Science.gov

Sample records for premises combustion du

  1. Initiation mechanism for flame flashover within premises with a seat of combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, V.I.

    1994-05-01

    Conditions are analyzed for the occurrence of flame flashover during the development of a fire within premises and secondary ignition for gas-phase combustion of PMMA in air with additions of tetrafluorodibromoethane, which intensifies the release of soot. It is shown that the phenomena in question arise with a high concentration of soot particles which in both cases play an important role in initiating flame propagation.

  2. Prediction du transfert thermique parietal pour la chambre de combustion d'une turbine a gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Pierre

    Des travaux ont demontre que la temperature de paroi pouvait etre predite avec precision (+/-6 a 10%) pour une chambre de combustion a pleine-echelle. Pour les resultats obtenus d'une autre chambre, aussi identique mais de plus petit diametre, la prediction de temperature de paroi n'offrait pas la meme precision de calcul. Cette etude est limitee aux turbines aeronautiques. L'objectif a ete de reevaluer globalement la prediction de la temperature de paroi d'une chambre de combustion de type GHOST a la lumiere des resultats obtenus des programmes experimentaux, tout en prenant en consideration l'influence des differents types de carburants. Par l'analyse du grand nombre de donnees experimentales, des modifications furent apportees a la methode de prediction utilisee pour les chambres a pleine echelle afin de reduire l'erreur de prediction pour les echelles a 1:2 (basse pression), 1:3 (basse pression) et 1:3 (haute pression). Une modelisation de la chambre de combustion a ete effectuee. L'analyse numerique nous a demontree que le code FLUENT/UNS predisait tres bien l'ecoulement a froid a l'interieur de la chambre de combustion GHOST echelle 1:1. La prediction etait acceptable au niveau des profils de temperature a l'interieur de la chambre. Cependant, une lacune a ete observee au niveau du modele d'evaporation du code.

  3. Premises liability.

    PubMed

    Buckner, F

    2001-01-01

    Premises liability is an often-overlooked legal consideration. Financially destructive cases brought against practices by patients or visitors can be avoided by creating a safe work environment and clearly labeling potentially harmful locales in and around the office in which you work. This article discusses clear ways any physician or office manager can avoid major legal problems by paying close attention to the needs and rights of office invitees. The focus of any physician considering insurance should include not only malpractice insurance but also premises liability insurance.

  4. Combustible caramel pour reacteurs de recherche: Experience acquise en fabrication, controles et irradiation du coeur d'osiris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Contenson, Ghislain; Foulquier, Henri; Trotabas, Maria; Vignesoult, Nicole; Cerles, Jean-Marie; Delafosse, Jacques

    1982-04-01

    L'un des aboutissements des différentes actions menées en France concernant la conception, la fabrication et le développement des combustibles nucléaires a été la mise au point par le CEA d'un combustible de type plaque (combustible CARAMEL) susceptible d'être adapté a différentes catégories de réacteurs à eau (réacteur de puissance, propulsion navale, chauffage urbain, pile de recherche). Ces travaux ont été couronnés par la réalisation de tout un coeur et des recharges du réacteur de recherche à hautes performances, Osiris, à Saclay. L'ancien combustible en alliage U Al fortement enrichi a eté remplacé par un combustible caramel de faible enrichissement (7%), non proliférant. Ce nouveau coeur fonctionne avec satisfaction, depuis janvier 1980. Après une brève description des caractéristiques du combustible caramel et de ses principaux avantages, on présente sa fabrication ainsi que l'ensemble des contrôles de qualité auxquels il est soumis. Le programme de qualification ainsi que les principaux résultáts qui en ont été tirés sont exposés. On décrit également le programme de suivi du combustible en pile dont le but est de s'assurer du bon comportement du combustible sous irradiation. Le bon fonctionnement d'Osiris, qui a terminé 11 cycles d'irradiation le 21 avril 1981, a permis de montrer le bien fondé des choix effectués et l'excellent comportement de l'élément combustible dans les conditions pourtant sévères d'un réacteur de recherche à hautes performances.

  5. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  6. [Nine Biblical anesthetic premises.].

    PubMed

    Vale, Nilton Bezerra do; Delfino, José

    2003-02-01

    The authors produced a historical analysis of nine anesthesia-related premises described in the Bible more than 3,500 years ago (Old Testament). Anesthetic drugs and adjuvants, patients, anesthesiologists attitudes and techniques are discussed in the light of Biblical and modern science. To help understanding, the nine premises evaluated are correlated to the book of Bible citation: I - Jehovah, the pioneer of inhalational anesthesia - Gen 2; II - Alcoholic hypnosis and anesthesia - Prov 20, Gen 19, Marc 15; III - Anesthesia-related Chaos and Chronobiology - Gen 1, Ecles 3; IV - Anesthetic drugs Stereoisomerism - Ecle 42, Gen 1; V - Elijah s and Elisha s cardiopulmonary resuscitation - Gen 2, Kings III 17, Kings IV 4; VI - Tocoanalgesia - Gen 3, Rev 12, Gen 35 and Rachels post-partum death - Ex 1; VII - Jehovah s witnesses interpretation of blood transfusion forbiddance - Lev 7,17; VIII - Acidosis for epileptic seizure treatment - Math 17; IX - Death on the cross by hypovolemic shock - Marc 15, John 19. According to the anesthetic premises discussed, Holy Bible reading without fundamentalism shows no incompatibility between religion, science and anesthesia, except for Jehovah,s witnesses interpretation of Leviticus VII-XVII, by which they would lose eternal life because transfused blood is an impure food forbidden by Jehovah.

  7. Application de l'A.D.L, pour la mesure du champ de vitesses instationnaires de llecoulement a Ilechappement d'un moteur a combustion interne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutrif, M. S.; Thelliez, M.

    1993-01-01

    We present experimental results of instantaneous velocity measurement, which were obtained by application of the laser Doppler anemometry (L.D.A.) at the exhaust pipe of a reciprocating engine under real working conditions. First of all, we show that the instantaneous velocity is monodimensional along a straight exhaust pipe, and that the boundary layer develops within a 2mm thickness. We also show that the cylinder discharges in two phases : the blow down period and the final part of exhaust stroke. We also make obvious, that the flow escapes very quickly : its velocity varies between - 100m/s and 200m/s within a period shorter than 1ms ; thereby, we do record the acoustic resonance phenomenon, when the engine speed is greater than 3 000rpm. Finally, we show that in the exhaust pipe the apparent fluctuation - i.e. the cyclic dispersion and the actual turbulence - may reach 15%. Nous présentons des résultats expérimentaux du champ de vitesses instationnaires, obtenus par adaptation et application de la vélocimétrie laser interférentielle communément appelée à effet Doppler (L.D.A.), à l'échappement d'un moteur altematif à combustion inteme en fonctionnement nominal. Tout d'abord, nous montrons que dans un tube d'échappement long et droit, la vitesse instantanée est bien monodimensionnelle et que l'écoulement occupe la quasitotalité de la section droite géométrique du tube (une couche limite d'épaisseur inférieure à 2mm se développe très près de la paroi du tube). Nous pouvons également décrire la vidange du cylindre du moteur étudié en deux phases principales : bouffée d'échappement et refoulement des gaz brûlés par le piston. Nous mettons de même en évidence l'état très pulsé de l'écoulement, puisqu'en un intervalle de temps inférieur à 1ms, la vitesse de l'écoulement varie de - 100m/s à 200m/s ; nous enregistrons ainsi l'apparition du phénomène de résonance acoustique à des vitesses de rotation supérieures à 3 500

  8. Spatial Premise Integration in Hindi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Spatial reasoning or locating objects in a spatial space has long been an important area of research in cognitive science because analyzing space categorically and finding objects is a fundamental act of mental perception and cognition. Premise integration in tasks of spatial reasoning has recently received considerable research attention. This is…

  9. Spatial Premise Integration in Hindi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Spatial reasoning or locating objects in a spatial space has long been an important area of research in cognitive science because analyzing space categorically and finding objects is a fundamental act of mental perception and cognition. Premise integration in tasks of spatial reasoning has recently received considerable research attention. This is…

  10. EPA/IFP (Environmental Protection Agency/Institute Francais Du Petrole) European workshop on the emission of nitrous oxide from fossil-fuel combustion: Rueil-Malmaison, France, June 1-2, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.V.; Srivastava, R.K.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil-fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increasing atmospheric N2O concentrations have been linked to depletion of stratospheric ozone (O3) and to global-climate warming. The combustion of fossil fuels has been identified as a potential major anthropogenic source of N2O. The workshop had two goals: (1) to exchange information among various international research and industrial groups that are involved in N2O chemistry, modeling, and measurement; and (2) to develop a network for coordinating future related efforts.

  11. 7 CFR 51.55 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Premises. 51.55 Section 51.55 Agriculture Regulations... Contract Basis § 51.55 Premises. The premises shall be free from conditions objectionable to packing... buildings, excessively dusty roads, yards or parking lots, and poorly drained areas. ...

  12. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more than...

  13. 7 CFR 58.125 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... water from plant buildings and driveways, including surface water around the plant and on the premises..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Premises, Buildings...

  14. 7 CFR 58.125 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... water from plant buildings and driveways, including surface water around the plant and on the premises..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Premises,...

  15. 7 CFR 51.55 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premises. 51.55 Section 51.55 Agriculture Regulations... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.55 Premises. The..., yards or parking lots, and poorly drained areas. ...

  16. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  17. 7 CFR 8.4 - Basic premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic premises. 8.4 Section 8.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.4 Basic premises. (a) The 4-H Club Name and... for the educational and character-building purposes of the 4-H program and can be used only as...

  18. Premises liability: how far does it go?

    PubMed

    Aicher, R H

    2001-09-01

    The outcomes of lawsuits initiated by patients who fall on medical premises are determined by some general parameters. For example, a patient can recover against the owner only, not the physician tenant, for a defective parking lot deemed common area for the use of all building tenants. The author discusses the factors that courts consider in determining premises liability. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:465-466.).

  19. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  20. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  1. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  2. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  3. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  4. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... or on its premises. (b) Stables or other premises for animals used in the production or testing of...

  5. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or on its premises. (b) Stables or other premises for animals used in the production or testing of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or on its premises. (b) Stables or other premises for animals used in the production or testing of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is...

  8. 25 CFR 141.21 - Trade confined to premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade confined to premises. 141.21 Section 141.21 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.21 Trade confined to premises. The licensee shall confine all trade on the reservation to the premises specified in the license, except,...

  9. 12 CFR 208.21 - Investments in premises and securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investments in premises and securities. 208.21... MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Investments and Loans § 208.21 Investments in premises and securities. (a) Investment in bank premises. No state member bank...

  10. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine, including...

  11. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine, including...

  12. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine, including...

  13. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine, including...

  14. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine, including...

  15. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be used...

  16. Tasks and premises in quantum state determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of quantum tomography is to determine an unknown quantum state from measurement outcome statistics. There are two obvious ways to generalize this setting. First, our task need not be the determination of any possible input state but only some input states, for instance pure states. Second, we may have some prior information, or premise, which guarantees that the input state belongs to some subset of states, for instance the set of states with rank less than half of the dimension of the Hilbert space. We investigate state determination under these two supplemental features, concentrating on the cases where the task and the premise are statements about the rank of the unknown state. We characterize the structure of quantum observables (positive operator valued measures) that are capable of fulfilling these type of determination tasks. After the general treatment we focus on the class of covariant phase space observables, thus providing physically relevant examples of observables both capable and incapable of performing these tasks. In this context, the effect of noise is discussed.

  17. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    on peut s’interroger sur l’adquation des moyens engages ausceptiblea do se manifester naturellement au cours du A Ia complexit6 du probl~me... capteur d’Helmoltz; de pression lorsque Ia fr~quence vanet. Calcul num~rique et mithode expdrimentale donnent des irdsultats en bon accord, c’cst-i... naturellement , avec des niveaux stabilis~s moddr~s. mod~le de combustion (r~f. 30) et des limites de L’opinion est r~pandue que la segmentation peut l’approche

  18. Common features of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-04-24

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001-2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water--not contaminants--that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control.

  19. Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001–2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water—not contaminants—that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control. PMID:25918909

  20. Reasoning from unfamiliar premises: a study with unschooled adults.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria; Roazzi, Antonio; Harris, Paul L

    2005-07-01

    A long tradition of research initiated by Luria in the 1930s has established that unschooled adults perform poorly on reasoning tasks. Particularly when the premises are unfamiliar, they adopt an inappropriate empirical bias. However, recent findings show that young children with little or no schooling reason competently if prompted to think of the unfamiliar premises as pertaining to a distant planet. We tested two groups of adults: illiterate, unschooled adults and adults with limited schooling. Both groups received problems that included either a premise with unknown content or a premise contradicting their everyday experience. When given a minimal prompt, both groups manifested the customary empirical bias. By contrast, when explicitly prompted to think of the unfamiliar premises as pertaining to a distant planet, they reasoned accurately and appropriately justified their conclusions in terms of the supplied premises.

  1. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  2. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  3. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  4. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  5. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  6. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  7. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  8. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee, charge...

  9. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee, charge...

  10. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee, charge...

  11. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee, charge...

  12. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee, charge...

  13. 7 CFR 930.56 - Off-premise inventory reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-premise inventory reserve. 930.56 Section 930.56... Handling Regulations § 930.56 Off-premise inventory reserve. Any handler may, upon notification to the Board, arrange to hold inventory reserve, of his or her own production or which was purchased, on...

  14. 7 CFR 930.56 - Off-premise inventory reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-premise inventory reserve. 930.56 Section 930.56... Handling Regulations § 930.56 Off-premise inventory reserve. Any handler may, upon notification to the Board, arrange to hold inventory reserve, of his or her own production or which was purchased, on...

  15. 25 CFR 140.14 - Trade limited to specified premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade limited to specified premises. 140.14 Section 140.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.14 Trade limited to specified premises. No trade with Indians is permitted at any...

  16. 27 CFR 44.111 - Change in export warehouse premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in export warehouse... Qualification of Export Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.111 Change in export warehouse premises. Where an export warehouse is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate...

  17. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified in...

  18. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified in...

  19. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bank premises' related investments, loans or indebtedness, as described in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this.... Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, a bank that is rated 1 or 2 under the Uniform Financial... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37...

  20. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or a...

  1. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or a...

  2. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or a...

  3. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or a...

  4. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or a...

  5. 27 CFR 19.828 - Removals from the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Plant Operations § 19.828 Removals from the premises. No person shall remove from the vinegar plant premises vinegar or other fluid or material containing more than 2% alcohol by volume. Records...

  6. Microbiological investigation of halal butchery products and butchers' premises.

    PubMed

    Little, C; Gillespie, I; de Louvois, J; Mitchell, R

    1999-06-01

    Halal butchers' premises were investigated as they had not been represented in a recent study of butchery products and butchers' premises conducted by the Local Authorities Coordinating Body on Food and Trading Standards and the PHLS. This study examined 183 raw prepared meats and 212 environmental samples from 105 halal butcher premises. Only raw meats were prepared on 97 of the premises visited; and the types of meat prepared on the remaining eight premises was not specified. Four halal butchers sold cooked meats prepared elsewhere. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were detected in 12 (7%) and 52 (28%) of the 183 raw meat products, respectively. Five raw prepared meats (3%) contained both salmonella and campylobacter. Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 was isolated from a raw meat product that also contained campylobacter. No cooked meat products were available for collection. The physical separation of raw and unwrapped cooked meat products in premises that prepared raw and sold cooked meats was not recorded. Apron cloths were the most heavily contaminated environmental samples examined; hygiene indicator microorganisms indicated an increased risk of cross contamination. Managers in 85 premises had received no food hygiene training and 88 premises had no hazard analysis system in place. Improvements are needed to reduce the risk of cross contamination.

  7. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  8. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  9. Levels of drunkenness of customers leaving licensed premises in Perth, Western Australia: a comparison of high and low 'risk' premises.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, T; Rydon, P; Gianatti, S; Jenkins, E; Ovenden, C; Syed, D

    1992-06-01

    A measure of the risk of licensed premises having customers involved in road traffic accidents and drink-driving offences was utilised in order to identify seven 'High Risk' and eight 'Low Risk' premises in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. This measure, or 'Risk Ratio', was defined as the ratio of incidents of alcohol-related harm to an estimate of on-premises alcohol sales for a particular establishment. A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a High Risk status would be associated with greater levels of customer intoxication. Interviews concerning drinking behaviour and breathalyser readings were collected from 74.2% of 414 customers exiting from the chosen premises between 8 p.m. and midnight on Friday and Saturday nights. High Risk premises had three times more customers whose readings were in excess of 0.15 mg/ml (p less than 0.01). The proportion of customers with BAL's above 0.15 correlated strongly with the premises' Risk Ratio (r = 0.63, p less than 0.01). There were also significantly more patrons from High than from Low Risk establishments who were rated as appearing moderately or severely intoxicated but refused to be interviewed or breath-tested. It is argued that these results support the need for strategies which aim to reduce very high levels of intoxication on licensed premises in order to reduce alcohol-related accidents, injuries and offences.

  10. 25 CFR 571.5 - Entry of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... representative may enter the premises of an Indian gaming operation to inspect, examine, photocopy, and audit all papers, books, and records (including computer records) concerning: (1) Gross revenues of class II...

  11. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000: Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Potential customer premises service (CPS), telecommunication services, potential CPS user classes, a primary research survey, comparative economics, market demand forcasts, distance distribution of traffic, segmentation of market demand, and a nationwide traffic distribution model are discussed.

  12. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... future expansion; or (5) Parking facilities that are used by customers or employees of the bank, its...

  13. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... future expansion; or (5) Parking facilities that are used by customers or employees of the bank, its...

  14. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... future expansion; or (5) Parking facilities that are used by customers or employees of the bank, its...

  15. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... future expansion; or (5) Parking facilities that are used by customers or employees of the bank, its...

  16. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized to...

  17. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized to...

  18. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized to...

  19. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized to...

  20. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized to...

  1. 27 CFR 26.199f - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... bonded premises by the proprietor on the basis of the most recent official gauge. (c) Distribution of...

  2. 27 CFR 26.199f - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... bonded premises by the proprietor on the basis of the most recent official gauge. (c) Distribution of...

  3. 27 CFR 26.199f - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... bonded premises by the proprietor on the basis of the most recent official gauge. (c) Distribution of...

  4. 27 CFR 26.199f - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... premises by the proprietor on the basis of the most recent official gauge. (c) Distribution of forms. The...

  5. Combustion detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimpi, R. L.; Nealy, J. E.; Grose, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A device has been developed for generating a rapid response signal upon the radiation-emitting combustion reaction of certain gases in order to provide a means for the detection and identification of such reaction and concurrently discriminate against spurious signals. This combustion might be the first stage of a coal mine explosion process, and thereby this device could provide a warning of the impending explosion in time to initiate quenching action. This device has the capability of distinguishing between the light emitted from a combustion reaction and the light emitted by miners' lamps, electric lamps, welding sparks or other spurious events so that the quenching mechanism is triggered only when an explosion-initiating combustion occurs.

  6. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-01

    This photograph depicts one of over thirty tests conducted on the Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) test stand 115, a joint effort between NASA's MSFC and the U.S. Army AMCOM of Redstone Arsenal. The engine tests were conducted to evaluate an irnovative, "self-cooled", vortex combustion chamber, which relies on tangentially injected propellants from the chamber wall producing centrifugal forces that keep the relatively cold liquid propellants near the wall.

  7. Combustion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  8. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  9. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  10. Biofuels combustion.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  11. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  12. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  13. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  14. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  15. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 27 CFR 19.53 - Continuity of plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuity of plant... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.53 Continuity of plant premises. As...

  17. 27 CFR 26.164 - Proprietors of taxpaid premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Records and Reports of Liquors From Puerto Rico § 26.164 Proprietors of taxpaid premises. Transactions involving the bringing of liquors into the United States from Puerto Rico by proprietors of distilled...

  18. 27 CFR 26.164 - Proprietors of taxpaid premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Records and Reports of Liquors From Puerto Rico § 26.164 Proprietors of taxpaid premises. Transactions involving the bringing of liquors into the United States from Puerto Rico by proprietors of distilled...

  19. 27 CFR 26.164 - Proprietors of taxpaid premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Records and Reports of Liquors From Puerto Rico § 26.164 Proprietors of taxpaid premises. Transactions involving the bringing of liquors into the United States from Puerto Rico by proprietors of distilled...

  20. 27 CFR 26.164 - Proprietors of taxpaid premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Records and Reports of Liquors From Puerto Rico § 26.164 Proprietors of taxpaid premises. Transactions involving the bringing of liquors into the United States from Puerto Rico by proprietors of distilled...

  1. 27 CFR 26.164 - Proprietors of taxpaid premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Records and Reports of Liquors From Puerto Rico § 26.164 Proprietors of taxpaid premises. Transactions involving the bringing of liquors into the United States from Puerto Rico by proprietors of distilled...

  2. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447 Joint survey...

  3. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447 Joint survey...

  4. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447...

  5. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from the premises, except that the Veterinarian in Charge may extend the time limit for disinfection to... the Veterinarian in Charge determines that an extension will not adversely affect the Brucellosis... State representative recommends it in writing and the Veterinarian in Charge approves. (Approved by the...

  6. Day Care Premises: A Boon to the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas D.; Aronin, Eugene L.

    This paper discusses some of the new ways of looking at the growth and development of children that were pioneered by the day care and preschool movement of the 1960's, and that are currently being adopted by the elementary schools. Specifically, five premises about child development are outlined: (1) the notion that the I. Q. is flexible; (2) the…

  7. 27 CFR 20.203 - Losses on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Losses on premises. 20.203 Section 20.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Losses § 20.203 Losses...

  8. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  9. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  10. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  11. 27 CFR 19.53 - Continuity of plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuity of plant... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.53 Continuity of plant premises. As a...

  12. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  13. 25 CFR 571.5 - Entry of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS Inspection of Books and Records § 571.5 Entry of premises. (a) The Commission's authorized... papers, books, and records (including computer records) concerning: (1) Gross revenues of class II gaming... under the Act and this chapter. (b) The Commission's authorized representative shall present official...

  14. 25 CFR 571.5 - Entry of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS Inspection of Books and Records § 571.5 Entry of premises. (a) The Commission's authorized... papers, books, and records (including computer records) concerning: (1) Gross revenues of class II gaming... under the Act and this chapter. (b) The Commission's authorized representative shall present official...

  15. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may be...

  16. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may be...

  17. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may be...

  18. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may be...

  19. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may be...

  20. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447 Joint survey of... terminal survey to determine the extent of restoration required, if any, will be prepared. The lessor...

  1. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  2. 27 CFR 19.434 - Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts, and Withdrawals Rules for Taking Samples of Spirits § 19.434 Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises. (a) Laboratory samples. A proprietor may withdraw spirits without payment of tax, or may withdraw wine spirits or...

  3. 27 CFR 19.435 - Samples used on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Samples used on bonded... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts, and Withdrawals Rules for Taking Samples of Spirits § 19.435 Samples used on bonded premises. A proprietor may take...

  4. 27 CFR 19.435 - Samples used on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Samples used on bonded... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts, and Withdrawals Rules for Taking Samples of Spirits § 19.435 Samples used on bonded premises. A proprietor may take...

  5. 27 CFR 19.434 - Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts, and Withdrawals Rules for Taking Samples of Spirits § 19.434 Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises. (a) Laboratory samples. A proprietor may withdraw spirits without payment of tax, or may withdraw wine spirits or...

  6. 27 CFR 19.435 - Samples used on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Samples used on bonded... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts, and Withdrawals Rules for Taking Samples of Spirits § 19.435 Samples used on bonded premises. A proprietor may take...

  7. 27 CFR 19.434 - Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts, and Withdrawals Rules for Taking Samples of Spirits § 19.434 Spirits withdrawn from bonded premises. (a) Laboratory samples. A proprietor may withdraw spirits without payment of tax, or may withdraw wine spirits or...

  8. 27 CFR 19.435 - Samples used on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Samples used on bonded... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Transfers, Receipts, and Withdrawals Rules for Taking Samples of Spirits § 19.435 Samples used on bonded premises. A proprietor may take...

  9. 48 CFR 452.236-72 - Use of Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of Premises. 452.236-72 Section 452.236-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.236-72 Use...

  10. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS IN PREMISE PLUMBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OBJECTIVES. The objectives of this project were to: 1.) Host an expert workshop to identify research needs for opportunistic premise (i.e., building) plumbing pathogens (OPPPs); 2.) With the assistance of the workshop participants, prepare this research repor...

  11. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.31...

  12. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.31...

  13. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  14. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  15. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  16. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  17. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  18. 9 CFR 82.22 - Cleaning and disinfecting premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting premises. 82.22 Section 82.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  19. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... representative. Cleaning and disinfecting must be completed within 15 days from the date the animals were...

  20. 9 CFR 82.22 - Cleaning and disinfecting premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting premises. 82.22 Section 82.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  1. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... representative. Cleaning and disinfecting must be completed within 15 days from the date the animals were...

  2. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  3. Renouvellement des eaux du fjord du Saguenay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belzile, Melany

    Le fjord du Saguenay, localise dans la region subarctique de l'est du Canada, ala particularite d' etre connecte a un estuaire tres energetique plutot que directement a 1' ocean. L'embouchure du fjord est situee ala rencontre d'un chenal profond et d'un seuil de 20m de profondeur qui limite les echanges d'eau entre le fjord et l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent. Cependant, les grandes amplitudes de maree a son embouchure ont le potentiel d'entrainer des eaux denses du Saint-Laurent a l'interieur du fjord renouvelant ainsi les eaux des differents bassins. Dans le but d' a voir une meilleure comprehension de la dynamique et de la saisonnalite des renouvellements dans le bassin interne, deux mouillages y ont ete deployes pour recolter les premieres donnees de courant, sur toute la colonne d' eau et sur plusieurs mois, ainsi que des observations de temperature et de salinite a differentes profondeurs. L'un de ces mouillages n' a malheureusement pas pu etre analyse en detail dfi a la complexite de ses resultats et au manque de temps. Des profils ont ete recoltes le long de section transversales (transects), couvrant plusieurs saisons et plusieurs annees, ce qui a contribue a une meilleure comprehension de la distribution spatiale des masses d'eau dans le fjord. Les resultats montrent que ladynamique du fjord est plus complexe que ce qui avait ete precedemment presente dans la litterature. Un changement saisonnier abrupte dans la circulation du fjord a ete observe a la rni-fevrier. De plus, des renouvellements non-anticipes juste en-dessous de la thermohalocline (˜ 10 m de profondeur) ont ete observes entre la fin de 1' hiver et le milieu de 1' ete. En fonction des saisons, trois types de renouvellement peuvent etre observes : renouvellements profonds a l'automne et au debut de l'hiver suivis des renouvellements de sous-surface et enfin les renouvellements a des profondeurs intermediaires pendant l'ete. Le changement saisonnier abrupte observe au milieu de l'hiver ainsi que la

  4. Assessment of physical premises of selected pharmacies of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Bhupendra Kumar; Ishii, Itsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: This work attempts to investigate the standards of physical premises of pharmacies in terms of cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities of two selected districts of Nepal: Kathmandu and Kaski. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study of 100 randomly selected retail and wholesale pharmacies (55 from Kathmandu and 45 from Kaski) was conducted for their compliance to provisions of physical premises: cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities. Preliminarily, scoring was done by converting 5-point Likert scale to a 100-point scale as follows: 1 = 0–20, 2 = 21–40, 3 = 41–60, 4 = 61–80 and 5 = 81–100. These scores were then reported as poor (score ⩽ 40), below average (score of 41–49), average (score of 50), above average (score of 51–60) and good (score ⩾ 61). Cronbach’s alpha for retails and wholesales obtained was .720 and .757, respectively. Results: In wholesales, protection from physical environment was least scored among other components, with the mean score 34.7 ± 8.3 for Kathmandu and 37.3 ± 13.3 for Kaski. Ventilation was scored 35.3 ± 6.3 for Kathmandu and 39.3 ± 11.6 for Kaski. All other components were obtained below average. However, in retails, the storage facilities were rated ‘poor’ with mean score 36.3 ± 13.9 for Kathmandu and 36.0 ± 11.9 for Kaski. Most other components were scored above average except for ventilation which was scored ‘good’. It was found that there was no significant difference between physical premises of the pharmacies of Kathmandu and Kaski in terms of all the indicators. The findings suggest that physical premise of many pharmacies was not found appropriate as provisioned in the good pharmacy practice requirements of Codes on Sales and Distribution of Drugs. Conclusion: Most pharmacies were found non-compliant to

  5. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  6. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  7. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  8. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in premise plumbing of large buildings.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Emilie; Prévost, Michèle; Déziel, Eric

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is widely occurring in the environment and is recognized for its capacity to form or join biofilms. The present review consolidates current knowledge on P. aeruginosa ecology and its implication in healthcare facilities premise plumbing. The adaptability of P. aeruginosa and its capacity to integrate the biofilm from the faucet and the drain highlight the role premise plumbing devices can play in promoting growth and persistence. A meta-analysis of P. aeruginosa prevalence in faucets (manual and electronic) and drains reveals the large variation in device positivity reported and suggest the high variability in the sampling approach and context as the main reason for this variation. The effects of the operating conditions that prevail within water distribution systems (disinfection, temperature, and hydraulic regime) on the persistence of P. aeruginosa are summarized. As a result from the review, recommendations for proactive control measures of water contamination by P. aeruginosa are presented. A better understanding of the ecology of P. aeruginosa and key influencing factors in premise plumbing are essential to identify culprit areas and implement effective control measures. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Premise of Equipotentiality in Human Classical Conditioning: Conditioned Electrodermal Responses to Potentially Phobic Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohman, Arne; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The premise of equipotentiality, which has been widely adhered to among learning theorists, states that the laws of learning should not vary with the use of particular stimuli, responses, or reinforcements. Investigates this premise. (Editor/RK)

  11. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  12. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises or...

  13. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises or...

  14. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises or...

  15. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises or...

  16. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises or...

  17. 9 CFR 77.41 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.41 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and... health officials. Cleaning and disinfection must be completed before the premises, conveyances, or...

  18. 47 CFR 64.609 - Enforcement of related customer premises equipment rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enforcement of related customer premises... Relay Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.609 Enforcement of related customer premises equipment rules. Enforcement of §§ 64.607 and 64.608 is delegated...

  19. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job site...

  20. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job site...

  1. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job site...

  2. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension and...

  3. Individual and contextual factors associated to smoking on school premises.

    PubMed

    Galán, Iñaki; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Mata, Nelva; Gandarillas, Ana; Cantero, José Luis; Durbán, María

    2012-04-01

    Despite regulations, tobacco consumption in schools is still very common. The objective was to evaluate the relationship of personal, family, and school-level contextual factors with smoking on school premises. A representative survey was undertaken of students in the 4th year of secondary education in the Madrid region (Spain), including 79 schools and 3,622 individuals. The student questionnaire gathered information about personal and family variables. The contextual factors were type of school, perception of compliance with the law, smoking policy, existence of complaints against smoking, and undertaking of educational activities regarding smoking. Analysis was carried out in the smoking population (n = 1,179) using multilevel logistic regression models. During the last 30 days, 50.6% of smokers had smoked on school premises. Having a father with a university education (in comparison with fathers who have not attained any educational level) reduces this probability (odds ratio [OR]: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.96), whereas smoking a larger number of cigarettes (p < .001), illicit drug consumption (p < .001), and low academic achievement (p = .052) increases it. The probability is reduced when there is no parental permission to smoke (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-1.01) and is lower both in nonsubsidized private schools (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67) and in state subsidized private schools (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.09-0.34) than in public schools. A very low level of educational attainment by the father, smoking a higher number of cigarettes, as well as illicit drug consumption, low academic achievement, having parental permission to smoke, and attending public schools are all related to a higher probability of smoking on school premises.

  4. Premises, principles, and practices in qualitative research: revisiting the foundations.

    PubMed

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2004-09-01

    In this keynote address, the author focuses on what we bring to qualitative inquiry and how we conduct our research. What we do, why we do it, and how we do it remain contested issues. She proposes that we look at our methodological premises anew, revisit our principles, and revise our practices. Throughout this address, she draws on Goffman's methodological insights to provide a foundation for reassessing qualitative inquiry. She argues that researchers can build on Goffman's ideas to strengthen their methodological practices and research products. Last, she counters current institutional scrutiny of qualitative inquiry and suggests unacknowledged benefits of this work.

  5. La naissance du parsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenou, F.

    2010-01-01

    Les définitions du parsec et de la magnitude absolue sont le fruit de compromis pour régler trois problèmes entremêlés au début du XXème siècle: quelle unité de distance stellaire adopter? Quel nom lui donner? Comment comparer les luminosités intrinsèques des différentes étoiles?

  6. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  7. Distribution system water age can create premise plumbing corrosion hotspots.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-09-01

    Cumulative changes in chemical and biological properties associated with higher "water age" in distribution systems may impact water corrosivity and regulatory compliance with lead and copper action levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of water age and chemistry on corrosivity of various downstream premise plumbing pipe materials and configurations using a combination of controlled laboratory studies and a field survey. Examination of lead pipe, copper pipe with lead solder, and leaded brass materials in a replicated lab rig simulating premise plumbing stagnation events indicated that lead or copper release could increase as much as ∼440 % or decrease as much as 98 % relative to water treatment plant effluent. In field studies at five utilities, trends in lead and copper release were highly dependent on circumstance; for example, lead release increased with water age in 13 % of cases and decreased with water age in 33 % of conditions tested. Levels of copper in the distribution system were up to 50 % lower and as much as 30 % higher relative to levels at the treatment plant. In many cases, high-risks of elevated lead and copper did not co-occur, demonstrating that these contaminants will have to be sampled separately to identify "worst case" conditions for human exposure and monitoring.

  8. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  10. Combustible particluate fuel heater

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.H.; Jurgens, H.J.W.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a combustible particulate fired heater. It consists of: a combustion chamber defined by upright side walls extending between open top and bottom ends; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber; a retort within the combustion chamber adjacent the bottom end and having a lower particulate receiving end and an upper open end; feed conveyor means leading through the enclosure to the retort for delivering metered quantities of combustible particulates to the lower particulate receiving end of the retort; primary combustion air supply means having a primary combustion air supply manifold extending at least partially about the upper open end of the retort; primary air control means on the primary air supply means for selectively allowing entry of combustion air from outside the enclosure in to the retort; secondary combustion air supply means including a secondary air supply manifold within the combustion chamber above the primary combustion air supply manifold; secondary air control means independent of the primary air control means for selectively allowing entry of secondary air from outside the enclosure to an area within the combustion chamber above the retort; an exhaust duct opening into the enclosure; and vacuum means connected to the exhaust duct for producing a pressure differential between the area confined by the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere such that ambient air is drawn through at least one of the combustion air supply means to induce a high level of gasification and to support combustion at the retort and for drawing combustion exhaust gases out through the exhaust duct.

  11. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  12. Combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The presentation will cover the highlights of sludge, providing information as to where it comes from, projection of how much more is expected, what is sludge, what can be done with them, and finally focus in one combustion technology that can be utilized and applied to recycle sludge. The author is with Gotaverken Energy Systems Inc. where for the past 100 years they have been involved in the recovery of chemicals in chemical pulp mills. One week ago, our name was changed to Kvaerner Pulping Inc. to better reflect our present make-up which is a combination of Kamyr AB (suppliers of proprietary highly engineered totally chlorine free chemical pulp manufacturing systems, including digesters, O{sub 2} delignification systems, and bleach plant systems) and Goetaverken. Sludges that we are concerned with derive from several sources within chemical pulp mills such as: such as primary clarifier sludges, secondary clarifier sludges, and most recently those sludges derived from post consumer paper and board recycle efforts including de-inking and those from the thermal mechanical pulping processes. These sludges have been classified as non-hazardous therefore, residue can be landfilled, but the volumes involved are growing at an alarming rate.

  13. Prevalence of Legionella in premise plumbing in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Barna, Zsófia; Kádár, Mihály; Kálmán, Emese; Scheirich Szax, Anita; Vargha, Márta

    2016-03-01

    Legionella is one of the emerging concerns of water quality in built water environments. Premise plumbing systems are among the recognised sources of infection. In the present study, colonisation of hot water networks in health care facilities, schools, hotels, private residences, office and industrial buildings was investigated. Data was analysed in connection with building and premise plumbing characteristics. Over 60% of all buildings were colonised by Legionella; counts were over 1000 CFU/L in 49%. The most prevalent type was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2-14, isolated from 75% of the positive samples. Centrally produced hot water was found to be a key risk factor (46% of the samples were positive vs. 16% in individual systems); within this group the type of the building was less relevant. Colonisation levels in schools were similar to hotels or hospitals, representing a previously underestimated risk setting. Systems supplied by water from deep groundwater sources were significantly less likely to be colonised than more vulnerable sources (bank-wall filtration, surface water abstraction or karstic water; 28% vs. 51% positive), regardless of the type of treatment applied, including the presence of disinfection. The aggravating effect of larger, more complex and older buildings on colonisation was also confirmed. The present study represents the first baseline analysis, pre-empting regulation or monitoring requirements for Legionella. The prevalence of legionellae and the identified risk factors are indicative for other settings lacking targeted interventions. The statistically confirmed risk factors can serve as indicators for preliminary risk assessment and the prioritisation of interventions.

  14. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  15. Conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates the transition between familiar and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to 15-year-olds. Study 2 (n = 366) found a positive effect of simply generating alternatives, but only in 19-year-olds. Study 3 (n = 92) found that 9- to 11-year-olds were able to respond logically with false premises, whereas no such ability was observed in 6- to 7-year-olds. Reasoning with false premises was found to improve reasoning with semiabstract premises in the older children. These results support the idea that alternatives generation with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning.

  16. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  17. 9 CFR 56.5 - Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 56.5 Section 56.5 Animals and....5 Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and... under § 56.3. (d) Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. Premises...

  18. Prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in licensed premises that are associated with alcohol-related harm.

    PubMed

    Daly, Justine B; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Wiggers, John H; Considine, Robyn J

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in a group of licensed premises associated with alcohol-related harm. During March 1999, 108 licensed premises with one or more police-identified alcohol-related incidents in the previous 3 months received a visit from a police officer. A 30-item audit checklist was used to determine the responsible hospitality policies being undertaken by each premises within eight policy domains: display required signage (three items); responsible host practices to prevent intoxication and under-age drinking (five items); written policies and guidelines for responsible service (three items); discouraging inappropriate promotions (three items); safe transport (two items); responsible management issues (seven items); physical environment (three items) and entry conditions (four items). No premises were undertaking all 30 items. Eighty per cent of the premises were undertaking 20 of the 30 items. All premises were undertaking at least 17 of the items. The proportion of premises undertaking individual items ranged from 16% to 100%. Premises were less likely to report having and providing written responsible hospitality documentation to staff, using door charges and having entry/re-entry rules. Significant differences between rural and urban premises were evident for four policies. Clubs were significantly more likely than hotels to have a written responsible service of alcohol policy and to clearly display codes of dress and conditions of entry. This study provides an indication of the extent and nature of responsible hospitality policies in a sample of licensed premises that are associated with a broad range of alcohol related harms. The finding that a large majority of such premises appear to adopt responsible hospitality policies suggests a need to assess the validity and reliability of tools used in the routine assessment of such policies, and of the potential for harm from licensed premises.

  19. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  20. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  1. Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-22

    NASA Glenn engineer Chris Mroczka installs a gas-jet burner in a chamber within the center’s Combustion Integrated Rack. This chamber is where scientists conduct gaseous combustion experiments in a zero gravity environment.

  2. Microalgae and Its Premises towards Sustainable Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chik, M. N.; Yahya, L.; Zainal, A.; Boosroh, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    This paper features the use of nature’s element as a tool to combat current global issues on environment. Through research works by TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. (TNBR), marine phototrophic microalgae is used in reducing CO2 emissions from its fossil-fuel based power plants using. The research program commenced in 2011 with the aim to develop capacity, capability and facilities in biological CO2 fixation. The research program focuses on improving and enhancing the CO2 fixation through four core measures; namely species selection, nutrient optimization, flue gas admission and photobioreactor (PBR) design and engineering. The measures lead to the migration and evolution of culture facilities from laboratory conditions to outdoor, from shake flasks to 6 x 250 liter pilot PBR facility at a live coal-fired power plant, from mono species to consortium of species. Increment of CO2 fixation rates is summarized with discussion on comparisons of other achievements reported elsewhere. A considerable amount of work on analysing the bioactive compound present in the algae - protein, amino acids, carbohydrate, lipid, fatty acids - and its encouraging results, as an impetus towards sustainable development, will also be shared. Premises and observations from various microalgae research works are collated and presented in a manner sufficient to highlight the eminent roles of this tiny creature to become our mentor in providing some solutions to our worldly problems.

  3. Lexical studies of indigenous personality factors: premises, products, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Saucier, G; Goldberg, L R; Institute, O R

    2001-12-01

    The rationale for lexical studies rests on the assumption that the most meaningful personality attributes tend to become encoded in language as single-word descriptors. We articulate some key premises of the lexical approach and then review a number of studies that have been conducted examining the factor structure of personality descriptors extracted from dictionaries. We compare lexical studies in English and 12 other languages, with attention to delineating consistencies between the structures found in diverse languages. Our review suggests that the Anglo-Germanic Big Five is reproduced better in some languages than in others. We propose some organizing rules for lexical factor structures that may be more generalizable than the contemporary Big-Five model. And, we propose several candidate structural models that should be compared with the Big Five in future studies, including structures with one, two, and three very broad factors, an alternative five-factor structure identified in Italian and Hungarian studies, and a seven-factor structure represented in Hebrew and Philippine studies. We recommend that in future studies more attention be paid to middle-level personality constructs and to examining the effects of methodological variations on the resulting factor structures.

  4. A study of complaints about noise from domestic premises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utley, W. A.; Buller, I. B.

    1988-12-01

    Neighbourhood noise has been found to be the most widespread source of noise disturbance after road traffic. Complaints to Environmental Health Officers about noise from domestic premises have increased by 791% over the 10 years to 1985. Data about these complaints have been used to investigate neighbour noise disturbance. Environmental Health Officers have returned 2128 data sheets dealing with complaints about 2624 noise sources. Two thirds of these sources were either amplified music or barking dogs. The data have been analyzed to determine where the noise sources are situated and the time of day when disturbance occurs. Regional differences as well as type of dwelling and occupancy have also been investigated. The large increase in complaints about domestic noise has been considered in the light of this investigation; this suggests that while the increase may have arisen in part from changing attitudes to noise and an increased awareness of action available to abate nuisance, the major reason for the increase is a growth in the incidence and/or level of noise. Proposals are made for further work aimed at developing methods for reducing disturbance.

  5. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-20

    future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean... future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability...C. Bruno, Italy 1430-1500 Technology to Ramjet Combustion Application of FLameless H. Mongia , GE Transportation, 1500-1530 Combustion (FLC) for

  6. Mechanisms of droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms governing droplet vaporization and combustion are discussed. Specific topics include governing equations and simplifications, the classical d(2)-Law solution and its subsequent modification, finite-rate kinetics and the flame structure, droplet dynamics, near- and super-critical combustion, combustion of multicomponent fuel blends/emulsions/suspensions, and droplet interaction. Potential research topics are suggested.

  7. Pulse combustion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, J.A.

    1986-07-22

    A pulse combustion apparatus is described which includes: a combustion chamber; an exhaust system including an exhaust pipe forming a resonant system with the combustion chamber and a generally cylindrical exhaust cushion chamber downstream of the exhaust pipe for receiving combustion gases from the pipe and communicating with an exhaust outlet form the apparatus; means for delivering successive fuel charges to the chamber; combustion air supply means including a housing of generally rectangular, box shape enclosing the exhaust cushion chamber and defining a space around the chamber through which combustion air can be conducted from an air inlet to the combustion chamber for permitting heat exchange between exhaust gases in the exhaust cushion chamber and the combustion air when the apparatus is in operation, for pre-heating the combustion air; means adapted to cause combustion air to flow in a convoluted path in the space for promoting improved heat transfer between exhaust gases in the chamber and the combustion air, the means comprising partitions between the exhaust cushion chamber and housing extending generally longitudinally of the exhaust cushion chamber and arranged to cause the combustion air to flow alternately from end to end of the chamber in the convoluted path.

  8. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... for disinfection to 30 days when request for such extension is received by him prior to the expiration...

  9. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  10. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times...

  11. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25... Inspection of premises, books and accounts. Lessee shall agree to allow the lessor and his agents or any... Department; and their books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be...

  12. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  13. Conditional Reasoning with False Premises Facilitates the Transition between Familiar and Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to…

  14. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or other...

  15. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or other...

  16. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or other...

  17. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or other...

  18. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or other...

  19. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of premises...

  20. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of premises...

  1. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of premises; books and...

  2. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of premises...

  3. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of premises...

  4. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect the...

  5. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect the...

  6. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  7. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  8. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect...

  9. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect...

  10. 27 CFR 19.134 - Bonded warehouses not on premises qualified for production of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded warehouses not on... Location and Use § 19.134 Bonded warehouses not on premises qualified for production of spirits. (a) Criteria for establishment. (1) A bonded warehouse, other than one established on the bonded premises of...

  11. Conditional Reasoning with False Premises Facilitates the Transition between Familiar and Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to…

  12. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is sold... tavern operated on brewery premises. Taxpaid beer produced by other brewers may be received, stored and...

  13. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is sold... tavern operated on brewery premises. Taxpaid beer produced by other brewers may be received, stored and...

  14. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  15. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  16. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  17. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  18. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to bottle...

  19. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or wines...

  20. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to bottle...

  1. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in this...

  2. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in this...

  3. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or wines...

  4. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in this...

  5. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine premises...

  6. 27 CFR 19.97 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.97 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. Spirits or wines on which the tax has been paid or determined may be conveyed within a...

  7. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to bottle...

  8. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in this...

  9. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine premises...

  10. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to bottle...

  11. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine premises...

  12. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or wines...

  13. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine premises...

  14. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to bottle...

  15. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or wines...

  16. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in this...

  17. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine premises...

  18. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

  19. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.7 Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. All... any premises or conveyances used to house or transport swine for which indemnity is paid under this...

  20. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of this...

  1. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of this...

  2. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  3. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  4. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of...

  5. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of...

  6. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  7. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and records...

  8. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times for...

  9. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34 Section... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times for...

  10. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under...

  11. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46 Section... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and records...

  12. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and records...

  13. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times for...

  14. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under...

  15. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under...

  16. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a...

  17. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a...

  18. 9 CFR 77.41 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.41 Section 77.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.41 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  19. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.8 Section 51.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Certain premises may be exempted from such cleaning and disinfecting requirements by approval of...

  20. 9 CFR 77.41 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.41 Section 77.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.41 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  1. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.8 Section 51.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Certain premises may be exempted from such cleaning and disinfecting requirements by approval of...

  2. 9 CFR 77.41 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.41 Section 77.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.41 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  3. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  4. Developpement d'une methode hybride pour le suivi du coeur et la gestion du combustible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenette, Eric

    The nuclear industry of CANDU reactors uses neutron physics methodologies (core follow-up, fuel management) that are considered out of date and do not reflect the latest developments in the field of neutronics. For instance, the software used by the reactor physics team in Gentilly-2, HQSIMEX 3, uses macroscopic cross sections ("grid-based" approach) calculated by two methods: (1) The "four factors" formula, an obsolete technique used in 1950; (2) The WIMS software, based on a microscopic cross section library. Among other method, the history-based approach is considered more precise but requires greater computing time. Processing a whole CANDU core follow-up through the history-based approach is not possible as of today with the actual computers, due to computing cost issues. The main goal of this research is to come up with a new strategy that will combine the interpolation technique of the "grid-based approach" with the isotopic depletion follow-up of the "history-based" approach.

  5. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  6. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  7. Food hygiene, deprivation, types of premises and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses in the UK.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    To understand more about the relationship between economic deprivation, types of premises, food hygiene scores and rates of gastrointestinal illness in the UK. Data were extracted from the UK Food Standards Agency for about 300 000 UK premises which had hygiene scores based on visits from local authority food safety officers. These scores were analysed by type of premises, deprivation and local authority. Local authority-level average scores were mapped and compared with rates of laboratory-detected gastrointestinal illness from the Health Protection Agency. UK. UK premises (n 311 458) from 341 local authority areas that sell or produce food. There was a modest but statistically significant relationship between average food hygiene score and deprivation, which was caused by deprived areas having more of the categories of premises with significantly lower hygiene scores; these were pub/club (n 40 525), restaurant/café/canteen (n 73 052), small retailer (n 42 932) and takeaway (n 36 708). No relationship was established between local authority average food hygiene scores and rates of laboratory-detected gastrointestinal illness; however, this result does not preclude a relationship between food hygiene and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses, as laboratory-detected illness rates make up only a small proportion of actual rates of illness in the community. Certain types of UK premises are more likely to have low hygiene scores, which means that they should be targeted more for enforcement. These types of premises are more prevalent in the most economically deprived areas.

  8. EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

  9. Evaluation of an educational policing strategy to reduce alcohol-related crime associated with licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Shelley C; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Francis, J Lynn; Freund, Megan

    2012-02-01

    Licensed premises are associated with a considerable level of alcohol-related harm. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational policing strategy, implemented as routine policing practice, to reduce the number of patrons of licensed premises involved in police-recorded incidents of violence, disorder and motor vehicle crashes. The educational policing strategy targeted on-licensed premises registered as operating in 2003. The strategy was delivered by police and was overseen by the research team. The intervention was conducted in 21 non-metropolitan New South Wales Police Force commands. On the basis of routinely collected and recorded police data, premises received one of three levels of police response on three separate occasions from December 2002 to July 2003. The police responses were letters, incident reports, covert audits and feedback meetings. The rate of patrons who had last consumed alcohol on licensed premises before being involved in police-recorded incidents decreased from 1.24 per premises in the 4-month baseline period to 1.11 in the 4-month follow-up period (p=0.08). There was a significant reduction, from 7.08 to 5.65 patrons (p=0.03), in such a rate for high-risk premises that received the most intensive police response. High-risk premises also recorded a significant reduction in the rate of intoxicated patrons involved in such incidents, from 5.50 to 4.40 (p=0.05). The findings suggest a potential benefit of an educational policing strategy in reducing alcohol-related harm associated with licensed premises. Further implementation of this strategy concurrent with rigorous evaluation is warranted.

  10. Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 U.S. States: Impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Huguet, Nathalie; Ogden, Lauren; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.; Caetano, Raul; Conner, Kenneth R.; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims This study estimates the association between per capita alcohol retail outlet density and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from 51,547 suicide decedents. It also analyzes the relationship between alcohol outlet density and socio-demographic characteristics among alcohol positive suicide decedents in the United States by racial/ethnic groups and method of suicide. Design Analysis of U.S. data, 2003–11, National Violent Death Reporting System Setting Suicide decedents from 14 U.S. States Cases A total of 51,547 suicide decedents tested for blood alcohol content. Measurements Blood alcohol content and levels were derived from coroner/medical examiner reports. Densities of county level on-premise and off-premise alcohol retail outlets were calculated using the 2010 Census. Findings Multilevel logistic regression models suggested that higher off-premise alcohol outlet densities were associated with greater proportions of alcohol-related suicides among men -- for suicides with alcohol present (BAC>0; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.03–1.13). Interactions between outlet density and decedents’ characteristics were also tested. There was an interaction between off-premise alcohol availability and American Indian/Alaska Native race (AOR=1.36; 95% CI=1.10–1,69) such that this sub-group had highest BAC positivity. On-premise density was also associated with BAC > 0 (AOR=1.05; 95% CI=1.03–1.11) and BAC≥ 0.08 (AOR=1.05; 95% CI=1.02–1.09) among male decedents. Conclusions County-level on- and off-premise density are associated with alcohol-related suicide, especially among American Indians/Alaska Natives. PMID:25310999

  11. Pulse combustion space heater

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, W.H.; Pavlik, C.M.; Moon, L.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a pulse combustion space heater for heating air in a space to be temperature conditioned. It comprises: a cabinet having exterior walls providing a cabinet volume for enclosing and supporting the heater, interior housing means located within the cabinet volume including walls providing a substantially closed heat transfer chamber having inlet and outlet openings through which air to be heated is circulated and a chamber volume substantially smaller than the cabinet volume, pulse combustion burner means including an assembly of closely spaced elongate burner elements operably connected in a fluid-tight manner for pulse combustion of a combustible gaseous mixture and discharge of combustion products to the atmosphere. The burner elements having exterior heat transfer surface located within the heat transfer chamber for transfer of combustion heat to air contacting the heat transfer surfaces, and blower means for circulating air from the space through the heat transfer chamber.

  12. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  13. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  14. Fuels Combustion Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-18

    uncertainties in the future sources and characteristics of fuels has emphasized the need to better understand fuel effects on combustion , e.g. energy release...experimentally to be made. Unsuccessful comparisons can lead to impro- vements in modelling concepts . Two simplified models for the combustion of slurry...AD-A149 186 FUELS COMBUSTION RESEACCH(U) PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF i/i MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING F L DRYER ET AL. 18 JUL 84 NAE-i668 AFOSR

  15. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  16. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  17. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  18. 27 CFR 19.207 - Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. 19.207 Section 19.207 Alcohol, Tobacco... use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. If a proprietor of distilled spirits plant wishes to use all or a portion of such premises alternately as a volatile fruit...

  19. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor wishes...

  20. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor wishes...

  1. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor wishes...

  2. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor wishes...

  3. 27 CFR 19.206 - Curtailment and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. 19.206 Section 19.206 Alcohol, Tobacco... and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (a) General. The premises of... permit the use of the facilities for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (b) Qualifying documents....

  4. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  5. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  6. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  7. 9 CFR 53.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... is done. In the case of low pathogenic avian influenza related to the 2002 disease situations in Virginia and Texas associated with the H5 or H7 virus, premises may not be restocked with poultry until at...

  8. 9 CFR 53.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... is done. In the case of low pathogenic avian influenza related to the 2002 disease situations in Virginia and Texas associated with the H5 or H7 virus, premises may not be restocked with poultry until at...

  9. Survey of bed bugs in infested premises in Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    How, Yee-Fatt; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-06-01

    A total of 54 bed bug-infested sites (hotels, public accommodations, and residential premises) in Malaysia and Singapore was surveyed between July, 2005 and December, 2008. Only one species of bed bug was found, the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius). Bed bug infestations were common in hotels and public accommodations when compared to residential premises. The three most common locations of infestation within an infested premise were the bedding (31.1%), the headboard (30.3%), and cracks and crevices surrounding the baseboard, wall, or floor (23.5%). We speculate that the route of movement of bed bugs in hotels and public accommodations is more direct than in residential premises.

  10. The simulation of decontamination works in premises of the research reactor in NRC 'Kurchatov institute'

    SciTech Connect

    Danilovich, Alexey; Ivanov, Oleg; Potapov, Victor; Smirnov, Sergey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav

    2013-07-01

    Application of remote sensing methods using a spectrometric collimated system allows obtaining information about features of a formation of radiation fields in contaminated premises. This information helps in a preparation of a phased plan for dismantling of contaminated equipment. When the survey of technological premises of the research reactor at the Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov institute' was conducted the remote controlled collimated spectrometric system was used. With its help the scanning of surveyed premises were carried out. As a result of this work, the distribution pattern of radionuclides activity was restored. The simulation of decontamination works was carried out and maps of the distribution of activity and dose rate for surveyed premises were plotted and superimposed on its photo for situations before and after decontamination. The use of obtained results will allow significantly reduce radiation dose for staff at work on dismantling. (authors)

  11. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  12. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  13. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  14. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  15. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  16. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  17. Price elasticity of on- and off-premises demand for alcoholic drinks: A Tobit analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Heng; Livingston, Michael; Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how price policies will affect alcohol consumption requires estimates of the impact of price on consumption among different types of drinkers and across different consumption settings. This study aims to estimate how changes in price could affect alcohol demand across different beverages, different settings (on-premise, e.g., bars, restaurants and off-premise, e.g., liquor stores, supermarkets), and different levels of drinking and income. Tobit analysis is employed to estimate own- and cross-price elasticities of alcohol demand among 11 subcategories of beverage based on beverage type and on- or off-premise supply, using cross-sectional data from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control Survey 2013. Further elasticity estimates were derived for sub-groups of drinkers based on their drinking and income levels. The results suggest that demand for nearly every subcategory of alcohol significantly responds to its own price change, except for on-premise spirits and ready-to-drink spirits. The estimated demand for off-premise beverages is more strongly affected by own price changes than the same beverages in on-premise settings. Demand for off-premise regular beer and off-premise cask wine is more price responsive than demand for other beverages. Harmful drinkers and lower income groups appear more price responsive than moderate drinkers and higher income groups. Our findings suggest that alcohol price policies, such as increasing alcohol taxes or introducing a minimum unit price, can reduce alcohol demand. Price appears to be particularly effective for reducing consumption and as well as alcohol-related harm among harmful drinkers and lower income drinkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fate of free chlorine in drinking water during distribution in premise plumbing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Muzi; He, Chunguang; He, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Free chlorine is a potent oxidizing agent and has been used extensively as a disinfectant in processes including water treatment. The presence of free chlorine residual is essential for the prevention of microbial regrowth in water distribution systems. However, excessive levels of free chlorine can cause adverse health effects. It is a major challenge to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual in premise plumbing. As the first effort to assessing the fate of chlorine in premise plumbing using actual premise plumbing pipe sections, three piping materials frequently used in premise plumbing, i.e. copper, galvanized iron, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were investigated for their performance in maintaining free chlorine residual. Free chlorine decay was shown to follow first-order kinetics for all three pipe materials tested. The most rapid chlorine decay was observed in copper pipes, suggesting the need for higher chlorine dosage to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual if copper piping is used. PVC pipes exhibited the least reactivity with free chlorine, indicative of the advantage of PVC as a premise plumbing material for maintaining free chlorine residual. The reactivity of copper piping with free chlorine was significantly hindered by the accumulation of pipe deposits. In contrast, the impact on chlorine decay by pipe deposits was not significant in galvanized iron and PVC pipes. Findings in this study are of great importance for the development of effective strategies for the control of free chlorine residual and prevention of microbiological contamination in premise plumbing.

  19. Effects of directionality in deductive reasoning: II. Premise integration and conclusion evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Hörnig, Robin; Weidenfeld, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2005-10-01

    Previous research (Oberauer & Wilhelm, 2000) has shown an inherent directionality between the two terms linked in premises of typical deductive reasoning tasks. With three experiments we investigated the effect of inherent directionality on the time to integrate two premises and for the derivation of a conclusion. We varied figure (i.e., order of terms in the premises) and direction of inference (i.e., order of terms in the conclusion) in deduction tasks from various domains (propositional reasoning, syllogisms, spatial, temporal, and linear order reasoning). Effects of figure on premise reading times varied with the directionality of the relations. Effects of direction of inference reflected the same directionality for a subset of relations. We propose that two factors are jointly responsible for a large part of observed directionality effects in premise integration: the inherent directionality of relational statements and a general advantage for a given-new order of terms in the second premise. Difficulty of deriving a conclusion is affected by the directionality or relations if and only if the relation is semantically asymmetric, so that the directionality must be preserved in the integrated mental model.

  20. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  1. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  2. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  3. Overserving at licensed premises in Stockholm: effects of a community action program.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Eva; Gripenberg, Johanna; Andréasson, Sven

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this research was to study the sustainable effects of a community action program on alcohol service to intoxicated patrons at licensed premises. Since 1996, the hospitality industry and authorities in Stockholm, Sweden, have been cooperating to reduce problems related to alcohol consumption at licensed premises. The intervention has included community mobilization, training in responsible beverage service (RBS) and enforcement. A pretest in 1996 and follow-ups in the 1999 and 2001 designs were used to study licensed premises in Stockholm. Male actors portraying intoxicated patrons visited the licensed premises and attempted to order beer. Observers were present at each visit. At the pretest, 92 licensed premises were visited, 47 in north central Stockholm and 45 in south central Stockholm. In 1999, 103 establishments were visited, 61 in north central Stockholm and 42 in south central Stockholm. At the latest follow-up in 2001, 100 licensed premises were visited, 56 in north central Stockholm and 44 in south central Stockholm. The results from the latest follow-up in 2001 showed a statistically significant improvement over those of earlier measures, with a refusal rate of 70% compared with 47% in 1999 and 5% in 1996. There were improvements in both study areas (i.e., north and south central Stockholm). There has been a significant improvement in the rate of refusal of alcohol service at licensed premises in Stockholm during the project period. The reason for this is probably a combination of the intervention efforts: community mobilization, RBS training and a more efficient monitoring of alcohol service by authorities.

  4. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-84-2042 ESL-TR-84-29 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH 0) PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO CANADA In JULY 1984 Final Report for...in small engincs. -291 REFERENCES 1. Gratton, M., Sampath, P., " Alternate Fuels Combustion Research Phase If", Pratt & Whitney Canada , AFWAL-TR-83-2057...for Period May 80 Sep e ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCHMa80-Sp3 4. PERFORMING ORIJ. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 4. 60ONTRA-CT-WI GANUMNER(s) *M

  5. New Combustion Regimes and Kinetic Studies of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of plasma assisted combustion Nov.6-7, 2012 MURI Plasma 3rd Yr Review Meeting MURI Topic #11: Chemical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of plasma assisted combustion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Flow reactor Species and kinetics (Ju) 1. New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of in situ plasma discharge in counterflow flames

  6. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  7. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  8. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  9. Dynamic effects of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic effects of combustion are due to the evolution of exothermic energy and its deposition in the compressible medium where the process takes place. The paper examines the dynamics of combustion phenomena, including ignition, turbulent flame propagation (inflammation), explosion, and detonation, with emphasis on their exothermic characteristics. Ignition and explosion are treated as problems of nonlinear mechanics, and their dynamic behavior is described in terms of phase space models and cinematographic laser shear interferograms. The results of a numerical random vortex model of turbulent flame propagation are confirmed in a combustion tunnel experiment, where it was observed that a fresh mixture of burnt and unburnt gases can sustain combustion with a relatively small expenditure of overall mass flow, due to the increasing specific volume of burnt gases inside the flame front. An isentropic pressure wave is found to precede the accelerating flame in the process of detonation, and components of this presssure wave are shown to propagate at local sonic velocities.

  10. Fluidized coal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  11. Studies in premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)

  12. Combustion Technology Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  13. Beryllium particle combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A two-year study of the combustion efficiency of single beryllium droplets burning in a variety of oxidizers (primarily mixtures of oxygen/argon and oxygen/nitrogen) is summarized. An advanced laser heating technique was used to acquire systematic quantitative data on the burning of single beryllium droplets at atmospheric pressure. The research confirmed the sensitivity of beryllium droplet combustion to the chemistry of environmental species and provides experimental documentation for the nitrogen-induced droplet fragmentation of burning beryllium droplets.

  14. Generalities on combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuentzmann, Paul

    The main manifestations of combustion instabilities are reviewed, and the specific characteristics of instabilities in solid-propellant rocket engines are analyzed, with the Minuteman III third-stage engine and the SRB engine of Titan 34 D considered as examples. The main approaches for predicting combustion instabilities are discussed, including the linear approach based on the acoustic balance, the nonlinear mode-coupling approach, and the nonlinear approach using numerical calculation. Projected directions for future research are also examined.

  15. Combustion Dynamics in Rockets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side it necessary and identify, by block number) Solid propellant combustion; Aluminum...continued on the behavior of aluminum and other nonvolatile ingredients .: in the propellant combustion zone. A method for observation of particle behavior...PBAN propellant . The results showed enh~nced agglomeration, and indicate that Fe20L affects agglomeration through two competing mechanisms. rombustion

  16. METC Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Halow, J.S.; Maloney, D.J.; Richards, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) high pressure combustion facility is to provide a mid-scale facility for combustion and cleanup research to support DOE`s advanced gas turbine, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion, and hot gas cleanup programs. The facility is intended to fill a gap between lab scale facilities typical of universities and large scale combustion/turbine test facilities typical of turbine manufacturers. The facility is now available to industry and university partners through cooperative programs with METC. Currently two combustion rigs are operating and one additional project is under construction for the facility. Space is available in the test cells for at least one additional test rig. A pressurized pulsed combustor began operating in July of 1993. The combustor will carry out pulsed combustion of natural gas at pressures up to 10 atmospheres. A high pressure steady flow rig is currently completely fabricated. The objective of this rig is to test novel, steady-flow, pressurized combustors that produce very low NO{sub x} and other emissions. An evaporation rig currently is in startup. This rig will test the concept of water injection in an externally fired cycle. The specific technical issue that the unit will address is evaporation rates of water droplets in high pressure flows.

  17. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  18. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  19. The risk of Aedes aegypti breeding and premises condition in South Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Davies, Clive R; Coleman, Paul G; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Hernández-Betancourt, Silvia; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Pinkus-Rendón, Miguel; Burciaga-Zúñiga, Pierre; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I

    2013-12-01

    A recent innovation instrumented for the Dengue Prevention and Control program in Mexico is the use of the premises condition index (PCI) as an indicator of risk for the vector Aedes aegypti infestation in dengue-endemic localities of Mexico. This paper addresses whether further improvements for the dengue control program could be made if the prevalence and productivity of Ae. aegypti populations could be reliably predicted using PCI at the household level, as well as medium-sized neighborhoods. We evaluated the use of PCI to predict the infestation with Aedes aegypti (breeding sites and immature productivity) in Merida, Mexico. The study consisted of a cross-sectional survey based on a cluster-randomized sampling design. We analyzed the statistical association between Aedes infestation and PCI, the extent to which the 3 components of PCI (house maintenance, and tidiness and shading of the patio) contributed to the association between PCI and infestation and whether infestation in a given premises was also affected by the PCI of the surrounding ones. Premises with the lowest PCI had significantly lower Aedes infestation and productivity; and as PCI scores increased infestation levels also tended to increase. Household PCI was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti breeding, largely due to the effect of patio untidiness and patio shade. The mean PCI within the surroundings premises also had a significant and independent explanatory power to predict the risk for infestation, in addition to individual PCI. This is the 1st study in Mexico showing evidence that premises condition as measured by the PCI is related to Ae. aegypti breeding sites and immature productivity. Results suggest that PCI could be used to streamline surveys to inform control efforts at least where Ae. aegypti breeds outdoors, as in Merida. The effect of individual premises, neighborhood condition, and the risk of Aedes infestation imply that the risk for dengue vector infestation can only be

  20. The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory.

    PubMed

    Girotto, V; Mazzocco, A; Tasso, A

    1997-04-01

    The difference in difficulty between modus ponens (if p then q; p; therefore q) and modus tollens (if p then q; not-q; therefore not-p) arguments has been traditionally explained by assuming that the mind contains a rule for modus ponens, but not for modus tollens. According to the mental model theory, modus tollens is a more difficult deduction than modus ponens because people do not represent the case not-q in their initial model of the conditional. On the basis of this theory, we predicted that conditions in which reasoners are forced to represent the not-q case should improve correct performance on modus tollens. In particular, we predicted that the presentation of the minor premise (not-q) as the initial premise should produce facilitation. Experiment 1 showed that this is the case: whereas the inversion of the premise order did not affect modus ponens, it produced a significant increase of valid conclusions for modus tollens. Experiment 2 showed that this facilitation does not depend on the negative form (contrary vs. contradictory) of the minor premise. Experiments 3 and 4 (and/or some of their replications) demonstrated that facilitation also occurs when participants are asked to find the cases compatible with not-q or to evaluate a p conclusion. No premise order effect was found for sentences which make explicit the not-q case right from the start, i.e. p only if q conditionals and biconditionals (Experiments 5 and 6). Finally, Experiments 7 and 8 showed that the conditional fallacies are not significantly affected by the premise order.

  1. Matériaux pour la combustion catalytique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunot, C.

    2002-04-01

    La combustion catalytique est l'une des technologies les plus prometteuses pour réaliser une combustion ultra-propre des hydrocarbures et notamment du gaz naturel. Aujourd'hui, cependant, les produits commerciaux utilisant cette technologie sont peu nombreux et le plus souvent réservés à des applications basse température (500-700°C) à cause de la limitation liée à la durée de vie des catalyseurs utilisés (métaux précieux). Le développement de cette technologie est donc intimement lié à des défis “matériaux”, et notamment à l'obtention de catalyseurs actifs et durables au moins plusieurs milliers d'heures à des températures comprises entre 700 et 1 100°C. Or les catalyseurs de type métaux précieux, très actifs y compris à basse température, ont une durée de vie (maintien de leur activité catalytique dans le temps) d'autant plus limitée que la température de l'application est élevée. A l'inverse, les catalyseurs de type pérovskite ou hexaaluminate, dont la durée de vie à haute température est satisfaisante, présentent une activité plus faible qui rend notamment l'amorçage de la combustion catalytique délicate. C'est pourquoi les solutions potentielles sont à rechercher non seulement du côté matériaux de catalyseurs mais aussi du côté ingénierie et conception des matériels associés.

  2. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of market demand for domestic civilian telecommunications services for the years 1980 to 2000 are provided. Overall demand, demand or satellite services, demand for satellite delivered Customer Premises Service (CPS), and demand for 30/20 GHz Customer Premises Services are covered. Emphasis is placed on the CPS market and demand is segmented by market, by service, by user class and by geographic region. Prices for competing services are discussed and the distribution of traffic with respect to distance is estimated. A nationwide traffic distribution model for CPS in terms of demand for CPS traffic and earth stations for each of the major SMSAs in the United States are provided.

  3. Bell System lightguide cable interconnection equipment, central office to customer premises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthardt, M. R.

    Lightguide cable interconnection equipment furnishes the interface between outside plant and central office, remote terminal, or customer premises transmission equipment. Primarily, the interconnection equipment provides a convenient centralized access point for cabled optical fibers, lightguide cable sheath termination, and other functions such as; fiber organization, fiber storage, and the accommodation of splices and connectors. Since the installation of the first Bell System lightwave system, several different types of interconnection equipment units have been developed. These provide and interconnection capability from the central office to customer premises. Described in this paper are the design approaches taken to develop this equipment and short descriptions of the units.

  4. A curious belief-bias effect: reasoning with false premises and inhibition of real-life information.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Schroyens, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown that inferential behavior is strongly affected by access to real-life information about premises. However, it is also true that both children and adults can often make logically appropriate inferences that lead to empirically unbelievable conclusions. One way of reconciling these is to suppose that logical instructions allow inhibition of information about premises that would otherwise be retrieved during reasoning. On the basis of this idea, we hypothesized that it should be easier to endorse an empirically false conclusion on the basis of clearly false premises than on the basis of relatively believable premises. Two studies are presented that support this hypothesis.

  5. Microbiological quality of food in relation to hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training in UK catering and retail premises.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Lock, D; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, two thirds (66%) were catering premises and one third (34%) were retail premises. Comparison with PHLS Microbiological Guidelines revealed that significantly more ready-to-eat food samples from catering premises (20%; 2,511/12,703) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality compared to samples from retail premises (12%; 1,039/8,462) (p < 0.00001). Three quarters (76%) of retail premises had hazard analysis systems in place compared with 59% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). In 87% of retail premises the manager had received some form of food hygiene training compared with 80% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). From premises where the manager had received no food hygiene training a greater proportion of samples were of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (20% retail, 27% catering) compared with premises where the manager had received food hygiene training (11% retail, 19% catering) (p < 0.00001). Where the manager of the premises had received food hygiene training, documented hazard analysis systems were more likely to be in place (p < 0.00001). Higher proportions of samples of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (17% retail, 22% catering) were from premises where there was no hazard analysis system in place compared to premises that had a documented hazard analysis system in place (10% retail, 18% catering) (p < 0.00001). Our meta-analysis suggests that the lower microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods from catering premises compared with those collected from retail premises may reflect differences in management food hygiene training and the presence of a hazard analysis system. The

  6. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  7. Cri du Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-09-05

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and delta-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made

  8. Combustion in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, F.J.; La Nauze, R.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion systems have become popular since the late 1970s, and, given the current level of activity in the area,it is clear that this technology has a stable future in the boiler market. For standard coal combustion applications, competition is fierce with mature pulverized-fuel-based (PF) technology set to maintain a strong profile. CFB systems, however, can be more cost effective than PF systems when emission control is considered, and, as CFB technology matures, it is expected that an ever-increasing proportion of boiler installations will utilize the CFB concept. CFB systems have advantages in the combustion of low-grade fuels such as coal waste and biomass. In competition with conventional bubbling beds, the CFB boiler often demonstrates superior carbon burn-out efficiency. The key to this combustion technique is the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluidized bed. This article begins with a description of the fundamental fluid dynamic behavior of the CFB system. This is followed by an examination of the combustion process in such an environment and a discussion of the current status of the major CFB technologies.

  9. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  10. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  11. High efficiency RCCI combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splitter, Derek A.

    An experimental investigation of the pragmatic limits of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine efficiency was performed. The study utilized engine experiments combined with zero-dimensional modeling. Initially, simulations were used to suggest conditions of high engine efficiency with RCCI. Preliminary simulations suggested that high efficiency could be obtained by using a very dilute charge with a high compression ratio. Moreover, the preliminary simulations further suggested that with simultaneous 50% reductions in heat transfer and incomplete combustion, 60% gross thermal efficiency may be achievable with RCCI. Following the initial simulations, experiments to investigate the combustion process, fuel effects, and methods to reduce heat transfer and incomplete combustion reduction were conducted. The results demonstrated that the engine cycle and combustion process are linked, and if high efficiency is to be had, then the combustion event must be tailored to the initial cycle conditions. It was found that reductions to engine heat transfer are a key enabler to increasing engine efficiency. In addition, it was found that the piston oil jet gallery cooling in RCCI may be unnecessary, as it had a negative impact on efficiency. Without piston oil gallery cooling, it was found that RCCI was nearly adiabatic, achieving 95% of the theoretical maximum cycle efficiency (air standard Otto cycle efficiency).

  12. Combustion chamber noise suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.M.

    1986-08-19

    A combustion chamber is described for a hot fog generating machine comprising a hollow cylindrical combustion chamber shell having a closure plate at one end and outlet means at the opposite end for directing hot combustion gasses to a fogging nozzle, air inlet means disposed adjacent the outlet means, fuel inlet means and ignition means mounted in the closure plate and liner means disposed concentrically within the cylindrical combustion chamber for controlling the flow of air and combustion gasses within the shell. The liner means includes a liner base having a frustroconical configuration with the smaller diameter end thereof disposed in communication with the outlet means and with the larger diameter end thereof disposed in spaced relation to the shell, circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending fins extending outwardly from the liner base intermediate the liner base and the shell, a cylindrical liner midsection having circumferentially spaced fins extending outwardly therefrom between the midsection and the shell with the fins supporting the midsection on the larger diameter end of the liner base.

  13. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  14. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  15. 9 CFR 55.4 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances... CONTROL OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.4 Disinfection of... paid will be responsible for expenses incurred in connection with the cleaning and disinfection, except...

  16. Planning an On-Premise Telecommunication System: The University of Michigan Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Leslie B.

    1988-01-01

    The first of two articles describing the University of Michigan's experiences in installing an on-premise telecommunications system covers: (1) the physical, historical, and cultural context; (2) planning for the new system; (3) voice and data strategies of the system; (4) switching equipment and transmission media; and (5) financing and rates.…

  17. 27 CFR 40.382 - Authority of TTB officers to enter premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.382... premises where cigarette papers and tubes are produced or kept, so far as it may be necessary for the... permit the appropriate TTB officer to examine such cigarette papers and tubes shall be liable to...

  18. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... of Principles Employees âsuffered Or Permittedâ to Work § 785.12 Work performed away from...

  19. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-35 - F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. Destination, Within... Clauses 52.247-35 F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises. As prescribed in 47.303-7(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when the delivery term is f.o.b....

  1. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within...

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-35 - F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. Destination, Within... Clauses 52.247-35 F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises. As prescribed in 47.303-7(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when the delivery term is f.o.b....

  3. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  4. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  5. 27 CFR 478.100 - Conduct of business away from licensed premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...)(1) A licensee may conduct business temporarily at a gun show or event as defined in paragraph (b) if the gun show or event is located in the same State specified on the license: Provided, That such business shall not be conducted from any motorized or towed vehicle. The premises of the gun show or event...

  6. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  7. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  8. 27 CFR 24.131 - Change in building construction and use of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in building construction and use of premises. 24.131 Section 24.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Changes Subsequent to Original Establishment...

  9. The assessment and measurement of adult life stress: Basic premises, operational principles, and design requirements.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Kate L; Monroe, Scott M

    2016-07-01

    Life stress is a central factor in the onset and course of a wide range of medical and psychiatric conditions. Determining the precise etiological and pathological consequences of stress, though, has been hindered by weaknesses in prevailing definitional and measurement practices. The purpose of the current paper is to evaluate the primary strategies for defining and measuring major and minor acute life events, chronic stressors, and daily hassles as informed by 3 basic scientific premises. The first premise concerns the manner in which stress is conceptualized and operationally defined, and specifically we assert that stress measures must not conflate the stress exposure with the stress response. The second premise concerns how stress exposures are measured, and we provide guidelines for optimizing standardized and sensitive indicators of life stress. The third premise addresses the consequences of variations in the procedures for life event measurement with regard to the validity of the research designs employed. We show that life stress measures are susceptible to several sources of bias, and if these potential sources of bias are not controlled in the design of the research, spurious findings may result. Our goal is to provide a useful guide for researchers who consider life stress to be an important factor in their theoretical models of disease, wish to incorporate measures of life stress in their research, and seek to avoid the common pitfalls of past measurement practices. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  11. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  12. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  13. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  14. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke: views from the Dunedin hospitality industry on prohibition of smoking in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Reeder, A; Blair, A

    2000-11-24

    To describe Dunedin hospitality industry perceptions of difficulties in enforcement of a prohibition on smoking in licensed premises, and possible effects on staff, customers and business. To identify any need for education to assist transition and reduce compliance difficulties with smoke-free legislation. A reply paid questionnaire was mailed to all 311 licensed premises registered with the Dunedin District Licensing Agency, operational in May 1999. overall response rate (67%) differed significantly by type of premises (bar, club, restaurant and off-licence). Overall, a smoking ban was considered likely to be difficult to enforce (82%), upset customers (74%), reduce business (59%) and negatively effect employees (51%). On each issue, there was a consistent pattern of increasing concern from off-licenses (least concern) through restaurants, to clubs and bars (most concern). Considerable concern exists in the hospitality industry about the effects of extending smoke-free status to licensed premises. To assist transition and future compliance, there is a need to address these concerns and provide reliable information to calm unnecessary fears and develop appreciation of the need for change.

  16. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  17. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  18. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  19. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  20. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  1. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  2. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  3. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  4. The Premise of Black Inferiority: An Enduring Obstacle Fifty Years Post-"Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Carla

    2006-01-01

    Gloria Ladson-Billings explains in her chapter that, in part, the promise of "Brown v. Board of Education" has not been realized because it was premised on black inferiority. She elaborates that "instead of addressing the underlying pathology of the defendant--White supremacy"--the evidence, case, and accordant ruling…

  5. 32 CFR 644.457 - Settlement where part of the premises is surrendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlement where part of the premises is surrendered. 644.457 Section 644.457 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... restoration of the area surrendered. A waiver of further claims covering the space released will be contained...

  6. 32 CFR 644.457 - Settlement where part of the premises is surrendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement where part of the premises is surrendered. 644.457 Section 644.457 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... restoration of the area surrendered. A waiver of further claims covering the space released will be contained...

  7. 23 CFR 750.709 - On-property or on-premise advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) When a sign consists principally of brand name or trade name advertising and the product or service... lease sign which also advertises any product or service not conducted upon and unrelated to the business... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false On-property or on-premise advertising. 750.709...

  8. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.25...

  9. 25 CFR 162.599 - What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises? 162.599 Section 162.599 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Effectiveness, Compliance, and...

  10. 25 CFR 162.599 - What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises? 162.599 Section 162.599 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Effectiveness, Compliance, and...

  11. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.25...

  12. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... is not contrary to specific provisions of law, the approval of the Brewer's Notice, Form 5130.10... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is...

  13. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... is not contrary to specific provisions of law, the approval of the Brewer's Notice, Form 5130.10... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is...

  14. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... is not contrary to specific provisions of law, the approval of the Brewer's Notice, Form 5130.10... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is...

  15. 27 CFR 70.31 - Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., to break up any ground, house, wall, or other place through or into which such pipe or other conveyance leads, and to break or cut away such pipe or other conveyance, and turn any cock, or to determine... such premises. (c) Authority to break up grounds. An appropriate TTB officer, and any person acting in...

  16. 27 CFR 70.31 - Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., to break up any ground, house, wall, or other place through or into which such pipe or other conveyance leads, and to break or cut away such pipe or other conveyance, and turn any cock, or to determine... such premises. (c) Authority to break up grounds. An appropriate TTB officer, and any person acting in...

  17. 27 CFR 70.31 - Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., to break up any ground, house, wall, or other place through or into which such pipe or other conveyance leads, and to break or cut away such pipe or other conveyance, and turn any cock, or to determine... such premises. (c) Authority to break up grounds. An appropriate TTB officer, and any person acting in...

  18. 25 CFR 162.474 - What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises? 162.474 Section 162.474 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Business Leases Effectiveness, Compliance, and Enforcement § 162.474 What happens if...

  19. 25 CFR 162.374 - What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises? 162.374 Section 162.374 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Residential Leases Effectiveness, Compliance, and Enforcement § 162.374 What happens...

  20. 25 CFR 226.23 - Easements for wells off leased premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Easements for wells off leased premises. 226.23 Section 226.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.23 Easements for wells off...

  1. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Employees âsuffered...

  2. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender of...

  3. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender of...

  4. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34 Section 213.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.34 Inspection of...

  5. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender of...

  6. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender of...

  7. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender of...

  8. 25 CFR 700.547 - Consuming intoxicants on Government premises or during duty hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consuming intoxicants on Government premises or during duty hours. 700.547 Section 700.547 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.547 Consuming intoxicants on...

  9. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 52.7 Section 52.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... cleaning and disinfection, unless an official pseudorabies epidemiologist determines that a shorter...

  10. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 52.7 Section 52.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... cleaning and disinfection, unless an official pseudorabies epidemiologist determines that a shorter...

  11. Applications attract DuPont

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-08-07

    Scientists at DuPont say they have demonstrated the first chemical processing application for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets. DuPont says the work, which uses a HTS magnet to separate mineral contaminants from kaolin, points to the feasibility of a range of HTS applications in industrial processing, including those involving polymerization. DuPont`s success comes after 10 years of work to commercialize high-temperature superconductors. And while superconductors have lost much of their luster since the late 1980s, the company says it is still bullish on their prospects. {open_quotes}At the moment, there`s no real market for superconductors,{close_quotes} says Alan Lauder, general manager/superconductivity. But, he says, several potentially lucrative applications could be commercialized within the next several years.

  12. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  13. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  14. LES of Mild Combustion using Pareto-efficient Combustion Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Evans, Michael; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Moderate or Intense Low-Oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is a combustion regime that provides opportunities for improved thermal efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. In this study, large-eddy simulation is used to investigate the ignition, mixing, and stabilization of a jet flame in this kinetics-controlled combustion regime. The combustion process is modeled by a Pareto-efficient combustion (PEC) formulation that optimally combines reaction-transport and chemistry combustion models. In this approach, a three-stream flamelet/progress variable model is used as a computationally efficient description of equilibrated flame regions, and a finite-rate chemistry representation is employed to accurately represent the ignition behavior and flame stabilization. Through comparisons with experiments and simulations with single-regime combustion models, it will be shown that this Pareto-efficient combustion submodel assignment accurately captures important dynamics in complex turbulent flame configurations.

  15. Internal combustion engine squish jet combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.L.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a internal combustion engine block having a piston and cylinder head, one of which has: (a) a substantially cylindrical bowl opening into the face thereof; (b) a pair of squish jet passages having respective inlets communicating with the face thereof, and respective, transversely spaced, outlets directed substantially tangentially into the bowl, the outlet of a first one of the pair being directed upwardly, and the outlet of second one of the pair being directed downwardly from a position above the outlet of the first one, so that a counter-rotating, bilevel swirl can be produced in the bowl by the squish jet outlets.

  16. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  17. DuPont hikes butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1997-05-14

    Butanediol (BDO) and its derivatives continue to be strong, a positive sign for the many companies planning expansions. DuPont - one of only two global producers not planning capacity additions - has announced that it will discontinue all off-schedule pricing for BDO and two important derivatives, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG). DuPont`s list prices are $1.00/lb fob for BDO, about $1.40/lb for THF, and $2.00/lb for PTMEG. The price adjustment is effective this month or as contracts allow.

  18. Internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  19. Antipollution combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Caruel, J.E.; Gastebois, P.M.

    1981-01-27

    The invention concerns a combustion chamber for turbojet engines. The combustion chamber is of the annular type and consists of two coaxial flame tubes opening into a common dilution and mixing zone. The inner tube is designed for low operating ratings of the engine, the outer tube for high ratings. Air is injected as far upstream as possible into the dilution zone, to enhance the homogenization of the gaseous flow issuing from the two tubes prior to their passage into the turbine and to assure the optimum radial distribution of temperatures. The combustion chamber according to the invention finds application in a particularly advantageous manner in turbojet engines used in aircraft propulsion because of the reduced emission of pollutants it affords.

  20. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Thermodynamics and combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.

  2. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  3. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Dosanjh, S.S.; Pagni, P.J.; Fernandez-Pello, A.C.

    1987-05-01

    An analytic model of the propagation of smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is presented. Here smoldering is initiated at the top of a long, radially insulated, uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward forced flow of oxidizer. Because the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer enter the reaction zone from the same direction, this configuration is referred to as cocurrent (or premixed-flame-like). It is assumed that the propagation of the smolder wave is one-dimensional and steady in a frame of reference moving with the wave. Buoyancy is included and shown to be negligible in the proposed application of a smoldering combustion experiment for use on the Space Shuttle. Radiation heat transfer is incorporated using the diffusion approximation and smoldering combustion is modeled by a finite rate, one-step reaction mechanism.

  4. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  5. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (199KB JPEG, 1311 x 1477 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300165.html.

  6. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (120KB JPEG, 655 x 736 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300167.html.

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  8. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  9. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  10. Transition nozzle combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier

    2016-11-29

    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.

  11. Radiative Augmented Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-12

    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  12. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-05-03

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system.

  13. A Combustion Laboratory for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a combustion laboratory facility and experiments for a senior-level (undergraduate) course in mechanical engineering. The experiment reinforces basic thermodynamic concepts and provides many students with their first opportunity to work with a combustion system. (DH)

  14. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  15. A Combustion Laboratory for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a combustion laboratory facility and experiments for a senior-level (undergraduate) course in mechanical engineering. The experiment reinforces basic thermodynamic concepts and provides many students with their first opportunity to work with a combustion system. (DH)

  16. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  17. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  18. Poumon du puisatier

    PubMed Central

    Elidrissi, Amal Moustarhfir; Zaghba, Nahid; Benjelloun, Hanane; Yassine, Najiba

    2016-01-01

    Le puisatier a pour profession le creusement et l'entretien des puits pour fournir de l'eau. Il est au contact de divers minerais, particulièrement la silice, particule qui présente un risque certain de développement des maladies pulmonaires connues sous le nom de silicose. Le but de notre travail est de préciser le profil épidémiologique, clinique, radiologique et évolutif des patients puisatiers silicotiques. C'est une étude rétrospective concernant 54 cas de puisatiers ayant une silicose, colligés au service des maladies respiratoires du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca, de Mars 1997 à Janvier 2016. Tous les malades étaient des puisatiers, de sexe masculin, avec une moyenne d'âge de 50 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé dans 36 cas et un antécédent de tuberculose était noté dans huit cas. La radiographie thoracique retrouvait des grandes opacités dans 39 cas, des petites opacités dans 15 cas, et un épaississement des septats dans 11 cas. Ce tableau de silicose s'était compliqué d'une surinfection bactérienne dans 37% des cas, d' un pneumothorax dans 4% des cas et d'une tuberculose dans 20% des cas. La prise en charge thérapeutique était celle des complications. La déclaration de la maladie professionnelle et de l'indemnisation était faite. L'évolution était bonne dans 12 cas, stationnaire dans 17 cas et mauvaise dans 16 cas. La silicose est une pneumoconiose fréquente chez les puisatiers. Elle retentit sur la fonction respiratoire. Nous soulignons l'association fréquente de tuberculose et nous insistons sur la prévention qui reste le meilleur traitement. PMID:28292119

  19. Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-18

    Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) during testing in the Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a set of two International Space Station (ISS) research facilities designed to support physical and biological experiments in support of technology development and validation in space. The FCF consists of two modular, reconfigurable racks called the Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) and the Fluids Integration Rack (FIR). The CIR and FIR were developed at NASAʼs Glenn Research Center.

  20. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  1. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector. 72.8 Section 72.8 Animals and... cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector. Cattle located in areas...

  2. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  3. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  4. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  5. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. (a) Sales of wines. Any wholesale dealer in liquors (including the proprietor of a bonded wine cellar...

  6. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... representative or an accredited veterinarian before such premises are again used for livestock or poultry. (b) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  7. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... representative or an accredited veterinarian before such premises are again used for livestock or poultry. (b) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  8. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who has...

  9. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  10. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  11. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  12. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure? A lease may address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure, as long as the access complies with...

  13. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure? A lease may address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure, as long as the access complies with...

  14. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter and manure removed... which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be destroyed or treated by...

  15. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section... premises of every inspected plant shall be kept in clean and orderly condition. All catchbasins on the...

  16. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section... premises of every inspected plant shall be kept in clean and orderly condition. All catchbasins on the...

  17. Du Pont Information Flow System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Warren S.

    1972-01-01

    The Information Flow System is a large-scale information retrieval system developed for processing of Du Pont information files. As currently implemented, the system stores and retrieves information on company technical reports. Extensions of the system for handling chemical structure information and on-line processing are also discussed. (3…

  18. A simplified proof of a conjecture for the perturbed Gelfand equation from combustion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Philip; Li, Yi; Ouyang, Tiancheng

    2017-09-01

    For the perturbed Gelfand's equation on the unit ball in two dimensions, Y. Du and Y. Lou [5] proved that the curve of positive solutions is exactly S-shaped, for sufficiently small values of the secondary parameter. We present a simplified proof and some extensions. This problem is prominent in combustion theory, see e.g., the book of J. Bebernes and D. Eberly [1].

  19. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The various physical processes that occur in the gas turbine combustor and the development of analytical models that accurately describe these processes are discussed. Aspects covered include fuel sprays; fluid mixing; combustion dynamics; radiation and chemistry and numeric techniques which can be applied to highly turbulent, recirculating, reacting flow fields.

  20. Combustion Characteristics of Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    vehicle for future In\\vestgatin,s of spra\\ combustion. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This, rcw,arch hasN hen uvporlcd hv -\\r Force Astronautics Laborator under ,nrmct...to ?!HF of rich butane/air 3unsen flames. .lso, the rotacion speed and :he oerodic temDeracure fluc:uations of rotacfng ?HF are examined. :’!naily

  1. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  2. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  3. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  4. Combustible dust tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  5. Internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Arcoumanis, C.

    1988-01-01

    The energy crisis of the early 1970s and the gradually increasing levels of pollution of the environment have focused attention and financial resources on the better understanding of the combustion process in gasoline and diesel engines as means of improving fuel consumption and reducing exhaust emissions. This book incorporates in a single volume the current trends in engine design and technology.

  6. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.

  7. Monopropellant combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Gerald R. (Inventor); Mueller, Donn C. (Inventor); Parish, Mark W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for decomposition of a propellant. The propellant includes an ionic salt and an additional fuel. Means are provided for decomposing a major portion of the ionic salt. Means are provided for combusting the additional fuel and decomposition products of the ionic salt.

  8. Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

  9. Relating Off-Premises Alcohol Outlet Density to Intentional and Unintentional Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Smith, Karen; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.; Lee, Juliet P.; Cameron, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigated the hypotheses that (i) intentional and unintentional injuries occur more frequently in areas with greater density of off-premises alcohol outlets; and (ii) larger and chain outlets selling cheaper alcohol contribute more substantially to injury risk than smaller and independent outlets. Design Ecological cross-sectional. Setting From the 256 Statistical Area level 2 (SA2) Census units in Melbourne, Australia, we selected a random sample of 62 units. There were 2,119 Statistical Area level 1 (SA1) units nested within the selected SA2 units. Participants The selected units contained 295 off-premises outlets. Measurements Two independent observers conducted premises assessments in all off-premises outlets, assessing the volume of alcohol available for sale (paces of shelf space), price (least wine price), and other operating characteristics (chain vs. independent, drive-through). Outlet counts, assessed outlet characteristics, and other area characteristics (population density, median age, median income, retail zoning) were aggregated within SA1 units. Dependent variables were counts of ambulance attended intentional injuries (assaults, stabbings, shootings) and unintentional injuries (falls, crush injuries, and object strikes). Findings In univariable analyses, chain outlets were larger (r = 0.383; p < 0.001) and sold cheaper alcohol (r = −0.484; p < 0.001) compared with independent outlets. In Bayesian spatial Poisson models, off-premises outlet density was positively related to both intentional (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.38; 95% Credible Interval: 1.19, 1.60) and unintentional injuries (IRR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.30). After disaggregation by outlet characteristics, chain outlet density was also related to both intentional (IRR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.64) and unintentional injuries (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.38). Conclusions Greater off-premises outlet density is related to greater incidence of traumatic injury, and chain outlets

  10. The reduction of intoxication and disorder in premises licensed to serve alcohol: An exploratory randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Licensed premises offer a valuable point of intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm. Objective To describe the research design for an exploratory trial examining the feasibility and acceptability of a premises-level intervention designed to reduce severe intoxication and related disorder. The study also aims to assess the feasibility of a potential future large scale effectiveness trial and provide information on key trial design parameters including inclusion criteria, premises recruitment methods, strategies to implement the intervention and trial design, outcome measures, data collection methods and intra-cluster correlations. Design A randomised controlled trial in licensed premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year preceding the intervention, documented in police or hospital Emergency Department (ED) records. Premises were recruited from four study areas by piloting four recruitment strategies of varying intensity. Thirty two licensed premises were grouped into matched pairs to reduce potential bias and randomly allocated to the control or intervention condition. The study included a nested process evaluation to provide information on intervention acceptability and implementation. Outcome measures included police-recorded violent incidents, assault-related attendances at each premises' local ED and patron Breath Alcohol Concentration assessed on exiting and entering study premises. Results The most successful recruitment method involved local police licensing officers and yielded a 100% success rate. Police-records of violence provided the most appropriate source of data about disorder at the premises level. Conclusion The methodology of an exploratory trial is presented and despite challenges presented by the study environment it is argued an exploratory trial is warranted. Initial investigations in recruitment methods suggest that study premises should be recruited with the assistance of police officers. Police data were of

  11. All-Wales licensed premises intervention (AWLPI): a randomised controlled trial to reduce alcohol-related violence.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon C; O'Brien, Claire; Alam, Mohammed Fasihul; Cohen, David; Hood, Kerenza; Huang, Chao; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon; Playle, Rebecca; Sivarajasingam, Vaseekaran; Spasic, Irena; Williams, Anne; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2014-01-10

    Alcohol-related violence in and in the vicinity of licensed premises continues to place a considerable burden on the United Kingdom's (UK) health services. Robust interventions targeted at licensed premises are therefore required to reduce the costs of alcohol-related harm. Previous evaluations of interventions in licensed premises have a number of methodological limitations and none have been conducted in the UK. The aim of the trial was to determine the effectiveness of the Safety Management in Licensed Environments intervention designed to reduce alcohol-related violence in licensed premises, delivered by Environmental Health Officers, under their statutory authority to intervene in cases of violence in the workplace. A national randomised controlled trial, with licensed premises as the unit of allocation. Premises were identified from all 22 Local Authorities in Wales. Eligible premises were those with identifiable violent incidents on premises, using police recorded violence data. Premises were allocated to intervention or control by optimally balancing by Environmental Health Officer capacity in each Local Authority, number of violent incidents in the 12 months leading up to the start of the project and opening hours. The primary outcome measure is the difference in frequency of violence between intervention and control premises over a 12 month follow-up period, based on a recurrent event model. The trial incorporates an embedded process evaluation to assess intervention implementation, fidelity, reach and reception, and to interpret outcome effects, as well as investigate its economic impact. The results of the trial will be applicable to all statutory authorities directly involved with managing violence in the night time economy and will provide the first formal test of Health and Safety policy in this environment. If successful, opportunities for replication and generalisation will be considered. UKCRN 14077; ISRCTN78924818.

  12. All-Wales licensed premises intervention (AWLPI): a randomised controlled trial to reduce alcohol-related violence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related violence in and in the vicinity of licensed premises continues to place a considerable burden on the United Kingdom’s (UK) health services. Robust interventions targeted at licensed premises are therefore required to reduce the costs of alcohol-related harm. Previous evaluations of interventions in licensed premises have a number of methodological limitations and none have been conducted in the UK. The aim of the trial was to determine the effectiveness of the Safety Management in Licensed Environments intervention designed to reduce alcohol-related violence in licensed premises, delivered by Environmental Health Officers, under their statutory authority to intervene in cases of violence in the workplace. Methods/Design A national randomised controlled trial, with licensed premises as the unit of allocation. Premises were identified from all 22 Local Authorities in Wales. Eligible premises were those with identifiable violent incidents on premises, using police recorded violence data. Premises were allocated to intervention or control by optimally balancing by Environmental Health Officer capacity in each Local Authority, number of violent incidents in the 12 months leading up to the start of the project and opening hours. The primary outcome measure is the difference in frequency of violence between intervention and control premises over a 12 month follow-up period, based on a recurrent event model. The trial incorporates an embedded process evaluation to assess intervention implementation, fidelity, reach and reception, and to interpret outcome effects, as well as investigate its economic impact. Discussion The results of the trial will be applicable to all statutory authorities directly involved with managing violence in the night time economy and will provide the first formal test of Health and Safety policy in this environment. If successful, opportunities for replication and generalisation will be considered. Trial registration

  13. The reduction of intoxication and disorder in premises licensed to serve alcohol: an exploratory randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon C; Brennan, Iain R; Murphy, Simon; Byrne, Ellie; Moore, Susan N; Shepherd, Jonathan P; Moore, Laurence

    2010-10-14

    Licensed premises offer a valuable point of intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm. To describe the research design for an exploratory trial examining the feasibility and acceptability of a premises-level intervention designed to reduce severe intoxication and related disorder. The study also aims to assess the feasibility of a potential future large scale effectiveness trial and provide information on key trial design parameters including inclusion criteria, premises recruitment methods, strategies to implement the intervention and trial design, outcome measures, data collection methods and intra-cluster correlations. A randomised controlled trial in licensed premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year preceding the intervention, documented in police or hospital Emergency Department (ED) records. Premises were recruited from four study areas by piloting four recruitment strategies of varying intensity. Thirty two licensed premises were grouped into matched pairs to reduce potential bias and randomly allocated to the control or intervention condition. The study included a nested process evaluation to provide information on intervention acceptability and implementation. Outcome measures included police-recorded violent incidents, assault-related attendances at each premises' local ED and patron Breath Alcohol Concentration assessed on exiting and entering study premises. The most successful recruitment method involved local police licensing officers and yielded a 100% success rate. Police-records of violence provided the most appropriate source of data about disorder at the premises level. The methodology of an exploratory trial is presented and despite challenges presented by the study environment it is argued an exploratory trial is warranted. Initial investigations in recruitment methods suggest that study premises should be recruited with the assistance of police officers. Police data were of sufficient quality to identify disorder and

  14. Rupture sous-cutanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce: à propos de 5 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Rachid; Abbassi, Najib; Erraji, Moncef; Abdeljawad, Najib; Yacoubi, Hicham; Daoudi, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    La rupture spontanée du muscle long extenseur du pouce (EPL) du tendon au niveau du poignet est rare et principalement rapportés après fracture du radius distal à tubercule de Lister, dans la synovite, ténosynovite ou la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. Nous rapportons 5 cas de rupture spontanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce, traités par une greffe ou un transfert tendineux. PMID:25317233

  15. Modelling of CWS combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybenko, I. A.; Ermakova, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the combustion process of coal water slurry (CWS) drops. The physico-chemical process scheme consisting of several independent parallel-sequential stages is offered. This scheme of drops combustion process is proved by the particle size distribution test and research stereomicroscopic analysis of combustion products. The results of mathematical modelling and optimization of stationary regimes of CWS combustion are provided. During modeling the problem of defining possible equilibrium composition of products, which can be obtained as a result of CWS combustion processes at different temperatures, is solved.

  16. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  17. On-premises digital communications upgrades with emphasis on fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. A.; Hanson, A. G.

    1986-11-01

    The Federal Telecommunications Standards Committee has established a Fiber Optics Task Group, one purpose of which is to develop guidelines for Federal agencies planning to use fiber optics in on-premises communications upgrades. The report describes the key technical elements under consideration in the Task Group. These technical elements include local area networks (LANs), digital private automatic branch exchanges (PABXs), building-wiring distribution architecture, and the application of optical fiber waveguides in the implementation of these on-premises systems. The report develops some fundamental principles necessary to do tradeoff analyses required to make decisions regarding cost versus early technological obsolescence. Some examples of commercially available technology representing the present state of the art are included. Brief summaries of technology readiness, as presented by several key industry representatives to the Fiber Optics Task Group, are provided.

  18. Universal Information Multiplexer: A Solution For On-Premises Information Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Dave

    1988-12-01

    A universal information multiplexer (UNIMUX) is capable of simultanously supporting a multitude of heterogenous interfaces such as RS-232, V.35, IBM 3270 coaxial links, T-1, 802.5 token-ring LANs, telephones and other devices over one fiberoptic backbone within a campus environment. As such, the UNIMUX is capable of providing economical alternatives for on-premises data distribution without sacrificing performance.

  19. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  20. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Combustion of Ethanol and Gasoline Combustion in AN Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent spark ignition engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Step-scan equipped Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally resolved infrared spectral data were acquired and compared for combustion in the modified Mark III engine. Measurements performed with the FTIR system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion and also provides an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion. Measurements were performed using ethanol and gasoline.

  1. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  2. Emissions from combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports that environmental pollution from combustion processes is an important area of concern. Attention has recently been focused on the emissions from municipal wate incineration, although the issue is much more complex. Other sources such as rotary kilns, steel mills, pulp and paper plants, and natural sources must also be assessed. Great concern over the emission of trace levels of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans has been expressed by some, but other pollutants such as acid rain precursors, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and others should not be ignored. Solutions to the environmental problems, caused by emissions from combustion processes will be based, in part, on the science and technology that is described here.

  3. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  4. Combustion method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, W.F.; Milliken, B.R.; Braaten, D.A.

    1989-05-16

    This patent describes a process for the combustion of a mixture composed of (i) at least one hydrocarbonaceous material and (ii) at least one of water and particulate solids, the improvement comprising providing an open topped trough means for containing the mixture, introducing at least one of an oxygen containing gas and a fluid fuel into a lower portion of the trough means to mix with the mixture in the trough means, establishing around the trough means a continuously moving curtain of oxygen containing gas, the curtain being adapted to pick up at least some combustion products rising from the open top of the trough means, circulate same around the under side of the trough means and carry same back to the top of the trough means, whereby visible emissions are reduced and at least some particulate solids removed.

  5. Stratified combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Solheim, R.G.

    1987-03-17

    The method is described of operating an internal combustion engine having a cylinder with an inner wall. The method comprises admitting, adjacent to the inner wall of the cylinder, a quantity of substantially pure air in a spirally rapidly rotating layer and directing all of the quantity uniformly coaxially relative to the cylinder and toward and against only the adjacent inner wall of the cylinder, and held thereat by Coanda effect and centrifugal force. This is done while also admitting a quantity of fuel mixture in a non-rotating and non-turbulent manner between the layer of rotating pure air and the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, compressing the rotating pure air and the non-rotating fuel mixture simultaneously and firing the non-rotating fuel mixture and exhausting the products of combustion and pure air uniformly coaxially relative to the cylinder and only from a region adjacent to the inner wall and uniformly and completely from the inner wall.

  6. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  7. The premise of equipotentiality in human classical conditioning: conditioned electrodermal responses to potentially phobic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ohman, A; Fredrikson, M; Hugdahl, K; Rimmö, P A

    1976-12-01

    The premise of equipotentiality, which has been widely adhered to among learning theorists, states that the laws of learning should not vary with the use of particular stimuli, responses, or reinforcements. This premise has recently been challenged by some data originating within the learning tradition itself, for example, studies on the effects of verbal stimuli in eye-lid conditioning. More importantly, however, the premise of equipotentiality is incompatible with data from experiments carried out within a biological-ethological framework. The results of such studies indicate that a given species is prepared to associate certain stimuli, responses, and reinforcers but not others. In an attempt to examine the validity of this premise in human classical conditioning, we investigated the effect of pictures of potentially phobic objects as conditioned stimuli (CSs) for electrodermal responses, since it has been suggested that phobias may be instances of biologically prepared learning. Three experiments are reported, all of them involving a long interstimulus interval differential conditioning paradigm with different pictures as CSs and electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). In Experiment 1 we established that different pictures are differentially effective as CSs. A groupconditioned to potentially phobic stimuli, snakes or spiders, showed greater resistance to extinction than a group conditioned to fear-irrelevant pictorial stimuli, that is, flowers or mushrooms. A third group conditioned to "representative laboratory stimuli," circles or triangles, fell in between thses two groups. Experuce similar effects to those observed with phobic and fear-irrelevant stimuli in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3 superior resistance to extinction for phobic stimuli was demonstrated when the UCS was an electric shock, but not when it was a tone to which the subject produced reaction times. Thus, the effect appears specific for aversive UCSs, and CS-UCS "belongingness" has

  8. Combustible Cartridge Case Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Latex 241 * Nitrocellulose and Kraft /fibers National Starch Resin 78-3730 The beater additive process for manufacturing combustible cartridge cases *is... Kraft Fibers The Kraft fibers were received as sheets weighing approximately 1.3 lb each. The moisture content of the sheets varied from 6 to 7-1/2... Kraft fibers was incorporated into each batch. Resins The resins were supplied as a water emulsion with nominally 50 percent solids. Samples of each

  9. Scramjet Combustion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 1 Scramjet Combustion Processes Michael Smart and Ray Stalker Centre for Hypersonics The University of Queensland...Brisbane 4072 AUSTRALIA 1.0 INTRODUCTION Research into hypersonic flow phenomona has been conducted by numerous groups within Australia for over 40...describes some key aspects of the hypersonics research that has been performed at The University of Queensland. A short description of the operation of the

  10. Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking.

    PubMed

    Melton, Lula H

    1996-08-01

    The following article is excerpted from the document Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking - Proposed Organizational Structure and Process, which is available from the Technology Transfer Network (TTN), a computer bulletin board. To access the TTN, call (919) 541-5742; to obtain help with the TTN, call (919) 541-5384. The Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) document is evolving, reflecting an ongoing dialogue with various stakeholders; therefore, there may be changes between this article and the ICCR as it is implemented. EPA would like to thank all stakeholders (e.g., representatives from various companies and trade associations, state and local air pollution control agencies, and environmental organizations) who have offered suggestions and comments on development of the ICCR. As mentioned in the implications statement, the overall goal of the ICCR is to develop a unified set of federal air emissions regulations. The proposed ICCR will achieve this goal by: • Obtaining active participation from stakeholders, including environmental groups, regulated industries, and state and local regulatory agencies in all phases of regulatory development. • Coordinating the schedule and approach for development of regulations under Sections 111, 112, and 129 of the Clean Air Act that affect ICI combustion. • Determining the most effective ways to address the environmental issues associated with toxic and criteria pollutants from the range of combustion sources. • More effectively considering interactions among the regulations by analyzing the combined benefits and economic impacts of the group of Section 111, 112, and 129 regulations. • Considering strategies to simplify the regulations and allow flexibility in the methods of compliance while maintaining full environmental benefits.

  11. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    4.2 Ignition, Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows ......................... 18 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding...high- speed flows), plasma -assisted combustion, flameholding (particularly in a high-speed flow), and development and application of diagnostic...Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding Key questions that have guided this

  12. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  13. Theory of Combustion Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-07-01

    The overall sound generation processes have been classi- fied in terms of the sound due to an isolated turbulent flame and that due to the...of the fluid mechanics of the reacting gas. The overall sound generation processes have been classified in terms of the sound due to an isolated ...steady intercoupling between various aerothermochemical modes excited in the combustion zone. To be specific, the non-steady exo- thermic and

  14. Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm; Pothmann, PH

    1923-01-01

    It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.

  15. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  16. Spray atomization and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    New theoretical and experimental methods for studying sprays are reviewed. Common methods to analyze dilute sprays are described and used to interpret recent measurements of the structure of dilute sprays and related dispersed turbulent jets. Particle-laden jets, nonevaporating, evaporating, and combusting sprays, and noncondensing and condensing bubbly jets are examined and used to initially evaluate current analytical methods for a wide range of conditions. Dense sprays are briefly discussed.

  17. Combustion Noise Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    from aircraft engines arm de- velc. ped and experimentally evaluated by conducting rig experiments and by comparing with data from se’.,_ full scale ...engines. Comparison of predictions with full scale engine data indicate that direct combus- tior noise is the dominant source for the P&WA engines...investigated. The dlirect combustion noise prediction system includes expressions for acoustic pow.,r level, peak frequency and full- scale engine acoustic

  18. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  19. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  20. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  1. Strobes: an oscillatory combustion.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Justine M L; Lingen, Joost N J; Zevenbergen, John F; Gijzeman, Onno L J; Meijerink, Andries

    2012-04-26

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the chemical and physical processes involved in this curious oscillatory combustion remain unknown. Several theories have been proposed: One claims that two different reactions occur: one during the slow dark phase and another during the fast flash phase. The alternation between the phases is ascribed to heat variations. Other theories suggest that the formation of intermediate species during the dark phase and the change of phase are caused by variations in their concentration. A ternary strobe composition with ammonium perchlorate, magnalium, and barium sulfate is analyzed. The role of barium sulfate is studied by replacing it by other metal sulfates that have different physical properties (melting points), and the burning of the compositions is recorded with a high-speed camera and a spectrometer coupled with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Experimental results show noticeable differences in the physical and chemical processes involved in the strobe reactions.

  2. Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    The first space-based experiments were performed on the combustion of free, individual liquid fuel droplets in oxidizing atmospheres. The fuel was heptane, with initial droplet diameters ranging about from 1 mm to 4 mm. The atmospheres were mixtures of helium and oxygen, at pressures of 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 bar, with oxygen mole fractions between 20% and 40%, as well as normal Spacelab cabin air. The temperatures of the atmospheres and of the initial liquid fuel were nominally 300 K. A total of 44 droplets were burned successfully on the two flights, 8 on the shortened STS-83 mission and 36 on STS-94. The results spanned the full range of heptane droplet combustion behavior, from radiative flame extinction at larger droplet diameters in the more dilute atmospheres to diffusive extinction in the less dilute atmospheres, with the droplet disappearing prior to flame extinction at the highest oxygen concentrations. Quasisteady histories of droplet diameters were observed along with unsteady histories of flame diameters. New and detailed information was obtained on burning rates, flame characteristics and soot behavior. The results have motivated new computational and theoretical investigations of droplet combustion, improving knowledge of the chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer processes involved in burning liquid fuels.

  3. Device for improved combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Polomchak, R.W.; Yacko, M.

    1988-03-08

    A device for improved combustion is described comprising: a tubular housing member having a first end and a second end, the first and second ends each having a circular opening therethrough; a combustion chamber disposed about the second end of the-tubular-housing member; a first conduit member extending from the first end of the tubular housing member and in fluid communication with the circular opening in the first end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of air therethrough; a second conduit member axially disposed within the first conduit member and extending through the first conduit member and through the tubular housing member to the circular opening the second end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of fuel therethrough; means for effecting turbulence in the air passing through the tubular housing member; means for effecting turbulence in the fuel passing through the second conduit member; means for intermixing and emitting the turbulent air and the fuel in a mushroom shaped configuration with the turbulent air surrounding the mushroom shaped configuration so as to substantially eliminate noxious waste gases as by-product of combustion of the air and fuel mixture.

  4. Spray combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.

    1997-01-01

    Concern over the future availability of high quality liquid fuels or use in furnaces and boilers prompted the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consider alternate fuels as replacements for the high grade liquid fuels used in the 1970's and 1980's. Alternate fuels were defined to be combinations of a large percentage of viscous, low volatility fuels resulting from the low end of distillation mixed with a small percentage of relatively low viscosity, high volatility fuels yielded by the high end of distillation. The addition of high volatility fuels was meant to promote desirable characteristics to a fuel that would otherwise be difficult to atomize and burn and whose combustion would yield a high amount of pollutants. Several questions thus needed to be answered before alternate fuels became commercially viable. These questions were related to fuel atomization, evaporation, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation. This final report describes the results of the most significant studies on ignition and combustion of alternative fuels.

  5. Feedback control of combustion oscillations in combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Jing; Li, Dong-hai; Zhu, Min; Xue, Ya-li

    2010-11-01

    Model-based algorithms are generally employed in active control of combustion oscillations. Since practical combustion processes consist of complex thermal and acoustic couplings, their accurate models and parameters may not be obtained in advance economically, a model free controller is necessary for the control of thermoacoustic instabilities. Active compensation based control algorithm is applied in the suppression of combustion instabilities. Tuning the controller parameters on line, the amplitudes of the acoustic waves can be modulated to desired values. Simulations performed on a control oriented, typical longitudinal oscillations combustor model illustrate the controllers' capability to attenuate combustion oscillations.

  6. Energy Conversion and Combustion Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    Rotational /Continuous Detonation • Only Single Initiation needed (Circumvent Initiation/DDT difficulty/loss in PDE ) • 10-100x cycle rate increase • Near...new fuels: 1. Rotational or Continuous Detonation (intense/concentrated combustion); 2. Flameless combustion (distributed combustion process...Steady Exit Flow *CFD Courtesy of NRL Rotational Detonation : (PI: Schauer, AFRL/RZ, working with NRL) Rotational Approach Allows Continuous

  7. Radiation/Catalytic Augmented Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    VUV wavelengths 157 nm (F2) and 193 nm (ArF). Radiative ignitions were achieved with the fluorine laser and not with the argon fluoride laser, even...enhanced combustion processes, utilizing pulsed and continuous VUV light-serces. Similarly, the catalytic technique has provided efficient combustion...ignited fuel-air mixtures, and has enhanced combustion processes, utilizing pulsed and continuous VUV light sources. Similarly, the catalytic technique has

  8. Group Combustion Module (GCM) Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-27

    ISS049e011638 (09/27/2016) --- Expedition 49 crewmember Takuya Onishi of JAXA works on the setup of the Group Combustion Module (GCM) inside the Japanese Experiment Module. The GCM will be used to house the Group Combustion experiment from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to test a theory that fuel sprays change from partial to group combustion as flames spread across a cloud of droplets.

  9. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  10. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  11. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  12. Combustion, heat transfer and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on diesel engines combustion. Topics considered include combustion control, high-speed photography, visual studies of diesel combustion, swirl chambers, heat insulated turbochargers, direct injection, autoignition, statistical analysis software, particulate emissions, improvements in exhaust gas emissions and cold startability of diesel engines with new injection-rate-control pumps, jet mixing processes, a thermodynamic simulation model, heat transfer in ceramic combustion chamber walls, temperature distribution in a diesel piston, and the application of a variable swirl device to a two-stroke engine.

  13. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  14. Combustion characteristics of husk charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, H.; Kimura, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Terui, T.

    1984-07-01

    This paper analyzes the factors involved in the extraordinary temperature generation in husk combustion furnaces, and investigates methods of protecting furnaces from heat damage. The combustion characteristics of fixed carbon in rice husks are examined in relation to the air flow rate using different husk charcoals. The theoretical flame temperature in a practical bed was determined from the combustion propagation velocity. It is determined that deviation from the regression line relating the combustion propagation velocity with the specific air flow rate showed a slight correlation with the bulk density of the charcoal samples used.

  15. Basic Aerodynamics of Combustion Chambers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-20

    8217, tie imnrulse foree eyuilibr-um c’ the bomd’~ leye - is 173 pv-:irJ p~76vJbK 2sO) IL !-. = Zn pT -- a , bV T. z -,,r y.re C era 3oia * ~~I" onc art-=e...heat by combustion all have very large influences on the capabilities of a combustion chamber. A yellow- colored flame represents diffusion combustion in...the wakes of fuel droplets. Blue- colored flames represent gaseous combustion of evaporated vapors which have already left the fuel droplets. The

  16. Standardized inspections of food premises during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: descriptive analysis and risk factors for unsatisfactory results.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Varzakas, Theodoros; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    Standardized inspections of food premises are part of environmental health systems implemented worldwide. The food safety strategy for the 2004 Olympic Games included standardized inspections to ensure uniformity and consistency of procedures and effective electronic management of data. Inspections were carried out by 196 inspectors in the five Olympic cities: Athens, Thessalonica, Volos, Iraklio, and Patra. From January 2003 to September 2004, a total of 1,249 food premises were inspected. An unsatisfactory inspection result (C grade) was received by 347 (27.8%) food premises, a relatively satisfactory result (B grade) was received by 332 (26.6%), and a satisfactory result (A grade) was received by 570 (45.6%). About 16% of inspected premises did not hold a valid permit. Unsatisfactory inspection results were more frequent for premises located in the two largest Greek cities in comparison with the other smaller cities (relative risk = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.80). Based on logistic regression analysis, unsatisfactory inspection results were positively associated with food premises that were not located on a ground floor (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.73) and negatively associated with application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.71). Food hygiene education through formal training programs should be encouraged to improve compliance of food premises. Food premises located on hotel floors and serving buffet meals are at higher risk for unsatisfactory conditions. Businesses that implemented a HACCP system within their operations to ensure food safety operated under more hygienic conditions. Future inspections by Public Health Authorities should involve elements of audit after the legislation for the application of HACCP principles.

  17. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ray, Joel G; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls.We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude-latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA.There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15-9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26-5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41-11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs.On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed.

  18. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G.; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I.; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls. We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude–latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA. There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15–9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26–5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41–11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs. On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed. PMID:27175699

  19. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  20. Combustion method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, W.F.; Milliken, B.R.; Braaten, D.A.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes an improvement in apparatus for the combustion of a hydro-carbonaceous material to reduce visible emissions and remove at least some particulate solids. The improvement comprising a pair of spaced apart upstanding elongate wall means having upper and lower longitudinally extending edge means joined by upstanding end edges. The spaced apart wall means being adapted to contain and direct an oxygen containing gas curtain in the space between same, an elongate combustion trough means carried in the space between the spaced apart wall means. The trough means being spaced above the lower edge and below the upper edge of the spaced apart wall means and extending for a substantial portion of the length of the spaced apart wall means. The trough means comprising upwardly diverging side means which extended for a substantial portion of the length of the spaced apart wall means. The side means terminating at their top edge so that the top edge is spaced inwardly from the spaced apart wall means to provide a gap between the top edge and the spaced apart wall means through which the gas curtain can pass. The side means terminating near their bottom edges on at least one conduit means, each conduit means extending essentially the length of the trough means and having a plurality of aperatures along the length thereof for admitting at least one fluid to the interior of the trough means between the side means. The side means being joined at both ends of the trough means by end means which define a closed interior for the trough means, means for feeding combustible material to the closed interior of the trough means, and means for establishing the oxygen containing gas curtain around the trough means and between the spaced apart wall means.