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Sample records for premature ejaculation diagnostic

  1. Premature ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to sexual tension or other problems in the relationship. When to Contact a Medical ... K, Martyn-St. James M, Kaltenthaler E, et al. Behavioral therapies for management of premature ejaculation: a systematic review. Sex Med . ...

  2. Development and validation of a premature ejaculation diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Tara; Perelman, Michael A; Althof, Stanley; Giuliano, François; Martin, Mona; May, Kathryn; Abraham, Lucy; Crossland, Anna; Morris, Mark

    2007-08-01

    Diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE) for clinical trial purposes has typically relied on intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) for entry, but this parameter does not capture the multidimensional nature of PE. Therefore, the aim was to develop a brief, multidimensional, psychometrically validated instrument for diagnosing PE status. The questionnaire development involved three stages: (1) Five focus groups and six individual interviews were conducted to develop the content; (2) psychometric validation using three different groups of men; and (3) generation of a scoring system. For psychometric validation/scoring system development, data was collected from (1) men with PE based on clinician diagnosis, using DSM-IV-TR, who also had IELTs < or =2 min (n=292); (2) men self-reporting PE (n=309); and (3) men self-reporting no-PE (n=701). Standard psychometric analyses were conducted to produce the final questionnaire. Sensitivity/specificity analysis was used to determine an appropriate scoring system. The qualitative research identified 9 items to capture the essence of DSM-IV-TR PE classification. The psychometric validation resulted in a 5-item, unidimensional, measure, which captures the essence of DSM-IV-TR: control, frequency, minimal stimulation, distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Sensitivity/specificity analyses suggested a score of < or =8 indicated no-PE, 9 and 10 probable PE, and > or =11 PE. The development and validation of this new PE diagnostic tool has resulted in a new, user-friendly, and brief self-report questionnaire for use in clinical trials to diagnose PE.

  3. Premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  4. Premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2007-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19675782

  5. [Correlation between premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and International Index of Erectile Function-15 in different types of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Xian-Sheng; Tang, Dong-Dong; Gao, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Pan; Liu, Wei-Qun; Liang, Chao-Zhao

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the correlation between the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) and International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF-15) in different types of premature ejaculation (PE). We performed a cross-section survey among 352 PE patients received in the andrology clinic from December 2014 to December 2015 and 104 healthy men from the health examination center using basic demographic information (as on age, height, weight, education status, occupation, income, etc.), PEDT results, and IIEF-15 scores of the subjects. The PE patients had remarkably higher PEDT and lower IIEF-15 scores than the healthy men (P<0.01). The PEDT score of the PE patients was negatively correlated with their total IIEF-15 score as well as with the scores in the domains of erectile function, sexual intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction after adjusted for age (P<0.01). The patients with acquired PE (APE) showed a lower IIEF-15 score than those with lifelong PE (LPE) (P<0.01). The PEDT score of the APE patients was correlated negatively with the total IIEF-15 score (r=-0.391, P<0.01) and the scores in the domains of erectile function (r=-0.362, P<0.01) and overall satisfaction (r=-0.621, P<0.01), but not correlated with intercourse satisfaction, sexual orgasm, or sexual desire. The PEDT score of the LPE group was correlated negatively with intercourse satisfaction (r=-0.286, P<0.05) but not correlated with either the total IIEF-15 score or the scores in the domains of erectile function, overall satisfaction, sexual orgasm, or sexual desire. PE patients have a higher PEDT score and a lower IIEF-15 score than normal males. The PEDT score of APE patients is significantly correlated with the total IIEF-15 score, while that of LPE patients is correlated not with the total IIEF-15 score but with intercourse satisfaction.

  6. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision as an appropriate diagnostic for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shabsigh, Ridwan; Rowland, David

    2007-09-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for premature ejaculation (PE) are multifactorial, and include concepts of latency, perceived control over ejaculation, and personal distress and interpersonal difficulty related to the condition. Recent publications have suggested that these criteria are not supported by empirical evidence, leading to the proposal that a PE diagnosis should be based solely on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), while the presence of other factors (such as perceived lack of control over ejaculation) may be used to guide treatment decisions. To examine the evidence supporting the elements of the DSM-IV-TR criteria for PE. Literature searches on IELT, perceived control over ejaculation, and personal distress and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation. From a historical perspective, there has been a lack of large observational studies that evaluated the contributions of the DSM-IV-TR components in men with PE. However, recently performed large observational studies have generated data supporting the inclusion of perceived control over ejaculation and personal distress related to ejaculation in the definition of PE. Furthermore, emerging evidence indicates that a perceived lack of control over ejaculation is directly associated with elevated personal distress related to ejaculation and decreased satisfaction with sexual intercourse, while the effects of IELT on these parameters are indirect, and mediated by perceived control over ejaculation. A key advantage of the DSM-IV-TR approach to the diagnosis of PE is that it firmly links PE to a negative outcome for the patient, which is an element common to diagnostic criteria for other conditions, including depression, hypertension, and osteoporosis. This new evidence strongly suggests that the DSM-IV-TR criteria for PE encompass aspects of the condition that patients describe as important.

  7. Validity of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with International Index of Erectile Function-15 in Chinese men with evidence-based-defined premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong-Dong; Li, Chao; Peng, Dang-Wei; Zhang, Xian-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) is a brief diagnostic measure to assess premature ejaculation (PE). However, there is insufficient evidence regarding its validity in the new evidence-based-defined PE. This study was performed to evaluate the validity of PEDT and its association with IIEF-15 in different types of evidence-based-defined PE. From June 2015 to January 2016, a total of 260 men complaining of PE and defined as lifelong PE (LPE)/acquired PE (APE) according to the evidence-based definition from Andrology Clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, along with 104 male healthy controls without PE from a medical examination center, were enrolled in this study. All individuals completed questionnaires including demographics, medical and sexual history, as well as PEDT and IIEF-15. After statistical analysis, it was found that men with PE reported higher PEDT scores (14.28 ± 3.05) and lower IIEF-15 (41.26 ± 8.20) than men without PE (PEDT: 5.32 ± 3.42, IIEF-15: 52.66 ± 6.86, P < 0.001 for both). It was suggested that a score of ≥9 indicated PE in both LPE and APE by sensitivity and specificity analyses (sensitivity: 0.875, 0.913; specificity: 0.865, 0.865, respectively). In addition, IIEF-15 were higher in men with LPE (42.64 ± 8.11) than APE (39.43 ± 7.84, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with LPE (adjust r = -0.225, P < 0.001) and APE (adjust r = -0.378, P < 0.001). In this study, we concluded that PEDT was valid in the diagnosis of evidenced-based-defined PE. Furthermore, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with different types of PE.

  8. Turkish validation of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, E C; Cimen, H I; Ozdemir, A T; Symonds, T; Berktas, M; Balbay, M D

    2009-01-01

    There are uncertain issues on the diagnostic methods of premature ejaculation (PE). The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria in diagnosing PE and the aim of this study is to carry out the Turkish validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). A total of 94 patients with a self-reported complaint of PE and 88 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the nine-item PEDT, which was translated into Turkish. The patients were also requested to measure IELT. All participants were requested to come for a second visit to assess the PEDT's retest reliability; data from 78 men in the PE group and 69 men in the control group were collected. The IELT data of 35 patients were also recorded. The mean age of the PE group and the control group were 39.4+/-9.7 (24-65) and 30.1+/-5.7 (20-56), respectively, (P=0.068). Among the patients in the PE group, 24 (68.5%) reported life-long PE, whereas 11 (31.5%) reported acquired PE. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 59.7+/-46.2 (6.5-197.7) s. The number of men reporting IELTs of <1, 1-<2 and >2 min were 20 (57.1%), 11 (31.5) and 4 (11.4%), respectively. The factor analysis assessment showed that the five-item combination (questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8) explained 74.4% of the variance, there were no other combinations that explained the variance more effectively. Cronbach's alpha score of five-item combination was calculated as 0.77, showing adequate internal consistency. The overall Cronbach's alpha score did not increase if any item combination was deleted. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.80 and the correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.90. The PEDT and IELT showed an adequate correlation (rho=0.44). As a conclusion, the validated five-item Turkish version of

  9. Assessment of hormonal activity in patients with premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Canat, Lütfi; Erbin, Akif; Canat, Masum; Dinek, Mehmet; Çaşkurlu, Turhan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Premature ejaculation is considered the most common type of male sexual dysfunction. Hormonal controls of ejaculation have not been exactly elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of hormonal factors in patients with premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods Sixty-three participants who consulted our outpatient clinics with complaints of premature ejaculation and 39 healthy men as a control group selected from volunteers were included in the study. A total of 102 sexual active men aged between 21 and 76 years were included. Premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires were used to assessment of premature ejaculation. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total and free testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine were measured. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were significantly lower in men with premature ejaculation according to premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (p=0.017, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively). Luteinizing hormone level (OR, 1.293; p=0.014) was found to be an independent risk factor for premature ejaculation. Conclusions Luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with premature ejaculation which was diagnosed by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires. The relationship between these findings have to be determined by more extensive studies. PMID:27619666

  10. The diagnostic value of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    PubMed

    Kam, Sung Chul; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sung Won

    2011-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male ejaculation disorder. The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the DSM-IV-TR criteria in diagnostic PE. To evaluate the diagnostic value of the PEDT and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). (i) Korean validation of PEDT: data was collected from men interviewed by one of the two clinical experts, who made a diagnostic of present or absence of PE, using DSM-IV-TR criteria. A total of 103 patients with PE and 100 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the PEDT; and (ii) The correlation between IELT and PEDT: 200 participants were enrolled and each participant was asked to make out PEDT. All participants were requested to measure IELT. Validity and reliability of the PEDT and its association with IELT. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 115.37 ± 78.14 seconds. The number of men reporting IELTs of <1, 1 to ≤ 2, and >2 minutes were 28 (28.6%), 29 (29.6%), and 41 (41.8%), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha score was calculated as 0.93, showing adequate internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.72 and the correlation coefficients of the total score was 0.88. (P < 0.001) Sensitivity and specificity analyses suggested a score of ≤ 8 indicated no PE, 9 and 10 probable PE, and ≥ 11 PE. The PEDT total score and IELT showed an adequate negative correlation. (ρ = -0.77, P < 0.0001) also, the PEDT total score of the PE subgroup (IELT ≤ 2 minutes) and IELT showed a negative correlation. (ρ = -0.6, P < 0.0001) The PEDT was highly effective in detecting the presence of PE. The result of our study supports its validity as a diagnostic tool in the clinical setting. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT): linguistic validity of the Chinese version.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Ping, Ping; Wang, Hong-Xiang; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hao; Jin, Yan; Yang, Qi; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-09-01

    The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to standardize the diagnosis of PE and has been applied in many countries. However, a linguistic validation of the Chinese version of PEDT does not exist. This study aims to undertake the Chinese validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and clinical expert diagnosis of PE. A Chinese version of PEDT was confirmed by andrologist and bilingual linguist. Participants were recruited among seven different communities of Shanghai from 2011 to 2012, and their information regarding self-reported PE, self-estimated IELT, expert diagnosis of PE, and PEDT scores were collected. Validity of the PEDT and its association with clinical expert diagnosis of PE and self-estimated IELT were analyzed. A total of 143 patients without PE (mean age 55.11 ± 7.65 years) and 100 men with PE (mean age 53.07 ± 8.08 years) were enrolled for validation. Of the patients in PE group, the number of men reporting self-estimated IELTs of ≤1, 1-2, and >2 minutes were 34 (34.0%), 22 (22.0%), and 44 (44.0%), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha score (α = 0.77) showed adequate internal consistency, and the test-retest correlation coefficients of each item (r ≥ 0.70, P < 0.001) indicated excellent stability over time. The frequency of agreement showed that there was excellent concordance between PEDT diagnosis and clinician diagnosis when the PEDT scores ≥11. An adequate correlation was found between total PEDT score and self-estimated IELT (ρ = -0.396, P < 0.001), and sensitivity and specificity analyses suggested a score of ≤8 indicated no time-defined PE (self-estimated IELT ≤1 minute). The Chinese version of PEDT is valid in screening the presence of PE among Chinese men. The PEDT showed an adequate negative correlation with self-estimated IELT and an excellent concordance with clinician diagnosis of PE. © 2014

  12. Premature ejaculation: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Neil R; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A

    2008-06-02

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is ejaculation occurring without control, on or shortly after vaginal penetration and before the subject wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulties. PE is the most common male sexual complaint. Primary (lifelong) PE has a physiological basis. Therapy should involve the man and his partner. The primary aims of therapy are for the man to regain a sense of control over his ejaculation time and for him and his partner to feel satisfaction with sexual intercourse. The most effective therapies for primary PE are certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, given on a daily basis or "on demand" before sexual activity. Topical anaesthetics have also been shown to be effective. The most common cause of secondary PE is declining erectile function. The approach to treating secondary PE is to treat the underlying condition.

  13. [Ejaculatory disorders except premature ejaculation, orgasmic disorders].

    PubMed

    Rigot, J-M; Marcelli, F; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Disorders of ejaculation and orgasm apart from premature ejaculation are pretty uncommon. Medical literature was reviewed and combined with expert opinion of the authors. The semiology of these disorders is essential: aspermia, hypospermia, retrograde ejaculation, delayed or absent ejaculation with or without orgasm. Whether this is a lifelong or acquired condition, it is essential to assess the side-effects of medications i.e. psychotropic drugs, including antidepressant, neuroleptics, tramadol, alphablockers: tamsulosin and silodosin must always be surveyed. The management is often difficult, especially with a parenthood perspective. The management of lifelong disorders must rely on psychosexual therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  15. Pharmacology for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, François; Clèment, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Male sexual response comprises four phases: excitement, including erection; plateau; ejaculation, usually accompanied by orgasm; and resolution. Ejaculation is a complex sexual response involving a sequential process consisting of two phases: emission and expulsion. Ejaculation, which is basically a spinal reflex, requires a tight coordination between sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic efferent pathways originating from different segments and area in the spinal cord and innervating pelvi-perineal anatomical structures. A major relaying and synchronizing role is played by a group of lumbar neurons described as the spinal generator of ejaculation. Excitatory and inhibitory influences from sensory genital and cerebral stimuli are integrated and processed in the spinal cord. Premature ejaculation (PE) can be defined by ≤1-min ejaculatory latency, an inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Because there is no physiological impairment in PE, any pharmacological agent with central or peripheral mechanism of action that is delaying the ejaculation is a drug candidate for the treatment of PE. Ejaculation is centrally mediated by a variety of neurotransmitter systems, involving especially serotonin and serotonergic pathways but also dopaminergic and oxytocinergic systems. Pharmacological delay of ejaculation can be achieved either by inhibiting excitatory or reinforcing inhibitory pathways from the brain or the periphery to the spinal cord. PE can be treated with long-term use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants. Dapoxetine, a short-acting SSRI, is the first treatment registered for the on-demand treatment of PE. Anesthetics applied on the glans penis have the ability to lengthen the time to ejaculation. Targeting oxytocinergic, neurokinin-1, dopaminergic, and opioid receptors represent future avenues to delaying ejaculation.

  16. Etiology of ejaculation and pathophysiology of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Donatucci, Craig F

    2006-09-01

    Ejaculation is comprised of three stages of the male sexual response cycle, namely emission, ejection, and orgasm; however, in comparison with erection, which is a well-understood component of male sexual response, the pathophysiology of ejaculation has yet to be fully delineated. Premature ejaculation (PE), the most common sexual disorder in men, while believed to have a multifactorial etiology, is even less well understood. This article reviews the physiology of ejaculation, and the multifactorial pathophysiology of PE. The Sexual Medicine Society of North America hosted a State of the Art Conference on Premature Ejaculation on June 24-26, 2005 in collaboration with the University of South Florida. The purpose was to have an open exchange of contemporary research and clinical information on PE. There were 16 invited presenters and discussants; the group focused on several educational objectives. Data were obtained by extensive examination of published peer-reviewed literature. Evidence supports that biologic mechanisms associated with neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin, oxytocin, Gamma-amino-butyric acid, and nitric oxide (NO) as well as the hormone estrogen play central roles in ejaculation, and subsequently may mediate PE. There is also emerging evidence to show that hyperthyroidism may be a causal factor in PE. Recent data also suggest that psychogenic factors include high level of any experience by some men with PE. The pathophysiology of both lifelong and acquired PE appears to be both neurobiogenic and psychogenic. While psychogenic factors appear to be contributory to PE, pharmacologic intervention of PE can modify intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), which suggests that IELT is a biological variable, and is likely biologically dependent upon neurotransmitters and hormones.

  17. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE. PMID:27652216

  18. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  19. Emerging and investigational drugs for premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20−30 years, the premature ejaculation (PE) treatment paradigm, previously limited to behavioural psychotherapy, has expanded to include drug treatment. Pharmacotherapy for PE predominantly targets the multiple neurotransmitters and receptors involved in the control of ejaculation which include serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, norepinephrine, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide (NO). The objective of this article is to review emerging PE interventions contemporary data on the treatment of PE was reviewed and critiqued using the principles of evidence-based medicine. Multiple well-controlled evidence-based studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in delaying ejaculation, confirming their role as first-line agents for the medical treatment of lifelong and acquired PE. Daily dosing of SSRIs is likely to be associated with superior fold increases in IELT compared to on-demand SSRIs. On-demand SSRIs are less effective but may fulfill the treatment goals of many patients. Integrated pharmacotherapy and CBT may achieve superior treatment outcomes in some patients. PDE-5 inhibitors alone or in combination with SSRIs should be limited to men with acquired PE secondary to co-morbid ED. New on-demand rapid acting SSRIs, oxytocin receptor antagonists, or single agents that target multiple receptors may form the foundation of more effective future on-demand medication. Current evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine, off-label SSRI drugs, tramadol and topical anaesthetics drugs. Treatment with α1-adrenoceptor antagonists cannot be recommended until the results of large well-designed RCTs are published in major international peer-reviewed medical journals. As our understanding of the neurochemical control of ejaculation improves, new therapeutic targets and candidate molecules will be identified which may increase our pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium. PMID:27652222

  20. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  1. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Arie; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a poorly understood condition and is considered as the most common sexual disorder in men. The ambiguity surrounding PE is in part due to the difficulty in conducting and interpreting research in the absence of a standardised definition that adequately encompasses the characteristics of these patients. An enhanced awareness of sexual dysfunctions in the recent decades has lead to an increase in scientific research that has challenged the traditional paradigm regarding PE. This has also enabled to establish a universal definition and classification of the disease. A move to a more evidence based approach has improved the clinicians' ability to define those who need medical treatment, as well as perform further research in this complex condition.

  2. Effect of Interventions for Premature Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Secondary Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Yi, Qing-Tong; Chen, Chu-Hong; Gong, Min

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for premature ejaculation (PE) in the management of patients with chronic prostatitis and secondary premature ejaculation. Methods Totally 90 patients diagnosed as chronic prostatitis with PE were randomly divided into control group (n=45) and interventional group (n=45). Control group received a conventional therapy consisted of oral administration of antibiotics,α-receptor blocker,and proprietary Chinese medicine for clearing away heat and promoting diuresis. Interventional group received a conventional therapy combined with treatment for ameliorating the PE symptom (oral dapoxetine on-demand and ejaculation control exercise).National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation (CIPE)-5 questionnaires,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were applied for evaluating the treatment outcomes. Results Follow-up was accomplished in 35 and 38 patients in the control and interventional group.The CIPE-5 score,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were significantly improved in both two groups but more significantly in interventional group (all P<0.05). The NIH-CPSI pain,urination,and quality of life subscores and total score were improved significantly in both two groups after treatment,but the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores had been improved more significantly in the interventional group (all P<0.05). The variation of NIH-CPSI was negatively correlated with that of CIPE-5 in both two groups (r=-0.362,P=0.016;r=-0.330,P=0.021). Conclusions For CP with secondary PE patients,the interventions for PE can not only improve the quality of sexual life but also help improve the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores. PE should be routinely screened and treated during the management of CP.p.

  3. An overview of pharmacotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Porst, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    With increasing interest and clinical research in male sexual disorders, it has become clear that not only psychological but also organic, neurobiological, and genetic factors may play an important role in premature ejaculation (PE). This article provides an overview of the different treatment options both for lifelong (primary, "congenital") and acquired (secondary) PE. Review of the literature. Currently used treatment options for PE. Treatments reviewed include psychological/behavioral/sexual counseling therapy, topical anesthetics, dapoxetine, and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Before starting any therapy for PE, correct diagnosis has to be made considering the patient's reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the duration and type of PE. Concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) should be either ruled out or proven by appropriate means. In uncomplicated cases of PE with stable partnerships, medical treatment represents the first-choice option with a high likelihood of success. Dapoxetine, where available, or other SSRIs provide suitable therapeutic options with a good risk/benefit profile for patients. In complicated ("difficult-to-treat") PE patients, a combination of medication and sexual counseling should be considered the first treatment option. Combination therapies of PDE-5 inhibitors and PE-related medications should be offered to patients suffering from comorbid PE and ED, with ED treatment starting first. In those patients with severe PE-IELTs of <30-60 seconds or anteportal ejaculation-combination therapy of topical and oral medications can be offered and may considerably increase IELT, compared with either monotherapy. 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Premature ejaculation: bother and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zargooshi, Javaad

    2009-12-01

    Complaints of premature ejaculation (PE) and its repercussions are culture-dependent. To report the measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the impact of PE in Kermanshah, Iran. From November 1996 through October 2008, 3,458 patients presented to us with self-diagnosed PE. In the first visit, after obtaining a psychosocial and sexual history, PE-specific bother was self-rated by the patients and the patients were advised to measure their IELTs over the next 2-3 weeks. In the second visit, the measured IELTs were reported by the patients. Patients' measured IELT and bother score. Age range was 17-80 years (mean 34.1, standard deviation [SD] 9.1, median 32). Sixty-five percent were married. Primary and secondary PE was reported by 2,105 (60.8%) and 1,353 (39.1%) patients, respectively. Occasional PE was reported by 36 (0.01%). Of those with multiple partners, 6% had partner-specific PE. IELT distribution was positively skewed. Anteportal ejaculation was reported by 97 (2.8%). In 3,458 self-reported PE patients, IELT was 1-15 seconds in 542 (15.7%), 16-30 seconds in 442 (12.8%), 31-60 seconds in 978 (28.3%), > 1 2 5 minutes in 136 (3.9%). IELTs of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for PE and a cutoff IELT point of

  5. Sexual function of premature ejaculation patients assayed with Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-Ming; Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Yan-Jie; Liu, Wu-Jiang; Tian, Long; Zhu, Ji-Chuan

    2004-06-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE). The sexual function of 167 patients with and 114 normal controls without premature ejaculation (PE) were evaluated with CIPE. All subjects were married and had regular sexual activity. The CIPE has 10 questions, focusing on libido, erectile function, ejaculatory latency, sexual satisfaction and difficulty in delaying ejaculation, self-confidence and depression. Each question was responded to on a 5 point Likert-type scale. The individual question score and the total scale score were analyzed between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the age, duration of marriage and educational level (P> 0.05) of patients with and without PE and normal controls. The mean latency of patients with PE and normal controls were 1.6 +/- 1.2 and 10.2 +/- 9.5 minutes, respectively. Significant differences between patients with (26.7 +/- 4.6) PE and normal controls (41.9 +/- 4.0) were observed on the total score of CIPE (P< 0.01). Using binary logistic regression analysis, PE was significantly related to five questions of the original measure. They are the so-called the CIPE-5 and include: ejaculatory latency, sexual satisfaction of patients and sexual partner, difficulty in delaying ejaculation, anxiety and depression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of CIPE-5 questionnaire indicated that the sensitivity and specificity of CIPE were 97.60 % and 94.74 %, respectively. Employing the total score of CIPE-5, patients with PE could be divided into three groups: mild (>15 point) 19.8 %, moderate (10-14 point) 62.8 % and severe (< 9 point) 16.7 %. The CIPE-5 is a useful method for the evaluation of sexual function of patients with PE and can be used as a clinical endpoint for clinical trials studying the efficacy of pharmacological intervention.

  6. The role of anxiety in premature ejaculation: a psychophysiological model.

    PubMed

    Strassberg, D S; Mahoney, J M; Schaugaard, M; Hale, V E

    1990-06-01

    Despite the prevalence of premature ejaculation and the success in its treatment, researchers have yet to offer a compelling, empirically based theory regarding its nature or etiology. This study explored a model that argues that anxiety may not be necessary for the existence of this dysfunction. Fifteen premature ejaculators (PEs) and 17 nonpremature ejaculators (NPEs) engaged in self-stimulation to orgasm both in the laboratory and at home. The following specific hypotheses were tested: Compared to NPEs, PEs would demonstrate (i) shorter orgasmic latencies, both in the lab and at home, and (ii) equally accurate estimates of these latencies. Results offered strong support for both hypotheses. These findings, and those derived from a questionnaire completed by subjects, were seen as consistent with a psychophysiologic model of premature ejaculation. According to this model, the role of anxiety is seen as variable, interacting with the somatic vulnerability of the individual to determine orgasmic latency.

  7. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R; Trost, Landon; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal treatment strategies and algorithms as

  8. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R.; Trost, Landon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Methods A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. Results PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. Conclusions PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal

  9. Premature ejaculation: challenging new and the old concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Almekaty, Khaled; Blecher, Gideon; Minhas, Suks

    2017-01-01

    Premature ejaculation remains a difficult condition to manage for patients, their partners, and the clinician. Whilst prevalence rates are estimated to be 20–40%, determining a diagnosis of premature ejaculation is difficult, as the definition remains both subjective and ill-defined in the clinical context. As our understanding of the ejaculatory pathway has improved, new opportunities to treat the condition have evolved with mixed results. In this review, we explore some of these controversies surrounding the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition and discuss potential novel therapeutic options. PMID:29259775

  10. Comprehensive review of the anatomy and physiology of male ejaculation: Premature ejaculation is not a disease.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo; Puppo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Human semen contains spermatozoa secreted by the testes and a mixture of components produced by the bulbo-urethral and Littre (paraurethral) glands, prostate, seminal vesicles, ampulla, and epididymis. Ejaculation is used as a synonym for the external ejection of semen, but it comprises two phases: emission and expulsion. As semen collects in the prostatic urethra, the rapid preorgasmic distension of the urethral bulb is pathognomonic of impeding orgasm, and the man experiences a sensation that ejaculation is inevitable (in women, emission is the only phase of orgasm). The semen is propelled along the penile urethra mainly by the bulbocavernosus muscle. With Kegel exercises, it is possible to train the perineal muscles. Immediately after the expulsion phase the male enters a refractory period, a recovery time during which further orgasm or ejaculation is physiologically impossible. Age affects the recovery time: as a man grows older, the refractory period increases. Sexual medicine experts consider premature ejaculation only in the case of vaginal intercourse, but vaginal orgasm has no scientific basis, so the duration of intercourse is not important for a woman's orgasm. The key to female orgasm are the female erectile organs; vaginal orgasm, G-spot, G-spot amplification, clitoral bulbs, clitoris-urethra-vaginal complex, internal clitoris and female ejaculation are terms without scientific basis. Female sexual dysfunctions are popular because they are based on something that does not exist, i.e. the vaginal orgasm. The physiology of ejaculation and orgasm is not impaired in premature ejaculation: it is not a disease, and non-coital sexual acts after male ejaculation can be used to produce orgasm in women. Teenagers and men can understand their sexual responses by masturbation and learn ejaculatory control with the stop-start method and the squeeze technique. Premature ejaculation must not be classified as a male sexual dysfunction. It has become the center of a

  11. [Clinical efficacy of Viagra with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenhao; Ma, Lulin; Zhao, Lianming; Liu, Yuqing; Chen, Zhenwen

    2004-05-01

    To study the efficacy of Viagra combined with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation (PE). Sixty PE patients were divided into two groups randomly: control group (behavior therapy alone) and the group of Viagra combined with behavior therapy. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and the coitus satisfaction of the patient and the partner were recorded before and after treatment. The IELTs of the two groups were 0.80 +/- 0.20 and 0.73 +/- 0.24 minutes respectively before treatment, and 1.82 +/- 0.54 and 3.63 +/- 0.55 minutes respectively after treatment. As for IELT and satisfaction degree, Viagra produced better result than behavior therapy. During this clinical trial, Viagra combined with behavior therapy prolonged IELT, which suggests that Viagra may be helpful for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  12. [An update on ejaculation physiology and premature ejaculation definition, prevalence data, and etiology].

    PubMed

    Mas, M

    2014-07-01

    Ejaculation consists of two synchronized phases: a) emission, the contraction of the vas deferens, prostate and seminal vesicles and bladder neck expelling the seminal fluid to the urethra; it is mediated by sympathetic nerves, and b) expulsion, seminal fluid outward propulsion by the rhythmic contraction of perineal muscles. Ejaculation results from a complex spinal reflex having its essential components within the lumbosacral cord. The main afferent signals derive from mechanical stimulation of the glans penis and are conveyed by sacral sensory roots. The ejaculatory reflex is under strong modulatory influence from the brain through both facilitatory and inhibitory descending signals. Several central neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine modulate the ejaculatory reflex. The intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), measured or estimated, provides clinically useful assessment of the ejaculatory reflex. The new DSM-5 definition of premature ejaculation (PE) includes a specified time to ejaculation criterion (IELT of about one minute or shorter). Four subtypes of PE, showing different prevalence rates, have been proposed. PE etiology is multifactorial with interacting psychological and biological factors contributing to the disorder. A number of genetic polymorphisms related to serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission may predispose the bearers to developing PE. High prevalence rates of PE have been found in patients with chronic prostatitis, hyperthyroidism, and premature ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  13. On-demand tramadol hydrochloride use in premature ejaculation treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaynar, Mehmet; Kilic, Ozcan; Yurdakul, Talat

    2012-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of tramadol in premature ejaculation (PE) treatment compared with placebo. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted with 60 lifelong (primary) patients with PE. The patients were randomized into 2 groups, each consisting of 30 patients, who took tramadol or placebo on demand. PE was defined as an intravaginal ejaculation latency time of ≤60 seconds in 90% of intercourse episodes. The efficacy of the drugs was assessed using the intravaginal ejaculation latency time, ability of ejaculation control, and sexual satisfaction scores after an 8-week treatment period. All participants completed the study voluntarily. Two groups were similar in terms of the patient demographics. Increases in the intravaginal ejaculation latency time, ability of ejaculation control, and sexual satisfaction score between the placebo and tramadol groups were compared with the baseline values in both groups. At the end of study period, the tramadol group had significantly (P<.001) greater values for all 3 parameters compared with those in the placebo group. On-demand use of low-dose tramadol is effective for lifelong PE. Currently, selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors such as dapoxetine, are a more popular treatment option for PE. However, tramadol might be considered an alternative agent for primary PE treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The burden of premature ejaculation: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor, Mariano

    2005-05-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) remains an underdetected and under-treated condition, despite the advances in available treatment options. Men with PE often feel stigmatized by the condition and embarrassment is a key barrier to discussing the problem with healthcare professionals. Men with PE perceive themselves as having little control over ejaculation and this lack of control is mirrored in diminished satisfaction with sexual intercourse. The burden of PE is both emotional and physical. Premature ejaculation is associated with low self-esteem, anxiety, and feelings of shame and inferiority. In some studies there is an association with depression. Premature ejaculation places a significant burden on the patient-partner relationship and there is evidence to suggest that there is a higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction associated with PE. Patients with PE often view the condition as purely psychological or as a problem that will resolve with time and many are unaware that medical treatment could be of benefit. This endorses the particularly important role of healthcare professionals in recognizing the barriers to patient diagnosis and promoting the view that PE is not only a common but also a treatable medical condition.

  15. On-demand SSRI treatment of premature ejaculation: pharmacodynamic limitations for relevant ejaculation delay and consequent solutions.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H; Olivier, Berend

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the idea has emerged that on-demand use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), particularly short half-life, should be equally effective in delaying ejaculation as daily SSRI treatment of premature ejaculation. To provide evidence that SSRI-induced ejaculation delay is mainly dependent on pharmacodynamic properties of the drug and hardly on pharmacokinetic factors, and that combined SSRI administration with specific 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonism leads acutely to stronger ejaculation delay than acute SSRI monoadministration. We performed a detailed analysis of serotonin neurotransmission and reviewed animal studies with 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists. In addition, we critically reviewed existing on-demand SSRI treatments publications and the current debate on a definition of premature ejaculation. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). Acute SSRI administration leads to only a mild or no increase of 5-HT neurotransmission and concomitant stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT receptors. Existing on-demand SSRI treatment studies suffer from methodological insufficiencies, and the reported high-fold increases of ejaculation time contradict with neuropharmacological insights from serotonin metabolism. Animal studies show that SSRI coadministration with 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists significantly increases the ejaculation time acutely compared to acute SSRI monoadministration. On-demand SSRI treatment has less ejaculation-delaying effects than daily SSRI treatment. SSRIs with a short half-life are likely leading to much less ejaculation delay than current registered SSRIs. Combined use of SSRIs with 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists increases the likelihood of clinically relevant ejaculation delay after on-demand treatment. On-demand SSRIs with short half-life that insufficiently delay ejaculation in men with IELTs less than 1 minute should be called ejaculation-delaying drugs rather than drugs against premature ejaculation.

  16. The distribution of patients who seek treatment for the complaint of ejaculating prematurely according to the four premature ejaculation syndromes.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Cimen, Haci Ibrahim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Balbay, M Derya

    2010-02-01

    In addition to "lifelong" and "acquired" premature ejaculation (PE) syndromes, two more PE syndromes have recently been proposed: "Natural variable PE" and "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of the four PE syndromes among patients who were admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with the complaint of ejaculating prematurely. Between July 2008 and March 2009, patients admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were enrolled into the study. After taking a careful medical and sexual history, patients were classified as "lifelong,"acquired,"natural variable," PE or "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." In addition to medical and sexual history, self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) of patients were used in the classification of patients. A total of 261 potent men with a mean age of 36.39 +/- 10.45 years (range 20-70) were recruited into the study. The majority of the men was diagnosed as having lifelong PE (62.5%); the remaining men were diagnosed as having acquired (16.1%), natural variable PE (14.5%), or premature-like ejaculatory disorder (6.9%). The mean age of patients with acquired PE was significantly higher than the other groups (P = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for educational status or income level of patients in the different PE groups (P = 0.983 and P = 0.151, respectively). The mean self-estimated IELT for all subjects was 65.16 +/- 83.75 seconds (2-420 seconds). Patients with lifelong PE had significantly lower mean self-reported IELT, whereas the patients with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction had the highest mean IELT (P = 0.001): (i) life-long PE: 20.47 +/- 28.90 seconds (2-120 seconds); (ii) aquired PE: 57.91 +/- 38.72 seconds (90-180 seconds); (iii) natural variable PE: 144.17 +/- 22.47 seconds (120-180 seconds); and (iv) premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction: 286.67 +/- 69.96 seconds (180-420 seconds

  17. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: interrelationships and psychosexual factors.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) impair the quality of sexual intercourse for both men and their female partners. This study aims to examine with a large representative sample the interrelationships of measures of ED, PE, typical intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), men's perceived relationship quality with their mother, and age of first being in love. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 960 Czech coitally experienced men (aged 15-84), provided age, International Index of Erectile Function 5-item (IIEF-5), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) scores, IELT, rating of relationship with their mother, and age at first being in love. Correlations, partial correlations adjusting for age, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and multiple regression statistical methods were used. IIEF-5, IPE, and IELT were significantly intercorrelated (IIEF-5 and IPE: r=0.64). Better IIEF-5 scores were associated with younger age at first (and ever) being in love. Poorer IPE score, shorter IELT, and mild-moderate ED were associated with poorer perceived mother relationship (which was also associated with first being in love at an older age). Multiple regression analyses revealed that: (i) greater IELT was associated with better erectile function and better mother relationship, but not with age; and (ii) IELT of <1 minute was associated with poorer perceived mother relationship and poorer IIEF-5, but marginally with age. History of homosexual activity was unrelated to IIEF-5, IPE, IELT, and perceived mother relationship scores. The findings suggest that degrees of ED and PE are often comorbid, and both ED and PE are associated with less favorable early experiences with women. Brody S and Weiss P. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: Interrelationships and psychosexual factors. J Sex Med 2015;12:398-404. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Silodosin and its potential for treating premature ejaculation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshikazu; Tanda, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Hisao; Nitta, Toshikazu; Akagashi, Keigo; Hanzawa, Tatsuo; Tobe, Musashi; Haga, Kazunori; Uchida, Kosuke; Honma, Ichiya

    2012-03-01

    Premature ejaculation is a common sexual problem, as is erectile dysfunction. We evaluated silodosin, a highly selective α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, as a new treatment option for premature ejaculation. α1-Adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used for lower urinary tract symptoms, and clinical studies on silodosin have shown excellent clinical efficacy for lower urinary tract symptoms. However, compared with other α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, silodosin appeared to suppress ejaculation in a relatively higher percent of trial participants. This suppression of ejaculation by silodosin suggested its potential for treating premature ejaculation. Consequently, we evaluated the feasibility of off-label silodosin as a new treatment option for premature ejaculation. Eight patients suffering premature ejaculation were treated with silodosin. Silodosin (4 mg) was given 2 h before sexual intercourse. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, premature ejaculation profile item, clinical global impression change in premature ejaculation and systemic adverse events were recorded. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time was significantly prolonged (from 3.4 min to 10.1 min, P = 0.003). All patients answered better (much better) or slightly better for their own premature ejaculation problem compared with pretreatment condition in the clinical global impression change. Premature ejaculation profile also significantly improved. Two (25%), three (37.5%) and seven patients (87.5%) experienced anejaculation, reduced semen volume and discomfort during orgasm, respectively. However, these problems were not of major concern for the participants. No systemic adverse effects were reported. The current results support the possible use of silodosin as a new treatment option for premature ejaculation, and suggest that a placebo controlled study assessing its clinical usefulness would be worthwhile. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression in Korean males.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jun-Young; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2011-07-01

    The psychological impacts of premature ejaculation (PE), which include guilt, anxiety, and distress, have been well established in Western countries. However, in Asia, although a substantial number of epidemiological studies have surveyed the prevalence of PE, researchers have not thoroughly investigated the relationship between PE and depression, or have defined PE properly. We studied the association between PE and depression and other psychological disturbances, in a Korean cohort by applying an appropriate definition for PE and validated outcome measures of depression. METHODS.  A total of 956 males (≥20 years) were initially approached via an Internet survey company. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire requesting detailed medical and sexual histories, which included questions from the Erectile Function Domain score in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of PE was evaluated using two different definitions-self-assessed PE and presumed PE. Presumed PE was defined as a short ejaculation time (an estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time ≤5 minutes), an inability to control ejaculation, and the presence of distress resulting from PE. Ejaculation-related questionnaire, the IIEF-EF, and BDI. A total of 334 men were evaluated. The prevalence of PE was 10.5% according to the Presumed PE definition, whereas by self-assessment, it was 25.4%. Self-assessed PE patients suffered from various psychological problems, such as depression, low self-esteem, bother, and low sexual satisfaction. Even after excluding erectile dysfunction (ED) subjects, a significant relationship was found between self-assessed PE and depression. Moreover, after further classification of the Self-assessed PE group, we found that subjects included in this group, but not in the Presumed PE group, suffered more from psychological burden than any other members of the cohort. Korean men with subjective

  20. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond; Rowland, David; Segraves, Robert

    2008-08-01

    To develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation (PE). There are several definitions of PE; the most commonly quoted, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Edition - Text Revision, and other definitions of PE, are all authority-based rather than evidence-based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. Thus in August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of PE. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critically assess the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The Committee unanimously agreed that the constructs which are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy, and control and negative personal consequences from PE. The Committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs before or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and patient-reported outcome measures for diagnosing and assessing the efficacy of treatment

  1. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley E; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira D; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Segraves, Robert

    2008-07-01

    The medical literature contains several definitions of premature ejaculation (PE). The most commonly quoted definition, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision, and other definitions of PE are all authority based rather than evidence based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. The aim of this article is to develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of PE. In August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critique the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The committee unanimously agreed that the constructs that are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy and control, and negative personal consequences from PE. The committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as ". . . a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy." This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and Patient Reported

  2. Current therapeutic strategies for premature ejaculation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Zhu, Yi-Chen; Yuan, Yi-Ming; Cui, Wan-Shou; Jin, Zhe; Li, Wei-Ren; Liu, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder in men that is mediated by disturbances in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Although all pharmaceutical treatments for PE are currently used ‘off-label', some novel oral agents and some newer methods of drug administration now provide important relief to PE patients. However, the aetiology of this condition has still not been unified, primarily because of the lack of a standard animal model for basic research and the absence of a widely accepted definition and assessment tool for evidence-based clinical studies in patients with PE. In this review, we focus on the current therapeutic strategies and future treatment perspectives for PE. PMID:21532601

  3. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p < 0.01),whereas the post-operative results were not significantly improved for the control group (1.2 ± 0.7 min vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 min, p > 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. © 2012 The

  4. Interventions to treat premature ejaculation: a systematic review short report.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is commonly defined as ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. PE can be either lifelong and present since first sexual experiences (primary), or acquired (secondary), beginning later (Godpodinoff ML. Premature ejaculation: clinical subgroups and etiology. J Sex Marital Ther 1989;15:130-4). Treatments include behavioural and pharmacological interventions. To systematically review evidence for clinical effectiveness of behavioural, topical and systemic treatments for PE. The following databases were searched from inception to 6 August 2013 for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the Health Technology Assessment database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website were also searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult men with PE were eligible (or non-RCTs in the absence of RCTs). RCT data were extrapolated from review articles when available. The primary outcome was intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Data were meta-analysed when possible. Other outcomes included sexual satisfaction, control over ejaculation, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, treatment acceptability and adverse events (AEs). A total of 103 studies (102 RCTs, 65 from reviews) were included. RCTs were available for all interventions except yoga. The following interventions demonstrated significant improvements (p < 0.05) in arithmetic mean difference in IELT compared with placebo: topical anaesthetics - eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA(®), Astra

  5. Is sexual function in female partners of men with premature ejaculation compromised?

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cevdet; Gunes, Mustafa; Gokce, Ali Murat; Kalkan, Senad

    2015-01-01

    The authors enrolled 32 female partners of sexually active men with premature ejaculation to investigate their sexual functions. An age-matched sample of the same number women whose partners had no sexual dysfunction was also included. Premature ejaculation was defined for all participants as ejaculation that nearly always occurs before or within 2 min of vaginal penetration. An invitation letter was given to men with premature ejaculation to ask whether their female partners could be contacted about completing a questionnaire to measure female sexual status. On the basis of the Female Sexual Function Index, the average sexual function score was significantly lower in partners of men with premature ejaculation (21.8 ± 7.6) compared with that in healthy controls (25.9 ± 6.6). Female sexual dysfunction was diagnosed in 78% of women who has a male partner with premature ejaculation, while 40% of female partner of healthy men. All of the domain scores of Female Sexual Function Index, except the desire and pain levels, were significantly lower in female partners of men with premature ejaculation group than those of healthy subjects.

  6. Practical tips for sexual counseling and psychotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David; Cooper, Stewart

    2011-10-01

    A number of milestones in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) have occurred over the past five decades, including the development of various behavioral and cognitive techniques as well as pharmacotherapies that modify neurophysiological processes involved in ejaculation. Nevertheless, the notion that sexual responses such as PE are influenced by physiological, psychobehavioral, cultural, and relationship factors is as valid now as it was 50 years ago, and therefore, interventions should consider all such domains in the development of effective treatment strategies. Provide an overview of which patients with PE are suitable to receive psychosexual treatment and the psychological approaches for managing this disorder. Review of the literature. Psychosexual treatments that integrate behavioral, psychological, and relationship functioning. PE is typically a couple's problem and, therefore, psychotherapy is best when the partner is involved. Before embarking on psychotherapy, the clinician should obtain a medical history pertaining to sexual-, psychological-, and relationship-related factors, so that the treatment strategy can be tailored to the needs of the individual. General strategies underpinning integrative, "process-oriented" elements of psychotherapy most relevant to PE are: developing the therapist-patient relationship; expressing empathy, genuineness, and positive regard; motivational interviewing, i.e., developing motivation to change; developing discrepancy; working through resistance; identifying PE-related affect, cognitions, and behaviors (including interaction with partners); and supporting self-efficacy. The four main domains that encompass psychotherapy techniques specific to the treatment of PE are: behavioral; cognitive; affective; and relational. Sustained positive outcomes in PE may be obtained using a combination treatment strategy that addresses all elements of PE, including psychological and biological factors. Psychosexual treatments

  7. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aim To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994–2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1–3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged ≥18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all). The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg), dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg), and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg), and evaluation of validated rated scales demonstrated no SSRI

  8. Proposals or findings for a new approach about how to define and diagnose premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weifu; Kumar, Pardeep; Minhas, Suks; Ralph, David

    2005-09-01

    To review and present the proposals or findings for a new approach about how to define and diagnose premature ejaculation (PE). Using Medline to search for international peer reviewed manuscripts published from 1996 to 2004 about the definition and diagnosis of PE. PE, to date, has not a universally agreed definition and diagnostic criterion. Many definitions are partial, subjective and nonspecific. An ideal definition or diagnostic criterion should consist of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), the ability to control over ejaculation, the extent of male sexual satisfaction, the extent of female sexual satisfaction, the frequency of female sexual partner reaching orgasm and the extent of psychological and pathological factors. Therefore, the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE) seems an ideal tool and criterion used to diagnose PE due to including all the elements above. In the majority of cases, PE is the result of a mix of psychogenic, physiological and organic factors. So, besides some routine tests such as urine routine test, endocrine hormone assay, psychosexual counseling, couple evaluation and physical examination, prostate examination, serum leptin assay, semen magnesium assessment and glans hypersensitivity measurement, are suggested to be performed in the diagnosis of PE. Although elucidated by two clinical trials and further confirmed, serum leptin assay seems a promising and objective marker to diagnose PE because it is related to the serotonergic system whose disorder has been confirmed to contribute to the etiology of PE. None of these definitions and diagnoses has been accepted as a universal agreement of PE. CIPE seems an ideal tool and criterion used to diagnose PE and leptin maybe become a promising and objective marker for PE.

  9. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials. PMID:27652224

  10. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  11. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19412497

  12. [Dapoxetine (Priligy): on demand treatment of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Andrianne, R

    2013-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction, affecting approximately 20-24% of men. Managing PE has been a challenge for physicians and psycho-sexologists as well because no drug for PE has been approved by European (EMA) or U.S. (FDA) drug agencies. Over the past decade, clinical evidence has emerged indicating a beneficial effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tramadol, penile anesthesia and, in some cases, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 for the treatment of men with PE. A psycho-sexological care helps support. In spite of their efficacy, adverse effects represent the major concern for the chronic use of SSRIs in patients with PE and they may prompt discontinuation from therapy. Dapoxetine, marketed as Priligy, is the first compound developed specially for the treatment of PE, on demand before intercourse. Dapoxetine works by inhibiting the serotonin transporter, increasing serotonin's action at the postsynaptic cleft, and as a consequence promoting ejaculatory delay. Dapoxetine is quickly absorbed and eliminated rapidly from the body. Its fast acting property makes it suitable for the on demand treatment of PE.

  13. Premature ejaculation results from partners' mismatch: development and validation of index of intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Wen, Y; Jiang, M; Zeng, M; Zhang, B

    2016-05-01

    Mismatch of partners in premature ejaculation (PE) regarding intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) is usually neglected. Here we proposed the concept and evaluated the use of index of IELT (IIELT) as an objective diagnostic tool for PE. Data from 103 self-reporting PE patients and 59 normal controls were collected. The expected IELTs of both the male and female partners were provided by each participating couple in two questionnaires. IIELT=stopwatch IELT/(1/2 the male's expected IELT+1/2 the female's expected IELT). The stopwatch IELTs were 1.74±1.4 min (PE group) and 14.45±11.0 min (control group), P<0.05. The expected IELTs were 15.65±8.7 min (men) and 14.16±6.9 min (women) in the PE group, and 21.3±16.1 min (men) and 20.04±13.47 min (women) in the control group, P<0.05. The calculated IIELTs were 0.14±0.12 (PE group) and 0.83±0.60 (control group), P<0.05. The best cut-off point was 0.658, the Youden index was 0.652, sensitivity was 0.991, specificity was 0.661, positive predictive probability was 83.46% and negative predictive probability was 97.6%. We concluded that IIELT was an integrated measurement of the couples' sexual equilibrium and demonstrated that it provided a simple and objective screening indicator for diagnosing self-reported PE.

  14. The relationship between female sexual function index domains and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Canat, Lütfi; Değirmentepe, Recep Burak; Atalay, Hasan Anıl; Alkan, İlter; Özbir, Sait; Çulha, Mehmet Gökhan; Ötünçtemur, Alper

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this prospective, observational study was to investigate the relationship between premature ejaculation (PE) and female sexual response cycle, using the female sexual function index (FSFI). The FSFI evaluates female sexual function in six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. All men were considered to have PE if they fulfilled the criteria of the second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee. All men were also assessed by the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) using stopwatch which was held by the partner. All women completed the FSFI. A total of 181 couples who had regular sexual intercourse with one partner for the past 6 months were enrolled the study. By the definition of ISSM Committee, there were 117 men with PE and 64 men without PE. Partners of men with PE had significantly lower total FSFI scores than did partners of men without PE (21.8 ± 3.5 for PE and 26.4 ± 3.1 for non-PE, p < 0.001). Moreover, all the domains of the FSFI scoring system were separately associated with PE. According to the mean FSFI scores, the 48.43% of women had sexual dysfunction in the non-PE group, and all women had sexual dysfunction in PE group. PE is associated with female sexual dysfunction and all of the female sexual dysfunction domains, as determined by FSFI scores.

  15. Escitalopram treatment for premature ejaculation has a negative effect on semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, H; Serefoglu, E C; Yencilek, E; Atalay, H; Akbas, N B; Sarıca, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term escitalopram treatment on semen parameters of patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Between November 2008 and January 2010, patients admitted to urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were evaluated. Medical and sexual history of patients were recorded and patients with lifelong PE (a total of 25 patients) who met the International Society of Sexual Medicine definition were asked to record their intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) for 1 month, complete Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) questionnaire and give semen samples. Afterwards, patients received 10 mg escitalopram daily for 12 weeks and were invited for control visits at first and third month of treatment. During control visits, PEDT was administered again whereas IELTs were recorded and semen samples were re-examined. PEDT scores, arithmetic means of IELTs and results of semen analyses, which were recorded at baseline, first and third month were compared. At the third month of treatment, a significant increase in mean IELTs and a significant decrease in PEDT scores were detected. However there was a significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and morphology when compared with the baseline semen measures. Daily escitalopram treatment effects the semen parameters of patients with lifelong PE. Further investigations with larger series are needed to see whether other serotonin reuptake inhibitors have similar side effects and to expose the exact mechanism underlying it. Different treatment modalities should be suggested to patients who desire fertility.

  16. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Hamd, M; Farah, A

    2018-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE. In a prospective a case-controlled study, it was conducted on 90 male patients with PE and 90 male healthy participants as controls. Patients were evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values ≤60 s and PEDT total scores ≥11 were considered to have PE. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PL) were investigated in patients with PE and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with PE and controls regarding the serum levels of TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL (p value ˃.05). There was no significant correlation between the sex hormones levels (TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL) and (age, body mass index (BMI), IELTS and total PEDT scores of the patients; p value ˃.05). This study concluded that there was no disturbance in serum levels of testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE and controls. These hormones could not relate to pathogenesis of PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Acupuncture versus paroxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sunay, Didem; Sunay, Melih; Aydoğmuş, Yasin; Bağbancı, Sahin; Arslan, Hüseyin; Karabulut, Ayhan; Emir, Levent

    2011-05-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used by many researchers in both male and female sexual dysfunction studies. To determine whether acupuncture is effective as a premature ejaculation (PE) treatment compared with paroxetine and placebo. The study was conducted with methodologic rigor based on Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria. Ninety patients referred to the urology clinic at a tertiary training and research hospital with PE were included in this randomized controlled trial and randomly assigned into paroxetine, acupuncture, and placebo groups. Heterosexual, sexually active men aged between 28 and 50 yr were included. Men with other sexual disorders, including erectile dysfunction; with chronic psychiatric or systemic diseases; with alcohol or substance abuse; or who used any medications were excluded. The medicated group received paroxetine 20 mg/d; the acupuncture or sham-acupuncture (placebo) groups were treated twice a week for 4 wk. Intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were used to assess PE. IELTs were calculated by using a partner-held stopwatch. Data were analyzed statistically. Median PEDT scores of paroxetine, acupuncture, and placebo groups were 17.0, 16.0, and 15.5 before treatment, and 10.5, 11.0, and 16.0 after treatment, respectively (p=0.001, p=0.001, and p=0.314, respectively). Subscores after treatment were significantly lower than subscores before treatment in the paroxetine and acupuncture groups but remained the same in the placebo group. Significant differences were found between mean-rank IELTs of the paroxetine and placebo groups (p=0.001) and the acupuncture and placebo groups (p=0.001) after treatment. Increases of IELTs with paroxetine, acupuncture, and placebo acupuncture were 82.7, 65.7, and 33.1 s, respectively. Extent of ejaculation delay induced by paroxetine was significantly higher than that of acupuncture (p=0.001). The most important limitation

  18. Understanding the effects of establishing various cutoff criteria in the definition of men with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David L; Kolba, Tiffany N

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, professional organizations and consensus groups have offered a variety of definitions for premature ejaculation (PE), all generally including a set of common concepts but all varying in specific language and operationalization. Clearly articulated definitions of such conditions are important because they not only affect prevalence rates but also diagnostic inclusion-who is deemed to have the condition and therefore who might be eligible for treatment. The current study had two goals: (i) to examine the effects on prevalence rates of moving the cutoff points from more stringent to less stringent for each of three PE criteria-ejaculatory latency, distress, and ejaculating before desired; and (ii) to explore in detail the relationships among the three criteria. Using an Internet-based sample of 1,183 men, we examined the responses of 374 with PE-type symptoms based on consensus definitions, and determined the effect of decreasing restrictions on the cutoff criteria. In addition, we calculated both correlations and concordance rates among criteria. Numeric and graphic depiction of the effects of moving the cutoff point for each of the three criteria is provided in the URL "PE Prevalence," a dynamic tool developed specifically for this study (https://sites.google.com/a/valpo.edu/PEprevalence/). In addition, statistical relationships among the PE criteria suggest sufficient independence to warrant inclusion of all three in a diagnostic procedure as well as to consider a 2-minute ejaculatory latency as the threshold for a PE diagnosis. Based on our data, clinicians should approach the 1-minute ejaculatory latency time (ELT) criterion with flexibility, considering ELTs up to 2 minutes for a PE diagnosis. At the same time, frequency of occurrence of either ejaculating before desired or of distress about the condition, as long as they reach at least 50% of the time, had only minor impact on PE diagnostic inclusion. © 2015 International Society for

  19. Proposal for a definition of lifelong premature ejaculation based on epidemiological stopwatch data.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2005-07-01

    Consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation has not yet been reached because of debates based on subjective authority opinions and nonstandardized assessment methods to measure ejaculation time and ejaculation control. To provide a definition for lifelong premature ejaculation that is based on epidemiological evidence including the neurobiological and psychological approach. We used the 0.5 and 2.5 percentiles as accepted standards of disease definition in a skewed distribution. We applied these percentiles in a stopwatch-determined intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of 491 nonselected men from five different countries. The practical consequences of 0.5% and 2.5% cutoff points for disease definition were taken into consideration by reviewing current knowledge of feelings of control and satisfaction in relation to ejaculatory performance of the general male population. Literature arguments to be used in a proposed consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation. The stopwatch-determined IELT distribution is positively skewed. The 0.5 percentile equates to an IELT of 0.9 minute and the 2.5 percentile an IELT of 1.3 minutes. However, there are no available data in the literature on feelings of control or satisfaction in relation to ejaculatory latency time in the general male population. Random male cohort studies are needed to end all speculation on this subject. Exact stopwatch time assessment of IELT in a multinational study led us to propose that all men with an IELT of less than 1 minute (belonging to the 0.5 percentile) have "definite" premature ejaculation, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes (between 0.5 and 2.5 percentile) have "probable" premature ejaculation. Severity of premature ejaculation (nonsymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe) should be defined in terms of associated psychological problems. We define lifelong premature ejaculation as a neurobiological dysfunction with an unacceptable increase of risk to

  20. Is there a place for surgical treatment of premature ejaculation?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Management of premature ejaculation (PE) has evolved tremandoulsy over the last 20 years. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and local anesthetics are the most and best studied treatments. This evidence has led to the establishment of an evidence-based definition of PE and the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PE. The current treatment of choice for PE according to the ISSM guidelines is a centrally acting SSRI or peripherally acting topical anesthetics. Despite the progress in threating PE, the drawbacks of these medical treatments are controversial. Before the ISSM guidelines were established, selective dorsal neurectomy (SDN) and glans penis augmentation (GPA) using a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel were developed to decrease sensitivity of the glans penis but later ISSM guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment because of possible permanent loss of sexual function and insufficient reliable data. Despite the drawbacks of medical treatments and debates about the ISSM guideline, surgical treatment for PE has increased continuously in Asian countries for non-responders to medical treatment. In contrast to the concerns outlined in the ISSM guidelines, SDN has been reported as effective and safe with rare sensory loss. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve and neuromodulation of the dorsal penile nerve by pulsed radiofrequency are reported as effective and safe for PE. It is time to re-evaluate rather than ignore surgical treatments for PE because doctors and patients need surgical alternatives for patients with PE who are not satisfied with medical treatment. SDN has a definite role in the efficacy but needs more safety data to be used as standard surgical treatment for PE. SDN must be performed carefully and more well-designed studies are needed. GPA with a HA gel does not induce serious sensory loss in patients with ED erectile

  1. Is there a place for surgical treatment of premature ejaculation?

    PubMed

    Moon, Du Geon

    2016-08-01

    Management of premature ejaculation (PE) has evolved tremandoulsy over the last 20 years. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and local anesthetics are the most and best studied treatments. This evidence has led to the establishment of an evidence-based definition of PE and the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PE. The current treatment of choice for PE according to the ISSM guidelines is a centrally acting SSRI or peripherally acting topical anesthetics. Despite the progress in threating PE, the drawbacks of these medical treatments are controversial. Before the ISSM guidelines were established, selective dorsal neurectomy (SDN) and glans penis augmentation (GPA) using a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel were developed to decrease sensitivity of the glans penis but later ISSM guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment because of possible permanent loss of sexual function and insufficient reliable data. Despite the drawbacks of medical treatments and debates about the ISSM guideline, surgical treatment for PE has increased continuously in Asian countries for non-responders to medical treatment. In contrast to the concerns outlined in the ISSM guidelines, SDN has been reported as effective and safe with rare sensory loss. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve and neuromodulation of the dorsal penile nerve by pulsed radiofrequency are reported as effective and safe for PE. It is time to re-evaluate rather than ignore surgical treatments for PE because doctors and patients need surgical alternatives for patients with PE who are not satisfied with medical treatment. SDN has a definite role in the efficacy but needs more safety data to be used as standard surgical treatment for PE. SDN must be performed carefully and more well-designed studies are needed. GPA with a HA gel does not induce serious sensory loss in patients with ED erectile

  2. Fluoxetine and premature ejaculation: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Haensel, S M; Klem, T M; Hop, W C; Slob, A K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on sexual function in men with premature ejaculation and/or erectile dysfunction and control subjects in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. There were four groups: (1) premature ejaculation (PE, N = 9); (2) premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction (PE/ED, N = 9); (3) erectile dysfunction (ED, N = 7); and (4) healthy, sexually functional control subjects (N = 15). The study consisted of three 4-week periods: fluoxetine, washout, and placebo (or vice versa). Fluoxetine began at 5 mg/day for 2 weeks, followed by 10 mg/day for 2 weeks. At weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12, subjects visited the laboratory for evaluation of sexual function and assessment of erectile response, ejaculation, and sexual arousal to visual erotic stimulation without and with concomitant vibrotactile stimulation to the penis. At home, daily logs for sexual activities and feelings of well-being were maintained, and nocturnal penile tumescence was measured. The latency to ejaculation increased significantly in the PE/ED group (p = 0.03) and in the PE and the PE/ED group taken together (p = 0.007) but not in the PE group alone. Fluoxetine stimulated objectively but not subjectively measured erectile response during laboratory assessment in all groups. No major side effects were reported. In conclusion, fluoxetine (5-10 mg/day) was effective in increasing latency to ejaculation in patients with PE (PE and PE/ED groups combined).

  3. Pharmacological/dynamic rehabilitative behavioural therapy for premature ejaculation: Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Franco

    2017-06-30

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a sexual disorder characterised by excessive rapidity of orgasm. It is defined as either primary (60%), present since the onset of sexual activity, or secondary (40%), manifesting later in life. To date, dapoxetine is the only preparation approved for the on-demand treatment of PE. However, side effects, costs associated with the treatment of chronic PE, drug dependence and its variable effectiveness leads to a not insignificant drop-out rate. Dynamic rehabilitative/behavioural therapy may be a viable therapeutic option, working alongside pharmacological treatment, as long as the participation and involvement of both the individual and the couple is optimal. 18 patients were enrolled, aged between 25 and 55 (mean: 40), all with primary PE, free of comorbidities and with their partners involved. Six patients were prescribed 30 mg dapoxetine two hours before sexual relations for 3 months (group A); 6 patients began the dynamic rehabilitative treatment (group B); 6 other couples were assigned to pharmacological treatment in association with dynamic rehabilitative behavioural treatment for 3 months (group C). Division of subjects was carried out by simple randomisation, excluding patients with a short frenulum, phimosis, ED, chronic prostatitis or experiencing results from previous treatment. Outcomes of treatment were evaluated at the end of the 3 months of treatment and 3 months after discontinuing treatment. In Group A 75% of patients were cured at 3 months and 25% at 6 months. In Group B 25% patients were cured at 3 months and 25% at 6 months. In Group C 75% of patients were cured 3 months and 50% at 6 months. "Cured" means a Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) score reduced from an average of 12 to an average of 6 and Intravaginal Ejaculation Latency Time (IELT) values from < 1 to > 6 minutes. the integration of pharmacological treatment with dynamic behavioural rehabilitation has the specific aim of optimising and

  4. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a novel therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Antonio L; Palleschi, Giovanni; Fuschi, Andrea; Maggioni, Cristina; Rago, Rocco; Zucchi, Alessandro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Carbone, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in patients affected by lifelong premature ejaculation. We treated 40 men with lifelong premature ejaculation, reporting, a baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤ 1 min, with 12-week pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. At the end of the rehabilitation, mean IELTs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. At the end of the treatment, 33 (82.5%) of the 40 patients gained control of their ejaculatory reflex, with a mean IELT of 146.2 s (range: 123.6-152.4 s). A total of 13 out of 33 (39%) patients were evaluated at 6 months follow up, and they maintained a significant IELT (112.6 s) compared with their initial IELT (mean 39.8 s). The results obtained in our subjects treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising. This therapy represents an important cost reduction compared with the standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Based on the present data, we propose pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation as a new, viable therapeutic option for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  5. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a novel therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Palleschi, Giovanni; Fuschi, Andrea; Maggioni, Cristina; Rago, Rocco; Zucchi, Alessandro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Carbone, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in patients affected by lifelong premature ejaculation. Methods: We treated 40 men with lifelong premature ejaculation, reporting, a baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤ 1 min, with 12-week pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. Results: At the end of the rehabilitation, mean IELTs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. At the end of the treatment, 33 (82.5%) of the 40 patients gained control of their ejaculatory reflex, with a mean IELT of 146.2 s (range: 123.6–152.4 s). A total of 13 out of 33 (39%) patients were evaluated at 6 months follow up, and they maintained a significant IELT (112.6 s) compared with their initial IELT (mean 39.8 s). Conclusions: The results obtained in our subjects treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising. This therapy represents an important cost reduction compared with the standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Based on the present data, we propose pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation as a new, viable therapeutic option for the treatment of premature ejaculation. PMID:24883105

  6. Black stone - a natural remedy for premature ejaculation and performance enhancement, or maybe not?

    PubMed

    Bush, Carly; O'Farrell, Nigel

    2014-08-01

    We describe the use of a non-prescribed aid (Black stone) for premature ejaculation that resulted in a chemical burn on the penis with an appearance similar to severe balanitis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Evaluating the content and quality of information about premature ejaculation on the Internet: what are men being exposed to ?

    PubMed

    Gul, M; Kaynar, M

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions; however, only a few patients with premature ejaculation are seeking professional help or advice. Internet has become an important source of knowledge, and thus, more patients are looking online for health information. According to our best knowledge, no study has evaluated the content and quality of websites on premature ejaculation. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the content and quality of currently available Internet-based information on premature ejaculation. A sample was obtained comprising the 50 top sites retrieved from Google, Bing and Yahoo search engines using the terms 'premature ejaculation'. Each site then was reviewed based on some predefined evaluation criteria to determine the general quality, condition-specific content quality, popularity index and ownership. The websites reviewed were differed highly in terms of quality and ownership. Only a few sites provided comprehensive medical and complete information on premature ejaculation. The online information available is often of uncertain calibre; therefore, men are being exposed to information about premature ejaculation with a highly variable degree quality. This fact should be considered both by health professionals and website owners, and better online resources should be provided for these patients. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The prevalence of premature ejaculation and its clinical characteristics in Korean men according to different definitions.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Lee, J H; Sung, H H; Park, H J; Park, J K; Choi, S K; Kam, S C

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) diagnosed by the PE diagnostic tool (PEDT) score, self-reporting and stopwatch-recorded intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). It examined the characteristics of males diagnosed with PE by each criterion. A questionnaire survey enrolled 2081 subjects from March to October, 2010. Stopwatch-recorded IELT was measured in 1035 of the 2081 subjects. We aimed to determine whether PE has an influence on the frequency and satisfaction of sexual intercourse, the degree of libido/erectile function and the satisfaction. These factors were evaluated according to different definitions of PE to assess whether the definition used yielded differences in the data. The prevalence of PE, based on a PEDT score of ≥11, self-reporting and stopwatch-recorded IELT of ≤1 min was 11.3%, 19.5% and 3%, respectively. The prevalence of PE diagnoses based on PEDT score and self-reporting increased with age, but stopwatch-recorded IELT-based diagnoses did not. Males experiencing PE showed lower levels of libido, erectile function and frequency and satisfaction of sexual intercourse compared with non-PE males. PE males felt that they did not satisfy their partners in terms of the partners' sexual satisfaction and frequency of orgasm, in comparison with non-PE males. PE is a highly prevalent sexual dysfunction in males. Regardless of whether the PE diagnosis was made on the basis of self-reporting, PEDT score or stopwatch-recorded IELT, subjective symptoms were similar among PE males.

  9. Effect of DA-8031, a novel oral compound for premature ejaculation, on male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Koo; Sung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Hoe; Lee, Sukhyang

    2014-03-01

    DA-8031 is a potent and selective serotonin transporter inhibitor developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DA-8031 on male sexual behavior in a rat model. Sexual behavior was examined after an acute oral administration of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg of DA-8031 in copulation studies with female rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after oral administration of DA-8031 at a dose level of 30 mg/kg. DA-8031 treatment produced a dose-dependent increase in ejaculation latency time and showed statistical significance at 30 and 100 mg/kg dosage levels compared with the vehicle (P < 0.05). In addition, DA-8031 treatment reduced the mean number of ejaculations in a dose-dependent manner. No changes in post-ejaculatory interval, numbers of mounts, intromissions or ejaculations were observed at any dose. In pharmacokinetic study, the blood concentration of DA-8031 peaked at 0.38 ± 0.14 h after oral administration, and then rapidly declined with a half-life of 1.79 ± 0.32 h. Treatment with DA-8031 delays the ejaculation latency time without affecting the initiation of mounting behavior or post-ejaculatory interval in rats. Furthermore, DA-8031 is rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration in rats. These preclinical findings provide a clue for the clinical testing of DA-8031 as an "on-demand" agent for premature ejaculation. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Relationship between premature ejaculation and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Sung Won

    2015-03-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common etiology of premature ejaculation (PE). However, the current data are insufficient to explain this relationship and to support routine screening of men with PE. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between PE and CP/CPPS. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 8,261 men who had participated in a health examination. The Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF) were used for assessment of symptoms. A full metabolic work-up and serum testosterone level checks were also performed. We then investigated the relationship using the Spearman correlation test, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression analyses. Associations of PEDT with NIH-CPSI. The mean age was 50.4 ± 5.5 years. In total, 2,205 (24.9%) men had prostatitis-like symptoms (NIH-CPSI pain score of ≥4 and perineal or ejaculatory pain), and 618 (7.0%) men had moderate to severe symptoms (NIH-CPSI pain score of ≥8). Additionally, 2,144 men (24.2%) were classified as demonstrating PE (PEDT > 10). The PEDT score was found to have a significant positive correlation with the NIH-CPSI pain domain score (correlation coefficient = 0.206; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, metabolic syndrome status, testosterone level, and IIEF score, there was no change in the positive correlation between the NIH-CPSI pain domain score and PEDT score (Beta = 0.175; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, testosterone level, metabolic syndrome, and IIEF score, the odds ratio (OR) for PE significantly increased with the severity of pelvic pain (mild prostatitis-like symptoms, OR for PE: 1.269, 95% confidence interval: 1.113-1.447; moderate to severe symptoms, OR for PE: 2.134: 95% confidence interval: 1.782-2.557). Our data showed a significant correlation between the

  11. Toward Evidence-Based Genetic Research on Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Critical Evaluation of Methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recently, four premature ejaculation (PE) subtypes have been distinguished on the basis of the duration of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). These four PE subtypes have different etiologies and pathogeneses. Genetic research on PE should consider the existence of these PE subtypes and the accurate measurement of the IELT with a stopwatch. Currently, three methods of genetic research on PE have been used. They differ in the investigated population, tool of measurement, study design, and variables of PE. From animal and human research, it is derived that the central serotonergic system "modulates" ejaculation, whereas the ejaculation (reflex) itself is probably not under direct influence of the serotonergic system, but rather under the influence of other neurotransmitter systems in the spinal cord. For genetic research on PE, it is important to take into account that the (serotonergic) modulation of the IELT is variable among men and may even be absent. This means that serotonergic genetic polymorphisms may only be found in men with PE who respond with an ejaculation delay treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. PMID:21344023

  12. A clinical trial of the beta blocker propranolol in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Magnus, R V

    1984-01-01

    Twelve male patients, with a primary complaint of premature ejaculation in a setting of chronic anxiety with prominent somatic manifestations, participated in a double-blind trial: propranolol against placebo. The study consisted of 5 X 4 week phases: run-in, propranolol or placebo--120 mg/day allocated randomly, wash-out; placebo or propranolol and run-out, in a balanced design. Anxiety was rated initially, and every 2 weeks, throughout the trial using the Hamilton Rating Scale. Sitting blood pressure and pulse were also noted. The time to coital ejaculation (every 3 days) was recorded using a stopwatch, and subjects were also required to rate "overall coital satisfaction" and "quality of erection". Neither prematurity nor other signs/symptoms of anxiety improved on the preparations, which were statistically equivalent. Moderate beta-blockade was achieved with propranolol as evidenced by a median reduction in pulse rate of 5 beats/min.

  13. On-demand Modafinil Improves Ejaculation Time and Patient-reported Outcomes in Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Tuken, Murat; Kiremit, Murat Can; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of modafinil on the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and patient-reported outcomes in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Treatment-naïve lifelong PE patients were included in this proof-of-concept study. Self-estimated IELTs of the patients were recorded and the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) questionnaire was administered before the initiation of on-demand modafinil 100 mg treatment. At the end of 1 month of treatment, self-estimated IELTs were recorded again, along with posttreatment PEP outcomes. Overall, 55 lifelong PE patients with a mean age of 35.07 ± 7.80 (range: 22-58) years were enrolled. Modafinil treatment modestly increased the mean IELT at the end of 1 month (24.82 ± 16.10 seconds vs 49.82 ± 31.46 seconds, P = .0001). Moreover, at the end of 1 month, patients reported in the PEP questionnaire better control over ejaculation (0.75 ± 0.67 vs 1.35 ± 0.91, P = .0001), improved satisfaction with sexual intercourse (0.98 ± 0.78 vs 1.40 ± 0.85, P = .0001), lesser personal distress (0.42 ± 0.69 vs 0.89 ± 1.01, P = .0001), and reduced interpersonal difficulty (1.69 ± 1.48 vs 1.95 ± 1.47, P = .0001). In an uncontrolled proof-of-concept study of men with treatment-naïve lifelong PE where IELT was self-reported without a stopwatch, modest improvements of both IELT and patient-reported outcome measures were observed. Future controlled clinical trials are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Penile Traumatic Neuroma: A Late Complication of Penile Dorsal Neurotomy to Treat Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Tae Nam; Baek, Seung Ryong; Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Kyung-Un; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic neuroma is a reactive process caused by the regeneration of an injured nerve that usually forms a nodular proliferation of small nerve bundles. Penile traumatic neuroma is rare; only a few cases related to circumcision have been reported. To report on a case of traumatic neuroma in the penis after selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN) to treat premature ejaculation. The penile traumatic neuroma was successfully removed by excision and confirmed by histopathology. A 55-year-old man who had had several painless, slow-growing nodules on his penis for 2 years presented to our hospital. He had no history of genital trauma, urinary tract infection, or penile surgery, except SDN to treat premature ejaculation. The nodules were excised and the final diagnosis was traumatic neuroma. No recurrence has been detected during 1 year of follow-up. The main complications of SDN are recurrence of premature ejaculation, pain or paresthesia on the glans penis, and erectile dysfunction. However, no traumatic neuroma has been reported as a complication. We report that a traumatic neuroma can occur after SDN. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lifestyle Factors and Premature Ejaculation: Are Physical Exercise, Alcohol Consumption, and Body Mass Index Associated With Premature Ejaculation and Comorbid Erectile Problems?

    PubMed

    Ventus, Daniel; Jern, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual problem in men, but its etiology remains uncertain. Lifestyle factors have long been hypothesized to be associated with sexual problems in general and have been proposed as risk factors for PE. To explore associations among physical exercise, alcohol use, body mass index, PE, and erectile dysfunction. A population-based sample of Finnish men and a sample of Finnish men diagnosed with PE were surveyed for statistical comparisons. Participants using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other medications known to affect symptoms of PE were excluded from analyses. Self-report questionnaires: Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation, International Index of Erectile Function-5, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. The clinical sample reported lower levels of physical exercise (mean = 27.53, SD = 21.01, n = 69) than the population-based sample (mean = 34.68, SD = 22.82, n = 863, t930 = 2.52, P = .012), and the effect size was large (d = 0.85). There was a small negative correlation between levels of physical exercise and symptoms of PE (r = -0.09, P < .01, n = 863) in the population-based sample. The association between physical exercise and PE remained significant after controlling for effects of age, erectile dysfunction, alcohol use, and body mass index. If future studies show that the direction of causality of this association is such that physical activity alleviates PE symptoms, then including physical activity in PE treatment interventions could be a promising addition to treatment regimes. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Premature Ejaculation in the Anhui Male Population in China: Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingjing; Peng, Dangwei; Zhang, Xiansheng; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Zhang, Yao; Mao, Jun; Dou, Xianming; Liang, Chaozhao

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, new evidence-based definitions of lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) were proposed by the International Society for Sexual Medicine. Based on the new PE definitions, the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE have not been investigated in China. To evaluate the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE in China. From December 2011 to December 2015, a cross-sectional field survey was conducted in five cities in the Anhui province of China. Questionnaire data of 3,579 men were collected in our database. The questionnaire included subjects' demographic information and medical and sexual histories. Men who were not satisfied with their time to ejaculate were accepted as having the complaint of PE. Men with the complaint of PE who met the new definition of PE were diagnosed as having LPE or APE. New definition of LPE and APE. Of 3,579 men who completed the questionnaire, 34.62% complained of PE. Mean age, body mass index, and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time for all subjects were 34.97 ± 9.02 years, 23.33 ± 3.56 kg/m 2 , and 3.09 ± 1.36 minutes, respectively. The prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. LPE and APE were associated with age, body mass index, and smoking and exercise rates (P < .001 for all comparisons). Men with APE reported more comorbidities than men with LPE, especially in the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease (P < .001 for all comparisons). In this study, the prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. Patients with APE were older and more likely to smoke, had more comorbidities, and had a higher body mass index than patients with LPE. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Premature ejaculation: on defining and quantifying a common male sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) and its individual and relationship consequences have been recognized in the literature for centuries. PE is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions, affecting nearly one in three men worldwide between the ages of 18 and 59 years. Until recently, PE was believed to be a learned behavior predominantly managed with psychosexual therapy; however, the past few decades have seen significant advances in understanding its etiology, diagnosis, and management. There is, as yet, no one universally agreed upon definition of PE. To review five currently published definitions of PE. The Sexual Medicine Society of North America hosted a State of the Art Conference on Premature Ejaculation on June 24-26, 2005 in collaboration with the University of South Florida. The purpose was to have an open exchange of contemporary research and clinical information on PE. There were 16 invited presenters and discussants; the group focused on several educational objectives. Data were utilized from the World Health Organization, the American Psychiatric Association, the European Association of Urology, the Second International Consultation on Sexual Dysfunctions, and the American Urological Association. The current published definitions of PE have many similarities; however, none of these provide a specific "time to ejaculation," in part because of the absence of normative data on this subject. While investigators agree that men with PE have a shortened intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT; i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation), there is now a greater appreciation of PE as a multidimensional dysfunction encompassing several components, including time and subjective parameters such as "control,"satisfaction," and "distress." There is a recent paradigm shift away from PE as a unidimensional disorder of IELT toward a multidimensional description of PE as a biologic dysfunction with psychosocial components.

  18. Premature Ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel like you are about to have an orgasm. Then the stimulation stops for about 30 seconds. Once you regain control of your response, stimulation begins again. This process is repeated 3 or 4 times before you allow yourself to have an orgasm. The squeeze method works in a similar way. ...

  19. The impact of premature ejaculation on the subjective perception of orgasmic intensity: validation and standardisation of the 'Orgasmometer'.

    PubMed

    Limoncin, E; Lotti, F; Rossi, M; Maseroli, E; Gravina, G L; Ciocca, G; Mollaioli, D; Di Sante, S; Maggi, M; Lenzi, A; Jannini, E A

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no psychometric tools have been specifically developed to measure if premature ejaculation (PE) is related to low sexual pleasure in terms of perception of orgasmic intensity. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate if men with PE suffer from a low perception of orgasmic intensity using a new tool, the 'Orgasmometer', to quantitatively measure the intensity of orgasmic pleasure. Among 329 subjects attending our andrological unit for suspected PE, 257 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 156 (60.7%; 156/257) were affected by PE (PE group) and 101 (39.3%; 101/257) did not have any sexual dysfunction (Control group). Men were requested to fill out the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the Orgasmometer, a new visual tool recording orgasm intensity on a Likert scale. Interestingly, MANCOVA analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.044) in the subjective perception of orgasm intensity with the PE group scoring lower on the Orgasmometer (mean 5.8; 95% CI 5.191-6.409) than the Control group (mean 7.95; 95% CI 7.033-8.87). In addition, multiple linear regression revealed an inverse correlation between the PEDT and the Orgasmometer scores (p < 0.0001). Hence, higher PEDT scores were associated with a lower subjective perception of orgasmic intensity. The Orgasmometer was well understood, had good test-retest reliability and a high AUC in differentiating between men with high and low orgasmic pleasure intensity. The ROC curve analysis showed that a cut-off ≤6 had 87.7% sensitivity (95% CI 79.6-92.6), 95% specificity (95% CI 88.7-98.4), 95.3% positive predictive value (PPV) and 86.4% negative predictive value (NPV). Men affected by premature ejaculation perceived significantly lower orgasmic intensity than sexually healthy men. The Orgasmometer is an easy-to-perform, user-friendly tool for measuring orgasmic intensity. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and

  20. Prevalence and factor association of premature ejaculation among adult Asian males with lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Silangcruz, Jan Michael A.; Chua, Michael E.; Morales, Marcelino L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) among adult Asian males presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and characterize its association with other clinical factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary medical center to determine the prevalence of PE among adult male participants with LUTS during the Annual National Prostate Health Awareness Day. Basic demographic data of the participants were collected. All participants were assessed for the presence and severity of LUTS using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and for the presence of PE using the PE diagnostic tool. Digital rectal examination was performed by urologists to obtain prostate size. LUTS was further categorized into severity, storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, and nocturia), and voiding symptoms (weak stream, intermittency, straining, and incomplete emptying) to determine their association with PE. Data were analyzed by comparing the participants with PE (PE diagnostic tool score ≥11) versus those without PE, using the independent t test for continuous data, Mann–Whitney U test for ordinal data, and Chi-square test for nominal data. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results A total of 101 male participants with a mean ± standard deviation age of 60.75 ± 10.32 years were included. Among the participants, 33% had moderate LUTS, and 7% severe LUTS. The most common LUTS was nocturia (33%). The overall prevalence of PE was 27%. There was no significant difference among participants with PE versus those without PE in terms of age, marital status, prostate size, or total IPSS score. However, significant difference between groups was noted on the level of education (Mann–Whitney U, z = −1.993, P = 0.046) where high educational status was noted among participants with PE. Likewise, participants with PE were noted to have more prominent weak stream (Mann–Whitney U, z = −2.126, P = 0

  1. Prevalence and factor association of premature ejaculation among adult Asian males with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Silangcruz, Jan Michael A; Chua, Michael E; Morales, Marcelino L

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) among adult Asian males presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and characterize its association with other clinical factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary medical center to determine the prevalence of PE among adult male participants with LUTS during the Annual National Prostate Health Awareness Day. Basic demographic data of the participants were collected. All participants were assessed for the presence and severity of LUTS using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and for the presence of PE using the PE diagnostic tool. Digital rectal examination was performed by urologists to obtain prostate size. LUTS was further categorized into severity, storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, and nocturia), and voiding symptoms (weak stream, intermittency, straining, and incomplete emptying) to determine their association with PE. Data were analyzed by comparing the participants with PE (PE diagnostic tool score ≥11) versus those without PE, using the independent t test for continuous data, Mann-Whitney U test for ordinal data, and Chi-square test for nominal data. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. A total of 101 male participants with a mean ± standard deviation age of 60.75 ± 10.32 years were included. Among the participants, 33% had moderate LUTS, and 7% severe LUTS. The most common LUTS was nocturia (33%). The overall prevalence of PE was 27%. There was no significant difference among participants with PE versus those without PE in terms of age, marital status, prostate size, or total IPSS score. However, significant difference between groups was noted on the level of education (Mann-Whitney U, z = -1.993, P = 0.046) where high educational status was noted among participants with PE. Likewise, participants with PE were noted to have more prominent weak stream (Mann-Whitney U, z = -2.126, P = 0.033). Among the participants consulted

  2. Circumcision does not have effect on premature ejaculation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Wang, X; Bai, Y; Han, P

    2018-03-01

    We attempted to evaluate whether circumcision has an effect on premature ejaculation. We searched three databases: PubMed, EMBASE and Google scholar on 1 May 2016 for eligible studies that referred to male sexual function after circumcision. No language restrictions were imposed. The Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.2 software was employed for data analysis, and the fixed or the random-effect model was selected depending on the heterogeneity. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, containing a total of 10019 circumcised and 11570 uncircumcised men. All studies were divided into five subgroups by types of study design to evaluate the effect of circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), difficulty of orgasm, erectile dysfunction (ED) and pain during intercourse were also assessed because PE was usually discussed along with these subjects. There were no significant differences in PE (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-1.13; p = .37) and orgasm (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.89-1.21; p = .65) between circumcised and uncircumcised group. However, IELT (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83; p < .00001), ED (OR, 0.42;95% CI, 0.22-0.78; p = .40) and pain during intercourse (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17-0.76; p = .007) favoured circumcised group. Based on these findings, circumcision does not have effect on PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The use of tramadol "on-demand" for premature ejaculation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Billy L K; Malde, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of tramadol in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) by systematically reviewing the results of randomized controlled trials. All studies evaluating the efficacy of tramadol for the treatment of PE published in peer reviewed medical journals between 2006 and March 2012 were identified by searching for the keywords "premature ejaculation" and "tramadol" in the PubMed database. Only randomized controlled trials published in the English language were included. A total of 5 articles, comprising 823 patients, met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Overall, tramadol on-demand results in a significant improvement in mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time and symptom scores compared with placebo and in an improvement in partner sexual satisfaction scores. The rate of short-term adverse effects is low. Tramadol is an effective treatment for patients with PE and represents a promising alternative to the currently used oral pharmacologic agents. Longer-term safety studies, and those comparing tramadol with the selective serotonin receptor inhibitors, are essential to determine the place of tramadol in the treatment of this distressing condition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation: Report of the Second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. Aim The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. Methods In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. Results The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the

  5. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second international society for sexual medicine ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The

  6. Functional and psychological characteristics of belgian men with premature ejaculation and their partners.

    PubMed

    Kempeneers, Philippe; Andrianne, Robert; Bauwens, Sabrina; Georis, Isabelle; Pairoux, Jean-François; Blairy, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional factors are generally acknowledged to play a role in premature ejaculation (PE). However, the nature and the extent of their etiological impact remain largely imprecise. The present study examined functional and psychometric dynamics at work in a PE population. A total of 461 men with PE and 80 partners completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self-reported ejaculatory latency time, the feeling of control upon ejaculation, sexual satisfaction, distress related to PE, trait anxiety (STAI-B), sexual cognitions (Sexual Irrationality Questionnaire [SIQ]), social anxiety (Liebowitz's Social Anxiety Scale [LSAS] and Social Interaction Self-Statement Test [SISST]), and personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised [TCI-R]). In our sample, the median latency time to ejaculation was between 1 and 2 min. Sexual satisfaction and distress correlated more strongly with the feeling of control than with the self-reported latency time. Men experienced more distress and dissatisfaction related to PE than did their partners, while overestimating their partners' distress and dissatisfaction. PE participants' scores differed significantly, albeit slightly, from STAI-B, SIQ, LSAS, and SISST norms. The differences were negligible on TCI-R. Some differences became stronger when subtypes were considered. Participants combining generalized and lifelong PE with self-reported latency times of <30 s reported lower sexual satisfaction and control, higher distress, higher social anxiety, and harm avoidance (TCI-R/HA) scores. By contrast, the situational subtype of PE was found to be characterized by a higher level of satisfaction, a greater feeling of control, less distress, and higher trait anxiety scores. However, the trends remained statistically discrete.

  7. Somatosensory evoked potentials assess the efficacy of circumcision for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Xia, J-D; Jiang, H-S; Zhu, L-L; Zhang, Z; Chen, H; Dai, Y-T

    2016-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and mechanism of circumcision in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) with redundant prepuce, we enrolled a total of 81 PE patients who received circumcision. The patients' ejaculatory ability and sexual performances were evaluated before and after circumcision by using questionnaires (Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), Chinese Index of PE with 5 questions (CIPE-5) and International Index of Erectile function- 5 (IIEF-5)). Furthermore, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) including dorsal nerve (DNSEP) and glans penis (GPSEP) of the patients were also measured. The mean IELTs of preoperation and post operation were 1.10±0.55 and 2.48±2.03 min, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, the geometric mean IELT after operation was 2.16 min, compared with the baseline 1.07 min before the operation, the fold increase of the IELT was 2.02. Compared with the uncircumcised status, scores of CIPE-5 showed a significant increase after circumcision (P<0.001). The mean latencies (and amplitudes) of GPSEP and DNSEP were 38.1±4.0 ms (3.0±1.9 uV) and 40.5±3.4 ms (2.8±1.6 uV) before circumcision, respectively; and 42.8±3.3 ms (2.8±1.6 uV) and 40.5±4.1 ms (2.4±1.2 uV) in the follow-up end point after circumcision. Only the latencies of GPSEP showed significant prolongation before and after circumcision (P<0.001). The ejaculation time improvement after circumcision is so small, and equal to placebo response, therefore it could not be interpreted as a therapeutic method in men with PE.

  8. Interplay Between Premature Ejaculation and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Limoncin, Erika; Sforza, Alessandra; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Maggi, Mario

    2015-12-01

    The specific determinants and underlying factors linking erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) have yet to be clearly identified. The aim of this study was to review and meta-analyze all available data regarding the link between ED and PE. An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed including the following words: "premature ejaculation" and "erectile dysfunction". All observational trials comparing the risk of ED in relation to PE were included. Data extraction was performed independently by two of the authors (G.R, G.C.), and conflicts resolved by the third investigator (M.M.). Out of 474 retrieved articles, 18 were included in the study for a total of 57,229 patients, of which 12,144 (21.2%) had PE. The presence of PE, however defined, was associated with a significant increase in ED risk (odds ratio: 3.68[2.61;5.18]; P < 0.0001). Meta-regression analysis showed that the risk of ED in PE subjects was higher in older individuals as well as in those with a lower level of education and in those who reported a stable relationship less frequently. In addition, subjects with PE and ED more often reported anxiety and depressive symptoms and a lower prevalence of organic associated morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All the latter associations were confirmed even after adjustment for age. Finally the risk of PE-related ED increased with the increased proportion of acquired ejaculatory problems (adj r = 0.414; P < 0.0001 after the adjustment for age). In conclusion, the present data showed that ED and PE are not distinctly separate entities, but should be considered from a dimensional point of view. Understanding this dimensional perspective might help sexual health care professionals in providing the most appropriate therapeutic approach to realistically increase patient related outcomes in sexual medicine. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. The Premature Ejaculation Profile: validation of self-reported outcome measures for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Donald L; Giuliano, François; Ho, Kai Fai; Gagnon, Dennis D; McNulty, Pauline; Rothman, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), a self-reported outcome instrument for evaluating domains of PE and its treatment, comprised of four single-item measures, a profile, and an index score. Data were from men participating in observational studies in the USA (PE, 207 men; non-PE, 1380) and Europe (PE, 201; non-PE, 914) and from men with PE (1238) participating in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of dapoxetine. The PEP contains four measures: perceived control over ejaculation, personal distress related to ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation, each assessed on five-point response scales. Test-retest reliability, known-groups validity, and ability to detect a patient-reported global impression of change (PGI) in condition were evaluated for the individual PEP measures and a PEP index score (the mean of all four measures). Profile analysis was conducted using multivariate analysis of variance. All PEP measures showed acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.66 to 0.83) and mean scores for all measures differed significantly between PE and non-PE groups (P < 0.001). Men who reported a reduction in PE with treatment in the phase III trial had significantly greater scores on each of the four measures. The PEP profiles of men with and without PE differed significantly (P < 0.001) in both observational studies; higher levels of PGI were associated with higher PEP profiles (P < 0.001). The PEP index score also showed acceptable reliability and was significantly different between the PE and non-PE groups (P < 0.001). Men who reported an improvement in PE with treatment in the phase III trial had significantly greater PEP index scores. In the phase III trial, nausea was the most common adverse event with dapoxetine. The PEP provides a reliable, valid, and interpretable measure for use in monitoring

  10. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Materials and Methods This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine treatment in 54 men with LPE. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured by stopwatch. Controls consisted of 92 Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of the polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Associations between the LL, SL, and SS genotypes and fold increase of mean IELT were investigated. Results Of the 54 patients, 43 (79.6%) responded to 20-mg paroxetine treatment with an ejaculation delay, whereas 11 patients (20.4%) did not respond; 44%, 18%, and 18% of the patients showed a fold increase in mean IELT of 2-10, 10-20, and more than 20, respectively. Of the 54 men, 14 (25.9%) had the LL genotype, 29 (53.7%) had the SL genotype, and 11 (20.4%) had the SS genotype. In the 92 controls, the LL, SL, and SS genotypes were present in 27 (29.3%), 41 (44.6%), and 24 (26.1%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in 5-HTTLPR allelic variations or in 5-HTTLPR gene variations. In all men treated with 20 mg paroxetine, analysis of variance of the natural logarithm of fold increase in the IELT showed no statistically significant difference according to genotype (p=0.83). Conclusions The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is not associated with daily 20-mg paroxetine treatment-induced ejaculation delay in men with LPE. PMID:24578810

  11. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States.

  12. New insights on premature ejaculation: a review of definition, classification, prevalence and treatment.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege C; Saitz, Theodore R

    2012-11-01

    There are ongoing debates about the definition, classification and prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE). The first evidence-based definition of PE was limited to heterosexual men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. Unfortunately, many patients with the complaint of PE do not meet these criteria. However, these men can be diagnosed as one of the PE subtypes, namely acquired PE, natural variable PE or premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction. Nevertheless, the validity of these subtypes has not yet been supported by evidence. The absence of a universally accepted PE definition and lack of standards for data acquisition have resulted in prevalence studies that have reported conflicting rates. The very high prevalence of 20%-30% is probably due to the vague terminology used in the definitions at the time when such surveys were conducted. Although many men may complain of PE when questioned for a population-based prevalence study, only a few of them will actively seek treatment for their complaint, even though most of these patients would define symptoms congruent with PE. The complaints of acquired PE patients may be more severe, whereas complaints of patients experiencing premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction seem to be least severe among men with various forms of PE. Although numerous treatment modalities have been proposed for management of PE, only antidepressants and topical anaesthetic creams have currently been proven to be effective. However, as none of the treatment modalities have been approved by the regulatory agencies, further studies must be carried to develop a beneficial treatment strategy for PE.

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Ren, Shijie; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined as ejaculation within 1 minute (lifelong PE) or 3 minutes (acquired PE), inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Management includes behavioral and pharmacologic approaches. To systematically review effectiveness, safety, and robustness of evidence for complementary and alternative medicine in managing PE. Nine databases including Medline were searched through September 2015. Randomized controlled trials evaluating complementary and alternative medicine for PE were included. Studies were included if they reported on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and/or another validated PE measurement. Adverse effects were summarized. Ten randomized controlled trials were included. Two assessed acupuncture, five assessed Chinese herbal medicine, one assessed Ayurvedic herbal medicine, and two assessed topical "severance secret" cream. Risk of bias was unclear in all studies because of unclear allocation concealment or blinding, and only five studies reported stopwatch-measured IELT. Acupuncture slightly increased IELT over placebo in one study (mean difference [MD] = 0.55 minute, P = .001). In another study, Ayurvedic herbal medicine slightly increased IELT over placebo (MD = 0.80 minute, P = .001). Topical severance secret cream increased IELT over placebo in two studies (MD = 8.60 minutes, P < .001), although inclusion criteria were broad (IELT < 3 minutes). Three studies comparing Chinese herbal medicine with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) favored SSRIs (MD = 1.01 minutes, P = .02). However, combination treatment with Chinese medicine plus SSRIs improved IELT over SSRIs alone (two studies; MD = 1.92 minutes, P < .00001) and over Chinese medicine alone (two studies; MD = 2.52 minutes, P < .00001). Adverse effects were not consistently assessed but where reported were generally mild. There is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine

  14. An Update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Premature Ejaculation (PE)

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Shindel, Alan W; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Becher, Edgardo; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2009, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) convened a select panel of experts to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for patients suffering from lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). That document reviewed definitions, etiology, impact on the patient and partner, assessment, and pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatments. It concluded by recognizing the continually evolving nature of clinical research and recommended a subsequent guideline review and revision every fourth year. Consistent with that recommendation, the ISSM organized a second multidisciplinary panel of experts in April 2013, which met for 2 days in Bangalore, India. This manuscript updates the previous guidelines and reports on the recommendations of the panel of experts. Aim The aim of this study was to develop clearly worded, practical, evidenced-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of PE for family practice clinicians as well as sexual medicine experts. Method A comprehensive literature review was performed. Results This article contains the report of the second ISSM PE Guidelines Committee. It offers a new unified definition of PE and updates the previous treatment recommendations. Brief assessment procedures are delineated, and validated diagnostic and treatment questionnaires are reviewed. Finally, the best practices treatment recommendations are presented to guide clinicians, both familiar and unfamiliar with PE, in facilitating treatment of their patients. Conclusion Development of guidelines is an evolutionary process that continually reviews data and incorporates the best new research. We expect that ongoing research will lead to a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology as well as new efficacious and safe treatments for this sexual dysfunction. We again recommend that these guidelines be reevaluated and updated by the ISSM in 4 years. Althof SE, McMahon CG, Waldinger MD, Serefoglu EC, Shindel AW, Adaikan PG

  15. Serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Bakker, Steven C; Réthelyi, Janos; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Touw, Daan J; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 minute, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction with genetic vulnerability for the short IELTs, related to disturbances of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurotransmission and 5-HT receptor functioning. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and short IELTs in men with lifelong PE. A prospective study was conducted in 89 Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong PE. IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. Controls consisted of 92 Dutch Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for a 5-HTT-promoter polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Association between LL, SL, and SS genotypes, and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE was investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. In men with lifelong PE, the geometric mean, median, and natural mean IELTs were 21, 26, and 32 seconds, respectively. There were no significant differences in the 5-HTT polymorphism alleles and genotypes between 89 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE (S 47%, L 53%/LL 29%, SL 48%, SS 22%) and 92 Dutch Caucasian controls (S 48%, L 52%/LL 29%, SL 45%, SS 26%). In men with lifelong PE there was a statistically significant difference between LL, SL, and SS genotypes in their geometric mean IELT (P < or = 0.027); the LL genotypes had significantly shorter IELTs than the SS and SL genotypes. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with significant effects on the latency to ejaculate in men with lifelong PE. Men with SS and SL genotypes have 100% and 90% longer ejaculation time, respectively than men with LL genotypes.

  16. Dapoxetine: a new option in the medical management of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological consequences. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common, effective and safe. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill an unmet treatment need. The objective of this article is to review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. MEDLINE, Web of Science, PICA, EMBASE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings were searched for publications or abstracts published during the period 1993–2012 that used the word ‘dapoxetine’ in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase I, II and III studies, independent postmarketing and pharmacovigilance efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Dapoxetine is a potent SSRI which is administered on demand 1–3 h prior to planned sexual contact. It is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation, and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in five industry-sponsored randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged at least 18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine versus placebo (all p <0.001). The most common treatment-related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg

  17. Effects of Tadalafil 5 mg Dosed Once Daily in Men with Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Levent; Polat, Emre Can; Onen, Efe; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Otunctemur, Alper; Cekmen, Mustafa; Eraldemir, Ceyla; Ozbek, Emin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of 5 mg tadalafil once daily in men with premature ejaculation (PE). Thirty married men with lifelong PE and 30 healthy men as control group were included in this study. All the patients received 5 mg tadalafil once a day for a month. The international index of erectile function questionnaire and intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and PE profile were recorded before and after treatment. Plasma samples were collected before and after treatment. The mean baseline IELTs was 40.8 ± 8.1 s in the PE group and 196.5 ± 26.2 s in the control group. After treatment in the PE group, the mean IELTs values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. At the end of 4 weeks, in the PE group, the mean IELT values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. Baseline serum nitric oxide (NO) levels were 27.3 ± 1.7 in the PE group and in the 31.1 ± 1.4 healthy control groups. After treatment, NO levels were increased from baseline. We consider that 5 mg tadalafil once daily is safety and effective for the treatment of PE. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Cross-cultural differences in women's sexuality and their perception and impact of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Graziottin, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cross-cultural differences in women's perception of premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 1463 sexually active women from 3 different countries—Mexico, South Korea, and Italy—reporting being or having been in a relationship with a man who suffers from PE were included in the study. A mix of self-constructed questions and questions taken from validated instruments were used, including the Female Sexual Function Index, the Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the Relationship Assessment Scale. Significant differences in importance of ejaculatory control and the degree of distress caused by PE were detected between the 3 countries (P < .001 for both). Lack of control was the most commonly reported reason for distress for Mexico, short latency for Italy, and lack of control for South Korea. Mexico reported the highest rates of previous relationship breakups due to PE (28.9%), whereas Italian women reported the lowest relationship satisfaction and South Korean women the highest. It is important to get a better understanding of which sexual issues are important for individuals across different cultures, and whether the same aspects of the problem are considered distressing. This can have implications on nosology, on types of treatments offered, and hence, the likelihood of their efficiency when a couple's sexual perspective is carefully considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The

  20. Further definition on the multiple partner choice arena: a potential animal model for the study of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Olayo-Lortia, Jesús; Ferreira-Nuño, Armando; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Morales-Otal, Adriana

    2014-10-01

    The multiple partner choice arena (MPCA) is an experimental setup in which male rats display a significant shortening of ejaculation latency, which is the main characteristic of premature ejaculation (PE) in men. Thus, the MPCA is a potential animal model for PE. In this study, we further analyze whether the features of the MPCA satisfy the validity criteria for it to be considered an animal model as well as the possible participation of the serotoninergic system in the faster ejaculation exhibited by male rats in the MPCA. In Experiment 1, male rats were tested in a standard arena to assess their sexual behavior, then were assessed 1 week later in the MPCA. Another group was first tested in the MPCA, then in a standard arena. In Experiment 2, male rats divided into two groups were treated daily with WAY-100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist) or vehicle for 15 days. In each group, half of the subjects were tested in a standard arena and half were tested in the MPCA on days 1, 8, and 15 of treatment. Number of intromissions and intromission and ejaculation latencies were the main outcome measures. In Experiment 1, males tested in the MPCA ejaculated significantly faster, regardless of the order in which they were evaluated in both arenas. In Experiment 2, the administration of WAY-100635 increased intromission and ejaculation latencies, and the number of intromissions in the MPCA. The results obtained in the MPCA support its use as an animal model for PE evaluation. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  2. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy KC; van Schaik, Ron; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10–20, 20–30 and 30–60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3–27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3–80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes. PMID:24799636

  3. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy Kc; Schaik, Ron van; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes.

  4. The 5-HT₁A receptor C(1019)G polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy K C; van Schaik, R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-06-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 min, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction related to diminished serotonergic neurotransmission with 5-HT₁A receptor hyperfunction and 5-HT₂C hypofunction. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT₁A receptor gene (HTR₁A)-C(1019)G promoter polymorphism and IELT in men with LPE. This polymorphism is known to increase 5-HT1A receptor expression. A prospective study was conducted in 54 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for HTR₁A gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of C and G variants of HTR₁A polymorphism were determined. Association between CC, CG, and GG genotypes and the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, HTR₁A polymorphism. In this cohort of men with LPE, the geometric mean IELT was 23.8 s. Of the 54 men, the CC, CG and GG genotype frequency for the C(1019)G polymorphism of the 5-HT₁A gene was 33%, 43% and 24%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT for the CC, CG and GG genotypes were 14.5, 27.7 and 36.0 s, respectively (p=0.019). Compared to GG and CG genotypes, men with CC genotype had a 250% and 190% shorter ejaculation time, respectively. HTR₁A gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with CC genotype have shorter IELTs than men with GG and CG genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Premature and delayed ejaculation: two ends of a single continuum influenced by hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Corona, G; Jannini, E A; Lotti, F; Boddi, V; De Vita, G; Forti, G; Lenzi, A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

    2011-02-01

    Although it is well established that all the aspects of male reproduction are hormonally regulated, the endocrine control of the ejaculatory reflex is still not completely clarified. Sex steroids, thyroid and pituitary hormones (oxytocin and prolactin) have been proposed to control the ejaculatory process at various levels; however, only a few reports are currently available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of testosterone, thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) in the pathogenesis of ejaculatory dysfunction in a large series of subjects consulting for sexual dysfunction. Among the 2652 patients studied, 674 (25.2%) and 194 (7.3%) reported premature and delayed ejaculation (PE and DE), respectively. Categorizing ejaculatory difficulties on an eight-point scale starting from severe PE and ending with anejaculation (0 = severe PE, 1 = moderate PE, 2 = mild PE, 3 = no difficulties, 4 = mild DE, 5 = moderate DE, 6 = severe DE and 7 = anejaculation), PRL as well as TSH levels progressively increased from patients with severe PE towards those with anejaculation. Conversely, the opposite was observed for testosterone levels. All of these associations were confirmed after adjustment for age (adjusted r = 0.050, 0.053 and -0.038 for PRL, TSH and testosterone, respectively; all p < 0.05). When all hormonal parameters were introduced in the same regression model, adjusting for age, ΣMHQ (an index of general psychopathology) and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, they were independently associated with ejaculatory problems (adjusted r = 0.056, 0.047 and -0.059 for PRL, TSH and testosterone, respectively; all p < 0.05). This study indicates endocrine system is involved in the control of ejaculatory function and that PRL, TSH and testosterone play an independent role. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2010 European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Percutaneous CT-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve for treatment of symptomatic premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    David Prologo, J; Snyder, Laura L; Cherullo, Edward; Passalacqua, Matthew; Pirasteh, Ali; Corn, David

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate expansion of image-guided interventional cryoablation techniques usually employed for pain management to address the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of treatment for a urologic condition with otherwise limited treatment options, premature ejaculation (PE). Prospective institutional review board approval was obtained, and 24 subjects with PE were enrolled. All patients underwent unilateral percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN). Postprocedural intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and PE Profile (PEP) results served as outcome variables. In addition, subjects were asked whether they would have the procedure done again based on their experience at the 180- and 360-day marks. The technical success rate was 100%. Baseline average IELT was 54.7 seconds ± 7.8 (n = 24), which increased to a maximum of 256 seconds ± 104 (n = 11; P = .241) by day 7 and decreased to 182.5 seconds ± 87.8 (n = 6; P = .0342) by day 90. The mean IELT remained at 182.5 seconds ± 27.6 at day 180 (n = 23; P<.0001) and decreased to 140.9 seconds ± 83.6 by 1 year (n = 22; P<.001). PEP scores improved overall, IELTs significantly improved at 180 and 360 days, and 83% of subjects reported that they would undergo the procedure again if given the same opportunity. There were no procedure-related complications. CT-guided percutaneous unilateral cryoablation of the DPN is a feasible, safe, single-day outpatient procedure for the treatment of symptomatic PE. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of cerebral current source by audiovisual erotic stimuli in premature ejaculation patients.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jae-Seog; Kam, Sung-Chul; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2008-06-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common forms of male sexual dysfunction. The mechanisms of PE remain poorly understood, despite its high prevalence. To investigate the pathophysiology and causes of PE in the central nervous system, we tried to observe the changes in brain current source distribution by audiovisual induction of sexual arousal. Electroencephalograpies were recorded in patients with PE (45.0 +/- 10.3 years old, N = 18) and in controls (45.6 +/- 9.8 years old, N = 18) during four 10-minute segments of resting, watching a music video excerpt, resting, and watching an erotic video excerpt. Five artifact-free 5-second segments were used to obtain cross-spectral low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) images. Statistical nonparametric maps (SnPM) were obtained to detect the current density changes of six frequency bands between the erotic video session and the music video session in each group. Comparisons were also made between the two groups in the erotic video session. In the SnPM of each spectrum in patients with PE, the current source density of the alpha band was significantly reduced in the right precentral gyrus, the right insula, and both superior parietal lobules (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups in the erotic video session, the current densities of the beta-2 and -3 bands in the PE group were significantly decreased in the right parahippocampal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus (P < 0.01). Neuronal activity in the right precental gyrus, the right insula, both the superior parietal lobule, the right parahippocampal gyrus, and the left middle temporal gyrus may be decreased in PE patients upon sexual arousal. Further studies are needed to evaluate the meaning of decreased neuronal activities in PE patients.

  8. The global online sexuality survey (GOSS): The United States of America in 2011 Chapter III--Premature ejaculation among English-speaking male Internet users.

    PubMed

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-07-01

    The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders. In 2010, the first report of GOSS came from the Middle East. This report studies the prevalence rate of premature ejaculation (PE) in the U.S. as of 2011-2012 and evaluates risk factors for PE. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male web surfers in the USA via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Prevalence of PE as per the International Society of Sexual Medicine's (ISSM) definition. With a mean age of 52.38 years ± 14.5, 1,133 participants reported on sexual function. As per the ISSM definition of PE, the prevalence rate of PE in the USA as of 2011 was 6.3%. This is in contrast to 49.6% as per the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), 77.6% as per unfiltered subjective reports, and 14.4% as per subjective reporting on more consistent basis. 56.3% of the latter reported lifelong PE. 63.2% could be classified as having natural variable PE. Erectile dysfunction is a possible predisposing factor for acquired PE, while genital size concerns may predispose to lifelong PE. Age, irregular coitus, circumcision, and the practice of masturbation did not pose a risk for PE, among other risk factors. Oral treatment for PE was more frequently used and reported to be more effective than local anesthetics, particularly in those with lifelong PE. Applying the ISSM definition, prevalence of PE is far less than diagnosed by other methods, 6.3% among Internet users in USA as of the year 2011. PEDT measures both lifelong and acquired PE, in addition to 35% men with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction, making it inaccurate for isolating lifelong and acquired PE cases. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Changing paradigms from a historical DSM-III and DSM-IV view toward an evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation. Part I--validity of DSM-IV-TR.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2006-07-01

    In former days, information obtained from randomized well-controlled clinical trials and epidemiological studies on premature ejaculation (PE) was not available, thereby hampering the efforts of the consecutive DSM Work Groups on Sexual Disorders to formulate an evidence-based definition of PE. The current DSM-IV-TR definition of PE is still nonevidence based. In addition, the requirement that persistent self-perceived PE, distress, and interpersonal difficulties, in absence of a quantified ejaculation time, are necessary to establish the diagnosis remains disputable. To investigate the validity and reliability of DSM and ICD diagnosis of premature ejaculation. The historical development of DSM and ICD classification of mental disorders is critically reviewed, and two studies using the DSM-IV-TR definition of PE is critically reanalyzed. Reanalysis of two studies using the DSM-IV-TR definition of PE has shown that DSM-diagnosed PE can be accompanied by long intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) values. The reanalysis revealed a low positive predictive value for the DSM-IV-TR definition when used as a diagnostic test. A similar situation pertains to the American Urological Association (AUA) definition of PE, which is practically a copy of the DSM-IV-TR definition. It should be emphasized that any evidence-based definition of PE needs objectively collected patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from epidemiological studies, as well as reproducible quantifications of the IELT.

  10. The use of old and recent DSM definitions of premature ejaculation in observational studies: a contribution to the present debate for a new classification of PE in the DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2008-05-01

    The DSM-III definition of premature ejaculation (PE) contains the criterion "control" but not that of "ejaculation time." In contrast, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR) contains the criterion "short ejaculation time," while it lacks "control." To review the adequacy and consequent use of all criteria of the DSM-IV-TR definition in previously published PE Internet surveys. Reviewing all published cohort studies on PE from 2004 to 2007. MEDLINE and EMBASE computer bibliographies were used. Definitions of DSM-III, DSM-IV-TR, and International Classification of Diseases. Five papers, of which three are original studies, reported inclusion of men with PE according to DSM-IV-TR definition but omitted to apply the required "short ejaculation time" criterion. These studies, which have defined PE according to subjective criteria such as control, actually referred to the DSM-III definition. Using DSM-III-like definitions in three different studies revealed a highly variable prevalence of PE (32.5%, 27.6%, and 13.0%). In contrast, based on studies using a 1-minute cutoff point, being the time that is required to call ejaculation time "short" or using the criterion "persistent occurrence," PE revealed to be far less prevalent (5-6%). Unacceptable discrepancies of PE definitions according to DSM-III (abandoned but still used) and DSM-IV-TR argue strongly in favor of a multidimensional new classification of PE for the DSM-V.

  11. Pharmaceutical companies could serve their own interests by supporting research on the efficacy of psychotherapy on premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, D; Cooper, S; Macias, L

    2008-01-01

    For many men, the treatment of sexual dysfunctions such as premature ejaculation may well be most effective when pharmacotherapy is combined with psychotherapy. Yet the essential elements of psychotherapy that might best be combined with pharmacological-based therapy are currently unknown. Support for evidence-based studies that identify key components of psychotherapy that might improve positive long-term outcomes, including patient satisfaction, are needed. Pharmaceutical companies having a vested interest in achieving both treatment adherence and improved patient outcomes could benefit from such information.

  12. Tramadol for premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Cooper, Katy; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2015-01-30

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic prescribed off-label for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). However, tramadol may cause addiction and difficulty in breathing and the beneficial effect of tramadol in PE is yet not supported by a high level of evidence. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) for tramadol in the management of PE. We searched bibliographic databases including MEDLINE to August 2014 for RCTs. The primary outcome was intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Methodological quality of RCTs was assessed. Between-group differences in IELT and other outcomes were pooled across RCTs in a meta-analysis. Statistical and clinical between-trial heterogeneity was assessed. A total of eight RCTs that evaluated tramadol against a comparator were included. The majority of RCTs were of unclear methodological quality due to limited reporting. Pooled evidence (four RCTs, 721 participants), suggests that tramadol is significantly more effective than placebo at increasing IELT over eight to 12 weeks (p = 0.0007). However, a high level of statistical heterogeneity is evident (I-squared = 74%). Single RCT evidence indicates that tramadol is significantly more effective than paroxetine taken on-demand, sildenafil, lidocaine gel, or behavioural therapy on IELT in men with PE. Tramadol is associated with significantly more adverse events including: erectile dysfunction, constipation, nausea, headache, somnolence, dry mouth, dizziness, pruritus, and vomiting, than placebo or behavioural therapy over eight to 12 weeks of treatment. However, addiction problems or breathing difficulties reported by patients for PE is not assessed in the current evidence base. Tramadol appears effective in the treatment of PE. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution given the observed levels of between-trial heterogeneity and the reporting quality of the available evidence. The

  13. Geometric mean IELT and premature ejaculation: appropriate statistics to avoid overestimation of treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2008-02-01

    The intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) behaves in a skewed manner and needs the appropriate statistics for correct interpretation of treatment results. To explain the rightful use of geometrical mean IELT values and the fold increase of the geometric mean IELT because of the positively skewed IELT distribution. Linking theoretical arguments to the outcome of several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and modern antidepressant study results. Geometric mean IELT and fold increase of geometrical mean IELT. Log-transforming each separate IELT measurement of each individual man is the basis for the calculation of the geometric mean IELT. A drug-induced positively skewed IELT distribution necessitates the calculation of the geometric mean IELTs at baseline and during drug treatment. In a positively skewed IELT distribution, the use of the "arithmetic" mean IELT risks an overestimation of the drug-induced ejaculation delay as the mean IELT is always higher than the geometric mean IELT. Strong ejaculation-delaying drugs give rise to a strong positively skewed IELT distribution, whereas weak ejaculation-delaying drugs give rise to (much) less skewed IELT distributions. Ejaculation delay is expressed in fold increase of the geometric mean IELT. Drug-induced ejaculatory performance discloses a positively skewed IELT distribution, requiring the use of the geometric mean IELT and the fold increase of the geometric mean IELT.

  14. Dapoxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in 22 countries.

    PubMed

    Buvat, Jacques; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Rothman, Margaret; Rivas, David A; Giuliano, François

    2009-04-01

    Dapoxetine is being developed for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Previous clinical trials have demonstrated its safety and efficacy. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in men with PE. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, conducted in 22 countries, enrolled men (N=1162) > or = 18 yr of age who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision criteria for PE for > or = 6 mo, with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) < or = 2 min in > or = 75% of intercourse episodes at baseline. Dapoxetine 30 mg or dapoxetine 60 mg or placebo on demand (1-3 h before intercourse) for 24 wk. Stopwatch-measured IELT, Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of change, adverse events (AEs). The study was completed by 618 men. Mean average IELT increased from 0.9 min at baseline (all groups) to 1.9 min, 3.2 min, and 3.5 min with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively, at study end point; geometric mean IELT increased from 0.7 min at baseline to 1.1 min, 1.8 min, and 2.3 min, respectively, at study end point. All PEP measures and IELTs improved significantly with dapoxetine versus placebo at week 12 and week 24 (p<0.001 for all). The most common AEs were nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, and headache. AEs led to discontinuation in 1.3%, 3.9%, and 8.2% of subjects with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively. Limitations of this study included the exclusion of men who were not in long-term monogamous relationships. Dapoxetine significantly improved all aspects of PE and was generally well tolerated in this broad population.

  15. [Efficacy of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-xin; Lu, Qing-ge

    2015-05-01

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 120 patients with secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE were randomly assigned to groups A (aged [35.5 ± 5.4] yr), B (aged [36.2 ± 5.7] yr), and C (aged [35.2 ± 5.3] yr) in the ratio of 1:1:1 to receive Qilin Pills (once 6 g, bid), sertraline (once 50 mg, qd), and Qilin Pills plus sertraline, respectively, all for 4 weeks. The intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and PE diagnostic tool (PEDT) scores were obtained before and after medication and at 1 month after drug withdrawal, and comparative analyses were made among the three groups of patients. The IELT was dramatically prolonged in groups A, B, and C after treatment ([3.23 ± 1.84], [3.87 ± 2.43], and [5.92 ± 3.11] min) and at 1 month after drug withdrawal ([1.85 ± 1.27], [1.52 ± 1.06], and [ 4.26 ± 1.88 ] min) as compared with the baseline ([0.88 ± 0.45], [0.84 ± 0.47], and [0.85 ± 0.50] min) (P < 0.01), even longer in group C than in A and B (P < 0.01). The PEDT scores of the three groups were 5.1 ± 1.8, 4.9 ± 1.7, and 3.8 ± 1.2 after treatment and 8.2 ± 2.4, 8.1 ± 2.4, and 6.5 ± 2.1 at 1 month after drug withdrawal, significantly improved in comparison with 13.2 ± 3.2, 12.8 ± 3.1, and 13.1 ± 3.4 before treatment (P < 0.01), even more significantly in group C than in A and B (P < 0.01). Qilin Pills combined with sertraline has a definite efficacy in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE and therefore deserves wide clinical application.

  16. Event-level impact of Promescent on quality of sexual experience in men with subjective premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Mark, K P; Kerner, I

    2016-01-01

    Promescent is a lidocaine-based ejaculation delaying spray that absorbs into the skin of the penis prior to sexual activity. This article aimed to evaluate the effect of Promescent on the experience of orgasm, ejaculatory latency time and quality of sexual experience (QSE). Additionally, we assessed ease of application of Promescent and the extent to which it enhanced or interrupted the sexual experience. The analytic sample consisted of 91 men with self-reported subjective premature ejaculation who were sent a sample of Promescent and completed a 14-day internet-based prospective daily electronic report. Average ejaculatory latency time was 11.16 min during product use events, compared with 6.81 min during product non-use events. Both members of the couple had an orgasm 65.6% of the time when they used the product, compared with 44.1% when they did not use the product. QSE was significantly improved on product use days (P<0.05). Quality also significantly improved each subsequent time the product was used (P<0.01). The product was reported as easy to use and did not interrupt the sexual experience. Findings suggest that the use of this topical spray significantly improves QSE and perception of partner experience, and that these improve with longer duration of use. PMID:27557610

  17. Event-level impact of Promescent on quality of sexual experience in men with subjective premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Mark, K P; Kerner, I

    2016-11-01

    Promescent is a lidocaine-based ejaculation delaying spray that absorbs into the skin of the penis prior to sexual activity. This article aimed to evaluate the effect of Promescent on the experience of orgasm, ejaculatory latency time and quality of sexual experience (QSE). Additionally, we assessed ease of application of Promescent and the extent to which it enhanced or interrupted the sexual experience. The analytic sample consisted of 91 men with self-reported subjective premature ejaculation who were sent a sample of Promescent and completed a 14-day internet-based prospective daily electronic report. Average ejaculatory latency time was 11.16 min during product use events, compared with 6.81 min during product non-use events. Both members of the couple had an orgasm 65.6% of the time when they used the product, compared with 44.1% when they did not use the product. QSE was significantly improved on product use days (P<0.05). Quality also significantly improved each subsequent time the product was used (P<0.01). The product was reported as easy to use and did not interrupt the sexual experience. Findings suggest that the use of this topical spray significantly improves QSE and perception of partner experience, and that these improve with longer duration of use.

  18. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine hydrochloride, a novel agent for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Modi, Nishit B; Dresser, Mark J; Simon, Mary; Lin, Denise; Desai, Dhaval; Gupta, Suneel

    2006-03-01

    Dapoxetine is a serotonin transporter inhibitor currently in development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This randomized, 2-sequence, 2-treatment crossover study assessed the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine following once-daily administration of dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg to healthy male volunteers. Dapoxetine was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations reached approximately 1 hour after dosing; plasma concentrations after single doses of dapoxetine decreased rapidly to approximately 5% of peak concentrations by 24 hours. Elimination was biphasic, with an initial half-life of approximately 1.4 hours and a terminal half-life of approximately 20 hours. Dapoxetine showed time-invariant pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality between doses, and its pharmacokinetics was unaffected by multiple dosing. The pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine metabolites, desmethyldapoxetine and dapoxetine-N-oxide, was similarly unaffected by multiple dosing. There were no serious adverse events; the most commonly reported adverse events were diarrhea, dizziness, and nausea.

  19. Psychometric validation of a sexual quality of life questionnaire for use in men with premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Lucy; Symonds, Tara; Morris, Mark F

    2008-03-01

    An instrument that can systematically capture the impact of sexual dysfunction on quality of life (QoL) in men is needed. To psychometrically validate a sexual QoL instrument for men (SQOL-M) with premature ejaculation (PE) or erectile dysfunction (ED). The main assessment populations were men participating in clinical trials of treatments for PE or ED. Men with PE had a confirmed intravaginal ejaculatory latency time of < or = 2 minutes in > or = 70% of attempts. Men with ED had a score of > 21 on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Confirmatory psychometric testing was conducted in further groups of men with PE. The internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, and known-groups validity of the instrument were assessed. An 11-item version of the SQOL-M was produced following factor analyses on men with either PE or ED. Psychometric testing showed no overlap between items and good item-total correlations. Factor analysis confirmed a one-factor solution. Excellent internal consistency was demonstrated, with a Cronbach's alpha of > or = 0.82 in all groups. In men reporting no change in their symptoms, the SQOL-M showed excellent test-retest reliability: the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.77 for men with PE, and 0.79 for men with ED. Convergent validity was also good. In men with PE, the SQOL-M correlated with the satisfaction and distress domains of the Index of Premature Ejaculation. In men with ED, the SQOL-M correlated with the overall satisfaction domain of the IIEF. The measure also demonstrated excellent discriminant validity between men with PE or ED and men with no sexual dysfunction (P < 0.0001). The SQOL-M instrument is a useful tool for evaluating sexual QoL in men with PE and ED.

  20. Effects of paroxetine on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in Egyptian patients with lifelong premature ejaculation as a function of serotonin transporter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Salem, A M; Kamel, I I; Rashed, L A; GamalEl Din, S F

    2017-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common ejaculatory complaint. The estimated rates among Turkish men reached 20%, although the severest type of PE (lifelong PE) usually does not exceed 2.3%. This could be seen in line with two survey studies involving five nations. They revealed that 2.5% of men had an intravaginal ejaculation latency time of <1 min and 6% of <2 min. Rapid ejaculation may be treated pharmacologically with a variety of different medications that act either centrally or locally to delay ejaculation and subsequent orgasm. Antidepressants, particularly members of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class, retard ejaculation significantly. Recently, it was postulated that men with lifelong PE might result from a combination of polymorphisms of the serotonergic transporter and receptors, and other neurotransmitters and/or receptors. Our findings augment the significant effect of paroxetine in delaying ejaculation in the responders (P<0.001). Meanwhile, the findings do not suggest a positive association between such response and serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism.

  1. Validity of the patient-reported Clinical Global Impression of Change as a measure of treatment response in men with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Althof, Stanley E; Brock, Gerald B; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Aquilina, Joseph W; Rothman, Margaret; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Bull, Scott

    2010-06-01

    The Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) measures have high utility in clinical practice. However, it is unknown whether the CGIC is valued for assessing premature ejaculation (PE) symptoms and/or the relationship between CGIC and other validated PE patient-reported measures. The study aims to assess the validity of the patient-reported CGIC measure in men with PE and to examine the relationship between CGIC ratings and assessments of control, satisfaction, personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Data from a randomized, double-blind, 24-week phase 3 trial in 1,162 men with PE who received dapoxetine (30 mg or 60 mg) or placebo on demand provided the basis for the analysis. Patients were ≥18 years, in a stable monogamous relationship for ≥6 months, met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria for PE for ≥6 months, and had an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤2 minutes in ≥75% of intercourse episodes. The CGIC asked patients to rate improvement or worsening of their PE compared with the start of the study using a 7-point response scale; other patient-reported measures were control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, interpersonal difficulty, and personal distress related to ejaculation. Stopwatch-measured IELT was recorded. Associations between CGIC and change in other measures at study end point were assessed. The magnitude of IELT increased for each category of improvement on the CGIC: 1.63, 4.03, and 7.15 minutes for slightly better, better, and much better, respectively. Higher CGIC ratings were correlated with greater improvement in control (r = 0.73), satisfaction (r = 0.62), greater reduction in distress (r = -0.52), and interpersonal difficulty (r = -0.39). Total variance accounted for was 57.4%: control (48.7%), satisfaction (4.5%), IELT (2.8%), and distress (1.15%). The analyses support the validity of the CGIC measure in men with PE. The CGIC

  2. Characterizing the burden of premature ejaculation from a patient and partner perspective: a multi-country qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Revicki, Dennis; Howard, Kellee; Hanlon, Jennifer; Mannix, Sally; Greene, Alison; Rothman, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Background Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among men which affects men and their partners. Little qualitative data are available to characterize the impact of PE on men and their partners about ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and relationships. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of PE from the perspective of men with PE and the female partners of men with PE on their sexual experience, distress and relationships. Methods Qualitative data were collected through 14 focus groups in the US and through one-on-one interviews in the US, UK, Italy, France, Germany, and Poland. Study participants included heterosexual men with PE and female partners of males with PE. All participants were asked about how PE affects their daily life, including emotional impacts. One-on-one interviews also included obtaining feedback on the male and female versions of 4-single item measures of PE focusing on ejaculatory control, satisfaction with intercourse, interpersonal distress, and relationship difficulty. Results Participants included 172 males with PE and 67 female partners of men with PE. Lack of control over ejaculation and dissatisfaction with intercourse emerged as central themes of PE. Lack of ejaculatory control resulted in greater dissatisfaction and greater emotional distress, including feelings of inadequacy, disappointment, and anxiety. Continued PE ultimately leads to greater problems with partners and often disrupts partner relationships. Participants indicated that PE was keeping them from attaining complete intimacy in their relationships even when their partners were generally satisfied with sexual intercourse. Impacts of PE on sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and partner relationships were consistent across countries. Feedback on the single-item PE measures confirmed relevance of the item content and further confirmed major themes identified from the qualitative data. Conclusion This

  3. Safety and efficacy of vardenafil versus sertraline in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a randomised, prospective and crossover study.

    PubMed

    Mathers, M J; Klotz, T; Roth, S; Lümmen, G; Sommer, F

    2009-06-01

    We investigated safety and efficacy of vardenafil and sertraline in premature ejaculation (PE). Seventy-two men graded their primary PE on a scale of 0-8 (0 = almost never, 8 = almost always). Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) was measured. Patients were included if they scored their PE as 4 or greater and their IELTs were less than 1.30 min. After 6 weeks of behavioural psychosexual therapy, 49 patients still had a PE of 4 or greater and an IELT less than 1.30 min and they were randomised: 6 weeks vardenafil (10 mg) or sertraline (50 mg). After a wash-out phase for 1 week, medication was changed in a cross-over design. Initially, all 72 men with PE received behavioural therapy. Twenty-three men were satisfied with treatment and excluded. The remaining 49 men graded their PE as 5.94 +/- 1.6 and IELT was 0.59 min and patients were randomised. Four men discontinued the study. Vardenafil improved PE grading: 2.7 +/- 2.1 (P < 0.01) and IELT increased to 5.01 +/- 3.69 (P < 0.001). PE grading improved 1.92 +/- 1.32, (P < 0.01) and IELT 3.12 +/- 1.89 (P < 0.001) with sertraline. It is concluded that vardenafil and sertraline are useful agents in the pharmacological treatment of PE.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine, a new treatment for premature ejaculation: Impact of age and effects of a high-fat meal.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Mark J; Kang, Dongwoo; Staehr, Peter; Gidwani, Shalini; Guo, Cindy; Mulhall, John P; Modi, Nishit B

    2006-09-01

    Dapoxetine is being developed as a treatment for premature ejaculation and has demonstrated rapid absorption and elimination in previous pharmacokinetic studies. Two open-label studies were conducted in healthy men: a parallel-group pharmacokinetic and safety study in young and elderly men and a randomized crossover food-effect study. Maximal plasma dapoxetine concentrations (C(max)) were similar in young and elderly men (338 and 310 ng/mL, respectively), as were the corresponding area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) values (2040 and 2280 ng x h/mL, respectively). When coadministered with food, C(max) was reduced by 11% (398 vs 443 ng/mL in the fed and fasted states, respectively), and the peak was delayed by approximately 30 minutes, indicating that food slowed the rate of absorption; however, systemic exposure to dapoxetine (ie, AUC) was not affected by food consumption. Thus, age or consumption of a high-fat meal has only a modest impact on dapoxetine pharmacokinetics in healthy men.

  5. Screening for erectile dysfunction in men with lifelong premature ejaculation--Is the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) reliable?

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2009-02-01

    Some men with premature ejaculation (PE) and normal erectile function record contradictory response/s to The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and may be incorrectly categorized as suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED in men with lifelong PE. SHIM, stopwatch intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). A prospective observational study of men with normal erectile function and lifelong PE, diagnosed using the ISSM definition of lifelong PE, was conducted. The SHIM was self-administered at Visit 1. Mean per subject stopwatch IELT was determined from four subsequent intercourse attempts. Seventy-eight subjects with a mean age of 33.2 +/- 8.3 years and a geometric mean IELT of 15.9 +/- 2.3 seconds were enrolled. The mean SHIM score for all subjects was 20.4 +/- 6.0. Fifty-two subjects (66.7%) have SHIM scores of >21 (mean 24.3 +/- 1.1), consistent with normal erectile function, and a geometric mean IELT of 18.3 +/- 2.2 seconds. Twenty-six subjects (33.3%) had SHIM scores <22 (mean 12.7 +/- 3.7), consistent with a false positive diagnosis of ED, and a geometric mean IELT of 10.5 +/- 2.3 seconds. The incidence of false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED (SHIM < 22) was inversely related to the IELT. Although the geometric mean IELT for subjects with SHIM scores <22 was significantly less than that of all subjects and subjects with SHIM scores >21, there were no significant differences between the geometric mean IELT or the IELT distribution of all subjects vs. the normal erectile function IELT (SHIM > 21) cohort. This study demonstrates a 33.3% false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED in men with PE. This is likely to limit subject recruitment in clinical trials by exclusion of subjects with low-range IELTs but is unlikely to result in significantly different baseline IELTs or IELT distributions.

  6. Female partner's perception of premature ejaculation and its impact on relationship breakups, relationship quality, and sexual satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Giuliano, François; McMahon, Chris; Porst, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Women's perceptions of the men's ejaculatory behavior, as well as the impact premature ejaculation (PE) has on the couple's functioning, are important factors that need to be considered. This survey investigated women's perception and importance of ejaculatory function, as well as the specific aspects of PE that cause distress. In addition, the survey further identified the factors with a greater impact on intimacy, relationship, and sexual behavior. The 1,463 females belonging to a web panel from three different countries (Mexico, Italy, and South Korea), aged 20-50 years, participated in the survey. A combination of validated and self-constructed questionnaires to assess women's perception of PE, relationship satisfaction and quality, and sexual functioning and satisfaction were used. Descriptive statistics in form of proportions and percentages, correlation, and regression analyses. A significant correlation between the importance of ejaculatory control and felt distress could be observed (rho = 0.55, P < 0.001). Women reporting less sexual problems considered ejaculatory control more important and reported more PE-related distress (rho = 0.23 and 0.11, respectively; P < 0.001 for both). The male's lack of attention and focus on performance was the most frequently reported reasons for sexual distress (47.6%) followed by "the short time between penetration and ejaculation" (39.9%), and "the lack of ejaculatory control" (24.1%). Almost a quarter of women reported that the man's ejaculatory problem had previously led to relationship breakups (22.8%). Women considering duration to be important were more likely to report breakups. The study highlights the detrimental effects of PE on relationship and sexual satisfaction in the female partner and how it can lead to the termination of the relationship. Most notably, this is the first study to report that an important source of female distress are not only parameters related to performance such as

  7. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  8. Diagnostic discrepancies in retinopathy of prematurity classification

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. Peter; Ryan, Michael C.; Lore, Emily; Tian, Peng; Ostmo, Susan; Jonas, Karyn; Chan, R.V. Paul; Chiang, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the most common areas for discrepancy in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) classification between experts. Design Prospective cohort study. Subjects, Participants, and/or Controls 281 infants were identified as part of a multi-center, prospective, ROP cohort study from 7 participating centers. Each site had participating ophthalmologists who provided the clinical classification after routine examination using binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO), and obtained wide-angle retinal images, which were independently classified by two study experts. Methods Wide-angle retinal images (RetCam; Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA) were obtained from study subjects, and two experts evaluated each image using a secure web-based module. Image-based classifications for zone, stage, plus disease, overall disease category (no ROP, mild ROP, Type II or pre-plus, and Type I) were compared between the two experts, and to the clinical classification obtained by BIO. Main Outcome Measures Inter-expert image-based agreement and image-based vs. ophthalmoscopic diagnostic agreement using absolute agreement and weighted kappa statistic. Results 1553 study eye examinations from 281 infants were included in the study. Experts disagreed on the stage classification in 620/1553 (40%) of comparisons, plus disease classification (including pre-plus) in 287/1553 (18%), zone in 117/1553 (8%), and overall ROP category in 618/1553 (40%). However, agreement for presence vs. absence of type 1 disease was >95%. There were no differences between image-based and clinical classification except for zone III disease. Conclusions The most common area of discrepancy in ROP classification is stage, although inter-expert agreement for clinically-significant disease such as presence vs. absence of type 1 and type 2 disease is high. There were no differences between image-based grading and the clinical exam in the ability to detect clinically-significant disease. This study provides

  9. Impact of erectile function and age in men with lower urinary tract symptoms on ejaculatory dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Hwa, J S; Kam, S C; Choi, J H; Do, J M; Seo, D H; Hyun, J S

    2012-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) and ED are clearly correlated, but to date no correlation with ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) has been identified. Therefore, this study evaluated the impact of erectile function in men with LUTS on EjD and premature ejaculation (PE). Erectile function, PE and EjD of 239 men (mean age, 53.0 ± 10.65 years), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erection Function (IIEF), intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the seven-item Male Sexual Health questionnaire (MSHQ)-EjD were used to compare with the degree of LUTS. Ages were divided into five groups (<40, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and >70 years). The IPSS categorized patients into three symptom groups: mild, 1-7; moderate, 8-19; and severe, >19. ED was classified into five categories based on IIEF-EF scores: severe (0-6), moderate (7-12), mild-to-moderate (13-18), mild (19-24) and normal (25-30). The correlations among age, IIEF-EF, IELT and the MSHQ-EjD domain were studied through regression and cross-tabulation analyses. The results revealed that aging significantly affected each item of the MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05). The IIEF-EF domain was also correlated with each question on the MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05). PE (IELT <1 min) increased in incidence as patients got older but was not linked to IIEF-EF (P>0.05). These results indicate that EjD is closely related to age and erectile function, and that PE is closely related to age, although PE is not related to erectile function.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for premature ejaculation in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongseong; Lee, SeungHwan; Yi, Sojeong; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Bahng, Mi Young; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2017-01-01

    DA-8031 is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor under development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This is the first-in-human study aimed at evaluating the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031 and its metabolites (M1, M2, M4, and M5) in the plasma and urine after administration of a single oral dose in healthy male subjects. A dose block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study was conducted. Subjects received either placebo or a single dose of DA-8031 at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 120 mg. DA-8031 and its four metabolites were analyzed in the plasma and urine for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The effect of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8031 was evaluated. After a single dose, plasma DA-8031 reached the maximum concentration at a median of 2-3 h and was eliminated with terminal elimination half-life of 17.9-28.7 h. The mean renal clearance was 3.7-5.6 L/h. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics was observed over the dose range of 20-80 mg. Among the metabolites, M4 had the greatest plasma concentration, followed by M5 and M1. Subjects with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer had significantly greater dose-normalized C max and AUC 0- t of DA-8031 as well as smaller metabolic ratios than those subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache, and no serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, the systemic exposure of DA-8031 was increased proportionally to the dose within 20-80 mg. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 had an effect on the systemic exposure of DA-8031. DA-8031 was well tolerated after single doses of 80 mg or less.

  11. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia

    PubMed Central

    Parnham, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been an increased interest on premature ejaculation in the recent years, our understanding regarding the disorders of retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia remain limited. All three of these conditions require a keen clinical acumen and willingness to engage in thinking outside of the standard established treatment paradigm. The development of novel investigational techniques and treatments has led to progress in the management of these conditions symptoms; however, the literature almost uniformly is limited to small series and rare randomised trials. Further investigation and randomised controlled trials are needed for progress in these often challenging cases. PMID:27652230

  12. The majority of men with lifelong premature ejaculation prefer daily drug treatment: an observation study in a consecutive group of Dutch men.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2007-07-01

    Whether men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) prefer on-demand drug treatment to delay ejaculation time to daily drug treatment, has never been studied as a separate study question. To study how men with lifelong PE feel about the use of serotonergic antidepressants, and which option they would prefer for themselves: either a daily drug, a drug to be used on demand, or a topical anesthetic cream to be applied on demand. Treatment preference was determined by questionnaire. An observational questionnaire survey in a clinical sample. Preferences of different treatment strategies were queried before and after standard efficacy and safety information. A consecutive group of 88 men with lifelong PE who decided for themselves to be seen for rapid ejaculation was studied. The age was 37 +/- 11 years (mean +/- SD), range 18-64 years. None of these men was ever treated for PE and 21% used medication that did not affect sexual performance. Of them, 71 (81%) preferred a drug for daily use, 14 (16%) a drug on demand, while three men preferred topical anesthetic cream. Those men who initially preferred daily treatment did not change their view after standard information about efficacy and side effects, while 9 of 17 men who initially preferred on-demand drug treatment had switched their preferences to daily oral drug usage. Around 60% of men did not care about the nature of the drug, i.e., an antidepressant. The most frequently reported argument to prefer daily drug treatment was that this strategy would have the least effects toward the spontaneity of having sex. As opposed to agents that must be taken 4-6 hours prior to coitus and with the methods used here, this group of Dutch men with lifelong PE favor uninterrupted daily drug treatment to delay ejaculation mainly because daily treatment guarantees no interference with the spontaneity of having sex.

  13. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Mondaini, Nicola; Cantiello, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Cai, Tommaso

    2016-10-05

    The management of patient affected by premature ejaculation (PE) is nowadays not highly satisfactory. Here, we aimed to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts in order to improve sexual quality of life in patients with premature ejaculation. All patients attending to 5 urological centers from January 2015 to March 2015, due to premature ejaculation were enrolled in this study. At the enrolment visit, all subjects underwent self-administered IIEF-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculation Disorder (MSHQEjD), PEDT and IELTS (calculated as mean from that perceived by partner and that perceived by patient) and underwent urological visit and laboratory examinations. All patients received one tablet per day of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts for 3 months (Group A). After 3 months all patients underwent follow-up visit with the same investigations that have been carried out in the enrolment visit. The results were compared with a cohort of patients enrolled in the same period in another urological center and considered as a control group (Group B). All patients in the control group underwent counseling and sexual behavioral treatment without any pharmacological compound. At the follow-up analysis, significant changes in terms of IELT in the Group A (mean difference: 31.90; p < 0.05) at 3 months and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: 30.30; p < 0.05) were reported. In the group A, significant differences from baseline to last follow- up were observed relative to IIEF-5 (mean difference: 1.04; p < 0.05), PEDT (mean difference: -2.57; p < 0.05) and FSH (mean difference: -16.46; p < 0.05). In conclusion, patients affected by PE may significantly benefit from oral therapy with a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica

  14. Association of STin2 Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Peng, Dangwei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background The STin2 VNTR polymorphism has a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. We aimed to explore the relationship between STin2 VNTR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Material/Methods We recruited a total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as LPE, and 101 controls without PE complaint. Allelic variations of STin2 VNTR were genotyped using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between STin2 VNTR allelic and genotypic frequencies and LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different STin2 VNTR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. A significantly higher frequency of STin2.12/12 genotype was found among LPE patients versus controls (P=0.026). Frequency of patients carrying at least 1 copy of the 10-repeat allele was significantly lower compared to the control group (28.3% vs. 41.8%, OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.31–0.97, P=0.040). In the LPE group, the mean IELT showed significant difference in STin2.12/12 genotype when compared to those with STin2.12/10 and STin2.10/10 genotypes. The mean IELT in10-repeat allele carriers was 50% longer compared to homozygous carriers of the STin2.12 allele. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of STin2.10 allele is a protective factor for LPE. Men carrying the higher expression genotype STin2. 12/12 have shorter IELT than 10-repeat allele carriers. PMID:27713390

  15. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of the tramadol orally disintegrating tablet for the treatment of premature ejaculation within less than 2 minutes.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, David; Salottolo, Kristin M; Orlando, Alessandro; Winkler, James V

    2012-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a widely observed male sexual dysfunction with a major impact on quality of life for many men and their sexual partners. To assess the safety of tramadol orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) (Zertane) and its efficacy in prolonging intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and improving Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) scores. We conducted an integrated analysis of two identical 12-wk randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials across 62 sites in Europe. Healthy men 18-65 yr of age with a history of lifelong PE according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, and an IELT ≤ 120 s were included. There were 604 intent-to-treat subjects included in the analysis. Subjects were randomized to receive 1:1:1 placebo (n=200), 62 mg tramadol ODT (n=206), or 89 mg tramadol ODT (n=198). We measured overall change and fold increase in median IELT and the mean change in all four measures of the PEP. Differences across treatment groups were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, analysis of variance, and chi-square analyses. Tramadol ODT resulted in significant increases in median IELT compared with placebo; increases were 0.6 min (1.6 fold), 1.2 min (2.4 fold), and 1.5 min (2.5 fold) for placebo, 62 mg tramadol ODT, and 89 mg tramadol ODT, respectively (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Men saw significantly greater improvement in all four measures of the PEP in both doses compared with placebo (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Tramadol ODT was well tolerated; study discontinuation occurred in 0%, 1.0%, and 1.6% of subjects in placebo, 62 mg, and 89 mg tramadol ODT groups, respectively. Limitations include study inclusion for men with IELT up to 120 s. On-demand 62mg tramadol ODT is an effective treatment for PE in a low and safe therapeutic dose and provides a new option for managing mild to severe PE. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Delayed Ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your partner. Often, men might have difficulty reaching orgasm during sexual intercourse or other sexual activities with a partner. Some men can ejaculate only when masturbating. Delayed ejaculation is divided into the following types based on ...

  17. Effects of sertraline on brain current source of the high beta frequency band: analysis of electroencephalography during audiovisual erotic stimulation in males with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O Y; Kam, S C; Choi, J H; Do, J M; Hyun, J S

    2011-01-01

    To identify the effects of sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE), changes in brain current-source density (CSD) of the high beta frequency band (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline administration were investigated during audiovisual erotic stimulation. Eleven patients with PE (36.9±7.8 yrs) and 11 male volunteers (24.2±1.9 years) were enrolled. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) was conducted twice: once before sertraline administration and then again 4 h after the administration of 50 mg sertraline. Statistical non-parametric maps were obtained using the EEG segments to detect the current-density differences in the high beta frequency bands (beta-3, 22-30 Hz) between the EEGs before and after sertraline administration in the patient group and between the patient group and controls after the administration of sertraline during the erotic video sessions. Comparing between before and after sertraline administration in the patients with PE, the CSD of the high beta frequency band at 4 h after sertraline administration increased significantly in both superior frontal gyri and the right medial frontal gyrus (P<0.01). The CSD of the beta-3 band of the patients with PE were less activated significantly in the middle and superior temporal gyrus, lingual and fusiform gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus and cuneus of the right cerebral hemisphere compared with the normal volunteers 4 h after sertraline administration (P<0.01). In conclusion, sertraline administration increased the CSD in both the superior frontal and right middle temporal gyrus in patients with PE. The results suggest that the increased neural activity in these particular cerebral regions after sertraline administration may be associated with inhibitory effects on ejaculation in patients with PE.

  18. Contemporary Management of Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    Ejaculatory disorders lie along a conceptual continuum with premature ejaculation anchoring one end, normal ejaculation in the center, and difficulties with delayed or anejaculation at the opposite end. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation, and postorgasmic illness syndrome can occur at any point on the continuum. This manuscript defines the ejaculatory dysfunctions, reviews the anatomy and physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, and summarizes the pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatment approaches to ejaculatory dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety and efficacy of dapoxetine in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad R

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drug dapoxetine in delaying ejaculation in patients with premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 212 potent men with PE were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg orally dapoxetine (group 1, N=106) twice daily or similar regimen of placebo (group 2, N=106) during a 12-week period for each agent. Pretreatment evaluation included history and physical examination, geometric mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, primary outcome measure), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The efficacy of two treatments was assessed every 2 weeks during treatment, at the end of study, and in 3-month follow-up after cessation of treatment. We measured geometric mean IELT. Thus, the IELT values were logarithmically transformed before statistical analysis, and the results are reported as fold increases from baseline with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). The independent sample two-tailed t-test was used to compare the IELTs. At the end of 12-week treatment, the dapoxetine group had a 2.9- (95% CI, 1.84-4.16) fold increase of the geometric mean IELT, while after placebo the geometric mean IELT did not increase significantly (1.4-fold increase; 95% CI, 0.84-1.63) (p=0.001). The mean weekly intercourse episodes increased from pretreatment values of 1.16 and 1.14 to 2.2 and 1.4, for dapoxetine and placebo, respectively (p=0.04). Baseline mean intercourse satisfaction domain values of IIEF, 12 and 11, reached to 16 and 10 at the 12-week treatment in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.04). At the end of 3-month follow-up period, the geometric mean IELT in dapoxetine and placebo group demonstrated 1.4- (95% CI, 0.66-1.46) and 1.3- (95% CI, 0.77-1.63) fold increase, respectively (p=0.1). Three-month intercourse satisfaction domain value of IIEF was 11 in group 1 and 10 in group 2 (p=0.1). Mean number of adverse events was 19 for dapoxetine and 7 for

  20. Biallelic and Triallelic 5-Hydroxytyramine Transporter Gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphisms and Their Relationship with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Li, Chao; Liu, Weiqun; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the relationship between premature ejaculation (PE) and the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) with respect to the biallelic and triallelic classifications. Material/Methods A total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as having lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and 101 controls without PE complaint were recruited. All subjects completed a detailed questionnaire and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphism using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between 5-HTTLPR allelic and genotypic frequencies and their association with LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different 5-HTTLPR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. The results showed no significant difference regarding biallelic 5-HTTLPR. According to the triallelic classification, no significant difference was found when comparing the genotypic distribution (P=0.091). However, the distribution of the S, LG, and LA alleles in the cases was significantly different from the controls (P=0.018). We found a significantly lower frequency of LA allele and higher frequency of LG allele in patients. Based on another classification by expression, we found a significantly lower frequency of the L’L’ genotype (OR=0.37; 95%CI=0.15–0.91, P=0.025) in patients with LPE. No significant association was detected between IELT of LPE and different genotypes. Conclusions Contrary to the general classification based on S/L alleles, triallelic 5-HTTLPR was associated with LPE. Triallelic 5-HTTLPR may be a promising field for genetic research in PE to avoid false-negative results in future studies. PMID:27311544

  1. The Efficacy and Safety of On-demand Tramadol and Paroxetine Use in Treatment of Life Long Premature Ejaculation: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi-Madani, Ali; Motiee, Reza; Mokhtari, Gholamreza; Nasseh, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Several medical therapies have been proposed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Paroxetine and tramadol were both reported to be effective in treatment of PE. In this study, the therapeutic effects of tramadol, paroxetine and placebo were compared in treatment of primary PE. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 150 patients were divided into 3 groups. One group was treated with tramadol 50 mg ondemand, the other group took paroxetine 20 mg on-demand and the third group was treated with placebo. Before starting treatment and after 12 weeks, patients were asked to measure their average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and fill the PEP (Premature Ejaculation Profile) questionnaire. Results: At the end of the 12th week, the mean IELT and average of PEP scores improved in all 3 groups. The increase in tramadol group was significantly higher than the paroxetine and placebo groups (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in terms of side effects between the 3 groups. Conclusion: The results showed that despite an increase in mean IELT and PEP scores in all 3 groups, the rate of improvement in tramadol group was significantly more than the others. Thus, tramadol may be considered as an appropriate alternative therapeutic option for lifelong PE. PMID:29850442

  2. The Efficacy and Safety of On-demand Tramadol and Paroxetine Use in Treatment of Life Long Premature Ejaculation: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hamidi-Madani, Ali; Motiee, Reza; Mokhtari, Gholamreza; Nasseh, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Several medical therapies have been proposed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Paroxetine and tramadol were both reported to be effective in treatment of PE. In this study, the therapeutic effects of tramadol, paroxetine and placebo were compared in treatment of primary PE. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 150 patients were divided into 3 groups. One group was treated with tramadol 50 mg ondemand, the other group took paroxetine 20 mg on-demand and the third group was treated with placebo. Before starting treatment and after 12 weeks, patients were asked to measure their average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and fill the PEP (Premature Ejaculation Profile) questionnaire. At the end of the 12th week, the mean IELT and average of PEP scores improved in all 3 groups. The increase in tramadol group was significantly higher than the paroxetine and placebo groups (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in terms of side effects between the 3 groups. The results showed that despite an increase in mean IELT and PEP scores in all 3 groups, the rate of improvement in tramadol group was significantly more than the others. Thus, tramadol may be considered as an appropriate alternative therapeutic option for lifelong PE.

  3. A novel treatment modality in patients with premature ejaculation resistant to conventional methods: the neuromodulation of dorsal penile nerves by pulsed radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Basal, Seref; Goktas, Serdar; Ergin, Atilla; Yildirim, Ibrahim; Atim, Abdulkadir; Tahmaz, Lutfi; Dayanc, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual problem experienced by men, and it affects 20%-30% of them. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation has been shown to be an effective treatment for a wide range of pain conditions. We used PRF to treat PE by desensitizing dorsal penile nerves in patients resistant to conventional treatments. Fifteen patients with a lifelong history of PE, defined as an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of <1 minute that occurred in more than 90% of acts of intercourse and was resistant to conventional treatments, were enrolled in this study. Patients with erectile dysfunction were excluded. The mean age of the patients was 39 +/- 9 years. Before and 3 weeks after the treatment, IELT and sexual satisfaction score (SSS; for patients and their partners) were obtained. The mean IELTs before and 3 weeks after procedure were 18.5 +/- 17.9 and 139.9 +/- 55.1 seconds, respectively. Side effects did not occur. Mean SSSs of patients before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.5, and mean SSSs of partners before and after treatment were 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 4.4 +/- 0.5, respectively. In all cases, IELT and SSS were significantly increased (P < .05). None of the patients or their wives reported any treatment failure during the follow-up period. The mean follow-up time was 8.3 +/- 1.9 months. It is early to conclude that this new treatment modality might be used widely for the treatment of PE; however, because it is an innovative modality, placebo-controlled studies (eg, sham procedure), with larger numbers of patients and including assessment of penile sensitivity (eg, biothesiometry), are needed.

  4. Initiators and Barriers to Discussion and Treatment of Premature Ejaculation Among Men and Their Partners in Asia Pacific - Results From a Web-based Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, George; McMahon, Chris G; McCabe, Marita; Jiang, Hui; Lee, Sung Won; Lim, Peter; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent yet under-reported sexual disorders. Differing sociocultural norms across the Asia-Pacific region provide unique challenges in PE management. This web-based study collected data from 5,038 men and women across 11 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Respondents were recruited from an existing database. The initiators and barriers for PE discussions and for seeking professional management following self-treatment, as well as their choices and expectations of healthcare professionals (HCPs). More than two-thirds of respondents have discussed PE with their partners, and men are more likely to initiate the discussion. Top drivers were for both partners to attain sexual satisfaction and greater fulfillment in the relationship. Emotional insecurity was the top barrier for men as they did not want to feel hurt or inadequate. Before consulting an HCP, more than two-thirds of men self-treated their PE for at least 20 months. The primary reason for stopping self-treatment and seeking medical management was a lack of improvement in sexual satisfaction. The ideal attributes that men seek in their HCP included trust and being knowledgeable about PE management. Attitudes and barriers to PE and its treatment in the Asia-Pacific region are poorly understood. Many men are reluctant to seek professional advice and therefore resort to self-treatment for extended periods. HCPs can play a key role to empower PE sufferers and partners to understand the prevalence, medical relevance, treatability, and negative impacts of PE on sexual and overall relationships. Greater awareness of the diverse cultural and social norms, education of both partners and HCPs, and the involvement of HCPs through a patient-centric approach are all pivotal in managing PE optimally across the Asia-Pacific region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Osteopenia of prematurity--prophylaxis, diagnostics and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hitrova, St; Slancheva, B; Popivanova, A; Vakrilova, L; Pramatarova, T; Emilova, Z; Yarakova, N

    2012-01-01

    Osteopenia of prematurity is a metabolic bone disease of premature infants with birth weight < 1500 g and gestational age < 32 weeks. Sub-optimal bone matrix, poor skeletal support and an increased risk of fractures characterized the disease. Its importance is determined by relatively high frequency--between 30-70% of infants at risk, multifactorial etiology and impact on early and late morbidity of the newborns. The prevention and treatment of bone disorders are important aspects of the care of preterm babies. To identify of the risk factors, to determine early diagnostic criteria and to create a prevention program for osteopenia in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight. The prospective study includes 39 preterm babies with birth weight below 1500 gr. and < 32 g. w who were admitted to the NICU from September 2011-January 2012. Bone metabolism was monitored by calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatise at 2-weeks intervals. Vitamin D levels of the neonates were registered at birth, and at 8th week. PTH was measured at the second and the 8th weeks. The following biochemical abnormalities were found. Hypophosphatemia in two weeks (P < 1,6 mmol/l), a gradual increase in phosphorus levels and normalization at eight weeks of age. There was a significant positive correlation between 25OHD/phosphorus at eight weeks/r = 0.353/. Significantly elevated levels of parathyroid hormone in eight weeks, correlating with low levels of vitamin D (negative correlation between 25OHD/parathormone r = -0.581). Blood levels of calcium and alkaline phosphatase were in normal limits. Risk factors for osteopenia are: the low gestational age and low levels of vitamin D at birth. Biochemical markers of osteopenia are: changes in levels of parathyroid hormone, phosphorus and vitamin D at eight weeks of age. Prevention includes: early supplementation of vitamin D in the risk neonates with individual dose adjustment. Upon biochemical evidence of osteopenia treatment should begin

  6. Retrograde ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ejaculation. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, ... infertility. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  7. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  8. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  9. [Neurobiology of ejaculation and orgasm disorders].

    PubMed

    Salinas Casado, J; Vírseda Chamorro, M; Samblás García, R; Esteban Fuertes, M; Aristizábal Agudelo, J M; Delgado Martín, J A; Blázquez Izquierdo, J; Resel Estévez, L

    1998-04-01

    To determine the neurologic alterations of patients with ejaculatory and orgasmic disorders. A study of the neuroandrologic profile was performed in eight patients; 6 presented an ejaculation, one premature ejaculation and one presented an orgasm. The neuroandrologic profile consisted in performing selective electromyography of the bulbocavernosus muscle, recording of the S2-S4 evoked potentials, evoked somatosensory potentials of the pudendal nerve, electromyography of the smooth cavernous muscle (SPACE), sympathetic skin response and cystometry. The sympathetic lesion was more frequent in the cases with an ejaculation (four cases; 66%); a pudendal efferent lesion was demonstrated in one case (17%) and a suprasacral lesion in one case (16%). A pudendal afferent lesion was observed in the two cases with premature ejaculation (100%). Both cases with an orgasm had a pudendal afferent lesion (100%) and one of them also presented a sympathetic lesion (50%). An ejaculation appears to be caused by sympathetic, motor pudendal or suprasacral lesion. An altered perception of genital sensations due to lesion of the afferent pudendal pathway appears to be present in premature ejaculation. An orgasm could be ascribed to an alteration of the pudendal sensibility or to the absence of ejaculation.

  10. [Painful ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Delavierre, D; Sibert, L; Rigaud, J; Labat, J-J

    2014-06-01

    To clarify definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation, etiologies and treatment of painful ejaculation (PE). Review of the literature performed by searching the Medline database using keywords ejaculation, orgasm, pain, pelvic pain, sexual behavior. PE is a pelviperineal pain caused by ejaculation or orgasm. Its prevalence rate is between 1 and 4% amongst the general population. Mainly located in the penis, pain usually lasts less than 5 minutes. Assessment is clinical and there is no level of evidence about the strategy of complementary investigations. Benign prostatic hyperplasia, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy and some antidepressant medications are the best estimated etiologies found in the literature. A link between urogenital infections and PE is likely but not clearly established. Alpha-blockers had good therapeutic results in few low level of evidence studies. The assessment of PE is not clearly defined. Some etiologies are known but PE may be a functionnal pain. Only high level of evidence studies would validate the use of the alpha-blockers as an efficient therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic Approach to Pulmonary Hypertension in Premature Neonates

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a form of chronic lung disease in premature infants following respiratory distress at birth. With increasing survival of extremely low birth weight infants, alveolar simplification is the defining lung characteristic of infants with BPD, and along with pulmonary hypertension, increasingly contributes to both respiratory morbidity and mortality in these infants. Growth restricted infants, infants born to mothers with oligohydramnios or following prolonged preterm rupture of membranes are at particular risk for early onset pulmonary hypertension. Altered vascular and alveolar growth particularly in canalicular and early saccular stages of lung development following mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, results in developmental lung arrest leading to BPD with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Early recognition of PH in infants with risk factors is important for optimal management of these infants. Screening tools for early diagnosis of PH are evolving; however, echocardiography is the mainstay for non-invasive diagnosis of PH in infants. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance are being used as imaging modalities, however their role in improving outcomes in these patients is uncertain. Follow-up of infants at risk for PH will help not only in early diagnosis, but also in appropriate management of these infants. Aggressive management of lung disease, avoidance of hypoxemic episodes, and optimal nutrition determine the progression of PH, as epigenetic factors may have significant effects, particularly in growth-restricted infants. Infants with diagnosis of PH are managed with pulmonary vasodilators and those resistant to therapy need to be worked up for the presence of cardio-vascular anomalies. The management of infants and toddlers with PH, especially following premature birth is an emerging field. Nonetheless, combination therapies in a multi-disciplinary setting improves outcomes for these infants. PMID:28837121

  12. Sirt3 modulation may be beneficial in the treatment of ejaculation dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mandava, Sree Harsha; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-09-01

    Disorders of ejaculation are the most common form of sexual dysfunction. The ejaculatory reflex consists of two phases: emission and expulsion. Premature ejaculation (PE) can arise from overactivity of the smooth muscles responsible for ejaculation. On the other side of the spectrum, delayed ejaculation occurs when an individual is unable to either reach orgasm within an adequate time frame or experiences no ejaculation. While premature ejaculation and to a lesser degree delayed ejaculation have been recognized for quite some time, no FDA approved treatment has been developed. Since both types of ejaculatory dysfunction have an underlying neuro-muscular component, this may be a target for future treatment strategies. We thereby hypothesize that modulation of the rhythmic contraction of the ejaculatory smooth muscles with either a Sirt3 activator or inhibitor may prove beneficial in treating either premature or delayed ejaculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation in men.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David; McMahon, Chris G; Abdo, Carmita; Chen, Juza; Jannini, Emmanuele; Waldinger, Marcel D; Ahn, Tai Young

    2010-04-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders are common male sexual dysfunctions, and include premature ejaculation (PE), inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations and guidelines concerning current state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men. An international consultation in collaboration with the major urology and sexual medicine associations assembled over 200 multidisciplinary experts from 60 countries into 25 committees. Committee members established specific objectives and scopes for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The recommendations concerning state-of-the-art knowledge of disorders of orgasm and ejaculation represent the opinion of seven experts from seven countries developed in a process over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation and debate. Premature ejaculation management is largely dependent upon etiology. Lifelong PE is best managed with PE pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor [SSRI] and/or topical anesthetics). The management of acquired PE is etiology specific and may include erectile dysfunction (ED) pharmacotherapy in men with comorbid ED. Behavioral therapy is indicated when psychogenic or relationship factors are present and is often best combined with PE pharmacotherapy in an integrated treatment program. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by education, patient reassurance, pharmacotherapy, or bladder neck reconstruction. Delayed ejaculation, anejaculation, and/or anorgasmia may have a biogenic and/or psychogenic atiology. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured, and instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. Additional research is required to further the understanding of the disorders of ejaculation and orgasm.

  14. Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation in men.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Abdo, Carmita; Incrocci, Luca; Perelman, Michael; Rowland, David; Waldinger, Marcel; Xin, Zhong Cheng

    2004-07-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders, common male sexual dysfunctions, include premature ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations/guidelines concerning state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men. An International Consultation in collaboration with the major urology and sexual medicine associations assembled over 200 multidisciplinary experts from 60 countries into 17 committees. Committee members established specific objectives and scopes for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The recommendations concerning state-of-the-art knowledge in the respective sexual medicine topic represent the opinion of experts from five continents developed in a process over a 2-year period. Concerning the Disorders of Ejaculation/Orgasm in Men Committee, there were nine experts from six countries. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation and debate. Premature ejaculation management is dependent upon etiology. When secondary to ED, etiology-specific treatment is employed. When lifelong, initial pharmacotherapy (SSRI, topical anesthesia, PDE5 inhibitors) is appropriate. When associated with psychogenic/relationship factors, behavioral therapy is indicated. When acquired, pharmacotherapy and/or behavioral therapies are preferred. Retrograde ejaculation, diagnosed with spermatozoa and fructose in centrifuged post-ejaculatory voided urine, is managed by education, patient reassurance, pharmacotherapy or bladder neck reconstruction. Men with anejaculation or anorgasmia have a biologic failure of emission and/or psychogenic inhibited ejaculation. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured and be instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. More research is needed in understanding management of men with ejaculation

  15. Understanding men's attributions of why they ejaculate before desired: an internet study.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David L; Neal, Cody J

    2014-10-01

    Recent developments in the study of men's sexual response have raised significant issues related to the definition and diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE). We wanted to understand men's perceived reasons for "ejaculating before they wanted," whether they selected attributions from the same broad category when allowed to endorse multiple reasons, and whether younger and older cohorts differed in their attributions. A subsample of 376 men who indicated that they "ejaculated before they wanted" was drawn from a larger pool of 1,249 men participating in an online survey on men's sexual health. This subsample responded to a number of items regarding their ejaculatory patterns, including two questions listing 10 possible self-reported attributions/reasons for their quick ejaculation--one item allowed respondents to endorse multiple reasons, the other limited the response to the most important reason. The primary outcome measure was men's attributions for ejaculating before desired, with choices from 10 possible pretested reasons. In addition, concordance across attributions was determined, that is, if a man responded to one category, was he also likely to select another category? Men who met the ejaculatory latency criterion for PE were generally no different from those who did not. Overall, when required to select the most important attribution, most men identified a specific issue with "lack of self-efficacy" (lack of control or aroused too quickly). Few respondents identified erection loss, partner issues, or medical/medication concerns as the reason--and these patterns were independent of age. Concordance was high across self-efficacy attributions but low across other attributions. Most men who complain of ejaculating before desired attribute this response to problems with self-efficacy. Only a small percent of men identified other possible reasons for their quick ejaculation. Such findings have implications for both the diagnostic process and definitional

  16. The hormonal control of ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Vignozzi, Linda; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maggi, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Hormones regulate all aspects of male reproduction, from sperm production to sexual drive. Although emerging evidence from animal models and small clinical studies in humans clearly point to a role for several hormones in controlling the ejaculatory process, the exact endocrine mechanisms are unclear. Evidence shows that oxytocin is actively involved in regulating orgasm and ejaculation via peripheral, central and spinal mechanisms. Associations between delayed and premature ejaculation with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, respectively, have also been extensively documented. Some models suggest that glucocorticoids are involved in the regulation of the ejaculatory reflex, but corresponding data from human studies are scant. Oestrogens regulate epididymal motility, whereas testosterone can affect the central and peripheral aspects of the ejaculatory process. Overall, the data of the endocrine system in regulating the ejaculatory reflex suggest that widely available endocrine therapies might be effective in treating sexual disorders in these men. Indeed, substantial evidence has documented that treatments of thyroid diseases are able to improve some ejaculatory difficulties.

  17. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Olivier, Berend; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p = 1 for HWE). Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs) reported in the recently published meta-analysis. Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%), SL(-2.3%), SS(0.6%). In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(-3.3%), SL(-18.5%) and SS(21.8%) with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE.

  18. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Polzer, Paula; Althof, Stanley; Bolyakov, Alexander; Donatucci, Craig; Ni, Xiao; Patel, Ankur B; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-09-01

    Although delayed ejaculation (DE) is typically characterized as a persistently longer than anticipated or desired time to ejaculation (or orgasm) during sexual activity, a timing-based definition of DE and its association with serum testosterone has not been established in a large cohort. To examine in an observational study estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and masturbatory ejaculation latency time (MELT) in men self-reporting DE, assess the association of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone levels, and determine whether correlation with demographic and sexual parameters exist. Men who resided in the United States, Canada, and Mexico were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Self-estimated IELT and MELT were captured using an Ejaculatory Function Screening Questionnaire in a sample of 988 men screened for possible inclusion in a randomized clinical trial assessing testosterone replacement therapy for ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and who self-reported the presence or absence of DE and symptoms of hypogonadism. Additional comorbid EjDs (ie, anejaculation, perceived decrease in ejaculate volume, and decreased force of ejaculation) were recorded. Men with premature ejaculation were excluded from this analysis. IELT and MELT were compared between men self-reporting DE and men without DE. The associations of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone were measured. IELT, MELT, and total testosterone levels. Sixty-two percent of screened men self-reported DE with or without comorbid EjDs; 38% did not report DE but did report at least one of the other EjDs. Estimated median IELTs were 20.0 minutes for DE vs 15 minutes for no DE (P < .001). Estimated median MELTs were 15.0 minutes for DE vs 8.0 minutes for no DE (P < .001). Ejaculation time was not associated with serum testosterone levels. Younger men and those with less severe erectile dysfunction had longer IELTs and MELTs. Estimated ejaculation times during vaginal intercourse and/or masturbation were not

  19. Standard operating procedures in the disorders of orgasm and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele; Waldinger, Marcel; Rowland, David

    2013-01-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders are common male sexual dysfunctions and include premature ejaculation (PE), inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations and guidelines of the current state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men as standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the treating health care professional. The International Society of Sexual Medicine Standards Committee assembled over 30 multidisciplinary experts to establish SOPs for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The SOP for the management of disorders of orgasm and ejaculation represents the opinion of four experts from four countries developed in a process over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, limited expert opinion, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. PE management is largely dependent upon etiology. Lifelong PE is best managed with PE pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and/or topical anesthetics). The management of acquired PE is etiology specific and may include erectile dysfunction (ED) pharmacotherapy in men with comorbid ED. All men seeking treatment for PE should receive basic psychosexual education. Graded behavioral therapy is indicated when psychogenic or relationship factors are present and is often best combined with PE pharmacotherapy in an integrated treatment program. Delayed ejaculation, anejaculation, and/or anorgasmia may have a biogenic and/or psychogenic etiology. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured, and instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by education, patient reassurance, and pharmacotherapy. Additional research is required to further the understanding of the disorders of ejaculation and orgasm. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Premature atherosclerosis in children with beta-thalassemia major: New diagnostic marker.

    PubMed

    Sherief, Laila M; Dawood, Osama; Ali, Adel; Sherbiny, Hanan S; Kamal, Naglaa M; Elshanshory, Mohamed; Alazez, Osama Abd; Alhady, Mohamed Abd; Nour, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Wesam A

    2017-03-09

    Early vascular alteration, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease have emerged as important cardiovascular complications among beta-thalassemia major (B-TM) patients. The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of premature atherosclerosis among our B-TM patients, and to investigate the diagnostic value of serum Osteoprotegerin assay as an early biomarker for atherosclerosis. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Hematology unit - Pediatric Department, Zagazig University Children Hospital- Egypt in the period from March 2014 to March 2015. A total of 115 children were enrolled in the current study; as sixty-five (65) children with beta thalassemia major aged 5-18 years, on regular blood transfusion regimen represented the patient group. While fifty (50) healthy children, with comparable age and gender, were assigned as control group. All participants were subjected to history taking, thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations including; complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, C- reactive protein, lipid profile, serum ferritin and serum Osteoprotegerin (OPG) assay. Also, carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) was performed by duplex ultrasound for patients and controls. Our B-TM patients were transfusion-dependent for as long as 8.5 ± 3.8 years with significantly higher serum ferritin levels (2490 ± 1579 ng/dl vs 83 ± 32 ng/dl, p = 0.001), C-reactive protein (5.7 ± 5.7 vs 0.9 ± 0.9), liver enzymes and bilirubin when compared to controls. Significantly higher serum triglyceride (128 ± 20 vs 101 ± 7 mg/dL, p = 0.009) and atherogenic index of plasma (0.45 ± 0.12 vs 0.22 ± 0.04, p = 0.001) were recorded in patients than comparisons. On the contrary, total serum cholesterol (116 ± 16 vs 143 ± 5, p < 0.001), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (44 ± 9 vs 73 ± 6, p < 0.001) and high density lipoprotein

  1. The history of female ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Korda, Joanna B; Goldstein, Sue W; Sommer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The existence of female ejaculation and the female prostate is controversial; however, most scientists are not aware that historians of medicine and psychology described the phenomenon of female ejaculation approximately 2,000 years ago. To review historical literature in which female ejaculation is described. A comprehensive systematic literature review. Emission of fluid at the acme of orgasm and/or sexual pleasure in females was considered as a description of female ejaculation and therefore all documents referring to this phenomenon are included. Physicians, anatomists, and psychologists in both eastern and western culture have described intellectual concepts of female ejaculation during orgasm. In ancient Asia female ejaculation was very well known and mentioned in several Chinese Taoist texts starting in the 4th century. The ancient Chinese concept of female ejaculation as independent of reproduction was supported by ancient Indian writings. First mentioned in a 7th century poem, female ejaculation and the Gräfenberg spot (G-spot) are described in detail in most works of the Kāmaśāstra. In ancient Western writings the emission of female fluid is mentioned even earlier, depicted about 300 B.C. by Aristotle and in the 2nd century by Galen. Reinjier De Graaf in the 16th century provided the first scientific description of female ejaculation and was the first to refer to the periurethral glands as the female prostate. This concept was held by other scientists during the following centuries through 1952 A.D. when Ernst Gräfenberg reported on "The role of the urethra in female orgasm. Current research provides insight into the anatomy of the female prostate and describes female ejaculation as one of its functions. Credible evidence exists among different cultures that the female prostate and female ejaculation have been discovered, described and then forgotten over the last 2,000 years.

  2. [Ejaculation inadequacy in sexual disorders].

    PubMed

    Schröder, K H; Krause, W

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen men with missing ejaculation were observed as outpatients in our department within the past years. Among these, four patients with retrograde ejaculation are included. Possible reasons for the missing ejaculation are operations in the genital region or the pelvis, and spinal cord injuries. Endocrine disorders, diabetes mellitus, drug dependence, and psychogenic alterations have to be discussed as etiologic factors. Secondary lack of ejaculation, which is acquired in later years of life, seems to have a poorer prognosis than the primary disease, which begins with puberty. This group of patients is well responsive to psychotherapy. Other therapeutic approaches are hormonal substitution, care of drug dependence, and treatment with sympathicomimetica in some cases of retrograde ejaculation.

  3. Subjectively measured ejaculation latency time and its association with different sexual activities while controlling for age and relationship length.

    PubMed

    Jern, Patrick; Santtila, Pekka; Johansson, Ada; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Recently, attempts to formulate valid and suitable definitions for (different subcategories of) premature ejaculation have resulted in substantial progress in the pursuit to gain knowledge about ejaculatory function. However, the association between ejaculatory dysfunction and different types of sexual activities has yet to be thoroughly investigated, and (due to conflicting results between studies) the potential effects of age and relationship length still need to be taken into account. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of age, relationship length, frequency of different sexual activities, and different modes of achieving ejaculation with self-reported ejaculation latency time. The main outcome is establishing associations between age, relationship length, self-reported ejaculation latency time, and frequency of different kinds of sexual activities and different modes of achieving ejaculation (such as achieving ejaculation through oral or vaginal sex). Statistical analyses of data on age, relationship length, self-reported ejaculation latency time, and frequency of different sexual activities and different modes of achieving ejaculation were conducted on a population-based sample of 3,189 males aged 18-48 years (mean = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 6.94). Age and relationship length were significantly negatively associated with self-reported ejaculation latency time. Frequency of different kinds of sexual behavior generally had a positive association with self-reported ejaculation latency time, as had different modes of achieving ejaculation. The findings highlight the need for more extensive studies on and increased knowledge of different aspects of ejaculatory function before a valid and suitable definition for premature ejaculation can be formulated.

  4. Plus Disease in Retinopathy of Prematurity: Diagnostic Trends in 2016 vs. 2007

    PubMed Central

    Moleta, Chace; Campbell, J. Peter; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Chan, RV Paul; Ostmo, Susan; Jonas, Karyn; Chiang, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To identify any temporal trends in the diagnosis of plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by experts. Design Reliability analysis Methods ROP experts were recruited in 2007 and 2016 to classify 34 wide-field fundus images of ROP as plus, pre-plus, or normal, coded as “3,” “2,” and “1” respectively in the database. The main outcome was the average calculated score for each image in each cohort. Secondary outcomes included correlation on the relative ordering of the images in 2016 versus 2007, inter-expert agreement, and intra-expert agreement Results The average score for each image was higher for 30/34 (88%) images in 2016 compared to 2007, influenced by fewer images classified as normal (P<0.01), a similar number of pre-plus (P=0.52), and more classified as plus (P<0.01). The mean weighted kappa values in 2006 were 0.36 (range 0.21 – 0.60) compared to 0.22 (range 0 – 0.40) in 2016. There was good correlation between rankings of disease severity between the two cohorts (Spearman’s rank correlation ρ=0.94) indicating near-perfect agreement on relative disease severity. Conclusions Despite good agreement between cohorts on relative disease severity ranking, the higher average score and classifications for each image demonstrate that experts are diagnosing pre-plus and plus disease at earlier stages of disease severity in 2016, compared with 2007. This has implications for patient care, research, and teaching, and additional studies are needed to better understand this temporal trend in image-based plus disease diagnosis. PMID:28087400

  5. Brain activation during human male ejaculation revisited.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Janniko R; Reinders, A A T Simone; Van der Graaf, Ferdinand H C E; Paans, Anne M J; Kortekaas, Rudie

    2007-04-16

    In a prior [O]-H2O positron emission tomographic study we reported brain regions involved in human male ejaculation. Here, we used another, more recently acquired data set to evaluate the methodological approach of this previous study, and discovered that part of the reported activation pattern was not related to ejaculation. With a new analysis of these ejaculation data, we now demonstrate ejaculation-related activations in the deep cerebellar nuclei (dentate nucleus), anterior vermis, pons, and ventrolateral thalamus, and, most importantly, ejaculation-related deactivations throughout the prefrontal cortex. This revision offers a new and more accurate insight into the brain regions involved in human male ejaculation.

  6. Plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity: a continuous spectrum of vascular abnormality as basis of diagnostic variability

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. Peter; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Erdogmus, Deniz; Tian, Peng; Kedarisetti, Dharanish; Moleta, Chace; Reynolds, James D.; Hutcheson, Kelly; Shapiro, Michael J.; Repka, Michael X.; Ferrone, Philip; Drenser, Kimberly; Horowitz, Jason; Sonmez, Kemal; Swan, Ryan; Ostmo, Susan; Jonas, Karyn E.; Chan, R.V. Paul; Chiang, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify patterns of inter-expert discrepancy in plus disease diagnosis in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Design We developed two datasets of clinical images of varying disease severity (100 images and 34 images) as part of the Imaging and Informatics in ROP study, and determined a consensus reference standard diagnosis (RSD) for each image, based on 3 independent image graders and the clinical exam. We recruited 8 expert ROP clinicians to classify these images and compared the distribution of classifications between experts and the RSD. Subjects, Participants, and/or Controls Images obtained during routine ROP screening in neonatal intensive care units. 8 participating experts with >10 years of clinical ROP experience and >5 peer-reviewed ROP publications. Methods, Intervention, or Testing Expert classification of images of plus disease in ROP. Main Outcome Measures Inter-expert agreement (weighted kappa statistic), and agreement and bias on ordinal classification between experts (ANOVA) and the RSD (percent agreement). Results There was variable inter-expert agreement on diagnostic classifications between the 8 experts and the RSD (weighted kappa 0 – 0.75, mean 0.30). RSD agreement ranged from 80 – 94% agreement for the dataset of 100 images, and 29 – 79% for the dataset of 34 images. However, when images were ranked in order of disease severity (by average expert classification), the pattern of expert classification revealed a consistent systematic bias for each expert consistent with unique cut points for the diagnosis of plus disease and pre-plus disease. The two-way ANOVA model suggested a highly significant effect of both image and user on the average score (P<0.05, adjusted R2=0.82 for dataset A, and P< 0.05 and adjusted R2 =0.6615 for dataset B). Conclusions and Relevance There is wide variability in the classification of plus disease by ROP experts, which occurs because experts have different “cut-points” for the amounts of

  7. Plus Disease in Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Continuous Spectrum of Vascular Abnormality as a Basis of Diagnostic Variability.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J Peter; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Erdogmus, Deniz; Tian, Peng; Kedarisetti, Dharanish; Moleta, Chace; Reynolds, James D; Hutcheson, Kelly; Shapiro, Michael J; Repka, Michael X; Ferrone, Philip; Drenser, Kimberly; Horowitz, Jason; Sonmez, Kemal; Swan, Ryan; Ostmo, Susan; Jonas, Karyn E; Chan, R V Paul; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-11-01

    To identify patterns of interexpert discrepancy in plus disease diagnosis in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We developed 2 datasets of clinical images as part of the Imaging and Informatics in ROP study and determined a consensus reference standard diagnosis (RSD) for each image based on 3 independent image graders and the clinical examination results. We recruited 8 expert ROP clinicians to classify these images and compared the distribution of classifications between experts and the RSD. Eight participating experts with more than 10 years of clinical ROP experience and more than 5 peer-reviewed ROP publications who analyzed images obtained during routine ROP screening in neonatal intensive care units. Expert classification of images of plus disease in ROP. Interexpert agreement (weighted κ statistic) and agreement and bias on ordinal classification between experts (analysis of variance [ANOVA]) and the RSD (percent agreement). There was variable interexpert agreement on diagnostic classifications between the 8 experts and the RSD (weighted κ, 0-0.75; mean, 0.30). The RSD agreement ranged from 80% to 94% for the dataset of 100 images and from 29% to 79% for the dataset of 34 images. However, when images were ranked in order of disease severity (by average expert classification), the pattern of expert classification revealed a consistent systematic bias for each expert consistent with unique cut points for the diagnosis of plus disease and preplus disease. The 2-way ANOVA model suggested a highly significant effect of both image and user on the average score (dataset A: P < 0.05 and adjusted R 2  = 0.82; and dataset B: P < 0.05 and adjusted R 2  = 0.6615). There is wide variability in the classification of plus disease by ROP experts, which occurs because experts have different cut points for the amounts of vascular abnormality required for presence of plus and preplus disease. This has important implications for research, teaching, and patient care for ROP

  8. The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is probably least studied, and least understood of male sexual dysfunctions, with an estimated prevalence of 1–4% of the male population. Pathophysiology of DE is multifactorial and including psychosexual-behavioral and cultural factors, disruption of ejaculatory apparatus, central and peripheral neurotransmitters, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control and psychosocial factors. Although knowledge of the physiology of the DE has increased in the last two decade, our understanding of the different pathophysiological process of the causes of DE remains limited. To provide a systematic update on the pathophysiology of DE. A systematic review of Medline and PubMed for relevant publications on ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), DE, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, and climax was performed. The search was limited to the articles published between the January 1960 and December 2015 in English. Of 178 articles, 105 were selected for this review. Only those publications relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology and prevalence of DE were included. The pathophysiology of DE involves cerebral sensory areas, motor centers, and several spinal nuclei that are tightly interconnected. The biogenic, psychogenic and other factors strongly affect the pathophysiology of DE. Despite the many publications on this disorder, there still is a paucity of publications dedicated to the subject. PMID:27652227

  9. [Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and disorders of ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Ranieri, A; Micheli, E; Peracchia, G; Canclini, L P; Sironi, D; Levorato, C A; Lembo, A

    1999-09-01

    Retrograde ejaculation is a frequent and permanent complication after bilateral retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND). Seminal emission and ejaculation are primarily under sympathetic control. Several studies after RPLND in patients with nonseminomatous testis cancer proved the role of preservation of the efferent fibers originating from the lumbar sympathetic ganglia. Based on the results of anatomical studies, a modified unilateral operative technique and nerve-sparing approach permit to preserve normal anterograde ejaculation without reduction of long-term survival.

  10. Premature menopause.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Ub; Ezenyeaku, Cc

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk.

  11. Premature Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, UB; Ezenyeaku, CC

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk. PMID:23634337

  12. The function of multiple ejaculations in bitterling.

    PubMed

    Smith, C; Warren, M; Rouchet, R; Reichard, M

    2014-09-01

    In some taxa, males perform multiple ejaculations, which may function in sperm competition or in maintaining a baseline density of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract to ensure fertilization, a process that has been termed 'topping up'. We investigated the function of multiple ejaculations in two species of bitterling, the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) and Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Bitterling oviposit in living freshwater mussels, with fertilization taking place within the mussel gill cavity. Thus, although fertilization is external, the mussel is analogous to the female reproductive tract in an internally fertilizing species. We measured the frequency of ejaculations and mussel inspections by individual males of two bitterling species in 28 replicated mesocosms and examined focal male responses to rival ejaculations and the presence of females in spawning condition. We used a model of ejaculatory behaviour to simulate the temporal abundance of spermatozoa in mussels. Male R. amarus exhibited high rates of ejaculation and inspection of the siphons of mussels and increased their ejaculation rate in response to the presence of females in spawning condition. Rhodeus ocellatus showed lower overall rates of ejaculation, but significantly elevated ejaculation rate in response to rival ejaculations. The ejaculatory strategy of R. amarus is one that maintains a minimum level of spermatozoa in mussels, which is elevated when the probability of oviposition increases. In contrast, R. ocellatus engages more directly in sperm competition with rivals. We discuss these results in the context of the function of multiple ejaculations and male mating tactics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. [Premature orgasm in the male].

    PubMed

    Köhn, F M

    2003-11-13

    To date, we have no uniform definition of ejaculatio praecox. In a qualitative approach, premature ejaculation is ascribed to a failure to control excitement. As causes, organic disorders and erectile dysfunction must be excluded. The majority of cases, however, are due to psychological or partnership problems. The history-taking should aim, in particular, to uncover possible anxiety in conjunction with premature orgasm, and also to establish the reactions of the partner. As therapy, medication (local anesthetics, antidepressive agents, PDE-5 inhibitors) and sexual-therapeutic measures are available. Since few sufferers take the initiative in seeking treatment, particular importance attaches to providing the public with information about the therapeutic options for treating this common disorder.

  14. Physiology of ejaculation: emphasis on serotonergic control.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, François; Clément, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Ejaculation is constituted by two distinct phases, emission and expulsion. Orgasm, a feature perhaps unique in humans, is a cerebral process that occurs, in normal conditions, concomitantly to expulsion of semen. Normal antegrade ejaculation is a highly coordinated physiological process with emission and expulsion phases being under the control of autonomic and somatic nervous systems respectively. The central command of ejaculation is located at the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral levels of the spinal cord and is activated by stimuli from genital, mainly penile, origin although cerebral descending pathways exert both inhibitory and excitatory regulatory roles. Cerebral structures specifically activated during ejaculation form a tightly interconnected network comprising hypothalamic, diencephalic and pontine areas. A rational neurobiological approach has led to identify several neurotransmitters contributing to the ejaculatory process. Amongst them, serotonin (5-HT) has received strong experimental evidences indicating its inhibitory role in the central control of ejaculation. In particular, 5-HT1A cerebral autoreceptors but also spinal 5-HT1B and, in a lesser extent, 5-HT2C receptors have been shown to mediate the effects of 5-HT on ejaculation. Pharmacological strategies, especially those targeting serotonergic system, for the treatment of ejaculatory disorders in human will undoubtedly benefit from the application of basic and clinical research findings. In this perspective, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which basically increase the amount of central 5-HT and delay ejaculation in humans seems promising.

  15. Orchid sexual deceit provokes ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C; Winnick, C G; Herberstein, M E

    2008-06-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators by mimicking female insects. Male insects fooled into gripping or copulating with orchids unwittingly transfer the pollinia. The effect of deception on pollinators has been considered negligible, but we show that pollinators may suffer considerable costs. Insects pollinating Australian tongue orchids (Cryptostylis species) frequently ejaculate and waste copious sperm. The costs of sperm wastage could select for pollinator avoidance of orchids, thereby driving and maintaining sexual deception via antagonistic coevolution or an arms race between pollinator learning and escalating orchid mimicry. However, we also show that orchid species provoking such extreme pollinator behavior have the highest pollination success. How can deception persist, given the costs to pollinators? Sexually-deceptive-orchid pollinators are almost exclusively solitary and haplodiploid species. Therefore, female insects deprived of matings by orchid deception could still produce male offspring, which may even enhance orchid pollination.

  16. Urethral anatomy and semen flow during ejaculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Ejaculation is critical for reproductive success in many animals, but little is known about its hydrodynamics. In mammals, ejaculation pushes semen along the length of the penis through the urethra. Although the urethra also carries urine during micturition, the flow dynamics of micturition and ejaculation differ: semen is more viscous than urine, and the pressure that drives its flow is derived primarily from the rhythmic contractions of muscles at the base of the penis, which produce pulsatile rather than steady flow. In contrast, Johnston et al. (2014) describe a steady flow of semen through the crocodilian urethral groove during ejaculation. Anatomical differences of tissues associated with mammalian and crocodilian urethral structures may underlie these differences in flow behavior.

  17. Primary lifelong delayed ejaculation: characteristics and response to bupropion.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Ibrahim A; Saleh, El-Sayed

    2011-06-01

    In contrast to premature ejaculation and secondary delayed ejaculation (DE), primary lifelong DE has not been studied extensively. In addition, there is no approved drug treatment. To explore the clinical and laboratory characteristics of a series of men complaining of lifelong DE and to report the response to bupropion. Nineteen consecutive men with primary lifelong DE were prospectively enrolled in this study. Study group was compared with an age-matched group of 19 healthy men. Both groups underwent history taking, physical examination, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), anxiety, and depression scores, ejaculation latency time (IELT) using stop watch and measurement of serum prolactin (PRL) and serum total testosterone (T). Patients received open-label bupropion-SR 150 mg/day for 2 months. Stopwatch-measured IELT values, global efficacy question, IIEF, anxiety, and depression scores. The mean age was 30.8 ± 5.5 year (range 25-42 years). Men with DE exhibited significantly higher masturbatory activity during marital period, lower night emissions, longer IELT, lower orgasmic, and intercourse satisfaction domains of IIEF, higher anxiety and depression scores compared with the controls (all P<0.05). Both serum T and PRL levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls (all P<0.05). Four DE patients (21%) showed history of infertility. The percentage of DE men rating control over ejaculation as "fair to good" increased from 0 to 21.1% after bupropion therapy. The fold decreases of the geometric mean IELT was 0.74 after treatment. The intercourse satisfaction and the orgasmic domains of IIEF and depression score were significantly improved from baseline in the bupropion group (all P<0.05). Lifelong DE is mainly associated with higher and idiosyncratic masturbatory activity, lower night emissions, infertility, longer IELT, lower orgasmic, and intercourse satisfaction domains of IIEF, higher anxiety and depression scores. Bupropion-SR in

  18. A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Quinn, Paul; Dilleen, Maria; Mundayat, Rajiv; Schweitzer, Dave H; Boolell, Mitradev

    2005-07-01

    Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), defined as the time between the start of vaginal intromission and the start of intravaginal ejaculation, is increasingly used in clinical trials to assess the amount of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced ejaculation delay in men with premature ejaculation. Prospectively, stopwatch assessment of IELTs has superior accuracy compared with retrospective questionnaire and spontaneous reported latency. However, the IELT distribution in the general male population has not been previously assessed. To determine the stopwatch assessed-IELT distribution in large random male cohorts of different countries. A total of 500 couples were recruited from five countries: the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. Enrolled men were aged 18 years or older, had a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 6 months, with regular sexual intercourse. The surveyed population were not included or excluded by their ejaculatory status and comorbidities. This survey was performed on a "normal" general population. Sexual events and stopwatch-timed IELTs during a 4-week period were recorded, as well as circumcision status and condom use. The IELT, circumcision status, and condom use. The distribution of the IELT in all the five countries was positively skewed, with a median IELT of 5.4 minutes (range, 0.55-44.1 minutes). The median IELT decreased significantly with age, from 6.5 minutes in the 18-30 years group, to 4.3 minutes in the group older than 51 years (P<0.0001). The median IELT varied between countries, with the median value for Turkey being the lowest, i.e., 3.7 minutes (0.9-30.4 minutes), which was significantly different from each of the other countries. Comparison of circumcised (N=98) and not-circumcised (N=261) men in countries excluding Turkey resulted in median IELT values of 6.7 minutes (0.7-44.1 minutes) in circumcised compared with 6.0 minutes (0.5-37.4 minutes) in not-circumcised men

  19. Pontine control of ejaculation and female orgasm.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hieu K; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Lovick, Thelma A; Holstege, Gert

    2013-12-01

    The physiological component of ejaculation shows parallels with that of micturition, as both are essentially voiding activities. Both depend on supraspinal influences to orchestrate the characteristic pattern of activity in the pelvic organs. Unlike micturition, little is known about the supraspinal pathways involved in ejaculation and female orgasm. To identify brainstem regions activated during ejaculation and female orgasm and to compare them with those activated during micturition. Ejaculation in men and orgasm in women were induced by manual stimulation of the penis or clitoris by the participants' partners. Positron emission tomography (PET) with correction for head movements was used to capture the pattern of brain activation at the time of sexual climax. PET scans showing areas of activation during sexual climax. Ejaculation in men and orgasm in women resulted in activation in a localized region within the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum on the left side and in another region in the ventrolateral pontine tegmentum on the right side. The dorsolateral pontine area was also active in women who attempted but failed to have an orgasm and in women who imitated orgasm. The ventrolateral pontine area was only activated during ejaculation and physical orgasm in women. Activation of a localized region on the left side in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, which we termed the pelvic organ-stimulating center, occurs during ejaculation in men and physical orgasm in women. This same region has previously been shown to be activated during micturition, but on the right side. The pelvic organ-stimulating center, via projections to the sacral parasympathetic motoneurons, controls pelvic organs involved in voiding functions. In contrast, the ventrolateral pontine area, which we term the pelvic floor-stimulating center, produces the pelvic floor contractions during ejaculation in men and physical orgasm in women via direct projections to pelvic floor motoneurons. © 2013

  20. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). ... one of the following: Premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) Full term (37 to 42 weeks gestation) ...

  1. The Evaluation and Treatment of Delayed Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel H; Spitz, Aaron

    2014-10-01

    Delayed ejaculation is a small but important subsection of ejaculatory dysfunction, with prevalence estimated at 1-4%. It is most commonly defined by DSM-IV-TR criteria, as "a persistent delay in, or absence of, orgasm in a male following a normal sexual excitement phase during sexual activity that the clinician, taking into account the person's age, judges to be adequate in focus, intensity, and duration." The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation is related to disruptions in ejaculatory apparatus, nervous transmission, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control, or psychosocial factors. To update the clinician on the evaluation and treatment of delayed ejaculation. The keywords "delayed ejaculation" and "retarded ejaculation" were utilized to search Pubmed for relevant publications. 319 results were generated from the search, and those publications judged relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology, evaluation, and treatment of delayed ejaculation were included in the review. 110 articles were ultimately selected for inclusion in this review. The evaluation of this condition requires a focused history and physical, which includes a detailed sexual history, examination of the genitalia, and inquiry into the status of the partner. Laboratory tests are aimed at the detection of abnormalities in the blood count, glucose level, hormone levels, or kidney function. If a correctable etiology is discovered, treatment is directed towards the reversal of this condition. In some cases, the delayed ejaculation may be a lifelong problem. Also, in some cases the etiology of the delayed ejaculation may be irreversible, such as in the case of age-related sensation loss or diabetes-related neuropathy. In these instances treatment may require a combination of behavioral modification, sexual therapy, or perhaps pharmaceutical drugs. Participation of the partner in therapy may sometimes be necessary. Future investigations will continue to elucidate the complex biological and

  2. [Therapy of rapid ejaculation using dietary supplement "NeyroDoz": results of a multicenter non-randomized clinical study].

    PubMed

    Kamalov, A A; Aboian, I A; Sitdykova, M É; Tsukanov, A Iu; Teodorovich, O V; Medvedev, V L; Komiakov, B K; Zhuravlev, V N; Novikov, A I; Erkovich, A A; Okhobotov, D A; Karpov, V K; Zubkov, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent dietary supplement NeyroDoz in patients with rapid ejaculation. We examined 50 patients with rapid ejaculation (premature ejaculation), who were recruited in 9 clinical centers in different regions of Russia. These patients received NeyroDoz, 2 capsules twice a day for one month, followed by a control observation for 1 month. In study group of patients, symptomatic improvement was achieved in 45 (90%) of 50 patients at 4-week observation target date. In assessing the impact of NeyroDoz on different groups of symptoms, it was found that it significantly increases the average time of sexual intercourse by 2 times, increases the orgasm brightness, reduces the severity of psychosomatic component and has a positive effect on all components of the copulative cycle. In assessing the afterimpression, this effect was maintained throughout the period of follow-up.

  3. Delayed Ejaculation: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is a poorly defined and uncommon form of male sexual dysfunction, characterized by a marked delay in ejaculation or an inability to achieve ejaculation. It is often quite concerning to patients and their partners, and sometimes frustrates couples' attempts to conceive. This article aims to review the pathophysiology of DE and anejaculation (AE), to explore our current understanding of the diagnosis, and to present the treatment options for this condition. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to October 2017, including PubMed (MEDLINE) and Embase. We combined “delayed ejaculation,” “retarded ejaculation,” “inhibited ejaculation,” or “anejaculation” as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms or keywords with “epidemiology,” “etiology,” “pathophysiology,” “clinical assessment,” “diagnosis,” or “treatment.” Relevant sexual medicine textbooks were searched as well. The literature suggests that the pathophysiology of DE/AE is multifactorial, including both organic and psychosocial factors. Despite the many publications on this condition, the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. There is currently no single gold standard for diagnosing DE/AE, as operationalized criteria do not exist. The history is the key to the diagnosis. Treatment should be cause-specific. There are many approaches to treatment planning, including various psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy, and specific treatments for infertile men. An approved form of drug therapy does not exist. A number of approaches can be employed for infertile men, including the collection of nocturnal emissions, prostatic massage, prostatic urethra catheterization, penile vibratory stimulation, probe electroejaculation, sperm retrieval by aspiration from either the vas deferens or the epididymis, and testicular sperm extraction. PMID:29299903

  4. RNA PROFILES OF EJACULATED HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    RNA Profiles of Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa

    Kary E. Thompson, Wenjun Bao, Sally D. Perreault, Hongzu Ren, John C. Rockett, Judith E. Schmid, Lillian F. Strader, David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory...

  5. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Alwaal, Amjad; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Lue, Tom F.

    2016-01-01

    Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness associated with reported physical changes. Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases (emission and expulsion), and is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways. Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief description of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection. Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. PMID:26385403

  6. An electrophysiologic study of female ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Ahmed; Shafik, Ismail A; El Sibai, Olfat; Shafik, Ali A

    2009-01-01

    Opinions vary over whether female ejaculation exists or not. We investigated the hypothesis that female orgasm is not associated with ejaculation. Thirty-eight healthy women were studied. The study comprised of glans clitoris electrovibration with simultaneous recording of vaginal and uterine pressures as well as electromyography of corpus cavernous and ischio- and bulbo-cavernosus muscles. Glans clitoris electrovibration was continued until and throughout orgasm. Upon glans clitoris electrovibration, vaginal and uterine pressures as well as corpus cavernous electromyography diminished until a full erection occurred when the silent cavernosus muscles were activated. At orgasm, the electromyography of ischio-and bulbo-cavernosus muscles increased intermittently. The female orgasm was not associated with the appearance of fluid coming out of the vagina or urethra.

  7. The drug treatment of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Elsaied, Moustafa A.; Mostafa, Taymour

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is an uncommon and a challenging disorder to treat. It is often quite concerning to patients and it can affect psychosocial well-being. Here we reviewed how DE is treated pharmacologically .We also highlighted specific settings where drugs could be introduced to medical practice. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to February 2016, including PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBCSO Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, and Google Scholar using key words; delayed ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, drugs, treatment, or pharmacology. To achieve the maximum sensitivity of the search strategy and to identify all studies, we combined “delayed ejaculation” as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms or keywords with each of “testosterone” or “cabergoline” or “bupropion” or “amantadine” or “cyproheptadine” or “midodrine” or “imipramine” or “ephedrine” or “pseudoephedrine” or “yohimbine” or “buspirone” or “oxytocin” or “bethanechol” as MeSH terms or keywords. There are a number of drugs to treat patients with DE including: testosterone, cabergoline, bupropion, amantadine, cyproheptadine, midodrine, imipramine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, yohimbine, buspirone, oxytocin, and bethanechol. Although there are many pharmacological treatment options, the evidence is still limited to small trials, case series or case reports. Review of literature showed that evidence level 1 (Double blind randomized clinical trial) studies were performed with testosterone, oxytocin, buspirone or bethanechol treatment. It is concluded that successful drug treatment of DE is still in its infancy. The clinicians need to be aware of the pathogenesis of DE and the pharmacological basis underlying the use of different drugs to extend better care for these patients. Various drugs are available to address such problem, however their evidence of efficacy is still limited and their

  8. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... of calcium and phosphorus needed to form strong bones. While in the womb, fetal activity increases during ...

  9. Revisiting post-ejaculation refractory time-what we know and what we do not know in males and in females.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roy J

    2009-09-01

    The post-ejaculation refractory time (PERT), the period after a single ejaculation when further erections and ejaculations are inhibited, has been studied and well-documented in male rats. Since its first attribution in men by Masters and Johnson and its inaccurate delineation in their graphic sexual response model in 1966 it has been infrequently studied whereas scant attention has been paid to any such possible activity in women after female ejaculation. To critically review our current knowledge about PERT in rats and humans and describe and correct shortcomings and errors in previous publications and propose corrections. Review of published literature. Identifying evidence-based data to support authority-based facts. The review exposes the extremely limited evidence-based data that our knowledge of PERT is based on. The paucity of data for most aspects of human PERT is remarkable; even the generally accepted statement that the duration of PERT increases with age has no published support data. Despite numerous studies in rats the mechanisms and site(s) of the activity are poorly understood. Dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways are thought to shorten PERT whereas serotonergic pathways lengthen its duration. Raising the brain serotonin levels in men using SSRIs helps reduce early or premature ejaculation. Rats have an absolute PERT (aPERT) during which erection and ejaculation is inhibited and a relative PERT (rPERT) when a stronger or novel stimulus can, whether such phases exist in men is unexamined. Apart from possible depressed activity in the amygdala and penile dorsal nerve and rejection of prolactin as a major factor in PERT little or no significant advance in understanding human male PERT has occurred. No evidence-based data on women's PERT after female ejaculation exists. New investigations in young and older men utilizing brain imaging and electromagnetic tomography are priority studies to accomplish.

  10. Sperm competition dynamics: ejaculate fertilising efficiency changes differentially with time

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background A fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology is to resolve the mechanisms that maintain paternity a hypervariable fitness component. Because females are often sexually promiscuous, this challenge hinges on establishing the mechanisms through which the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation (sperm competition). The competitive quality of an ejaculate is mediated by the relative number of live sperm and their motile performance. The differential rate at which rival ejaculates lose their fertilising efficiency over time is therefore expected to influence the outcome of sperm competition. Results Here, we artificially inseminated into sets of replicate domestic hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, experimentally engineered heterospermic ejaculates containing a large number of low-quality sperm from one male, and a lower number of high-quality sperm from another male. Large, low-quality ejaculates fertilised the first eggs produced after insemination, but small, high-quality ejaculates prevailed in the long run despite their numerical disadvantage. Conclusion Together, these results provide the first experimental demonstration that the relative competitive value of an ejaculate changes drastically over the time during which competing ejaculates are stored within the reproductive tract of a female, resulting in a marked temporal pattern of variation in paternity. A high level of replication makes these results robust. However, our study was restricted to few males of a well characterised study population, and future work should explore the generality of these results. PMID:19087292

  11. Sperm competition dynamics: ejaculate fertilising efficiency changes differentially with time.

    PubMed

    Pizzari, Tommaso; Worley, Kirsty; Burke, Terry; Froman, David P

    2008-12-16

    A fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology is to resolve the mechanisms that maintain paternity a hypervariable fitness component. Because females are often sexually promiscuous, this challenge hinges on establishing the mechanisms through which the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation (sperm competition). The competitive quality of an ejaculate is mediated by the relative number of live sperm and their motile performance. The differential rate at which rival ejaculates lose their fertilising efficiency over time is therefore expected to influence the outcome of sperm competition. Here, we artificially inseminated into sets of replicate domestic hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, experimentally engineered heterospermic ejaculates containing a large number of low-quality sperm from one male, and a lower number of high-quality sperm from another male. Large, low-quality ejaculates fertilised the first eggs produced after insemination, but small, high-quality ejaculates prevailed in the long run despite their numerical disadvantage. Together, these results provide the first experimental demonstration that the relative competitive value of an ejaculate changes drastically over the time during which competing ejaculates are stored within the reproductive tract of a female, resulting in a marked temporal pattern of variation in paternity. A high level of replication makes these results robust. However, our study was restricted to few males of a well characterised study population, and future work should explore the generality of these results.

  12. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Alwaal, Amjad; Breyer, Benjamin N; Lue, Tom F

    2015-11-01

    Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness associated with reported physical changes. Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases (emission and expulsion), and is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways. Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief description of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection. Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of treatment with pseudoephedrine in men with retrograde ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shoshany, O; Abhyankar, N; Elyaguov, J; Niederberger, C

    2017-07-01

    The use of pseudoephedrine, an alpha agonist, for the treatment of retrograde ejaculation is well-known, however, there is no clear consensus from the literature regarding its efficacy and treatment protocol. We evaluated the efficacy of pseudoephedrine treatment in patients with retrograde ejaculation, utilizing a yet undescribed short-period treatment protocol. Twenty men were medically treated with pseudoephedrine for retrograde ejaculation between January 2010 and May 2016 (12 with complete retrograde ejaculation and 8 with partial retrograde ejaculation). All patients had a semen analysis and post-ejaculatory urinalysis before and after treatment. The treatment protocol consisted of 60 mg of pseudoephedrine every 6 h on the day before semen analysis and two more 60 mg doses on the day of the semen analysis. Diabetes was the most common etiology for complete retrograde ejaculation (60%), whereas an idiopathic cause was the most common etiology for partial retrograde ejaculation (82%). Of the 12 complete retrograde ejaculation patients treated with pseudoephedrine prior to semen analysis, 7 (58.3%) recovered spermatozoa in the antegrade ejaculate, with a mean total sperm count of 273.5 ± 172.5 million. Of the eight patients with partial retrograde ejaculation, five (62.5%) had a ≥50% increase in the antegrade total sperm count. In this group, the mean total sperm count increased from 26.9 ± 8.5 million before treatment to 84.2 ± 24.6 million after treatment, whereas the percentage of spermatozoa in the urine declined from 43.2 ± 9% to 17 ± 10%, respectively (both p < 0.05). Overall, in men with retrograde ejaculation treated with a pseudoephedrine regimen prior to ejaculation, some improvement in seminal parameters occurred in 14 (70%) patients, with 10 patients (38.5% of all patients) achieving antegrade total sperm counts over 39 million. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Osteopenia of Prematurity: Are We at Risk?

    PubMed

    Mannan, M A; Jahan, I; Rahman, M Z; Hasan, Z; Dey, A C; Shahidullah, M

    2015-07-01

    The continuous advances in intensive care have led to increased survival of premature infants. As a consequence, the problem of less imminent, slowly progressing disorders such as osteopenia of prematurity has been emerging. Osteopenia of prematurity (OOP) also called metabolic bone disease of prematurity (MBD) or rickets of prematurity is characterized by a reduction in bone mineral content usually manifest between 6th to 12th weeks of corrected gestational age. It occurs in up to 55% of infants born with weight <1000gm and 23% of infants weighing <1500gm. Clinical features of osteopenia of prematurity are mostly non-specific often appears as a late symptoms. Several biochemical markers have frequently been used as screening tools and diagnostic markers, but timing of measurements and the levels at which treatment should be initiated vary widely. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and Quantitative ultrasnogram are important diagnostic tool. Standard X-ray, a widely accepted but cannot detect osteopenia unless 20% loss of bone mineralization. The treatment of osteopenia includes provision of adequate mineral supplementation. Monitoring of serum and urinary markers are mandatory. The focus on prevention has largely centered on providing adequate intake of phosphorus and calcium but more research is needed. Till date there are neither enough data regarding clinical risk factors, valid biochemical markers which can detect premature babies at risk of osteopenia nor supplementation as well as appropriate timely management protocol is practicing in Bangladesh.

  15. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  16. New insights from one case of female ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Casillas, Alberto; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2011-12-01

    Although there are historical records showing its existence for over 2,000 years, the so-called female ejaculation is still a controversial phenomenon. A shared paradigm has been created that includes any fluid expulsion during sexual activities with the name of "female ejaculation." To demonstrate that the "real" female ejaculation and the "squirting or gushing" are two different phenomena. Biochemical studies on female fluids expelled during orgasm. In this case report, we provided new biochemical evidences demonstrating that the clear and abundant fluid that is ejected in gushes (squirting) is different from the real female ejaculation. While the first has the features of diluted urines (density: 1,001.67 ± 2.89; urea: 417.0 ± 42.88 mg/dL; creatinine: 21.37 ± 4.16 mg/dL; uric acid: 10.37 ± 1.48 mg/dL), the second is biochemically comparable to some components of male semen (prostate-specific antigen: 3.99 ± 0.60 × 103 ng/mL). Female ejaculation and squirting/gushing are two different phenomena. The organs and the mechanisms that produce them are bona fide different. The real female ejaculation is the release of a very scanty, thick, and whitish fluid from the female prostate, while the squirting is the expulsion of a diluted fluid from the urinary bladder. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Psychological interventions for delayed ejaculation/orgasm.

    PubMed

    Althof, S E

    2012-01-01

    Of all the male sexual dysfunctions, delayed ejaculation (DE) is the least understood, least common and least studied. This paper aims to review and integrate the diverse psychological theories and proposed psychological interventions for DE. Clinicians will then be able to more clearly discern the relevant psychological/interpersonal issues of the patient/couple and implement systematically based effective interventions. After reviewing the literature, it is clear that no one theory accounts for all the varied presentations of DE, and no theory by itself has strong empirical support. However, awareness of the diverse points of view helps clinicians conduct better assessments and broaden their understanding of the patient's ejaculatory dysfunction. Similarly, no one psychological intervention works for all patients, nor will unsystematic random selection of interventions. This paper stresses on the need to clearly identify the source of the dysfunction and select treatments based upon the precipitating and maintaining factors. Much work remains to be done with regard to our understanding and treatment of DE. Specifically, we need to craft an evidence-based definition, assess the true prevalence of the dysfunction, demonstrate the efficacy of psychological interventions and design validated outcome measures.

  18. Screening and treatments using telemedicine in retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Aristomenis; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Todorich, Bozho; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Trese, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have validated the role of telemedicine as a new powerful screening and diagnostic tool for retinal disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. With regard to retinopathy of prematurity, bedside examination with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy has been the gold standard technique for screening, yet with several limitations. Herein, we review the current evidence that supports the role of telemedicine for the screening of infants with retinopathy of prematurity. PMID:28539810

  19. Lunar and climatic effects on boar ejaculate traits.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla-Vargas, Josué; Kerns, Karl; Rothschild, Max F

    2018-06-01

    There is evidence that phases of the moon affect wild animal behaviors including reproduction. There is, however, little evidence of moon phase effects on domestic livestock reproduction. This study investigated the effects of moon phase and climatic variables on boar ejaculate traits. Records of 4149 semen collections from boars of nine different breeds at one boar stud were used. The response variables were volume of ejaculate, concentration of sperm in the ejaculate, and number of doses obtained per ejaculate. Moon phase, greatest daily temperature (T), least daily T, average daily relative humidity (RH), temperature-humidity index (THI), season and the interaction of moon phase with season were analyzed at the day of collection and 45 days prior to date of collection as a proxy of initiation of spermatogenesis. For both dates analyzed season and the interaction of season with moon had significant effects (P < 0.05) on the volume of the ejaculate. Moon phase had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on volume of ejaculate at the day of collection. Sperm concentration was affected (P < 0.05) by the interaction of moon phase with season, high and low temperature, THI, RH and breed. Season had an effect (P < 0.01) on concentration of sperm at the initiation of spermatogenesis. For doses that could be used for AI that were obtained/ejaculate, there were effects of moon phase, season, the interaction between season and moon phase and breed (P < 0.05) at collection day and at the initiation of spermatogenesis. There was an interaction (P < 0.0001) between season and moon phase for volume of ejaculate, sperm concentration and number of doses obtained per ejaculate at date of collection and at day of initiation of spermatogenesis. The significant interaction of season and moon phase on boar semen traits suggests that to maximize productivity of modern swine production systems determining a collection schedule in some seasons relative to moon phase may

  20. Do women with female ejaculation have detrusor overactivity?

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Rufus; Elvy, Susannah; Cardozo, Linda

    2007-11-01

    Questionnaire surveys suggest that 40-54% of women have experienced an expulsion of fluid at orgasm. Some of these women have coital incontinence, whereas others identify the fluid passed as female ejaculate. To assess whether women who have experienced female ejaculation have detrusor overactivity or the bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms associated with coital incontinence. We recruited six women who self-identified as having experienced female ejaculation and six controls who had not. Each woman completed a 3-day bladder diary and two validated bladder questionnaires: the Urgency Perception Scale (UPS) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Each woman underwent short provocative ambulatory urodynamics, a modified form of urodynamics, with a high sensitivity for detrusor overactivity. Prevalence of detrusor overactivity, 24-hour urinary frequency, IIQ and UPS scores. No woman in either group had detrusor overactivity. The bladder diaries and questionnaire results were within the normal range for all women. Women who experience female ejaculation may have normal voiding patterns, no bothersome incontinence symptoms, and no demonstrable detrusor overactivity. Women who report female ejaculation, in the absence of other lower urinary tract symptoms, do not require further investigation, and may be reassured that it is an uncommon, but physiological, phenomenon.

  1. Painful Ejaculation with Cyclobenzaprine: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wie, Christopher S.; Gorlin, Andrew W.; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.; Rosenfeld, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Sexual dysfunction is a well‐known side effect of antidepressants. Painful ejaculation is a rare side effect that has been reported with the use of some psychiatric drugs such as triclyclic antidepressants. Cyclobenzaprine is a muscle relaxant that is structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants. It is the most commonly prescribed muscle relaxant in the United States and accounts for 18% of all prescriptions written for chronic back pain. Methods A 55‐year‐old man was referred to our pain medicine clinic for evaluation and treatment of pain with ejaculation. Main outcome Measure The main outcome measure was to review the current published literature and case reports on painful ejaculation from medication use, in particular tricyclic antidepressants. Results After discontinuation of cyclobenzaprine, our patient's sexual dysfunction resolved. This result was consistent with the literature reviewed on the topic. Conclusion Painful ejaculation is likely an underreported side effect of tricyclic antidepressants and cyclobenzaprine use. Fortunately, these symptoms are reversible and discontinuation of these medications is typically an effective cure. K raus MB , W ie CS , G orlin AW , W isenbaugh ES , and R osenfeld DM . Painful ejaculation with cyclobenzaprine: A case report and literature review. S ex M ed 2015;3:343–345. PMID:26797071

  2. [G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality?].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Horowitz, Eran

    2007-02-01

    The G-spot is an ill-defined region, located on the anterior vaginal wall, in its upper outer third, suggested by Ernst Grafenberg, and commemorates the first letter of his name. This area is sensitive to tactile touch, which, when applied, is claimed to result in an intense female orgasm. The G-spot is thought to be the vaginal part that lies beneath the posterior part of the "female prostatic gland", which, when stimulated, results in female ejaculation during orgasm. G-spot and female ejaculation have been studied intensively during the last 50 years and there is scientific (anatomical and biochemical) evidence for their existence. However, this evidence has been challenged, and the debate regarding the existence of the G-spot and female ejaculation as true clinical entities is still ongoing.

  3. Evolutionary Trade-Off between Secondary Sexual Traits and Ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Lüpold, Stefan; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2017-12-01

    Recent theoretical models predict that the evolutionary diversification of the weapons and ornaments of pre-mating sexual selection should be influenced by trade-offs with male expenditure on ejaculates. However, the patterns of association between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate expenditure are frequently inconsistent in their support of this prediction. We show why consideration of additional life-history, ecological, and mating-system variables is crucial for the interpretation of associations between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate production. Incorporation of these 'missing variables' provides evidence that interactions between pre- and post-mating sexual selection can underlie broad patterns of diversification in male weapons and ornaments. We call for more experimental and genetic approaches to uncover trade-offs, as well as for studies that consider the costs of mate-searching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The effect of selected antibiotics on microorganisms contaminating boar ejaculate].

    PubMed

    Mazurová, J; Vinter, P

    1991-04-01

    The occurrence of microorganisms, including their total counts in boar native ejaculates, was investigated in two stages; the objective of this investigation also was to determine contamination after the sperms were treated with diluents containing the antibiotics ampicillin, gentamycin, apramycin, cefoxitin, or antibiotic combinations penicillin + streptomycin, ampicillin + cefoxitin, gentamycin + cefoxitin and ampicillin + gentamycin. The representation of bacterial species and total counts of microbes in 1 ml diluted sperm stored at a temperature of about 18 degrees C were determined in 24, 48 and 72 h after dilution. The microorganisms were cultivated from all native ejaculates. Proteus sp. (63.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (51.5% of the total number of examined samples) were the most frequent species. The number of contaminated diluted ejaculates ranged from 12.5 to 95.8% in 24 h after dilution, from 12.5 to 98.5% in 48 h and from 16.8 to 95.8% of the total number of examined ejaculates in 72 h. The occurrence of microorganisms correlated mostly with the efficiency spectrum of the antibiotics or their combinations. The average counts of microorganisms in 1 ml of native ejaculate made 2,363,000 in stage I and 1,472,108 in stage II. The highest average counts in 1 ml of diluted sperm were found in ejaculates containing cefoxitin and apramycin. Gentamycin was the most effective antibiotic used as a sole component (average counts of microorganisms CPM in 1 ml were 416 in 24 h, 955 in 48 h and 2260 in 72 h after dilution); ampicillin and gentamycin were the most efficient combination (14--20--21). This combination exerted very good effects also on Proteus sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  5. Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trief, E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has increased due to a high incidence of premature, low birthweight infants. Stages of severity range from no visual damage to total blindness, and educational problems of ROP children parallel those of other visually impaired children, early intervention being crucial. Treatments are either pharmacological or…

  6. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  7. Psychosexual therapy for delayed ejaculation based on the Sexual Tipping Point model.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    The Sexual Tipping Point(®) (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring. Regardless of the degree of organic etiology present, DE is exacerbated by insufficient stimulation: an inadequate combination of "friction and fantasy". High frequency negative thoughts may neutralize erotic cognitions (fantasy) and subsequently delay, ameliorate, or inhibit ejaculation, while partner stimulation (friction) may prove unsatisfying. Assessment requires a thorough sexual history including inquiry into masturbatory methods. Many men with DE engage in an idiosyncratic masturbatory style, defined as a masturbation technique not easily duplicated by the partner's hand, mouth, or vagina. The clinician's most valuable diagnostic tool is a focused sex history (sex status). Differentiate DE from other sexual problems and review the conditions under which the man can ejaculate. Perceived partner attractiveness, the use of fantasy during sex, anxiety-surrounding coitus and masturbatory patterns require meticulous exploration. Identify important DE causes by juxtaposing an awareness of his cognitions and the sexual stimulation experienced during masturbation, versus a partnered experience. Assist the man in identifying behaviors that enhance immersion in excitation and minimize inhibiting thoughts, in order to reach ejaculation in his preferred manner. Discontinuing, reducing or altering masturbation is often required, which evokes patient resistance. Coaching

  8. Chlamydiae in the ejaculate: their influence on the quality and morphology of sperm.

    PubMed

    Veznik, Zdenek; Pospisil, Leopold; Svecova, Drahomira; Zajicova, Atanaska; Unzeitig, Vit

    2004-07-01

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male fertility, the aim of this study was to ascertain and analyze the quality of Chlamydiae-positive and -negative semen. Sperm count was performed according to the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction, and sperm survival was assessed by a 120-min test. The evaluation of the morphological examination of ejaculates was carried out using the sasmo (strict morphological analysis of ejaculates) computer program. Chlamydiae were detected by immunofluorescent reaction using the Progen Biotechnik GmbH diagnostic set. Fisher's exact test and the chi-quadrate test were used for statistical analysis. Of the total of 627 sperm samples examined, Chlamydiae were detected in 136 cases (21.7%). Sperm analysis showed significant differences between Chlamydiae-positive and -negative samples. The Chlamydiae-contaminated group showed normal sperm morphology 14.4% lower, volume 6.4% lower, concentration 8.3% lower, motility 7.8% and velocity 9.3% lower than in Chlamydiae-negative samples. The average values for normal spermatozoa and motility in the Chlamydiae-positive group were also significantly reduced. Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be a possible factor in sperm pathology. These results could help to elucidate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility.

  9. Perceived physiological and orgasmic sensations at ejaculation in spinal cord injured men.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Frédérique; Charvier, Kathleen; Leriche, Albert; Vézina, Jean-Guy; Côté, Isabelle; Raymond, Denis; Jacquemin, Géraldine; Fournier, Christine; Bélanger, Marc

    2008-10-01

    With the advances in penile vibrator stimulation (PVS), most spinal cord injured (SCI) men can self-ejaculate. Oral midodrine may further increase ejaculation success, while maintaining autonomy. Since most SCI men attempt ejaculation for sexual rather than reproductive purposes, self-ejaculation should be emphasized and sensations explored. Explore (i) self-ejaculation success rate in SCI men; (ii) vascular parameters indicative of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) during sexual stimulation and ejaculation; and (iii) sensations associated with ejaculation. Ejaculation was assessed on 81 SCI men with complete ASIA A (49%) and incomplete B to D lesions (51%), subdivided into tetraplegics (C2-T2), paraplegics sensitive to AD (T3-T6), paraplegics not sensitive to AD (T7-T10), paraplegics with lesions to the emission pathway (T11-L2), and paraplegics with lesions interrupting the emission-ejaculation pathways (L3-below). Natural stimulation was attempted first followed, if negative, by PVS followed, if again negative, by PVS combined with oral midodrine (5-25 mg). Ejaculation success, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and perceived physiological and orgasmic sensations. Overall 91% reached ejaculation, 30% with natural stimulation, 49% with PVS and 12% with midodrine plus PVS. Midodrine salvaged up to 27% depending upon the lesion. Physiological and orgasmic sensations were perceived significantly more at ejaculation than sexual stimulation. Tetraplegics did not differ from paraplegics sensitive to AD on perceived cardiovascular and muscular sensations, but perceived significantly more autonomic sensations, and generally more physiological sensations than lower lesions unsensitive to AD. Most SCI men can self-ejaculate and perceive physiological and orgasmic sensations. The climactic experience of ejaculation seems related to AD, few sensations being reported when AD is not reached, pleasurable climactic sensations being reported when mild to moderate AD is reached, and

  10. Salvaging urospermic ejaculates from brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Gomes-Alves, S; Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragán, S; Chamorro, C A; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2014-11-30

    The objective of this study was to reverse the osmotic stress of sperm in urine contaminated bear ejaculates that were obtained by electroejaculation using pre-freezing washing or density gradient centrifugation isolation. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were divided into six aliquots, five were diluted in each washing extender: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 700 mOsm/kg (prepared from a Tes-Tris-Fructose base, adding water or fructose as corresponds), at a 1:2 ratio (raw semen: washing solution, v/v); and the other aliquot was handled without washing (Control group). Samples were centrifuged at 600 × g for 6 min prior to freezing. In Experiment 2, ejaculates were divided into two aliquots: one was diluted 1:1 with TCG (Tris-Citric acid-Glucose) and centrifuged at 600 × g for 6 min (Centrifugation Control; C-Control); the other was treated with PureSperm density gradient column. After treatments, samples were cryopreserved. Sperm motility, viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI)) and acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (PNA-FITC)/PI) were analyzed before and after freezing. Ejaculates with an initial osmolality of less than 120 mOsm/kg treated with pre-freezing washing, and the Control sample had greater pre-freezing sperm motility than the raw ejaculate, but sperm viability was not different among these groups. The samples washed with 700 mOsm/kg solutions had the least pre-freezing viability. In the post-thawing evaluation, pre-freezing washing treatments did not provide any improvement in comparison with the Control sample, and treatment with 700 mOsm/kg extender had deleterious effects in all urospermic samples. PureSperm density gradient centrifugation applied to urospermic raw semen was suitable for improving sperm motility and viability of pre-freezing samples and the selected spermatozoa had greater freezing capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity

    MedlinePlus

    ... CO2) in the blood Infection Low blood acidity (pH) Low blood oxygen Respiratory distress Slow heart rate (bradycardia) Transfusions The rate of ROP in most premature infants has gone down greatly in developed countries over the ...

  12. Your Premature Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... to our health educators. GO On your baby's team Meet the people caring for your baby in ...

  13. Retarded ejaculation in men: an overview of psychological and neurobiological insights.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2005-06-01

    Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation are erroneously mixed up in the DSM-IV classification system. Male Orgasmic Disorder to denote "delayed ejaculation" is inadequate as orgasm and ejaculation represent clinical expressions of different neurobiological phenomena. Unfortunately, the DSM-IV criteria for delayed ejaculation were accepted regardless of any research with appropriate methodology and design. The psychological approach and associated psychotherapy to solve this problem is rather disappointing. The neurobiological approach, which started with animal studies, has demonstrated various neurotransmitters with the potency to inhibit ejaculation. Indeed, several experimental drugs have been tested in rats, showing the successful acceleration of ejaculation. We propose that human research should start with the development of an operational definition of delayed ejaculation. To achieve this goal, we propose unselected epidemiological stopwatch studies which also provide information on the prevalence and incidence of delayed ejaculation in men. Currently, no effective and safe drugs are available to accelerate ejaculation time in men. The best way to treat lifelong delayed ejaculation is, thus far, to inform the patients about biological and psychological inhibiting factors which they need to avoid, and to remain critical about unrealistic expectations from psychotherapy. Psychotherapy may be useful in subgroups, particularly in the absence of effective and safe drugs.

  14. Complex patterns of multivariate selection on the ejaculate of a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John L; Simmons, Leigh W; Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Assessing how selection operates on several, potentially interacting, components of the ejaculate is a challenging endeavor. Ejaculates can be subject to natural and/or sexual selection, which can impose both linear (directional) and nonlinear (stabilizing, disruptive, and correlational) selection on different ejaculate components. Most previous studies have examined linear selection of ejaculate components and, consequently, we know very little about patterns of nonlinear selection on the ejaculate. Even less is known about how selection acts on the ejaculate as a functionally integrated unit, despite evidence of covariance among ejaculate components. Here, we assess how selection acts on multiple ejaculate components simultaneously in the broadcast spawning sessile invertebrate Mytilus galloprovincialis using the statistical tools of multivariate selection analyses. Our analyses of relative fertilization rates revealed complex patterns of selection on sperm velocity, motility, and morphology. Interestingly, the most successful ejaculates were made up of slower swimming sperm with relatively low percentages of motile cells, and sperm with smaller head volumes that swam in highly pronounced curved swimming trajectories. These results are consistent with an emerging body of literature on fertilization kinetics in broadcast spawners, and shed light on the fundamental nature of selection acting on the ejaculate as a functionally integrated unit. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois E H; Dammann, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The immature retinas of preterm neonates are susceptible to insults that disrupt neurovascular growth, leading to retinopathy of prematurity. Suppression of growth factors due to hyperoxia and loss of the maternal–fetal interaction result in an arrest of retinal vascularisation (phase 1). Subsequently, the increasingly metabolically active, yet poorly vascularised, retina becomes hypoxic, stimulating growth factor-induced vasoproliferation (phase 2), which can cause retinal detachment. In very premature infants, controlled oxygen administration reduces but does not eliminate retinopathy of prematurity. Identification and control of factors that contribute to development of retinopathy of prematurity is essential to prevent progression to severe sight-threatening disease and to limit comorbidities with which the disease shares modifiable risk factors. Strategies to prevent retinopathy of prematurity will depend on optimisation of oxygen saturation, nutrition, and normalisation of concentrations of essential factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as curbing of the effects of infection and inflammation to promote normal growth and limit suppression of neurovascular development. PMID:23782686

  16. Sperm economy between female mating frequency and male ejaculate allocation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Kamimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply is a major question in evolutionary biology. Furthermore, if females accept matings more than once, ejaculates from different males compete for fertilization (sperm competition), which confronts males with the decision of how to allocate their reproductive resources to each mating event. Although most existing models have examined either female mating frequency or male ejaculate allocation while assuming fixed levels of the opposite sex's strategies, these strategies are likely to coevolve. To investigate how the interaction of the two sexes' strategies is influenced by the level of sperm limitation in the population, we developed models in which females adjust their number of allowable matings and males allocate their ejaculate in each mating. Our model predicts that females mate only once or less than once at an even sex ratio or in an extremely female-biased condition, because of female resistance and sperm limitation in the population, respectively. However, in a moderately female-biased condition, males favor partitioning their reproductive budgets across many females, whereas females favor multiple matings to obtain sufficient sperm, which contradicts the predictions of most existing models. We discuss our model's predictions and relationships with the existing models and demonstrate applications for empirical findings.

  17. International online survey: female ejaculation has a positive impact on women's and their partners' sexual lives.

    PubMed

    Wimpissinger, Florian; Springer, Christopher; Stackl, Walter

    2013-07-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Genital secretions during female orgasm (female ejaculation) have been a matter of controversy for centuries. Scientific work on this essential part of female sexual function has been able to differentiate between female ejaculation, urinary incontinence and vaginal transudate. According to earlier studies, less than 50% of women actually do ejaculate during sexual stimulation. Few affected women discuss female ejaculation with their physician--partly because of its physiological nature, partly through embarrassment. To gain knowledge on the characteristics of female ejaculation and its impact on women's sexual lives, an online questionnaire has been designed and published internationally. In this way, data from 320 women who perceive ejaculation could be acquired. Most women and their partners perceive female ejaculation as an enrichment of their sexual lives. To study characteristics of female ejaculation as perceived by healthy women. To evaluate whether fluid emission during sexual activity has an impact on women's or their partners' sexual lives. An online questionnaire consisting of 23 questions addressing the participants' characteristics, aspects of perceived female ejaculation, and its impact on women's and their partners' lives was published internationally on various online platforms. Over a period of 18 months, 320 women from all over the world were included in the study (excluding women below the age of 18 years and double entries). The women's mean age was 34.1 years (±11.1) and their mean age at first ejaculation was 25.4 years. Most women ejaculate a few times a week. The volume of ejaculation is approximately 2 oz (29.1%), and the fluid is usually clear as water (83.1%). For most women (78.8%) and their partners (90.0%), female ejaculation is an enrichment of their sexual lives, whereas 14 women (4.4%) stated that their partners were unaware of their potential ejaculation. Perceived

  18. Do Men Produce Higher Quality Ejaculates When Primed With Thoughts of Partner Infidelity?

    PubMed

    Pham, Michael N; Barbaro, Nicole; Holub, Andrew M; Holden, Christopher J; Mogilski, Justin K; Lopes, Guilherme S; Nicolas, Sylis C A; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Welling, Lisa L M

    2018-01-01

    Sperm competition theory can be used to generate the hypothesis that men alter the quality of their ejaculates as a function of sperm competition risk. Using a repeated measures experimental design, we investigated whether men produce a higher quality ejaculate when primed with cues to sperm competition (i.e., imagined partner infidelity) relative to a control prime. Men ( n = 45) submitted two masturbatory ejaculates-one ejaculate sample for each condition (i.e., sperm competition and control conditions). Ejaculates were assessed on 17 clinical parameters. The results did not support the hypothesis: Men did not produce higher quality ejaculates in the sperm competition condition relative to the control condition. Despite the null results of the current research, there is evidence for psychological and physiological adaptations to sperm competition in humans. We discuss methodological limitations that may have produced the null results and present methodological suggestions for research on human sperm competition.

  19. The effect of sperm concentration in the ejaculate on morphological traits of bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kondracki, Stanisław; Banaszewska, Dorota; Wysokńjska, Anna; Iwanina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 75 ejaculates obtained from 19 bulls representing different cattle breeds used at the Masovian Centre for Animal Breeding and Reproduction in Łowicz. Fresh ejaculates were measured in respect to their volume and sperm count in the ejaculates was determined. The ejaculates were classified based on the criterion of sperm concentration and divided into five groups. Sperm morphometric measurements were taken from each bull and assessment of semen morphology was done on the basis of examination under a microscope using preparations made from fresh ejaculates. For each slide, morphometric measurements were taken of 15 randomly selected spermatozoa characterised by normal morphology and well visible under the microscope. Additionally, in each preparation morphometry of 500 spermatozoa was evaluated, numbers of spermatozoa with normal morphology and morphological abnormalities were recorded and these were categorized into spermatozoa with major and minor defects. An insignificant correlation was observed between the sperm concentration in the ejaculate and morphological traits, dimensions and shapes of bull spermatozoa. The less concentrated ejaculates contained spermatozoa with a slightly larger head circumference and a more elongated head shape in comparison with the spermatozoa in the more concentrated ejaculates. The highest frequency of morphologically malformed spermatozoa, both in the case of primary and secondary alterations, was observed in ejaculates with sperm concentration of no more than 1000 x 10(3)/mm3.

  20. Ejaculate of sneaker males is pheromonally inconspicuous in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Locatello, L; Mazzoldi, C; Rasotto, M B

    2002-11-01

    The black goby, Gobius niger, shows alternative male mating tactics, i.e., parental and sneaker males. Males release a sexual pheromone that attracts females and stimulates aggressive displays in males. This pheromone is produced by the mesorchial gland, a structure well developed in parental males but markedly undeveloped in sneakers. We measured the behavioral response of parental males to the ejaculates of males performing different reproductive tactics. Parental males reacted to the ejaculate of other parental males, with stereotypic aggressive behaviors, but not to the ejaculate of sneakers; consequently sneaker male ejaculate appears to be pheromonally inconspicuous. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... they leave the hospital for home. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) What It Is: ROP is an eye ... sometimes seen in preterm babies include anemia of prematurity (a low red blood cell count) and heart ...

  2. Female ejaculation orgasm vs. coital incontinence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Zlatko

    2013-07-01

    Women may expel various kinds of fluids during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Their origins, quantity, compositions, and expulsion mechanisms depend on anatomical and pathophysiological dispositions and the degree of sexual arousal. These are natural sexual responses but may also represent symptoms of urinary incontinence. The study aims to clarify the etiology of fluid leakage at orgasm, distinguish between associated physiological sexual responses, and differentiate these phenomena from symptoms of illness. A systematic literature review was performed. EMBASE (OvidSP) and Web of Science databases were searched for the articles on various phenomena of fluid expulsions in women during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Articles included focused on female ejaculation and its variations, coital incontinence (CI), and vaginal lubrication. Female ejaculation orgasm manifests as either a female ejaculation (FE) of a smaller quantity of whitish secretions from the female prostate or a squirting of a larger amount of diluted and changed urine. Both phenomena may occur simultaneously. The prevalence of FE is 10-54%. CI is divided into penetration and orgasmic forms. The prevalence of CI is 0.2-66%. Penetration incontinence occurs more frequently and is usually caused by stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Urodynamic diagnoses of detrusor overactivity (DOA) and SUI are observed in orgasmic incontinence. Fluid expulsions are not typically a part of female orgasm. FE and squirting are two different physiological components of female sexuality. FE was objectively evidenced only in tens of cases but its reported high prevalence is based mostly on subjective questionnaire research. Pathophysiology of squirting is rarely documented. CI is a pathological sign caused by urethral disorder, DOA, or a combination of both, and requires treatment. An in-depth appreciation of these similar but pathophysiologically distinct phenomena is essential for distinguishing normal, physiological sexual

  3. Differential distribution of sperm subpopulations and incidence of pleiomorphisms in ejaculates of captive howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, R. R.; Carvalho, F. M.; Muniz, J. A. P. C.; Leal, C. L. V.; García-Herreros, M.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an objective method to determine the incidence of pleiomorphisms and its influence on the distribution of sperm morphometric subpopulations in ejaculates of howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya) by using a combination of computerized analysis system (ASMA) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. Ejaculates were collected by electroejaculation methods on a regular basis from five individuals maintained under identical captive environmental, nutritional, and management conditions. Each sperm head was measured for dimensional parameters (Area [ A, (square micrometers)], Perimeter [ P, (micrometers)], Length [ L, (micrometers)], and Width [ W, (micrometers)]) and shape-derived parameters (Ellipticity [( L/ W)], Elongation [( L - W)/( L + W)], and Rugosity [(4л A/ P 2)]). PCA revealed two principal components explaining more than the 96 % of the variance. Clustering methods and discriminant analyzes were performed and seven separate subpopulations were identified. There were differences ( P < 0.001) in the distribution of the seven subpopulations as well as in the incidence of abnormal pleiomorphisms (58.6 %, 49.8 %, 35.1 %, 66.4 %, and 55.1 %, P < 0.05) among the five donors tested. Our results indicated that differences among individuals related to the incidence of pleiomorphisms, and sperm subpopulational structure was not related to the captivity conditions or the sperm collection method, since all individuals were studied under identical conditions. In conclusion, the combination of ASMA and PCA is a useful clinical diagnostic resource for detecting deficiencies in sperm morphology and sperm subpopulations in A. caraya ejaculates that could be used in ex situ conservation programs of threatened species in Alouatta genus or even other endangered neotropical primate species.

  4. Psychosexual therapy for delayed ejaculation based on the Sexual Tipping Point model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Sexual Tipping Point® (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring. Regardless of the degree of organic etiology present, DE is exacerbated by insufficient stimulation: an inadequate combination of “friction and fantasy”. High frequency negative thoughts may neutralize erotic cognitions (fantasy) and subsequently delay, ameliorate, or inhibit ejaculation, while partner stimulation (friction) may prove unsatisfying. Assessment requires a thorough sexual history including inquiry into masturbatory methods. Many men with DE engage in an idiosyncratic masturbatory style, defined as a masturbation technique not easily duplicated by the partner’s hand, mouth, or vagina. The clinician’s most valuable diagnostic tool is a focused sex history (sex status). Differentiate DE from other sexual problems and review the conditions under which the man can ejaculate. Perceived partner attractiveness, the use of fantasy during sex, anxiety-surrounding coitus and masturbatory patterns require meticulous exploration. Identify important DE causes by juxtaposing an awareness of his cognitions and the sexual stimulation experienced during masturbation, versus a partnered experience. Assist the man in identifying behaviors that enhance immersion in excitation and minimize inhibiting thoughts, in order to reach ejaculation in his preferred manner. Discontinuing, reducing or altering masturbation is often required, which evokes patient resistance

  5. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants <2 years of age. Data were obtained from all completed phase I–III clinical trials with micafungin that had enrolled infants (<2 years of age) that were listed in the Astellas Clinical Study Database. Demographics, adverse events, hepatic function tests and treatment success data were extracted and validated by the Astellas biostatistical group for all micafungin-treated patients, <2 years of age, using the unique patient identifier. Results: One-hundred and sixteen patients included in 9 clinical trials, 48% premature [birth weight (BW) <2500 g and/or gestational age <37 weeks], 52% non-premature, received ≥1 dose of micafungin. Among premature patients, 14.5% were low BW (1500–2499 g), 36.4% very low BW (1000–1499 g) and 49.1% extremely low BW (<1000 g). Ninety patients (78%) completed the studies; 13 [11% (4 premature)] died. Significantly more non-premature than premature patients discontinued treatment (P = 0.003). Treatment-related adverse events were recorded in 23% of patients with no difference between groups. More extremely low BW (n = 4, 15%) and very low BW (n = 8, 40%) infants experienced treatment-related adverse events than low BW (n = 0) and there was no relation to micafungin dose or duration. For a subgroup of 30 patients with invasive candidiasis, treatment success was achieved in 73% in both premature and non-premature groups. Prophylaxis was successful in 4/5 non-premature hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Conclusion: Micafungin has a safe profile in premature and non-premature infants with substantial efficacy. PMID:24892849

  6. First stirrings: cultural notes on orgasm, ejaculation, and wet dreams.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Diederik F

    2007-05-01

    Both the findings and the limitations of numeric milestone research in sexology have a bearing on the pedagogical status of pleasure, as well as the cultural underpinnings of the notion of a psychosexual milestone. An overview is offered of international data pertaining to the chronology of three "milestones" in sexual autobiography: first orgasm (orgasmarche), first ejaculation (oigarche), and first wet dream (nocturnal emission). Methodological problems associated with the measurement of these variables are discussed. These problems are then situated in a culturalist perspective. It is concluded that orgasms are cultural artifacts in terms of their chronological occurrence as well as perceived salience, necessity, and "age appropriateness".

  7. Effect of sperm concentration in an ejaculate on morphometric traits of spermatozoa in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Kondracki, S; Wysokińska, A; Iwanina, M; Banaszewska, D; Sitarz, D

    2011-01-01

    The experimental material consisted of 75 ejaculates collected form 8 Duroc boars. The ejaculates were divided into three groups according to sperm concentration in an ejaculate. An ejaculate was obtained from each boar monthly and it was used to make microscopic preparations to examine spermatozoa morphology. In each preparation morphometric measurements were taken of fifteen randomly selected spermatozoa characterized by normal morphology. The following measurements of spermatozoa were taken: length and width of the spermatozoa head, head area, length of the flagellum, perimeter of the spermatozoon head and total spermatozoon length. The results were used to calculate indicators of spermatozoa morphology. Moreover, assessments were made of frequency of morphological defects to isolate spermatozoa with primary and secondary abnormalities following the Blom classification system. It was found that the concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculate influenced the morphometric characteristics of spermatozoa. Ejaculates with low sperm concentrations are characterized by larger spermatozoa as compared to ejaculates with high sperm concentrations. However, sperm concentration in the ejaculate does not much influence the shape of spermatozoa.

  8. Correlated evolution between male ejaculate allocation and female remating behaviour in seed beetles (Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Katvala, M; Rönn, J L; Arnqvist, G

    2008-03-01

    Sperm competition theory suggests that female remating rate determines the selective regime that dictates the evolution of male ejaculate allocation. To test for correlated evolution between female remating behaviour and male ejaculate traits, we subjected detailed experimental data on female and male reproductive traits in seven-seed beetle species to phylogenetic comparative analyses. The evolution of a larger first ejaculate was positively correlated with the evolution of a more rapid decline in ejaculate size over successive matings. Further, as predicted by theory, an increase in female remating rate correlated with the evolution of larger male testes but smaller ejaculates. However, an increase in female remating was associated with the evolution of a less even allocation of ejaculate resources over successive matings, contrary to classic sperm competition theory. We failed to find any evidence for coevolution between the pattern of male ejaculate allocation and variation in female quality and we conclude that some patterns of correlated evolution are congruent with current theory, whereas some are not. We suggest that this may reflect the fact that much sperm competition theory does not fully incorporate other factors that may affect the evolution of male and female traits, such as trade-offs between ejaculate expenditure and other competing demands and the evolution of resource acquisition.

  9. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility.

    PubMed

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D; Piffer, Renata C; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A; Lameu, Claudiana; de Camargo, Antônio C M; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M; Pupo, André S

    2009-09-15

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg(-1), ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca(2+) transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg(-1) increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 microM greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 microM there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl(2). In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 microM inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca(2+) may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  10. Male crickets adjust ejaculate quality with both risk and intensity of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Denholm, Amy; Jackson, Chantelle; Levy, Esther; Madon, Ewa

    2007-10-22

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should increase their expenditure on the ejaculate with increasing risk of sperm competition, but decrease their expenditure with increasing intensity. There is accumulating evidence for sperm competition theory, based on examinations of testes size and/or the numbers of sperm ejaculated. However, recent studies suggest that ejaculate quality can also be subject to selection by sperm competition. We used experimental manipulations of the risk and intensity of sperm competition in the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. We found that males produced ejaculates with a greater percentage of live sperm when they had encountered a rival male prior to mating. However, when mating with a female that presented a high intensity of sperm competition, males did not respond to risk, but produced ejaculates with a reduced percentage of live sperm. Our data suggest that males exhibit a fine-tuned hierarchy of responses to these cues of sperm competition.

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity and neurodevelopmental disabilities in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Beligere, Nagamani; Perumalswamy, Vijayalaksmi; Tandon, Manish; Mittal, Amit; Floora, Jayasheele; Vijayakumar, B; Miller, Marilyn T

    2015-10-01

    Prematurity is a major global health issue leading to high mortality and morbidity among the survivors. Neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are the most common complications of prematurity. In fact, ROP is the second leading cause of childhood blindness in the world. Although there is much information regarding the occurrence of ROP and of NDD in premature infants, there have been few studies on ROP and its association with NDD. The objectives of this article are to review the current literature on the subject and to publish our own findings concerning the association between ROP and NDD in premature infants. The review suggests that although NDDs are related to degree of prematurity, NDD could also be the result of visual impairments resulting from ROP. Our own study shows a close association between NDD and zonal involvement of ROP: higher NDD if zone 1 is involved and less if zone 3 is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ejaculation profiles of men following radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John F; Stember, Doron S; Deveci, Serkan; Akin-Olugbade, Yemi; Mulhall, John P

    2013-05-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is associated with anejaculation, which for some men is a source of bother and sexual dissatisfaction. Clinical experience has shown us some men after pelvic radiation therapy (RT) also experience anejaculation. This analysis was conducted to define the ejaculation profiles of men after RT for prostate cancer (PCa). As a routine part of the sexual health evaluation for post-RT patients, men provided information regarding their ejaculatory function and orgasm. Analysis was conducted of a sexual medicine database reviewing demographic data, PCa factors, erectile, ejaculatory, and orgasmic function. Men with prior history of RP, cryotherapy, focal therapies, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were excluded. Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire at follow-up visits commencing with the first posttreatment visit and specific attention was paid to the IIEF orgasm domain. Three hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients were included. Two hundred and fifty-two patients had external beam, and 112 patients had brachytherapy (BT). Mean age was 64 ± 11 (42-78) years and mean follow-up after RT was 6 ± 4.5 years. Mean prostate size at time of RT was 42 ± 21 g. Of the entire population, 72% lost the ability to ejaculate in an antegrade fashion after prostate RT by their last visit. The proportion experiencing anejaculation at 1, 3, and 5 years after RT was 16%, 69%, and 89%, respectively. For men with at least two IIEF questionnaires completed, the orgasm domain scores decreased dramatically over the follow-up period; orgasm domain scores (0-10): <12 months post-RT 7.4, 13-24 months 5.4, 25-36 months 3.2, >36 months 2.8 (P < 0.01). Multivariable analysis identified several factors predictive of failure to ejaculate: older age, ADT, RT dose > 100 Gy, and smaller prostates at the time of RT. The vast majority of men after prostate RT will experience anejaculation and should be

  13. Prematurity and bone health.

    PubMed

    Pieltain, C; de Halleux, V; Senterre, Th; Rigo, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in neonatal care significantly increases survival rate in preterm and particularly in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW infants) and nutrition is becoming one of the most challenging issue to improve short and long term health and developmental outcomes. Nutrition is also relevant for bone development and mineralization reducing the risk of osteopenia and metabolic bone disease (MBD). Osteopenia of prematurity is a multifactorial disease including predominantly nutritional but also biomechanical and environmental factors. At birth, the fetal active mineral transfer is interrupted and the preterm becomes related to the parenteral and enteral mineral supplies. On the other hand, physiological adaptation of bone to extra uterine life leads to an increase in bone resorption. This process occurring earlier in preterm than in term infants can be accompanied by an increased risk of bone fragility and fractures. Early provision of highly bioavailable mineral supplies, correction of vitamin D deficiency and the screening of serum phosphorus concentration combined to urinary mineral excretion appears to be helpful for the prevention of MBD. When available, DEXA is more sensitive than ultrasound for quantifying osteopenia in VLBW infants at the time of discharge. Catch-up of mineralization is rapidly observed during the post term period and osteopenia of prematurity seems to be a self-resolving disease although the potential long-term consequences on the attainment of peak bone mass remains uncertain. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Quality and freezing qualities of first and second ejaculates collected from endangered Gulf Coast Native rams.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, L; Harding, G D; Chandler, J E; Chenevert, J F; Damiani, P; Fernandez, J M; Humes, P E; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2006-10-01

    The Gulf Coast Native sheep, or Louisiana Native sheep, is an endangered previously feral domestic sheep population of European origin that has been under natural selection pressure for reproductive survival in their transplanted range while roaming in the southern Gulf Coast Region of the United States. This sheep population has an increased natural resistance to internal parasites, breeds year-around and has a greater percentage of live lambs as compared with other breeds of sheep raised in similar environments. To preserve the genetic diversity of this important feral sheep population, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation and subjected to cryopreservation for subsequent storage in a genome resource bank. Unrelated rams (n=5) were collected 3 days-a-week, allowing at least 2 days of rest between collections. Two ejaculates were obtained from each ram per collection day, with the second collection conducted 10min after the first ejaculation. Semen was processed using the standard Salamon cryopreservation procedure in a Tris-yolk-glycerol extender, frozen in 0.5ml plastic straws using liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor and stored in LN(2). Each ejaculate was evaluated for volume, sperm concentration/ml (x10(9)/ml), number of spermatozoa/ejaculate (x10(9)), sperm progressive motility (%) for pre-cooled semen, cooled semen and semen after thawing. For the five rams, each semen variable for the first ejaculate was compared with that of the second ejaculate collected 10min later. The mean semen volume, sperm concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate obtained from the first ejaculate were significantly greater (P< or =0.01) than those of the second ejaculate (comparisons being 1.62 and 1.06; 3.2 and 1.5; 5.4 and 1.8, respectively). Overall, the mean motility of pre-cooled (22 degrees Celsius), cooled (5 degrees Celsius) and frozen (-196 degrees Celsius) post-thawed spermatozoa was less (P< or =0.01) in the first ejaculate (71.5, 64.8 and 34.1%, respectively

  15. SSRIs and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose study with paroxetine and citalopram.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-12-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to induce delayed orgasm and ejaculation. However, different SSRIs may differentially delay ejaculation. A double-blind, fixed-dose study in healthy men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to evaluate potential differences between clinically relevant doses of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine and citalopram, in their effects on ejaculation. Thirty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) less than 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day) and citalopram (20 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after taking half the dosage in the first week. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home by using a stopwatch procedure. The trial was completed by 23 men. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.0004); the IELT after paroxetine and citalopram gradually increased from 18 and 21 seconds to approximately 170 and 44 seconds, respectively. Paroxetine 20 mg/day exerted a strong delay (8.9-fold increase), whereas citalopram 20 mg/day mildly delayed ejaculation (1.8-fold increase). These results indicate that paroxetine leads to a significant delay in orgasm and ejaculation, whereas citalopram seems to have less of an effect on it.

  16. Ejaculate traits in the Namibian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): influence of age, season and captivity.

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Marker, Laurie; Howard, JoGayle; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Henghali, Josephine N; Wildt, David E

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of animal age, season and captivity status on seminal quality in wild-born cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia, Africa. Animals were divided into three age categories: juvenile (14-24 months; n = 16 males, 23 ejaculates); adult (25-120 months; n = 76 males, 172 ejaculates); and aged (>120 months; n = 5 males, 5 ejaculates). Seasons were categorised into hot-wet (January-April), cold-dry (May-August) and hot-dry (September-December). A comparison between freshly wild-caught (n = 29 males, 41 ejaculates) and captive-held cheetahs (n = 68 males, 159 ejaculates) was also conducted. Raw ejaculates contained 69.0 +/- 1.1% motile spermatozoa (mean +/- s.e.m.) with 73.6 +/- 1.5% of these cells containing an intact acrosome. Overall, 18.4 +/- 0.9% of spermatozoa were morphologically normal, with midpiece anomalies being the most prevalent (approximately 39%) defect. Juvenile cheetahs produced ejaculates with poorer sperm motility, forward progressive status, lower seminal volume and fewer total motile spermatozoa than adult and aged animals. Spermatogenesis continued unabated throughout the year and was minimally influenced by season. Proportions of sperm malformations were also not affected by season. Ejaculates from captive cheetahs had increased volume and intact acrosomes, but lower sperm density than wild-caught counterparts. In summary, Namibian cheetahs produce an extraordinarily high proportion of pleiomorphic spermatozoa regardless of age, season or living (captive versus free-ranging) status. Young males less than 2 years of age produce poorer ejaculate quality than adult and aged males. Because (1) all study animals were wild born and (2) there was little difference between freshly caught males and those maintained in captivity for protracted periods, our results affirm that teratospermia in the cheetah is mostly genetically derived. It also appears that an ex situ environment for the Namibian cheetah can ensure sperm

  17. Retinopathy of prematurity: a new epidemic?

    PubMed

    Gibson, D L; Sheps, S B; Schechter, M T; Wiggins, S; McCormick, A Q

    1989-04-01

    This study provides the first empiric evidence for the existence of a new epidemic of retinopathy of prematurity-induced blindness. Data from a population-based register of handicapping conditions in the Canadian province of British Columbia, and a birth weight-specific census of live-born infants in British Columbia, were used to determine annual, population-level incidences of retinopathy of prematurity-induced blindness during 1952 to 1983. Changes in incidence since the end of the original epidemic (1954) were determined by subdividing the 29-year period (1955 to 1983) into two intervals (1955 to 1964 and 1965 to 1983). Standardized incidence ratio analyses revealed a marginally significant increase in the overall incidence of retinopathy of prematurity-induced blindness in the later as compared with the earlier period. Infants weighing 750 to 999 g at birth had a significantly increased standardized incidence ratio of 3.07 (95% confidence interval 1.26, 11.06). No increases in risk were observed in heavier or lighter weight infants. Because ascertainment and diagnostic changes do not explain the weight-specific increases in incidence, these results provide the first population-level evidence for a new epidemic.

  18. Time-to-ejaculation and the quality of semen produced by masturbation at a clinic.

    PubMed

    Elzanaty, Saad

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the association between the length of time-to-ejaculation and semen parameters. Ejaculates from 142 men under infertility assessment were analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Seminal neutral alpha-glucosidase (NAG), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), zinc, and fructose were also measured. Three groups according to the length of the time-to-ejaculation were defined: G(<10) (<10 minutes), G(10-15) (10 to 15 minutes), and G(>15) (greater than 15 minutes). Time to ejaculation showed negative significant correlation with sperm concentration (rho = -0.20, P = 0.02), total sperm count (rho = -0.20, P = 0.04), NAG (rho = -0.20, P = 0.01), and fructose (rho = -0.30, P = 0.02), respectively. No significant correlations existed among the time-to-ejaculation and age, sexual abstinence, semen volume, sperm motility, PSA, and zinc. There were negative significant associations among time-to-ejaculation and sperm concentration (beta = -3.0; P = 0.004), total sperm count (beta = -10; P = 0.02), total count of progressive motility (beta = -7.0; P = 0.02), and fructose (beta = -0.30; P = 0.02), respectively. No significant associations existed among the time-to-ejaculation and semen volume, motility grades, NAG, PSA, and zinc. G(<10) was characterized by higher sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total count of progressive motility compared with G(10-15) (mean difference = 33 x 10(6)/mL; P = 0.01), (mean difference = 96 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.50), (mean difference = 77 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.02), respectively, and G(>15) (mean difference = 50 x 10(6)/mL; P = 0.01), (mean difference = 176 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.02), (mean difference = 110 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.03), respectively. Fructose was significantly higher in G(<10) compared with G(>15) (mean difference = 5.0 mmol/L; P = 0.03). The time-to-ejaculation length was associated with semen parameters. These results might reflect the negative effect of acute stress during semen

  19. [Retinopathy of prematurity].

    PubMed

    Promelle, V; Milazzo, S

    2017-05-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a retinal vasoproliferative disease affecting extremely preterm infants exposed to high concentrations of oxygen therapy. Infants born before 32 post-menstrual weeks or with a birth weight of less than 1500g should systematically have a dilated fundus examination. The time of screening and schedule for follow-up are guided by the various risk factors. This disease results from immaturity of the peripheral retinal vessels at the time of premature birth. The classification of ROP depends on the anteroposterior extent of involvement (from center to periphery: zone I, II and III), its extension in 30° sectors (clock hours) and its stage (stage 1 to 5). "Plus" disease is defined as dilation and tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels in the posterior pole of the eye and represents a major risk factor for rapid unfavorable progression. A majority of patients will spontaneously recover, but patients with a high risk of progression will require treatment to prevent retinal detachment and blindness. The indications for treatment are threshold disease and type 1 pre-threshold disease. The current treatment of choice is peripheral retinal ablation with transpupillary laser, but ab externo cryotherapy may be used instead. Intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors may be an attractive therapeutic option and is currently under investigation. After laser treatment, unfavorable outcomes occur in only 9 to 14 % of eyes, but at the price of peripheral retinal destruction. For all patients, whether treated or not, a regular fundus examination should be insured until complete retinal vascularization has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods for a Rapid Systematic Review and Metaanalysis in Evaluating Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Premature Ejaculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn-St. James, Marrissa; Cooper, Katy; Kaltenthaler, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a rapid systematic review method in which randomised controlled trial (RCT) data was extracted from existing reviews and subsequent RCTs. The method enabled: identification of RCTs not included by existing reviews; cross-checking RCT data for consistency where there was more than one review; double data…

  1. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility

    SciTech Connect

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A.

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loadedmore » with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg{sup -1} reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg{sup -1} increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 {mu}M greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 {mu}M there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl{sub 2}. In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 {mu}M inhibited intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.« less

  2. Within-population variation in ejaculate characteristics in a prolonged breeder, Peron's tree frog, Litoria peronii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Craig D. H.; Uller, Tobias; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2008-11-01

    Sperm number is often a good predictor of success in sperm competition; however, it has become increasingly clear that, for some species, variation in probability of paternity cannot be explained by sperm number alone. Intraspecific variation in ejaculate characteristics, such as the number of viable sperm and sperm longevity, may play an equally important role in determining fertilization success. Here, we assess variation among ejaculates in three factors that may contribute to fertilization success (number of sperm per ejaculate, viability, and longevity), in a population of Peron’s tree frog ( Litoria peronii). We detected large variation among males in the number of sperm per ejaculate and the proportion of viable sperm within ejaculates, which could not be explained by variation in either male size or body condition. However, the proportion of viable sperm released by males increased over the season. Finally, we assessed sperm longevity (proportion viable sperm determined using a dual-fluorochrome vital dye) at two different temperatures. At 23°C, on average, 75% of sperm remained viable after 2 h, but there were significant differences amongst males with the percentage of viable sperm ranging from 43% to 95%. For sperm incubated at 4°C, ejaculates varied fivefold in sperm longevity with some males having 50% viable sperm after 5 days. Our data suggest that ejaculate characteristics (sperm number, viability, and longevity) vary widely in Peron’s tree frog and may therefore play an important role in determining siring success both in the presence and absence of sperm competition. We discuss the results in relation to selection on ejaculate traits via natural and sexual selection in this and other amphibians.

  3. Ejaculate components delay reproductive senescence while elevating female reproductive rate in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard A.; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Increased female reproductive rates usually result in accelerated senescence. This correlation provides a link between the evolutionary conflict of the sexes and aging when ejaculate components elevate female reproductive rates at the cost of future reproduction. It is not clear whether this female cost is manifest as shorter lifespan or an earlier onset or a steeper rate of reproductive senescence. It also is unclear whether beneficial ejaculates release females from reproductive trade-offs and, if so, which senescence parameters are affected. We examined these issues in the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, a long-lived insect that shows reduced female lifespan as well as female reproductive senescence at the male-determined mating frequency. We demonstrate experimentally that, independently of the mating frequency, females receiving more ejaculate show increased reproductive rates and enter reproductive senescence later than females receiving less ejaculate. The rate of reproductive senescence did not differ between treatments, and reproductive rates did not predict mortality. The ejaculate effects were consistent in inter- and intra-population crosses, suggesting they have not evolved recently and are not caused by inbreeding. Our results suggest that ejaculate components compensate for the costs of elevated female reproductive rates in bedbugs by delaying the onset of reproductive senescence. Ejaculate components that are beneficial to polyandrous females could have arisen because male traits that protect the ejaculate have positive pleiotropic effects and/or because female counteradaptations to antagonistic male traits exceed the neutralization of those traits. That males influence female reproductive senescence has important consequences for trade-offs between reproduction and longevity and for studies of somatic senescence. PMID:19996174

  4. The effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Ji; Yang, Go-Eun; Chueh, Hee Won; Park, Jae Hong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10–12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 (“early puberty”) and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 (“normal puberty”). We analyzed differences between these 2 groups in risk and sexual behaviors. Results Early first nocturnal ejaculation showed a positive association with sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–4.17), sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 5.00–11.10), and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 6.60; 95% CI, 3.94–11.08). After a multiple logistic regression to adjust for socio-demographic variables, early first nocturnal ejaculation was still positively associated with sexual intercourse (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 2.03–3.69), sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 3.47–10.22), and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.52–10.20). Early first nocturnal ejaculation was positively associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, and substance use. However, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for several socio-demographic variables. Conclusion There is a positive association between early nocturnal ejaculation and sexual behaviors in male adolescents. Proactive education about sexual behaviors is required for adolescents who reach sexual maturity early. PMID:28443258

  5. Ejaculate quality and constraints in relation to sperm competition levels among eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    The outcome of sperm competition is influenced by the relative quantity and quality of sperm among competing ejaculates. Whereas it is well established that individual ejaculate traits evolve rapidly under postcopulatory sexual selection, little is known about other factors that might influence the evolution of ejaculates. For example, the metabolic rate is likely to affect the sperm production rate and the cellular activity or metabolism of sperm, and it has recently been suggested to constrain the evolution of sperm length in large but not small mammals. I thus examined in eutherian mammals how ejaculate quality traits vary with one another and with testis mass, body size, and metabolism. I found all ejaculate traits to covary positively with one another and to increase with relative testis mass. When controlling for testis mass, small-bodied species showed superior sperm quality (but not sperm number). Furthermore, sperm motility and viability were positively associated with the mass-corrected metabolic rate, but the percentage of morphologically normal and acrosome-intact sperm were not. These results indicate that body size and the energy budget may also influence the evolution of ejaculate quality, although these influences appear to vary among traits. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  7. Immunology of Addison's disease and premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Husebye, Eystein S; Løvås, Kristian

    2009-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease and autoimmune ovarian insufficiency are caused by selective targeting by T and B lymphocytes to the steroidogenic apparatus in these organs. Autoantibodies toward 21-hydroxylase are a clinically useful marker for autoimmune Addison's disease. Autoantibodies to 21-hydroxylase are found in premature ovarian insufficiency, but others also can be present, notably antibodies against side-chain cleavage enzyme. The autoimmune response primarily targets the theca cells, yielding elevated concentrations of inhibin, which is emerging as a useful diagnostic marker for autoimmune etiology of ovarian insufficiency. Little is known about its immunogenetics, but in contrast to Addison's disease, several experimental models of autoimmune premature ovarian insufficiency are available for study.

  8. The Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis Among Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Matthew S.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Improved recognition of modifiable risk factors and antifungal prophylaxis have contributed to the recent decline in the incidence of this infection among infants. Invasive candidiasis typically occurs in the first six weeks of life and presents with non-specific signs of sepsis. Definitive diagnosis relies on growth of Candida in blood culture or cultures from other normally sterile sites, but this may identify fewer than half of cases. Improved diagnostics are needed to guide initiation of antifungal therapy in premature infants. PMID:25677999

  9. Apnea of Prematurity (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... large bursts of breath followed by periods of shallow breathing or stopped breathing. Apnea of prematurity usually ... seconds and is followed by several fast and shallow breaths. Periodic breathing doesn't cause a change ...

  10. Caring for Your Premature Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... being born premature increase my baby’s risk of cerebral palsy or other chronic health conditions? Resources March of ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control ...

  11. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... to our health educators. GO On your baby's team Meet the people caring for your baby in ...

  12. Surfing and Swimming of Ejaculated Sperm in the Mouse Oviduct.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yu; Usui, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Misuzu; Kanemori, Yoshinori; Baba, Tadashi

    2016-04-01

    To accomplish fertilization in the oviductal ampulla, ejaculated sperm are required to migrate through the female reproductive tract. However, this fundamental process largely remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of oviductal smooth muscle (myosalpinx) contractions in the sperm migration. Administration of prifinium bromide, padrin, to mice effectively suppressed myosalpinx contractions, resulting in a decreased rate of fertilization in a dose-dependent manner, and an abrogation of high-speed back-and-forth/shuttling flows of oviductal fluids around the isthmus. Regardless of padrin administration, no shuttling flows were found near the ampulla. In the isthmus, sperm formed a tight assemblage that was synchronized with the shuttling flows. The sperm assemblage was gradually loosened and then completely abolished near the ampulla. No sperm assemblage was formed in the isthmus when padrin was administrated. These results suggest that myosalpinx contractions play important roles in the formation of sperm assemblage in the isthmus, and in the transport of the assemblage to the middle region of the oviduct. It is also suggested that the motility of sperm is essential for the migration of sperm from the middle oviductal region to the ampulla. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  13. Larger testes are associated with a higher level of polyandry, but a smaller ejaculate volume, across bushcricket species (Tettigoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim; Parker, Darren J.; Gilbert, James D. J.

    2011-01-01

    While early models of ejaculate allocation predicted that both relative testes and ejaculate size should increase with sperm competition intensity across species, recent models predict that ejaculate size may actually decrease as testes size and sperm competition intensity increase, owing to the confounding effect of potential male mating rate. A recent study demonstrated that ejaculate volume decreased in relation to increased polyandry across bushcricket species, but testes mass was not measured. Here, we recorded testis mass for 21 bushcricket species, while ejaculate (ampulla) mass, nuptial gift mass, sperm number and polyandry data were largely obtained from the literature. Using phylogenetic-comparative analyses, we found that testis mass increased with the degree of polyandry, but decreased with increasing ejaculate mass. We found no significant relationship between testis mass and either sperm number or nuptial gift mass. While these results are consistent with recent models of ejaculate allocation, they could alternatively be driven by substances in the ejaculate that affect the degree of polyandry and/or by a trade-off between resources spent on testes mass versus non-sperm components of the ejaculate. PMID:21068028

  14. Larger ejaculate volumes are associated with a lower degree of polyandry across bushcricket taxa

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim

    2006-01-01

    In numerous insects, including bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae), males are known to transfer substances in the ejaculate that inhibit the receptivity of females to further matings, but it has not yet been established whether these substances reduce the lifetime degree of polyandry of the female. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that larger ejaculate volumes should be associated with a lower degree of polyandry across tettigoniid taxa, controlling for male body mass and phylogeny. Data on ejaculate mass, sperm number, nuptial gift mass and male mass were taken primarily from the literature. The degree of polyandry for 14 species of European bushcrickets was estimated by counting the number of spermatodoses within the spermathecae of field-caught females towards the end of their adult lifespans. Data for four further species were obtained from the literature. Data were analysed by using both species regression and independent contrasts to control for phylogeny. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, as predicted, there was a significant negative association between the degree of polyandry and ejaculate mass, relative to male body mass, across bushcricket taxa. Nuptial gift size and sperm number, however, did not contribute further to interspecific variation in the degree of polyandry. A positive relationship was found, across bushcricket taxa, between relative nuptial gift size and relative ejaculate mass, indicating that larger nuptial gifts allow the male to overcome female resistance to accepting large ejaculates. This appears to be the first comparative evidence that males can manipulate the lifetime degree of polyandry of their mates through the transfer of large ejaculates. PMID:16928643

  15. Neural mechanisms of sexual behavior in the male rat: emphasis on ejaculation-related circuits.

    PubMed

    Veening, J G; Coolen, L M

    2014-06-01

    Sexual behavior of the male rat can be described as a 'sequence': a series of behavioral transitions eventually leading to a consummatory act: ejaculation. A 'funnel-model' is presented to describe the behavioral progression during the sexual sequence. The ejaculation itself is extensively controlled by the 'spinal ejaculation generator', consisting of several elements with afferent sources of genitosensory information, with ascending projection fibers to inform the brainstem and forebrain as well as with descending afferent fibers providing the supraspinal control mechanisms with the opportunity to restrict ejaculations to the optimal moments and circumstances. The messages ascending from the spinal cord reach several interconnected thalamic, hypothalamic and limbic brain areas and are integrated with olfactory information. These brain areas play a role in mechanisms like 'sexual satiety' or a temporary interruption of sexual activities (post-ejaculatory interval), but the exact facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms involved have not been elucidated yet. In the 'downward' mechanisms controlling the spinal 'release' of an ejaculation, the medial preoptic nucleus plays an important role in cooperation with a number of brainstem areas. This nucleus is also explicitly involved in the rewarding experiences coming with an ejaculation. Finally, the role of several neurotransmitters and-peptides on male sexual behavior are discussed shortly, because sometimes they show remarkable effects on specific aspects of the behavioral sequence. We conclude that, despite our increased knowledge about the brain mechanisms involved in the control of ejaculation, we are still far away from a complete understanding and quite a few questions remain to be resolved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  17. Quality of 4-hourly ejaculates--levels of calcium and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Valsa, J; Skandhan, K P; Gusani, P H; Sahab Khan, P; Amith, S

    2013-02-01

    A four-hourly ejaculation study was conducted in which eleven normal healthy subjects participated. Five of them discontinued after submitting three samples. One alone was present for submission at the end of 16 h (fifth ejaculate), which was his last submission. Physical exhaustion was the sole reason for all participants for their discontinuation from the study. The result showed a decrease in semen volume and sperm count from first to last ejaculate. The increase in motility was probably due to reduction in exposure time to sperm motility inhibitory factors. In general, total motile spermatozoa as well as actively motile spermatozoa progressively increased from first to last ejaculate at the cost of sluggish spermatozoa. A significant increase in seminal plasma calcium and magnesium was seen as well as a significant increase in magnesium inside the cell from the first to the fourth ejaculate. Considering the quality of semen, which was good in sperm count and excellent in motility, calcium and magnesium may be helpful in cleaning motility inhibitory factors of spermatozoa. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Morphometric and kinematic sperm subpopulations in split ejaculates of normozoospermic men

    PubMed Central

    Santolaria, Pilar; Soler, Carles; Recreo, Pilar; Carretero, Teresa; Bono, Araceli; Berné, José M; Yániz, Jesús L

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the sperm kinematic and morphometric subpopulations in the different fractions of the ejaculate in normozoospermic men. Ejaculates from eight normozoospermic men were collected by masturbation in three fractions after 3–5 days of sexual abstinence. Analyses of sperm motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA-Mot), and of sperm morphometry by computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph) using fluorescence were performed. Clustering and discriminant procedures were performed to identify sperm subpopulations in the kinematic and morphometric data obtained. Clustering procedures resulted in the classification of spermatozoa into three kinematic subpopulations (slow with low ALH [35.6% of all motile spermatozoa], with circular trajectories [32.0%], and rapid with high ALH [32.4%]), and three morphometric subpopulations (large-round [33.9% of all spermatozoa], elongated [32.0%], and small [34.10%]). The distribution of kinematic sperm subpopulations was different among ejaculate fractions (P < 0.001), with higher percentages of spermatozoa exhibiting slow movements with low ALH in the second and third portions, and with a more homogeneous distribution of kinematic sperm subpopulations in the first portion. The distribution of morphometric sperm subpopulations was also different among ejaculate fractions (P < 0.001), with more elongated spermatozoa in the first, and of small spermatozoa in the third, portion. It is concluded that important variations in the distribution of kinematic and morphometric sperm subpopulations exist between ejaculate fractions, with possible functional implications. PMID:27624985

  19. Educational paper: Retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Casteels, Ingele; Cassiman, Catherine; Van Calster, Joachim; Allegaert, Karel

    2012-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative retinal vascular disease affecting the premature infant with an incompletely vascularized retina. The spectrum of ophthalmological findings in ROP exists from minimal sequelae, which do not affect vision, to bilateral retinal detachment and total blindness. With the increased survival of very small infants, retinopathy of prematurity has become one of the leading causes of childhood blindness. Over the past two decades, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ROP, to a large extent as a result of changes in clinical risk factors (oxygen and non-oxygen related) and characteristics observed in ROP cases. This article provides a literature review on the evolution in clinical characteristics, classification and treatment modalities and indications of ROP. Special attention is hereby paid to the neonatal factors influencing the development of ROP and to the necessity for everyone caring for premature babies to have a well-defined screening and treatment protocol for ROP. Such screening protocol needs to be based on a unit-specific ROP risk profile and, consequently, may vary between different European regions. Retinopathy of prematurity is an important cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in children. With better understanding of the pathogenesis, screening and treatment guidelines have changed over time and are unit specific.

  20. Healthy live birth using theophylline in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Thomas; Shebl, Omar; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Moser, Marianne; Costamoling, Walter; Oppelt, Peter

    2014-02-01

    To analyze whether the use of ready-to-use theophylline is a feasible option in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Case report. In vitro fertilization unit of a public hospital. Thirty-one-year-old nulliparous woman, and 39-year-old male with retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Retrieval of postejaculatory urine, restoration of motility using a methylxanthine, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, single-embryo transfer. Sperm motility, fertilization, embryo quality, live birth. Successful fertilization and a single-embryo transfer resulted in a healthy live birth. Theophylline turned out to be a safe, efficient agent for stimulating immotile spermatozoa in patients with retrograde ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification, RNAi Knockdown and Functional Analysis of an Ejaculate Protein that Mediates a Postmating, Prezgotic Phenotype in a cricket

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male ejaculate proteins, including both sperm and seminal fluid proteins, play an important role in mediating reproductive biology. The function of ejaculate proteins can include enabling sperm-egg interactions, enhancing sperm storage, mediating female attractiveness, and even regulating female lif...

  2. Ejaculate and type of freezing extender affect rates of fertilization of horse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roasa, L M; Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Romo, S; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2007-09-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed on in vitro-matured equine oocytes in three experiments. Frozen-thawed sperm were prepared using swim-up separation and heparin treatment. In Experiment 1, fertilization was achieved with sperm from only one frozen ejaculate of four obtained from the same stallion. Within this ejaculate, fertilization rates were higher with fresh media, as compared to media held for 6-8 days before use (39.6% versus 7.3%, respectively; P<0.001). The type of bovine serum albumin used affected fertilization rates (4% versus 39.6%; P<0.001). To determine if IVF rates were influenced by factors associated with the freezing process (Experiment 2), a single ejaculate from a second stallion was frozen using eight variations in timing of steps in the freezing protocol. There were no differences among treatments in fertilization rates (range, 0-3%). In Experiment 3, fertilization rates of semen frozen in an extender containing 21.5% egg yolk were lower than fertilization rates of semen from the same ejaculate but frozen with a 3% egg-yolk extender (0% versus 15%, respectively; P<0.01). We inferred that rates of equine IVF with frozen-thawed sperm were influenced by ejaculate, the composition and age of the media used, and freezing extender. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ejaculate or extender differences affecting in vitro fertilization in this species. These factors may help to explain the great variability in fertilization rates reported with equine IVF, both among and within laboratories.

  3. [Ejaculatory profile: a pressure of 5 meters H2O at the level of the bladder neck during ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Hugonnet, Christophe L; Böhlen, Dominik; Schmid, Hans-Peter

    2002-12-01

    The existence of a pressure gradient in order to prevent retrograde ejaculation in men with no ejaculatory disorders has always been postulated, but without any scientific evidence. The profile of the prostatic urethra was recorded during ejaculation in 5 men with no ejaculatory disorders using a 10 F balloon catheter with 16 pressure channels, situated in pairs every 5 mm, starting just below the balloon in the bladder neck and extending as far as the external urethral sphincter. The pressure in the proximal part of the proximal urethra was 500 cm H2O in the five men, but this pressure did not exceed 400 cm H2O distally as far as the colliculus seminalis. The authors present a new method for recording the urethral pressure profile during ejaculation (ejaculatory profile). This study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of normal ejaculation and could be useful for the evaluation of disorders of ejaculation.

  4. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  5. Complications of Prematurity - An Infographic

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Praveen; Rawat, Munmun; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2017-01-01

    Infographics or information graphics are easy-to-understand visual representation of knowledge. An infographic outlining the course of an extremely preterm infant and various potential complications encountered during a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay was developed. This infographic can be used to discuss outcomes of prematurity during prenatal counseling and while the infant is in the NICU. PMID:29138522

  6. Noninvasive Ventilation in Premature Neonates.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Keri Ann

    2016-04-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.

  7. Premature Needle Loss of Spruce

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; Joseph G. O Brien

    1990-01-01

    Premature needle loss on white, black and Norway spruce has been observed in forest plantations in Wisconsin and Minnesota during the past six years. Symptoms vary by species but usually appear first in 2-4-year old needles on lower branches. Infected needles are dropped, resulting in branch mortality that progresses upward through the crown, sometimes killing even...

  8. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  9. Quality of seminal fluids varies with type of stimulus at ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jeannerat, E.; Janett, F.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.; Burger, D.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of ejaculate economics was mainly built around different sperm competition scenarios but also predicts that investments into ejaculates depend on female fecundity. Previous tests of this prediction focused on invertebrates and lower vertebrate, and on species with high female reproductive potential. It remains unclear whether the prediction also holds for polygynous mammals with low female reproductive potential (due to low litter size and long inter-birth intervals). We used horses (Equus caballus) to experimentally test whether semen characteristics are adjusted to the oestrous cycle of the mare a stallion is exposed to during few moments before ejaculation. We analysed 122 weekly semen samples collected from 16 stallions during exposure to either an oestrous or a dioestrous mare. Semen volume and the rate of motile sperm were higher when stallions were exposed to an oestrous than to a diestrous mare, while total sperm counts and sperm velocity remained unchanged. Sperm collected after exposure to an oestrous mare also showed reduced oxidative degeneration of cell membranes over a period of 48 hours. We conclude that stallions invest more into their seminal fluids when the chance of fertilization is elevated, and that this adjustment of ejaculate quality can happen very quickly. PMID:28287188

  10. Five meters of H(2)O: the pressure at the urinary bladder neck during human ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Böhlen, D; Hugonnet, C L; Mills, R D; Weise, E S; Schmid, H P

    2000-09-01

    There are no data in the literature on pressure changes in the prostatic urethra during ejaculation. In healthy men, it has always been postulated that there must be a pressure gradient in order to prevent retrograde ejaculation, but scientific proof for that is pending. In five healthy male volunteers, the pressure profile in the prostatic urethra was registered during ejaculation, using a 10 French balloon catheter with 16 pressure channels. The channels were arranged in pairs at 5-mm intervals, beginning just below the balloon at the bladder neck and extending down to the external urethral sphincter. In the proximal part of the prostatic urethra, a pressure of up to 500 cm of H(2)O was measured in all subjects. Contrary to that, pressures did not exceed 400 cm of H(2)O distally to the verumontanum. A novel method to register the pressure profile in the lower urinary tract during ejaculation (ejaculomanometry) is presented. This study adds to the knowledge of the normal physiology of reproductive function and may be useful in the evaluation of male sexual and reproductive disorders. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  12. Influence of season and frequency of ejaculation on production of stallion semen for freezing.

    PubMed

    Magistrini, M; Chanteloube, P; Palmer, E

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to define optimal season and ejaculation frequency for frozen semen, semen was collected from 6 stallions (3 horses and 3 ponies) 3 times per week or every day, alternating every week, for 1 year. The semen was evaluated and frozen. All the samples were thawed at the end of the experiment. At collection, fresh semen evaluations showed that winter (as opposed to spring and summer) was associated with low sexual behaviour, small volumes of spermatozoa and gel, high sperm concentration and lower motility. The high ejaculation frequency yielded a decreased volume, concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculate and slightly improved motility. The quality of thawed semen was analysed by video and microscope estimations for motility and by two staining methods for vitality. No variation was observed according to the ejaculation frequency; the best freezability was obtained in winter but the difference was small compared to between-stallion variability and optimization of frequency and season did not change a 'bad freezer' into a good one.

  13. Sperm competition in humans: mate guarding behavior negatively correlates with ejaculate quality.

    PubMed

    Leivers, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition (by guarding females from rival males) or in the engagement in sperm competition (by increased expenditure on the ejaculate). The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model. We found that men who performed fewer mate guarding behaviors produced higher quality ejaculates, having a greater concentration of sperm, a higher percentage of motile sperm and sperm that swam faster and less erratically. These effects were found independent of lifestyle factors or factors related to male quality. Our findings suggest that male expenditure on mate guarding and on the ejaculate may represent alternative routes to paternity assurance in humans.

  14. Socially cued seminal fluid gene expression mediates responses in ejaculate quality to sperm competition risk.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Lovegrove, Maxine

    2017-08-30

    There is considerable evidence that males will increase the number of sperm ejaculated in response to sperm competition risk. However, whether they have the capacity to adjust seminal fluid components of the ejaculate has received less attention. Male crickets ( Teleogryllus oceanicus ) have been shown to adjust the viability of sperm in their ejaculate in response to sperm competition risk. Here we show that socially mediated plasticity in sperm viability is probably due, at least in part, to male adjustments in the protein composition of the seminal fluid. Seven seminal fluid protein genes were found to have an increased expression in males exposed to rival calls. Increased expression of these genes was correlated with increased sperm viability in whole ejaculates, and gene knockdown confirmed that at least one of these proteins promotes sperm viability. Our results lend support for recent theoretical models that predict complex responses in male allocation to seminal fluid composition in response to sperm competition risk. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Retinopathy of prematurity: an epidemic in the making.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Graham E; Gilbert, Clare; Darlow, Brian A; Zin, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    To explore the etiology, incidence and methods to prevent and treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is rapidly becoming a threat to the vision of babies in areas of the world where increasing numbers of premature babies are surviving. The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English. The search term was "retinopathy of prematurity and premature birth". We discuss the historical perspectives, prevalence and incidence, classification and treatment methods of ROP in premature babies. Peripheral retinal ablation for eyes with severe ROP can help prevent progression to blindness and several large clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of this treatment in high risk eyes. As a greater proportion of VLBW and ELBW babies survive, the population of babies at risk increases. In various regions of the world, different identification criteria are used to determine which babies are at risk of blindness in order to provide timely diagnostic examinations and treatment as needed. Methods for preventing ROP include better ante-natal and obstetric care leading to a reduction in the rate of prematurity, the use of ante-natal corticosteroids, and better neonatal care practices. Recent developments have indicated that management of oxygen supplementation is important for the prevention of severe ROP; however, there is not yet known what oxygen saturation target should be adopted. Sepsis increases severe ROP in very preterm infants. Genetic associations and a telemedicine approach may be explored to detect ROP. Treatment of anti-VEGF therapy are potentially useful in eyes with severe ROP, but long term effects are not yet known and such treatment should be used with great caution. ROP is a potentially binding disease for premature babies which is becoming more prevalent with the development improving neonatal services in many countries in recent years. High priority should be placed on developing approaches to prevent ROP

  16. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (< 1000 grams) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30–50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20–50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for

  17. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address

  18. Comparison of intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes between spermatozoa retrieved from testicular biopsy and from ejaculation in cryptozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Amirjannati, N; Heidari-Vala, H; Akhondi, M A; Hosseini Jadda, S H; Kamali, K; Sadeghi, M R

    2012-05-01

    The infrequent presence of spermatozoa in cryptozoospermic men ejaculate is a limiting factor in the treatment of them. Sometimes, this consideration impels us to apply meticulous microscopic search in ejaculate or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) method. The aim of this study was to assess putative effectiveness of sperm origin, ejaculated or testicular, in cryptozoospermia treatment. In this context, were evaluated intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in two parameters including fertilisation rate (2PN) and embryo quality, independently. We compared the outcome in two groups: patients who underwent ejaculate/ICSI and ones who underwent TESE/ICSI process. Nineteen ICSI cycles performed with testicular spermatozoa and the rest of cycles (n = 208) carried out with ejaculated spermatozoa. Result analysis showed similar fertilisation rate between testicular and ejaculated spermatozoa (respectively, 60% versus 68%, P ≥ 0.05). Also, on the other hand, embryo quality did not show significant differences between two groups, except grade A with low significance. With regard to almost equal performance of both methods in results and being invasive of TESE as surgical sperm retrieval method, the use of ejaculated sperm more than testicular sperm should be recommended in patients with cryptozoospermia whenever possible. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Structural complexity and molecular heterogeneity of a butterfly ejaculate reflect a complex history of selection

    PubMed Central

    Cherwin, Tamara S.; Plakke, Melissa S.; Hill, Jason; Small, Brandon S.; Goetz, Breanna J.; Wheat, Christopher W.; Morehouse, Nathan I.

    2017-01-01

    Male ejaculates are often structurally complex, and this complexity is likely to influence key reproductive interactions between males and females. However, despite its potential evolutionary significance, the molecular underpinnings of ejaculate structural complexity have received little empirical attention. To address this knowledge gap, we sought to understand the biochemical and functional properties of the structurally complex ejaculates of Pieris rapae butterflies. Males in this species produce large ejaculates called spermatophores composed of an outer envelope, an inner matrix, and a bolus of sperm. Females are thought to benefit from the nutrition contained in the soluble inner matrix through increases in longevity and fecundity. However, the indigestible outer envelope of the spermatophore delays female remating, allowing males to monopolize paternity for longer. Here, we show that these two nonsperm-containing spermatophore regions, the inner matrix and the outer envelope, differ in their protein composition and functional properties. We also reveal how these divergent protein mixtures are separately stored in the male reproductive tract and sequentially transferred to the female reproductive tract during spermatophore assembly. Intriguingly, we discovered large quantities of female-derived proteases in both spermatophore regions shortly after mating, which may contribute to spermatophore digestion and hence, female control over remating rate. Finally, we report evidence of past selection on these spermatophore proteins and female proteases, indicating a complex evolutionary history. Our findings illustrate how structural complexity of ejaculates may allow functionally and/or spatially associated suites of proteins to respond rapidly to divergent selective pressures, such as sexual conflict or reproductive cooperation. PMID:28630352

  20. Ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation in the endangered Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    PubMed

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Togna, Gina Della; Padilla, Luis; Smith, Diorene; Sanchez, Carlos; Pelican, Katey; Sanjur, Oris I

    2011-01-01

    There is little information on the reproductive biology of the male Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii). In this study, we characterized the ejaculate traits and evaluated the efficacy of 2 cryodiluents on sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates were assessed for volume, pH, sperm motility, forward progression, osmolality, sperm concentration, sperm morphology, and acrosomal integrity. For cryopreservation, ejaculates with >50% total sperm motility were washed, and sperm pellets were resuspended in either Botu-Crio (CryoVital, Grandau, Germany) or INRA 96 containing 2% egg yolk and 2.5% each of methyl- and dimethylformamide (INRA 96), and they were cryopreserved over liquid nitrogen vapor. Thawed samples were incubated in vitro (25 °C) and evaluated for percent total sperm motility, forward progression, and acrosomal integrity at hourly intervals for 4 hours. Spermic ejaculates were obtained from all males, and the mean seminal volume, sperm concentration per milliliter, percent sperm motility, progressive status, and percent morphologically normal cells were 20.4 ± 4.3 mL, 101.2 ± 24.0 × 10(6)/mL, 46.1% ± 5.0%, 2.9 ± 0.1, and 6.9% ± 1.4%, respectively. There was a positive significant correlation between percent normal sperm and animal age (r = 0.66; P < .004). Cryopreservation in either Botu-Crio or INRA 96 resulted in a decline (P < .05) in percent sperm motility and acrosomal integrity. Sperm forward progression remained unaffected immediately after thawing in INRA 96 but continued to decline over time. These results characterize, for the first time, the ejaculate traits of the tapir; demonstrate that tapir spermatozoa can be cryopreserved in diluents containing amides alone or in combination with glycerol; and provide fundamental information critical for development of assisted reproductive technologies for the Baird's tapir.

  1. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the “classical” statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs. PMID:27678464

  2. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the "classical" statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs.

  3. Ejaculates are not used as nuptial gifts in simultaneously hermaphroditic snails.

    PubMed

    Lodi, Monica; Meijer, Fedde W; Koene, Joris M

    2017-08-01

    Promoted by sexual selection, males usually adopt different ways to increase their fertilization chances. In many insect taxa males donate nuptial gifts, together with sperm, which represent a valuable additional nutrient source that females can use to provision eggs. This has also been suggested to occur in simultaneous hermaphrodites, organisms with both sex functions. In theory, donation of nuptial gifts or extra nutrients might work in hermaphrodites that mate unilaterally (one-way donation of ejaculates), but will not be effective when these organisms mate reciprocally (mutual exchange of ejaculates), since on average each partner would receive the amount it also transfers. Hence, for the latter the net amount gained would be zero, and when considering the non-trivial costs of metabolic conversion the energy balance of this exchange ends up negative. To test this prediction, we measured the material (dry weight) and resource (carbon and nitrogen content) investment into ejaculates of the unilaterally mating freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis and spermatophores of the reciprocally mating land snail Cornu aspersum. When compared to eggs, our measurements indicate that the investment is low for ejaculates and spermatophores, neither of which represent a significant contribution to egg production. Importantly, during reciprocal matings, couples exchanged similar amounts of material and resources, thus a gain of extra substances seems irrelevant. Hence, caution is needed when generalizing functions of male reproductive strategies across mating systems. Although digestion of ejaculates does not provide extra material and resources in simultaneous hermaphrodites, their absorption could still be important to eliminate an excess of received sperm and to select sperm via cryptic female choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Sperm Chromatin Immaturity Observed in Short Abstinence Ejaculates Affects DNA Integrity and Longevity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Salian, Sujith Raj; Kumar, Dayanidhi; Singh, Vikram Jeet; D’Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kamath, Asha; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of ejaculatory abstinence (EA) on semen parameters and subsequent reproductive outcome is still debatable; hence understanding the impact of EA on sperm structural and functional integrity may provide a valuable information on predicting successful clinical outcome. Objective To understand the influence of EA on sperm chromatin maturity, integrity, longevity and global methylation status. Methods This experimental prospective study included 76 ejaculates from 19 healthy volunteers who provided ejaculates after observing 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of abstinence. Sperm chromatin maturity, DNA integrity and global methylation status were assessed in the neat ejaculate. Sperm motility, DNA integrity and longevity were assessed in the processed fraction of the fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculates to determine their association with the length of EA. Results Spermatozoa from 1 day ejaculatory abstinence (EA-1) displayed significantly higher level of sperm chromatin immaturity in comparison to EA-3 (P < 0.05) and EA-5 (P < 0.01) whereas; the number of 5-methyl cytosine immunostained spermatozoa did not vary significantly across groups. On the other hand, in vitro incubation of processed ejaculate from EA-1 resulted in approximately 20 and 40 fold increase in the DNA fragmented spermatozoa at the end of 6 and 24h respectively (P < 0.01–0.001). Conclusion Use of short-term EA for therapeutic fertilization would be a clinically valuable strategy to improve the DNA quality. However, use of such spermatozoa after prolonged incubation in vitro should be avoided as it can carry a substantial risk of transmitting DNA fragmentation to the oocytes. PMID:27043437

  5. Vaccine responsiveness in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Baxter, David

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to document adaptive immune responses in premature infants with a gestational age ≤32 weeks to the different vaccines used in the primary immunisation programme in the UK. Evidence suggests that these infants have impaired immune functioning that is consequent on maturational status and which resolve at variable time periods after birth - this impacts both on their risk of infection and response to vaccination. Assessing vaccine responsiveness can help establish whether the administration of additional vaccines is appropriate for a premature infant, and this may be determined either by vaccine immunogenicity or efficacy studies. The focus of the paper is immunogenicity studies for the following vaccines: tetanus, and diphtheria (toxoid vaccines), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), meningococcal C (Men C) and pneumococcal (PnC) (subunit glycoconjugate vaccines), pertussis (subunit vaccine) and polio (inactivated vaccine). Data show that immunogenicity in premature infants is vaccine specific and whilst highly protective for the toxoid and inactivated preparations, responses to the subunit preparations are less optimal and consequently additional vaccinations or serology testing for ≤32 week gestation infants be considered.

  6. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Extremely Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Alparslan; Şahin, Muhammed; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Yüksel, Harun; Çınar, Yasin; Arı, Şeyhmus; Çaça, İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in southeastern Turkey. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. The following data were reviewed: gender, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), zone and stage of ROP, presence of plus disease, and treatment for ROP if needed. Infants were divided into 2 groups according to GA as follows: group 1 included infants of GAs 25 weeks and under; group 2 included infants of GAs less than 28 weeks and over 25 weeks. Results. The incidence of any ROP in the whole cohort, in group 1, and in group 2, was 66.0%, 95.5%, and 58.6%, respectively. Incidence of any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA (P = 0.014 and P = 0.002, resp.). The overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 35.8% (59.1% in group 1 and 29.9% in group 2). Development of type 1 ROP was independently associated with GA. Conclusion. Any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA. Extremely premature infants with lower GA were found to be more likely to develop type 1 ROP. BW cannot predict the development of type 1 ROP. PMID:24734191

  7. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Alparslan; Sahin, Muhammed; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Yüksel, Harun; Cınar, Yasin; Arı, Seyhmus; Caça, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in southeastern Turkey. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. The following data were reviewed: gender, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), zone and stage of ROP, presence of plus disease, and treatment for ROP if needed. Infants were divided into 2 groups according to GA as follows: group 1 included infants of GAs 25 weeks and under; group 2 included infants of GAs less than 28 weeks and over 25 weeks. Results. The incidence of any ROP in the whole cohort, in group 1, and in group 2, was 66.0%, 95.5%, and 58.6%, respectively. Incidence of any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA (P = 0.014 and P = 0.002, resp.). The overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 35.8% (59.1% in group 1 and 29.9% in group 2). Development of type 1 ROP was independently associated with GA. Conclusion. Any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA. Extremely premature infants with lower GA were found to be more likely to develop type 1 ROP. BW cannot predict the development of type 1 ROP.

  8. MR Imaging of the Prostate and Adjacent Anatomic Structures before, during, and after Ejaculation: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation1

    PubMed Central

    Medved, Milica; Sammet, Steffen; Yousuf, Ambereen; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the possibility of obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance (MR) images before, during, and immediately after ejaculation and detecting measurable changes in quantitative MR imaging parameters after ejaculation. Materials and Methods In this prospective, institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant study, eight young healthy volunteers (median age, 22.5 years), after providing informed consent, underwent MR imaging while masturbating to the point of ejaculation. A 1.5-T MR imaging unit was used, with an eight-channel surface coil and a dynamic single-shot fast spin-echo sequence. In addition, a quantitative MR imaging protocol that allowed calculation of T1, T2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values was applied before and after ejaculation. Volumes of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) were calculated by using whole-volume segmentation on T2-weighted images, both before and after ejaculation. Pre- and postejaculation changes in quantitative MR parameters and measured volumes were evaluated by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment. Results There was no significant change in prostate volumes on pre- and postejaculation images, while the SV contracted by 41% on average (median, 44.5%; P = .004). No changes before and after ejaculation were observed in T1 values or in T2 and ADC values in the central gland, while T2 and ADC values were significantly reduced in the peripheral zone by 12% and 14%, respectively (median, 13% and 14.5%, respectively; P = .004). Conclusion Successful dynamic MR imaging of ejaculation events and the ability to visualize internal sphincter closure, passage of ejaculate, and significant changes in SV volumes were demonstrated. Significant changes in peripheral zone T2 and ADC values were observed. PMID:24495265

  9. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-01-01

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment. PMID:29084621

  10. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael J; Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-10-31

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment.

  11. Do male secondary sexual characters signal ejaculate quality? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mautz, Brian S; Møller, Anders P; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    There are two reasons why researchers are interested in the phenotypic relationship between the expression of male secondary sexual characters (SSCs) and 'ejaculate quality' (defined as sperm/ejaculate traits that are widely assumed to increase female fertility and/or sperm competitiveness). First, if the relationship is positive then females could gain a direct benefit by choosing more attractive males for fertility assurance reasons ('the phenotype-linked fertility' hypothesis). Second, there is much interest in the direction of the correlation between traits favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. affecting mating success) and those favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. increasing sperm competitiveness). If the relationship is negative this could lead to the two forms of selection counteracting each other. Theory predicts that the direction of the relationship could be either positive or negative depending on the underlying genetic variance and covariance in each trait, the extent of variation among males in condition (resources available to allocate to reproductive traits), and variation among males in the cost or rate of mating. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the average relationship between the expression of behavioural and morphological male secondary sexual characters and four assays of ejaculate quality (sperm number, viability, swimming speed and size). Regardless of how the data were partitioned the mean relationship was consistently positive, but always statistically non-significant. The only exception was that secondary sexual character expression was weakly but significantly positively correlated with sperm viability (r = 0.07, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the strength or direction of the relationship between behavioural and morphological SSCs, nor among relationships using the four ejaculate quality assays. The implications of our findings are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews

  12. Social dominance explains within-ejaculate variation in sperm design in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Ciprietti, Sabrina; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2017-03-04

    Comparative studies suggest that sperm competition exerts stabilizing selection towards an optimal sperm design - e.g., the relative size and covariation of different sperm sections or a quantitative measure of sperm shape - that maximizes male fertility, which results in reduced levels of within-male variation in sperm morphology. Yet, these studies also reveal substantial amounts of unexplained within-ejaculate variance, and the factors presiding to the maintenance of such within-male variation in sperm design at the population level still remain to be identified. Sperm competition models predict that males should progressively invest more resources in their germline as their mating costs increase, i.e., the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis. When access to fertile females is determined by social dominance, the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis predicts that dominant males should invest less in the control of spermatogenesis. Hence, dominance should positively correlate with within-male variance in sperm design. In support of this hypothesis, we found that dominant house sparrow males produce ejaculates with higher levels of within-ejaculate variation in sperm design compared to subordinate males. However, after experimentally manipulating male social status, this pattern was not maintained. Our results suggest that males might control variation in sperm design according to their social status to some extent. Yet, it seems that such within-ejaculate variation in sperm design cannot be rapidly adjusted to a new status. While variation in sperm design could result from various non-exclusive sources, we discuss how strategic allocation of resources to the somatic vs. the germline functions could be an important process shaping the relationship between within-male variation in sperm design and social status.

  13. Effect of boar ejaculate fraction, extender type and time of storage on quality of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dziekońska, A; Świąder, K; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Mietelska, K; Zasiadczyk, Ł; Kordan, W

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect the sperm-rich fraction (F1) and the post-F1 fraction (F2) on the quality of boar spermatozoa stored in a liquid state. Ejaculates were collected from three Polish Landrace boars. Each ejaculate fraction was diluted with BTS short-term extender and Safe-Cell Plus (SCP) long-term extender and stored for seven days (D1-D7) at 17°C. Analyses included sperm motility parameters, normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosomes and plasma membrane integrity (PMI). Prior to the dilution of fractions, marked changes (p<0.05) were noted between F1 and F2 in progressive motility (PMOT), velocity average pathway (VAP) and velocity straight line (VCL). After the ejaculate was diluted, the type of fraction and type of extender significantly affected (p<0.05) PMOT, being markedly higher (p<0.05) for F1 extended in BTS. No marked changes (p<0.05) were observed between F1 and F2 extended in SCP for any of the analyzed sperm quality parameters during seven days of storage. Significantly higher (p<0.05) values of sperm quality parameters were noted in F1 compared with F2 for BTS on D7 of storage. The results of the four-way ANOVA analysis indicate that boar, fraction of ejaculate, extender type and day of storage had significant effects on the quality of boar stored spermatozoa. The F1 was characterised by higher quality of spermatozoa during storage in comparison with F2 in the short-term extender. Using the long-term extender containing the proteins allowed for a better application of F2, which could be important for the pig industry.

  14. Dimorphic ejaculates and sperm release strategies associated with alternative mating behaviors in the squid.

    PubMed

    Apostólico, Lígia H; Marian, José E A R

    2017-11-01

    Sperm competition is a powerful postcopulatory selective force influencing male adaptations associated with increasing fertilization success, and it is usually related to the evolution of different strategies of ejaculate expenditure between individuals. Ejaculates may also be influenced by additional selective pressures associated with sperm competition, such as timing between insemination and fertilization, female reproductive tract morphology, and fertilization environment. Also, males that adopt alternative mating tactics may face distinct sperm competition pressures, which may lead to the evolution of intraspecific diversity in ejaculates. In loliginid squids, males with alternative reproductive tactics (sneakers and consorts) differ not only in mating behavior, but also transfer spermatophores into two distinct sites within the female. Here, we compared structure and functioning of spermatophores between sneakers and consorts in the squid Doryteuthis plei applying microscopy techniques and in vitro experiments. Sneakers and consorts exhibit differences in spermatophore structure that lead to distinct spermatophoric reactions and spermatangium morphologies. Moreover, in sneakers, sperm release lasts longer and their sperm show an aggregative behavior not detected in consorts. Slow sperm release may be a strategy to guarantee longer sperm provision, given the wide interval between sneaker mating and egg release. For consorts, in turn, intense and quick sperm discharge may be advantageous, as timing between mating and egg-laying is relatively short. Within the complex squid mating system, factors such as (i) different fertilization sites and (ii) interval between mating and egg release may also influence sperm competition, and ultimately shape the evolution of divergent ejaculates between dimorphic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Equivalent seminal characteristics in human and stallion at first and second ejaculated fractions.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J; Sánchez-Martín, P; Gosálvez, J; Crespo, F

    2017-10-01

    Sperm quality was assessed in normozoospermic human (n = 10) and Spanish breed stallion (n = 10) after sperm fractionation during ejaculation. The first ejaculated fraction was separated from the second. A third sample was reconstituted using equivalent proportion of both fractions (RAW). Fraction 1, Fraction 2 and RAW semen were incubated for 30 min at 37°C to homogenise the impact of iatrogenic damage between both species. Sperm concentration, motility and sperm DNA damage were assessed in each fraction and RAW semen. The results showed two important facts: (i) spermatozoa confined at Fraction 1 exhibit superior parameters than those included at Fraction 2 in both species, and (ii) there is a certain level of concordance between species in the proportion of benefit observed when Fraction 1 is compared to RAW semen. Altogether, these results call into question whether the standard practice of whole ejaculate collection can be considered the best strategy when using male gametes for artificial insemination. In fact, the reconstituted RAW semen exhibits poorer semen characteristics than those found in Fraction 1. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. [Laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity in neonatal intensive care units. Premature Eye Rescue Program].

    PubMed

    Maka, Erika; Imre, László; Somogyvári, Zsolt; Németh, János

    2015-02-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness around the world. The Department of Ophthalmology at the Semmelweis University and the Peter Cerny Neonatal Emergency and Ambulance Service started an innovative Premature Eye Rescue Program to reduce the non-essential transport of premature babies suffering from retinopathy of prematurity. During the first 5 years 186 eyes of 93 premature babies were treated at the bedside with stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity in the primary hospitals. In this first 5-years period the authors reduced the number of transports of premature babies for laser treatment; 93 children avoided the unnecessary transport, saving altogether a distance of 21,930 kilometers for children, as well as the ambulance service. The Premature Eye Rescue Program offers a good and effective alternative for treatment of retinopathy in the primary hospitals. The authors propose the national extension of this program.

  17. Increased count, motility, and total motile sperm cells collected across three consecutive ejaculations within 24 h of oocyte retrieval: implications for management of men presenting with low numbers of motile sperm for assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Said, Al-Hasen; Reed, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate changes in seminal volume, sperm count, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile sperm cells per ejaculate, across three consecutive ejaculates collected from individuals within 24 h preceding an IVF cycle. Men presenting with oligoasthenozoospermia or asthenozoospemia attempted three ejaculates within 24 h preceding IVF. Ejaculate 1 was produced the afternoon prior to oocyte retrieval, and ejaculates 2 and 3 were produced the morning of oocyte retrieval with 2-3 h between collections. Ejaculates 1 and 2 were extended 1:1 v/v with room temperature rTYBS. Test tubes were placed into a beaker of room temperature water, then placed at 4 °C for gradual cooling. Ejaculate 3 was not extended, but pooled with ejaculates 1 and 2 and processed for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Out of 109 oocyte retrievals, 28 men were asked to attempt multiple consecutive ejaculations. Among this population, 25/28 (89.3 %) were successful, and 3/28 men (10.7 %) could only produce two ejaculates. Mean volumes for ejaculates 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from each other (p < 0.01); the volume decreased for each ejaculate. Mean sperm counts, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile cells per ejaculate for the ejaculates1, 2, and 3 demonstrated the following: ejaculates 2 and 3 were not significantly different, but counts, motility, and total motile sperm were improved over ejaculate 1 (p < 0.01). Pooling three consecutive ejaculates within 24 h increased the numbers of available motile sperm in this population by 8-fold compared to the first ejaculate alone, facilitating avoidance of sperm cryopreservation and additional centrifugation steps that could affect sperm viability and/or function.

  18. Human milk for the premature infant

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  19. Ejaculation Frequency and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Updated Results with an Additional Decade of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Jennifer R.; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Kelly, Rachel S.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that ejaculation frequency may be inversely related to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa), a disease for which few modifiable risk factors have been identified. Objective To incorporate an additional 10 yr of follow-up into an original analysis and to comprehensively evaluate the association between ejaculation frequency and PCa, accounting for screening, clinically relevant disease subgroups, and the impact of mortality from other causes. Design, setting, and participants A prospective cohort study of participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study utilizing self-reported data on average monthly ejaculation frequency. The study includes 31 925 men who answered questions on ejaculation frequency on a 1992 questionnaire and followed through to 2010. The average monthly ejaculation frequency was assessed at three time points: age 20–29 yr, age 40–49 yr, and the year before questionnaire distribution. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Incidence of total PCa and clinically relevant disease subgroups. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results and limitations During 480 831 person-years, 3839 men were diagnosed with PCa. Ejaculation frequency at age 40–49 yr was positively associated with age-standardized body mass index, physical activity, divorce, history of sexually transmitted infections, and consumption of total calories and alcohol. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test utilization by 2008, number of PSA tests, and frequency of prostate biopsy were similar across frequency categories. In multivariable analyses, the hazard ratio for PCa incidence for ≥21 compared to 4–7 ejaculations per month was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72–0.92; p < 0.0001 for trend) for frequency at age 20–29 yr and 0.78 (95% CI 0.69–0.89; p < 0.0001 for trend) for frequency at age 40–49 yr. Associations were driven by low-risk disease, were similar when restricted

  20. The improving effect of reduced glutathione on boar sperm cryotolerance is related with the intrinsic ejaculate freezability.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Pinart, Elisabeth; Bonet, Sergi; Miró, Jordi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-04-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) improves boar sperm cryosurvival and fertilising ability when added to freezing extenders. Poor freezability ejaculates (PFE) are known to present lower resistance than good freezability ejaculates (GFE) to cryopreservation procedures. So far, no study has evaluated whether the ability of GSH to counteract the cryopreservation-induced injuries depends on ejaculate freezability (i.e. GFE vs. PFE). For this reason, thirty boar ejaculates were divided into three equal volume fractions and cryopreserved with or without GSH at a final concentration of either 2 or 5mM in freezing media. Before and after freeze-thawing, sperm quality was evaluated through analysis of viability, motility, integrity of outer acrosome membrane, ROS levels, integrity of nucleoprotein structure, and DNA fragmentation. Ejaculates were classified into two groups (GFE or PFE) according to their post-thaw sperm motility and viability assessments in negative control (GSH 0mM), after running cluster analyses. Values of each sperm parameter were then compared between treatments (GSH 0mM, GSH 2mM, GSH 5mM) and freezability groups (GFE, PFE). In the case of GFE, GSH significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance, without differences between 2 and 5mM. In contrast, PFE freezability was significantly increased when supplemented with 5mM GSH, but not when supplemented with 2mM GSH. In conclusion, PFE need a higher concentration of GSH than GFE to improve their cryotolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antidepressants and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study with paroxetine, sertraline, and nefazodone.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-06-01

    Antidepressant medication is often associated with sexual side effects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to assess the effects of two selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors--paroxetine and sertraline--and the 5-HT2 antagonist and 5-HT/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor nefazodone on the latency to ejaculate. Forty-eight men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of a maximum of 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day), sertraline (50 mg/day), nefazodone (400 mg/day), or placebo for 6 weeks. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home with a stopwatch. The trial was completed by 40 men. During the 6-week treatment period, the geometric mean IELT in the placebo group was stable at approximately 20 seconds. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.002); the IELT after paroxetine and sertraline gradually increased to approximately 146 and 58 seconds, respectively, compared with 28 seconds in the nefazodone group. The paroxetine and sertraline groups differed significantly (p < 0.001 and p = 0.024, respectively) from placebo, but the nefazodone group did not (p = 0.85). Compared with baseline, paroxetine exerted the strongest delay in ejaculation, whereas sertraline delayed it only moderately. There was no clinically relevant delay in ejaculation with nefazodone.

  2. [Nursing care to the premature some basics procedures].

    PubMed

    Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    1985-12-01

    The basics procedures of nursing care to the premature are presented here. They are: observation of the premature during the first 24 hours of life, hidratation by bottle, feeding by nosogastric tube, care of premature after feeding, tecnnique of bathing the premature in the incubator, care of premature skin to avoid from infection, care of the umbilical stump, care of premature with moniliasis, with respiratory distress, with diarrhea, with vomitus, cleaning and preservation of the incubator, care of the premature who is receving oxigen therapy, control of humidity of the incubator, care of the premature under phototherapy, care with the phototherapy equipment.

  3. Semen quality in ejaculates produced by masturbation in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, A S Q; Ibrahim, E; Modh, R; Aballa, T C; Lynne, C M; Brackett, N L

    2012-12-01

    Retrospective study. Most men with spinal cord injury are anejaculatory. Much has been reported about their semen quality collected by penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation (EEJ). What is not well-described is the nature of semen quality in SCI patients who can ejaculate by masturbation. This study was performed to understand the degree to which their semen quality differed from that of anejaculatory SCI patients versus that of healthy non-SCI control subjects. University of Miami. Retrospective chart review of Male Fertility Research Program participants from 1991 to 2011. Of 528 SCI subjects, 444 met inclusion criteria of completing an algorithm in which ejaculation occurred by masturbation (n=43), PVS (n=243), or EEJ (n=158). Sperm motility was higher in the SCI-masturbation group (36.9%) than the PVS group (25.9%, P<0.001) or EEJ group (15.0%, P<0.001), but lower compared with a control group of 61 non-SCI healthy men who collected their semen by masturbation (58.0%, P<0.001). The SCI-masturbation group had similar antegrade sperm concentration (83.3×10(6) cc(-1)) as the PVS group (77.4×10(6) cc(-1)) and control group (82.0×10(6) cc(-1)), but higher than the EEJ group (49.8×10(6) cc(-1), P<0.001). The SCI-masturbation group had significantly more men with incomplete injuries (84%) than the PVS group (54%, P<0.01) or EEJ group (41%, P<0.001). This is the first report focusing on semen quality obtained by masturbation in men with SCI. Sperm motility was higher in men with SCI who could, versus could not, ejaculate by masturbation. Completeness of injury may contribute to this difference.

  4. Ejaculation Induced by the Activation of Crz Neurons Is Rewarding to Drosophila Males.

    PubMed

    Zer-Krispil, Shir; Zak, Hila; Shao, Lisha; Ben-Shaanan, Shir; Tordjman, Lea; Bentzur, Assa; Shmueli, Anat; Shohat-Ophir, Galit

    2018-05-07

    The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]. It is not clear which of the multiple sensory and motor responses performed during mating induces perception of reward. Sexual interactions with female flies that do not reach copulation are not sufficient to reduce ethanol consumption [5], suggesting that only successful mating encounters are rewarding. Here, we uncoupled the initial steps of mating from its final steps and tested the ability of ejaculation to mimic the rewarding value of full copulation. We induced ejaculation by activating neurons that express the neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ) [8] and subsequently measured different aspects of reward. We show that activating Crz-expressing neurons is rewarding to male flies, as they choose to reside in a zone that triggers optogenetic stimulation of Crz neurons and display conditioned preference for an odor paired with the activation. Reminiscent of successful mating, repeated activation of Crz neurons increases npf levels and reduces ethanol consumption. Our results demonstrate that ejaculation stimulated by Crz/Crz-receptor signaling serves as an essential part of the mating reward mechanism in Drosophila. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Retention of Ejaculate by Drosophila melanogaster Females Requires the Male-Derived Mating Plug Protein PEBme.

    PubMed

    Avila, Frank W; Cohen, Allie B; Ameerudeen, Fatima S; Duneau, David; Suresh, Shruthi; Mattei, Alexandra L; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-08-01

    Within the mated reproductive tracts of females of many taxa, seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) coagulate into a structure known as the mating plug (MP). MPs have diverse roles, including preventing female remating, altering female receptivity postmating, and being necessary for mated females to successfully store sperm. The Drosophila melanogaster MP, which is maintained in the mated female for several hours postmating, is comprised of a posterior MP (PMP) that forms quickly after mating begins and an anterior MP (AMP) that forms later. The PMP is composed of seminal proteins from the ejaculatory bulb (EB) of the male reproductive tract. To examine the role of the PMP protein PEBme in D. melanogaster reproduction, we identified an EB GAL4 driver and used it to target PEBme for RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown. PEBme knockdown in males compromised PMP coagulation in their mates and resulted in a significant reduction in female fertility, adversely affecting postmating uterine conformation, sperm storage, mating refractoriness, egg laying, and progeny generation. These defects resulted from the inability of females to retain the ejaculate in their reproductive tracts after mating. The uncoagulated MP impaired uncoupling by the knockdown male, and when he ultimately uncoupled, the ejaculate was often pulled out of the female. Thus, PEBme and MP coagulation are required for optimal fertility in D. melanogaster. Given the importance of the PMP for fertility, we identified additional MP proteins by mass spectrometry and found fertility functions for two of them. Our results highlight the importance of the MP and the proteins that comprise it in reproduction and suggest that in Drosophila the PMP is required to retain the ejaculate within the female reproductive tract, ensuring the storage of sperm by mated females. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. [Psychologic management of extreme prematurity].

    PubMed

    Granboulan, V; Danan, C; Dassieu, G; Janaud, J C; Durand, B

    1995-05-01

    The ongoing progress in neonatal intensive care is modifying the psychic context of prematurity for all the partners, infants as well as parents and physicians. Comfort and prognosis of preterm infants have much improved. Since newborns under 24 weeks of gestational age are now surviving, they spend approximately half the duration of pregnancy out of the maternal uterus. All the psychological issues of such an early separation have to be considered, including the developmental outcome of a sensorial environment which is quite different from the intra-uterine one. Research has been developing in this field. The cooperation between neonatalogists and psychologists has been profitable to parents. Problems linked to the separation, such as difficulty in representing the infant, are no more frequent owing to the attention paid to the mother-child bond and subsequent early contacts. What is forward now is the impact of an hyper technical world of intensive care on the parents, and of the strange aspect of the tiny baby surrounded by engines and tubes. Such an overpresence of reality often results in a reaction of traumatic daziness among parents. The cooperation of the whole staff is necessary for the resumption of an imaginary process of psychic functioning. Finally, the survival of very-low-birth-weight infants confronts the neonatalogists with some delicate ethical questions. Psychiatrists and psychologists might have an important part to play in aiding the profession in its sorting out of these ethical issues.

  7. Naked Aggression: The Meaning and Practice of Ejaculation on a Woman's Face.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chyng; Ezzell, Matthew B; Kendall, Olivia

    2016-10-21

    Based on in-depth interviews with 16 heterosexual men, this study focuses on participants' meaning-making surrounding a common and controversial sexual act in pornography: ejaculation on a woman's face (EOWF). We analyze the ways that male consumers decoded EOWF and the ways that EOWF, as a sexual script, was included in the men's accounts of their sexual desires and practices. The majority of the men decoded EOWF through the preferred (encoded) meaning as an act of male dominance and sexual aggression and that they wanted to engage in it despite their general belief that women would not be interested in it. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Dilution of boar ejaculates with BTS containing HEPES in place of bicarbonate immediately after ejaculation can reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by treatment with calcium and calcium ionophore A23187, which is potentially associated with boar subfertility.

    PubMed

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Takasu, Masaki; Taguchi, Kazuo; Katoh, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated whether substitution of HEPES for bicarbonate in BTS (BTS-H) used to dilute boar ejaculates immediately after ejaculation could reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187. When an ejaculate was split, diluted 5-fold with regular BTS (BTS-B) and BTS-H and stored at 17 C for 12 h or 60 h, the extender or storage time had no significant influence on sperm motility or viability measured by the eosin-nigrosin method. When spermatozoa diluted serially with BTS-B and stored (36 h) were stimulated with Ca2+ (3 mM) and A23187 (0.3 microM), the proportion of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction (% acrosome reactions) significantly increased as the magnifications of dilution increased (bicarbonate content almost unchanged by dilution). By contrast, the % acrosome reactions in spermatozoa similarly diluted and stored with BTS-H decreased with the increasing magnifications of dilution (bicarbonate decreased). Sperm motility immediately after the end of incubation without A23178 tended to be lower for BTS-H than BTS-B, and the ejaculates for BTS-H had a tendency to have a lower total protein in seminal plasma than those for BTS-B. These results implied that the samples for BTS-H could be used as a model for ejaculates possibly collected during summer and showing subfertility. When an ejaculate was split, diluted serially with BTS-B and BTS-H and stored, viability measured by staining with propidium iodide was extremely similar between the 2 extenders and among the different dilution magnifications, regardless of whether spermatozoa were washed (stored for 36-66 h) or not (stored for 66-72 h). These results suggest that boar ejaculate can be stored with BTS-H at least according to the results for sperm motility and viability and that hypersensitivity of spermatozoa to Ca2+ and A23187 potentially associated with boar subfertility could be lessened by diluting ejaculates with BTS-H.

  9. Effect of α-Amylase, Papain, and Spermfluid treatments on viscosity and semen parameters of dromedary camel ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Hammadi, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2016-04-01

    Ejaculates from five clinically healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to evaluate the effects of different enzymatic treatments (Amylase, Papain, Spermfluid) on liquefaction and seminal parameters. After collection, ejaculates were divided into 5 aliquots: (1) kept undiluted (control); or diluted 1:1 with: (2) Tris-Citrate-Fructose (TCF), (3) TCF containing Amylase, (4) TCF containing Papain or (5) Spermfluid containing Bromelain. At 120 min after dilution, each aliquot was evaluated, at 20-min intervals, for viscosity, motility, viability and agglutination. Only the aliquots diluted with TCF containing Papain underwent complete liquefaction. Sperm motility decreased significantly during the observation times, except for the samples diluted with Spermfluid (P=0.005). Diluted samples showed different levels of agglutination, with the lowest being observed in the control and the highest in the Papain-treated samples. The viscosity of dromedary camel ejaculates could be effectively reduced by using the proteolytic enzyme Papain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Premature deterioration of jointed plain concrete pavements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-29

    Six sections of jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP)s throughout the state were selected as candidates for the evaluation of premature deterioration. The data used in performing the evaluation included manual and historic automated distress survey...

  11. Premature deterioration of jointed plain concrete pavements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-29

    Six sections of jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP)s throughout the state were selected as : candidates for the evaluation of premature deterioration. The data used in performing the evaluation included manual : and historic automated distress su...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... leaves of the tobacco plant. Premature leaves have some appearance of ripeness due to a process of starvation caused by translocation of plant food elements from these leaves to other leaves higher on the...

  17. [Results of requesting a second consecutive sperm ejaculate on the day of oocyte pick-up in assisted reproductive technology].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Dan-mei; Li, Mu-jun; Jiang, Li; Qin, Ai-ping; Li, Liu-ming; Hang, Fu

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the results of requesting a second consecutive sperm ejaculate in order to reduce ICSI cycles by PESA or TESE on the day of oocyte pick-up in assisted reproductive technology (ART). We collected 68 semen samples as a second consecutive ejaculate from 34 men, compared the semen volume and sperm concentration, motility and total count between the first and the second ejaculation, and analyzed the laboratory results and clinical outcomes of fertilization with the mixed sperm. The 34 males ejaculated twice within 4 hours by masturbation, with an interval of 26-183 (94.9 +/- 39.8) minutes between the first and second ejaculation. The volume of the first ejaculate was (2.0 +/- 1.4) ml, significantly higher than that of the second ([1.5 +/- 0.9] ml) (P = 0.007), although the numbers of motile sperm and grade a + b sperm of the first ([40.8 +/- 25.3]% and [30.9 +/- 22.4]%) were significantly lower than those of the second ([52.2 +/- 21.1]% and [39.9 +/- 17.5]%) (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the sperm concentration or total sperm count between the two ejaculates (P > 0.05). The ICSI, IVF + ICSI, and IVF cycles were 3, 3 and 28 respectively among the 34 couples undergoing ART. The number of retrieved oocytes, normal fertilization rate, high quality embryo rate and frozen cycles/fresh transfer cycles ratio were 15.5 +/- 8.7, 57.0% (247/433), 58.7% (145/247) and 20/24 for the IVF cycle, 21.7 +/- 8.3, 61.5% (40/65), 67.5% (27/40) and 3/2 for the ICSI cycle, and 10.0 +/- 2.6, 72.4% (21/29), 66.7% (14/21) and 3/3 for the IVF + ICSI cycle. Fourteen live births were achieved out of the 18 pregnancies, including 6 healthy boys and 9 healthy girls. A clinical pregnancy rate of >30% can be achieved by requesting a second consecutive sperm ejaculate on the day of oocyte pick-up in order to collect more sperm and/or increase the total number of motile sperm for ART. And this method can avoid other invasive sperm processing techniques and

  18. Female orgasm but not male ejaculation activates the pituitary. A PET-neuro-imaging study.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hieu Kim; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Holstege, Gert

    2013-08-01

    The pituitary gland plays an important role in basic survival mechanisms by releasing fluctuating amounts of hormones into the bloodstream, depending on the circumstances the individual finds itself. However, despite these changes in pituitary hormonal production, neuroimaging studies have never been able to demonstrate changes in the activation level of the pituitary. The most apparent reason is the much higher blood flow rate in the pituitary than in the brain. However, the present PET-scanning study demonstrates for the first time that neuroimaging techniques can identify increased pituitary activity. In a study with 11 healthy women sexual orgasm compared to rest caused an increased blood supply to the pituitary. We assume that this increase signifies elevated pituitary activation in order to produce higher plasma concentrations of oxytocin and prolactin. These hormones induce vaginal and uterus movements, ovulation and enhancement of sperm and egg transport. No increased blood supply was observed comparing clitoral stimulation, orgasm attempt, and faked orgasm with rest. In a study with 11 healthy men comparing ejaculation with rest did not reveal increased pituitary activation, probably because ejaculation causes a much lower increase of oxytocin and prolactin plasma concentration than female orgasm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sperm competition games: optimal sperm allocation in response to the size of competing ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Engqvist, Leif; Reinhold, Klaus

    2007-01-22

    Sperm competition theory predicts that when males are certain of sperm competition, they should decrease sperm investment in matings with an increasing number of competing ejaculates. How males should allocate sperm when competing with differently sized ejaculates, however, has not yet been examined. Here, we report the outcomes of two models assuming variation in males' sperm reserves and males being faced with different amounts of competing sperm. In the first 'spawning model', two males compete instantaneously and both are able to assess the sperm competitive ability of each other. In the second 'sperm storage model', males are sequentially confronted with situations involving different levels of sperm competition, for instance different amounts of sperm already stored by the female mating partner. In both of the models, we found that optimal sperm allocation will strongly depend on the size of the male's sperm reserve. Males should always invest maximally in competition with other males that are equally strong competitors. That is, for males with small sperm reserves, our model predicts a negative correlation between sperm allocation and sperm competition intensity, whereas for males with large sperm reserves, this correlation is predicted to be positive.

  20. Proteomic analysis of mature and immature ejaculated spermatozoa from fertile men

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhihong; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctional spermatozoa maturation is the main reason for the decrease in sperm motility and morphology in infertile men. Ejaculated spermatozoa from healthy fertile men were separated into four fractions using three-layer density gradient. Proteins were extracted and bands were digested on a LTQ-Orbitrap Elite hybrid mass spectrometer system. Functional annotations of proteins were obtained using bioinformatics tools and pathway databases. Western blotting was performed to verify the expression levels of the proteins of interest. 1469 proteins were identified in four fractions of spermatozoa. The number of detected proteins decreased according to the maturation level of spermatozoa. During spermatozoa maturation, proteins involved in gamete generation, cell motility, energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation processes showed increasing expression levels and those involved in protein biosynthesis, protein transport, protein ubiquitination, and response to oxidative stress processes showed decreasing expression levels. We validated four proteins (HSP 70 1A, clusterin, tektin 2 and tektin 3) by Western blotting. The study shows protein markers that may provide insight into the ejaculated spermatozoa proteins in different stages of sperm maturation that may be altered or modified in infertile men. PMID:26510506

  1. Painful ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Cristian P; Mischianu, Dan L; Pemberton, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    We reviewed previous publications on post-orgasmic pain with reference to prevalence, epidemiology and treatment options, using the Ovid and PubMed (updated May 2006) databases to comprehensively search MEDLINE for reports on post-orgasmic pain that included peer-reviewed English-language articles. Official proceedings of internationally known scientific societies were also assessed. Because of the heterogeneity of the studies we did not apply meta- analytic techniques to the data. The incidence of post-orgasmic pain is 1-9.7%. The ejaculatory pain is associated with prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and ejaculatory duct obstruction; it is also described in patients after procedures like radical prostatectomy. Aetiopathogenic theories include those referring to bladder neck closure and pudendal neuropathy. The treatment options vary from self-care, a 'perineal hyperprotection programme' to medication with the alpha-blocker, topiramate, and even surgical procedures like removing a section of the sacrotuberous ligament, neurolysis of the pudendal nerve or removing a section of the sacrospinous ligament. This is the first update of the subject, with reference to prevalence, epidemiology and treatment options. There is a need for adequately powered, prospective randomized trials on aetiology and treatment options.

  2. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  3. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. [Knowledge of the "Gräfenberg zone" and female ejaculation in ancient Indian sexual science. A medical history contribution].

    PubMed

    Syed, R

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Indian texts in sexology (kamaśastra) from the 11th century onwards prove that their authors knew about the area later termed the "Gräfenberg zone" in Europe, as well as about the female ejaculation connected with the stimulation of this area. The Gräfenberg zone is a sexually arousable zone in the front part of the vagina, stimulation of which can lead to the discharge of liquid from the urethra, a phenomenon which is described as female ejaculation. The german gynaecologist Ernst Gräfenberg, who worked in America, described this zone, situated beneath the clitoris, for the first time (at least in this century) in Western medicine in an article published in 1950. (There are, however, evidences, that the 17th-century anatomist Regnier de Graaf had knowledge about the mentioned erogenous zone as well as female ejaculation.) Since the 1980s the so-called Gräfenberg zone, popularly termed "G-spot", and female ejaculation have been controversially discussed medically as well as in popular science, first in the United States, then in Europe; both phenomena have meanwhile been accepted as facts in medical manuals and reference books (e.g. the "Pschyrembel"). Whereas the oldest and most well-known sexological-erotological work of Ancient India, the Kamasutra, dating probably from the third century A.D., apparently did not know the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, texts such as the Pañcasayaka (11th century), Jayamangala (Yaśodhara's commentary on the Kamasutra from the 13th century), the Ratirahasya (13th century), as well as the late kamaśastra-works Smaradipika and Anangaranga (16th century?) demonstrably describe both, the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, in great detail. The female ejaculation is described already in the 7th century in a non-kamaśastra-text, in a work of the poet Amaru called the Amaruśataka.

  5. Sperm kinematics and subpopulational responses during the cryopreservation process in caprine ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Barbas, J P; Leahy, T; Horta, A E; García-Herreros, M

    2018-03-20

    Sperm cryopreservation in goats has been a challenge for many years due to the detrimental effects of seminal plasma enzymes produced by the bulbo-urethral glands which catalyse the hydrolysis of lecithins in egg yolk to fatty acids and lysolecithins which are deleterious to spermatozoa. This fact implies to carry out additional processing steps during sperm cryopreservation for seminal plasma removal triggering different sperm responses which may affect sperm functionality. The objective of the present study was to determine specific sperm subpopulation responses in different handling steps during the cryopreservation process by using functional sperm kinematic descriptors in caprine ejaculates. Buck ejaculates (n = 40) were analysed for sperm concentration, viability, morphology and acrosome integrity. Moreover, sperm motility was assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system after five different handling steps (fresh sperm, 1st washing, 2nd washing, cooling and frozen-thawed sperm) during a standard cryopreservation protocol for goat semen. The results were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate clustering procedures to establish the relationship between the distribution of the subpopulations found and the functional sperm motility in each step. Except for the 1st and 4th steps, four sperm kinematic subpopulations were observed explaining more than 75% of the variance. Based on velocity and linearity parameters and the subpopulations disclosed, the kinematic response varies among processing steps modifying sperm movement trajectories in a subpopulation-specific and handling step-dependent manner (p < 0.001). The predominant motile subpopulation in freshly ejaculated buck sperm had very fast velocity characteristics and a non-linear trajectory (41.1%). Washing buck sperm twice altered the subpopulation structure as well as cooling which resulted in a dramatic reduction in sperm velocities (p < 0

  6. Vardenafil improves ejaculation success rates and self-confidence in men with erectile dysfunction due to spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Francois; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Kennelly, Michael; Montorsi, Francesco; Kim, Edward D; Finkbeiner, Alex E; Pommerville, Peter J; Colopy, Michael W; Wachs, Barton H

    2008-04-01

    Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. To assess the effect of the oral phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, vardenafil, on ejaculation rates and self-confidence in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal command of male sexual functions is often seriously impaired by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A high proportion of men with SCI cannot ejaculate during sexual intercourse. SCI-related ejaculatory disorders are often responsible for male infertility. Sexual dysfunction associated with SCI can also affect men's self-confidence. In this 12-week study, 418 men aged >or=18 years with erectile dysfunction >6 months resulting from a traumatic SCI were randomized to vardenafil (n = 207) or placebo (n = 211) 10 mg for 4 weeks, then maintained or titrated to 5 or 20 mg at weeks 4 and 8. Assessments included questions of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) about ejaculation success and orgasmic perception; the Global Confidence Question; and quality-of-life scales to measure psychological well-being, self-esteem, depression, and mental health status. Overall per patient ejaculation success rates were significantly greater with vardenafil than placebo over 12 weeks of treatment (19% vs. 10%; P < 0.001). At last observation carried forward, the IIEF "orgasmic function" score increased from 2.9 at baseline to 4.0 for vardenafil and from 3.0 at baseline to 3.4 for placebo. Sixteen percent of men receiving vardenafil and 8% receiving placebo felt orgasm "almost always" or "always" at weeks 8-12, compared with 4% and 6%, respectively, at baseline. Significant improvements in confidence scores were observed with vardenafil compared with placebo (P < 0.0001). There were no clinically significant differences between vardenafil and placebo in the quality-of-life measures at the study endpoint, but these had been in the normal range at baseline. Vardenafil significantly improved ejaculation and self-confidence in men with erectile

  7. Total sperm per ejaculate of men: obtaining a meaningful value or a mean value with appropriate precision.

    PubMed

    Amann, Rupert P; Chapman, Phillip L

    2009-01-01

    We retrospectively mined and modeled data to answer 3 questions. 1) Relative to an estimate based on approximately 20 semen samples, how imprecise is an estimate of an individual's total sperm per ejaculate (TSperm) based on 1 sample? 2) What is the impact of abstinence interval on TSperm and TSperm/h? 3) How many samples are needed to provide a meaningful estimate of an individual's mean TSperm or TSperm/h? Data were for 18-20 consecutive masturbation samples from each of 48 semen donors. Modeling exploited the gamma distribution of values for TSperm and a unique approach to project to future samples. Answers: 1) Within-individual coefficients of variation were similar for TSperm or TSperm/h abstinence and ranged from 17% to 51%; average approximately 34%. TSperm or TSperm/h in any individual sample from a given donor was between -20% and +20% of the mean value in 48% of 18-20 samples per individual. 2) For a majority of individuals, TSperm increased in a nearly linear manner through approximately 72 hours of abstinence. TSperm and TSperm/h after 18-36 hours' abstinence are high. To obtain meaningful values for diagnostic purposes and maximize distinction of individuals with relatively low or high sperm production, the requested abstinence should be 42-54 hours with an upper limit of 64 hours. For individuals producing few sperm, 7 days or more of abstinence might be appropriate to obtain sperm for insemination. 3) At least 3 samples from a hypothetical future subject are recommended for most applications. Assuming 60 hours' abstinence, 80% confidence limits for TSperm/h for 1, 3, or 6 samples would be 70%-163%, 80%-130%, or 85%-120% of the mean for observed values. In only approximately 50% of cases would TSperm/h for a single sample be within -16% and +30% of the true mean value for that subject. Pooling values for TSperm in samples obtained after 18-36 or 72-168 hours' abstinence with values for TSperm obtained after 42-64 hours is inappropriate. Reliance on

  8. [Premature fetal membrane rupture: report of a case of severe intrauterine fungal infection].

    PubMed

    Gauwerky, J; Schmidt, W; Kühn, H; Kubli, F

    1983-03-01

    A case of extremely rare intra-uterine candida infection is reported following premature rupture of the membranes. The diagnostic possibilities by transabdominal amniocentesis and determination of the causative organism in the amniotic fluid are presented. Even systemic antimykotic treatment is not capable of treating intra-uterine candidiasis sufficiently. This is proved among other parameters by the concentration of miconazol in the amniotic fluid and in the plasma of the newborn.

  9. In vivo test of bitter (andrographis paniculata nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarmin, R.; Huda, NK; Yuniarti, E.; Violita

    2018-03-01

    Sambiloto or Bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), are often used to treat various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-HIV, anti-mitotic and anti-fertility. This study aimed to determine the effects of the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm mice quality (Mus musculus L. Swiss Webster). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments, which are 0.0 g/b.w., (P0), 0.2 g/b.w., (P1), 0,4 g/b.w., (P3), or 0.6 g/b.w., (P4) bitter extract orally for 36 days. After treatment, the mice decapitated, dissected and collected the sperm from vas deferens. Then, the number of sperm counted by used the improved Neubauer and then stained by Eosin to count the abnormal sperm. Data analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) then DNMRT. The results showed that the average numbers of sperm are 28.80 x 105 (P0), 19.50 x 105 (P1), 12.50 x105 (P2) and 9.50 x 105 (P3). The average abnormal sperm numbers are 18.33 x 105 (P0), 22.50 x 105 (P1), 31.50 x105 (P2) and 39.33 x 105 (P3). It showed that the effective treatment to decrease sperm number was 0.2 g/b.w., of bitter extract. It can conclude that the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract decreases the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  10. Clinical characteristics and penile afferent neuronal function in patients with primary delayed ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Xia, J-D; Han, Y-F; Pan, F; Zhou, L-H; Chen, Y; Dai, Y-T

    2013-09-01

    Primary delayed ejaculation (DE) is a relatively uncommon condition and has not been studied broadly. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and penile afferent neuronal function using somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with primary DE. Twenty-four patients with primary DE and 24 age-matched normally potent men were enrolled in this study. Results indicated that patients with primary DE had remarkably higher frequency of masturbatory activity (especially, some with idiosyncratic styles), lower night emissions, longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), higher anxiety and depression states (p = 0.010, p = 0.017, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). In addition, the mean penile shaft sensory threshold values in the patients were considerably higher than those in the healthy men (p < 0.001). Mean latencies of dorsal nerve somatosensory evoked potential DNSEP were 4.32 ms longer in the DE group than those in the control group (p < 0.001). However, the latencies of glans penis somatosensory evoked potential (GPSEP) between the two group showed no significant difference (p = 0.985). At the same time, in comparison with the control group, the amplitudes of DNSEP were considerably lower in the DE group (p = 0.016), but not in the amplitudes of GPSEP (p = 0.934). This study indicates that the patients with primary DE appear to have penile shaft rather than glans hyposensitivity and hypoexcitability, and adaptation to a certain masturbatory technique (higher and idiosyncratic) may be related to the causes of primary DE, which is also associated with lower night emissions, longer IELT, higher anxiety and depression states. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Impact of different dilution techniques on boar sperm quality and sperm distribution of the extended ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Schaefer, J; Luther, A-M; Jung, M; Waberski, D

    2017-07-01

    The dilution of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the production of liquid-preserved boar semen. For a long time, it has been recommended to add the extender to the ejaculate. The aim of the present study was to first compare the effect of the position ('center' vs. 'wall') where the extender is added to the semen-mixing cylinder (height 32.5cm; diameter 12.7cm) using an automatic dispenser (n=11). In experiment 2 (n=30), we analyzed the two main dilution methods (extender to the semen ('control') vs. 'reverse'). Experiment 3 was carried out to study the dilution effect on kinematics. In Experiments 1 and 2, the sperm distribution 10min after the dilution and the sperm quality parameters during long-term storage (d1, d3, d5, and d7) were evaluated. In Experiment 3, sperm quality was assessed during short-term storage at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 60min after semen dilution ('control' vs. 'reverse'; n=6). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the treatments in the specific response to bicarbonate, mitochondrial activity, membrane status, thermo-resistance or sperm motility immediately after dilution or long-term storage. The sperm distribution was significantly (P=0.029) affected by the dilution method in Experiment 2. In summary, treatment with the extender first, which is used by only a few European boar studs, leads to comparable results in sperm quality during storage and better results in sperm distribution after dilution. This procedure is also less time consuming, less foam formation occurs during the semen dilution and the procedure is more hygienic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of sperm subpopulations with defined motility characteristics in ejaculates from Ile de France rams.

    PubMed

    Bravo, J A; Montanero, J; Calero, R; Roy, T J

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to identify different motile sperm subpopulations in fresh ejaculates from six Ile de France rams, by using a computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) system, and to evaluate the effects of individual ram and season on population distribution. Overall sperm motility and individual kinematic parameters of motile spermatozoa were evaluated for 125,312 spermatozoa, defined by curvilinear velocity (VCL), linear velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity coefficient (LIN), straightness coefficient (STR), wobble coefficient (WOB), mean amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and frequency of head displacement (BCF). A multivariate cluster analysis was carried out to classify these spermatozoa into a reduced number of subpopulations according to their movement patterns. The statistical analysis clustered the whole motile sperm population into five separate groups: subpopulation 1, constituted by rapid, progressive and non sinuous spermatozoa (VCL=126.41 μm/s, STR=92.87% and LIN=86.47%); subpopulation 2, characterized by progressive spermatozoa with moderate velocity (VCL=74.74 μm/s and STR=84.03%); subpopulation 3, represented by rapid, progressive and sinuous spermatozoa (VCL=130.45 μm/s, STR=76.02% and LIN=47.68%); subpopulation 4 represents rapid nonprogressive spermatozoa (VCL=128.69 μm/s and STR=44.09%); subpopulation 5 includes poorly motile, nonprogressive spermatozoa with a very irregular trajectory (VCL=36.81 μm/s and STR=47.04%). Our results show the existence of five subpopulations of motile spermatozoa in ram ejaculates. The frequency distribution of spermatozoa within subpopulations was quite similar for the six rams, and the five subpopulations turned out to be very stable along seasons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae) prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae) facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g), dopamine (0.1 μM/kg), aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg). Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg) prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg) were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg) induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg), no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg). Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii. PMID:23295154

  14. Osteopenia (metabolic bone disease) of prematurity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...

  15. Psychological and Educational Sequelae of Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rosalyn A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Psychological and educational correlates of prematurity in children during four periods, the last at 7 years of age, were assessed as part of a prospective longitudinal study of 241 infants classified by birth weight, gestational age, and sex to determine later functioning in school. (Author/MC)

  16. Issues of Premature Indoctrination into Sexualized Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippens, Paula D.; Baldwin, Cynthia

    One dynamic that is often neglected in treatment of child sexual abuse is that of how a child's premature indoctrination into sexualized behavior, and the behaviors themselves, may inadvertently contribute to the overall victimization process. Children are capable of experiencing physical and psychological pleasure from sexual stimulation and are…

  17. Anemia of prematurity: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shannon, K M

    1990-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) is of interest to pediatric hematologists and neonatologists because it may prove to be an effective alternative to blood transfusions in preventing and treating anemia in premature infants. The anemia of prematurity is the most promising setting for initial clinical trials. However, it is conceivable that recombinant erythropoietin will be given at birth to low-birth-weight infants in an effort to stimulate endogenous erythropoiesis and thereby prevent some of the erythrocyte transfusions required to replace blood sampled for laboratory tests. Beyond its appeal as a therapeutic alternative to red blood cell transfusions, recombinant human erythropoietin is likely to be the first member of an entirely new class of drugs to be used widely in neonatal medicine. These are drugs produced by cloning normal human genes and expressing them in the laboratory. Because many of the problems of premature birth are caused by developmental immaturity, transiently replacing crucial proteins with exact copies produced by the techniques of recombinant DNA technology is an approach that may have a major impact on morbidity and mortality of neonates. Carefully designed, controlled clinical trials will be essential to determine the role of new agents like r-HuEPO in the treatment of medical problems of premature infants.

  18. Effect of SSRI antidepressants on ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D; Hengeveld, M W; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    1998-08-01

    Depression is a common cause of sexual dysfunction, but also antidepressant medication is often associated with sexual side effects. This article includes two related studies. The first double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation and aimed to assess putative differences between the major selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline) with regard to their ejaculation-delaying effect. Sixty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of 1 minute or less were randomly assigned to receive fluoxetine 20 mg/day, fluvoxamine 100 mg/day, paroxetine 20 mg/day, sertraline 50 mg/day, or placebo for 6 weeks. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment periods, the men measured their IELT at home using a stopwatch. The trial was completed by 51 men. During the 6-week treatment period, the geometric mean IELT in the placebo group was constant at approximately 20 seconds. Analysis of variance revealed a between-groups difference in the evolution of IELT delay (p = 0.0004); in the paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline groups there was a gradual increase to about 110 seconds, whereas in the fluvoxamine group, IELT was increased to only approximately 40 seconds. The paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline groups differed significantly (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.017, respectively) from placebo but the fluvoxamine group did not (p = 0.38). Compared with baseline, paroxetine exerted the strongest delay in ejaculation, followed by fluoxetine and sertraline. There was no clinically relevant delay in ejaculation with fluvoxamine. In men with lifelong rapid ejaculation, paroxetine delayed ejaculation most strongly, whereas fluvoxamine delayed ejaculation the least. The second double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation (IELT < or = 1 minute) and in men with lifelong less-rapid ejaculation (IELT > 1 minute) to

  19. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  20. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  1. Calculation of organ doses in x-ray examinations of premature babies

    SciTech Connect

    Smans, Kristien; Tapiovaara, Markku; Cannie, Mieke

    Lung disease represents one of the most life-threatening conditions in prematurely born children. In the evaluation of the neonatal chest, the primary and most important diagnostic study is the chest radiograph. Since prematurely born children are very sensitive to radiation, those radiographs may lead to a significant radiation detriment. Knowledge of the radiation dose is therefore necessary to justify the exposures. To calculate doses in the entire body and in specific organs, computational models of the human anatomy are needed. Using medical imaging techniques, voxel phantoms have been developed to achieve a representation as close as possible to the anatomicalmore » properties. In this study two voxel phantoms, representing prematurely born babies, were created from computed tomography- and magnetic resonance images: Phantom 1 (1910 g) and Phantom 2 (590 g). The two voxel phantoms were used in Monte Carlo calculations (MCNPX) to assess organ doses. The results were compared with the commercially available software package PCXMC in which the available mathematical phantoms can be downsized toward the prematurely born baby. The simple phantom-scaling method used in PCXMC seems to be sufficient to calculate doses for organs within the radiation field. However, one should be careful in specifying the irradiation geometry. Doses in organs that are wholly or partially outside the primary radiation field depend critically on the irradiation conditions and the phantom model.« less

  2. Boar sperm cryosurvival is better after exposure to seminal plasma from selected fractions than to those from entire ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    Boar bulk ejaculates are now being collected instead of usual sperm-rich fractions (SRF) for artificial insemination purpose. The present study evaluated the influence of holding boar sperm samples before freezing surrounded in their own seminal plasma (SP), from either fractions/portions or the entire ejaculate, on post-thawing sperm quality and functionality. Ejaculates collected as bulk (BE) or as separate (first 10 mL of SRF [P1] and rest of SRF [P2]) from 10 boars were held 24h at 15-17°C and then frozen. Some bulk ejaculate samples were frozen immediately after collections as Control. In addition, epididymal sperm samples from the same 10 boars were collected post-mortem and extended in SP from P1 (EP1), P2 (EP2) and post SRF (EP3), and also held 24h before freezing for a better understanding of the influence of SP on boar sperm cryopreservation. The sperm quality (motility, evaluated by CASA, and viability, evaluated by flow cytometry) and functionality (flow cytometry assessment of plasma membrane fluidity, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in viable sperm) were evaluated at 30, 150 and 300 min post-thaw. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of P1 and P2 were similar but higher (p < 0.01) than BE samples. Control samples showed higher (p < 0.01) post-thaw sperm quality and functionality than BE samples. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of EP1 and EP2 were similar but higher (p < 0.05) than EP3. These results showed that boar sperm from BE are more cryosensitive than those from the SRF, particularly when held 24h before freezing, which would be attributable to the cryonegative effects exerted by the SP from post SRF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Birth of healthy twins after intracytoplasmic sperm injection using ejaculated immotile spermatozoa from a patient with Kartagener's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geber, S; Lemgruber, M; Taitson, P F; Valle, M; Sampaio, M

    2012-05-01

    This case report demonstrates a successful pregnancy after ICSI combined with hypo-osmotic swelling test in a couple with Kartagener's syndrome with complete immotile ejaculated spermatozoa. Our result suggests that even for complete immotile spermatozoa, the use of hypo-osmotic swelling test is a good alternative to identify viable spermatozoa. When associated with ICSI, it can be a valuable tool to get fertilisation and pregnancy. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Comparative analysis of boar seminal plasma proteome from different freezability ejaculates and identification of Fibronectin 1 as sperm freezability marker.

    PubMed

    Vilagran, I; Yeste, M; Sancho, S; Castillo, J; Oliva, R; Bonet, S

    2015-03-01

    Variation in boar sperm freezability (i.e. capacity to withstand cryopreservation) between ejaculates is a limitation largely reported in the literature. Prediction of sperm freezability and classification of boar ejaculates into good (GFEs) and poor freezability ejaculates (PFEs) before cryopreservation takes place may increase the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. While markers of boar sperm freezability have been found from sperm cell extracts, little attention has been paid to seminal plasma. On this basis, the present study compared the fresh seminal plasma proteome of 9 GFEs and 9 PFEs through two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The ejaculates were previously classified as GFE or PFE upon their sperm viability and progressive motility assessments at 30 and 240 min post thawing. From a total of 51 spots, four were found to significantly (p < 0.05) differ between GFEs and PFEs, and two were identified as fibronectin-1 (FN1) and glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPX5). These two potential markers were further studied by western blot and correlation analysis between protein relative abundances in fresh seminal plasma and regression factors from principal component analyses (PCA) run using post-thawing sperm quality parameters. Results confirmed that FN1 is a reliable marker of boar sperm freezability, because GFEs presented significantly (p < 0.05) higher FN1-amounts than PFEs and FN1 was found to be correlated with the first PCA component at 240 min post thawing. In contrast, GPX5 was not validated as a boar sperm freezability marker. We can thus conclude that levels of FN1 in fresh seminal plasma from boar semen may be used as a sperm freezability marker, thereby facilitating the use of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Ejaculate fractioning effect on llama sperm head morphometry as assessed by the ISAS(®) CASA system.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; Sancho, M; García, A; Fuentes, Mc; Núñez, J; Cucho, H

    2014-02-01

    South American camelid sperm characteristics are poorly known compared with those of other domestic animals. The long-term duration of ejaculation makes difficult to gather all the seminal fluid, implying possible ejaculation portion losses. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the characteristics of the morphology and morphometry of the spermatozoa change during ejaculation. The morphometric characterization was tested on nine specimens of the Lanuda breed, using a special artificial vagina. In five of the animals, a fractioning of the ejaculate was performed by taking samples every 5 min. for a total of 20 min. Air-dried seminal smears were stained with Hemacolor and mounted permanently with Eukitt. Morphometric analysis was carried out with the morphometry module of the ISAS(®) CASA system. Almost 350 cells were analysed per sample, with a total number of 3207 spermatozoa. Mean values were given as follows: length: 5.51 μm; width: 3.38 μm; area: 17.75 μm(2) ; perimeter: 14.8 μm; ellipticity: 0.24; elongation: 0.56; rugosity: 0.87; regularity: 1.07; and shape factor: 1.41. Different animals showed differences in their morphometric values. When we compared the values from different fractions, only two samples showed differences in morphometric parameter values and four samples showed differences in shape parameters. Multivariate analysis allowed the size classification of the cells into three classes and five classes of shapes. The distribution of classes among fractions showed no differences. Despite the individual morphometric differences observed in some fractions, the characteristics of the sperm head morphometry can be considered constant along the ejaculatory period in the llama. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Response of the urethral and intracorporeal pressures to cavernosus muscle stimulation: role of the muscles in erection and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shafik, A

    1995-07-01

    The role of the bulbocavernosus (BC) and ischiocavernosus (IC) muscles in erection and ejaculation was studied. The response of the urethral and intracorporeal pressure to cavernosus muscle stimulation was evaluated in 18 male volunteers (mean age, 36.6 years). A two-channel microtip catheter was placed in the prostatic and bulbous urethra. Muscle stimulation was done by two needle electrodes inserted into the BC and IC muscles. BC muscle stimulation caused an increase in the pressure of the bulbous urethra (P < 0.001) and corpus spongiosum (P < 0.01) and an insignificant change in the prostatic and pendulous urethral and corpus cavernosal pressures (difference not significant). IC muscle stimulation effected an increase in the corpus cavernosal pressure (P < 0.001) without changing the urethral pressure (difference not significant). The BC muscle contracts rhythmically at orgasm and this might help to eject the semen from the posterior to the anterior urethra. It is apparent that the muscle has minimal or no role in erection. IC muscle may have a role in erection by increasing the intracavernosal pressure. It seems that it has no role in ejaculation. BC may be considered the "muscle of ejaculation," and IC the "muscle of erection."

  7. Factors Leading to Pregnancies in Stimulated Intrauterine Insemination Cycles and the Use of Consecutive Ejaculations Within a Small Clinic Environment.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Gulam; Almossawi, Ofran; IIlahibuccus, Afeeza; Al-Habib, Ansam; Okolo, Stanley

    2016-10-01

    Understanding and improving IUI pregnancy rates has enormous global appeal and application. This pilot study goes one step further by utilising consecutive ejaculates from men with oligozoospermia and comparing with normozoospermic male group. A retrospective analysis was performed on 117 IUI-stimulated treatment cycles in a small fertility clinic in North Middlesex University Hospitals Trust, UK, within a NHS setting. Risks of OHSS and multiple births are carefully controlled. In our cohort, several factors are associated with positive IUI pregnancies and these were: age of the woman, inseminating with ≥5 total progressive motile sperm; having ≥50 % Grade A sperm progression and having ≥1 follicle achieved with a realistic hMG dosage, hCG trigger and IUI of 29.7 h (2.5-38.4 h), with an endometrial thickness of 10.7 mm (6.6-13.4 mm). Bifollicular presence in at least half the cases along with hMG protocols added usefully to the pregnancy outcomes. The pregnancy rates per cycle were 19 and 23 % in the consecutive ejaculates and non-consecutive ejaculate groups, respectively, P = 0.59. For the whole cohort, the pregnancy rate was 20.51 % per cycle and 33.8 % per women. This approach if validated with large RCT will have universally beneficial effects.

  8. Oral feeding readiness assessment in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Gennattasio, Annmarie; Perri, Elizabeth A; Baranek, Donna; Rohan, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Oral feeding readiness is a complex concept. More evidence is needed on how to approach beginning oral feedings in premature hospitalized infants. This article provides a review of literature related to oral feeding readiness in the premature infant and strategies for promoting safe and efficient progression to full oral intake. Oral feeding readiness assessment tools, clinical pathways, and feeding advancement protocols have been developed to assist with oral feeding initiation and progression. Recognition and support of oral feeding readiness may decrease length of hospital stay and have a positive impact on reducing healthcare costs. Supporting effective cue-based oral feeding through use of rigorous assessment or evidence-based care guidelines can also optimize the hospital experience for infants and caregivers, which, in turn, can promote attachment and parent satisfaction.

  9. Conceptualizing pathways linking women's empowerment and prematurity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Afulani, Patience A; Altman, Molly; Musana, Joseph; Sudhinaraset, May

    2017-11-08

    Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings. We propose a conceptual model that shows pathways by which women's empowerment can affect prematurity and review and summarize the literature supporting the relationships we posit. We also suggest future directions for research on women's empowerment and prematurity. The key words we used for empowerment in the search were "empowerment," "women's status," "autonomy," and "decision-making," and for prematurity we used "preterm," "premature," and "prematurity." We did not use date, language, and regional restrictions. The search was done in PubMed, Population Information Online (POPLINE), and Web of Science. We selected intervening factors-factors that could potentially mediate the relationship between empowerment and prematurity-based on reviews of the risk factors and interventions to address prematurity and the determinants of those factors. There is limited evidence supporting a direct link between women's empowerment and prematurity. However, there is evidence linking several dimensions of empowerment to factors known to be associated with prematurity and outcomes for premature babies. Our review of the literature shows that women's empowerment may reduce prematurity by (1) preventing early marriage and promoting family planning, which will delay age at first pregnancy and increase interpregnancy intervals; (2) improving women's nutritional status; (3) reducing domestic violence and other stressors to improve psychological health; and (4) improving

  10. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  11. Open bite in prematurely born children.

    PubMed

    Harila, V; Heikkinen, T; Grön, M; Alvesalo, L

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: examine the expression of open bite in prematurely born children and discuss the etiological factors that may lead to bite it. The subjects were 328 prematurely born (<37 gestational weeks) Caucasoid and African American children and 1,804 full-term control children, who participated in the cross-sectional study of the Collaborative Perinatal Project in the 1960s and 1970s. Dental documents, including casts and photographs, were taken once at the age of 6-12 years in the mixed dentition. The occlusion was recorded by examining and measuring the hard stone casts. Vertical open bite was recorded only for full erupted teeth. The statistical method used was chi-square analysis. Significant differences in the incidence of anterior open bite (from left to right canine) was found between the preterm and control groups and between gender and ethnic groups. The prevalence of anterior open bite was nearly 9% in the preterm group and almost 7% in the control group. African Americans (9%) had a significantly greater incidence of open bite than Caucasians (3%; P<.0001). Generally, girls had a greater incidence of open bite than boys (8% vs 6%; P<.11). When the study groups were divided by prematurity, gender, and ethnic group, the prevalence of open bite was increased--especially in preterm African American boys compared to controls (11% vs 8%). The results show differences in the development of anterior open bite between ethnic and gender groups. Premature birth may also influence dental occlusal development. Of importance are the patient's: general health condition; respiratory infections; inadequate nasal- and mouth-breathing; oral habits; and other medical problems. Preterm children may be relatively more predisposed to etiological factors for the development of anterior open bite.

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Liegl, Raffael; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois EH

    2016-01-01

    More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess) as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1) and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. PMID:28539804

  13. Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mezu-Ndubuisi, Olachi J.; Agarwal, Ghanshyam; Raghavan, Aarti; Pham, Jennifer T.; Ohler, Kirsten H.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-01-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. In infants born prior to 28 weeks of gestation, a hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause cardiovascular instability, exacerbate respiratory distress syndrome, prolong the need for assisted ventilation, and increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal dysfunction, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, and mortality. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and assessment of hemodynamic significance, and provide a rigorous appraisal of the quality of evidence to support current medical and surgical management of PDA of prematurity. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin and ibuprofen remain the mainstay of medical therapy for PDA, and can be used both for prophylaxis as well as rescue therapy to achieve PDA closure. Surgical ligation is also effective and is used in infants who do not respond to medical management. Although both medical and surgical treatment have proven efficacy in closing the ductus, both modalities are associated with significant adverse effects. Because the ductus does undergo spontaneous closure in some premature infants, improved and early identification of infants most likely to develop a symptomatic PDA could help in directing treatment to the at-risk infants and allow others to receive expectant management. PMID:22564132

  14. Prematurity Affects Age of Presentation of Pyloric Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Caitlyn M; Vinocur, Charles; Berman, Loren

    2017-02-01

    Term infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) typically present between 4 and 6 weeks. There is limited consensus, however, regarding age of presentation of premature infants. We aim to determine if there is an association between the degree of prematurity and chronological age of presentation of HPS. A total of 2988 infants who had undergone a pyloromyotomy for HPS were identified from the 2012 and 2013 NSQIP-P Participant Use Files. Two hundred seventeen infants (7.3%) were born prematurely. A greater degree of prematurity was associated with an older chronological age of presentation ( P < .0001). Prematurity was significantly associated with an increase in overall postoperative morbidity, reintubation, readmission, and postoperative length of stay. When clinicians evaluate an infant with nonbilious emesis with a history of prematurity, they should consider pyloric stenosis if the calculated postconceptional age is between 44 and 50 weeks. When counseling families of premature infants, surgeons should discuss the increased incidence of postpyloromyotomy morbidity.

  15. Effects of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors on erectile function, sexual desire and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) is commonly utilized for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The true prevalence of sexual side effects with 5ARI treatment is currently unknown. The current article reviews the reported adverse effects of 5ARI in regard to erectile function, sexual desire and ejaculation. A PubMed search was performed of all articles from 1990 to present, which reported any sexual side effects with finasteride or dutasteride. Preference was given to more recent and human studies where available. Clinical trials with 5ARI report prevalence rates of de novo erectile dysfunction of 5 - 9%. Decreased circulating dihydrotestosterone (DHT) resulting from 5ARI use is associated with diminished sexual desire and/or orgasm. The presence of adverse sexual effects is associated with decreased self-esteem, quality of life and ability to maintain an intimate relationship. Inhibition of 5ARI additionally influences progesterone and deoxycorticosterone levels and may alter psychological functions, including increased depression, melancholy and loss of general well being. Ejaculatory dysfunction has not been well studied in patients using 5ARI. Patients receiving therapy with 5ARI should be counseled as to potential sexual and psychological adverse effects. Future clinical studies are needed to further investigate the sexual side effects associated with this class of drugs.

  16. Circulating neuroactive C21- and C19-steroids in young men before and after ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Stárka, L; Hill, M; Havlíková, H; Kancheva, L; Sobotka, V

    2006-01-01

    Twelve neuroactive and neuroprotective steroids, androgens and androgen precursors i.e. 3alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstane, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one, 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-androstan-17-one, androst-5-ene-3beta,17beta-diol, 3beta,17alpha-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-20-one (17alpha-hydroxy-pregnenolone), 3beta-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA), testosterone, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (androstenedione), 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone), 3beta-hydroxy-pregn-5-en-20-one (pregnenolone), 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, and 7beta-hydroxy-DHEA were measured using the GC-MS system in young men before and after ejaculation provoked by masturbation. The circulating level of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone increased significantly, whereas the other circulating steroids were not changed at all. This fact speaks against the hypothesis that a drop in the level of neuroactive steroids, e.g. allopregnanolone may trigger the orgasm-related increase of oxytocin, reported by other authors.

  17. Erythrocyte transfusions and serum prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with anemia of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Yapakçi, Ece; Ecevit, Ayşe; Gökmen, Zeynel; Tarcan, Aylin; Ozbek, Namik

    2009-11-01

    Hepcidin is a regulatory peptide hormone acts by limiting intestinal iron absorption and promoting iron retention. Determining the level of hepcidin in anemia of prematurity might be important in preventing iron overload. This study aimed to determine serum levels of prohepcidin in newborns with anemia of prematurity, to assess the effect of a single erythrocyte transfusion on serum prohepcidin levels, and to determine the possible relationships between prohepcidin levels and serum iron and complete blood count parameters. Nineteen premature newborns with anemia of prematurity who had been treated with erythrocyte transfusions were included in this study. Just before, and 48 hours after, each transfusion, venous blood samples were collected from patients. Serum prohepcidin levels before and after erythrocyte transfusion were 206.5+/-27.3 and 205.7+/-47.1 ng/mL, respectively; no statistically significant differences were found. No significant differences existed before or after transfusion regarding serum total iron and ferritin levels, iron-binding capacity, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. No significant correlations existed between serum prohepcidin levels and other parameters, either before or after transfusions. Our results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between serum prohepcidin levels before and after a single erythrocyte transfusion in premature newborns.

  18. 47,XXX in an adolescent with premature ovarian failure and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Holland, C M

    2001-05-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) may be idiopathic or may be associated with genetic or autoimmune disorders. The 47,XXX karyotype has been associated with POF and other genitourinary anomalies. A 17-year-old woman with a history of immune thrombocytopenic purpura was referred to the adolescent medicine clinic for evaluation of oligomenorrhea with secondary amenorrhea. Evaluation revealed hypergonadotrophic premature ovarian failure, a positive antinuclear antibody, and the 47,XXX karyotype. She has since developed a positive anti-cardiolipin antibody but does not meet diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosis. The presence of known autoimmune disease in a woman with POF should not dissuade the clinician from evaluating for a potential genetic cause.

  19. Premature ovarian failure 3 years after menarche in a 16-year-old girl following human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Little, Deirdre Therese; Ward, Harvey Rodrick Grenville

    2012-09-30

    Premature ovarian failure in a well adolescent is a rare event. Its occurrence raises important questions about causation, which may signal other systemic concerns. This patient presented with amenorrhoea after identifying a change from her regular cycle to irregular and scant periods following vaccinations against human papillomavirus. She declined the oral contraceptives initially prescribed for amenorrhoea. The diagnostic tasks were to determine the reason for her secondary amenorrhoea and then to investigate for possible causes of the premature ovarian failure identified. Although the cause is unknown in 90% of cases, the remaining chief identifiable causes of this condition were excluded. Premature ovarian failure was then notified as a possible adverse event following this vaccination. The young woman was counselled regarding preservation of bone density, reproductive implications and relevant follow-up. This event could hold potential implications for population health and prompts further inquiry.

  20. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Xq critical regions in premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the frequent reasons for unsuccessful conception is premature ovarian failure/primary ovarian insufficiency (POF/POI) that is defined as the loss of functional follicles below the age of 40 years. Among the genetic causes the most common one involves the X chromosome, as in Turner syndrome, partial X deletion and X-autosome translocations. Here we report a case of a 27-year-old female patient referred to genetic counselling because of premature ovarian failure. The aim of this case study to perform molecular genetic and cytogenetic analyses in order to identify the exact genetic background of the pathogenic phenotype. Results For premature ovarian failure disease diagnostics we performed the Fragile mental retardation 1 gene analysis using Southern blot technique and Repeat Primed PCR in order to identify the relationship between the Fragile mental retardation 1 gene premutation status and the premature ovarion failure disease. At this early onset, the premature ovarian failure affected patient we detected one normal allele of Fragile mental retardation 1 gene and we couldn’t verify the methylated allele, therefore we performed the cytogenetic analyses using G-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods and a high resolution molecular cytogenetic method, the array comparative genomic hybridization technique. For this patient applying the G-banding, we identified a large deletion on the X chromosome at the critical region (ChrX q21.31-q28) which is associated with the premature ovarian failure phenotype. In order to detect the exact breakpoints, we used a special cytogenetic array ISCA plus CGH array and we verified a 67.355 Mb size loss at the critical region which include total 795 genes. Conclusions We conclude for this case study that the karyotyping is definitely helpful in the evaluation of premature ovarian failure patients, to identify the non submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangement, and using the array CGH technique we can

  1. A new way of thinking about complications of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tiffany A; Berger, Ann M; Wilson, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of preterm infants are impacted by their ability to maintain physiologic homeostasis using metabolic, endocrine, and immunologic mechanisms independent of the mother's placenta. Exploring McEwen's allostatic load model in preterm infants provides a new way to understand the altered physiologic processes associated with frequently occurring complications of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. The purpose of this article is to present a new model to enhance understanding of the altered physiologic processes associated with complications of prematurity. The model of allostatic load and complications of prematurity was derived to explore the relationship between general stress of prematurity and complications of prematurity. The proposed model uses the concepts of general stress of prematurity, allostasis, physiologic response patterns (adaptive-maladaptive), allostatic load, and complications of prematurity. These concepts are defined and theoretical relationships in the proposed model are interpreted using the four maladaptive response patterns of repeated hits, lack of adaptation, prolonged response, and inadequate response. Empirical evidence for cortisol, inflammation, and oxidative stress responses are used to support the theoretical relationships. The proposed model provides a new way of thinking about physiologic dysregulation in preterm infants. The ability to describe and understand complex physiologic mechanisms involved in complications of prematurity is essential for research. Advancing the knowledge of complications of prematurity will advance clinical practice and research and lead to testing of interventions to reduce negative outcomes in preterm infants.

  2. Prematurity and Genetic Testing for Neonatal Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Besser, Rachel E J; Flanagan, Sarah E; Mackay, Deborah G J; Temple, I K; Shepherd, Maggie H; Shields, Beverley M; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2016-09-01

    Hyperglycemia in premature infants is usually thought to reflect inadequate pancreatic development rather than monogenic neonatal diabetes. No studies, to our knowledge, have investigated the prevalence of monogenic forms of diabetes in preterm infants. We studied 750 patients with diabetes diagnosed before 6 months of age. We compared the genetic etiology and clinical characteristics of 146 preterm patients born <37 weeks and compared them with 604 born ≥37 weeks. A genetic etiology was found in 97/146 (66%) preterm infants compared with 501/604 (83%) born ≥37weeks, P < .0001. Chromosome 6q24 imprinting abnormalities (27% vs 12%, P = .0001) and GATA6 mutations (9% vs 2%, P = .003) occurred more commonly in preterm than term infants while mutations in KCNJ11 were less common (21 vs 34%, P = .008). Preterm patients with an identified mutation were diagnosed later than those without an identified mutation (median [interquartile range] 35 [34 to 36] weeks vs 31 [28 to 36] weeks, P < .0001). No difference was seen in other clinical characteristics of preterm patients with and without an identified mutation including age of presentation, birth weight, and time to referral. Patients with neonatal diabetes due to a monogenic etiology can be born preterm, especially those with 6q24 abnormalities or GATA6 mutations. A genetic etiology is more likely in patients with less severe prematurity (>32 weeks). Prematurity should not prevent referral for genetic testing as 37% have a potassium channel mutation and as a result can get improved control by replacing insulin with sulphonylurea therapy. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  4. The economic burden of prematurity in Canada.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Karissa M; Gooch, Katherine; Korol, Ellen; Vo, Pamela; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Bradt, Pamela; Levy, Adrian

    2014-04-05

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality among infants worldwide, and imposes considerable burden on health, education and social services, as well as on families and caregivers. Morbidity and mortality resulting from preterm birth is highest among early (< 28 weeks gestational age) and moderate (28-32 weeks) preterm infants, relative to late preterm infants (33-36 weeks). However, substantial societal burden is associated with late prematurity due to the larger number of late preterm infants relative to early and moderate preterm infants. The aim in this study was to characterize the burden of premature birth in Canada for early, moderate, and late premature infants, including resource utilization, direct medical costs, parental out-of-pocket costs, education costs, and mortality, using a validated and published decision model from the UK, and adapting it to a Canadian setting based on analysis of administrative, population-based data from Québec. Two-year survival was estimated at 56.0% for early preterm infants, 92.8% for moderate preterm infants, and 98.4% for late preterm infants. Per infant resource utilization consistently decreased with age. For moderately preterm infants, hospital days ranged from 1.6 at age two to 0.09 at age ten. Cost per infant over the first ten years of life was estimated to be $67,467 for early preterm infants, $52,796 for moderate preterm infants, and $10,010 for late preterm infants. Based on population sizes this corresponds to total national costs of $123.3 million for early preterm infants, $255.6 million for moderate preterm infants, $208.2 million for late preterm infants, and $587.1 million for all infants. Premature birth results in significant infant morbidity, mortality, healthcare utilization and costs in Canada. A comprehensive decision-model based on analysis of a Canadian population-based administrative data source suggested that the greatest national-level burden is associated with moderate

  5. Lactoferrin and prematurity: a promising milk protein?

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is the major whey protein in milk, with multiple beneficial health effects including direct antimicrobial activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and iron homeostasis. Oral Lf supplementation in human preterm infants has been shown to reduce the incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In preclinical models of antenatal stress and perinatal brain injury, bovine Lf protected the developing brain from neuronal loss, improved connectivity, increased neurotrophic factors, and decreased inflammation. It also supported brain development and cognition. Further, Lf can prevent preterm delivery by reducing proinflammatory factors and inhibiting premature cervix maturation. We review here the latest research on Lf in the field of neonatology.

  6. Human milk: medicine for premature babies.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sioned

    2011-12-01

    Following years of research there have been some significant developments in the understanding and subsequent support being offered to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) families. In addition, ground breaking advances in the treatment of premature infants, with specific interest in the role of human milk, are now available. New information was presented by leading international researcher, Professor Meier, at an international symposium earlier this year. This article seeks to share this insightful information and provide support to those working in or around the NICU.

  7. The influence of mare numbers, ejaculation frequency and month on the fertility of Thoroughbred stallions.

    PubMed

    Allen, W R; Wilsher, S

    2012-09-01

    Although considerable variation in per cycle pregnancy rates exists between Thoroughbred (TB) stallions, there is little information on factors that may influence this figure. To assess the influence of month, mare numbers and mating frequency on the fertility of TB stallions standing on studfarms in East Anglia, England. The daily breeding records of 31 TB stallions mating 3034 mares on 4851 occasions during the 2010 season were surveyed and related to first scan pregnancy rates. The influences of mare book size, month, number of matings per day and mating frequency or abstinence on per mating pregnancy rates were analysed. The overall per mating pregnancy rate for all the stallions was 59.6%, but for individual stallions the figures ranged from 19.0% to 80.1%. The first mating occurred on 9 February and the last on 24 July and the per mating pregnancy rate per month was significantly reduced in June and July. The number of mares mated by individual stallions ranged from 15 to 161, giving a mean overall workload of 160 matings per 100 mares. The per mating pregnancy rate was not related to book size, the number of matings in the season or the mating frequency per day. However, some stallions showed differences in per mating pregnancy rate related to month or the number of ejaculations in the preceding 3 days. The majority of TB stallions are able to maintain good fertility despite large books of mares. However, 5 of the 31 stallions surveyed showed a per mating pregnancy rate of ≤50%. This survey has identified wide differences between the per mating pregnancy rate in TB stallions. Identification of the factors involved through more comprehensive surveys would provide useful information for mare and stallion owners. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Detrimental Effects of Non-Functional Spermatozoa on the Freezability of Functional Spermatozoa from Boar Ejaculate

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Alborcia, Maria J.; Valverde, Anthony; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Roca, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of non-functional spermatozoa on the cryopreservation success of functional boar spermatozoa was evaluated. Fifteen sperm-rich ejaculate fractions collected from five fertile boars were frozen with different proportions of induced non-functional sperm (0 –native semen sample-, 25, 50 and 75% non-functional spermatozoa). After thawing, the recovery of motile and viable spermatozoa was assessed, and the functional of the spermatozoa was evaluated from plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon exposure to capacitation conditions. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the plasma membrane was assessed by the indirect measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) generation. The normalized (with respect to a native semen sample) sperm motility (assessed by CASA) and viability (cytometrically assessed after staining with Hoechst 33342, propidium iodide and fluorescein-conjugated peanut agglutinin) decreased (p<0.01) as the proportion of functional spermatozoa in the semen samples before freezing decreased, irrespective of the semen donor. However, the magnitude of the effect differed (p<0.01) among boars. Moreover, semen samples with the largest non-functional sperm subpopulation before freezing showed the highest (p<0.01) levels of MDA after thawing. The thawed viable spermatozoa of semen samples with a high proportion of non-functional spermatozoa before freezing were also functionally different from those of samples with a low proportion of non-functional spermatozoa. These differences consisted of higher (p<0.01) levels of intracellular ROS generation (assessed with 5-(and-6) chloromethyl-20,70-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester; CM-H2DCFDA) and increased (p<0.01) membrane fluidity (assessed with Merocyanine 540). These findings indicate that non-functional spermatozoa in the semen samples before freezing negatively influence the freezability of functional spermatozoa. PMID

  9. Path analysis of risk factors leading to premature birth.

    PubMed

    Fields, S J; Livshits, G; Sirotta, L; Merlob, P

    1996-01-01

    The present study tested whether various sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and medical/physiological factors act in a direct or indirect manner on the risk of prematurity using path analysis on a sample of Israeli births. The path model shows that medical complications, primarily toxemia, chorioammionitis, and a previous low birth weight delivery directly and significantly act on the risk of prematurity as do low maternal pregnancy weight gain and ethnicity. Other medical complications, including chronic hypertension, preclampsia, and placental abruption, although significantly correlated with prematurity, act indirectly on prematurity through toxemia. The model further shows that the commonly accepted sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral risk factors act by modifying the development of medical complications that lead to prematurity as opposed to having a direct effect on premature delivery. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  11. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence.

    PubMed

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B; Dardmeh, F; Jørgensen, N; Nielsen, H I; Hnida, C

    2017-07-01

    Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days? Despite lower semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts and total motile counts, higher percentages of motile spermatozoa with higher velocity and progressiveness were detected in samples obtained after 2 h. Most studies that have assessed the effect of abstinence periods on sperm motility parameters in men with a sperm concentration below 15 million/ml have detected a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa in samples obtained after short abstinence periods. Studies of men with sperm concentrations above 15 million/ml have reported significantly decreased motile sperm counts after 24 h of abstinence compared with longer abstinence periods. This study had a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark). Participants provided a semen sample after 4-7 days of abstinence followed by another sample after only 2 h. For both ejaculates, sperm concentration, total sperm counts, motility groups and detailed kinematic parameters were assessed and compared by using the Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA) computer-aided sperm analysis system before and after density gradient selection. The laboratory's local manual method (Makler chamber) was used for comparison. The second raw ejaculate demonstrated lower semen volume (P < 0.0001), sperm concentration (P = 0.003) and sperm counts in all motility sub-groups (P < 0.001) but higher percentages of spermatozoa with higher velocity (P < 0.01), progressiveness (P < 0.001) and hyperactivation (P < 0.001), compared with the first raw ejaculate. The first ejaculate in this study was also used for the IVF/ICSI treatments and therefore only patients

  12. Sexual harm reduction practices of HIV-seropositive gay and bisexual men: serosorting, strategic positioning, and withdrawal before ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Wolitski, Richard J; Halkitis, Perry N; Purcell, David W; Hoff, Colleen C; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2005-04-01

    This study assessed unprotected anal and oral sex behaviors of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in New York City and San Francisco with their main and non-main sexual partners. Here we focus on the use of three harm reduction strategies (serosorting, strategic positioning, and withdrawal before ejaculation) in order to decrease transmission risk. The data from a baseline assessment of 1168 HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in the two cities were utilized. Men were recruited from a variety of community-based venues, through advertising and other techniques. City differences were identified, with more men in San Francisco reporting sexual risk behaviors across all partner types compared with men in New York City. Serosorting was identified, with men reporting significantly more oral and anal sex acts with other HIV-positive partners than with HIV-negative partners. However, men also reported more unprotected sex with partners of unknown status compared with their other partners. Some evidence of strategic positioning was identified, although differences were noted across cities and across different types of partners. Men in both cities reported more acts of oral sex without ejaculation than with ejaculation, but the use of withdrawal as a harm reduction strategy for anal sex was more common among men from San Francisco. Overall, evidence for harm reduction was identified; however, significant differences across the two cities were found. The complicated nature of the sexual practices of gay and bisexual men are discussed, and the findings have important implications for prevention efforts and future research studies.

  13. Effect of different procedures of ejaculate collection, extenders and packages on DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2007-06-01

    Whole ejaculate or sperm-rich fraction, collected from four sexually mature boars, was frozen in an extender containing lactose-hen egg yolk with glycerol (lactose-HEY-G) or extender containing lactose, lyophilized lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk and glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G), and Orvus Es Paste, respectively. The sperm samples were also frozen in a standard boar semen extender (Kortowo-3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. Sperm DNA integrity was assessed using a modified neutral comet assay. Sperm characteristics such as motility, plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), mitochondrial function (rhodamine 123) and acrosome integrity were monitored. Freezing-thawing caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in sperm DNA fragmentation, irrespective of the procedures of ejaculate collection and extender type. Sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the whole ejaculate compared with the sperm-rich fraction, indicating that spermatozoa maintained in the whole seminal plasma prior to its removal for freezing-thawing procedure were less vulnerable to cryo-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, spermatozoa frozen in lactose-HEY-G or lactose-LPFo-G extender exhibited lower (P<0.05) DNA fragmentation than those frozen in the absence of cryoprotective substances. The levels of sperm DNA damage, as expressed by comet tail length and tail moment values, were significantly higher (P<0.05) in sperm samples frozen in the absence of cryoprotective substances. The deterioration in post-thaw sperm DNA integrity was concurrent with reduced sperm characteristics. It can be suggested that evaluation of DNA integrity, coupled with different sperm characteristics such as motility, plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function, may aid in determining the quality of frozen-thawed boar semen.

  14. The Neural Retina in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Akula, James D.; Fulton, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina. Rod photoreceptor and post-receptor responses are significantly altered years after the preterm days during which ROP is an active disease. The alterations include persistent rod dysfunction, and evidence of compensatory remodeling of the post-receptor retina is found in ERG responses to full-field stimuli and in psychophysical thresholds that probe small retinal regions. In the central retina, both Mild and Severe ROP delay maturation of parafoveal scotopic thresholds and are associated with attenuation of cone mediated multifocal ERG responses, significant thickening of post-receptor retinal laminae, and dysmorphic cone photoreceptors. These results have implications for vision and control of eye growth and refractive development and suggest future research directions. These results also lead to a proposal for noninvasive management using light that may add to the currently invasive therapeutic armamentarium against ROP. PMID:27671171

  15. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used “premature ovarian failure” which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI. PMID:26903753

  16. [Premature death and longevity of physicians].

    PubMed

    Seyda, B

    2000-01-01

    The author has divided his work into parts. The first part entitled "Premature Death of Physicians" is dedicated to those who started their research, scientific works and fruitful medical practice but the premature death has stopped their lives and activities. Death causes are presented in ten chapters (groups of causes), i.e. Tuberculosis - Other Lung Diseases - Heart and Vessel Diseases - Septicaemiae - Infectious Diseases in Subgroups: Typhus, Plague, Cholera, Yellow Fever, Diphtheria, Influenza, Malaria, Smallpox, etc. - Encephalopathies and Mental Diseases - Malignant Neoplasms - Noninfectious Unit Diseases - Accidents - Manslaughters - Death Sentences - Suicides - Not Settled Causes of Death. There are in total 283 biographies in the first part. The second part "Longevity of Physicians" is much longer than the first one and contains 509 biographies of doctor, scientists, research workers and practitioners, meritorious in the history of medicine who attained at least 80 years of age. The biographies are arranged in 22 chapters, one for every year from 80 years of age assumed as the beginning of longevity up to 104 years in one of the cases. In each chapter the biographies are arranged in the alphabetical order. In the Epilogue the author presents shortly his conclusions and observations related to the first part and wider commentaries for the second part.

  17. Comparison of sperm subpopulation structures in first and second ejaculated semen from Japanese black bulls by a cluster analysis of sperm motility evaluated by a CASA system.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2017-08-04

    In the present study, bull sperm in the first and second ejaculates were divided into subpopulations based on their motility characteristics using a cluster analysis of data from computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA). Semen samples were collected from 4 Japanese black bulls. Data from 9,228 motile sperm were classified into 4 clusters; 1) very rapid and progressively motile sperm, 2) rapid and circularly motile sperm with widely moving heads, 3) moderately motile sperm with heads moving frequently in a short length, and 4) poorly motile sperm. The percentage of cluster 1 varied between bulls. The first ejaculates had a higher proportion of cluster 2 and lower proportion of cluster 3 than the second ejaculates.

  18. Prospectively assessing risk for premature ovarian senescence in young females: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H

    2015-04-18

    Approximately 10% of women suffer from premature ovarian senescence (POS), ca. 9% as occult primary ovarian insufficiency (OPOI, also called premature ovarian aging, POA) and ca. 1% as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, also called premature ovarian failure, POF). In a large majority of cases POS is currently only diagnosed at advanced clinical stages when women present with clinical infertility. We here, based on published evidence, suggest a new diagnostic paradigm, which is based on identifying young women at increased risk for POS at much earlier stages. Risk factors for POS are known from the literature, and can be used to identify a sub-group of young women at increased risk, who then are followed sequentially with serial assessments of functional ovarian reserve (FOR) until a diagnosis of POS is either reached or refuted. At approximately 25% prevalence in general U.S. populations (and somewhat different prevalence rates in more homogenous Asian and African populations), so-called low (CGGn<26) mutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, likely, represents the most common known risk factor, including history-based risk factors from medical, genetic and family histories. Women so affirmatively diagnosed with POS at relative young ages, then have the opportunity to reconsider their reproductive planning and/or choose fertility preservation via oocyte or ovarian tissue cryopreservation at ages when such procedures are clinically much more effective and, therefore, also more cost-effective. Appropriate validation studies will have to precede widespread utilization of this paradigm.

  19. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K.; Brehm, John M.; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. Objective We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. Methods We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Results In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5–14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Conclusions Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. PMID:24139607

  20. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Correction of Retrograde Ejaculation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Using Endourethral Collagen Injection: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Kurbatov, Dmitry; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Galstyan, G R; Rozhivanov, Roman; Lepetukhin, Alexander; Dubsky, Sergey; Shwartz, Y G; Cimino, Sebastiano; Morgia, Giuseppe; Sansalone, Salvatore

    2015-11-01

    Diabetic neuropathy secondary to diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is responsible for retrograde ejaculation (RE) in 5-18% of cases. Medical treatment of RE is based either on increasing the sympathetic tone of the bladder or on decreasing the parasympathetic activity. However, the onset of side effects and the lack of response should be considered. The aim of this study was to analyze long-term outcome of endourethral injection of volume-forming material (VFM) of collagen type 2 into bladder neck submucosa in patients with RE secondary to DM1. Twenty-four patients with complete RE refractory to imipramine and DM1 were included in the study. Patients were single-blinded randomized according to a computer-generated random sequence with a 1:1 ratio in two treatment groups, namely group A (endourethral collage type 2 injection) and group B (endourethral saline water injection). New technique includes an endoscopic injection of VFM such as collagen (Correcting MIT®, Ltd. minimally invasive technologies, Moscow, Russia) into bladder neck submucosa. Primary endpoint of the study was the reduction of semen antegrade volume (mL). Secondary endpoints were considered as the changes of antegrade count (millions/mL), antegrade total motility (%), antegrade progressive motility (%), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Questionnaire and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Pregnancy rate was calculated in each group. Twenty-three patients completed the study. In group A, significant differences from baseline to 12 months were observed relative to antegrade volume (mL) (mean difference: 0.71, P < 0.05), antegrade count (millions/mL) (mean difference: 45.6, P < 0.05), antegrade total motility (%) (mean difference: 15.4, P < 0.05) and antegrade progressive motility (%) (mean difference: 8.4, P < 0.05). In group A, we observed significant differences in terms State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (mean difference: -20.5, P < 0.05) and Beck Depression Inventory (mean

  2. HEREDITARY PREMATURE SENESCENCE OF THE RABBIT

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Louise; Brown, Wade H.

    1960-01-01

    The occurrence of hereditary premature senescence in a family of pure bred Belgian hares belonging to a rabbit-breeding colony organized for the investigation of constitutional problems, has been described. Representatives of 20 generations of the complex have been studied. The condition was a degeneration of variable degrees of severity and two principal forms were recognized, the acute and the chronic, the chronic being the more frequent. The chronic form has now been described in terms of the principal local or external manifestations; that is, degeneration of the coat and skin, lesions of the eyes and feet, and reproductive abnormalities, and of the general deterioration which in severe cases pursued a progressive course characterized by muscle wasting, fat reduction, emaciation, weakness, and death. The acute form will be described in the next paper (2). PMID:13733754

  3. Necrotizing Enterocolitis in the Premature Infant

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Katherine E.; DeForge, Christine E.; Natale, Kristan M.; Phillips, Michele; Van Marter, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most catastrophic comorbidities associated with prematurity. In spite of extensive research, the disease remains unsolved. The aims of this paper are to present the current state of the science on the pathogenesis of NEC, summarize the clinical presentation and severity staging of the disease, and highlight the nursing assessments required for early identification of NEC and ongoing care for infants diagnosed with this gastrointestinal disease. The distributions of systemic and intestinal clinical signs that are most sensitive to nursing assessment and associated with Bell Staging Criteria are presented. This descriptive data is representative of 117 cases of NEC diagnosed in low gestational age infants (<29 weeks gestation). The data highlights the clinical signs most commonly observed in infants with NEC, and thus, provides NICU nurses an evidence-based guide for assessment and care of infants with NEC. PMID:21730907

  4. [Genetic aspects of premature ovarian failure].

    PubMed

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, Alina; Słopień, Radosław

    2005-01-01

    Among the causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) two groups of factors are reported: factors which lead to decrease of follicular number and factors which stimulate follicular atresia. In the first group genetic factors are the most important whereas in the second: enzymatic autoimmunological, iatrogenic, toxins and infections are reported. In 1986 familiar POF on the background of long arm of chromosome X deletion was reported. Other chromosomes which are important for normal ovarian function are: chromosome 21 (AIRE gene), chromosome 11 (gene of beta FSH, ATM gene), chromosome 3 (gene responsible for BEPS syndrome) and chromosome 2 (genes of FSH and LH receptors). In this review the role of these genes and results of several epidemiological studies are reported.

  5. Testicular sperm is superior to ejaculated sperm for ICSI in cryptozoospermia: An update systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yi-No; Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chien-Yu; Wu, Chien-Chih

    2018-05-18

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is well established and provides patients with severely impaired sperm quality with an opportunity to father a child. However, previous studies do not clearly indicate whether male with cryptozoospermia should use testicular sperm or ejaculated sperm for ICSI. The newest systematic review of this topic also gave a controversial conclusion that was based on incorrect pooling result. Moreover, two clinical studies published after the systematic review. In the present update systematic review and meta-analysis, a comprehensive citation search for relevant studies was performed using the Cochrane library databases, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science up to September 2017. The search returned 313 records, in which six studies were included in quantitative synthesis. These studies involved 578 male infertility patients who had undergone 761 ICSI cycles. The risk ratios favour fresh testicular sperm for good quality embryo rate (1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, P = 0.005), implantation rate (95% CI 1.02-2.26, P = 0.04), and pregnancy rate (RR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.20-2.52, P = 0.004). In conclusion, the existing evidence suggests that testicular sperm is better than ejaculated sperm for ICSI in male with cryptozoospermia.

  6. Test of Fruit Extract Pare (Momordica charantia L.) to Quality of Ejaculated Spermatozoa Mice (Mus musculus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fifendy, M.; Indriati, G.

    2018-04-01

    Pare (Momordica charantia L.) can be used in the treatment of various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, antimitotic and antifertilitas. This study aimed to determine the effect of the herbal bitter (Momordica charantia L.) to ejaculated sperm quality mice (Mus musculus L.). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 6 replications, water and fed adlibitum. First treatment is given solvent extract. Second treatments extract were given 0.2 gram, third treatment were given 0.4 gram of extracts and fourth treatment were treated exstrac 0.6 gram were orally for 30 days. After the mice decapitated, dissected and take sperm from vas deferens. Then, the sperm preparation determined using the improved Neubauer. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Varians). The results shoured at doses of 0,2 gram, the average sperm count was 19.89. decrease significant when compared with the control in which the average number of sperm 29.13. So with this research the effective doses to decrease sperm count and can be used as a contraception medication dosage was 0,2 gram. It can be conclude that the extract of bitter (Momordica charantia L.) can decrease the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  7. Communication during copulation in the sex-role reversed wolf spider Allocosa brasiliensis: Female shakes for soliciting new ejaculations?

    PubMed

    Garcia Diaz, Virginia; Aisenberg, Anita; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-07-01

    Traditional studies on sexual communication have focused on the exchange of signals during courtship. However, communication between the sexes can also occur during or after copulation. Allocosa brasiliensis is a wolf spider that shows a reversal in typical sex roles and of the usual sexual size dimorphism expected for spiders. Females are smaller than males and they are the roving sex that initiates courtship. Occasional previous observations suggested that females performed body shaking behaviors during copulation. Our objective was to analyze if female body shaking is associated with male copulatory behavior in A. brasiliensis, and determine if this female behavior has a communicatory function in this species. For that purpose, we performed fine-scaled analysis of fifteen copulations under laboratory conditions. We video-recorded all the trials and looked for associations between female and male copulatory behaviors. The significant difference between the time before and after female shaking, in favor of the subsequent ejaculation is analyzed. We discuss if shaking could be acting as a signal to accelerate and motivate palpal insertion and ejaculation, and/or inhibiting male cannibalistic tendencies in this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Premature adrenarche: etiology, clinical findings, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Raimo; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Adrenarche means the morphological and functional change of the adrenal cortex leading to increasing production of adrenal androgen precursors (AAPs) in mid childhood, typically at around 5-8 years of age in humans. The AAPs dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate conjugate (DHEAS) are the best serum markers of adrenal androgen (AA) secretion and adrenarche. Normal ACTH secretion and action are needed for adrenarche, but additional inherent and exogenous factors regulate AA secretion. Inter-individual variation in the timing of adrenarche and serum concentrations of DHEA(S) in adolescence and adulthood are remarkable. Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined as the appearance of clinical signs of androgen action (pubic/axillary hair, adult type body odor, oily skin or hair, comedones, acne, accelerated statural growth) before the age of 8 years in girls or 9 years in boys associated with AAP concentrations high for the prepubertal chronological age. To accept the diagnosis of PA, central puberty, adrenocortical and gonadal sex hormone secreting tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and exogenous source of androgens need to be excluded. The individually variable peripheral conversion of circulating AAPs to biologically more active androgens (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone) and the androgen receptor activity in the target tissues are as important as the circulating AAP concentrations as determinants of androgen action. PA has gained much attention during the last decades, as it has been associated with small birth size, the metabolic and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and thus with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the known hormonal changes and their possible regulators in on-time and premature adrenarche, and the clinical features and possible later health problems associating with PA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity: An update on screening and management

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Ann L

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative disorder of the developing retinal blood vessels in preterm infants. The present practice point reviews new information regarding screening and management for retinopathy of prematurity, including the role of risk factors in screening, optimal scheduling for screening examinations, pain management, digital retinal photography and antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. PMID:27095887

  10. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dedicated-Shuttle Spacelab flight, a dedicated-pallet flight, or dedicated-FMDM/MPESS flight is prematurely terminated, NASA shall refund the optional services charges for planned, but unused, extra days on orbit. If a complete-pallet or shared-element flight is prematurely terminated, NASA shall refund a pro rata...

  11. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dedicated-Shuttle Spacelab flight, a dedicated-pallet flight, or dedicated-FMDM/MPESS flight is prematurely terminated, NASA shall refund the optional services charges for planned, but unused, extra days on orbit. If a complete-pallet or shared-element flight is prematurely terminated, NASA shall refund a pro rata...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dedicated-Shuttle Spacelab flight, a dedicated-pallet flight, or dedicated-FMDM/MPESS flight is prematurely terminated, NASA shall refund the optional services charges for planned, but unused, extra days on orbit. If a complete-pallet or shared-element flight is prematurely terminated, NASA shall refund a pro rata...

  13. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dedicated-Shuttle Spacelab flight, a dedicated-pallet flight, or dedicated-FMDM/MPESS flight is prematurely terminated, NASA shall refund the optional services charges for planned, but unused, extra days on orbit. If a complete-pallet or shared-element flight is prematurely terminated, NASA shall refund a pro rata...

  14. Bartter syndrome: presentation in an extremely premature neonate.

    PubMed

    Flores, F X; Ojeda, F J; Calhoun, D A

    2013-08-01

    Reports of Bartter syndrome in premature neonates are rare. We describe the presentation and clinical course of a neonate born at 25.6 weeks estimated gestational age with polyuria, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria ,who was diagnosed with neonatal Bartter syndrome. The evaluation, diagnosis and management of neonatal Bartter syndrome in this premature neonate are discussed.

  15. New Perspectives on Premature Infants and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joy V.

    2003-01-01

    More than 485,000 low-birth-weight, premature babies are born in the U.S. each year. The increase in preterm births since 1990 may be due to assisted pregnancies and births to older mothers. Although their survival rates are improving, many premature infants experience long-lasting developmental and behavioral problems. The author describes recent…

  16. Psychological and Educational Sequelae of Prematurity. Interim Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rosalyn; And Others

    The longitudinal study assessed the psychological and educational sequelae of premature birth through the early elementary school years, to determine whether children born prematurely constitute a high risk population in terms of regular school progress. Subjects included 78 children with birth weights of 2500 grams or less, 78 children of normal…

  17. Prematurity Stereotype: Effects of Labeling on Adults' Perceptions of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Marilyn; Hildebrandt, Katherine A.

    1984-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in which college students and mothers were asked to rate unfamiliar infants shown on videotapes. Infants were described as either full-term or premature and as either male or female. Infants labeled premature were rated more negatively than those labeled full-term, but infants labeled male and female were rated…

  18. Impact of Prematurity on Language Skills at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jamie Mahurin; DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Channell, Ron W.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The existing literature on language outcomes in children born prematurely focuses almost exclusively on standardized test scores rather than discourse-level abilities. The authors of this study looked longitudinally at school-age language outcomes and potential moderating variables for a group of twins born prematurely versus a control…

  19. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  20. Beamlet diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Theys, M.

    1994-05-06

    Beamlet is a high power laser currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Lab as a proof of concept for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Beamlet is testing several areas of laser advancements, such as a 37cm Pockels cell, square amplifier, and propagation of a square beam. The diagnostics on beamlet tell the operators how much energy the beam has in different locations, the pulse shape, the energy distribution, and other important information regarding the beam. This information is being used to evaluate new amplifier designs, and extrapolate performance to the NIF laser. In my term at Lawrence Livermore Nationalmore » Laboratory I have designed and built a diagnostic, calibrated instruments used on diagnostics, setup instruments, hooked up communication lines to the instruments, and setup computers to control specific diagnostics.« less

  1. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and ... and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  2. [Thalassaemia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kusters, Elske; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H; van Rossum, André P

    2014-01-01

    The thalassaemias are characterised by quantitative aberrations in the production of the globin chains that make up haemoglobin, and are a subgroup of the haemoglobinopathies. In this LabQuiz we show how thalassaemia carrier status can be indicated in the results of regular laboratory tests, and discuss the laboratory diagnostics that can confirm or rule out thalassaemia. In these two cases we will present a man of Moroccan descent, and two brothers of Filipino descent, all with anaemia and microcytosis. We show it is possible to differentiate between iron-deficiency anaemia and thalassaemia carrier status on the basis of a complete blood count and measurement of ferritin levels, and which laboratory diagnostics can be subsequently performed in order to confirm a suspicion of thalassaemia. The background section discusses the properties and pitfalls of routine laboratory diagnostics for the thalassaemias, and thalassaemia diagnostics in the Dutch newborn screening programme.

  3. Diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    Brewer, D E

    2000-09-01

    The results of cardiac tests must always be interpreted through the lens of pretest probabilities created by the history and the physical examination. Tests should be chosen with a clear diagnostic and prognostic purpose in mind. A clear understanding of the relationship between the history and physical examination and more technologic diagnostic testing improves the primary care physician's ability to evaluate potential cardiac disease in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

  4. Diacyl, alkenyl, and alkyl ether phospholipids in ejaculated, in utero-, and in vitro-incubated porcine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W; Weaver, D E; Clegg, E D

    1980-02-01

    The phospholipids of porcine spermatozoa were analyzed by a hydrolytic procedure directly after ejaculation, and after incubation for 120 min in vitro or in ligated uterine segments of females with induced estrus. Total phospholipid content of ejaculated sperm was 65.7 micro g lipid P per 10(9) sperm, of which 41% was alkyl ether and 23% was alkenyl ether glycerophospholipid. All of the ether phospholipids were choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. In order of decreasing amount (% of total phospholipid), the phospholipids were choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (49.9 and 28.2), sphingolipid (10.6), cardiolipin (5.5), phosphatidylinositol (2.3), phosphatidic acid (1.5), phosphatidylserine (1.2), and phosphatidylglycerol (0.8). Phosphorus-containing sphingolipid separated into two components during thin-layer chromatography. Sphingosine was the only long-chain base identified in either band. Major fatty acids in the band with lower R(f) were 16:0 (56%), 20:0 (23%), and 18:0 (11%) plus smaller amounts of 14:0, 18:1, and 22:0, while those in the band with higher R(f) were 14:0 (30%), 16:0 (45%), and 18:1 (12%) plus smaller amounts of 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0. Choline was the only water-soluble base present in the lower R(f) sphingomyelin while ethanolamine was prevalent in the higher R(f) component. Incubation of washed spermatozoa in Ca(2+)-free Ringer-fructose at 37 degrees C for 2 hr produced no significant change in the level of any of the phospholipids. Incubation of washed sperm in the uterus for 2 hr, in the presence of oviductal secretions, produced an increase in phosphatidylcholine from 7.2 to 10.2 micro g lipid P per 10(9) sperm.-Evans, R. W., D. E. Weaver, and E. D. Clegg. Diacyl, alkenyl, and alkyl ether phospholipids in ejaculated, in utero-, and in vitro-incubated porcine spermatozoa.

  5. Sperm yield after single layer centrifugation with Androcoll-E is related to the potential fertility of the original ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Stuhtmann, G; Meurling, S; Lundgren, A; Winblad, C; Macias Garcia, B; Johannisson, A

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to identify laboratory tests that are predictive of sperm fertility, both to improve the quality of stallion semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) and to identify potential breeding sires if no fertility data are available. Sperm quality at the stud is mostly evaluated by assessing subjective motility, although this parameter can be poorly indicative of fertility. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish stallions are correlated to pregnancy rate after AI. Because single layer centrifugation (SLC) selects for spermatozoa with normal morphology and good chromatin, retrospective analysis was carried out to investigate whether sperm yield after SLC is linked to potential fertility. Commercial semen doses for AI from 24 stallions (five stallions with four ejaculates each, 19 stallions with three ejaculates each; n = 77) obtained during the breeding season were cooled, and sent overnight to the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in an insulated box for evaluation, with other doses being sent to studs for commercial AI. On arrival at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the semen was used for SLC and also for evaluation of sperm motility, membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, and morphology. The seasonal pregnancy rates for each stallion were available. The yield of progressively motile spermatozoa after SLC (calculated as a proportion of the initial load) was found to be highly correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.75; P < 0.001). Chromatin damage was highly negatively correlated with pregnancy rate (r = -0.69; P < 0.001). Pregnancy rate was also correlated with membrane integrity (r = 0.58; P < 0.01), progressive motility (r = 0.63; P < 0.01), and normal morphology (r = 0.45; P < 0.05). In conclusion, these preliminary results show that sperm yield after SLC is related to the potential fertility of the original ejaculate, and could be an alternative indicator of stallion fertility if breeding data are

  6. Differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Inma; del Olmo, David; Sijses, Laurien; Martinez-Alborcia, María J; Cuello, Cristina; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques. Eighteen sperm-rich ejaculate samples from six boars (three per boar) were diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution and split into three aliquots. The aliquots were (1) further diluted to 3×10(7) sperm/mL and stored as a liquid at 17°C for 72 h, (2) frozen-thawed (FT) at 1×10(9) sperm/mL using standard 0.5-mL straw protocols, or (3) sex-sorted with subsequent liquid storage (at 17°C for 6 h) or FT (2×10(7) sperm/mL using a standard 0.25-mL straw protocol). The sperm quality was evaluated based on total sperm motility (the CASA system), viability (plasma membrane integrity assessed using flow cytometry and the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), lipid peroxidation (assessed via indirect measurement of the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the BIOXYTECH MDA-586 Assay Kit) and DNA fragmentation (sperm chromatin dispersion assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax(®) test). Data were normalized to the values assessed for the fresh (for liquid-stored and FT samples) or the sorted semen samples (for liquid stored and the FT sorted spermatozoa). All of the four sperm-processing techniques affected sperm quality (P<0.01), regardless of the semen donor, with reduced percentages of motile and viable sperm and increased MDA generation and percentages of sperm with fragmented DNA. Significant (P<0.05) inter-boar (effect of boars within each semen-processing technique) and intra-boar (effect of semen-processing techniques within each boar) differences were evident for all of the sperm quality parameters assessed, indicating differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boars to withstand the semen-processing techniques. These results are the first evidence that ejaculate spermatozoa from individual boars can respond in a boar-dependent manner to different semen-processing techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Association between human breast milk and retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Luciana Teixeira; Senna, Denise C; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Silveira, Rita de Cássia; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the possible protective effect of breast milk against retinopathy of prematurity by comparing the amount of breast milk received by patients who developed retinopathy of prematurity and those who did not and to determine both the required minimum amount of breast milk and the time of life during which neonates need to receive breast milk for this effect to be significant. Cohort study of newborns with a birth weight of <1500 g or gestational age of <32 weeks, or both, born between January 2011 and October 2014 and hospitalized within the first 24 h of life in the Hospital Criança Conceição Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. The prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity of any degree was 31% (100 of 323 patients) and that of severe retinopathy of prematurity was of 9% (29 of 323 patients). The median amounts of breast milk received daily by patients with and without retinopathy of prematurity were 4.9 mL/kg (interquartile range, 0.3-15.4) and 10.2 mL/kg (1.5-25.5), respectively. The amount of breast milk received in the first 6 weeks of life was inversely associated with the incidence of both retinopathy of prematurity of any degree and severe retinopathy of prematurity in the univariate analyses. However, the statistical significance was maintained only during the sixth week of life in a per-period multivariate analysis controlling for confounding factors. Small amounts of breast milk are inadequate to prevent retinopathy of prematurity in premature newborns at risk for the disease.

  8. The impact of premature menopause on women's experience of self.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, E A

    1999-12-01

    Surgically or chemically induced premature menopause may have an impact on women's sense of self: the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual sense of self. This ethnographic research study explores the major factors that assaulted prematurely menopausal women's concept of self and the ways in which they attempted to readjust that concept. A unifying domain, evolution of self, and three constitutive themes emerged: change/loss, connectedness/disconnectedness, and transcendence/transformation. A holistic nurse-client relationship that transcends the hospital experience and extends into the community may help prematurely menopausal women to move toward a more synthesized sense of self and a greater degree of self-actualization.

  9. [Birth weight distribution among premature infants and related social factors].

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-jun; Ye, Rong-wei; Wang, Gui-xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-wen; Ren, Ai-guo

    2009-12-01

    To understand the distribution of birth weight among premature infants and the associated social factors. The study population consisted of 97 537 women who delivered singleton live birth of 20 to 41 gestational weeks in 4 counties/cities, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China from 1995 to 2000. Chi-square test was employed to test the difference of proportions between respective groups. One- way ANOVA was used to test the differences regarding the mean of gestational weeks at the first prenatal visit and the mean of prenatal visits between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors associated with premature birth. Women aged 35 years had higher (8.8%) premature incidence than those aged less than 24 years (5.6%), 25 - 29 years (4.6%), or 30 - 34 years (4.5%, P < 0.001). Women with height less than 149 cm had higher (6.8%) premature incidence than those with height taller than 150 cm (5.0%). Women whose BMI were at least 28 and 24 - 28 had higher (5.5%, 5.5%) premature incidences than those whose BMI were 18.5 - 24.0 (5.0%), < 18.5 (4.6%, P < 0.001). The incidence of premature birth was 6.0% among women without previous pregnancy, higher than that among those women with 4 times of pregnancies (5.7%), 2 times of pregnancies (4.3%), and 3 times of pregnancies (4.0%). Parous women with at least two deliveries had higher (9.3%) premature incidence than the primiparous women (5.2%) and whose women with only one delivery (4.5%, P < 0.001). Women who received early prenatal care had lower 4.7% premature incidence than those who did not receive the service (6.1%). The mean times of prenatal visits among women with premature births was 8.53, less than that of those with full term delivery (10.97). Women with less than four times of prenatal visit had higher (18.9%) premature incidence than those with at least five prenatal visits (4.9%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that premature delivery risk was associated with age

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Karandikar, Smita S; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina occurring principally in new born preterm infants. It is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. With the increase in the survival of preterm babies, ROP has become the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness throughout the world. A simple screening test done within a few weeks after birth by an ophthalmologist can avoid this preventable blindness. Although screening guidelines and protocols are strictly followed in the developed nations, it lacks in developing economies like India and China, which have the highest number of preterm deliveries in the world. The burden of this blindness in these countries is set to increase tremendously in the future, if corrective steps are not taken immediately. ROP first emerged in 1940s and 1950s, when it was called retrolental fibroplasia. Several epidemics of this disease were and are still occurring in different regions of the world and since then a lot of research has been done on this disease. However, till date very few comprehensive review articles covering all the aspects of ROP are published. This review highlights the past, present and future strategies in managing this disease. It would help the pediatricians to update their current knowledge on ROP. PMID:26862500

  11. [Prematurity: longitudinal analysis of executive functions].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, S

    2009-02-27

    Understanding cognitive development requires an interdisciplinary and neuropsychological approach. Executive functions facilitates cognitive activity and they are related to progressive cerebral configuration during pregnancy and infancy. One of the aims of the actual neuropsychology is the ontogeny of executive functions and their capacity to explain differential and normative developmental trends, specially because of its consequences on mental flexibility, monitoring, planning and cognitive control; they are also essential for good performance at school. The incidence of developmental risk factors as prematurity could affect long-term executive functioning expressed in learning difficulties or behavioral control. We studied, comparatively and longitudinally, the individual activity on objects displayed by typical babies (n = 25), and preterm babies (n = 10) from 1.5 to 2 years-old. Applying systematic observational methodology, spontaneous babies' activity is registered. Double intra and inter-group analysis compare the data from the resolution of a non-verbal task through a multifaceted design. Results obtained show us differential pattern of early executive functioning among the groups studied. The growth of executive functioning is showed, too, through the ages studied for every group.

  12. Preventing the premature death of relationship marketing.

    PubMed

    Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G

    1998-01-01

    Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.

  13. Maternal and neonatal factors related to prematurity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Laura Leismann de; Gonçalves, Annelise de Carvalho; Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias da; Bonilha, Ana Lucia de Lourenzi

    2016-01-01

    To identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with prematurity in the municipality of Porto Alegre. This was a population-based case-control study. The cases were newborns under 37 weeks of gestation and the controls were newborns over 37 weeks. The data came from the records of 19,457 births in the city of Porto Alegre in the year 2012 from the Information System on Live Births of the Municipal Health Department. The analysis was carried outand adjusted by a Logistic Regression according to a hierarchical model. The variables studied were allocated into three hierarchy levels: sociodemographic variables; reproductive history; and gestational and birth factors. There were 767 cases allocated and 1,534 controls in a design of a case for two controls (1:2) by simple randomization. In the final model, a statistically significant association was found for prematurity for the following variables: mother's age under 19 years old (OR=1.32; CI 95%: 1.02-1.71) or over 34 years old (OR=1.39; CI 95%: 1.12-1.72); inadequate maternal schooling for age (OR=2.11; CI 95%: 1.22-3.65); multiple pregnancies (OR=1.14; CI 95%: 1.01-1.29); C-section (OR=1.15; CI 95%: 1.03-1.29); birth weights under 2,500g (OR=4.04; CI 95%: 3.64-4.49); Apgar score at five minutes between zero and three (OR=1.47; CI 95%: 1.12-1.91); and inadequate prenatal care (OR=1.18; CI 95%: 1.02-1.36). The present study showed the most immediate consequence of prematurity for newborns by evidencing its association with worse Apgar scores and low birth weight. The following factors were also shown as possible more distal determinants of prematurity: mother's age; inadequate maternal education; multiple gestation; inadequate prenatal care; and C-section. Identificar fatores maternos e neonatais associados à prematuridade no município de Porto Alegre. Estudo do tipo caso-controle de base populacional. Os casos foram recém-nascidos com menos de 37 semanas de gestação, e os controles foram os rec

  14. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry.

  15. The effects on offspring of premature parturition.

    PubMed

    Cano, A; Fons, F; Brines, J

    2001-01-01

    The time of parturition defines the length of the intrauterine period of fetal life, a requisite to achieve adequate adaptation to the external environment. Immaturity, a condition whose severity is inversely related to the length of pregnancy, is the main determinant of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with preterm birth. Despite great advances in medical technology and expertise, mainly after the introduction of the neonatal intensive care units, only one- to two-thirds of infants from the subsets with lower birthweight/gestational age reach survival at discharge. Distinct major neurological and sensorial sequelae, including cerebral palsy, retinopathy of prematurity, and hearing loss, as well as reduced neuropsychological abilities, leading to deficient academic achievement and deterioration of several aspects of health status, are still highly prevalent among the most immature children. Interestingly, decreasing mortality rates, which are not followed by detectable increases of disability, are being observed in recent years. Future advances may be expected from clinical and basic research on uterine contractility and cervical softening. Also, changes in reproductive technology procedures, a main factor in the incidence of multiple pregnancies, and a more refined approach to obstetric care, compose some of the clinical interventions which may reduce the problem.

  16. Refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity at 3-4 years old.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Li-Juan; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xin-Ke; Liu, Qin; Fang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Shi, Hui; Tang, Ling; Pi, Lian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3-4 years old, and to explore the influence of prematurity and ROP on the refractive status and optical components. Premature babies receiving fundus examination were recruited into ROP group and non-ROP group, with age-matched full-term babies as controls. The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP (3/59, 5.08%). The incidence of astigmatism was significantly different between ROP (37.29%, 22/59) and controls (17.86%, 15/84). The corneal refractive power in ROP and non-ROP was more potent compared with controls (P<0.05); corneal curvature was steeper (P<0.05); lens thickness was thinner (P<0.05); ocular axial length was shorter P<0.05). The gestational age was negatively related to corneal astigmatism and astigmatism, positively associated with vitreous thickness and axial length. The birth-weight was negatively associated with corneal astigmatism, astigmatism and corneal refractive power, positively related to corneal radius of curvature, vitreous thickness and ocular axial length. Premature babies with or without ROP are susceptible to myopia and astigmatism. ROP, prematurity and low birth-weight synergistically influence the development of refractive status and optical components, of which the prematurity and low birth-weight are more important.

  17. Efficacy of sucrose to reduce pain in premature infants during eye examinations for retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Gal, Peter; Kissling, Grace E; Young, William O; Dunaway, Kimberly K; Marsh, Virginia A; Jones, Susan M; Shockley, Dawn H; Weaver, Nicole L; Carlos, Rita Q; Ransom, J Laurence

    2005-06-01

    Eye examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are painful to the neonate. The use of topical anesthetic for eye examinations to evaluate ROP is routine in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), but does not completely suppress painful responses. Sweet solutions have been shown to reduce procedural pain in newborns. To examine whether the addition of sucrose 24% to topical anesthetic improves procedural pain control during the ROP eye examination. Neonates born at < or = 30 weeks' gestation were included in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either proparacaine HCl ophthalmic solution 0.5% plus 2 mL of sucrose 24% or proparacaine HCl ophthalmic solution 0.5% plus 2 mL of sterile water (placebo) prior to an eye examination. In a subsequent eye examination, each patient received the alternate treatment. Oral sucrose and sterile water were prepared in the pharmacy in identical syringes, and physicians, nurses, and pharmacists in the NICU were blinded to the treatment given. Pain was measured using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scoring system, which measures both physical and physiologic measures of pain, and the scores were simultaneously assessed by 2 study nurses. PIPP scores were recorded 1 and 5 minutes before and after the eye examination and during initial placement of the eye speculum. The same ophthalmologist performed all eye examinations. Several different definitions of a pain response were investigated. Twenty-three infants were studied, with 12 receiving sucrose and 11 receiving placebo as the first treatment. For 3 of the 5 definitions of pain response, patients experienced significantly less pain at speculum insertion with sucrose than with placebo. After the ROP examination, pain responses were similar with either sucrose or placebo. Oral sucrose may reduce the immediate pain response in premature infants undergoing eye examination for ROP.

  18. Ejaculate collection efficiency and post-thaw semen quality in wild-caught Griffon vultures from the Sardinian population

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Manuela; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Massimo; Leoni, Giovanni G; Satta, Valentina; Succu, Sara; Rotta, Andrea; Pasciu, Valeria; Zinellu, Angelo; Muzzeddu, Marco; Carru, Ciriaco; Naitana, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the feasibility of a programme of semen collection and cryopreservation in Griffon vultures. Four wild-caught individuals kept in captivity because of unrecoverable traumas were used. Semen collection attempts were made twice a week during three consecutive reproductive seasons (December – March) using the abdominal massage method. Ejaculation was successfully induced between late January and late February. Semen collection efficiency was rather low (27.9%) and it did not vary among individuals (p > 0.05). No differences were found in ejaculate volumes (12.5 +/- 9.1 μl), spermatozoa concentration (28.4 +/- 30.9 million cells/ml) and viability (61.3 +/- 13.9%) among the 4 vultures. ATP values differed among the four vultures (p < 0.001); B showed higher nucleotide concentration than both C and D, while it did not differ form A, whose values were higher compared with D. After freezing and thawing, semen in vitro viability, DNA integrity and ATP intracellular concentration were determined. Spermatozoa viability after thawing did not differ among the four individuals (52.6 +/- 5.8 in A, 53.4 +/- 4.6 in B, 50.4 +/- 3.2 in C, 42.5 +/- 2.7 in D), but it decreased significantly compared to fresh semen (p < 0.05). During 4 hrs in vitro culture, spermatozoa collected from B maintained over time a higher viability in vitro when compared to A, C and D. As evaluated by the comet assay method, DNA fragmentation after freezing and thawing did not differ in the 4 vultures. ATP concentration in frozen/thawed semen was significantly lower than in fresh semen (p < 0.0001). This study indicates that semen cryopreservation can be considered as a useful tool in the conservation of Griffon vulture genetic resources, but further studies are needed to optimize this technique. PMID:19228408

  19. Detection of invariant natural killer T cells in ejaculates from infertile patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yong-Gang; Chen, Shujian; Haidl, Gerhard; Allam, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Chronic inflammation of genital tract is thought to play a major role in male fertility disorder. Natural killer (NK) T cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and NK cells which display immunoregulatory properties. However, little is known regarding the presence and function of NK T cells in ejaculates from patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract. Invariant NK T (iNK T) cells were detected by invariant (Vα24-JαQ) TCR chain in ejaculates from patients suffering from chronic inflammation of genital tract (CIGT) using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence of double staining (n=40). Inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ were detected in cell-free seminal plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count, motility, vitality, seminal IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ was investigated. Significant percentages of iNK T cells above 10% were detected in 50% (CIGT-NKT + group). A negative correlation was detected between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count (r=-.5957, P=.0056), motility (r=-.6163, P=.0038), and vitality (r=-.8032, P=.0019) in CIGT-NKT + group (n=20). Interestingly, a significant correlation of iNK T cells to seminal IL-6 (r=.7083, P=.0005), IFN-γ (r=.9578, P<.0001) was detected whereas lack of correlation between iNK T cells and IL-17 (r=-.1557, P=.5122) in CIGT-NKT + group. The proliferative response of iNK T cells could accompany an inflammatory response to spermatozoa and consequently influence sperm quality through secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-17 under chronic inflammatory condition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Family participation in premature care in neonatal ICU].

    PubMed

    Gaíva, Maria Aparecida Munhoz; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the family participation in the premature assistance in a university hospital neonatal ICU. Data were collected from the participant observation. Results showed that despite of the mother's presence in the daily life of their premature children placed in a hospital, family isn't inserted in the work process and mothers are the only ones who take part of the cares. This participation basically happens in the execution of maternity care, especially at the medium risk unity, the mother and premature family are less welcomed and there isn't any partnership between the care team and the family, there aren't team interventions in order to turn premature family in autonomous subject to promote health and life quality to baby's life.

  1. The use of human milk and breastfeeding in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Schanler, R J; Hurst, N M; Lau, C

    1999-06-01

    Human milk is beneficial in the management of premature infants. The beneficial effects generally relate to improvements in host defenses, digestion, and absorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal function, neurodevelopment, and maternal psychological well-being. The use of fortified human milk generally provides the premature infant adequate growth, nutrient retention, and biochemical indices of nutritional status when fed at approximately 180 mL/kg/day compared with unfortified human milk. Human milk can only support the needs of the premature infant if adequate milk volumes are produced. Intensive efforts at lactation support are desirable. Therefore, neonatal centers should encourage the feeding of fortified human milk for premature infants along with skin-to-skin contact as a reasonable method to enhance milk production and promote success with early breastfeeding, while potentially facilitating the development of an enteromammary response.

  2. Premature Craniosynostosis: A Complication of Thyroid Replacement Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfold, James L.; Simpson, Donald A.

    1975-01-01

    Presented are case studies of 3 children, infancy to 9-years-old, whose premature skull ossification (craniosynostosis) is traced to iatrogenic hyperthyroidism from the administration of excessive amounts of thyroid hormone. (CL)

  3. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  4. Efficacy of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Stage 3+ Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Mintz-Hittner, Helen A.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Chuang, Alice Z.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Retinopathy of prematurity is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Peripheral retinal ablation with conventional (confluent) laser therapy is destructive, causes complications, and does not prevent all vision loss, especially in cases of retinopathy of prematurity affecting zone I of the eye. Case series in which patients were treated with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors suggest that these agents may be useful in treating retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS We conducted a prospective, controlled, randomized, stratified, multicenter trial to assess intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for zone I or zone II posterior stage 3+ (i.e., stage 3 with plus disease) retinopathy of prematurity. Infants were randomly assigned to receive intravitreal bevacizumab (0.625 mg in 0.025 ml of solution) or conventional laser therapy, bilaterally. The primary ocular outcome was recurrence of retinopathy of prematurity in one or both eyes requiring retreatment before 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age. RESULTS We enrolled 150 infants (total sample of 300 eyes); 143 infants survived to 54 weeks’ postmenstrual age, and the 7 infants who died were not included in the primary-outcome analyses. Retinopathy of prematurity recurred in 4 infants in the bevacizumab group (6 of 140 eyes [4%]) and 19 infants in the laser-therapy group (32 of 146 eyes [22%], P = 0.002). A significant treatment effect was found for zone I retinopathy of prematurity (P = 0.003) but not for zone II disease (P = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy, as compared with conventional laser therapy, in infants with stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity showed a significant benefit for zone I but not zone II disease. Development of peripheral retinal vessels continued after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab, but conventional laser therapy led to permanent destruction of the peripheral retina. This trial was too small to assess safety. PMID:21323540

  5. Effects of premature stimulation on HERG K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yu; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P; Varghese, Anthony; Huang, Christopher L-H; Kemp, Paul R; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2001-01-01

    The unusual kinetics of human ether-à-go-go-related gene (HERG) K+ channels are consistent with a role in the suppression of arrhythmias initiated by premature beats. Action potential clamp protocols were used to investigate the effect of premature stimulation on HERG K+ channels, transfected in Chinese hamster ovary cells, at 37 °C. HERG K+ channel currents peaked during the terminal repolarization phase of normally paced action potential waveforms. However, the magnitude of the current and the time point at which conductance was maximal depended on the type of action potential waveform used (epicardial, endocardial, Purkinje fibre or atrial). HERG K+ channel currents recorded during premature action potentials consisted of an early transient outward current followed by a sustained outward current. The magnitude of the transient current component showed a biphasic dependence on the coupling interval between the normally paced and premature action potentials and was maximal at a coupling interval equivalent to 90% repolarization (APD90) for ventricular action potentials. The largest transient current response occurred at shorter coupling intervals for Purkinje fibre (APD90– 20 ms) and atrial (APD90– 30 ms) action potentials. The magnitude of the sustained current response following premature stimulation was similar to that recorded during the first action potential for ventricular action potential waveforms. However, for Purkinje and atrial action potentials the sustained current response was significantly larger during the premature action potential than during the normally paced action potential. A Markov model that included three closed states, one open and one inactivated state with transitions permitted between the pre-open closed state and the inactivated state, successfully reproduced our results for the effects of premature stimuli, both during square pulse and action potential clamp waveforms. These properties of HERG K+ channels may help to suppress

  6. Premature Growth Plate Closure in a Ballet Dancer en Pointe.

    PubMed

    Shah, Selina

    2017-09-01

    A 13-year-old ballet dancer who had been dancing en pointe (on the tips of the toes) since 10 years presented to the clinic with a shortened right second toe. She had no previous history of pain or trauma. She was diagnosed with premature growth arrest of the second metatarsal head physes resulting in a shortened metatarsal. This is the first reported case of premature growth arrest in a ballet dancer as a result of dancing en pointe.

  7. Management of premature primary tooth loss in the child patient.

    PubMed

    Law, Clarice S

    2013-08-01

    Premature loss of primary teeth can result in a loss of arch length and have a negative effect on occlusion and alignment, often increasing the need for orthodontic treatment. Use of space maintainers can reduce the severity of problems such as crowding, ectopic eruption, tooth impaction and poor molar relationship. This article presents a review of the consequences of premature tooth loss and discusses the appliances commonly used for space maintenance.

  8. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  9. The characteristics of premature infants with transient corneal haze.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Hung; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Yang, San-Nan; Chang, Shun-Jen; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Wu, Wen-Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The etiology of transient corneal haze in premature infants is not known and how it relates to clinical outcomes in premature infants is not clear. To study associated factors of transient corneal haze in premature infants. We performed a retrospective study of 261 premature infants from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening in the neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary referral hospital. Characteristics of premature infants with and without corneal haze were analyzed by correlation tests, Chi-square tests, and logistic regressions were used for statistical analyses. Associations between corneal haze and birth weight (BW), gestational age at birth (GA), central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and other systemic and ophthalmic data were evaluated. The incidence of corneal haze was 13.4%. Lower BW, lower GA, packed red blood cells (RBC) transfusion, more days on oxygen, older maternal age, bronchopulmonary disease, and stage 3 ROP are associated with corneal haze. The severity of corneal haze decreased with infants' postmenstrual age. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BW and maternal age are the most important predictors of corneal haze. Low BW and older maternal age are the most important predictors of corneal haze in premature infants. Premature infants with corneal haze could carry more systemic and ocular morbidities. Hence they may require more clinical attention. Corneal haze is unlikely to hinder the treatment of ROP. However, it is possible that corneal haze could hinder the examination of ROP in some infants. If corneal haze does interfere with ROP screening, a closer, more conservative follow-up schedule with a senior ophthalmologist experienced in managing ROP is recommended.

  10. [Genetic obesity: new diagnostic options].

    PubMed

    de Vries, T I; Alsters, S I M; Kleinendorst, L; van Haaften, G; van der Zwaag, B; Van Haelst, M M

    2017-01-01

    - Obesity is an important risk factor for morbidity and premature death, as well as a contributing factor to psychosocial problems. The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically over the last few decades.- Obesity is considered to be a multifactorial condition in which both environmental factors and genetic factors play a part.- In approximately 5% of patients with morbid obesity, a monogenic cause can be identified. Mutations in the MC4R gene are the most frequently occurring monogenic cause of obesity.- The department of Genetics at the VU University Medical Center Amsterdam offers morbidly obese patients a diagnostic analysis of 50 obesity-associated genes. - An underlying obesity-associated genetic defect can influence patient response to certain treatments. Therefore, if the gene defect is known, it can be taken into account when considering treatment options.- The understanding of the genetics of obesity will significantly contribute to research into the development of personalized treatment options.

  11. Intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Alparslan; Şahin, Muhammed; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Çınar, Yasin; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Kaya, Savaş; Arı, Şeyhmus; Caça, İhsan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injections, used as a monotherapy in type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective chart review was performed for 17 type 1 ROP patients (34 eyes), who had IVB injection between July 2011 and June 2012. Birthweight, gestational age at birth, stage and location of ROP, IVB injection time, time of complete retinal vascularization, and additional treatments if needed, were noted. A total of 0.625 mg (0.025 mL) bevacizumab was injected intravitreally. Thirty eyes of 17 patients with type 1 ROP enrolled in the study were treated with IVB injection. Of them seven had aggressive posterior-ROP, six had stage 2 ROP, and four had stage 3 ROP. The mean gestational age was 28.44 weeks (range, 26-31 weeks); and the mean birthweight was 1151.88 g (range, 600-1600 g). The mean age for IVB injection was 35.47 weeks. The mean full retinal vascularization time was 136.6 ± 26.6 days. The mean follow-up time was 285.3 ± 70 days. ROP was regressed and retinal vascularization was completed in all cases except one eye, which had threshold disease. IVB injection, used as a monotherapy, is an effective treatment approach in patients with type 1 ROP. Timely treatment of stage 2 and early stage 3 ROP in which disease progression was observed, prevents vitreoretinal membrane formation in posterior disease. Further studies need to be performed to determine the safety of IVB injection. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Altered Gluconeogenic Pathway in Premature Baboons.

    PubMed

    McGill-Vargas, Lisa; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Liang, Hanyu; Anzueto Guerra, Diana; Johnson-Pais, Teresa; Seidner, Steven; McCurnin, Donald; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; DeFronzo, Ralph; Musi, Nicolas; Blanco, Cynthia

    2017-05-01

    Premature infants have altered glucose regulation early in life and increased risk for diabetes in adulthood. Although prematurity leads to an increased risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adult life, the role of hepatic glucose regulation and adaptation to an early extrauterine environment in preterm infants remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental differences in glucose metabolism, hepatic protein content, and gene expression of key insulin-signaling/gluconeogenic molecules. Fetal baboons were delivered at 67%, 75%, and term gestational age and euthanized at birth. Neonatal baboons were delivered prematurely (67% gestation), survived for two weeks, and compared with similar postnatal term animals and underwent serial hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Premature baboons had decreased endogenous glucose production (EGP) compared with term animals. Consistent with these results, the gluconeogenic molecule, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase messenger RNA, was decreased in preterm baboons compared with terms. Hepatic insulin signaling was altered by preterm birth as evidenced by decreased insulin receptor-β, p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, and Akt-1 under insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, preterm baboons failed to have the normal increase in glycogen synthase kinase-α from fetal to postnatal life. The blunted responses in hepatic insulin signaling may contribute to the hyperglycemia of prematurity, while impaired EGP leads to hypoglycemia of prematurity. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  13. Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Altered Gluconeogenic Pathway in Premature Baboons

    PubMed Central

    McGill-Vargas, Lisa; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Liang, Hanyu; Anzueto Guerra, Diana; Johnson-Pais, Teresa; Seidner, Steven; McCurnin, Donald; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; DeFronzo, Ralph; Musi, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Premature infants have altered glucose regulation early in life and increased risk for diabetes in adulthood. Although prematurity leads to an increased risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adult life, the role of hepatic glucose regulation and adaptation to an early extrauterine environment in preterm infants remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental differences in glucose metabolism, hepatic protein content, and gene expression of key insulin-signaling/gluconeogenic molecules. Fetal baboons were delivered at 67%, 75%, and term gestational age and euthanized at birth. Neonatal baboons were delivered prematurely (67% gestation), survived for two weeks, and compared with similar postnatal term animals and underwent serial hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Premature baboons had decreased endogenous glucose production (EGP) compared with term animals. Consistent with these results, the gluconeogenic molecule, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase messenger RNA, was decreased in preterm baboons compared with terms. Hepatic insulin signaling was altered by preterm birth as evidenced by decreased insulin receptor–β, p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, and Akt-1 under insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, preterm baboons failed to have the normal increase in glycogen synthase kinase-α from fetal to postnatal life. The blunted responses in hepatic insulin signaling may contribute to the hyperglycemia of prematurity, while impaired EGP leads to hypoglycemia of prematurity. PMID:28324053

  14. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    PubMed Central

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks) and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR) and Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02), inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls) (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001), absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001), history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005). Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  15. [Macronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants].

    PubMed

    He, Bi-Zi; Sun, Xiu-Jing; Quan, Mei-Ying; Wang, Dan-Hua

    2014-07-01

    To study the dynamic changes in macronutrients and energy in human milk from mothers of premature infants. A total of 339 human milk samples were collected from 170 women who delivered preterm or full-term infants in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital between November 2012 and January 2014. Macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates and energy were measured using a MIRIS human milk analyzer and compared between groups. In milk samples from premature infants' mothers, the protein levels were the highest in colostrum (2.22±0.49 g/dL), less in transitional milk (1.83±0.39 g/dL), and the least in mature milk (1.40±0.28 g/dL) (P<0.01), and the levels of fats (2.4±1.3 g/dL vs 3.1±1.1 g/dL; P<0.01), carbohydrates (6.4±0.9 g/dL vs 6.6±0.4 g/dL; P<0.05) and energy (55±9 kcal/dL vs 62±8 kcal/dL; P<0.01) were significantly lower in colostrum than in transitional milk. The protein levels in colostrum from premature infants' mothers were significantly higher than those in colostrum from term infants' mothers (2.22±0.49 g/dL vs 2.07±0.34 g/dL; P<0.05). The colostrum from mothers of premature infants with a gestational age of ≤30 weeks had significantly higher protein levels than those from mothers of premature infants with gestational ages of 30(+1)-33(+6) weeks and ≥34 weeks (2.48±0.68 g/dL vs 2.11±0.25 g/dL and 2.22±0.39 g/dL respectively, P<0.05); the energy levels in colostrum from mothers of premature infants with a gestational age of ≤30 weeks group (51±6 kcal/dL) were significantly lower than those in colostrum from mothers of premature infants with a gestational age of 30(+1)-33(+6) weeks (58±8 kcal/d; P<0.05). The carbohydrate levels in transitional milk from mothers of premature infants with a gestational age of ≤30 weeks were significantly higher than those in transitional milk from mothers of premature infants with gestational ages of 30(+1)-33(+6) weeks and ≥34 weeks (P<0

  16. Premature birth--Studies on orthodontic treatment need, craniofacial morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    -IV: A higher prevalence of malocclusion traits and the assessed need of orthodontic treatment were higher among the preterm children compared with full-term born children (Paper II). Several craniofacial parameters differed significantly between preterm and full-term born children (Paper III). Preterm children did not differ from full-term born children when considering diagnoses according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD), signs and symptoms of TMD or headache (Paper IV). The increased survival rate of very preterm and especially the extremely preterm children contribute to a new group of children in society. The dental clinician should, therefore, be aware of the potential for a higher number of malocclusion traits, more malocclusion traits per individual, greater orthodontic treatment need and altered craniofacial morphology in prematurely born children compared with full-term born children. In spite of this, the prematurely born children had not more TMD or headache than full-term born children at the age of 8-10 years.

  17. Prematurity disrupts glomeruli development, whereas prematurity and hyperglycemia lead to altered nephron maturation and increased oxidative stress in newborn baboons.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Danielle A; McGill-Vargas, Lisa L; Quinn, Amy; Jordan, Jasmine L; Winter, Lauryn A; Anzueto, Diana; Dick, Edward J; Blanco, Cynthia L

    2018-03-01

    BackgroundPremature birth occurs when nephrogenesis is incomplete and has been linked to increased renal pathologies in the adult. Metabolic factors complicating preterm birth may have additional consequences for kidney development. Here, we evaluated the effects of prematurity and hyperglycemia on nephrogenesis in premature baboons when compared with those in term animals.MethodsBaboons were delivered prematurely (67% gestation; n=9) or at term (n=7) and survived for 2-4 weeks. Preterm animals were classified by glucose control during the first 5 days of life: normoglycemic (PtN; serum glucose 50-100 mg/dl, n=6) and hyperglycemic (PtH; serum glucose 150-250 mg/dl, n=3). Kidneys were assessed histologically for glomeruli relative area, maturity, size, and overall morphology. Kidney lysates were evaluated for oxidative damage with 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) antibody.ResultsHistological examination revealed decreased glomeruli relative area (P<0.05), fewer glomerular generations (P<0.01), and increased renal corpuscle area (P<0.001) in preterm compared with those in term animals. Numbers of apoptotic glomeruli were similar between groups. PtH kidneys exhibited reduced nephrogenic zone width (P<0.0001), increased numbers of mature glomeruli (P<0.05), and increased 4-HNE staining compared with those in PtN kidneys.ConclusionPrematurity interrupts normal kidney development, independent of glomerular cell apoptosis. When prematurity is complicated by hyperglycemia; kidney development shifts toward accelerated maturation and increased oxidative stress.

  18. Association of Maternal Preeclampsia With Infant Risk of Premature Birth and Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Julia P; Weng, Cindy; Wilkes, Jacob; Greene, Tom; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Studies report conflicting associations between preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study provides explanations for the discrepancies to clarify the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP. To evaluate the association of maternal preeclampsia and risk of ROP among infants in an unrestricted birth cohort and a restricted subcohort of preterm, very low birth weight (P-VLBW) infants. A retrospective review of 290 992 live births within the Intermountain Healthcare System in Utah from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regressions with covariate adjustment were applied to relate ROP to preeclampsia among the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants born at younger than 31 weeks' gestation and weighing less than 1500 g. The occurrence of ROP was related to maternal preeclampsia in the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants. In the full cohort, 51% of the infants were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 38.38 (1.87) weeks. In the P-VLBW cohort, 55% were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 26.87 (2.40) weeks. In the full cohort, preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of all ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% CI, 2.17-2.79; P < .001), severe ROP (aOR, 5.21; 95% CI, 3.44-7.91; P < .001), infant death (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.16-2.38; P = .006), and giving birth to a P-VLBW infant (aOR, 7.74; 95% CI, 6.92-8.67; P < .001). In the P-VLBW subcohort, preeclampsia was inversely associated with the development of all ROP (aOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92; P = .003), severe ROP (aOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.36-1.06; P = .08), and infant death (aOR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.11-0.32; P < .001). Preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of developing ROP among an unrestricted cohort but with a reduced risk of ROP among a restricted subcohort of P-VLBW infants. Although the conflicting associations in the full and P-VLBW cohorts

  19. Amnioinfusion for preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Essilfie-Appiah, George; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2011-12-07

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Amnioinfusion aims to restore amniotic fluid volume by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for PPROM on perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2011). Randomised trials of amnioinfusion compared to no amnioinfusion in women with PPROM. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included five trials but we only analysed data from four studies (with a total of 241 participants). One trial did not contribute any data to the review.Transcervical amnioinfusion improved fetal umbilical artery pH at delivery (mean difference 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.14; one trial, 61 participants) and reduced persistent variable decelerations during labour (risk ratio (RR) 0.52; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91; one trial, 86 participants).Transabdominal amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in neonatal death (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.66; two trials, 94 participants), neonatal sepsis (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.61; one trial, 60 participants), pulmonary hypoplasia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.88; one trial, 34 participants) and puerperal sepsis (RR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84; one trial, 60 participants). Women in the amnioinfusion group were also less likely to deliver within seven days of membrane rupture (RR 0.18; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.70; one trial, 34 participants). These results should be treated with circumspection as the positive findings were mainly due to one trial with unclear allocation concealment. These results are encouraging but are limited by the sparse data and unclear methodological robustness, therefore further evidence is required before amnioinfusion for

  20. Neighborhood Environmental Health and Premature Death From Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaglioti, Anne H; Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D; Akintobi, Tabia Henry

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes.

  1. Neighborhood Environmental Health and Premature Death From Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O’Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L.; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. Methods We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. Results We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. Conclusion This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes. PMID:29389312

  2. Early-onset Evans syndrome, immunodeficiency, and premature immunosenescence associated with tripeptidyl-peptidase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Stepensky, Polina; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Gather, Ruth; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Fischer, Ute; Nabhani, Schafiq; Beier, Fabian; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Fuchs, Sebastian; Zenke, Simon; Firat, Elke; Pessach, Vered Molho; Borkhardt, Arndt; Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Keller, Bärbel; Warnatz, Klaus; Eibel, Hermann; Niedermann, Gabriele; Elpeleg, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune cytopenia is a frequent manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies. Two siblings presented with Evans syndrome, viral infections, and progressive leukopenia. DNA available from one patient showed a homozygous frameshift mutation in tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2) abolishing protein expression. TPP2 is a serine exopeptidase involved in extralysosomal peptide degradation. Its deficiency in mice activates cell death programs and premature senescence. Similar to cells from naïve, uninfected TPP2-deficient mice, patient cells showed increased major histocompatibility complex I expression and most CD8+ T-cells had a senescent CCR7-CD127−CD28−CD57+ phenotype with poor proliferative responses and enhanced staurosporine-induced apoptosis. T-cells showed increased expression of the effector molecules perforin and interferon-γ with high expression of the transcription factor T-bet. Age-associated B-cells with a CD21− CD11c+ phenotype expressing T-bet were increased in humans and mice, combined with antinuclear antibodies. Moreover, markers of senescence were also present in human and murine TPP2-deficient fibroblasts. Telomere lengths were normal in patient fibroblasts and granulocytes, and low normal in lymphocytes, which were compatible with activation of stress-induced rather than replicative senescence programs. TPP2 deficiency is the first primary immunodeficiency linking premature immunosenescence to severe autoimmunity. Determination of senescent lymphocytes should be part of the diagnostic evaluation of children with refractory multilineage cytopenias. PMID:25414442

  3. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; de Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Ceu Clara

    2013-01-01

    To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressure during pregnancy, prematurity and NICU. We obtained 1007 evocations, distributed as follows: high blood pressure during pregnancy (335) prematurity (333) and NICU (339). These constituted three thematic units: representation of HDPs, prematurity and the NICU. The categories death and negative aspects were inherent to the three units analyzed, followed by coping strategies and needs for care present in HDPs and prematurity. The study had death as its central nucleus, and highlighted the subjective aspects present in the high risk pregnancy and postpartum cycle. It is hoped that this research will contribute to qualifying nursing care for women confronting the problem of HDPs, so that they can cope with less impacts from the adverse effects of high risk pregnancy and birth.

  4. Regional inequalities in premature mortality in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Laroze, Denise; Neumayer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Premature mortality exhibits strong spatial patterns in Great Britain. Local authorities that are located further North and West, that are more distant from its political centre London and that are more urban tend to have a higher premature mortality rate. Premature mortality also tends to cluster among geographically contiguous and proximate local authorities. We develop a novel analytical research design that relies on spatial pattern recognition to demonstrate that an empirical model that contains only socio-economic variables can eliminate these spatial patterns almost entirely. We demonstrate that socioeconomic factors across local authority districts explain 81 percent of variation in female and 86 percent of variation in male premature mortality in 2012–14. As our findings suggest, policy-makers cannot hope that health policies alone suffice to significantly reduce inequalities in health. Rather, it requires strong efforts to reduce the inequalities in socio-economic factors, or living conditions for short, in order to overcome the spatial disparities in health, of which premature mortality is a clear indication. PMID:29489918

  5. Quantitative assessment of testicular germ cell production and kinematic and morphometric parameters of ejaculated spermatozoa in the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus.

    PubMed

    Aslam, H; Schneiders, A; Perret, M; Weinbauer, G F; Hodges, J K

    2002-02-01

    Germ cell production and organization of the testicular epithelium in a prosimian species, the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, was investigated to extend knowledge of comparative primate spermatogenesis. In addition, semen samples collected from adult male lemurs (body weight 53-92 g; n = 16) by rectal probe electroejaculation were evaluated using computer-assisted morphometric and kinematic analysis of spermatozoa. Epididymidal spermatozoa were collected from six animals after hemicastration; the testes were weighed and prepared for stereological analysis and flow cytometry. The relative testis mass (as a percentage of body weight) ranged between 1.17 and 5.6%. Twelve stages of testicular seminiferous epithelium as described for macaques were applied and only a single stage was observed in most of the seminiferous tubule cross-sections. On average (mean SD), a single testis contained 1870 +/- 829 x 10(6) germ cells and 35 +/- 12 x 10(6) Sertoli cells. Germ cell ratios (preleptotene:type B spermatogonia = 2, round spermatid:pachytene = 3; elongated spermatid:round spermatids = 1) indicated high spermatogenic efficacy. Sperm head dimensions and tail lengths of the ejaculated and epididymidal spermatozoa were similar. Percentages of defects (neck/mid-piece and tail) were low ( 10%) and similar for ejaculated and epididymidal spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were highly motile, characterized by extensive lateral head displacement, but relatively low progressive motility. In conclusion, the grey mouse lemur has unusually large testes with a highly efficient spermatogenic process and large sperm output. These features, together with the high proportion of morphologically normal and highly motile spermatozoa in the ejaculates, indicate that Microcebus murinus is a species in which sperm competition after ejaculation is likely to occur. The predominantly single spermatogenic stage system seems to be an ancestral feature among primates.

  6. Altered PIWI-LIKE 1 and PIWI-LIKE 2 mRNA expression in ejaculated spermatozoa of men with impaired sperm characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giebler, Maria; Greither, Thomas; Müller, Lisa; Mösinger, Carina; Behre, Hermann M

    2018-01-01

    In about half the cases of involuntary childlessness, a male infertility factor is involved. The PIWI-LIKE genes, a subclade of the Argonaute protein family, are involved in RNA silencing and transposon control in the germline. Knockout of murine Piwi-like 1 and 2 homologs results in complete infertility in males. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the mRNA expression of human PIWI-LIKE 1-4 genes is altered in ejaculated spermatozoa of men with impaired sperm characteristics. Ninety male participants were included in the study, among which 47 were with normozoospermia, 36 with impaired semen characteristics according to the World Health Organization (WHO) manual, 5 th edition, and 7 with azoospermia serving as negative control for the PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression in somatic cells in the ejaculate. PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression in the ejaculated spermatozoa of the participants was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In nonazoospermic men, PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA was measurable in ejaculated spermatozoa in different proportions. PIWI-LIKE 1 (100.0%) and PIWI-LIKE 2 (49.4%) were more frequently expressed than PIWI-LIKE 3 (9.6%) and PIWI-LIKE 4 (15.7%). Furthermore, a decreased PIWI-LIKE 2 mRNA expression showed a significant correlation with a decreased sperm count (P = 0.022) and an increased PIWI-LIKE 1 mRNA expression with a decreased progressive motility (P = 0.048). PIWI-LIKE 1 and PIWI-LIKE 2 mRNA expression exhibited a significant association with impaired sperm characteristics and may be a useful candidate for the evaluation of the impact of PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression on male infertility.

  7. Detection of Potentially Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity by Remote Image Grading.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Graham E; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Pan, Wei; Baumritter, Agnieshka; Daniel, Ebenezer

    2017-09-01

    Telemedicine in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has the potential for delivering timely care to premature infants at risk for serious ROP. To describe the characteristics of eyes at risk for ROP to provide insights into what types of ROP are most easily detected early by image grading. Secondary analysis of eyes with referral-warranted (RW) ROP (stage 3 ROP, zone I ROP, plus disease) on diagnostic examination from the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) study was conducted from May 1, 2011, to October 31, 2013, in 1257 premature infants with birth weights less than 1251 g in 13 neonatal units in North America. Data analysis was performed between February 1, 2016, and June 5, 2017. Serial imaging sessions with concurrent diagnostic examinations for ROP. Time of detecting RW-ROP on image evaluation compared with clinical examination. In the e-ROP study, 246 infants (492 eyes) were included in the analysis; 138 (56.1%) were male. A total of 447 eyes had RW-ROP on diagnostic examination. Image grading in 123 infants (mean [SD] gestational age, 24.8 [1.4] weeks) detected RW-ROP earlier than diagnostic examination (early) in 191 (42.7%) eyes by about 15 days and detected RW-ROP in 123 infants (mean [SD] gestational age, 24.6 [1.5] weeks) at the same time (same) in 200 (44.7%) eyes. Most of the early eyes (153 [80.1%]) interpreted as being RW-ROP positive on imaging evaluation agreed with examination findings when the examination subsequently documented RW-ROP. At the sessions in which RW-ROP was first found by examination, stage 3 or more in 123 infants (mean [SD] gestational age, 24.8 [1.4] weeks) ROP was noted earlier on image evaluation in 151 of 191 early eyes (79.1%) and in 172 of 200 of same eyes (86.0%) (P = .08); the presence of zone I ROP was detected in 57 of 191 (29.8%) early eyes vs 64 of 200 (32.0%) same eyes (P = .90); and plus disease was noted in 30 of 191 (15.7%) early eyes and 45 of 200 (22

  8. Impact of dry ejaculation caused by highly selective alpha1A-blocker: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover pilot study in healthy volunteer men.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Taguri, Masataka; Harada, Yoshiko; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Sase, Kazuhiro; Fujime, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    Dry ejaculation with loss of seminal emission is reported in patients who have been administered silodosin, an alpha1A-adrenoceptor antagonist. We investigated the impact of dry ejaculation caused by orally administered silodosin on orgasmic function. In a double-blind crossover study, 50 healthy volunteer men were randomly assigned to receive either a single dose of 4-mg silodosin or placebo with 3 days of washout before crossover. Subjects masturbated 4 hours after administering agents. Numerical rating scale (NRS) score from 0 (highest) to 10 (lowest) for subjective quality of orgasm, the subjective number of contractions of the bulbocavernosus/pelvic floor muscles, and the amount of semen were examined. Results. After the administration of silodosin, the NRS score worsened by 1.3 points (P = 0.003), the number of contractions of the bulbocavernosus/pelvic floor muscles decreased by about 1 (P = 0.003), and there was a decrease of 1.8 mL in the amount of semen produced (P < 0.0001). Eleven men overall (22%) on silodosin administration had less than a 50% decrease from baseline in the amount of semen. Silodosin may adversely affect the subjective orgasmic function by causing an abnormal ejaculation with decreased (or no) semen discharge and a decrease in the number of bulbocavernosus/pelvic floor muscle contractions. Semen passing through the urethra and sufficient rhythmic contraction of the muscle of the pelvic floor may contribute to the subjective pleasure of orgasm.

  9. [First SIBEN clinical consensus: diagnostic and therapeutic approach to patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborns].

    PubMed

    Golombek, S G; Sola, A; Baquero, H; Borbonet, D; Cabañas, F; Fajardo, C; Goldsmit, G; Lemus, L; Miura, E; Pellicer, A; Pérez, J M; Rogido, M; Zambosco, G; van Overmeire, B

    2008-11-01

    To report the process and results of the first neonatal clinical consensus of the Ibero-American region. Two recognized experts in the field (Clyman and Van Overmeire) and 45 neonatologists from 23 countries were invited for active participation and collaboration. We developed 46 questions of clinical-physiological relevance in all aspects of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Guidelines for consensus process, literature search and future preparation of educational material and authorship were developed, reviewed and agreed by all. Participants from different countries were distributed in groups, and assigned to interact and work together to answer 3-5 questions, reviewing all global literature and local factors. Answers and summaries were received, collated and reviewed by 2 coordinators and the 2 experts. Participants and experts met in Granada, Spain for 4.5 h (lectures by experts, presentations by groups, discussion, all literature available). 31 neonatologists from 16 countries agreed to participate. Presentations by each group and general discussion were used to develop a consensus regarding: general management, availability of drugs (indomethacin vs. ibuprofen), costs, indications for echo/surgery, etc. Many steps were learnt by all present in a collaborative forum. This first consensus group of Ibero-American neonatologists SIBEN led to active and collaborative participation of neonatologists of 16 countries, improved education of all participants and ended with consensus development on clinical approaches to PDA. Furthermore, it provides recommendations for clinical care reached by consensus. Additionally, it will serve as a useful foundation for future SIBEN Consensus on other topics and it could become valuable as a model to decrease disparity in care and improve outcomes in this and other regions.

  10. [Periodontal disease: Is it a risk factor for premature labor, low birth weight or preeclampsia?].

    PubMed

    Castaldi, José Luis; Bertin, Marta Susana; Giménez, Fabián; Lede, Roberto

    2006-04-01

    To determine if periodontal disease (PD) is a risk factor for premature labor, low birth weight, or preeclampsia, and to look for a potential association between the different clinical forms of PD and the obstetric results indicated. This is an analytical, cross-sectional and prospective study of all women who gave birth in Dr. José Penna Hospital, in the city of Bahía Blanca, Argentina, between 1 February and 18 July 2003 and between 1 March and 31 May 2004. Women who met the inclusion criteria (being over 18 years old, having at least 18 teeth, not being diabetic, and having had children who survived labor) underwent a dental exam to look for hemorrhage when teeth were probed, loose teeth, or inflammation of the gums, and any loss of insertion was measured clinically. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated, and the results were adjusted according to smoking status and the presence or absence of anemia. A total of 2,003 births and 1,982 labor episodes were registered. In all, 420 women (21.2%) were excluded from the study because they did not meet the inclusion criteria or because no diagnostic exam could be carried out. Of the 1,562 women who were examined, 809 (51.8%) had at least one of the problems being sought; of these women, 274 (17.5%) had severe periodontal disease, and 535 (34.3%) had gingivitis. In all, there were 149 (9.5%) cases of premature labor; 161 (10.3%) cases of low birth weight, and 157 (10.0%) cases of preeclampsia. No association was noted between PD and premature labor (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.50), low birth weight (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.47), or preeclampsia (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.40). The risk of giving birth to an infant with low birth weight in the subgroup of women who smoked more than 10 cigarettes a day was greater among women who had severe PD than among those who had good oral health (OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.46 to 10.05; P = 0.001). Anemia was found to be a risk factor for low birth

  11. Fluorescein angiography-based diagnosis for retinopathy of prematurity: expert-non expert comparison.

    PubMed

    Guagliano, Rosanna; Barillà, Donatella; Bertone, Chiara; Maffia, Anna; Periti, Francesca; Spallone, Laura; Anselmetti, Giovanni; Giacosa, Elisabetta; Stronati, Mauro; Tinelli, Carmine; Bianchi, Paolo Emilio

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate accuracy and inter-rater reliability of RetCam fundus images and digital camera fluorangioscopic images in acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by comparing diagnoses given by trainee ophthalmologists with those provided by expert ophthalmologists. 
 This is a multicenter retrospective observational study of diagnostic data from 48 eyes of 24 premature infants with classical ROP, stage II, as evaluated by RetCam 3 and fluorescein angiography (FA). Average gestational age was 25.4 weeks, average weight 804.7 g. A staging grid (with ocular fundus divided into 3 concentric zones) and 24 15° sectors centered around the optic papilla were superimposed on 360° retina photomontages (Photoshop) made from RetCam and FA images. Non expert vs expert diagnosis agreement was measured for each sector by means of Cohen kappa (Fleiss, 1981).
 A high degree of concordance was found. Inter-rater agreement between expert and non expert interpretations of retinal photomontages was greater for fluorangiographic images than for RetCam images, with κ = 0.61-1 for 120/152 (78.9%) sectors examined on the RetCam images and 
κ = 0.61-1 for 168/198 (84.8%) sectors examined on the FA images.
 The FA images appear to be easier to interpret than RetCam images, both by expert and non expert ophthalmologists. The results confirm that FA is a good examination technique with a high degree of reliability, even where trainee practitioners are involved. This suggests that retinopathy management can be improved by entrusting diagnostic responsibilities to trainee ophthalmologists, in order to extend access to correct diagnosis, recognition of threshold lesions, and prompt treatment.

  12. Probiotics and Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality due to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. Probiotics decrease the risk of NEC and death in premature infants; however, mechanisms of action are unclear. A wide variety of probiotic species have been evaluated for potential beneficial properties in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical trials of premature infants. Although there is variation by species and even strain, common mechanisms of protection include attenuation of intestinal inflammation, apoptosis, dysmotility, permeability, supplanting other gut microbes through production of bacteriocins, and more effective use of available nutrients. Here, we review the most promising probiotics and what is known about their impact on the innate and adaptive immune response. PMID:28966796

  13. Chronic kidney disease: a clinical model of premature aging.

    PubMed

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Larsson, Tobias E

    2013-08-01

    Premature aging is a process associated with a progressive accumulation of deleterious changes over time, an impairment of physiologic functions, and an increase in the risk of disease and death. Regardless of genetic background, aging can be accelerated by the lifestyle choices and environmental conditions to which our genes are exposed. Chronic kidney disease is a common condition that promotes cellular senescence and premature aging through toxic alterations in the internal milieu. This occurs through several mechanisms, including DNA and mitochondria damage, increased reactive oxygen species generation, persistent inflammation, stem cell exhaustion, phosphate toxicity, decreased klotho expression, and telomere attrition. Because recent evidence suggests that both increased local signaling of growth factors (through the nutrient-sensing mammalian target of rapamycin) and decreased klotho expression are important modulators of aging, interventions that target these should be tested in this prematurely aged population. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transition of Premature Infants From Hospital to Home Life

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Greta L.; Anderson, Kathryn Hoehn; Feutchinger, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To conduct an integrative literature review to studies that focus on the transition of premature infants from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to home. Method A literature search was performed in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, and MEDLINE to identify studies consisting on the transition of premature infants from hospital to home life. Results The search yielded seven articles that emphasized the need for home visits, child and family assessment methods, methods of keeping contact with health care providers, educational and support groups, and described the nurse’s role in the transition program. The strategy to ease the transition differed in each article. Conclusion Home visits by a nurse were a key component by providing education, support, and nursing care. A program therefore should consist of providing parents of premature infants with home visits implemented by a nurse or staying in contact with a nurse (e.g., via video-conference). PMID:22763247

  15. How best to capture the respiratory consequences of prematurity?

    PubMed

    Ciuffini, Francesca; Robertson, Colin F; Tingay, David G

    2018-03-31

    Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions. The changing nature of preterm lung disease suggests that a multimodal approach using dynamic lung function assessment will be needed to assess the efficacy of a neonatal respiratory therapy and predict the long-term respiratory consequences of premature birth. Our aim is to review the literature regarding the long-term respiratory outcomes of neonatal respiratory strategies, the difficulties of assessing dynamic lung function in infants, and potential new solutions. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  16. Perinatal biomarkers in prematurity: Early identification of neurologic injury

    PubMed Central

    Andrikopoulou, Maria; Almalki, Ahmad; Farzin, Azadeh; Cordeiro, Christina N.; Johnston, Michael V.; Burd, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, biomarkers have become increasingly utilized as non-invasive tools in the early diagnosis and management of various clinical conditions. In perinatal medicine, the improved survival of extremely premature infants who are at high risk for adverse neurologic outcomes has increased the demand for the discovery of biomarkers in detecting and predicting the prognosis of infants with neonatal brain injury. By enabling the clinician to recognize potential brain damage early, biomarkers could allow clinicians to intervene at the early stages of disease, and to monitor the efficacy of those interventions. This review will first examine the potential perinatal biomarkers for neurologic complications of prematurity, specifically, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). It will also evaluate knowledge gained from animal models regarding the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injury in prematurity. PMID:24768951

  17. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitore