serious Games assume a relevant role. Traditional cognitive therapies are often considered repetitive and discouraging for patients and Serious Games can be used to create more dynamic rehabilitation processes, holding patients' attention throughout the process and motivating them during their road to recovery. This paper reviews Serious Games and user interfaces in rehabilitation area and details a Serious Games platform for Cognitive Rehabilitation that includes a set of features such as: natural and multimodal user interfaces and social features (competition, collaboration, and handicapping) which can contribute to augment the motivation of patients during the rehabilitation process. The web platform was tested with healthy subjects. Results of this preliminary evaluation show the motivation and the interest of the participants by playing the games.

  8. Spectral response of the Viking lander camera: Preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. L., IV; Huck, F. O.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Viking lander imaging investigation is to obtain color and near-infrared multispectral panoramas of the Martian surface using six spectral channels in the 0.4 to 1.1 microns wavelength range. This data can be compared with data obtained by imaging a reference test chart to construct approximate spectral reflectance curves that can then be matched to laboratory standards to aid in identifying surface materials. Some channels exhibit appreciable out-of-band spectral responses, making data reduction and interpretation difficult. A preliminary evaluation of predicted multispectral data for eight geological materials reveals that fairly good reflectance estimates can be made for those materials which have monotonically increasing or decreasing reflectances. Reflectance estimates for materials with more complex reflectances often do not reveal important spectral features and sometimes provide misleading results.

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  10. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of a bioresorbable collagen membrane of fish origin in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Santosh Kumar, B. B.; Aruna, D. R.; Gowda, Vinayak S.; Galagali, Sushama R.; Prashanthy, R.; Navaneetha, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, there has been interest in non-mammalian collagen sources such as fish collagen in periodontal regeneration. In the present study, collagen barrier membrane of fish origin was assessed in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Ten systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients having a paired osseous defect in the mandibular posterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to receive a collagen membrane (test) or open flap debridement (control) in a split mouth design. Clinical parameters such as Plaque index, Gingival bleeding index, Probing pocket depth, Relative attachment level, and Recession were recorded at baseline, 3, 6, and at 9 months, while radiographic evaluation was done to assess alveolar crestal bone level and percentage of defect fill at 6 and 9 months using autoCAD 2007 software. Student's t test (two-tailed, dependent) was used to find the significance of study parameters on continuous scale. Significance was set at 5% level of significance. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to find the significance of percentage change of defect fill. Results: The comparison between the two groups did not show any statistically significant differences in the parameters assessed (P > 0.05) but, within each group, clinical parameters showed statistically significant differences from baseline to 9 months (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limits of the study, it can be inferred that no significant differences were found either by using collagen membrane of fish origin or open flap debridement in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects. PMID:24174757

  11. Sediment Export from Forest Road Turn-outs: A Study Design and Preliminary Results

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the design and preliminary results of a study that evaluates the effects of commonly prescribed forest road runoff control treatments. A study design which utilizes runoff samplers, runoff diversion walls, sediment filter bags, and erosion stakes to evaluate sediment transport through runoff control treatments is documented. The study design will...

  12. A preliminary study for quantitative assessment of upper limb proprioception.

    PubMed

    Contu, Sara; Hussain, Asif; Masia, Lorenzo; Campolo, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Proprioception, or sense of position and movement of the body, strongly correlates with motor recovery of the hemiplegic arm. The evaluation of the awareness of the location of joints in space involves measuring the accuracy of joint-angle replication. Robotic devices allow an accurate manipulation of joint movements necessary to assess proprioceptive status. This study evaluated the proprioceptive performance of healthy subjects by mean of the H-Man, a planar robot designed for upper-limb rehabilitation to gather preliminary normative data for neurorehabilitation applications. Twelve participants were equally divided into Aged and Young groups and were asked to indicate when their dominant hand position matched a predefined target in the contralateral, sagittal and ipsilateral direction. Results indicated a better performance for movements towards the contralateral target in terms of both absolute and signed error while there was not a significant effect of age group. Error variability was not affected by the target location and participants' age. The present study established preliminary proprioceptive metrics that could assist in providing information about the normal range of proprioceptive acuity of healthy subjects of different age.

  13. Reporting and methodologic evaluation of meta-analyses published in the anesthesia literature according to AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae Hoon; Shin, Woo Jong; Park, Suin; Chung, Jae Soon

    2017-08-01

    There have been few recent reports on the methodological quality of meta-analysis, despite the enormous number of studies using meta-analytic techniques in the field of anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of meta-analyses and systematic reviews according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the anesthesia literature. A search was conducted to identify all meta-analyses ever been published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia (BJA), Anaesthesia, and Korean Journal of Anesthesiology (KJA) between Jan. 01, 2004 and Nov. 31, 2016. We aimed to apply the AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists to all published meta-analyses. We identified 121 meta-analyses in the anesthesia literature from January 2004 through the end of November 2016 (BJA; 75, Anaesthesia; 43, KJA; 3). The number of studies published and percentage of 'Yes' responses for meta-analysis articles published after the year 2010 was significantly increased compared to that of studies published before the year 2009 (P = 0.014 for Anaesthesia). In the anesthesia literature as a whole, participation of statisticians as authors statistically improved average scores of PRISMA items (P = 0.004) especially in the BJA (P = 0.003). Even though there is little variability in the reporting and methodology of meta-analysis in the anesthesia literature, significant quality improvement in the reporting was observed in the Anaesthesia by applying the PRISMA checklist. Participation of a statistician as an author improved the reporting quality of the meta-analysis.

  14. Reporting and methodologic evaluation of meta-analyses published in the anesthesia literature according to AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background There have been few recent reports on the methodological quality of meta-analysis, despite the enormous number of studies using meta-analytic techniques in the field of anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of meta-analyses and systematic reviews according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the anesthesia literature. Methods A search was conducted to identify all meta-analyses ever been published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia (BJA), Anaesthesia, and Korean Journal of Anesthesiology (KJA) between Jan. 01, 2004 and Nov. 31, 2016. We aimed to apply the AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists to all published meta-analyses. Results We identified 121 meta-analyses in the anesthesia literature from January 2004 through the end of November 2016 (BJA; 75, Anaesthesia; 43, KJA; 3). The number of studies published and percentage of ‘Yes’ responses for meta-analysis articles published after the year 2010 was significantly increased compared to that of studies published before the year 2009 (P = 0.014 for Anaesthesia). In the anesthesia literature as a whole, participation of statisticians as authors statistically improved average scores of PRISMA items (P = 0.004) especially in the BJA (P = 0.003). Conclusions Even though there is little variability in the reporting and methodology of meta-analysis in the anesthesia literature, significant quality improvement in the reporting was observed in the Anaesthesia by applying the PRISMA checklist. Participation of a statistician as an author improved the reporting quality of the meta-analysis. PMID:28794841

  15. Preliminary shuttle structural dynamics modeling design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of a structural dynamics model of the space shuttle are discussed. The model provides for early study of structural dynamics problems, permits evaluation of the accuracy of the structural and hydroelastic analysis methods used on test vehicles, and provides for efficiently evaluating potential cost savings in structural dynamic testing techniques. The discussion is developed around the modes in which major input forces and responses occur and the significant structural details in these modes.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  17. Clinicobiochemical evaluation of turmeric with black pepper and nigella sativa in management of oral submucous fibrosis-a double-blind, randomized preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Pipalia, Pratik R; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Mehta, Ranjeeta

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of turmeric with black pepper and nigella sativa in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Forty OSMF patients were randomly divided into two groups. The study was performed under a double-blind, randomized design. Group A received turmeric with black pepper and group B received nigella sativa for 3 months. Clinical evaluation was done every 15 days. Patients' serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were assessed before and after treatment and also compared with healthy controls. The response to treatment was analyzed using analysis of variance, paired t test, and unpaired t test. After the treatment, groups A and B showed 3.85 ± 0.22 mm and 3.6 ± 0.07 mm improvement in mouth opening, respectively (P < .01); 87.90% and 78.91% reduction in burning sensation, respectively (P < .01); and +0.62 U/mL and +0.74 U/mL improvement in serum SOD levels, respectively (P < .05). The maximum mouth opening achieved was 8 mm in group A and 7 mm in group B. The mean pretreatment SOD level for controls and patients was 3.61 ± 0.24 U/mL in group A and 2.63 ± 0.18 U/mL in group B. Turmeric with black pepper and nigella sativa improved mouth opening, burning sensation, and SOD levels in the present OSMF study patients; however, further investigations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary Study of Plutonium Utilization in AP1000 Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nailatussaadah; Prastyo, Puguh A.; Waris, Abdul; Kurniadi, Rizal; Pramuditya, Syeilendra

    2017-07-01

    Preliminary study of plutonium utilization in AP1000 reactor has been conducted. This study evaluated the standard of Westinghouse AP1000 reactor and ZrB2 as Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber (IFBA). Different fuel compositions of assembly type were analyze in by using SRAC 2006 code system with JENDL 4.0 nuclear data library. This study aiming to compare the neutronics characteristics of an UO2 and an(U,Pu)O2 assembly designs. Some results of the study show that optimal criticality of the fuel assembly can be accomplished by using 5% enrichment of U-235 for UO2 fuel and 8.75% plutonium fraction for(U,Pu)O2 fuel assembly.

  19. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, Mark P; Schweitzer, Martin; Tonn, Bruce Edward; Schmoyer, Richard L; Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program was created by Congress in 1976 under Title IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act. The purpose and scope of the Program as currently stated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10CFR 440.1 is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, persons with disabilities, families with children, high residential energy users, and households with high energy burden' (Code of Federal Regulations, 2005). DOE sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of the Program in the early 1990's to provide policy makers and program implementers with up-to-date and reliable information they needed for effective decision making and cost-effective operations. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five part study which was based primarily on data from Program Year (PY) 1989 and supplemented by data from 1991-92 (Brown, Berry, and Kinney, 1994). In more recent years, ORNL has conducted four metaevaluations of the Program's energy savings using studies conducted by individual states between the years 1990-1996 (Berry, 1997), 1996-1998 (Schweitzer and Berry, 1999), 1993-2002 (Berry and Schweitzer, 2003), and 1993-2005 (Schweitzer, 2005). DOE announced through its Weatherization Program Notice 05-1 (DOE, 2004) that it would undertake a new national evaluation of the Program because the Program that was evaluated comprehensively in the early 1990's is vastly different from the Program of today. The Program has incorporated new funding sources, management principles, audit procedures, and energy-efficiency measures in response to findings and recommendations resulting from the 1989 National Evaluation, the Weatherization Plus strategic planning process, and other federal, state, and local initiatives

  20. Analysis for preliminary evaluation of discrete fracture flow and large-scale permeability in sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kanehiro, B.Y.; Lai, C.H.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-05-01

    Conceptual models for sedimentary rock settings that could be used in future evaluation and suitability studies are being examined through the DOE Repository Technology Program. One area of concern for the hydrologic aspects of these models is discrete fracture flow analysis as related to the estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume, evaluation of the appropriateness of continuum assumptions and estimation of the large-scale permeabilities of sedimentary rocks. A basis for preliminary analysis of flow in fracture systems of the types that might be expected to occur in low permeability sedimentary rocks is presented. The approach used involves numerical modeling of discrete fracture flow for the configuration of a large-scale hydrologic field test directed at estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume and large-scale permeability. Analysis of fracture data on the basis of this configuration is expected to provide a preliminary indication of the scale at which continuum assumptions can be made.

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  2. PRELIMINARY FIELD EVALUATION OF MERCURY CONTROL USING COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali Lissianski; Antonio Marquez

    2004-02-19

    In this project General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation conducts a preliminary field evaluation of a novel technology, referred to as Hg/NO{sub x}, that can reduce emissions of both mercury (Hg) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from coal-fired power plants. The evaluation takes place in Green Station Unit 2 operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Reduction of Hg and NO{sub x} emissions in Unit 2 is achieved using coal reburning. Activities during first project year (January 23, 2003--January 22, 2004) included measurements of baseline Hg emissions in Unit 2 and pilot-scale testing. Baseline testing of Hg emissions in Green Unit 2 has been completed. Two fuels were tested with OFA system operating at minimum air flow. Mercury emissions were measured at ESP inlet and outlet, and at the stack using Ontario Hydro revised method. Testing demonstrated that baseline Hg reductions at ESP outlet and stack were 30-45% and 70-80%, respectively. Pilot-scale testing demonstrated good agreement with baseline measurements in Unit 2. Testing showed that fuel composition had an effect on the efficiency of Hg absorption on fly ash. Maximum achieved Hg removal in reburning was close to 90%. Maximum achieved Hg reduction at air staging conditions was 60%. Testing also demonstrated that lowering ESP temperature improved efficiency of Hg removal.

  3. Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications

    SciTech Connect

    V. Lissianski; P. Maly; T. Marquez

    2005-01-22

    In this project EER conducted a preliminary field evaluation of the integrated approach for mercury (Hg) and NO{sub x} control. The approach enhanced the 'naturally occurring' Hg capture by fly ash through combustion optimization, increasing carbon in ash content, and lowering ESP temperature. The evaluation took place in Green Station Units 1 and 2 located near Henderson, Kentucky and operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Units 1 and 2 are equipped with cold-side ESPs and wet scrubbers. Green Station Units 1 and 2 typically fire two types of fuel: a bituminous coal and a blend of bituminous coals based on availability. Testing of Hg emissions in Unit 2 without reburning system in operation and at minimum OFA demonstrated that efficiencies of Hg reduction downstream of the ESP were 30-40%. Testing also demonstrated that OFA system operation at 22% air resulted in 10% incremental increase in Hg removal efficiency at the ESP outlet. About 80% of Hg in flue gas at ESP outlet was present in the oxidized form. Testing of Hg emissions under reburning conditions showed that Hg emissions decreased with LOI increase and ESP temperature decrease. Testing demonstrated that maximum Hg reduction downstream of ESP was 40-45% at ESP temperatures higher than 300 F and 60-80% at ESP temperatures lower than 300 F. The program objective to demonstrate 80% Hg removal at the ESP outlet has been met.

  4. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeClue, J F; Moses, S D; Tollefson, D A

    1991-01-04

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers.

  5. Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-15

    Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

  6. Early evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness in children with epilepsy by quantitative EEG: a model of Mozart K.448 listening--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2014-10-01

    There are many treatments being developed for patients with epilepsy, including anti-epileptic drugs, ketogenic diet and vagus nerve stimulation. To date, there is a lack of valid methods to predict at an early stage the therapeutic effects on patients with epilepsy who receive one of these treatments. Our previous studies revealed that epileptiform discharges which were observed in patients with epilepsy were significantly decreased while listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we attempted to develop a useful marker by utilizing a quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) method in analyzing the features of EEG to early evaluate the effect of the music on children with epilepsy, even without epileptiform discharges. EEG segments from 19 Taiwanese children who were selected from a large screen study of music effect (eight boys and 11 girls) diagnosed with epilepsy were analyzed. EEG examinations were performed in two parallel periods in each patient; before, and while listening to Mozart K.448's first movement (8 min 22s) and EEG data were compared by qEEG. EEG segments were classified into music effective/ineffective group. The term "effective" was defined as patient exposure to music resulting in over a 25% reduction in epileptiform discharges. On the contrary, the term "ineffective" was defined as patient exposure to music resulting in less than a 5% reduction in epileptiform discharges. There were four global feature descriptors selected for the music effective/ineffective classification. Two descriptors, DecorrTime_avg_AVG and DecorrTime_std_AVG, were related to the EEG feature "decorrelation" whereas the other two descriptors, RelPowGamma_avg_SNR and RelPowGamma_std_SNR, were related to "relative power of gamma." There were significantly higher RelPowGamma_std_SNR (0.190±0.133 vs. -0.026±0.119, p=0.0029), DecorrTime_std_AVG (0.005±0.004 vs. 0.0003±0.0016, p=0.0055), DecorrTime_avg_AVG (0.005±0.005 vs. -0.002±0.008, p=0.0179), and Rel

  7. Evaluation of pulmonary function using single-breath-hold dual-energy computed tomography with xenon: Results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kyoyama, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sakai, Kosuke; Saito, Yuriko; Mikami, Shintaro; Moriyama, Gaku; Yanagita, Hisami; Watanabe, Wataru; Otani, Katharina; Honda, Norinari; Uematsu, Kazutsugu

    2017-01-01

    Xenon-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (xenon-enhanced CT) can provide lung ventilation maps that may be useful for assessing structural and functional abnormalities of the lung. Xenon-enhanced CT has been performed using a multiple-breath-hold technique during xenon washout. We recently developed xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique to assess ventilation. We sought to evaluate whether xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique correlates with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results.Twenty-six patients, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, underwent xenon-enhanced CT and PFT. Three of the COPD patients underwent xenon-enhanced CT before and after bronchodilator treatment. Images from xenon-CT were obtained by dual-source CT during a breath-hold after a single vital-capacity inspiration of a xenon-oxygen gas mixture. Image postprocessing by 3-material decomposition generated conventional CT and xenon-enhanced images.Low-attenuation areas on xenon images matched low-attenuation areas on conventional CT in 21 cases but matched normal-attenuation areas in 5 cases. Volumes of Hounsfield unit (HU) histograms of xenon images correlated moderately and highly with vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC), respectively (r = 0.68 and 0.85). Means and modes of histograms weakly correlated with VC (r = 0.39 and 0.38), moderately with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (r = 0.59 and 0.56), weakly with the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (r = 0.46 and 0.42), and moderately with the ratio of FEV1 to its predicted value (r = 0.64 and 0.60). Mode and volume of histograms increased in 2 COPD patients after the improvement of FEV1 with bronchodilators. Inhalation of xenon gas caused no adverse effects.Xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique depicted functional abnormalities not detectable on thin-slice CT. Mode, mean, and volume of HU histograms of xenon images reflected

  8. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  10. A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Training Using Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide (BSP-QE) to Improve Positive Behavioral Support Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Diana Browning; Mayer, G. Roy; Cook, Clayton R.; Crews, S. Dean; Kraemer, Bonnie Rawlings; Gale, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of two trainings designed to increase the competencies of professionals to develop high quality positive behavior support plans for students that engage in problem behaviors that interfere with theirs and/or others' ability to learn. Training one consisted of training attendees on six key…

  11. Preliminary evaluation of fiber composite reinforcement of truck frame rails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of graphite fiber/resin matrix composite to effectively reinforce a standard steel truck frame rail is studied. A preliminary design was made and it was determined that the reinforcement weight could be reduced by a factor of 10 when compared to a steel reinforcement. A section of a 1/3 scale reinforced rail was fabricated to demonstrate low cost manufacturing techniques. The scale rail section was then tested and increased stiffness was confirmed. No evidence of composite fatigue was found after 500,000 cycles to a fiber stress of 34,000 psi. The test specimen failed in bending in a static test at a load 50 percent greater than that predicted for a non-reinforced rail.

  12. Preliminary Evaluation, Texas State Library Communication Network, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin. Field Services Div.

    In 1968 the Texas State Library established a library communications network under Title III of the Librar y Services and Construction Act. The objective of this study was to evaluate the network after six months of operation. Part I of the study consists of a general evaluation by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., based on operational data…

  13. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  14. Potential Bedside Utility of the Clock-Drawing Test in Evaluating Rapid Therapeutic Response in the Natural Course of Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Ransing, Ramdas Sarjerao; Khairkar, Praveen Homdeorao; Mishra, Kshirod; Sakekar, Gajanan

    2017-03-15

    The Clock-Drawing Test (CDT) is a brief, relatively time-efficient, easy to administer at bedside, and well-proven cognitive screening test that assesses a broad range of cognitive abilities in stroke, delirium, and dementia. However, challenges of comprehensive therapeutic outcome evaluations in schizophrenia can also be potentially overcome using CDT. The authors aimed to measure the therapeutic outcome using CDT in 101 schizophrenia patients, irrespective of their diagnostic subtypes. A repeated measures analysis of variance found that improvements on CDT and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were closely correlated, reflecting critical information about therapeutic response measures in schizophrenia.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of a lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Brandt, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a preliminary evaluation of a lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model by applying the model to size-at-age data for lake whitefish from northern Lake Michigan. We then compared estimates of gross growth efficiency (GGE) from our bioenergetis model with previously published estimates of GGE for bloater (C. hoyi) in Lake Michigan and for lake whitefish in Quebec. According to our model, the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.075 to 0.02 as age increased from 2 to 5 years. In contrast, the GGE of lake whitefish in Quebec inland waters decreased from 0.12 to 0.05 for the same ages. When our swimming-speed submodel was replaced with a submodel that had been used for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan and an observed predator energy density for Lake Michigan lake whitefish was employed, our model predicted that the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.12 to 0.04 as age increased from 2 to 5 years.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Polyarylate Dielectric Films for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Fialla, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Polymeric materials are used extensively on spacecraft and satellites in electrical power and distribution systems, as thermal blankets and optical surface coatings, as well as mechanical support structures. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environment of space is very critical to the success of the mission and the safety of the crew in manned-flight ventures. In this work, polyarylate films were evaluated for potential use as capacitor dielectrics and wiring insulation for cryogenic applications. Two grades of the film were characterized in terms of their electrical and mechanical properties before and after exposure to liquid nitrogen (-196 C). The electrical characterization consisted of capacitance and dielectric loss measure Cents in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz, and volume and surface resistivities. The mechanical measurements performed included changes in tensile (Young's modulus, elongation-at-break, and tensile strength) and structural properties (dimensional change, weight, and surface morphology). The preliminary results, which indicate good stability of the polymer after exposure to liquid nitrogen, are presented and discussed.

  17. Preliminary Safety Evaluation of a New Bacteroides xylanisolvens Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Toutounian, Kawe; Schmidt, Jens; Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Besides conferring some health benefit to the host, a bacterial strain must present an unambiguous safety status to be considered a probiotic. We here present the preliminary safety evaluation of a new Bacteroides xylanisolvens strain (DSM 23964) isolated from human feces. First results suggest that it may be able to provide probiotic health benefits. Its identity was confirmed by biochemical analysis, by sequencing of its 16S rRNA genes, and by DNA-DNA hybridization. Virulence determinants known to occur in the genus Bacteroides, such the bft enterotoxin and other enzymatic activities involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the capsular polysaccharide PS A, were absent in this strain. The investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility indicated that strain DSM 23964 was sensitive to metronidazole, meropenem agents, and clindamycin. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin was identified to be conferred by the β-lactamase cepA gene and could therefore be restored by adding β-lactamase inhibitors. The localization of the cepA gene in the genome of strain DSM 23964 and the absence of detectable plasmids further suggest that a transfer of β-lactamase activity or the acquisition of other antibiotic resistances are highly improbable. Taken together, the presented data indicate that the strain B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964 has no virulence potential. Since it also resists the action of gastric enzymes and low-pH conditions, this strain is an interesting candidate for further investigation of its safety and potential health-promoting properties. PMID:22101046

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Image Data Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Mississippi County, Arkansas, and Webster County, Iowa, were examined for the purpose of evaluating the image data quality of the TM which was launched on board the LANDSAT-4 spacecraft. Preliminary clustering and principal component analysis indicates that the middle infrared and thermal infrared data of TM appear to add significant information over that of the near IR and visible bands of the multispectral scanner data. Moreover, the higher spatial resolution of TM appears to provide better definition of the edges and the within variability of agricultural fields. The geometric performance of TM data, without ground control correction, was found to exceed expectations. The modulation transfer function for the 1.65 m band was found to agree with prelaunch specifications when the effects of the GSFC cubic convolution and the atmosphere were removed. The band to band registration for the bands within the noncooled focal plane was found to be better than specified. However, the middle infrared and thermal infrared, which are on a separate cooled focal plane were found to be misregistered and were significantly worse than prelaunch specifications.

  19. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  20. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  1. 33. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR HEALY BUILDING, c. 1876 (COURTESY OF THE COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS) - Georgetown University, Healy Building, Thirty-seventh & O Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. An Evaluation of Fuel-Reduction Treatments Across a Landscape Gradient in Piedmont Forests: Preliminary Results of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Dallas W. Glass; Sandra Rideout; Victor B. Shelburne

    2004-01-01

    The National Fire and Fire Surrogate (NFFS) Study is a large-scale study of the impacts of fuel-reduction treatments on ecological and economic variables. This paper examines prescribed burning and thinning as fuel-reduction treatments on one site of the national study, the southeastern Piedmont. Fuel loads were examined across a landscape gradient before and after...

  3. Multi-detector row CT as a "one-stop" examination in the preoperative evaluation of the morphology and function of living renal donors: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen; Yan, Chaogui; Guo, Yan; Zhou, Xuhui; Chen, Yaqing; Liu, Mingjuan; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2011-02-01

    We designed to investigate the feasibility of multi-detector row computerized tomography (CT) as a "one-stop" examination for the simultaneous preoperative evaluation of the morphology and function of living renal donors. 21 living renal donors were examined by 64-slice spiral CT with a three-phase enhancement CT scan and two inserted dynamic scans. The maximum intensity projection (MIP), multi-planar reformation (MPR), and volume reconstruction (VR) procedures were performed to compare the renal parenchyma, renal vessels, and collecting system with operational findings. The known Patlak equation was used to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR); exact GFR information was acquired by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our results as following, there were 3 cases of artery variation and 3 cases of vein variation. CT findings all corresponded with the operation, and the sensitivity, positive predictive value, specialty, and negative predictive value of CT were all 100%. The r of the GFR values estimated from CT is 0.894 (left) (P < 0.001) and 0.881 (right) (P < 0.001). In conclusions, our findings demonstrate that 64-slice spiral CT may offer a "one-stop" examination to replace SPECT in the preoperative evaluation of living renal donors to simultaneously provide information regarding both anatomy and the GFR of living renal donors.

  4. Temporal and seasonal variability of arsenic in drinking water wells in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh: a preliminary evaluation on the basis of a 4 year study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Hossain, Mohammed; Rahman, Shamsun Naima; Robinson, Clare; Nath, Bibhash; Rahman, Marina; Islam, M Mainul; Von Brömssen, Mattias; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Jacks, Gunnar; Chowdhury, Dulaly; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Jakariya, Mohammed; Persson, Lars Åke; Vahter, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and seasonal variability of As concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in As-affected areas of Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh. Groundwater samples from 61 randomly selected tubewells were analyzed for As concentrations over a period of three years and four months (from July 2002 to November 2005) and monitored seasonally (three times a year). The mean As concentrations in the sampled tubewells decreased from 153 to 123 μg/L during July 2002 to November 2005. Such changes were pronounced in tubewells with As concentration >50 μg/L than those with As concentrations <50 μg/L. Similarly, individual wells revealed temporal variability, for example some wells indicated a decreasing trend, while some other wells indicated stable As concentration during the monitoring period. The mean As concentrations were significantly higher in Matlab North compared with Matlab South. The spatial variations in the mean As concentrations may be due to the differences in local geological conditions and groundwater flow patterns. The variations in mean As concentrations were also observed in shallow (<40 m) and deep (>40 m) wells. However, to adequately evaluate temporal and seasonal variability of As concentration, it is imperative to monitor As concentrations in tubewells over a longer period of time. Such long-term monitoring will provide important information for the assessment of human health risk and the sustainability of safe drinking water supplies.

  5. Mannich bases of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione containing adamantane moiety: Synthesis, preliminary anticancer evaluation, and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Milošev, Milorad Z; Jakovljević, Katarina; Joksović, Milan D; Stanojković, Tatjana; Matić, Ivana Z; Perović, Milka; Tešić, Vesna; Kanazir, Selma; Mladenović, Milan; Rodić, Marko V; Leovac, Vukadin M; Trifunović, Snežana; Marković, Violeta

    2016-12-09

    A series of 18 novel N-Mannich bases derived from 5-adamantyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione was synthesized and characterized using NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. All derivatives were evaluated for their anticancer potential against four human cancer cell lines. Several tested compounds exerted good cytotoxic activities on K562 and HL-60 cell lines, along with pronounced selectivity, showing lower cytotoxicity against normal fibroblasts MRC-5 compared to cancer cells. The effects of compounds 5b, 5e, and 5j on the cell cycle were investigated by flow cytometric analysis. It was found that these compounds cause the accumulation of cells in the subG1 and G1 phases of the cell cycle and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis, while the anti-angiogenic effects of 5b, 5e, and 5j have been confirmed in EA.hy926 cells using a tube formation assay. Further, the interaction of Bax protein with compound 5b was investigated by means of molecular modeling, applying the combined molecular docking/molecular dynamics approach.

  6. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum, Ocimum sanctum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Duhan, J; Tewari, S; Sangwan, P; Yadav, A; Singh, G; Juneja, R; Saini, H

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis in planktonic suspension and biofilm phenotypes. The antibacterial efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous ethanolic extracts of O. sanctum, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum against E. faecalis at various time intervals was assessed using the agar well diffusion test, microdilution test and biofilm susceptibility assay (BSA) on cellulose nitrate membrane as well as in a tooth model. NaOCl was used as the positive control. Distilled water was used as negative control for agar diffusion and microdilution tests and phosphate-buffered saline for the BSA. The results of the agar diffusion test were analysed statistically using anova and Tukey's tests. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum and O. sanctum exhibited minimum bactericidal concentration at 10%, 10% and 40%, respectively. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum, O. sanctum and NaOCl showed complete bacterial inhibition in planktonic form after exposure of 30, 15, 35 and 1 min, respectively. In BSA on cellulose nitrate membrane, NaOCl was associated with complete bacterial inhibition after contact of 2 min, whilst 10% C. zeylanicum, 10% S. aromaticum and 40% O. sanctum showed cessation of growth after 12, 12 and 24 h, respectively. The results of BSA on tooth model were similar except for O. sanctum, which was not included in the model. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum and O. sanctum demonstrated antimicrobial activity against planktonic and biofilm forms of E. faecalis with C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum having better antimicrobial efficacy than O. sanctum. NaOCl had superior antimicrobial efficacy amongst all the groups. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Allelopathic potential and ecotoxicity evaluation of gallic and nonanoic acids to prevent cyanobacterial growth in lentic systems: A preliminary mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Techer, Didier; Fontaine, Pascal; Personne, Aline; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2016-03-15

    The increase in anthropogenic nutrient loading affecting many freshwater ecosystems combined with global warming may lead to cyanobacterial blooms on an increasingly frequent basis. Among the various physicochemical and biological methods which have been proposed to rapidly control blue-green algae growth, the use of plant-derived substances such as allelochemicals has gained great interest as an environment-friendly approach. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of gallic and nonanoic acid application to preemptively inhibit cyanobacterial growth in lentic hydrosystems. In order to address the process feasibility under realistic exposure scenarios, thirteen outdoor freshwater mesocosms (unit volume: 3m(3)) were designed, each containing phytoplankton (including local blue-green algae species) and various non-target organisms from higher trophic levels (Physa, Lymnaea, Gammarus, and Scardinius erythrophthalmus). After an 8-week mesocosm stabilization period, a full factorial design based on the presence/absence of gallic acid (GA) and nonanoic acid (NA) (including a control group) was implemented into the exposure tanks. Regular monitoring of major phytoplankton taxa was conducted during a 28-day experiment using an on-line fluorometer. The main results suggested that gallic acid was more efficient than nonanoic acid at limiting cyanobacterial growth at concentrations as low as 1 mg L(-1). Successive gallic acid applications (at 1, 2 and 4 mg L(-1)) at the early stages of cyanobacterial growth did not allow the complete elimination of blue-green algae from the mesocosms. However, the specificity of the allelopathic effect of gallic acid towards cyanobacteria was compatible with the maintenance of a primary productivity in the treated tanks as indicated by the photoautotrophic growth of other algal taxa. Finally, no biomarker induction signal could be reported in non-target species. Further gallic acid application trials in lentic systems such

  8. Symposium Overview: Preliminary Report on the Longitudinal Comparison Study of the National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, E. Wayne; Osher, Trina W.; Santiago, Rolando L.; Hernandez, Mario; Brannan, Ana Maria

    This brief paper summarizes three papers and a response presented at a symposium examining longitudinal comparison studies of federally funded community mental health services (CMHS) for children and their families. Emphasis was on comparing the system of care approach to a more traditional approach. The symposium provided an update on the status…

  9. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  10. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  11. Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nwaehujor, C. O.; Ezeigbo, I. I.; Nwinyi, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280 g) were given an injection of 120 mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9 mmol/L) were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12 h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02 mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01 mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves. PMID:24224091

  12. Evaluation of ovarian reserve using anti-müllerian hormone and antral follicle count in Sjögren's syndrome: Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Karakus, Savas; Sahin, Ali; Durmaz, Yunus; Aydin, Huseyin; Yildiz, Caglar; Akkar, Ozlem; Dogan, Mansur; Cengiz, Ahmet; Cetin, Meral; Cetin, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine ovarian reserve status using anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) level and antral follicle count (AFC) in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Twenty-four women with SS diagnosed according to the classification criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group and 25 healthy women as controls were enrolled in this study. Ovarian reserve was assessed on clinical findings, AFC, and serum AMH and reproductive hormone levels. Compared with the healthy controls, in the SS patients, the duration of menstrual cycle was significantly shorter (P = 0.043); serum AMH (P = 0.001) and AFC (P = 0.001) were significantly lower, and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was significantly higher (P = 0.019). The right (P = 0.555) and left ovarian (P = 0.386) volumes were also lower but this did not reach statistical significance. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (P = 0.327), estradiol (P = 0.241), and prolactin (P = 0.55) were similar between the two groups. Ovarian reserve may be reduced in SS patients. For the assessment of ovarian reserve, serum AMH and ovarian AFC with serum LH may be useful. Further studies with long-term follow-up are required to determine the course of ovarian reserve abnormalities and best possible biomarkers of reduced ovarian reserve in SS patients. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  15. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  16. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  17. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the hydrogeologic system in Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danskin, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary, two-layer, steady-state, groundwater flow model was used to evaluate present data and hydrologic concepts of Owens Valley, California. Simulations of the groundwater system indicate that areas where water levels are most affected by changes in recharge and discharge are near toes of alluvial fans and along the edge of permeable volcanic deposits. Sensitivity analysis for each model parameter shows that steady state simulations are most sensitive to uncertainties in evapotranspiration rates. Tungsten Hills, Poverty Hills, and Alabama Hills were found to act as virtually impermeable barriers to groundwater flow. Accurate simulation of the groundwater system between Bishop and Lone Pine appears to be possible without simulating the groundwater system in Round Valley, near Owens Lake, or in aquifer materials more than 1,000 ft below land surface. Although vast amounts of geologic and hydrologic data have been collected for Owens Valley, many parts of the hydrogeologic system have not been defined with sufficient detail to answer present water management questions. Location and extent of geologic materials that impede the vertical movement of water are poorly documented. The likely range of aquifer characteristics, except vertical hydraulic conductivity, is well known, but spatial distribution of these characteristics is not well documented. A set of consistent water budgets is needed, including one for surface water, groundwater, and the entire valley. The largest component of previous water budgets (evapotranspiration) is largely unverified. More definitive estimates of local gains and losses for Owens River are needed. Although groundwater pumpage from each well is measured, the quantity of withdrawal from different zones of permeable material has not been defined. (USGS)

  19. TU-EF-204-10: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Calculation Variations of Local Noise Power Spectra for CT Simulation in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dolly, S; Chen, H; Anastasio, M; Mutic, S; Li, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Local noise power spectrum (NPS) properties are significantly affected by calculation variables and CT acquisition and reconstruction parameters, but a thoughtful analysis of these effects is absent. In this study, we performed a complete analysis of the effects of calculation and imaging parameters on the NPS. Methods: The uniformity module of a Catphan phantom was scanned with a Philips Brilliance 64-slice CT simulator using various scanning protocols. Images were reconstructed using both FBP and iDose4 reconstruction algorithms. From these images, local NPS were calculated for regions of interest (ROI) of varying locations and sizes, using four image background removal methods. Additionally, using a predetermined ground truth, NPS calculation accuracy for various calculation parameters was compared for computer simulated ROIs. A complete analysis of the effects of calculation, acquisition, and reconstruction parameters on the NPS was conducted. Results: The local NPS varied with ROI size and image background removal method, particularly at low spatial frequencies. The image subtraction method was the most accurate according to the computer simulation study, and was also the most effective at removing low frequency background components in the acquired data. However, first-order polynomial fitting using residual sum of squares and principle component analysis provided comparable accuracy under certain situations. Similar general trends were observed when comparing the NPS for FBP to that of iDose4 while varying other calculation and scanning parameters. However, while iDose4 reduces the noise magnitude compared to FBP, this reduction is spatial-frequency dependent, further affecting NPS variations at low spatial frequencies. Conclusion: The local NPS varies significantly depending on calculation parameters, image acquisition parameters, and reconstruction techniques. Appropriate local NPS calculation should be performed to capture spatial variations of

  20. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and preliminary mechanism study of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing indole-based moiety as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junjie; Bao, Guanglong; Wang, Limei; Li, Wanting; Xu, Boxuan; Du, Baoquan; Lv, Jie; Zhai, Xin; Gong, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Through a structure-based molecular hybridization approach, a series of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing indole-based moiety were designed, synthesized and screened for in vitro antitumor activity against four cancer cell lines (HT29, H460, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Most of them showed moderate to excellent activity against all the tested cell lines. Among them, compounds 20a-w with substituted benzyl-1H-indole moiety showed better selectivity against HT29 cancer cell line than other compounds. Compound 20d exhibited excellent antitumor activity with IC50 values of 0.024, 0.29, 0.84 and 0.88 μM against HT29, H460, A549 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. Further mechanism studies indicated that the marked pharmacological activity of compound 20d might be ascribed to activation of procaspase-3 (apoptosis-inducing) and cell cycle arrest, which had emerged as a lead for further structural modifications. Furthermore, 3D-QSAR model (training set: q(2) = 0.850, r(2) = 0.987, test set: r(2) = 0.811) was built to provide a comprehensive guide for further structural modification and optimization.

  1. Qualitative analysis of xinyue capsules by high-performance liquid chromatography: Preliminary evaluation of drug quality in a Sino-Austrian joint study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mei; Yang, Lin; Shi, Da-zhuo; Radauer, Christian; Breiteneder, Heimo; Ma, Yan

    2015-10-01

    To develop a reliable method to assess the stability of xinyue capsules containing Panax quinquefolius saponins according to European quality standards. An efficient high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was established to analyse six main ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) in six different batches (120 capsules/batch) from the same lot of xinyue capsules and in one batch measured six times within one day. The six ginsenosides were separated on a Hypersil BDS-C18 column (3 μm, 100 mm×3 mm) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Gradient elution was performed using a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile-water modified with 0.01% formic acid. The HPLC chromatograms were analyzed with "LC data comparison" using Lab Solutions software. The HPLC peaks were identified by comparing their retention times (Rg1: 23.44 min, Re: 23.77 min, Rb1: 35.24 min, Rc: 36.18 min, Rb2: 38.55 min and Rd: 40.88 min) with those of the standards under the same chromatographic conditions, which showed similar results among the samples of six different batches and among the samples from one batch detected six times within one day. Xinyue capsules have good drug intra-day consistency at room temperature and exhibit a consistent quality between different batches. This study established a reliable method to assess the stability of xinyue capsules, which is suitable for further qualitative analysis and may assist in promoting the safe and effective use of Chinese herbal medicine.

  2. Preliminary study on evaluation of the pancreatic tail observable limit of transabdominal ultrasonography using a position sensor and CT-fusion image.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Hajime; Itoh, Akihiro; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Itoh, Yuya; Nakamura, Yosuke; Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Daijuro; Kuwahara, Takamichi; Morishima, Tomomasa; Kawai, Manabu; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Funasaka, Kohei; Nakamura, Masanao; Miyahara, Ryoji; Katano, Yoshiaki; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ohmiya, Naoki; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2014-08-01

    Transabdominal ultrasonography (US) is commonly used for the initial screening of bilio-pancreatic diseases in Asian countries due to its widespread availability, the non-invasiveness and the cost-effectiveness. However, it is considered that US has limits to observe the area, namely the blind area. The observation of the pancreatic tail is particularly difficult. The goal of this study was to examine the pancreatic tail region that cannot be visualized on transverse scanning of the upper abdomen using US with spatial positional information and factors related to visualization, and observation of the tail from the splenic hilum. Thirty-nine patients with pancreatic/biliary tract disease underwent CT and US with GPS-like technology and fusion imaging for measurement of the real pancreatic length and the predicted/real unobservable (PU and RU) length of the pancreatic tail. RU from US on transverse scanning and the real pancreatic length were used to determine the unobservable area (UA: RU/the real pancreatic length). Relationships of RU with physical and hematological variables that might influence visualization of the pancreatic tail were investigated. The real pancreatic length was 160.9 ± 16.4mm, RU was 41.0 ± 17.8mm, and UA was 25.3 ± 10.4%. RU was correlated with BMI (R=0.446, P=0.004) and waist circumferences (R=0.354, P=0.027), and strongly correlated with PU (R=0.788, P<0.001). The pancreatic tail was visible from the splenic hilum in 22 (56%) subjects and was completely identified in 13 (33%) subjects. Combined GPS-like technology with fusion imaging was useful for the objective estimation of the pancreatic blind area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Searching for Sub-kilometer Trans-Neptunian Objects Using Pan-STARRS Video Mode Light Curves: Preliminary Study and Evaluation Using Engineering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.-H.; Protopapas, P.; Chen, W.-P.; Alcock, C. R.; Burgett, W. S.; Dombeck, T.; Grav, T.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Tonry, J. L.

    2010-05-01

    We present a pre-survey study of using the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) high sampling rate video mode guide star images to search for trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Guide stars are primarily used by Pan-STARRS to compensate for image motion and hence improve the point-spread function. With suitable selection of the guide stars within the Pan-STARRS 7 deg2 field of view, the light curves of these guide stars can also be used to search for occultations by TNOs. The best target stars for this purpose are stars with high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and small angular size. In order to do this, we compiled a catalog using the S/N calculated from stars with m V < 13 mag in the Tycho2 catalog, then cross matched these stars with the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog, and estimated their angular sizes from (V - K) color. We also outlined a new detection method based on matched filter that is optimized to search for diffraction patterns in the light curves due to occultation by sub-kilometer TNOs. A detection threshold is set to compromise between real detections and false positives. Depending on the theoretical size distribution model used, we expect to find up to a hundred events during the three-year lifetime of the Pan-STARRS-1 project. The high sampling (30 Hz) of the project facilitates detections of small objects (as small as 400 m), which are numerous according to power-law size distribution, and thus allows us to verify various models and further constrain our understanding of the structure in the outer reach of the solar system. We have tested the detection algorithm and the pipeline on a set of engineering data (taken at 10 Hz instead of 30 Hz). No events were found within the engineering data, which is consistent with the small size of the data set and the theoretical models. Meanwhile, with a total of ~22 star-hours video mode data (|β| < 10°), we are able to set an upper limit of N(>0.5 km) ~ 2.47 × 1010 deg-2 at 95

  4. SEARCHING FOR SUB-KILOMETER TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECTS USING PAN-STARRS VIDEO MODE LIGHT CURVES: PRELIMINARY STUDY AND EVALUATION USING ENGINEERING DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-H.; Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C. R.; Chen, W.-P.; Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Dombeck, T.; Grav, T. E-mail: pprotopapas@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-05-15

    We present a pre-survey study of using the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) high sampling rate video mode guide star images to search for trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Guide stars are primarily used by Pan-STARRS to compensate for image motion and hence improve the point-spread function. With suitable selection of the guide stars within the Pan-STARRS 7 deg{sup 2} field of view, the light curves of these guide stars can also be used to search for occultations by TNOs. The best target stars for this purpose are stars with high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and small angular size. In order to do this, we compiled a catalog using the S/N calculated from stars with m{sub V} < 13 mag in the Tycho2 catalog, then cross matched these stars with the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog, and estimated their angular sizes from (V - K) color. We also outlined a new detection method based on matched filter that is optimized to search for diffraction patterns in the light curves due to occultation by sub-kilometer TNOs. A detection threshold is set to compromise between real detections and false positives. Depending on the theoretical size distribution model used, we expect to find up to a hundred events during the three-year lifetime of the Pan-STARRS-1 project. The high sampling (30 Hz) of the project facilitates detections of small objects (as small as 400 m), which are numerous according to power-law size distribution, and thus allows us to verify various models and further constrain our understanding of the structure in the outer reach of the solar system. We have tested the detection algorithm and the pipeline on a set of engineering data (taken at 10 Hz instead of 30 Hz). No events were found within the engineering data, which is consistent with the small size of the data set and the theoretical models. Meanwhile, with a total of {approx}22 star-hours video mode data (|{beta}| < 10{sup 0}), we are able to set an upper limit of N(>0.5 km

  5. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  6. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  7. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  8. A preliminary ultrasound study of velar fronting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodzinski, Sylvie M.; Frisch, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound imaging to measure velar consonant closure location, and (2) conduct a thorough study of velar fronting by measuring several productions of velar stops in the context of every English vowel. Word onset velar stops were measured in both words (CV or CVC) and nonwords (VCV) within a carrier phrase. Other coarticulatory influences were minimized by using words with no coda or labial coda consonants (e.g., ``Say a gap again,'' ``Say /oIkoI/ again''). Measurements were made at the point of maximal closure. Closure location was measured using the radial angle from the center of the ultrasound probe to the center of the velar closure. Pilot data for one subject has been analyzed to date. Closure location appears consistent across all central and back vowels. For front vowels, the degree of fronting of the velar appears to be correlated with the frontness of the vowel. Measures of closure location for diphthongs followed the back vowel pattern in the word targets. For nonwords, the closure location was influenced by the preceding diphthong offset quality and the following diphthong onset quality. Theoretical implications for the phonetics/phonology interface will be discussed.

  9. Notification: Preliminary Research to Evaluate Hazardous Waste Passing Through Publicly Owned Treatment Works

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    March 13, 2013. The EPA's OIG plans to start preliminary research to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPA’s programs in preventing and addressing contamination of surface water from hazardous wastes passing through publicly owned treatment works.

  10. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: EVALUATIONS OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD FOR BUILDING DEMOLITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the preliminary results of the evaluations of the alternative asbestos control method for demolishing buildings containing asbestos, and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbestos NESHAP. This abstract and presentation are based, at ...

  11. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: EVALUATIONS OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD FOR BUILDING DEMOLITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the preliminary results of the evaluations of the alternative asbestos control method for demolishing buildings containing asbestos, and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbestos NESHAP. This abstract and presentation are based, at ...

  12. Preliminary geotechnical evaluation of deep borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraj, M.S. New Orleans Univ., LA . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    This study is concerned with a preliminary engineering evaluation of borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales. Some of the geotechnical properties of Pierre, Rhinestreet, and typical illite shale have been collected. The influence of a few geotechnical properties on strength and deformation of host material is briefly examined. It appears that Pierre shale is very unstable and requires support to prevent collapse. Typical illite shale is more stable than Rhinestreet shale, although it undergoes relatively more deformation. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of the pretreatment of fuel alcohol fermentation stillage through an anaerobic filter

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquez, R.B.; Sales, A.; Wang, W.

    1982-11-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the pretreatment of fuel alcohol fermentation stillage by means of an anaerobic filter. The first phase of the investigation was devoted to characterizing the stillage. The second phase of the investigation studied the reduction of suspended solids by centrifugation. In the third phase of the investigation laboratory scale anaerobic filters were tested as a means of pretreating the fermentation stillage. Overall, the anaerobic filter was demonstrated to be an effective means of pretreating fermentation stillage.

  14. Preliminary Airworthiness Evaluation of the Rutan Aircraft Factory (RAF) , Inc. LONG-EZ Airplane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    AV 350-4786 MAJ Kreutz Ft. Lewis, WA AV 357-6327 4. Inclosure: Test Data and Results, 5. Discussion: The Long EZ is a homebuilt aircraft from a kit...If) USMAEFA PROJECT NO,. 82-18 PRELIMINARY AIRWORTHINESS EVALUATION OF THE RUTAN AIRCRAFT FACTORY (RAF), INC. LONG-EZ AIRPLANE VERNON L. DIEIOWIN...REPORT & PEIOO COVERED PRELIMINARY AIRWORTHINESS EVALUATION 14 JAN - 1 APR 1983 OF THE RUTAN AIRCRAFT FACTORY (RAF), FINAL INC. LONG-HZ AIRPLANE 6

  15. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality Reference Service: A Preliminary Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalker, John C.; Murfin, Marjorie E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the results of the Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation Program (WOREP) that was used by the reference department at the Brandeis University (Massachusetts) library. Results are compared with an onsite evaluation to determine factors that influence the provision of high-quality reference service. (LRW)

  17. Supervisory control of remote manipulation: A preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    A system for supervisory control is described, and preliminary results are presented. Supervisory control, where control is traded between man and computer, offers benefits in the control of a remote manipulator. The system has the potential to accomplish sophisticated tasks. It is indicated that supervisory control yields lower task completion times and is preferred over manual control.

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of a Social Skills Training and Facilitated Play Early Intervention Programme for Extremely Shy Young Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Coplan, Robert J.; Wang, Yuemin; Yin, Jingtong; Zhu, Jingjing; Gao, Zhuqing; Li, Linhui

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of a social skills and facilitated play early intervention programme to promote social interaction, prosocial behaviours and socio-communicative skills among young extremely shy children in China. Participants were a sample of n = 16 extremely shy young children attending kindergarten…

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of a Social Skills Training and Facilitated Play Early Intervention Programme for Extremely Shy Young Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Coplan, Robert J.; Wang, Yuemin; Yin, Jingtong; Zhu, Jingjing; Gao, Zhuqing; Li, Linhui

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of a social skills and facilitated play early intervention programme to promote social interaction, prosocial behaviours and socio-communicative skills among young extremely shy children in China. Participants were a sample of n = 16 extremely shy young children attending kindergarten…

  20. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  1. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, A.; Thaakur, Santh Rani

    2008-01-01

    The plant Passiflora foetida (grandilla) has been used mainly for asthma and various neurological disorders by the traditional medicinal practitioners of Chittor District. Since proper information regarding this plant is not available, our efforts were devoted to fix the pharmacognostical parameters and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetid. An attempt was made to fix the macroscopical, microscopical parameters of the leaf, quantitative microscopy, physical constants, behaviour of the powder with chemical reagents and preliminary qualitative phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida were investigated. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, flavanoids and carbohydrates. PMID:22557273

  2. Applying for Your Own Job: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid

    2008-01-01

    This study undertook a small preliminary investigation of the contemporary employment practice of "applying for your own job". There has not yet been a specific study into the effect upon individuals and organisations of the practice of existing employees being required to apply for the same or a similar position in a competitive…

  3. Preliminary Trade Study of Phase Change Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Leimkeuhler, Thomas; Quinn, Gregory; Golliher, Eric

    2006-01-01

    For short durations, phase change based heat rejection systems are a very effective way of removing heat from spacecraft. Future NASA vehicles, such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), will require non-radiative heat rejection systems during at least a portion of the planned mission, just as their predecessors have. While existing technologies are available to modify, such as Apollo era sublimators, or the Space Shuttle Flash Evaporator System (FES), several new technologies are under development or investigation to progress beyond these existing heat rejection systems. Examples include the Multi-Fluid Evaporator developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, improvements upon the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator originally developed for the X-38 program, and a Compact Flash Evaporator System (CFES). Other possibilities evaluate new ways of operating existing designs. The new developments are targeted at increasing operating life, expanding the environments in which the system can operate, improving the mass and volume characteristics, or some combination of these or other improvements. This paper captures the process and results of a preliminary trade study performed at Johnson Space Center to compare the various existing and proposed phase change based heat rejection systems for the CEV. Because the new systems are still in development, and the information on existing systems is extrapolation, this trade study is not meant to suggest a final decision for future vehicles. The results of this early trade study are targeted to aid the development efforts for the new technologies by identifying issues that could reduce the chances of selection for the CEV.

  4. Nuclear morphometric analysis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ozdamar, Sükrü Oğuz; Bektaş, Sibel; Erdem Ozdamar, Sevim; Gedikoğlu, Gökhan; Doğan Gün, Banu; Bahadir, Burak

    2007-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are considered a specialized group of mesenchymal neoplasms. In this study, the histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors are compared with nuclear morphometric results. Morphometric nuclear parameters such as mean area, mean roundness factor, mean form ellipse, mean length and mean perimeter were evaluated in hematoxylin and eosin stained slides of 22 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (9 benign and 13 malignant) by using a computer-assisted image analysis system. Morphometric results were compared with tumor behavior and tumor size, the presence of necrosis, mitotic index, and immunohistochemical expressions of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. We found that tumor necrosis was correlated with mean nuclear roundness factor, mean nuclear form ellipse, mean nuclear length and mean nuclear perimeter (p<0.05). Mitotic index was also correlated with mean nuclear roundness factor and mean nuclear form ellipse (p<0.05). However, no correlation was found between morphometric features and gastrointestinal stromal tumor behavior, tumor size, or index of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p53 expressions (p>0.05). In this preliminary study, the relative concordance of the morphometric results and general histomorphologic data exhibited the importance of nuclear morphometric analysis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Studies including larger series of cases investigating detailed nuclear morphometric analysis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors are needed.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  6. Preliminary study of high-speed machining

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, R.E.

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of a high speed machining process has been established for application to Bendix aluminum products, based upon information gained through visits to existing high speed machining facilities and by the completion of a representative Bendix part using this process. The need for an experimental high speed machining capability at Bendix for further process evaluation is established.

  7. Rope Jumping: A Preliminary Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickstrom, Ralph L.

    The basic movement pattern used in skilled individual rope jumping performance was determined and used as a model against which to evaluate the rope jumping form used by children at various levels of skills development. The techniques of adults and nursery school children were filmed and analyzed. The specific causes of unsuccessful attempts were…

  8. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  9. A successful trial utilizing the Leuzinger-Bohleber methodology for evaluation of psychoanalytic treatment: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Rascón, Socorro Ramonet; Corona, Pablo Cuevas; Lartigue, Teresa; Rios, Josefina Mendoza; Garza, David López

    2005-10-01

    Utilizing audio-recorded psychoanalytic interviews of both patients and their analysts, group discussions of these interviews, and the application of questionnaires commonly used in psychotherapy research, the authors investigate the potential use of the Leuzinger-Bohleber methodology as an objective evaluative instrument to assess the quality of psychoanalytic treatment. Preliminary study results were obtained through interviews conducted with seven analysts and their respective patients, three of whom were treated with psychoanalysis (three or more sessions per week, for a duration of no less than one year) and four with psychotherapy (one or two sessions per week, for a duration of no less than one year). Patients were found to be eager to participate, and no adverse experiences were reported by analysts, patients or the research team. In addition to the interviews, further data were obtained through review of mailed-in questionnaires completed by 21 patients. The authors present both preliminary observations regarding the methodology as a whole, as well as the detailed results of one specific case subject treated with psychotherapy. Review of study findings supports the utilization of this methodology as an evaluative instrument which may ultimately advance current knowledge of the process and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment.

  10. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  11. Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a nonprofit…

  12. Oasis Connections: Results from an Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Sara J.; Lee, Chin Chin; Branham, Janice; Remis, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a community-based basic computer and Internet training program designed for older adults, provide recommendations for program refinement, and gather preliminary information on program sustainability. Design and Methods: The program was developed by the OASIS Institute, a nonprofit…

  13. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos

    2014-10-01

    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (< 8% of I.D.) of the instilled particles. The majority of leaked radiocolloid particles were found in inguinal lymph nodes during the 9 months of follow-up. All the animals tolerated the treatment well; the compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  14. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-08-15

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  15. Efficacy of oleuropein against UVB irradiation: preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Perugini, P; Vettor, M; Rona, C; Troisi, L; Villanova, L; Genta, I; Conti, B; Pavanetto, F

    2008-04-01

    Oleuropein, a phenolic compound derived from olive leaves and oil, is known to possess several biological properties, many of which may be attributed to its antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Nevertheless, up to now, the cosmetic activity of this molecule has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cosmetic properties of oleuropein against UVB-induced erythema. To this end, an emulsion and an emulgel containing oleuropein were prepared, applied and evaluated on healthy volunteers who had undergone UVB irradiation to investigate its protective and/or lenitive activity. Protective effect was assayed by application of topical preparations before irradiation and lenitive effect was evaluated after erythema induction. Vitamin E was used as the reference compound. Our study was carried out by using noninvasive techniques to assess specific skin parameters: barrier function, skin colour and microcirculation. Results clearly showed that oleuropein formulations highlighted lenitive efficacy by reducing erythema, transepidermal water loss and blood flow of about 22%, 35% and 30% respectively. The study allowed us to point out the lenitive property of oleuropein, opening the way to further trials to deepen our specific knowledge about this natural molecule, which could be used in association with other active ingredients in cosmetics to repair UV damages.

  16. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, L.J.; Taylor, J.T.

    2000-08-31

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix.

  17. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, Lawrence J; Taylor, Joseph Todd

    2000-08-01

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix.

  18. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  19. Preliminary simulation studies related to the Cerro Prieto Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Rivera, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of preliminary numerical simulations of the behavior of the Cerro Prieto field are discussed. The purpose of these studies is to examine: (1) the effect of using conventional isothermal methods of well test data analysis for geothermal systems, and (2) the influence of recharge from over under underlying aquifers on the temperature of a producing geothermal reservoir. 8 refs.

  20. Student Matriculation: A Proposal to Study a Preliminary Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland, Ronnald W.; Berg, Ernest

    Developed for the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges (CCC) as part of a larger study of academic quality, this report presents a preliminary analysis of student matriculation, a guidance process which brings the student into an agreement with the college for the purpose of achieving the student's educational objectives through…

  1. National Day Care Study: Preliminary Findings and Their Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jeffrey; And Others

    This interim report on the National Day Care Study (NDCS) presents preliminary findings of the 4-year research program designed to answer major policy questions about federal funding of center-based preschool day care. Major NDCS objectives have been to determine the impact of variations in staff-child ratio, group size, and staff size and…

  2. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  3. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  4. Preliminary study on chicken feather protein-based wood adhesives

    Treesearch

    Zehui Jiang; Daochun Qin; Chung-Yun Hse; Monlin Kuo; Zhaohui Luo; Ge Wang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to partially replace phenol in the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin with feather protein. Feather protein–based resins, which contained one part feather protein and two parts phenol, were formulated under the conditions of two feather protein hydrolysis methods (with and without presence of phenol during...

  5. Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Turner, Paul L.; Freeland, Margaret; Corbin, Sara; Driscoll, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This brief paper reports the results of two observational studies examining the impact of fines for youth tobacco possession on public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings are presented that suggest that when police issued warnings and tickets to reduce underage youth possession of tobacco, in both towns the number of youth smoking in public…

  6. Evaluating outcomes of palliative photodynamic therapy: instrument development and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodell, Teresa T.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2002-06-01

    Background: Subjective measures are considered the gold standard in palliative care evaluation, but no studies have evaluated palliative photodynamic therapy (PDT) subjectively. If PDT is to be accepted as a palliative therapy for later-stage obstructing esophageal and lung cancer, evidence of its effectiveness and acceptability to patients must be made known. Study Design/Materials and Methods: This ongoing study's major aim is to evaluate subjective outcomes of PDT in patients with obstructing esophageal and lung cancer. Existing measures of health status, dysphagia and performance status were supplemented with an instrument developed to evaluate PDT symptom relief and side effect burden, the PDT Side Effects Survey (PSES). Results: PDT patients treated with porfimer sodium (Photofrin) and 630-nm light experienced reduced dysphagia grade and stable performance status for at least one month after PDT (N= 10-17), but these effects did not necessarily persist at three months. Fatigue, appetite and quality of life may be the most burdensome issues for these patients. Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that the PSES is an acceptable and valid tool for measuring subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. This study is the first attempt to systematically evaluate subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. Multi-center outcomes research is needed to draw generalizable conclusions that will establish PDT's effectiveness in actual clinical practice and enhance the wider adoption of PDT as a cancer symptom relief modality.

  7. DOE passive-solar class A performance-evaluation program: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunn, B. D.; Turk, W. V.; Wray, W. O.

    1982-08-01

    Elements of the plan for the DOE passive solar class A performance evaluation program are given. A proposed validation methodology, including both analytical and empirical tests, a quantitative definition of validation, minimum data requirements, and a standard reporting format, is outlined. The preliminary testing of this methodology using hourly data from two Class A test facilities is presented. Finally, the collection, analysis, and documentation of preliminary data sets is discussed.

  8. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2. Preliminary program development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary development plan for the Pioneer Venus program is presented. This preliminary plan treats only developmental aspects that would have a significant effect on program cost. These significant development areas were: master program schedule planning; test planning - both unit and system testing for probes/orbiter/ probe bus; ground support equipment; performance assurance; and science integration Various test planning options and test method techniques were evaluated in terms of achieving a low-cost program without degrading mission performance or system reliability. The approaches studied and the methodology of the selected approach are defined.

  9. Real time evaluation of monolateral clubfoot with sonoelastography. Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Masala, Salvatore; Manenti, Guglielmo; Antonicoli, Marco; Morosetti, Daniele; Claroni, Giulia; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose: to assess the real time elastosonography (RTE) as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of mechanical properties of Achilles tendons in patients affected by not surgically treated monolateral clubfoot. Materials and method: six patients were evaluated, four males and two females, mean age 1.2 ± 1.3 months, treated with Ponseti method, and afterward, they underwent RTE examination of the Achilles tendon in club-foot. A following ROI (region of interest) was positioned on the distal third of the tendon and the obtained data was examined retrospectively. Results: in the examined cohort of patients, the mean value ROI 1/mean value ROI 2 ratio was 2.0 ± 0.18, with an increased red area in the RTE evaluation of the affected tendon, while in the contralateral foot the mean observed value was 2.50 ± 2.1. Conclusion: RTE is a feasible and simple technique, which allows the study of the mechanical properties of Achilles tendons in children with clubfoot. PMID:23738274

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a space AMTEC power conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Sievers, Robert K.

    1991-01-01

    As original evaluation of a space solar energy source coupled with Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Conversion (AMTEC) is presented here. This study indicates that an AMTEC system would have 30 percent of the mass of a photovoltaic system and 70 percent of the mass of a Stirling cycle system at the 35-kWe level of power generation modules typical of the baseline for the U.S. Space Station. The operating temperatures and sodium heat pipe components for solar receiver/TES hardware (currently being developed by NASA) integrate well with AMTEC power conversion. AMTEC is therefore an attractive alternative specifically for space solar power generation.

  11. Preliminary toxicological study of ferric acetyl acetonate

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ (lethal does for 50% of the animals occuring with 30 days after compound administration) values for ferric acetyl acetonate were 584 mg/kg in mice and 995 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, this compound would be considered slightly toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing permanent damage to the cornea (inflammation and scarring resulting in blindness). The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show ferric acetyl acetonate to be deleterious in this regard.

  12. Decision Support Systems: A Preliminary Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    goal for data management research is an integrated data system -12- _ _...__ _ _ ... ’ . ENGLISH LOGIC FORMAL DATA LISP OR SUBSET (KOWALSKI LANG FOR...studies are indicated to determine if cannonical forms can be used to make vector operations out of operations like COND (from LISP ). Studies of the...W.W., Boyer, Robert S., and Henneman , William H., (1972), "Computer Proofs of Limits Theorems", A.I. Jour., 3, pp. 27-60. 12. Bledsoe, W.W. and

  13. Restoring accommodation: surgical technique and preliminary evaluation in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahi, Hassan; Chapon, Pascal F.; Hamaoui, Marie; Lee, William E.; Holden, Brien; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose. To evaluate an innovative surgical technique for phaco-ersatz, a cataract surgery designed to restore accommodation. Techniques for very small capsulorhexis as well as the refilling procedure were developed. This study evaluates the feasibility and reproducibility of the surgical technique. Methods. The right eye of 8 NZW rabbits (~ 2 Kg) were operated following the ARVO Statements for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The surgery is begun by making a small peripheral capsulorhexis of about 1 mm using. The lens content is then removed. The lens is then refilled with a novel in situ polymerizable gel and the corneal incision is closed using one 10/0 Nylon interrupted stitch. Results. The capsulorhexis technique was succesfully performed and reproducible in all animals. The average size of the capsulorhexis opening was 1. 2 mm (+/-0.14). Lens material removal and refilling of the capsular bag with an in situ polymerizable material was also performed in each trial study. Conclusion. This surgical technique seemed feasible and reproducible.

  14. Hypocarotenemia after bariatric surgery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Olmedilla-Alonso, B; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B

    2009-07-01

    Dietary carotenoids have attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential clinical relevance in conditions such as age-related maculopathy, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Surgical procedures have become the primary treatment of severe obesity, although nutrient deficiencies are common and long-term metabolic sequelae remain unknown. Thus, our aim was to assess the carotenoid status in serum of subjects after obesity surgery. We evaluated the status of lutein, zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha- and beta-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamins by a quality-controlled high-performance liquid chromatography method in serum of 53 patients. Subjects were consecutively included as they were monitored for nutritional status after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) or biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). Average follow-up time was 18 and 14 months for each protocol, respectively. After obesity surgery, a consistent and continuous decline in all carotenoids to almost undetectable levels occurs, especially in those who underwent BPD diversion who, on average, displayed serum levels about one half to one third of those found in RYGBP patients. The hypocarotenemia observed after bariatric surgery may compromise the availability of carotenoids to tissues and the vitamin A status, reducing the fat-soluble antioxidant capacity and constituting an additional risk factor for several clinical conditions. Given the emerging role of carotenoids in disease prevention, dietary advice on carotenoid-rich and fortified foods or the use of supplements in these patients should be considered.

  15. A preliminary evaluation of a reusable digital sterilization indicator prototype.

    PubMed

    Puttaiah, R; Griggs, J; D'Onofrio, M

    2014-09-01

    Sterilization of critical and semicritical instruments used in patient care must undergo a terminal process of sterilization. Use of chemical and physical indicators are important in providing information on the sterilizer's performance during each cycle. Regular and periodic monitoring of sterilizers using biological indicators is necessary in periodically validating performance of sterilizers. Data loggers or independent digital parametric indicators are innovative devices that provide more information than various classes chemical indicators. In this study we evaluated a prototype of an independent digital parametric indicator's use in autoclaves. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an independent digital indicator/data logger prototype (DS1922F) that could be used for multiple cycles within an autoclave.MG Materials and methods: Three batches of the DS1922F (150 samples) were used in this study that was conducted in a series. The first batch was challenged with 300 sterilization cycles within an autoclave and the data loggers evaluated to study failures and the reason for failure, make corrections and improve the prototype design. After changes made based on studying the first batch, the second batch of the prototype (150 samples) were challenged once again with 300 sterilization cycles within an autoclave and failure studied again in further improvement of the prototype. The final batch (3rd batch) of the prototype (150 samples) was challenged again but with 600 cycles to see how long they would last. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis analyses of all three batches was conducted (α = 0.05) and failed samples qualitatively studied in understanding the variables involved in the failure of the prototype, and in improving quality. Each tested batch provided crucial information on device failure and helped in improvement of the prototype. Mean lifetime survival of the final batch (Batch 3) of prototype was 498 (480, 516) sterilization cycles

  16. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  17. Tetanus seroprevalence among farmers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hayney, Mary S; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Carlberg, Beth M; Buck, Jessica M; Muller, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Farmers are at increased risk of contracting tetanus. However, no difference in immunity to tetanus has been reported between rural and urban dwellers in large epidemiological studies. We hypothesized that tetanus antibody concentrations would be lower in farmers than in nonfarmers within the rural population. We recruited 102 adult subjects attending an agribusiness trade show who identified themselves as farmers in Wisconsin. The nonfarmer group (n = 120) was composed of adults attending the agribusiness show who were not engaged in farming or were participating in another research study. Concentrations of antibody to tetanus toxin (antiTT) in sera were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IBL, Hamburg). AntiTT levels of >0.15 IU/mL were considered protective. The antiTT concentrations for the farmer population (median = 2.74 IU/mL) were much higher than those for the nonfarmer group (median = 1.82 IU/mL) (P<.008). As in other studies, being male, being younger, and having a history of military service were positively correlated with protective antiTT concentrations. However, only farming, age, and the farming-sex interaction term were significantly associated with antiTT concentrations in the multiple-regression model. The farmers we studied had high antiTT concentrations and a high tetanus seroprevalence rate. Occupation may be an important consideration in the development of immunization policies. A broader seroepidemiological study of farmers must be undertaken before any such considerations can be made.

  18. Preliminary study on determining stereotypical motor movements.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Nuno; Rodrigues, José L; Costa, Sandra; Soares, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypical motor movements are one of the most common and least understood behaviors occurring in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). To overcome problems with traditional methods for measuring stereotypical motor movements in persons with ASD, the Kinect sensor from Microsoft and gesture recognition algorithms were used to automatically detect hand flapping. This study provides a valuable tool to monitor stereotypes in order to understand and to cope with this problem. At the end it facilitates to identify behavioral patterns especially relevant when studying interaction skills in children with ASD.

  19. Engineering Technology Education Study. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    This is the half-way report of a 2-year study of engineering technology education that began in August 1969. The various sections include: (1) the history, traditions and transitions of engineering technology education; (2) abstracts of 4 important reports of technology education since 1960; (3) recent trends in the field; (4) goals, objectives,…

  20. Preliminary Study of Child's Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumoto, Kazuko

    1984-01-01

    A naturalistic study looked at the acquisition of English by two Japanese boys, aged 4 and 8 years, during a 2.5-year stay in the United States. Data were collected through observation and transcription of spontaneous speech in daily life. Analysis included a variety of features of language use and of the acquisition process, including attitudes…

  1. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  2. A Preliminary Evaluation of Reach: Training Early Childhood Teachers to Support Children's Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Patrick, Terese; Kyzer, Angela; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and preliminary evaluation of the Reaching Educators and Children (REACH) program, a training and coaching intervention designed to increase the capacity of early childhood teachers to support children's social and emotional development. We evaluated REACH with 139 teachers of toddler and…

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a proposed injection site in Mellones

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, N.V.; Rada, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    A hydrogeological evaluation was carried out in the Melones area to determine the feasibility of disposing brackish water and brines associated with oil production activities. The region is located towards north-central Hamaca, in the Anzoategui state, and covers an area of approximately 454 km{sup 2}. The study was based on the examination and interpretation of available stratigraphic and structural maps, well logs and formation water analysis. Engineering properties were estimated from 42 wells, selected from a total of 575 wells, where complete sets of well logs were available. The most suitable injection interval, integrated by the 02/3, D1-D2-D3-D4 and E1-E2 sands from the upper part of the Oficina Formation, was selected by addressing certain technical requirements for suitable potential disposal sites and injection intervals. A two-dimensional finite difference flow model was used to simulate the long-term hydraulic head buildup under projected operating conditions. After examination of the important characteristics considered in the evaluation process, it appears that the Melones area favorably meets most criteria.

  4. Fabrication and Preliminary Evaluation of Metal Matrix Microencapsulated Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A; Kiggans, Jim; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The metal matrix microencapsulated (M3) fuel concept for light water reactors (LWRs), consisting of coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix, is introduced. Fabrication of M3 fuels by hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, or extrusion methodologies has been demonstrated over the temperature range 800-1050 C. Various types of coated fuel particles with outermost layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, ZrC, and TiN have been incorporated into the zirconium metal matrix. Mechanical particle-particle and chemical particle-matrix interactions have been observed during the preliminary characterization of as-fabricated M3 specimens. Irradiation of three M3 rodlets with surrogate coated fuel particles was carried out at mean rod temperature of 400 C to 4.6 dpa in the zirconium metal matrix. Due to absence of texture in the metal matrix no irradiation growth strain (<0.09%) was detected during the post-irradiation examination.

  5. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    documents the extensive evaluation which was performed on the anticipated environmental impacts of that plant. This source can be referenced in the open literature and is publicly available. The CRBRP design was also of a commercial demonstration plant size - 975 MWth - which falls in the middle of the range of ABR plant sizes being considered (250 MWth to 2000 MWth). At the time the project was cancelled, the CRBRP had progressed to the point of having completed the licensing application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and was in the process of receiving NRC approval. Therefore, it was felt that [CRBRP, 1977] provides some of the best available data and information as input to the GNEP PEIS work. CRBRP was not the source of all the information in this document. It is also expected that the CRBRP data will be bounding from the standpoint of commodity usage because fast reactor vendors will develop designs which will focus on commodity and footprint reduction to reduce the overall cost per kilowatt electric compared with the CRBR plant. Other sources used for this datacall information package are explained throughout this document and in Appendix A. In particular, see Table A.1 for a summary of the data sources used to generate the datacall information.

  6. Preliminary study of possible ORELA replacement options

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Martin, J.A.; Horen, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Based on two conceptual design studies performed by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division, the possibilities in terms of accelerator systems for replacing ORELA with a more intense Maxwellian-type continuous-energy neutron source are summarized and discussed. The neutron intensities from ORELA are compared with those from existing or potential accelerator systems used for cross-section and condensed-matter studies. The best replacement options seem to involve a spallation source from 200- to 400-MeV protons on an ORELA-like target. Pulsing and intensity desiderata with such a source are discussed which correspond to a spectrum-averaged 100-fold improved figure of merit over ORELA for TOF measurements with only a tenfold increased source strength. Existing accelerator designs seem to be inadequate for such a source. Consequently, two conceptual designs were developed for this study by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division. The first conceptual design is for a 200-MeV large linac capable of accelerating 1.3 A during a macropulse; this linac standing alone could serve as an ORELA replacement source. The second conceptual design is for a much smaller 250-MeV PIGMI linac with a 28-mA macropulse current which feeds a proton accumulator ring and bunch-compressor transport line. This linac-ring-compressor (LIRIC) option would give a more cost-effective neutron source for cross-section measurements, whereas the large linac, or a modified version of it, would give a much simpler system more suitable for expansion. In particular, both conceptual designs would incorporate the present ORELA building and would provide approximately 100-fold improved neutron sources over ORELA for cross-section measurements. The total estimated cost of the LIRIC system would be $43M (1984), whereas the cost of the large linac would be about a factor of two more. 55 references, 11 figures, 19 tables.

  7. Preliminary Study for Technology Enhanced Learning: Comparative Study of England and Northern Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenekeci, Ebru Heyberi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary study findings from an ongoing PhD study. In this paper, the researcher presents the preliminary study that was carried out with a number of schools in England and Northern Cyprus in order to identify the background or big pictures of each country in terms of available ICT tools that are…

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Fast ForWord-Language as an Adjuvant Treatment in Language Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fey, Marc E.; Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Popescu, Mihai; Lewine, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L) is designed to enhance children's processing of auditory–verbal signals and, thus, their ability to learn language. As a preliminary evaluation of this claim, we examined the effects of a 5-week course of FFW-L as an adjuvant treatment with a subsequent 5-week conventional narrative-based language intervention (NBLI) that targeted narrative comprehension and production and grammatical output. Method Twenty-three children 6–8 years of age with language impairments were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 intervention sequences: (a) FFW-L/NBLI, (b) NBLI/FFW-L, or (c) wait/NBLI. We predicted that after both treatment periods, the FFW-L/NBLI group would show greater gains on measures of narrative ability, conversational grammar, and nonword repetition than the other groups. Results After the first 5-week study period, the intervention groups, taken together (i.e., FFW-L/NBLI and NBLI/FFW-L), significantly outperformed the no-treatment wait/NBLI group on 2 narrative measures. At the final test period, all 3 groups displayed significant time-related effects on measures of narrative ability, but there were no statistically significant between-groups effects of intervention sequence. Conclusions This preliminary study provides no evidence to support the claim that FFW-L enhances children's response to a conventional language intervention. PMID:19696435

  9. Development and preliminary evaluation of the existential meaning scale.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Debra E; Younger, Janet

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Existential Meaning Scale (EMS). Construct validity of the EMS was examined through factor analysis and correlational analyses with theoretically related instruments. After several weak items were deleted, the 20-item scale had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of > .80 in an overall sample of 418 individuals. Scores on the EMS were significantly lower in a sample of persons with HIV-1 infection than in the general population samples. Although its initial psychometric properties were satisfactory, additional validation of the EMS is necessary in other clinical populations to examine further the psychometric properties of the EMS. In addition, further examination of the responsiveness of the EMS over time is needed to evaluate its potential utility in longitudinal trials.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Nonlinear Effects on TCA Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arslan, Alan E.; Hartwich, Peter M.; Baker, Myles L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of nonlinear aerodynamics, especially at high angles-of-attack with leading-edge separation, on the TCA flutter properties at transonic speeds. In order to achieve that objective, flutter simulations with Navier-Stokes CFD must be performed. To this end, time-marching Navier-Stokes solutions are computed for the TCA wing/body configuration at high angles-of-attack in transonic flight regimes. The approach is to perform non-linear flutter calculations on the TCA at two angles-of-attack, the first one being a case with attached flow (a=2.8 degrees) and the second one being a high angle-of-attack case with a wing leading edge vortex (a=12.11 degrees). Comparisons of the resulting histories and frequency damping information for both angles-of-attack will evaluate the impact of high-alpha aerodynamics on flutter.

  11. Preliminary study of disc hydrodynamic polishing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lin, Bin; Zhang, XiaoFeng; Liu, PengFei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles. Fused-silica glass is chosen as the workpiece. After the experiments, an ultrasmooth surface without cracks is obtained. The simulation results principally coincide with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the actual roughness is slightly less than the prediction and smaller particles are more favorable for obtaining a better surface roughness.

  12. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOTS OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS, LINN.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sourabh; Lavhale, Manish; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    The roots of Cocculus hirsutus (Linn) Diels was analyzed for preliminary phytochemical studies including physical constant (total ash, acid soluble and insoluble ash and moisture content), extractive values in different solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water), and phytochemical tests. The plant is well reputed in traditional system of medicine, present studies will help in further validation and standardization of the plant. PMID:22557132

  13. A preliminary study of tidal current ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenxia; Xia, Dongxing

    1985-06-01

    Tidal current ridges, widely distributed geomorphological phenomena over the continental shelf of the world, are studied. They are formed by tidal current and the trend of their sand bodies runs parallel to the direction of tidal current. There are two types of the plane shapes: the parallel and the fingered. Conditions of forming tidal current ridges are the velocities of tidal current ranging from 1 to 3.5 knots and the supply of abundant sediments. Tidal current ridges often develop in following morphological locations: the bays, estuaries, the mouths of channels, as well as the offshore area with strong tidal current. Tidal current ridges occur generally at a water depth of less than 35 metres. The sediments of tidal current ridges are mainly composed of sand. The grain size of the sediments is uniform and well sorted. The characteristics of grain size of the sand imply that their formation mechanism is similar to that of river sand, that is, both of them are the result of flow movements in a trongth channel controlled by boundary. There is however difference between them that the river sand is formed by one-way flow movement while the tidal current sand by two-way movement. There are two saltation populations in the log-probability curves of tidal current sand, the sorting of first saltation population is better than the second one, and having positive skewness, which differs from beach sand. In the C-M grain size pattern tidal current sand is most found in graded suspension segment. The continental shelves of the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea have favourable conditions for developing tidal current ridges in massive scale and special shape, such as the tidal current ridges in the offshore of Jiangsu, the Gulf of Korea, the shoal of Liaodong, the east and west mouths of the channel of Qiongzhou, Jiaozhou Bay, the shoal of Taiwan, Lingdingyang, the north branch of Changjiang estuary. The studies of them are of vital significance in

  14. Preliminary Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.

  15. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E

    1984-02-01

    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  16. Spectral detection of thalassemia: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thalassemias (Thal) are forms of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorders arising out of mutations in the chromosomes 11 or 16. These disorders lead to poor oxygen delivery to blood vessels and consequent splenomegaly, bone deformities, and shorter life spans. The most common detection methods for Thal are complete blood count (CBC) followed by electrophoresis and molecular diagnosis methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping. These methods involve sophisticated instrumentations and are cumbersome and expensive. Results In this study an innovative spectral detection method, based on the fluorescence spectra of a set of biomolecules (tyrosine, tryptophan, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide and porphyrins) found in blood components is presented. An algorithm based on the spectral features of such biomolecules of blood components of 20 Thal patients (10 female and 10 male) and 18 age adjusted normal controls (4 female and 14 male) demonstrate reasonable level of classification with sensitivity and specificity values exceeding 90%. Conclusion This new technique could be of significant value for Thal detection, diagnosis, and subsequent genetic counselling and could be adapted for use in small primary health centres. PMID:24679334

  17. Hearing loss in singers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Amanda; Hofmann, Erik; Davis, John; Capo, Joseph; Krane, Natalie; Sataloff, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Singers need good hearing; however, they may be exposed to loud noises during their musical activities. The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence and type of hearing loss (HL) in singers. Retrospective case cohort. Billing records identified patients who had undergone videostroboscopy and audiogram during the same visit over a 3 year period. A singer was defined as anyone who self-identified as a singer (professional or avocational). Age and gender matched nonsingers were used as controls. Patients with otologic diagnoses, surgery, or complaints were excluded. Retrospective chart review was conducted for the presence of HL, type of HL, and pure tones audiogram results. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, Students t test, chi-square test, and Fisher exact test. Of 172 singers (44.7 years, 37.8% male), 31 (17.5%) had HL. Pure tone thresholds for the singers with HL subgroup at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were 21.0, 26.5, and 34.4 dB in the right, and 22.8, 30.3, and 38.8 dB in the left ear, respectively. Older age (P = 0.000000000000001), male gender (P < 0.001), longer number of years of singing (P = 0.0000000003), and baritone voice (P < 0.001) were associated with HL. There was no association with genre of music. When compared with controls, the incidence of HL (19.8%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.300, P = 0.58). Pure tones at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were not significantly different than controls with HL. Most common type of HL in singers was bilateral sensorineural (83.9%), which was significantly higher than controls (39.0%, χ2 = 14.6, P < 0.001). The incidence of HL in singers was 17.5%, which was not significantly different from controls. Bilateral sensorineural HL was most common. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary 2D design study for A&PCT

    SciTech Connect

    Keto, E.; Azevedo, S.; Roberson, P.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing and constructing a tomographic scanner to obtain the most accurate possible assays of radioactivity in barrels of nuclear waste in a limited amount of time. This study demonstrates a method to explore different designs using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In particular, we examine the trade-off between spatial resolution and signal-to-noise. The simulations are conducted in two dimensions as a preliminary study for three dimensional imaging. We find that the optimal design is entirely dependent on the expected source sizes and activities. For nuclear waste barrels, preliminary results indicate that collimators with widths of 1 to 3 inch and aspect ratios of 5:1 to 10:1 should perform well. This type of study will be repeated in 3D in more detail to optimize the final design.

  19. Evaluating fatigue in lupus-prone mice: preliminary assessments.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Allison; Larson, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating condition suffered by many as the result of chronic disease, yet relatively little is known about its biological basis or how to effectively manage its effects. This study sought to evaluate chronic fatigue by using lupus-prone mice and testing them at three different time periods. Lupus-prone mice were chosen because fatigue affects over half of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Eleven MLR⁺/(+) (genetic controls) and twelve MLR/MpJ-Fas/J (MRL/lpr; lupus-prone) mice were tested three times: once at 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age. All mice were subjected to a variety of behavioral tests including: forced swim, post-swim grooming, running wheel, and sucrose consumption; five of the MLR⁺/(+) and five of the MLR/lpr mice were also tested on a fixed ratio-25 operant conditioning task. MRL/lpr mice showed more peripheral symptoms of lupus than controls, particularly lymphadenopathy and proteinuria. Lupus mice spent more time floating during the forced swim test and traveled less distance in the running wheel at each testing period. There were no differences between groups in post-swim grooming or in number of reinforcers earned in the operant conditioning task indicating the behavioral changes were not likely due simply to muscle weakness or motivation. Correlations between performance in the running wheel, forced swim test and sucrose consumption were conducted and distance traveled in the running wheel was consistently negatively correlated with time spent floating. Based on these data, we conclude that the lupus-prone mice were experiencing chronic fatigue and that running wheel activity and floating during a forced swim test can be used to evaluate fatigue, although these data cannot rule out the possibility that both fatigue and a depressive-like state were mediating these effects.

  20. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Alocasia indica Schott tuber.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Khirul; Mahmud, Imran; Saha, Sanjib; Sarker, Asit Baron; Mondal, Himangsu; Monjur-Al-Hossain, A S M; Anisuzzman, Md

    2013-09-01

    To elucidate potential antioxidant, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of Alocasia indica Schott tuber in different experimental models established in vitro and in vivo. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Phenolic content was estimated by using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent while reducing ability was measured by ferric reducing power assay. In vivo antidiarrheal studies were carried out in mice, and the activity was evaluated in castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. Disk diffusion assay was utilized to determine antibacterial activity against a number of pathogenic bacterial strains. Acute toxicity test was carried out to measure the safe doses for the extract. In DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the extract exhibited strong radical-scavenging activity with the 50% inhibitory concentration value of 42.66 μg/mL. Total phenolic content was found to be 542.26 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dried tuber extract, whereas flavonoid content was found to be 4.30 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried tuber extract. In reducing power assay, the extract showed strong reducing power in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced the latent period and decreased defecation in both castor oil- and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. The extract also lessened gastrointestinal motility in mice. Potential antibacterial activity was exhibited by the extract against all the tested bacterial strains in disk diffusion assay. The 50% lethal concentration against brine shrimp nauplii was 81.09 μg/mL. The results demonstrated that the ethanol extract of A. indica has potential antioxidant, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antibacterial activity.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the persistence of organic gunshot residue.

    PubMed

    Arndt, James; Bell, Suzanne; Crookshanks, Lindsey; Lovejoy, Marco; Oleska, Casey; Tulley, Tanya; Wolfe, Drew

    2012-10-10

    The organic components of gunshot residue (OGSR, also called firearms discharge residue (FDR) or cartridge discharge residue (CDR)) have been studied and discussed in the literature. These residues, consisting of particulates such as burned and unburned powder as well as molecular compounds, are rarely used in casework except for purposes such as shooting reconstructions. Molecular compounds that survive the firing event or that are created as a result of the firing event could, with focused research and development, open a new avenue for forensic gunshot residue analysis. In this study, the persistence of organic gunshot residue was evaluated using diphenylamine (DPA) as a target analyte and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as the detection system. Samples were collected from hands using a solvent swabbing technique and the swab was analyzed using direct thermal desorption for sample introduction into the IMS. OGSR was found to persist for at least 4 h. Although DPA is a widely used industrial compound, analysis of numerous blank and background samples (n∼100) did not show any significant response for DPA using this detector. Variations were noted among individuals and as such, the data set does not support estimation of a half-life as has been done for traditional primer residues. No secondary transfers were observed, suggesting the possibility of skin adhesion via interactions between the lipophilic organic compounds and skin lipids. IMS proved valuable as a means of generating patterns for forensic pattern matching and shows promise as a screening tool applied to firearms discharge.

  2. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  3. Chemical components of shredded paper insulation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kelman, B J; Swenson, L J; Uppala, L V; Cohen, J M; Millette, J R; Mueller, W F

    1999-03-01

    We conducted an evaluation of shredded paper insulation to identify potentially toxic components. The study was to provide a preliminary characterization of a few samples of insulation currently in use. The following samples were analyzed: previously produced insulation (PPI) containing fire retardants, shredded recycled paper (PPI feedstock), freshly produced insulation (FPI), and insulation which had been installed in a residence (II). Volatile constituents were analyzed by GC-MS from headspace air of samples held at room temperature or heated to 90 degrees C. Extractable constituents were sampled by extracting with methylene chloride, and analyzing by GC-MS. Formaldehyde analysis was done according to EPA Method TO11. Headspace air at room temperature contained no detectable quantities of volatile constituents for any sample measured. In headspace air at 90 degrees C, only PPI contained traces of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes, and FPI traces of toluene. Extracts of PPI contained traces of octadecadienoic acid methyl ester and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes. Extracts of PPI feedstock contained traces of a substituted cyclohexenecarboxylic acid. FPI contained extractable diethyl phthalate (30-50 micrograms/g). Extracts of II contained traces of methyl palmitate, an octadecenoic acid methyl ester, and a phthalate plasticizer. No formaldehyde was detected. PPI was composed of approximately 98 percent paper fiber and 2 percent pre-gelatinized starch. PPI samples agglomerated together with less than 0.01 percent separating from clumps as fine dust. Boron and sodium were expected and confirmed because they were added to PPI and FPI as fire retardants. Chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and silicon were present at detectable concentrations. Study calculations indicate that an occupant would have to completely consume all the fine particles produced from 3.3 kg of insulation per day to

  4. Preliminary supersonic flight test evaluation of performance seeking control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1993-01-01

    Digital flight and engine control, powerful onboard computers, and sophisticated controls techniques may improve aircraft performance by maximizing fuel efficiency, maximizing thrust, and extending engine life. An adaptive performance seeking control system for optimizing the quasi-steady state performance of an F-15 aircraft was developed and flight tested. This system has three optimization modes: minimum fuel, maximum thrust, and minimum fan turbine inlet temperature. Tests of the minimum fuel and fan turbine inlet temperature modes were performed at a constant thrust. Supersonic single-engine flight tests of the three modes were conducted using varied after burning power settings. At supersonic conditions, the performance seeking control law optimizes the integrated airframe, inlet, and engine. At subsonic conditions, only the engine is optimized. Supersonic flight tests showed improvements in thrust of 9 percent, increases in fuel savings of 8 percent, and reductions of up to 85 deg R in turbine temperatures for all three modes. The supersonic performance seeking control structure is described and preliminary results of supersonic performance seeking control tests are given. These findings have implications for improving performance of civilian and military aircraft.

  5. Clinical laboratory evaluation of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy: Preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney; Imrich, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Several forms of chronic autonomic failure manifest as neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, including autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) and pure autonomic failure (PAF). AAG and PAF are thought to differ in pathogenesis, AAG reflecting decreased ganglionic neurotransmission due to circulating antibodies to the neuronal nicotinic receptor and PAF being a Lewy body disease with prominent loss of sympathetic noradrenergic nerves. AAG therefore would be expected to differ from PAF in terms of clinical laboratory findings indicating postganglionic noradrenergic denervation. Both diseases are rare. Here we report preliminary observations about clinical physiologic, neuropharmacologic, neurochemical, and neuroimaging data that seem to fit with the hypothesized pathogenetic difference between AAG and PAF. Patients with either condition have evidence of baroreflex–sympathoneural and baroreflex–cardiovagal failure. Both disorders feature low plasma levels of catecholamines during supine rest, but plasma levels of the other endogenous catechols, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), seem to be lower in PAF than in AAG, probably reflecting decreased norepinephrine synthesis and turnover in PAF, due to diffuse sympathetic noradrenergic denervation. PAF entails cardiac sympathetic denervation, whereas cardiac sympathetic neuroimaging by thoracic 6-[18F]fluorodopamine scanning indicates intact myocardial sympathetic innervation in AAG. PMID:19155193

  6. Preliminary dose comparisons for the MRS Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides preliminary information on the radiological doses to the public and the workers for alternative system configurations proposed in the MRS Systems Study. Information published in the MRS Environmental Assessment (DOE 1986) was used as a basis for this analysis. The risk differences between alternative configurations were found to be small and should not be viewed as a major factor in selecting alternative configurations. 1 ref.

  7. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Moore, T. J.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of gaseous contaminants through the working fluid to or from sensitive refractory alloys is theoretically possible during long time operation of Brayton and Stirling space power generation systems which use a gas as the working fluid. A test was designed which could give an answer to whether transport of contaminants through the working fluid was a potential major problem. The findings of that preliminary study are summarized.

  8. Mortar radiocarbon dating: preliminary accuracy evaluation of a novel methodology.

    PubMed

    Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Nonni, Sara; Passariello, Isabella; Capano, Manuela; Terrasi, Filippo

    2011-03-15

    Mortars represent a class of building and art materials that are widespread at archeological sites from the Neolithic period on. After about 50 years of experimentation, the possibility to evaluate their absolute chronology by means of radiocarbon ((14)C) remains still uncertain. With the use of a simplified mortar production process in the laboratory environment, this study shows the overall feasibility of a novel physical pretreatment for the isolation of the atmospheric (14)CO(2) (i.e., binder) signal absorbed by the mortars during their setting. This methodology is based on the assumption that an ultrasonic attack in liquid phase isolates a suspension of binder carbonates from bulk mortars. Isotopic ((13)C and (14)C), % C, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed to characterize the proposed methodology. The applied protocol allows suppression of the fossil carbon (C) contamination originating from the incomplete burning of the limestone during the quick lime production, providing unbiased dating for "laboratory" mortars produced operating at historically adopted burning temperatures.

  9. A preliminary evaluation of the nonfuel mineral potential of Somalia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Additional exploration in Somalia is warranted for a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic deposits. In Precambrian rocks, deposit types favorable for exploration include: a banded iron formation; platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes; tin-bearing quartz veins; phosphorite; stratabound base-metal deposits; uranium associated with Precambrian(?) syenite; apatite, molybdenum, and alumina in alkalic rocks; Jurassic and Cretaceous black shales; possible bedded-barite and massive base- and precious-metal sulfide deposits; vein barite in Tertiary rocks in fault zones; sepiolite and bentonite for drilling muds and other industrial uses; celestite; possible Tertiary zeolite; and uranium deposits. Several of these deposit types could be Jointly developed and integrated into domestic industries; for example, phosphate and gypsum, or bentonite for pelletized iron from the banded iron deposits. Other deposits such as barite and sepiolite are of value because of their proximity to major drilling operations in the Arabian Gulf. Still other deposits, such as alumina and banded iron, might be marketable because of proximity to aluminum and iron-refining industries now being constructed in Saudi Arabia. Some deposits, such as celestite, can be developed with little capital investment; others, such as the iron deposits, would require large capital commitments. Exploration and evaluation for many of these deposits can be accomplished by Somali geologists with a few advisors. Most of the deposits require feasibility studies conducted by teams of economic geologists, extractive metallurgists, and economists. Some marginal deposits could be exploited if cooperative development schemes could be negotiated with governments in nearby countries.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of a two-interval, two-alternative infant behavioral testing procedurea)

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Jenna; Buss, Emily; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of an observer-based, two-interval forced-choice infant psychophysical testing procedure. Ten of 11 infants (7–9 months of age) achieved a criterion of 80%-correct detection of a 50-dB sound pressure level noise band in a single testing session. Fewer trials were needed to reach criterion using the two-interval procedure than previously reported for the single-interval observer-based psychophysical procedure [Olsho, Koch, Halpin, and Carter (1987). Devel. Psychol. 23, 627–640]. These results provide preliminary evidence that the two-interval procedure is feasible and efficient while controlling for observer and listener response bias. PMID:25190427

  11. Sexual violence therapy group in a women's correctional facility: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Marie E; Bridges, Ana J; Bell, Jessica; Petretic, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    This pilot study was an evaluation of an 8-week exposure-based therapy group targeting sexual trauma in incarcerated women, an underserved population with high rates of trauma exposure. Preliminary findings from 14 female prisoners showed significant decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Of the women who were above the screening cutoff for possible posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 13), depression (n = 12), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 12) at pretreatment, approximately 60% had recovered, meaning they had symptom reductions that placed them below the cutoff at posttreatment (n = 8 for PTSD; n = 8 for depression, and n = 9 for GAD). In addition, 85% of participants reported a clinically significant reduction in depressive symptoms and 50% in GAD symptoms. The findings show promise for successful group treatment of sexual violence sequelae in incarcerated women.

  12. (11)C-labeling and preliminary evaluation of vortioxetine as a PET radioligand.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Valdemar L; Hansen, Hanne D; Herth, Matthias M; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2014-06-01

    Vortioxetine is a new multi-modal drug against major depressive disorder with high affinity for a range of different serotonergic targets in the CNS. We report the (11)C-labeling of vortioxetine with [(11)C]MeI using a Suzuki-protocol that allows for the presence of an unprotected amine. Preliminary evaluation of [(11)C]vortioxetine in a Danish Landrace pig showed rapid brain uptake and brain distribution in accordance with the pharmacological profile, all though an unexpected high binding in cerebellum was also observed. [(11)C]vortioxetine displayed slow tracer kinetics with peak uptake after 60 min and with limited wash-out from the brain. Further studies are needed but this radioligand may prove to be a valuable tool in unraveling the clinical effects of vortioxetine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Infrared laser sealing of porcine tissues: preliminary in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Perkins, William C.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    We are exploring infrared (IR) lasers as an alternative energy modality to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices intended to provide rapid surgical hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1470-nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm in 2 s, yielding burst pressures < 1200 mmHg (compared to normal systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg) and thermal coagulation zones < 3 mm (including the seal). This preliminary study describes in vivo testing of a laser probe in a porcine model. A prototype, fiber optic based handheld probe with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on blood vessels < 6 mm diameter using incident 1470-nm laser power of 35 W for 1-5 s. The probe was evaluated for hemostasis after sealing isolated and bundled vasculature of abdomen and hind leg, as well as liver and lung parenchyma. Sealed vessel samples were collected for histological analysis of lateral thermal damage. Hemostasis was achieved in 57 of 73 seals (78%). The probe consistently sealed vasculature in small bowel mesentery, mesometrium, and gastro splenic and epiploic regions. Seal performance was less consistent on hind leg vasculature including saphenous arteries and bundles and femoral and iliac arteries. Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 mm in 8 samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels in vivo. With further improvements in probe design and laser parameter optimization, IR lasers may provide an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices.

  14. Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, Arnold E.; Kohl, Robert C.

    1959-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented covering the performance of a low-speed, five-cylinder piston pump designed for handling boiling hydrogen. This pump was designed for a flow of 55 gallons per minute at 240 rpm with a discharge pressure of 135 pounds per square inch. Tests were made using JP-4 fuel, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Pump delivery and endurance characteristics were satisfactory for the range of operation covered. In connection with the foregoing pump development, the cavitation characteristics of a preliminary visual model, glass-cylinder pump and of a simple reciprocating disk were studied. Subcooling of approximately 0.60 F was obtained from the cavitation produced by reciprocating a disk in boiling nitrogen and in boiling water. The subcooling obtained in a similar manner with liquid hydrogen was somewhat less.

  15. Qualitative process evaluation of urban community work: a preliminary view.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Noel J; Senturia, Kirsten; Tang, Gary; Gheisar, Bookda

    2002-04-01

    Community-based and participatory research have become significant activities during the past 15 years as public health practitioners and researchers have sought new ways to provide effective disease prevention and health promotion programs. It is also important that more examples of evaluation schemes be contributed for field testing. The process evaluation model offered here was based on an eclectic literature search because the evaluators did not know what directions this Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded Urban Research Center would take and wanted to be thorough. Participatory action research using predominantly qualitative methods provided a research approach congruent with the capacity-building and power-sharing principles of the center. Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities is not a traditional community project, acting primarily as a broker for expertise and community needs. However, it has been successful in supporting and evaluating community health projects.

  16. Preliminary ultrasound evaluation of the rotator cable in asymptomatic volunteers().

    PubMed

    Orlandi, D; Sconfienza, L M; Fabbro, E; Ferrero, G; Martini, C; Lacelli, F; Serafini, G; Silvestri, E

    2012-02-01

    To characterize the rotator cable high-resolution ultrasound appearance in asymptomatic shoulders of volunteers of different age. IRB approval and volunteers' written consent was obtained. Excluding subjects with known shoulder affections, we screened 24 asymptomatic volunteers. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons high-resolution ultrasound evaluation was performed according to standard scan protocols, further excluding shoulders with partial/full-thickness cuff tears. Thus, we studied 24 shoulders in 12 young volunteers (age range 21-39 years, mean age 33 ± 8 years) and 21 shoulders in 11 elderly volunteers (age range 62-83 years, mean age 75 ± 45 years). For each shoulder, we noted rotator cable visibility and its thickness and width. Fisher's and U Mann-Whitney statistics were used. Rotator cable was less frequently detected in young than in elderly volunteers (5/24 vs. 11/21 shoulders; P = 0.034). When detected, rotator cable was significantly thicker in young (range 1.2-1.5 mm, mean thickness 1.3 ± 0.1 mm) than in elderly (range 0.9-1.4 mm, mean thickness 1.2 ± 0.1 mm) volunteers (P = 0.025), while its width was not significantly different in young (range 4.5-7.1 mm, mean 5.6 ± 1.1 mm) compared to elderly (range 2.5-7.1 mm, mean 4.2 ± 1.4 mm) volunteers (P = 0.074) although a tendency can be highlighted. Ultrasound demonstrated the different consistency of rotator cable in young and elderly asymptomatic patients, with high interobserver reproducibility.

  17. Description and Preliminary Training Evaluation of an Arc Welding Simulator. Research Report SRR 73-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    A prototype arc welding training simulator was designed to provide immediate, discriminative feedback and the capacity for concentrated practice. Two randomly selected groups of welding trainees were compared to evaluate the simulator, one group being trained using the simulator and the other using conventional practice. Preliminary data indicated…

  18. A Preliminary Evaluation of Fast ForWord-Language as an Adjuvant Treatment in Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Marc E.; Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Popescu, Mihai; Lewine, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L) is designed to enhance children's processing of auditory-verbal signals and, thus, their ability to learn language. As a preliminary evaluation of this claim, we examined the effects of a 5-week course of FFW-L as an adjuvant treatment with a subsequent 5-week conventional narrative-based language…

  19. Preliminary safety evaluation for the spent nuclear fuel project`s cold vacuum drying system

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) considers only the Cold Vacuum Drying System (CVDS) facility and its mission as it relates to the integrated process strategy (WHC 1995). The purpose of the PSE is to identify those CBDS design functions that may require safety- class and safety-significant accident prevention and mitigation features.

  20. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  1. An Evaluation of Migrant Head Start Programs. Appendices. Preliminary Report on Home Base Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes (J.A.) Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Utilizing specially designed interview schedules to evaluate the kinds of services children and families receive from various Migrant Head Start programs throughout the country, this preliminary report on home base findings consists of questions asked of the staff at every Migrant Head Start site across the country and questions asked of parents…

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  3. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  4. Notification: Preliminary Research to Evaluate EPA's Response to Contamination From Historical Lead Smelters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY13-0023, June 6, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research to evaluate the EPA’s response to contamination from historical lead smelters.

  5. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming.

  6. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G.

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the concrete wall) of the

  7. Preliminary ride-quality evaluation of the HM.2 Hoverferry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclurken, E. W., Jr.; Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a forty-minute exposure of the HM.2 Hoverferry are presented. Quantitative evaluations were made from aft seats on the starboard side for a sea state considered calm and visually estimated at one-half to one foot. Since this type of craft is sensitive to sea state, the conclusions are based on ideal conditions. Some drawings are included.

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of a Multimedia Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; Espelage, Dorothy; DuBay, Tracy; Daytner, Gary; Karageorge, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of Smart Talk, a computer-based violence prevention program for adolescents. Control and intervention-group middle-school students completed assessments before and after program implementation. Results indicated that the intervention successfully diminished intervention students' beliefs supporting violence and increased…

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Image Data Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the ability to monitor renewable resources/vegegation due to improvements in the spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of TM data were evaluated. Results presented from the first 4 months of analysis presented include: (1) geometric performance; (2) band-to-band registration; (3) modulation transfer function; and (4) crop separabililty performance. Crop separability in Webster County, Iowa and in Mississippi County, Arkansas as determined by cluster and principal components analyses is assessed.

  10. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  11. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong; Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  12. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, Richard S.

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  13. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K.; Simon, K.; Frye, L.

    1994-11-01

    The authors have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2{prime} x 2{prime} {times} l{prime} HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to the authors specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. The authors suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  14. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  15. World Opinion and the Soviet Satellite: A Preliminary Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Less than two weeks after the launch of Sputnik I, the United States Information Agency conducted an informal analysis of public opinion on this subject. The analysis yielded four clear conclusions: (1) Soviet claims of scientific and technological superiority were widely accepted in the United States; (2) U.S. allies were concerned about a shift in the balance of military power; (3) the overall credibility of Soviet propaganda was greatly strengthened; and (4) American prestige was dealt a severe blow. The report also concluded that the near-hysteria in the United States in turn increased the level of concern in countries friendly to the United States. An evaluation is presented.

  16. Preliminary surface-emitting laser logic device evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libby, S. I.; Parker, M. A.; Olbright, G. R.; Swanson, P. D.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the evaluation of a monolithically integrated heterojunction phototransistor and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser, designated the surface-Emitting Laser Logic device (CELL). Included is a discussion of the device structure and theory of operation, test procedures, results, and conclusions. Also presented is the CELL's opto-electronic input/output characteristics which includes spectral analysis, characteristic emitted light versus current and current versus voltage curves, input wavelength tolerance, output wavelength sensitivity to bias current, and insensitivity to input wavelength and power within a specified range.

  17. Preliminary flight evaluation of an engine performance optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, H. H.; Gilyard, G. B.; Chisholm, J. D.; Kerr, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    A performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm has undergone initial flight test evaluation in subsonic operation of a PW 1128 engined F-15. This algorithm is designed to optimize the quasi-steady performance of an engine for three primary modes: (1) minimum fuel consumption; (2) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT); and (3) maximum thrust. The flight test results have verified a thrust specific fuel consumption reduction of 1 pct., up to 100 R decreases in FTIT, and increases of as much as 12 pct. in maximum thrust. PSC technology promises to be of value in next generation tactical and transport aircraft.

  18. Preliminary sensory evaluation of edible flowers from wild Allium species.

    PubMed

    D'Antuono, L Filippo; Manco, Manuela Agata

    2013-11-01

    The use of edible flowers as an aesthetic and flavour component of specific dishes is gaining popularity, and their production is becoming an interesting niche market activity for growers. Allium is an important genus of flowering plants, also including traditional wild food species. The combination of tradition with the new uses of flowers is appealing, requiring, however, explorative acceptance assays for its exploitation. The flowers of the native Mediterranean species Allium neapolitanum, A. roseum and A. triquetrum were subject to hedonic visual, smell and flavour evaluation. Panellists also indicated specific flavour notes and their opinion about the more suitable uses. All the species were positively rated. A. roseum was preferred for all respects; A. triquetrum obtained the lowest visual rating, whereas A. neapolitanum had the lowest flavour rating. A spicy note was the main determinant of high flavour ratings. Dishes retaining the visual appearance of flowers were indicated as more suitable to combine with Allium flowers. This is the first attempt at sensory evaluation of Allium flowers. Nutritional and health promotion properties and toxicity risks do not represent major issues for these products, because of potentially low consumption levels. The main constraint for a wider use of Allium flowers is represented by the absence of a consolidated consumption habit and regular supply. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of the Implementation of a Mentorship Plan in the Faculty of Education at the University of Lleida (UdL), Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filella, Gemma; Lara, Isabel; Soldevila, Anna; Nadal, Jesus; Ribes, Ramona; Agullo, Maria Jesus; Carrillo, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of a preliminary study on the possible implementation of a Mentorship Plan in the Faculty of Teacher Education at the University of Lleida (UdL) is described. A total of sixty-seven first-year Special- and Nursery School-education teacher students participated in this survey. Results were evaluated in both qualitative and…

  20. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  1. The lived experience of mothering after prison: the preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Margaret O

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological preliminary study was to gain a better understanding of the experience of mothering after prison. In-depth interviewing was conducted with two participants for a period of 4 months after their release from prison. All interviews were focused on the research question, "What has been your experience of mothering since your release from prison?" Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The following four themes emerged: "always the mother,"separation anxiety,"new demands: divided loyalties," and "the honeymoon is over."

  2. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  3. Evaluation of drug treatment in mild hypertension: VA-NHLBI feasibility trial. Plan and preliminary results of a two-year feasibility trial for a multicenter intervention study to evaluate the benefits versus the disadvantages of treating mild hypertension. Prepared for the Veterans Administration-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Study Group for Evaluating Treatment in Mild Hypertension.

    PubMed

    1978-03-30

    significant hypertension and were put on active drug. There was not a significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of "major" morbid events; a total of eight active and five placebo patients developed myocardial infarction or died suddenly. There, however, was an excess of arrhythmias among the active drug subjects (17 in the active group versus 8 in the placebo group on the basis of preliminary data). Finally, there were twice as many side effects and 20 times as many chemical abnormalities among the active as among the placebo subjects. A protocol for a full scale study of the benefits of pharmacologic therapy in mild hypertensives has been prepared and is ready for implementation as needed; it involves relatively minor modifications of the protocol tested in the feasibility trial.

  4. Preliminary resolved resonance region evaluation of copper-63 from 0 to 300 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, V.; Forget, B.; Leal, L.; Guber, K.

    2012-07-01

    A new preliminary evaluation of Cu-63 was done in the energy region from 0 to 300 keV extending the resolved resonance region of the previous, ENDF/B-VII.0, evaluation three-fold. The new evaluation was based on three experimental transmission data sets; two measured at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) and one from the Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Nuclear Reactor (MITR). A total of 275 new resonances were identified and a corresponding set of external resonances was approximated to mock up the external levels. The negative external levels (bound level) were modified to match the thermal cross section values. A preliminary benchmarking calculation was made using 11 ICSBEP benchmarks. This work is in support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program. (authors)

  5. Preliminary Study of a Pull Plug Friction Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, George R.

    1999-01-01

    A pull plug friction weld, simply defined, comprises inserting a rotating cone-shaped cylinder into a somewhat cone-shaped hole in a plate. The rotating plug makes contact with the edge of the plate and the resulting friction generates heat. The temperature of the plate material eventually reaches a magnitude that will cause the plate material at the edge of the hole to flow. This can be termed a temperature dependent plastic flow. The rotation of the plug is terminated, additional pressure is applied and the metal at the interface of the two materials cools and welding occurs. This preliminary study addresses only three aspects of a complete analysis that is multi-faceted. The transient temperature distribution for different pull plug configurations has been studied in some detail even though the initial conditions and boundary conditions may still be deemed tentative. The stress distribution within the pull plug caused by the heating pressure was studied along with a preliminary analysis of the thermoelastic stress distribution caused by friction heating. There are no definitive results for the stress analysis. Additional study will be required.

  6. Preliminary Study of a Pull Plug Friction Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, George R.

    1999-01-01

    A pull plug friction weld, simply defined, comprises inserting a rotating cone-shaped cylinder into a somewhat cone-shaped hole in a plate. The rotating plug makes contact with the edge of the plate and the resulting friction generates heat. The temperature of the plate material eventually reaches a magnitude that will cause the plate material at the edge of the hole to flow. This can be termed a temperature dependent plastic flow. The rotation of the plug is terminated, additional pressure is applied and the metal at the interface of the two materials cools and welding occurs. This preliminary study addresses only three aspects of a complete analysis that is multi-faceted. The transient temperature distribution for different pull plug configurations has been studied in some detail even though the initial conditions and boundary conditions may still be deemed tentative. The stress distribution within the pull plug caused by the heating pressure was studied along with a preliminary analysis of the thermoelastic stress distribution caused by friction heating. There are no definitive results for the stress analysis. Additional study will be required.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a high-resolution workstation for diagnostic interpretation of portable radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Huda, Walter; Palmer, Carole K.; Frost, Meryll M.; Moser, Robert; Staab, Edward V.

    1995-04-01

    A cost effectiveness study on the feasibility of using computed radiography (CR) instead of screen-film methods for portable radiographs indicates that we could only justify CR if film were eliminated. Before purchasing CR equipment, we needed to evaluate the use of softcopy to replace film for routine clinical use. The evaluation had to cover image quality, human factors, and efficiency measures. Screen-film radiographs were digitized and used to simulate CR in two studies. The first study evaluated the quality of digitized images and the workstation user interface. Twenty-one radiographs were selected at random from scopes in the radiology department, were digitized, and transferred to a megascan workstation. Five radiologists were asked to assess the quality of the images and the ease of operation of the workstation while an observer recorded their comments and scores. The second study evaluated the feasibility of using the workstation in a clinical environment. Four radiologists read adult and pediatric portable images in film and softcopy format. Reports were evaluated for differences and timing statistics were kept. The results of the first study indicate that image quality may be acceptable for diagnostic purposes and suggests some changes in the user interface. Newborn infant images were the least acceptable in softcopy, largely due to magnification artifacts introduced when viewing very small images. The evaluation was based on a digitizer as a simulator for a CR unit and the digitizer did not exhibit the same resolution characteristics as CR. Films that were unacceptable from the digitizer are expected to be acceptable with CR. The results of the second study indicated that the high resolution diagnostic workstation could be used in a clinical setting, and that the diagnostic readings were not significantly different between film and softcopy displays. The results also indicated that, depending on the radiologist and the type of images, more time was

  8. [Preliminary evaluation of Chile's First Citizen Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura

    2004-05-01

    This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas.

  9. A Preliminary Evaluation of Repeated Exposure for Depersonalization and Derealization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Elliot; McKay, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms including depersonalization and derealization are commonly experienced by individuals suffering from panic disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have been published investigating the specific treatment of these symptoms in individuals diagnosed with panic disorder or PTSD, despite evidence that the…

  10. A Preliminary Evaluation of Repeated Exposure for Depersonalization and Derealization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Elliot; McKay, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms including depersonalization and derealization are commonly experienced by individuals suffering from panic disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have been published investigating the specific treatment of these symptoms in individuals diagnosed with panic disorder or PTSD, despite evidence that the…

  11. [The inverse passive hemagglutination reaction. An evaluation of preliminary trials].

    PubMed

    Babeş, V T; Picior, M

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted on inverse passive haemagglutination to work out more sensitive methods for the detection of serological markers of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). IgG were coupled to human red blood corpuscles (RBC) and some parameters of the RBC sensitization, to the coupling and of the test itself were investigated.

  12. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of the Children's Saving Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Muroff, Jordana; Lewin, Adam B.; Geller, Daniel; Ross, Abigail; McCarthy, Katherine; Morgan, Jessica; Murphy, Tanya K.; Frost, Randy; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Children's Saving Inventory (CSI), a parent-rated measure designed to assess child hoarding behaviors. Subjects included 123 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and their parents. Trained clinicians administered the…

  13. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  14. Literature Survey and Preliminary Evaluation of Streambank Protection Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    concrete mattresses and pavements , that are unitized and reinforced to increase stability and longevity and are used primarily for protecting large bank...subjective favor in the engineering community, The most widely used of these are: 1. Stone riprap. I. Concrete pavement . a. Articulated concrete ...site work and physical model studies. Concrete Pavement 41. Concrete pavement is generally an expensive bank protection " method because forms must

  15. A preliminary evaluation of sediment quality assessment values for freshwater ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Sherri L.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Keenleyside, Karen A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Field, L. Jay

    1996-01-01

    Sediment quality assessment values were developed using a weight of evidence approach in which matching biological and chemical data from numerous modelling, laboratory, and field studies performed on freshwater sediments were compiled and analyzed. Two assessment values (a threshold effect level (TEL) and a probable effect level(PEL)) were derived for 23 substances, including eight trace metals, six individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and eight pesticides. The two values defined three ranges of chemical concentrations; those that were (1) rarely, (2) occasionally, and (3) frequently associated with adverse biological effects. An evaluation of the percent incidence of adverse biological effects within the three concentration ranges indicated that the reliability of the TELs (i.e., the degree to which the TELs represent concentrations within the data set below which adverse effects rarely occur) was consistently good. However, this preliminary evaluation indicated that most of the PELs were less reliable (i.e., they did not adequately represent concentrations within the data set above which adverse effects frequently occur). Nonetheless, these values were often comparable to other biological effects-based assessment values (which were themselves reliable), which increased the level of confidence that could be placed in our values. This method is being used as a basis for developing national sediment quality guidelines for freshwater systems in Canada and sediment effect concentrations as part of the Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) program in the Great Lakes.

  16. The development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of an attachment Implicit Association Task.

    PubMed

    Venta, Amanda; Jardin, Charles; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    The importance of measuring attachment insecurity is underscored by a vast literature tying attachment insecurity to numerous psychological disorders. Self-report measures assess explicit attachment beliefs and experiences, while interview measures, like the Adult Attachment Interview, assess implicit internal working models about the self as worthy of care and others as reliable sources of care. The present study is a preliminary psychometric evaluation of a potentially cost-effective method of assessing implicit internal working models of attachment through the development of an Implicit Association Test (IAT). A racially diverse sample of 104 college females was administered Internet-based versions of three IATs (assessing views of the self, mother, and father) as well as self-report measures of attachment and interpersonal problems. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the (a) internal consistency of each task, (b) correlations among the tasks, (c) concurrent validity, and (d) convergent validity. Adequate internal consistency was noted and correlations among the three IATs were significant. No significant associations were observed between the explicit self-report measures of attachment and the IATs. Two primary areas for future research are discussed. First, future research should utilize an implicit attachment measure alongside an IAT. Second, future research should reevaluate the IAT stimuli used.

  17. Assessment of Risk in Chronic Airways Disease Evaluation (ARCADE): Protocol and preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Gale, Nichola S; Albarrati, Ali M; Munnery, Margaret M; Munnery, Iain C; Irfan, Mujammil; Bolton, Charlotte E; Rambaran, Curtis N; Singer, Ruth M Tal; Cockcroft, John R; Shale, Dennis J

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multisystem disease. Established comorbidities include cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, loss of muscle mass and function, depression, and impaired quality of life. The natural history is not well understood. The Assessment of Risk in Chronic Airways Disease Evaluation (ARCADE) is a longitudinal study of comorbidities in COPD. The primary aims are to delineate the progression and interrelationships of cardiovascular disease and associated comorbidities. Each year ARCADE aims to recruit 250 patients diagnosed with COPD and 50 comparators (free from respiratory disease). Assessments include spirometry, body composition, blood pressure, aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV)), noninvasive measures of cardiac output, systemic inflammatory mediators, blood and urine biochemistry, and physical and health outcomes. These will be repeated at 2 and 5 years. In the first year of recruitment, 350 patients and 100 comparators were recruited. The reproducibility of aortic PWV, cardiac output, stroke volume, and cardiac index was evaluated and accepted in 30 patients free from overt cardiovascular disease. The preliminary data from ARCADE have demonstrated acceptable reproducibility of hemodynamic outcome measures. Further longitudinal data collection will increase knowledge of the progression and interactions between cardiovascular risk factors and other comorbidities in COPD.

  18. Preliminary geothermal evaluation of the Mokapu Peninsula on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Preliminary geological, geochemical, and geophysical field surveys have been conducted on Mokapu Peninsula on the island of Oahu in an effort to determine whether sufficient indications of geothermal potential exist within or adjacent to the peninsula to justify further, more detailed, exploratory efforts. An evaluation of existing geologic data as well as recently completed mapping on Mokapu indicate that the peninsula is located on the edge of or immediately adjacent to the inferred caldera of Koolau volcano. Geochemical surveys conducted within and around the Mokapu Peninsula included mercury and radon ground gas surveys as well as a limited evaluation of groundwater chemistry. Groundwater sampling on Mokapu Peninsula was severely restricted due to the absence of wells within the study area and thus water chemistry analyses were limited to the Nuupia fish ponds. Schlumberger resistivity soundings were completed in three locations on the peninsula: KVS1, in the northeast quadrant within the Ulupau crater, KVS2 in the northwest quadrant along the main jet runway, and KVS3 in the southeast along Mokapu Road. KVS1 encountered a relatively high resistivity to a depth of approximately 20 meters below sea level which was underlain by a basement resistivity of about 2 to 3 ohm meters. KVS2 and KVS3 detected similar resistivities of 2 to 3 ohm meters at much shallower depths (approximately equivalent to local sea level) below a thin, moderately resistive layer having an impedance ranging from 15 to 118 ohm meters.

  19. Inherited pelvic organ prolapse in the mouse: preliminary evaluation of a new murine model

    PubMed Central

    MCNANLEY, Anna R.; JOHNSON, Aimee M.; FLYNN, Michael K.; WOOD, Ronald W.; KENNEDY, Scott D.; REEDER, Jay E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Introduction To report the initial anatomic, radiographic, and genetic evaluations of a novel form of spontaneous pelvic organ prolapse (S-POP) in mice. Methods We observed S-POP in a colony of UPII-SV40T transgenic mice developed for studies on bladder cancer. We utilized magnetic resonance imaging and necropsy to characterize this finding. We have established a breeding colony to identify inheritance patterns and for future studies. Results Selective breeding isolated the S-POP phenotype from the transgene. In contrast to other animal models, the S-POP mouse does not require an obligatory antecedent event to manifest pelvic organ prolapse. Necropsy and imaging demonstrate significant displacement of the pelvic organs distal to the pelvic floor in both sexes. The appearance of the POP is similar to that seen in the human female phenotype. Preliminary breeding studies indicate an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Conclusions This mouse may be an effective animal model for the study of POP in humans. PMID:18802654

  20. An outpatient drug program for adolescent students: preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gottheil, E; Rieger, J A; Farwell, B; Lieberman, D

    1977-01-01

    Adolescent students with drug problems were rostered by their schools at the program facility one-half day per week. Treatment was aimed at increasing communicativeness through art, video, music, group therapy, and individual counseling when appropriate. After 4 months, school personnel, students, and treatment staff indicated that drug taking had decreased and general adjustment improved. Statistically, the treatment group (N = 42) improved significantly more than a control group (N = 37) in school attendance. They also tended to do better in academic, behavior, and work habit grades although these differences did not reach statical significance. Further similar early intervention studies are warranted.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of the emergence of novel mand forms.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Emma; Hanley, Gregory P; Ingvarsson, Einar T; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    Strategies that produce generalized responding are valuable, especially with regard to language acquisition, because relatively little training may result in large behavior changes. Conditions that result in generalized manding were analyzed in the current study. We demonstrated in reversal designs that undesirable or single-word responses were the predominant mand forms of 3 preschool children. Multiple baseline designs with 2 participants and a reversal design with 1 participant were then used to demonstrate the extent to which differential reinforcement of single-word mands (e.g., "cars") or framed mands (e.g., "I want the cars, please") would result in the emergence of other single-word and framed mands for different items (e.g., mands for music, puppets, or puzzles). Results showed that prompting and differential reinforcement of one or two mand frames resulted in the emergence of other framed mands for all participants.

  2. Light bulb heat exchanger for magnetohydrodynamic generator applications - Preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Hwang, C. C.; Seikel, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The light-bulb heat-exchanger concept is investigated as a possible means of using a combustion heat source to supply energy to an inert gas MHD power generator system. In this concept, combustion gases flow through a central passage which consists of a duct with transparent walls through which heat is transferred by radiation to a radiation receiver which in turn heats the inert gas by convection. The effects of combustion-gas emissivity, transparent-wall-transmissivity, radiation-receiver emissivity, and the use of fins in the inert gas coolant passage are studied. The results indicate that inert gas outlet temperatures of 2500 K are possible for combustion temperatures of 3200 K and that sufficient energy can be transferred from the combustion gas to reduce its temperature to approximately 2000 K. At this temperature more conventional heat exchangers can be used.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a compound cycle engine for shipboard gensets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castor, J. G.; Wintucky, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a thermodynamic cycle (SFC) and weight analysis performed to establish engine configuration, size, weight and performance are reported. Baseline design configuration was a 2,000 hour MTBO Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) for a helicopter application. The CCE configuration was extrapolated out to a 10,000 MTBO for a shipboard genset application. The study showed that an advanced diesel engine design (CCE) could be substantially lighter and smaller (79% and 82% respectively) than todays contemporary genset diesel engine. Although the CCE was not optimized, it had about a 7% reduction in mission fuel consumption over today's genset diesels. The CCE is a turbocharged, power-compounded, high power density, low-compression ratio diesel engine. Major technology development areas are presented.

  4. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Emergence of Novel Mand Forms

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Emma; Hanley, Gregory P; Ingvarsson, Einar T; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    Strategies that produce generalized responding are valuable, especially with regard to language acquisition, because relatively little training may result in large behavior changes. Conditions that result in generalized manding were analyzed in the current study. We demonstrated in reversal designs that undesirable or single-word responses were the predominant mand forms of 3 preschool children. Multiple baseline designs with 2 participants and a reversal design with 1 participant were then used to demonstrate the extent to which differential reinforcement of single-word mands (e.g., “cars”) or framed mands (e.g., “I want the cars, please”) would result in the emergence of other single-word and framed mands for different items (e.g., mands for music, puppets, or puzzles). Results showed that prompting and differential reinforcement of one or two mand frames resulted in the emergence of other framed mands for all participants. PMID:17471798

  5. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  6. Principal Strain Vascular Elastography: Simulation and Preliminary Clinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Rohit; Huntzicker, Steven; Ohayon, Jacques; Carson, Nancy; Dogra, Vikram; Schifitto, Giovanni; Doyley, Marvin M

    2017-03-01

    It is difficult to produce reliable polar strain elastograms (radial and circumferential) because the center of the carotid artery is typically unknown. Principal strain imaging can overcome this limitation, but suboptimal lateral displacement estimates make this an impractical approach for visualizing mechanical properties within the carotid artery. We hypothesized that compounded plane wave imaging can minimize this problem. To test this hypothesis, we performed (i) simulations with vessels of varying morphology and mechanical behavior (i.e., isotropic and transversely isotropic), and (ii) a pilot study with 10 healthy volunteers. The accuracy of principal and polar strain (computed using knowledge of the precise vessel center) elastograms varied between 7% and 17%. In both types of elastograms, strain concentrated at the junction between the fibrous cap and the vessel wall, and the strain magnitude decreased with increasing fibrous cap thickness. Elastograms of healthy volunteers were consistent with those of transversely isotropic homogeneous vessels; they were spatially asymmetric, a trend that was common to both principal and polar strains. No significant differences were observed in the mean strain recovered from principal and polar strains (p > 0.05). This investigation indicates that principal strain elastograms measured with compounding plane wave imaging overcome the problems incurred when polar strain elastograms are computed with imprecise estimates of the vessel center. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid textile heart valve prosthesis: preliminary in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vaesken, Antoine; Pidancier, Christian; Chakfe, Nabil; Heim, Frederic

    2016-09-22

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is nowadays a popular alternative technique to surgical valve replacement for critical patients. Biological valve tissue has been used in these devices for over a decade now with over 100,000 implantations. However, material degradations due to crimping for catheter insertion purpose have been reported, and with only 6-year follow-up, no information is available about the long-term durability of biological tissue. Moreover, expensive biological tissue harvesting and chemical treatment procedures tend to promote the development of synthetic valve leaflet materials. Textile polyester (PET) material is characterized by outstanding folding and strength properties combined with proven biocompatibility and could therefore be considered as a candidate to replace biological valve leaflets in TAVI devices. Nevertheless, the material should be preferentially partly elastic in order to limit water hammer effects at valve closing time and prevent exaggerated stress from occurring into the stent and the valve. The purpose of the present work is to study in vitro the mechanical as well as the hydrodynamic behavior of a hybrid elastic textile valve device combining non-deformable PET yarn and elastic polyurethane (PU) yarn. The hybrid valve properties are compared with those of a non-elastic textile valve. Testing results show improved hydrodynamic properties with the elastic construction. However, under fatigue conditions, the interaction between PU and PET yarns tends to limit the valve durability.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of ultra-high pitch computed tomography enterography.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Andrew D; Horst, Nicole D; Mayes, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    CT enterography (CTE) is a valuable tool in the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Reducing imaging time, reduced motion artifacts, and decreased radiation exposure are important goals for optimizing CTE examinations. To assess the potential impact of new CT technology (ultra-high pitch CTE) for the ability to reduce scan time and also potentially reduce radiation exposure while maintaining image quality. This retrospective study compared 13 patients who underwent ultra-high pitch CTE with 25 patients who underwent routine CTE on the same CT scanner with identical radiation emission settings. Total scan time and radiation exposure were recorded for each patient. Image quality was assessed by measurement of image noise and also qualitatively by two independent observers. Total scan time was significantly lower for patients who underwent ultra-high pitch CTE (2.1 s ± 0.2) than by routine CTE (18.6 s ± 0.9) (P < 0.0001). The mean radiation exposure for ultra-high pitch CTE was also significantly lower (10.1 mGy ± 1.0) than routine CTE (15.8 mGy ± 4.5) (P < 0.0001). No significant difference in image noise was found between ultra-high pitch CTE (16.0 HU ± 2.5) and routine CTE (15.5 HU ± 3.7) (P > 0.74). There was also no significant difference in image quality noted by either of the two readers. Ultra-high pitch CTE can be performed more rapidly than standard CTE and offers the potential for radiation exposure reduction while maintaining image quality.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of hepatoprotective potential of the polyherbal formulation

    PubMed Central

    Arka, Ghosh; Anindita, Kundu; Ankit, Seth; Kumar, Singh Anil; Kumar, Maurya Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the polyherbal formulation (PHF)containing Cajanus cajan (L.)Millsp., Lawsonia inermis L. Linn, Mimosa pudica L., Uraria picta (Jacq.)DC. and Operculina turpethum (L.)Silva Manso on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)induced acute liver damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The groups of animals were administered with PHF at the doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. (per oral [p.o.])once in a day for 7 days and at day 6th and 7th the animals were administrated with Carbon tetrachloride (1.0 mL/kg b.w. 50% v/v with olive oil,; p.o.). The effect of PHF on serum glutamine pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamine oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and total bilirubin were determined in CCl4 - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Further, the effects of PHF on glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD)level and lipid peroxidation (LPO)activity were also investigated. Results: The results demonstrated that PHF (400 mg/kg b.w.)significantly reduces the CCl4 induced increase in level of serum SGPT, serum ALP and total bilirubin. PHF (400 mg/kg b.w.)prevents the depletion level of GSH and decrease in the activity of SOD in CCl4 -induced liver injury in rats. In addition, PHF also showed a significant decrease in the LPO levels signifying the potent antioxidant activity. Conclusion: All our findings suggest that PHF could protect the liver cells from CCl4 - induced liver damages and the mechanism may be through the anti-oxidative effect of PHF. PMID:26401397

  10. Comparative evaluation of aliskiren, ramipril, and losartan on psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ekta; Khajuria, Vijay; Tandon, Vishal R.; Sharma, Atul; Choudhary, Naiyma

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of aliskiren, ramipril, and losartan on the psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: In this preliminary, single-dose, open-label, cross-over study conducted in 12 healthy volunteers, psychomotor assessment was carried out by four tests: Simple reaction time (SRT), multiple choice reaction time test (MCRT), critical flicker fusion frequency threshold test (CFFT), and tracking performance test (TPT). Each volunteer received a single dose of each of the three test drugs with a washout period of 10 days between different test sessions and then evaluated for post-drug scores at 2-h intervals up to 12 h and then at 24 h. The changes from the baseline scores by the test drug were statistically analyzed. Results: All the three antihypertensive drugs caused significant improvement in a similar fashion on SRT, MCRT calculated as error index, CFFT, and TPT. Aliskiren caused numerically more improvement than the other two test drugs, suggesting better cognitive profile. However, inter-drug comparisons were nonsignificant. Conclusion: The results of the study highlight improvement of the cognitive functions equally by ramipril, losartan, and aliskiren. The results of the study could be of immense clinical utility in ambulatory hypertensive patients especially engaged in sensory-motor coordination tasks like driving and operating on mechanical tools. PMID:25276630

  11. Safety and feasibility of evaluating airway-protective reflexes during sleep: new technique and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Dua, Kulwinder S; Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Rittmann, Tanya; Hofmann, Candy; Shaker, Reza

    2007-03-01

    The airway is vulnerable to aspiration during sleep. The integrity of aerodigestive-protective reflexes during sleep has not been studied previously because of a lack of adequate techniques. To determine the safety and the feasibility of a new technique to elicit pharyngoglottal closure reflex (PGCR), pharyngo-upper-esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure contractile reflex (PUCR), and reflexive pharyngeal swallow (RPS) during sleep. Outpatient sleep laboratory. PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited in 3 subjects by injecting colored water into the pharynx through a specially designed UES manometry catheter to which a thin videoendoscope was taped. This assembly was passed transnasally and positioned to obtain UES-pressure recordings and adequate endoscopic glottic views. Sleep was monitored by polysomnography, and all modalities were synchronized by using a timer. Subjects were evaluated while awake and during stage I sleep. All subjects were monitored for 3 hours of natural sleep, during which several periods of stage I sleep were observed. While awake, PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited in all subjects. During sleep, PGCR was present in all, PUCR in 2, and RPS in 2 (1 after arousal) subjects. Threshold volumes for reflex elicitation were not significantly different between the awake state and stage I sleep. None of the subjects exhibited laryngeal penetration or aspiration. Small numbers of subjects were studied only in stage I sleep. When using the above technique, it is safe and feasible to study aerodigestive reflexes during sleep. Preliminary data suggest that PGCR, PUCR, and RPS can be elicited during sleep.

  12. Ecotoxicity of biocomposites based on renewable feedstock - preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Rudnik, E; Milanov, N; Matuschek, G; Kettrup, A

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the work was to study the biodegradation process of biocomposites prepared from renewable resources and the ecotoxicological assessment of their biodegradation products. Biocomposites from modified starch reinforced with various cellulose fibers were prepared by the extrusion process. Biodegradation studies were carried out according to the ISO respirometic method. Ecotoxicity of biodegradation products was assessed by the luminescent bacteria test. It was found that biodegradation of biocomposites was above 60% within 24 days according to the results of respirometric test. Increase in the amount of natural fiber reinforcement, as well as smaller fiber size increased the biodegradability of biocomposites. On the basis of the preliminary results of the ecotoxicological test using luminescent bacteria it seems that the biodegradation products of the biocomposites studied are ecologically safe.

  13. Preliminary decommissioning study reports. Volume 4, Gunite storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This six large gunite storage tanks considered as a group is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long-range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives, (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. This report presents the results of the preliminary decommission study for the six gunite storage tanks.

  14. Tactile cues in continuous operations: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Amanda M; Grandizio, Catherine M; Estrada, Arthur; Crowley, John S

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that tactile displays are an effective tool for augmenting spatial orientation and situation awareness information provided to aircraft operators. The tactile situation awareness system (TSAS) has been shown to improve flight performance in conditions of degraded visual environments and to safely maintain performance during hover over moving targets. The potential for the user to adapt and habituate to the stimulus of tactile display systems has not yet been investigated. Four UH-60 current, rated aviators (all male) participated in the pilot study. Subjects completed four consecutive iterations of a 3-h flight profile consisting of 10 maneuvers, totaling 12 h of continuous flight. Flight performance, tactor information, responses to a discomfort questionnaire, and ratings of fatigue symptoms were recorded. The independent variable in all analyses was session (four levels). The results showed that performance per maneuver and proportion of stimulus cues (measure of response to cues) per maneuver were consistent across sessions using independent-samples Kruskal-Wallis tests. The findings of this preliminary assessment support the use of tactile displays (consistent with parameters of TSAS) in continuous operations since performance and proportion of stimulus cues presented was consistent over a period of 12 h. In conclusion, the system will require further experimental testing, but these preliminary findings do not suggest performance or response to be affected by any adaptation or habituation to the stimulus.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of solution-mining intrusion into a salt-dome repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This report is the product of the work of an ONWI task force to evaluate inadvertant human intrusion into a salt dome repository by solution mining. It summarizes the work in the following areas: a general review of the levels of defense that could reduce both the likelihood and potential consequences of human intrusion into a salt dome repository; evaluation of a hypothetical intrusion scenario and its consequences; recommendation for further studies. The conclusions of this task force report can be summarized as follows: (1) it is not possible at present to establish with certainty that solution mining is credible as a human-intrusion event. The likelihood of such an intrusion will depend on the effectiveness of the preventive measures; (2) an example analysis based on the realistic approach is presented in this report; it concluded that the radiological consequences are strongly dependent upon the mode of radionuclide release from the waste form, time after emplacement, package design, impurities in the host salt, the amount of a repository intercepted, the solution mining cavity form, the length of time over which solution mining occurs, the proportion of contaminated salt source for human consumption compared to other sources, and the method of salt purification for culinary purposes; (3) worst case scenarios done by other studies suggest considerable potential for exposures to man while preliminary evaluations of more realistic cases suggest significantly reduced potential consequences. Mathematical model applications to process systems, guided by more advanced assumptions about human intrusion into geomedia, will shed more light on the potential for concerns and the degree to which mitigative measures will be required.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of the Korean Seismological Research Station Short-Period Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-29

    PREUMINARV (VAIUAVION OF THE KOREAN SEISMOlOCICAl RESEARCH STAIION SHORT PERIOO ARRAY TECHNICAL REPORT NO. S VELA NETWORK EVAIUAT10N AND AUTOMATIC... accomplished under the tech. nical direction of the Air Force Technical Applications Center under Contract No. F08606-7 5-(,-0029. FORMATION SERVICE...34 ALEX(01)-TR-75-05 PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE KOREAN SEISMOLOGICAL RESEARCH STATION SHORT PERIOD ARRAY TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 5 VELA NETWORK

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Altitude Scaling for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of altitude scaling for turbofan engine ice crystal icing simulation was conducted during the 2015 LF11 engine icing test campaign in PSL.The results showed that a simplified approach for altitude scaling to simulate the key reference engine ice growth feature and associated icing effects to the engine is possible. But special considerations are needed to address the facility operation limitation for lower altitude engine icing simulation.

  18. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  19. In situ forming chitosan hydrogels: Preliminary evaluation of the in vivo inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Moura, Maria José; Brochado, João; Gil, Maria Helena; Figueiredo, Maria Margarida

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to provide important preliminary in vivo data on the general biocompatibility and degradation of in situ forming chitosan hydrogels which differ in the type of cross-linking: physical cross-linking (with glycerol phosphate disodium salt) and physico/chemical co-cross-linking (with glycerol phosphate disodium salt and genipin). Additionally, in vitro degradation studies, using lysozyme, were conducted for comparison. The subcutaneous implantation of the liquid formulations of both hydrogels in animal model (Wistar rats) was performed to assess tissue response at the end of two time periods (8 and 30days). Although the properties of both hydrogels are different (namely, pore size and mechanical strength), leading to remarkably distinct in vitro degradation behaviors, the in vivo degradation is quite similar for both types. Regarding biocompatibility, the in vivo evaluation performed by histological analysis, showed a mild to moderate chronic inflammatory reaction with no foreign body reaction, demonstrating that both hydrogels show good results for in vivo biodegradation and biocompatibility, therefore are most adequate for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of PTSD Coach, a smartphone app for post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Eric; Greene, Carolyn; Hoffman, Julia; Nguyen, Tam; Wald, Laura; Schmidt, Janet; Ramsey, Kelly M; Ruzek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    PTSD Coach is a mobile application (app) designed to help individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms better understand and self-manage their symptoms. It has wide-scale use (over 130,000 downloads in 78 countries) and very favorable reviews but has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study examines user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness, and usage patterns of PTSD Coach in a sample of 45 veterans receiving PTSD treatment. After using PTSD Coach for several days, participants completed a survey of satisfaction and perceived helpfulness and focus groups exploring app use and benefit from use. Data indicate that participants were very satisfied with PTSD Coach and perceived it as being moderately to very helpful with their PTSD symptoms. Analysis of focus group data resulted in several categories of app use: to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, at scheduled times, and to help with sleep. These findings offer preliminary support for the acceptability and perceived helpfulness of PTSD Coach and suggest that it has potential to be an effective self-management tool for PTSD. Although promising, future research is required to validate this, given study limitations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Seeing the Heat: Preliminary Studies of Cryocrystallography Using Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, E. H.; Judge, R. A.; Larson, M.; vanderWoerd, M. J.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As preparation for an extensive study imaging the cryocooling process of macromolecular crystals we have demonstrated the ability to thermally image solid objects and liquids at temperatures far below 273 K. In the case of a large lysozyme crystal qualitative measurements show the cooling process to take about 0.6s with the cooling taking place in a wave from the face of the crystal nearest to the origin of the cryostream, to the point furthest away from the origin. Annealing of this lysozyme crystal, cooled under good cryoprotectant conditions, showed cold striations formed perpendicular to the cooling stream. These striations became more pronounced after successive annealing. Cryocooling of a non-cryoprotected crystal of glucose isomerase displayed an S-shaped cold front wave traveling across the sample. These preliminary results are qualitative but show the power of infrared imaging as a new tool for fundamental and practical cryocrystallography studies.

  2. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  3. Preliminary study on ECT imaging of flames in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Chen, Q.; Xiong, X.; Zhang, Z.; Lei, J.

    2008-09-01

    This preliminary study for the first time investigated the feasibility of tomographic monitoring of flames in porous media, in which the cross-sectional profiles of flames inside a porous medium were imaged by electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). The relationship between the flame ionization and relative permittivity was established as the basis for ECT imaging of flames. Image reconstruction algorithms were discussed and an online iterative method OIOR was selected for image reconstruction. Experimental measurements were carried out and images of the flames were reconstructed. The shape, size and motion of the flames in a porous block were clearly monitored. Also the images correspond clearly to the variations of the combustion intensity. The feasibility of ECT monitoring of flames in porous media is proven by this study.

  4. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  5. Seeing the Heat: Preliminary Studies of Cryocrystallography Using Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, E. H.; Judge, R. A.; Larson, M.; vanderWoerd, M. J.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As preparation for an extensive study imaging the cryocooling process of macromolecular crystals we have demonstrated the ability to thermally image solid objects and liquids at temperatures far below 273 K. In the case of a large lysozyme crystal qualitative measurements show the cooling process to take about 0.6s with the cooling taking place in a wave from the face of the crystal nearest to the origin of the cryostream, to the point furthest away from the origin. Annealing of this lysozyme crystal, cooled under good cryoprotectant conditions, showed cold striations formed perpendicular to the cooling stream. These striations became more pronounced after successive annealing. Cryocooling of a non-cryoprotected crystal of glucose isomerase displayed an S-shaped cold front wave traveling across the sample. These preliminary results are qualitative but show the power of infrared imaging as a new tool for fundamental and practical cryocrystallography studies.

  6. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  7. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  8. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  9. Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of a Fleet Post-Training Performance Evaluation Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafacz, Bernard A.; Foley, Paul P.

    A study was conducted by the Navy to develop and evaluate human performance reliability estimates for electronic maintenance. Data were collected using the Personnel Identification Information Forms, the Technical Proficiency Checkout Form, and the Job Performance Questionnaire. On the basis of the total number of uncommonly effective and the…

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the learning outcome achieved by a nursing research seminar course for doctoral students.

    PubMed

    Lou, Meei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2008-06-01

    Educational evaluation is a priority policy of the Ministry of Education and student learning outcome is an important criterion used in educational evaluation work. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learning outcome of a newly developed course for doctoral students entitled, Nursing Research Seminar. The course was one semester in length and required students to attend 2 hours of class per week. Student learning outcome was evaluated based on the level of understanding students had of course objectives. The six objectives of this course were: evaluating and integrating research papers; enhancing critical thinking skills; gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest; enhancing ability to construct research proposals; guiding student dissertation work; and refining critical research skills. Data were collected from the responses provided by 25 students on a 5-point Likert-type evaluation form based on course objectives filled out during the last class of the semester. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were adopted. Results showed: (1) The average post-course score (24.76 +/- 2.89) was significantly higher than the pre-course score (18.40 +/- 5.52); (2) Students realized significant improvements in all six objectives at the end of the course; (3) There were statistically significant differences in improvement scores in all six objectives for students in different years of their doctoral program; (4) The lower the year in the program, the higher the improvement scores for each course objective; (5) The two objectives of the six that saw the most significant improvements were "gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest", and "enhancing critical thinking skills". Because of the small sample size, conclusions drawn from this study should be treated as tentative. Findings provide preliminary information supporting the importance and necessity of offering the Nursing Research

  11. Home Start Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

    Case studies of eight Home Start programs are given as the third section of an evaluation study. Communities involved are Binghamton, New York; Franklin, North Carolina; Cleveland, Ohio; Harrogate, Tennessee; Houston, Texas; Weslaco, Texas; Millville, Utah; Parkersburg, West Virginia. Although each study varies in format, each describes in detail…

  12. Utilization of optimal study design for maternal and fetal sheep propofol pharmacokinetics study: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-02-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates.

  13. Utilization of Optimal Study Design for Maternal and Fetal Sheep Propofol Pharmacokinetics Study: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Catherine M. T.; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates. PMID:24219004

  14. Eco-Doppler evaluation of intestinal peristalsis in normal and in some pathological conditions: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    La Bella, A; Gimondo, P; Camboni, M

    1993-01-01

    Duplex-Doppler sonography could be employed in the quantitative investigation of intestinal motility. Preliminary data indicate reproductivity of the method in normal subjects and possible clinical applications in some pathological conditions affecting intestinal transit. Particularly, the possibility to discriminate between segments at different peristaltic activity seems to be very useful in intestinal obstruction. Further studies are necessary to validate this method.

  15. Housing and Health in Europe: Preliminary Results of a Pan-European Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, Xavier R.; Braubach, Matthias; Moissonnier, Brigitte; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Röbbel, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe has undertaken a large study to evaluate housing and health in 7 European cities. Methods. Survey tools were used to obtain information about housing and living conditions, health perception, and health status from a representative sample of the population in each city. Results. In Forli, Italy, the first city studied, preliminary findings indicate some important potential links between housing and health. Conclusions. These findings, when combined with those from the remaining European cities, will likely generate concrete recommendations for the allocation of resources to programs that can improve housing and health. PMID:12948980

  16. Biased attention in childhood anxiety disorders: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Vasey, M W; Daleiden, E L; Williams, L L; Brown, L M

    1995-04-01

    This study provides preliminary tests of two hypotheses: (1) Anxiety-disordered children show an attentional bias toward emotionally threatening stimuli, and (2) normal controls show an attentional bias away from emotionally threatening stimuli. Twelve children, 9 to 14 years of age, with primary diagnoses of anxiety disorder were compared with 12 normal controls matched for age, gender, vocabulary level, and reading ability. Subjects completed a reaction time task that measured visual attention toward threatening versus neutral words. The anxious group showed the predicted attentional bias toward threat words. However, controls did not show the predicted bias away from threat words. These results are the first showing that biased attentional processing occurs among clinically anxious children. The potential role of such an attentional bias in childhood anxiety disorders and future direction for research are discussed.

  17. Preliminary studies of electromagnetic sounding of cometary nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, A.; Warne, L.; Bednarczyk, S.; Elachi, C.

    1978-01-01

    The internal structure of a comet could be determined with a spacecraft borne electromagnetic sounder. A dielectric profile of the comet could be produced in direct analogy with terrestrial glacier and ice sheet sounding experiments. This profile would allow the detection of a rocky core or ice layers if they exist, just as layers in the ice and the bedrock interface have been clearly observed through the Greenland ice sheet. It would also provide a gross estimate of the amount of dust in the icy region. Models for the response of the nucleus and cometary plasma to electromagnetic sounding are developed and used to derive experimental parameters. A point system design was completed. Preliminary engineering study results indicate that the sounder is well within the bounds of current space technology.

  18. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  19. Preliminary Studies of a Phase Modulation Technique for Measuring Chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    The classical method for measuring chromaticity is to slowly modulate the RF frequency and then measuring the betatron tune excursion. The technique that is discussed in this paper modulates instead the phase of the RF and then the chromaticity is obtained by phase demodulating the betatron tune. However, this technique requires knowledge of the betatron frequency in real time in order for the phase to be demodulated. Fortunately, the Tevatron has a tune tracker based on the phase locked loop principle which fits this requirement. A preliminary study with this technique has showed that it is a promising method for doing continuous chromaticity measurement and raises the possibility of doing successful chromaticity feedback with it.

  20. Preliminary study of interaction of clarithromycin with tacrolimus in cats.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Masaaki; Ushio, Taku; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Uzuka, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) is a core immunosuppressive drug in human organ transplantation. In feline kidney transplantation, however, the cost of Tac therapy is a significant obstacle. Clarithromycin (CLM) increases the blood trough level of Tac, effectively reducing the Tac dosage in human transplant patients. The interaction between CLM and Tac in cats has not been reported. In this study, the effect of multiple CLM dosing on the pharmacokinetics of Tac in three healthy cats was investigated. The treatments included Tac at 0.3 mg/kg and Tac at 0.3 mg/kg + multiple-dose CLM at 10 mg/kg. Co-administration of CLM and Tac resulted in significant increases in the oral bioavailability of Tac. These preliminary findings suggest that administration of multiple doses of CLM may decrease the required Tac dosage in Tac-based immunosuppressive therapy used as an alternative to the classic cyclosporine-based protocol for feline renal transplantation.

  1. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  2. Proscriptive Bayesian Programming and Maximum Entropy: a Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Carla Cavalcante

    2008-11-01

    Some problems found in robotics systems, as avoiding obstacles, can be better described using proscriptive commands, where only prohibited actions are indicated in contrast to prescriptive situations, which demands that a specific command be specified. An interesting question arises regarding the possibility to learn automatically if proscriptive commands are suitable and which parametric function could be better applied. Lately, a great variety of problems in robotics domain are object of researches using probabilistic methods, including the use of Maximum Entropy in automatic learning for robot control systems. This works presents a preliminary study on automatic learning of proscriptive robot control using maximum entropy and using Bayesian Programming. It is verified whether Maximum entropy and related methods can favour proscriptive commands in an obstacle avoidance task executed by a mobile robot.

  3. A preliminary clinical evaluation of external snehan and asanas in the patients of sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akhilesh K; Singh, Om P

    2013-01-01

    Lower back pain radiating to either on one leg or both legs along the course of sciatic nerve is a common ailment in the clinical practice, this type of peculiar symptomatology is termed as "Sciatica" in modern medicine. The medical treatment is unsatisfactory for both the patient and the neurosurgeons, as the surgical treatment has its own hazards and the cost of the surgical procedure and medical treatment is prohibitory to most of the Indian patients. Hence, most of the patients present themselves to the practitioners of Indian medicines like Ayurveda and yoga. This study was designed to evaluate the preliminary clinical effects of Bahya Snehan and Asanas in the patients of sciatica. This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of 60 participants showing classical symptoms of Sciatica between 18 and 65 years of age were randomly assigned to receive Ayurvedic or Yogic measure. One group received Snehan (external) with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana while another group received Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Both groups practiced supervised intervention for 4 weeks. The signs and symptoms like Katishool (pain), tenderness, Stambha (rigidity), difficulty in walking, pain on bending forward were graded and interpreted at the end of the trail Significant improvement was observed in both groups before and after external Snehan with Bhujang and Shalabh Asana and in another group Bhujang and Salabh Asana only. Conclusions: Both groups, one with Snehan with asanas and the second with asanas only showed significant improvement in the patients of sciatica (Gridhrasi). PMID:23439799

  4. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects.

    PubMed

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid-phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0-72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg of TCC in the soap used. The TCC-N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects, and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure, we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC's major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study, however, failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation.

  5. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of quadrupole

  6. Preliminary evaluation of rechargeable lithium-ion cells for an implantable battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, Gregory K.; Aiken, Peter A.; Adams, William A.; Mussivand, Tofy

    A preliminary evaluation of the performance characteristics of 1.08 Ah lithium-ion cells was undertaken utilizing operating conditions similar to that required for an implanted medical device, such as a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart, in order to determine their potential usefulness for this application. The major parameters studied at 22 or 37 °C were discharge-rate capability, specific energy and energy density, surface temperature, self-discharge and cycle life. The discharge loads used in the cycle-life study were either constant or pulsatile, with the constant discharge load being equivalent to the average of the pulsatile load. The lithium-ion cells showed high discharge-rate capability up to 1.5 A at 37 °C, with over 74% of their rated capacity being obtained and a midpoint voltage of over 3.3 V (> 72% of rated capacity and > 3.3 V for up to 1.0 A discharges at 22 °C), before the first indication of cell polarization was noticed. The specific energy and energy density of cells discharged at 0.88 A to 2.5 V at 37 °C was 73 Wh/kg and 190 Wh/l, respectively (64 Wh/kg and 167 Wh/l at 22 °C). The internal resistance of the cells was calculated to be 198 mΩ at 37 °C (316 mΩ at 22 °C), which resulted in a relatively high, 8.0 °C, increase in surface temperature under a 0.88 A discharge load. The self-discharge of the cells at 37 °C was relatively low, with only a 1.3% loss in capacity being observed after 24 h. The lithium-ion cells yielded longer cycle lives at 37 °C (2 239 cycles) compared with 22 °C operation (1539 cycles) under similar 0.88 A discharge loads. The cells performed slightly better under constant discharge loads than under pulsatile loads of equivalent average current (0.83 A average) with cycles lives of 2279 cycles versus 1941 cycles and operating times were 1.6 ± 1.1 min (mean) longer. Preliminary indications are that these lithium-ion cells would be suitable for use in a rechargeable battery pack capable of

  7. Notification: Preliminary Research to Evaluate Proposed Superfund Sites on the U.S. EPA's National Priorities List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY13-0018, April 4, 2013. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research to evaluate proposed Superfund sites on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Priorities List.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of beta-spodumene as a fusion reactor structural material

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Schmunk, R.E.; Henslee, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Beta-spodumene was investigated as a candidate material for use in fusion reactor environments. Properties which support the use of beta-spodumene include good thermal shock resistance, a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low-Z composition which would result in minimum impact on the plasma, and flexibility in fabrication processes. Specimens were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a fluence of 5.3 x 10/sup 22/ n/m/sup 2/, E > 0.1 MeV, and 4.9 x 10/sup 23/ n/m/sup 2/ thermal fluence in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the impact of irradiation on the material. Preliminary data indicate that the mechanical properties of beta-spodumene are little affected by irradiation. Gas production and release have also been investigated.

  9. Preliminary pharmacological studies on Piper chaba stem bark.

    PubMed

    Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, Md; Shilpi, Jamil Ahmad; Ahmed, Muniruddin; Faiz Hossain, Chowdhury

    2005-06-03

    Piper chaba Hunter (Piperaceae) is a common pepper in the southern part of Bangladesh. Various parts of this plant have been extensively used in different traditional formulations including ayurveda. In order to rationalize the ethnomedical uses of this plant in a number of ailments, the methanol extract of the stem bark was subjected to preliminary evaluation for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, anti-diarrhoeal, effect on gastrointestinal motility and CNS depressant activity in mice and rat at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses. The extract at given doses significantly and dose dependently reduced the frequency of acetic acid induced writhing in mice, prolonged the tail flicking latency in mice, reduced Carrageenan-induced paw edema volume in rat, delayed the onset as well as reduced the frequency of castor oil induced diarrhoeal episodes in mice, decreased gastrointestinal motility as assessed by the charcoal motility test in mice and prolonged pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in mice. However at the same doses, the extract exhibited moderate diuretic activity only at the highest dose.

  10. The implementation and preliminary evaluation of an ART strategy in Mexico - a country example

    PubMed Central

    HERMOSILLO, Vera Heriberto; QUINTERO, Luengas Elisa; GUERRERO, Namihira Delia; SUÁREZ, Díaz Dante Sergio; HERNÁNDEZ, Muñúzuri Jorge Alejandro; HOLMGREN, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico including fluoride toothpaste, a national program of salt fluoridation and education on prevention has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) within the Mexican public health service as a means to address this. This included the development of training materials, the organization of training courses for existing dentists and the incorporation of ART into the undergraduate curriculum. Results: Six years after the introduction of ART in the year 2000, it was estimated that over 2 million ART procedures had been provided. As part of the planning cycle, an evaluation was undertaken in 2008 to determine amongst Mexican dentists what were the perceived problems when implementing the ART approach. Such research identified that the scarcity of appropriate dental materials and the lack of suitable instruments were the major problems. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of ART restorations and sealants placed as part of this National Oral Health Program was undertaken. The survival outcomes after one year compared favorably with one other study conducted in Mexico but were somewhat lower than the results reported from a number of other countries. Conclusion: The ambitious and forward thinking policy for improving the oral health in Mexico is now showing dividends. One example is the ART strategy, which has been successful both in terms of the number of ART procedures provided and generally in terms of clinical outcomes. PMID:21499665

  11. SurgiLight bent-tip optical fiber: preliminary dosimetry and canine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Cromeens, Douglas M.; Stoddard, Cindy M.; Klaasen, Garry L.; Price, Roger E.

    1994-05-01

    We report preliminary potato dosimetry and canine studies evaluating a new 1,000-(mu) optical fiber whose distal tip has been bent to 45 degree(s), allowing for endoscopic delivery of neodymium:YAG laser energy at an angle of 60 degree(s). Our results suggest that this fiber is comparable with other more complex angled delivery systems; has several advantages: it can deliver greater power over longer time intervals, producing larger volumes of coagulative necrosis, and it may be operated in a contact mode within a fluid medium without fiber `burnout.' This fiber should prove useful for transurethral laser ablation of the prostate.

  12. Preliminary study on 2 colour patterns in Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Toma, Luciano; Severini, Francesco; Romi, Roberto; Di Luca, Marco

    2016-08-30

    Ochlerotatus caspius is a mosquito of medical and veterinary relevance both for its synanthropy and for its potential role in transmission of viruses and nematodes in the areas that it inhabits. Due to its wide range and the marked variability in the adult colour pattern, some authors have recognized Ochlerotatus caspius as a complex of species. In this study, we purposed to evaluate the possible taxonomic heterogeneity between 2 chromatic forms by using both morphological and molecular approaches. The preliminary results based on the identity of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) lead us to believe the 2 forms as a single species with a chromatic polymorphism.

  13. Sensorized pacifier to quantify the rhythmicity of non-nutritive sucking: A preliminary study on newborns.

    PubMed

    Grassi, A; Cecchi, F; Guzzetta, A; Laschi, C

    2015-01-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is one of the most significant spontaneous actions of infants. The suction/expression rhythmicity of NNS remains unknown. We developed a sensorized pacifier for an objective measurement of NNS. Two miniaturized digital pressure sensors are embedded into a commercial pacifier and they acquired suction and expression pressures simultaneously. Experimental tests with nine newborns confirmed that our device is suitable for the measurement of the natural NNS behavior and for the extrapolation of parameters related to the suction/expression rhythmicity. Preliminary results encourage future studies to evaluate the possibility to use these parameters as indicators of oral feeding readiness of premature infants.

  14. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P < .05), and increased angulation tended to decrease impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  15. Dynamic resource allocation in a hierarchical multiprocessor system: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngai, Tin-Fook

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system approach to dynamic resource allocation is proposed. Some of the problems in dynamic resource allocation and the relationship of these problems to system structures are examined. A general dynamic resource allocation scheme is presented. A hierarchial system architecture which dynamically maps between processor structure and programs at multiple levels of instantiations is described. Simulation experiments were conducted to study dynamic resource allocation on the proposed system. Preliminary evaluation based on simple dynamic resource allocation algorithms indicates that with the proposed system approach, the complexity of dynamic resource management could be significantly reduced while achieving reasonable effective dynamic resource allocation.

  16. Incorporation of tramadol drug into Li-fluorohectorite clay: A preliminary study of a medical nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, L.; Hernández, D.; de Ménorval, L. Ch.; Pérez, I.; Altshuler, E.; Fossum, J. O.; Rivera, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the last years, clays have been increasingly explored as hosts for drugs. In the present paper, we have been able to host the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Tramadol, into the clay Li-fluorohectorite (Li-Fh). We preliminary evaluate its incorporation by means of UV spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Our results indicate that the clay hosts the drug molecule in its interlayer space. We suggest a set of parameters to guarantee an efficient incorporation process. Future studies will concentrate on the release of the drug from the clay nanofluid.

  17. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  18. (177)Lu-DOTATATE treatment in neuroendocrine tumours. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hervás, I; Bello, P; Falgas, M; Del Olmo, M I; Torres, I; Olivas, C; Vera, V; Oliván, P; Yepes, A M

    Therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogue peptides is a promising new therapy to treat neuroendocrine tumours. The aim of this preliminary study is to present our experience with (177)Lu-DOTATATE therapy, and evaluate tolerability and short-term efficacy in patients with tumours expressing somatostatin receptors. A total of 7 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours were treated, each with 4 doses of (177)Lu-DOTATATE. The treatment response was evaluated in the form of biochemical response (tumour markers), imaging methods (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance), and functional and quality of life responses using the Karnofsky performance status scale. Treatment toxicity was also evaluated. The results obtained were as follows: Biochemical response: 60% of patients showed tumour marker levels returning to normal, while they decreased significantly in the remaining 40%. Imaging response: 85.7% had a partial response, while 14.3% showed stable disease. All (100%) patients showed a significant improvement in quality of life, with increased Karnofsky scale scores. No patient had acute or chronic toxicity, and subacute transient haematological toxicity was observed in 42.8% of patients. Despite being a preliminary study, it was found that treatment with (177)Lu-DOTATATE is a safe treatment with few side effects, and an objective response was achieved in most patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  19. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  20. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  1. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  2. Psychotherapy with borderline patients: II. A preliminary cost benefit study.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J; Meares, R

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary cost benefit study of the effect of outpatient psychotherapy, twice a week for 1 year, in 30 borderline patients. Costs to the health system in terms of inpatient care for the year before treatment were compared with the costs for the year following treatment. The cost of hospital admissions for the 30 patients for the year before treatment was $684 346 (range = $0-$143 756/patient). The cost of hospital admissions for the year after treatment was $41 424 (range = $0-$12 333/patient). These figures represent an average decrease in costs per patient of $21 431. By using the schedule fee as the basis, the estimated cost of therapy per patient was approximately $13 000, representing a saving/patient of $8431 or approximately $250 000 over the total cohort in the first year after treatment. This study suggests that there is a significant cost benefit in the appropriate treatment of borderline patients.

  3. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  4. Pharmacognostic standardization and preliminary phytochemical studies of Gaultheria trichophylla.

    PubMed

    Alam, Fiaz; Najum us Saqib, Qazi

    2015-01-01

    Gaultheria trichophylla Royle (Ericaceae) has long been used for various ailments in traditional systems of medicines; most importantly it is used against pain and inflammation. This study determines various pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards helpful to ensure the purity, safety, and efficacy of medicinal plant G. trichophylla. Intact aerial parts, powdered materials, and extracts were examined macro- and microscopically and pharmacognostic standardization parameters were determined in accordance with the guidelines given by the World Health Organization (WHO). Parameters including extractive values, ash values, and loss on drying were determined. Preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence analysis, and chromatographic profiling were performed for the identification and standardization of G. trichophylla. The shape, size, color, odor, and surface characteristics were noted for intact drug and powdered drug material of G. trichophylla. Light and scanning electron microscope images of cross section of leaf and powdered microscopy revealed useful diagnostic features. Histochemical, phytochemical, physicochemical, and fluorescence analysis proved useful tools to differentiate the powdered drug material. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin. The data generated from the present study help to authenticate the medicinally important plant G. trichophylla. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic features may be helpful for establishing the pharmacopeia standards. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and described along with phytochemical and physicochemical parameters, which could be helpful in further isolation and purification of medicinally important compounds.

  5. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  6. A preliminary study of hyperlipidemia in Bangkok school children.

    PubMed

    Sirikulchayanonta, C; Pavadhgul, P; Chongsuwat, R; Srisorrachata, S

    2006-01-01

    As a preliminary study, we determined the serum lipid profiles among primary school children from four Bangkok schools and identified the risk factors and their association with child lipid profiles. We conducted a cross-sectional study using fasting blood samples and food frequency questionnaires. Overall, there were 40% that had hypercholesterolemia with total cholesterol (TC) at > or = 200 mg/dl and high low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at > or = 130 mg/dl. Overall, 5.4% had high triglyceride (TG) levels at > or = 150 mg/dl. There was no association between lipid profiles and age, gender or nutritional status, except that higher TG levels were found among obese children than others (p < 0.001). The most popular high fat foods were fried chicken, sausages and cakes, in order of preference. Results from this study indicate that Bangkok public primary school children are facing a problem with hyperlipidemia. Build up discipline in healthy eating habits, healthy food choices and physical exercise should pave the way to healthy Thai kids and growing adults with better quality of life.

  7. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  8. Developing a physiotherapy-specific preliminary clinical decision-making tool for oxygen titration: a modified delphi study.

    PubMed

    Duong, Michelle; Bertin, Kendra; Henry, Renee; Singh, Deepti; Timmins, Nolla; Brooks, Dina; Mathur, Sunita; Ellerton, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a preliminary clinical decision-making tool (CDMT) to assist physiotherapists in titrating oxygen for acutely ill adults in Ontario. A panel of 14 experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists was recruited. Factors relating to oxygen titration were identified using a modified Delphi technique. Four rounds of questionnaires were conducted, during which the goals were to (1) generate factors, (2) reduce factors and debate contentious factors, (3) finalize factors and develop the preliminary CDMT, and (4) evaluate the usability of the tool in a clinical context. The panel reached consensus on a total of 89 factors, which were compiled to create the preliminary CDMT. The global tool reached consensus for sensibility, receiving a mean score of 6/7 on a 7-point Likert-type scale (1=unacceptable; 7=excellent). Five of the nine individual components of evaluation of the tool achieved scores ≥6.0; the remaining four had mean scores between 5.4 and 5.9. This study produced a preliminary CDMT for oxygen titration, which the panel agreed was highly comprehensible and globally sensible. Further research is necessary to evaluate the sensibility and applicability of the tool in a clinical setting.

  9. Developing a Physiotherapy-Specific Preliminary Clinical Decision-Making Tool for Oxygen Titration: A Modified Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Michelle; Bertin, Kendra; Henry, Renee; Singh, Deepti; Timmins, Nolla; Brooks, Dina; Mathur, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop and evaluate a preliminary clinical decision-making tool (CDMT) to assist physiotherapists in titrating oxygen for acutely ill adults in Ontario. Methods: A panel of 14 experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists was recruited. Factors relating to oxygen titration were identified using a modified Delphi technique. Four rounds of questionnaires were conducted, during which the goals were to (1) generate factors, (2) reduce factors and debate contentious factors, (3) finalize factors and develop the preliminary CDMT, and (4) evaluate the usability of the tool in a clinical context. Results: The panel reached consensus on a total of 89 factors, which were compiled to create the preliminary CDMT. The global tool reached consensus for sensibility, receiving a mean score of 6/7 on a 7-point Likert-type scale (1=unacceptable; 7=excellent). Five of the nine individual components of evaluation of the tool achieved scores ≥6.0; the remaining four had mean scores between 5.4 and 5.9. Conclusion: This study produced a preliminary CDMT for oxygen titration, which the panel agreed was highly comprehensible and globally sensible. Further research is necessary to evaluate the sensibility and applicability of the tool in a clinical setting. PMID:25125782

  10. Novel low-cost prostate resection trainer-description and preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ebbing, Jan; Schostak, Martin; Steiner, Ursula; Stier, Katja; Neymeyer, Jörg; Miller, Kurt; Baumunk, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a challenging operation for residents with limited endoscopic experience. A number of virtual TURP simulators have been validated in the past. This study is the first description and preliminary evaluation of a non-virtual, low-cost TURP trainer as a teaching tool for residents in urology. Dr K. Forke's prostatic resection trainer (PRT; LS 10-2/S, Samed GmbH, Dresden, Germany) was tested during the surgical training of a resident. Under the supervision of an experienced senior surgeon, three aspects were examined: the resection trainer's approximation to reality, the ease of instruction, and the potential capability to improve surgeons' psychomotor abilities with regard to the three-dimensional (3D) guidance of the instrument. The improvement in resection speed (RS) of residents with no PRT training (control group) was also compared to the results of the PRT-trained resident. During the PRT training, the resident displayed clear improvement in resection quality (RQ) and a 27% increase in RS (p = 0.03). In the post-training stage, the PRT-trained resident showed a more constant progress rate, to a maximum RS of 0.37 g/min (35% increase; p = 0.01), whereas the control group displayed varied RS learning curves. Composed of a synthetic material, which can be resected by standard instruments, the trainer offers a haptical experience that is particularly realistic and may provide an increased learning rate. From the findings, we conclude that this novel PRT is suitable for daily use and offers an effective and more affordable alternative to virtual simulators. Further validation studies will follow and new fields of application will be tested. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A Preliminary Study on Gender Differences in Studying Systems Analysis and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fion S. L.; Wong, Kelvin C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Systems analysis and design is a crucial task in system development and is included in a typical information systems programme as a core course. This paper presented a preliminary study on gender differences in studying a systems analysis and design course of an undergraduate programme. Results indicated that male students outperformed female…

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Co-Cr Alloys Fabricated by Three New Manufacturing Processes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seong-Ho; Lee, Dae-Ho; Ha, Jung-Yun; Hanawa, Takao; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary tensile test was performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys fabricated by three new manufacturing processes: metal milling, milling for soft metal, and rapid prototyping (n=6). For comparison, the three alloy materials were also used to fabricate specimens by a casting procedure. In all groups tested, the proof strength and elongation were over 500 MPa and 2%, respectively. The milled soft alloy in particular showed a substantially greater elongation, whereas the alloy fabricated by rapid prototyping exhibited a higher proof strength.

  13. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  14. Laboratory study of corrosion of steam generator tubes: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, B.; Organista, M.; Henry, K.; Erre, R.; Gelpi, A.; Cattant, F.; Dupin, M.

    1995-12-31

    The secondary side intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of steam generator tubes often occurs in crevices where impurities are concentrated, due to local elevated temperatures and restricted water flow. From the analysis of tubes pulled from plants, it is believed that alumino-silicates deposits and/or organic species may play a role in the development of IGA in near neutral environments. New observations suggest that similar environments and similar processes are operative inside the corroded grain boundaries. A former study using autoclave tests was mainly devoted to the formation of alumino-silicate deposits similar to those observed in plants. The present work pursued the study of local environments responsible for IGA/SC. It confirms former results on the catalytic decomposition of organic species into acetates and presents more details on the mechanism of formation of alumino-silicate deposits on alloy 600, particularly on the role of iron and, to a lesser extent, nickel cations. It was showed that, under the alumino-silicate deposits and in the presence of some organic species, a non-protective chromium rich layer may grow instead of the usual protective spinel oxide. The mechanism responsible for the formation of this layer is believed to involve interaction between iron and, to a lesser extent, nickel with silica and/or possible interaction between chromium and acetates. Preliminary capsule tests indicate that these conditions may induce the initiation of IGA.

  15. Characterization of burns using hyperspectral imaging technique - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Savastru, Roxana; Manea, Dragos

    2015-02-01

    Surgical burn treatment depends on accurate estimation of burn depth. Many methods have been used to asses burns, but none has gained wide acceptance. Hyperspectral imaging technique has recently entered the medical research field with encouraging results. In this paper we present a preliminary study (case presentation) that aims to point out the value of this optical method in burn wound characterization and to set up future lines of investigation. A hyperspectral image of a leg and foot with partial thickness burns was obtained in the fifth postburn day. The image was analyzed using linear spectral unmixing model as a tool for mapping the investigated areas. The article gives details on the mathematical bases of the interpretation model and correlations with clinical examination pointing out the advantages of hyperspectral imaging technique. While the results were encouraging, further more extended and better founded studies are being prepared before recognizing hyperspectral imaging technique as an applicable method of burn wound assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Pathology of gastric lesions in donkeys: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Al-Mokaddem, A K; Ahmed, K A; Doghaim, R E

    2015-11-01

    Donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) are important working animals, particularly in countries where the majority of the population lives below the poverty line. Gastric ulceration has been shown to be common in British donkeys but donkeys from other parts of the world have not been as extensively researched. This study was performed as a preliminary overview of the severity and distribution of gastric lesions in mature donkeys and to document which parasites were present. Descriptive study of pathological findings. Stomachs of 35 mature draught donkeys were examined grossly and histopathology samples taken from 5 regions of the gastric mucosa. Gross examination revealed hyperaemia, oedema, erosions and ulcers in addition to parasitic lesions. Histopathological examination revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, vacuolar degeneration of stratified squamous cells, gastritis, erosions, ulcerations, scarring, hyperactivity of mucus glands, periglandular fibroplasia and parasitic granulomes with infestation by Gasterophilus spp. larvae, Habronema spp. and Draschia megastoma. In donkeys, ulceration of the nonglandular regions of the stomach is more prominent than the glandular regions and parasitic infestations were frequent. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Physico-Chemical profile of Puga Khanda: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Baragi, Pramod C.; Baragi, Umapati C.; Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are the oldest known form of medicine in the world. However, the quality control and the assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components. Herbal drugs, singlely or in combinations, contain numerous compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards and the standardization of finished herbal products. Many formulations have been mentioned in Ayurvedic text for Vrushyatwa (aphrodisiac). Puga Khanda is one among such formulations. Aim: To develop preliminary physico-chemical profile of Puga Khanda. Materials and Methods: Puga Khanda was prepared in three batches as per the classical reference mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali. The formulation was subjected for physico-chemical analysis, phytochemical analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The study revealed that organoleptic characters, pH and extractive values of all 3 samples were almost equal. All the samples had 60% of sugar needed for preservation and 2/3rd of it was non reducing sugar. The total alkaloids ranged from 0.002 to 0.004% w/w. In TLC study the entire samples showed similar pattern except the 2nd sample of Puga Khanda. PMID:25364209

  18. Sphenoid sinus microbiota in pituitary apoplexy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Gavin J; Waqar, Mueez; McBain, Andrew J; Gnanalingham, Kanna K

    2017-08-29

    There is a high incidence of abnormal sphenoid sinus changes in patients with pituitary apoplexy (PA). Their pathophysiology is currently unexplored and may reflect an inflammatory or infective process. In this preliminary study, we characterised the microbiota of sphenoid sinus mucosa in patients with PA and compared findings to a control group of surgically treated non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). In this prospective observational study of patients undergoing trans-sphenoidal surgery for PA or NFPA, sphenoid sinus mucosal specimens were microbiologically profiled through PCR-cloning of the 16S rRNA gene. Ten patients (five with PA and five with NFPAs) with a mean age of 51 years (range 23-71) were included. Differences in the sphenoid sinus microbiota of the PA and NFPA groups were observed. Four PA patients harboured Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter spp., N = 3; Escherichia coli, N = 1). In contrast, patients with NFPAs had a sinus microbiota more representative of health, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (N = 2) or Corynebacterium spp. (N = 2). PA may be associated with an abnormal sphenoid sinus microbiota that is similar to that seen in patients with sphenoid sinusitis.

  19. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented.

  20. Preliminary Study of Relationships between Stability and Control Characteristics and Affordability for High-Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a study that is being done as part of the Methods for Affordable Design (MAD) program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for which the goal is to develop design methods and information that contribute to reductions in the aircraft development cycle time while increasing design confidence throughout the design cycle. The product of the study will be a database of information that relates key stability and control parameters to affordability considerations such as air combat exchange ratio, safety of flight, and probability of loss of the aircraft or pilot. The overall background and methodology are described, and preliminary results are shown for the first phase of the study to evaluate characteristics in the longitudinal axis. For these preliminary results a simplified analytical model of the aircraft response to uncommanded nose-up pitching moments was developed and used to characterize the requirements for recoveries to controlled flight conditions and to evaluate some parameters that affect the survivability of the aircraft and the pilot.

  1. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Vasovic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Todorovic, Ljubomir; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients’ reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (p<0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly higher with FTS when compared to control treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this preliminary study, transdermal system with fentanyl significantly reduced postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Key words:Analgesia, fentanyl, transdermal administration, third molar surgery, acute pain, postoperative care. PMID:27475691

  2. Archaeoastronomical Information in the Study of Cremation Necropolis: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, J.; Cerde, M. L.; Rodríguez, C.

    2009-08-01

    This work remarks the significance that archaeoastronomical studies have for archaeological research. These studies provide us data about the perception that ancient societies had about astronomical events and how these facts were added to their religious and ideological world. Thus, archaeoastronomy become a valuable source of information when aimed to solve any question involving the ancient societies. We take as reference in this work some of the Late Bronze Age{'}s cremation necropolis, representatives of usually called Urnfields, to check if their design can be related to some celestial phenomena: Can Bech de Baix (Gerona), Can Pitieu-Can Roqueta(Barcelona), Molá (Tarragona), Can Missert (Tarragona), Les Obagues (Tarragona), La Colomina (Lleida) and La Torraza (Navarra). Likewise a new standard in archaeological excavations maps is proposed. This will allow getting the information more available and improving further studies.

  3. A preliminary study of Mars rover/sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council recommends that a Mars Sample Return mission be undertaken before the year 2000. Comprehensive studies of a Mars Sample Return mission have been ongoing since 1984. The initial focus of these studies was an integrated mission concept with the surface rover and sample return vehicle elements delivered to Mars on a single launch and landed together. This approach, to be carried out as a unilateral U.S. initiative, is still a high priority goal in an Augmented Program of exploration, as the SSEC recommendation clearly states. With this background of a well-understood mission concept, NASA decided to focus its 1986 study effort on a potential opportunity not previously examined; namely, a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission which would involve a significant aspect of international cooperation. As envisioned, responsibility for the various mission operations and hardware elements would be divided in a logical manner with clearly defined and acceptable interfaces. The U.S. and its international partner would carry out separately launched but coordinated missions with the overall goal of accomplishing in situ science and returning several kilograms of surface samples from Mars. Important considerations for implementation of such a plan are minimum technology transfer, maximum sharing of scientific results, and independent credibility of each mission role. Under the guidance and oversight of a Mars Exploration Strategy Advisory Group organized by NASA, a study team was formed in the fall of 1986 to develop a preliminary definition of a flight-separable, cooperative mission. The selected concept assumes that the U.S. would undertake the rover mission with its sample collection operations and our international partner would return the samples to Earth. Although the inverse of these roles is also possible, this study report focuses on the rover functions of MRSR because rover operations have not

  4. A composite design for transition from a preliminary to a full-scale study.

    PubMed

    Lachin, John M; Younes, Naji

    2007-11-30

    In drug development, a sequence of studies are conducted to evaluate effectiveness (or efficacy) and safety, such as a Phase II study to assess pharmacological activity or safety that is then followed by a definitive Phase III study to assess clinical effectiveness. Rather than conducting separate successive studies, we describe a design in which the patients enrolled in a preliminary (e.g. Phase II) study are continued into a subsequent full-scale (e.g. Phase III) study. This design also applies to a study that uses an internal pilot with a preliminary assessment of efficacy or safety. The combined preliminary to full-scale design potentially reduces the total numbers of patients required and the total duration of the program. The design allows a futility or safety stopping boundary for the preliminary study result that is specified in terms of a lower critical Z-value (Z(L)) and the pursuant type II error probability incurred under a specified alternative hypothesis of a beneficial effect or no toxicity at that stage. This boundary also leads to a deflation of the type I error probability for the final test at the completion of the full-scale study, such that a critical value for the final test (Z(F)) can be determined that provides the desired level of the type I error probability exactly. Thus, it is possible to determine sample sizes at the two stages, and critical values Z(L) and Z(F) that provide specified type I and II error probabilities for the combined study. We describe the design using large-sample normally distributed Z-tests at the two phases, including a test for means, or proportions or survival times, or combinations thereof, such as a test for means at Phase II followed by a test for proportions at Phase III. We compare the properties of this design versus the conduct of two successive studies, and explore the factors that influence the operating characteristics of the design. We also discuss the practical considerations in the implementation of

  5. Calibration Study and Preliminary Results of PRad Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levillain, Maxime; PRad Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The latest measurements of the proton radius through muonic hydrogen Lamb shift show a discrepancy of 7 σ from a global analysis of standard hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic ep -scattering. In order to understand this proton radius puzzle, the PRad experiment successfully took in last June some elastic ep -scattering data at very low Q2 (2 .10-4 to 10-1 GeV2) with very accurate angle and energy measurements to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Before measuring the cross-sections that will be used to extract the electromagnetic form factor GE(Q2) and the proton radius, a very careful calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter (HyCal) must be performed to get a good energy resolution and separate ep -events from M øller events especially at low angle. We will present an extended study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration of this experiment as well as some preliminary results on ep - and ee -scattering processes extracted from the data. The PRad experiment is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153.

  6. Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

    2004-12-01

    Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

  7. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  8. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  9. Lymphangiogenesis in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma - Preliminary Study with Clinicopathological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Benharroch, Daniel; Prinsloo, Isebrand; Gopas, Jacob; Lazarev, Irena

    2016-01-01

    A role for lymphangiogenesis in metastatic breast and prostate cancers has been suggested recently. The relevance of lymphangiogenesis in cancer as a rule, and more specifically in classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is poorly understood in comparison with that of angiogenesis. In a preliminary (pilot) study we have investigated the role of lymphatic vessels growth in 19 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma stained with the D2-40 (podoplanin) antibody. In each case, three lymphatic vessels hot spots were scrutinized twice. Of the 57 hot spots thus identified, we chose 15 at random for photography, microvessel counting and image analysis. We determined the mean perimeter, surface area, major axis length and complexity factor for each hot spot and correlated them with clinical and biological features of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. No correlations were found with clinical features. No associations were noted with the standard immuno-markers of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. However, significant inverse correlations were shown with pRb, BAX and IκB-α expression. The mean lymphatic major axis length was inversely correlated with the complexity factor. Last, we carried out an additional clinicopathological correlation of the expression of pRb, BAX and IκB-α in a cohort of classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients previously published. PMID:27877228

  10. ECG Response of Koalas to Tourists Proximity: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists. PMID:19823679

  11. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-10-12

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists.

  12. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  13. VEGF Expression in Patellar Tendinopathy: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Øystein; Bahr, Roald; Hart, David A.; Duronio, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Vascular function and angiogenesis are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). The purpose of this preliminary study was to address the following questions: Is VEGF expression in the patellar tendon more prevalent in patients with patellar tendinopathy than in individuals with normal, pain-free patellar tendons? Which cell populations express VEGF in normal and tendinopathic tendon? Is there a difference in symptom duration between VEGF+ and VEGF− tendons? We collected patellar tendon tissue from 22 patients undergoing open débridement of the patellar tendon and from 10 patients undergoing intramedullary nailing of the tibia. VEGF expression was assessed immunohistochemically. Relevant inflammatory and repair cell types were immunolabeled. VEGF expression was absent from control tendons, but was present in a subset of patients with histopathological evidence of angiofibroblastic tendinosis. VEGF was expressed in the intimal layer of tendon vessels, but was absent in other cell types. Patients demonstrating VEGF expression in the patellar tendon had a shorter symptom duration (12 ± 7.8 months) than patients with no detectable VEGF (32.8 ± 23.5 months). VEGF may contribute to the vascular hyperplasia that is a cardinal feature of symptomatic tendinosis, particularly in cases with more recent onset. PMID:18459027

  14. Real-time trichromatic holographic interferometry: preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albe, Felix; Bastide, Myriam; Desse, Jean-Michel; Tribillon, Jean-Louis H.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper we relate our preliminary experiments on real- time trichromatic holographic interferometry. For this purpose a CW `white' laser (argon and krypton of Coherent- Radiation, Spectrum model 70) is used. This laser produces about 10 wavelengths. A system consisting of birefringent plates and polarizers allows to select a trichromatic TEM00 triplet: blue line ((lambda) equals 476 nm, 100 mW), green line ((lambda) equals 514 nm, 100 mW) and red line ((lambda) equals 647 nm, 100 mW). In a first stage we recorded a trichromatic reflection hologram with a separate reference beam on a single-layer silver-halide panchromatic plate (PFG 03C). After processing, the hologram is put back into the original recording set-up, as in classical experiments on real-time monochromatic holographic interferometry. So we observe interference fringes between the 3 reconstructed waves and the 3 actual waves. The interference fringes of the phenomenon are observed on a screen and recorded by a video camera at 25 frames per second. A color video film of about 3 minutes of duration is presented. Some examples related to phase objects are presented (hot airflow from a candle, airflow from a hand). The actual results show the possibility of using this technique to study, in real time, aerodynamic wakes and mechanical deformation.

  15. Investigation of psychophysical measure for evaluation of similar images for mammographic masses: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Suzuki, Kenji; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2005-07-15

    We investigated a psychophysical similarity measure for selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms, which may assist radiologists in the distinction between benign and malignant masses. Sixty pairs of masses were selected from 1445 mass images prepared for this study, which were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography by the University of South Florida. Five radiologists provided subjective similarity ratings for these 60 pairs of masses based on the overall impression for diagnosis. Radiologists' subjective ratings were marked on a continuous rating scale and quantified between 0 and 1, which correspond to pairs not similar at all and pairs almost identical, respectively. By use of the subjective ratings as 'gold standard', similarity measures based on the Euclidean distance between pairs in feature space and the psychophysical measure were determined. For determination of the psychophysical similarity measure, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to learn the relationship between radiologists' average subjective similarity ratings and computer-extracted image features. To evaluate the usefulness of the similarity measures, the agreement with the radiologists' subjective similarity ratings was assessed in terms of correlation coefficients between the average subjective ratings and the similarity measures. A commonly used similarity measure based on the Euclidean distance was moderately correlated (r=0.644) with the radiologists' average subjective ratings, whereas the psychophysical measure by use of the ANN was highly correlated (r=0.798). The preliminary result indicates that a psychophysical similarity measure would be useful in the selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms.

  16. Investigation of psychophysical measure for evaluation of similar images for mammographic masses: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li, Qiang; Suzuki, Kenji; Schmidt, Robert A; Shiraishi, Junji; Newstead, Gillian M; Doi, Kunio

    2005-07-01

    We investigated a psychophysical similarity measure for selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms, which may assist radiologists in the distinction between benign and malignant masses. Sixty pairs of masses were selected from 1445 mass images prepared for this study, which were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography by the University of South Florida. Five radiologists provided subjective similarity ratings for these 60 pairs of masses based on the overall impression for diagnosis. Radiologists' subjective ratings were marked on a continuous rating scale and quantified between 0 and 1, which correspond to pairs not similar at all and pairs almost identical, respectively. By use of the subjective ratings as "gold standard," similarity measures based on the Euclidean distance between pairs in feature space and the psychophysical measure were determined. For determination of the psychophysical similarity measure, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to learn the relationship between radiologists' average subjective similarity ratings and computer-extracted image features. To evaluate the usefulness of the similarity measures, the agreement with the radiologists' subjective similarity ratings was assessed in terms of correlation coefficients between the average subjective ratings and the similarity measures. A commonly used similarity measure based on the Euclidean distance was moderately correlated (r=0.644) with the radiologists' average subjective ratings, whereas the psychophysical measure by use of the ANN was highly correlated (r=0.798). The preliminary result indicates that a psychophysical similarity measure would be useful in the selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms. © 2005 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Investigation of psychophysical measure for evaluation of similar images for mammographic masses: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li, Qiang; Suzuki, Kenji; Schmidt, Robert A; Shiraishi, Junji; Newstead, Gillian M; Doi, Kunio

    2005-07-01

    We investigated a psychophysical similarity measure for selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms, which may assist radiologists in the distinction between benign and malignant masses. Sixty pairs of masses were selected from 1445 mass images prepared for this study, which were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography by the University of South Florida. Five radiologists provided subjective similarity ratings for these 60 pairs of masses based on the overall impression for diagnosis. Radiologists' subjective ratings were marked on a continuous rating scale and quantified between 0 and 1, which correspond to pairs not similar at all and pairs almost identical, respectively. By use of the subjective ratings as "gold standard," similarity measures based on the Euclidean distance between pairs in feature space and the psychophysical measure were determined. For determination of the psychophysical similarity measure, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to learn the relationship between radiologists' average subjective similarity ratings and computer-extracted image features. To evaluate the usefulness of the similarity measures, the agreement with the radiologists' subjective similarity ratings was assessed in terms of correlation coefficients between the average subjective ratings and the similarity measures. A commonly used similarity measure based on the Euclidean distance was moderately correlated (r=0.644) with the radiologists' average subjective ratings, whereas the psychophysical measure by use of the ANN was highly correlated (r=0.798). The preliminary result indicates that a psychophysical similarity measure would be useful in the selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms.

  18. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  19. [Peritoneal equilibration test: Conventional versus adapted. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Zaloszyc, Ariane; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Schaefer, Betti; Doutey, Armelle; Terzic, Joëlle; Menouer, Soraya; Higel, Laetitia; Fischbach, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Conventional automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is prescribed as a repetition of cycles with the same dwell time and the same fill volume. Water and sodium balance remains a common problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis. More recently, adapted automated peritoneal dialysis was described, as a combination of short dwells with a low volume, in order to enhance ultrafiltration, followed by long dwells with a large fill volume to favor solute removal. We performed a preliminary crossover study on 4 patients. The total amount of dialysate was the same, i.e. 2L/m(2) as well as the total duration of the test, i.e. 150 minutes. The conventional test was made with two identical cycles, each cycle had a fill volume of 1L/m(2) and a duration of 75 minutes, while the adapted test was performed with one short cycle, i.e. 30 minutes with a low fill volume, i.e. 0.6L/m(2), followed by a long cycle, i.e. 120 minutes, with a large fill volume, i.e. 1.4L/m(2). Sodium extraction was improved by 29.3mmol/m(2) (169%) in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test. Ultrafiltration was enhanced by 159mL/m(2) (128%) in the adapted test compared to the conventional one. Glucose absorption was decreased by 35% in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test and osmotic conductance was also improved. In conclusion, adapted dialysis may allow for a better volume and sodium balance, since we observed an improvement in sodium extraction and ultrafiltration. This pre-study authorizes an improvement of the European Pediatric Study's protocol on Adapted APD, already started and which will continue in the next months.

  20. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  1. A Multimedia Interactive Education System for Prostate Cancer Patients: Development and Preliminary Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Butz, Brian P

    2004-01-01

    Background A cancer diagnosis is highly distressing. Yet, to make informed treatment choices patients have to learn complicated disease and treatment information that is often fraught with medical and statistical terminology. Thus, patients need accurate and easy-to-understand information. Objective To introduce the development and preliminary evaluation through focus groups of a novel highly-interactive multimedia-education software program for patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Methods The prostate interactive education system uses the metaphor of rooms in a virtual health center (ie, reception area, a library, physician offices, group meeting room) to organize information. Text information contained in the library is tailored to a person's information-seeking preference (ie, high versus low information seeker). We conducted a preliminary evaluation through 5 separate focus groups with prostate cancer survivors (N = 18) and their spouses (N = 15). Results Focus group results point to the timeliness and high acceptability of the software among the target audience. Results also underscore the importance of a guide or tutor who assists in navigating the program and who responds to queries to facilitate information retrieval. Conclusions Focus groups have established the validity of our approach and point to new directions to further enhance the user interface. PMID:15111269

  2. A Novel Model for Acute Peripheral Nerve Injury in the Horse and Evaluation of the Effect of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Applied In Situ on Nerve Regeneration: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Villagrán, Claudia; Schumacher, Jim; Donnell, Robert; Dhar, Madhu S.

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to sites of experimentally created nerve injury in laboratory animals has shown promising results in restoring nerve function. This approach for nerve regeneration has not been reported in horses. In this study, we first evaluated the in vitro ability of equine bone marrow-derived MSCs (EBM-MSCs) to trans-differentiate into Schwann-like cells and subsequently tested the MSCs in vivo for their potential to regenerate a transected nerve after implantation. The EBM-MSCs from three equine donors were differentiated into SCLs for 7 days, in vitro, in the presence of specialized differentiation medium and evaluated for morphological characteristics, by using confocal microscopy, and for protein characteristics, by using selected Schwann cell markers (GFAP and S100b). The EBM-MSCs were then implanted into the fascia surrounding the ramus communicans of one fore limb of three healthy horses after a portion of this nerve was excised. The excised portion of the nerve was examined histologically at the time of transection, and stumps of the nerve were examined histologically at day 45 after transplantation. The EBM-MSCs from all donors demonstrated morphological and protein characteristics of those of Schwann cells 7 days after differentiation. Nerves implanted with EBM-MSCs after nerve transection did not show evidence of nerve regeneration at day 45. Examination of peripheral nerves collected 45 days after injury and stem cell treatment revealed no histological differences between nerves treated with MSCs and those treated with isotonic saline solution (controls). The optimal delivery of MSCs and the model suitable to study the efficacy of MSCs in nerve regeneration should be investigated. PMID:27695697

  3. Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hickey-Schultz, Lynn; Cohen, Deborah; Steiner, Naomi; Cope, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate potential mental health benefits of yoga for adolescents in secondary school. Students were randomly assigned to either regular physical education classes or to 11 weeks of yoga sessions based upon the Yoga Ed program over a single semester. Students completed baseline and end-program self-report measures of mood, anxiety, perceived stress, resilience, and other mental health variables. Independent evaluation of individual outcome measures revealed that yoga participants showed statistically significant differences over time relative to controls on measures of anger control and fatigue/inertia. Most outcome measures exhibited a pattern of worsening in the control group over time, whereas changes in the yoga group over time were either minimal or showed slight improvements. These preliminary results suggest that implementation of yoga is acceptable and feasible in a secondary school setting and has the potential of playing a protective or preventive role in maintaining mental health.

  4. Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Sedati, Pietro; Sutherland, Fraser W H; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings.

  5. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  6. In vivo radioprotection by alpha-TMG: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Satyamitra, M; Devi, P U; Murase, H; Kagiya, V T

    2001-08-08

    alpha-TMG is a novel water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E that has shown excellent antioxidant activity. The parent compound has demonstrated protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in vivo. Hence, the preliminary experiments to determine the radioprotective activity of alpha-TMG were carried out in adult Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity of the drug was studied taking 24h, 72 h and 30 day mortality after a single intraperitoneal injection of 500-2000 mg/kg body weight of the drug. The drug LD(50) for 24h and 72 h/30 day survival were found to be 1120 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The optimum time of drug administration and drug dose-dependent effect on in vivo radiation protection of bone marrow chromosomes was studied in mice. Injection of 600 mg/kg of the drug 15 min before or within 5, 15 or 30min after 3Gy whole body gamma radiation resulted in a significant decrease in the aberrant metaphases percent at 24h post-irradiation; the maximum effect was seen when the drug was given immediately after irradiation. Injection of 200-800 mg/kg TMG within 5 min of irradiation with 3 Gy produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes at 24h after exposure, with a corresponding decrease in the different types of aberrations. The optimum dose for protection without drug toxicity was 600 mg/kg body weight. At this dose, TMG produced 70 and >60% reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and micronucleated erythrocytes, respectively. The high water solubility and effectiveness when administered post-irradiation favor TMG as a likely candidate for protection in case of accidental exposures.

  7. Development of the wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit WB-4: preliminary performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhuohua; Zecca, Massimiliano; Sessa, Salvatore; Bartolomeo, Luca; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance evaluation of our new wireless ultra-miniaturized inertial measurement unit (IMU) WB-4 by compared with the Vicon motion capture system. The WB-4 IMU primarily contains a mother board for motion sensing, a Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission with PC, and a Li-Polymer battery for power supply. The mother board is provided with a microcontroller and 9-axis inertial sensors (miniaturized MEMS accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer) to measure orientation. A quaternion-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) integrated with an R-Adaptive algorithm for automatic estimation of the measurement covariance matrix is implemented for the sensor fusion to retrieve the attitude. The experimental results showed that the wireless ultra-miniaturized WB-4 IMU could provide high accuracy performance at the angles of roll and pitch. The yaw angle which has reasonable performance needs to be further evaluated.

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-09-30

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design.

  9. High risk cohort study for psychiatric disorders in childhood: rationale, design, methods and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Alvarenga, Pedro; Valle Krieger, Fernanda; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João Ricardo; Brietzke, Elisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Brentani, Helena; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Mercadante, Marcos Tomanik; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to present the rationale, methods, design and preliminary results from the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders. We describe the sample selection and the components of each phases of the study, its instruments, tasks and procedures. Preliminary results are limited to the baseline phase and encompass: (i) the efficacy of the oversampling procedure used to increase the frequency of both child and family psychopathology; (ii) interrater reliability and (iii) the role of differential participation rate. A total of 9937 children from 57 schools participated in the screening procedures. From those 2512 (random = 958; high risk = 1554) were further evaluated with diagnostic instruments. The prevalence of any child mental disorder in the random strata and high-risk strata was 19.9% and 29.7%. The oversampling procedure was successful in selecting a sample with higher family rates of any mental disorders according to diagnostic instruments. Interrater reliability (kappa) for the main diagnostic instrument range from 0.72 (hyperkinetic disorders) to 0.84 (emotional disorders). The screening instrument was successful in selecting a sub-sample with "high risk" for developing mental disorders. This study may help advance the field of child psychiatry and ultimately provide useful clinical information.

  10. Preliminary assessments of CO2 storage in carbonate formations: a case study from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Arshad; Gholami, Raoof; Rezaee, Reza; Bing, Chua Han; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2017-06-01

    The preliminary assessment of depleted reservoirs prior to the injection of CO2 is an essential step to ensure the safety and success of storage projects. Several studies have provided a preliminary assessment of depleted reservoirs as a sequestration practice. However, the screening criteria used in these studies were not able to consider all of the aspects of a storage site. The aim of this paper is to provide a reservoir-scale evaluation approach for long-term storage practice in an offshore carbonate field located in Malaysia. Recently developed screening criteria that cover the key aspects of storage sites, such as capacity, injectivity, trapping mechanisms, and containment, are taken into consideration for the purpose of this study. The results obtained suggest that the reservoir has good potential to be a storage place for CO2, although the compaction behavior and aquifer supports of the reservoir might cause some difficulties. It is, therefore, recommended that a series of experimental and numerical studies on different aspects of storage sites be performed to ensure that injectivity is not a problem when it comes to the implementation stage.

  11. Alkynyl gold(I) phosphane complexes: Evaluation of structure-activity-relationships for the phosphane ligands, effects on key signaling proteins and preliminary in-vivo studies with a nanoformulated complex.

    PubMed

    Andermark, Vincent; Göke, Katrin; Kokoschka, Malte; Abu El Maaty, Mohamed A; Lum, Ching Tung; Zou, Taotao; Sun, Raymond Wai-Yin; Aguiló, Elisabet; Oehninger, Luciano; Rodríguez, Laura; Bunjes, Heike; Wölfl, Stefan; Che, Chi-Ming; Ott, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    Gold alkynyl complexes with phosphane ligands of the type (alkynyl)Au(I)(phosphane) represent a group of bioorganometallics, which has only recently been evaluated biologically in more detail. Structure-activity-relationship studies regarding the residues of the phosphane ligand (P(Ph)3, P(2-furyl)3, P(DAPTA)3, P(PTA)3, P(Et)3, P(Me)3) of complexes with an 4-ethynylanisole alkyne ligand revealed no strong differences concerning cytotoxicity. However, a relevant preference for the heteroatom free alkyl/aryl residues concerning inhibition of the target enzyme thioredoxin reductase was evident. Complex 1 with the triphenylphosphane ligand was selected for further studies, in which clear effects on cell morphology were monitored by time-lapse microscopy. Effects on cellular signaling were determined by ELISA microarrays and showed a significant induction of the phosphorylation of ERK1 (extracellular signal related kinase 1), ERK2 and HSP27 (heat shock protein 27) in HT-29 cells. Application of 1 in-vivo in a mouse xenograft model was found to be challenging due to the low solubility of the complex and required a formulation strategy based on a peanut oil nanoemulsion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  13. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  14. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  15. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  16. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  17. A Preliminary Study of the Burgers Equation with Symbolic Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derickson, Russell G.; Pielke, Roger A.

    2000-07-01

    A novel approach based on recursive symbolic computation is introduced for the approximate analytic solution of the Burgers equation. Once obtained, appropriate numerical values can be inserted into the symbolic solution to explore parametric variations. The solution is valid for both inviscid and viscous cases, covering the range of Reynolds number from 500 to infinity, whereas current direct numerical simulation (DNS) methods are limited to Reynolds numbers no greater than 4000. What further distinguishes the symbolic approach from numerical and traditional analytic techniques is the ability to reveal and examine direct nonlinear interactions between waves, including the interplay between inertia and viscosity. Thus, preliminary efforts suggest that symbolic computation may be quite effective in unveiling the “anatomy” of the myriad interactions that underlie turbulent behavior. However, due to the tendency of nonlinear symbolic operations to produce combinatorial explosion, future efforts will require the development of improved filtering processes to select and eliminate computations leading to negligible high order terms. Indeed, the initial symbolic computations present the character of turbulence as a problem in combinatorics. At present, results are limited in time evolution, but reveal the beginnings of the well-known “saw tooth” waveform that occurs in the inviscid case (i.e., Re=∞). Future efforts will explore more fully developed 1-D flows and investigate the potential to extend symbolic computations to 2-D and 3-D. Potential applications include the development of improved subgrid scale (SGS) parameterizations for large eddy simulation (LES) models, and studies that complement DNS in exploring fundamental aspects of turbulent flow behavior.

  18. Preliminary validation study of the Russian Birmingham Cognitive Screen.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, E; Humphreys, G W; Riddoch, M J; Skvortsov, A A; Weekes, B S

    2017-03-14

    The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) is designed for use with individuals who have acquired language impairment following stroke. Our goal was to develop a Russian version of the BCoS (Rus-BCoS) by translating the battery following cultural and linguistic adaptations and establishing preliminary data on its psychometric properties. Fifty patients with left-hemisphere stroke were recruited, of whom 98% were diagnosed with mild to moderate aphasia. To check whether the Rus-BCoS provides stable and consistent scores, internal consistency, test-retest, and interrater types of reliability were determined. Eight participants with stroke and 20 neurologically intact participants were assessed twice. To inspect the discriminative power of the battery, 63 participants without brain impairment were tested with the Rus-BCoS. Additionally, the Russian version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Quantitative Assessment of Speech in Aphasia, and Luria's Neuropsychological Assessment Battery were used to examine convergent validity, sensitivity, and specificity of the Rus-BCoS. The internal consistency as well as test-retest and interrater reliability of the Rus-BCoS satisfied criteria for the research use. Performance on a majority of tasks in the battery correlated significantly with independently validated tests that putatively measure similar cognitive processes. Critically, all patients with aphasia returned nonzero scores in at least one task in all the Rus-BCoS sections, with the exception of the Controlled Attention section where two patients with severe executive control deficits could not perform. The Rus-BCoS shows promise as a comprehensive cognitive screening tool that can be used by clinicians working with Russian-speaking persons experiencing poststroke aphasia after much further validation and development of reliable normative standards. Given a lack of quantitative neuropsychological assessment tools in Russia, however, we contend the Rus-BCoS offers

  19. Byssinosis in a textile factory in Cameroon: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Takam, J; Nemery, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess the risk of byssinosis in a cotton textile factory in Cameroon a preliminary study was conducted on a random sample of 125 men from production areas and 68 men from non-production areas. Symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire, which also included questions regarding sleep; peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) was measured with a miniature peak flow meter at the end of a working day and total dust concentrations were assessed by static and personal sampling with Casella dust samplers giving values of 6.4 +/- 2.6 mg/m3 (m +/- SD) in production areas and 1.7 +/- 0.7 mg/m3 in control areas. Exposed subjects had significantly more symptoms (particularly in smokers) and lower PEF values than controls (408 +/- 961/min v 468 +/- 701/min, p less than 0.001). Twenty three exposed subjects (18%) reported chest tightness on returning to work after the weekly break (compared with one control, p less than 0.01). Subjects with byssinosis had lower PEF values than those without chest tightness (356 +/- 501/min v 426 +/- 951/min, p less than 0.01), more chronic bronchitis (52% v 6%, p less than 0.001), they were more often smokers (61% v 31%, p less than 0.05), and came generally, though not exclusively, from the opening carding spinning department with the highest concentrations of total dust (8 +/- 2 mg/m3) and an estimated prevalence of byssinosis of 28%. There were no significant differences in sleep related symptoms between the exposed and controls, though the 23 subjects with byssinosis tended to report more snoring (48%), early morning headache (48%), and sleep improvement over the working week (44%) than all the other subjects (28%, 24%, and 24% respectively, p less than 0.1). PMID:3219305

  20. Use of computerized tomography and chest x-rays in evaluating efficacy of aerosolized recombinant human DNase in cystic fibrosis patients younger than age 5 years: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nasr, S Z; Kuhns, L R; Brown, R W; Hurwitz, M E; Sanders, G M; Strouse, P J

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest and chest x-rays (CXR) to determine efficacy of inhaled recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients younger than 5 years of age. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of 12 patients with CF younger than 5 years of age, attending the University of Michigan Cystic Fibrosis Center (Ann Arbor, MI) was conducted. The changes in the HRCT and CXR score from baseline to day 100 of therapy were assessed using a previously validated scoring system. The mean changes of HRCT scores between the rhDNase and placebo groups were found to be significant at the 95% level, with mean change +/- SE mean of - 1.00 +/- 0.53 and 0.58 +/- 0.24 for rhDNase and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.02). The difference in CXR score was not significant between the two groups. An analysis was performed to relate HRCT subscores to CXR score; only thickening of the intra-interlobular septae was significantly correlated with the total CXR score (r = - 0.7, P < 0.01). There was improvement in the parents' assessments of the patients' well-being, with improvement in physical activity, decreased cough, sleep quality, and appetite in those subjects receiving rhDNase. We conclude that the administration of rhDNase was associated with improvement in the HRCT scan in CF patients younger than 5 years of age. Findings indicate that HRCT of the chest is useful and sensitive in studying responses to therapy in patients with CF lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of HRCT to assess the effectiveness of a therapeutic modality in so young a CF patient population.