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Sample records for premises combustion du

  1. Prediction du transfert thermique parietal pour la chambre de combustion d'une turbine a gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Pierre

    Des travaux ont demontre que la temperature de paroi pouvait etre predite avec precision (+/-6 a 10%) pour une chambre de combustion a pleine-echelle. Pour les resultats obtenus d'une autre chambre, aussi identique mais de plus petit diametre, la prediction de temperature de paroi n'offrait pas la meme precision de calcul. Cette etude est limitee aux turbines aeronautiques. L'objectif a ete de reevaluer globalement la prediction de la temperature de paroi d'une chambre de combustion de type GHOST a la lumiere des resultats obtenus des programmes experimentaux, tout en prenant en consideration l'influence des differents types de carburants. Par l'analyse du grand nombre de donnees experimentales, des modifications furent apportees a la methode de prediction utilisee pour les chambres a pleine echelle afin de reduire l'erreur de prediction pour les echelles a 1:2 (basse pression), 1:3 (basse pression) et 1:3 (haute pression). Une modelisation de la chambre de combustion a ete effectuee. L'analyse numerique nous a demontree que le code FLUENT/UNS predisait tres bien l'ecoulement a froid a l'interieur de la chambre de combustion GHOST echelle 1:1. La prediction etait acceptable au niveau des profils de temperature a l'interieur de la chambre. Cependant, une lacune a ete observee au niveau du modele d'evaporation du code.

  2. Premises liability.

    PubMed

    Buckner, F

    2001-01-01

    Premises liability is an often-overlooked legal consideration. Financially destructive cases brought against practices by patients or visitors can be avoided by creating a safe work environment and clearly labeling potentially harmful locales in and around the office in which you work. This article discusses clear ways any physician or office manager can avoid major legal problems by paying close attention to the needs and rights of office invitees. The focus of any physician considering insurance should include not only malpractice insurance but also premises liability insurance.

  3. Combustible caramel pour reacteurs de recherche: Experience acquise en fabrication, controles et irradiation du coeur d'osiris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Contenson, Ghislain; Foulquier, Henri; Trotabas, Maria; Vignesoult, Nicole; Cerles, Jean-Marie; Delafosse, Jacques

    1982-04-01

    L'un des aboutissements des différentes actions menées en France concernant la conception, la fabrication et le développement des combustibles nucléaires a été la mise au point par le CEA d'un combustible de type plaque (combustible CARAMEL) susceptible d'être adapté a différentes catégories de réacteurs à eau (réacteur de puissance, propulsion navale, chauffage urbain, pile de recherche). Ces travaux ont été couronnés par la réalisation de tout un coeur et des recharges du réacteur de recherche à hautes performances, Osiris, à Saclay. L'ancien combustible en alliage U Al fortement enrichi a eté remplacé par un combustible caramel de faible enrichissement (7%), non proliférant. Ce nouveau coeur fonctionne avec satisfaction, depuis janvier 1980. Après une brève description des caractéristiques du combustible caramel et de ses principaux avantages, on présente sa fabrication ainsi que l'ensemble des contrôles de qualité auxquels il est soumis. Le programme de qualification ainsi que les principaux résultáts qui en ont été tirés sont exposés. On décrit également le programme de suivi du combustible en pile dont le but est de s'assurer du bon comportement du combustible sous irradiation. Le bon fonctionnement d'Osiris, qui a terminé 11 cycles d'irradiation le 21 avril 1981, a permis de montrer le bien fondé des choix effectués et l'excellent comportement de l'élément combustible dans les conditions pourtant sévères d'un réacteur de recherche à hautes performances.

  4. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  5. Application de l'A.D.L, pour la mesure du champ de vitesses instationnaires de llecoulement a Ilechappement d'un moteur a combustion interne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutrif, M. S.; Thelliez, M.

    1993-01-01

    We present experimental results of instantaneous velocity measurement, which were obtained by application of the laser Doppler anemometry (L.D.A.) at the exhaust pipe of a reciprocating engine under real working conditions. First of all, we show that the instantaneous velocity is monodimensional along a straight exhaust pipe, and that the boundary layer develops within a 2mm thickness. We also show that the cylinder discharges in two phases : the blow down period and the final part of exhaust stroke. We also make obvious, that the flow escapes very quickly : its velocity varies between - 100m/s and 200m/s within a period shorter than 1ms ; thereby, we do record the acoustic resonance phenomenon, when the engine speed is greater than 3 000rpm. Finally, we show that in the exhaust pipe the apparent fluctuation - i.e. the cyclic dispersion and the actual turbulence - may reach 15%. Nous présentons des résultats expérimentaux du champ de vitesses instationnaires, obtenus par adaptation et application de la vélocimétrie laser interférentielle communément appelée à effet Doppler (L.D.A.), à l'échappement d'un moteur altematif à combustion inteme en fonctionnement nominal. Tout d'abord, nous montrons que dans un tube d'échappement long et droit, la vitesse instantanée est bien monodimensionnelle et que l'écoulement occupe la quasitotalité de la section droite géométrique du tube (une couche limite d'épaisseur inférieure à 2mm se développe très près de la paroi du tube). Nous pouvons également décrire la vidange du cylindre du moteur étudié en deux phases principales : bouffée d'échappement et refoulement des gaz brûlés par le piston. Nous mettons de même en évidence l'état très pulsé de l'écoulement, puisqu'en un intervalle de temps inférieur à 1ms, la vitesse de l'écoulement varie de - 100m/s à 200m/s ; nous enregistrons ainsi l'apparition du phénomène de résonance acoustique à des vitesses de rotation supérieures à 3 500

  6. Spatial Premise Integration in Hindi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Spatial reasoning or locating objects in a spatial space has long been an important area of research in cognitive science because analyzing space categorically and finding objects is a fundamental act of mental perception and cognition. Premise integration in tasks of spatial reasoning has recently received considerable research attention. This is…

  7. 7 CFR 51.55 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Premises. 51.55 Section 51.55 Agriculture Regulations... Contract Basis § 51.55 Premises. The premises shall be free from conditions objectionable to packing... buildings, excessively dusty roads, yards or parking lots, and poorly drained areas....

  8. EPA/IFP (Environmental Protection Agency/Institute Francais Du Petrole) European workshop on the emission of nitrous oxide from fossil-fuel combustion: Rueil-Malmaison, France, June 1-2, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.V.; Srivastava, R.K.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil-fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increasing atmospheric N2O concentrations have been linked to depletion of stratospheric ozone (O3) and to global-climate warming. The combustion of fossil fuels has been identified as a potential major anthropogenic source of N2O. The workshop had two goals: (1) to exchange information among various international research and industrial groups that are involved in N2O chemistry, modeling, and measurement; and (2) to develop a network for coordinating future related efforts.

  9. 7 CFR 51.55 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premises. 51.55 Section 51.55 Agriculture Regulations... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.55 Premises. The..., yards or parking lots, and poorly drained areas....

  10. 7 CFR 58.125 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... water from plant buildings and driveways, including surface water around the plant and on the premises..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Premises,...

  11. 7 CFR 58.125 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... water from plant buildings and driveways, including surface water around the plant and on the premises..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Premises,...

  12. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  13. Premises liability: how far does it go?

    PubMed

    Aicher, R H

    2001-09-01

    The outcomes of lawsuits initiated by patients who fall on medical premises are determined by some general parameters. For example, a patient can recover against the owner only, not the physician tenant, for a defective parking lot deemed common area for the use of all building tenants. The author discusses the factors that courts consider in determining premises liability. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:465-466.).

  14. 50 CFR 260.98 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Premises. 260.98 Section 260.98 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A...

  15. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... establishments, embracing docks, driveways, approaches, yards, pens, chutes, and alleys shall be drained properly... or on its premises. (b) Stables or other premises for animals used in the production or testing...

  16. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or on its premises. (b) Stables or other premises for animals used in the production or testing of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or on its premises. (b) Stables or other premises for animals used in the production or testing of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 25 CFR 141.21 - Trade confined to premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade confined to premises. 141.21 Section 141.21 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.21 Trade confined to premises. The licensee shall confine all trade on the reservation to the premises specified in the license, except,...

  19. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  20. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  1. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  2. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  3. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  4. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  5. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  6. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  7. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  8. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  9. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is...

  10. Tasks and premises in quantum state determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of quantum tomography is to determine an unknown quantum state from measurement outcome statistics. There are two obvious ways to generalize this setting. First, our task need not be the determination of any possible input state but only some input states, for instance pure states. Second, we may have some prior information, or premise, which guarantees that the input state belongs to some subset of states, for instance the set of states with rank less than half of the dimension of the Hilbert space. We investigate state determination under these two supplemental features, concentrating on the cases where the task and the premise are statements about the rank of the unknown state. We characterize the structure of quantum observables (positive operator valued measures) that are capable of fulfilling these type of determination tasks. After the general treatment we focus on the class of covariant phase space observables, thus providing physically relevant examples of observables both capable and incapable of performing these tasks. In this context, the effect of noise is discussed.

  11. Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001–2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water—not contaminants—that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control. PMID:25918909

  12. Common features of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-04-24

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001-2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water--not contaminants--that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control.

  13. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    on peut s’interroger sur l’adquation des moyens engages ausceptiblea do se manifester naturellement au cours du A Ia complexit6 du probl~me... capteur d’Helmoltz; de pression lorsque Ia fr~quence vanet. Calcul num~rique et mithode expdrimentale donnent des irdsultats en bon accord, c’cst-i... naturellement , avec des niveaux stabilis~s moddr~s. mod~le de combustion (r~f. 30) et des limites de L’opinion est r~pandue que la segmentation peut l’approche

  14. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  15. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  16. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  17. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  18. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  19. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  20. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  1. 25 CFR 140.14 - Trade limited to specified premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade limited to specified premises. 140.14 Section 140.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.14 Trade limited to specified premises. No trade with Indians is permitted at any...

  2. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  3. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  4. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  5. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  6. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  7. 27 CFR 44.111 - Change in export warehouse premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in export warehouse... Qualification of Export Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.111 Change in export warehouse premises. Where an export warehouse is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate...

  8. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  9. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  10. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  11. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  12. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  13. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  14. 7 CFR 930.56 - Off-premise inventory reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-premise inventory reserve. 930.56 Section 930.56... Handling Regulations § 930.56 Off-premise inventory reserve. Any handler may, upon notification to the Board, arrange to hold inventory reserve, of his or her own production or which was purchased, on...

  15. 7 CFR 930.56 - Off-premise inventory reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-premise inventory reserve. 930.56 Section 930.56... Handling Regulations § 930.56 Off-premise inventory reserve. Any handler may, upon notification to the Board, arrange to hold inventory reserve, of his or her own production or which was purchased, on...

  16. Microbiological investigation of halal butchery products and butchers' premises.

    PubMed

    Little, C; Gillespie, I; de Louvois, J; Mitchell, R

    1999-06-01

    Halal butchers' premises were investigated as they had not been represented in a recent study of butchery products and butchers' premises conducted by the Local Authorities Coordinating Body on Food and Trading Standards and the PHLS. This study examined 183 raw prepared meats and 212 environmental samples from 105 halal butcher premises. Only raw meats were prepared on 97 of the premises visited; and the types of meat prepared on the remaining eight premises was not specified. Four halal butchers sold cooked meats prepared elsewhere. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were detected in 12 (7%) and 52 (28%) of the 183 raw meat products, respectively. Five raw prepared meats (3%) contained both salmonella and campylobacter. Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 was isolated from a raw meat product that also contained campylobacter. No cooked meat products were available for collection. The physical separation of raw and unwrapped cooked meat products in premises that prepared raw and sold cooked meats was not recorded. Apron cloths were the most heavily contaminated environmental samples examined; hygiene indicator microorganisms indicated an increased risk of cross contamination. Managers in 85 premises had received no food hygiene training and 88 premises had no hazard analysis system in place. Improvements are needed to reduce the risk of cross contamination.

  17. 27 CFR 19.828 - Removals from the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Plant Operations § 19.828 Removals from the premises. No person shall remove from the vinegar plant premises vinegar or other fluid or material containing more than 2% alcohol by volume. Records...

  18. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  19. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... future expansion; or (5) Parking facilities that are used by customers or employees of the bank,...

  20. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... future expansion; or (5) Parking facilities that are used by customers or employees of the bank,...

  1. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... future expansion; or (5) Parking facilities that are used by customers or employees of the bank,...

  2. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... future expansion; or (5) Parking facilities that are used by customers or employees of the bank,...

  3. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Expansion of Activities § 5.37 Investment in bank premises. (a) Authority... future expansion; or (5) Parking facilities that are used by customers or employees of the bank,...

  4. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000: Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Potential customer premises service (CPS), telecommunication services, potential CPS user classes, a primary research survey, comparative economics, market demand forcasts, distance distribution of traffic, segmentation of market demand, and a nationwide traffic distribution model are discussed.

  5. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  6. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  7. 27 CFR 19.53 - Continuity of plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuity of plant... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.53 Continuity of plant premises. As...

  8. 27 CFR 20.203 - Losses on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Losses on premises. 20.203 Section 20.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Losses § 20.203 Losses...

  9. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  10. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  11. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  12. 48 CFR 452.236-72 - Use of Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of Premises. 452.236-72 Section 452.236-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.236-72 Use...

  13. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  14. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  15. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  16. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  17. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  18. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  19. 27 CFR 24.97 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... will show the kind of wine or wine spirits. (b) Tasting. The proprietor may take samples of wine free of tax for organoleptic tasting on bonded wine premises. If a room or area is set aside for public tasting purposes, a record will be maintained showing the date, quantity and kind of wine transferred...

  20. 27 CFR 19.53 - Continuity of plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuity of plant... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.53 Continuity of plant premises. As...

  1. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447 Joint survey...

  2. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447 Joint survey...

  3. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447...

  4. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447...

  5. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447 Joint survey...

  6. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  7. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  8. 9 CFR 82.22 - Cleaning and disinfecting premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting premises. 82.22 Section 82.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  9. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... representative. Cleaning and disinfecting must be completed within 15 days from the date the animals were...

  10. 9 CFR 82.22 - Cleaning and disinfecting premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting premises. 82.22 Section 82.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  11. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... representative. Cleaning and disinfecting must be completed within 15 days from the date the animals were...

  12. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  13. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  14. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  15. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  16. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment. 64.607 Section 64.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services...

  17. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS IN PREMISE PLUMBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OBJECTIVES. The objectives of this project were to: 1.) Host an expert workshop to identify research needs for opportunistic premise (i.e., building) plumbing pathogens (OPPPs); 2.) With the assistance of the workshop participants, prepare this research repor...

  18. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.31...

  19. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.31...

  20. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  1. Biofuels combustion.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  2. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  3. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  4. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  5. Assessment of physical premises of selected pharmacies of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Bhupendra Kumar; Ishii, Itsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: This work attempts to investigate the standards of physical premises of pharmacies in terms of cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities of two selected districts of Nepal: Kathmandu and Kaski. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study of 100 randomly selected retail and wholesale pharmacies (55 from Kathmandu and 45 from Kaski) was conducted for their compliance to provisions of physical premises: cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities. Preliminarily, scoring was done by converting 5-point Likert scale to a 100-point scale as follows: 1 = 0–20, 2 = 21–40, 3 = 41–60, 4 = 61–80 and 5 = 81–100. These scores were then reported as poor (score ⩽ 40), below average (score of 41–49), average (score of 50), above average (score of 51–60) and good (score ⩾ 61). Cronbach’s alpha for retails and wholesales obtained was .720 and .757, respectively. Results: In wholesales, protection from physical environment was least scored among other components, with the mean score 34.7 ± 8.3 for Kathmandu and 37.3 ± 13.3 for Kaski. Ventilation was scored 35.3 ± 6.3 for Kathmandu and 39.3 ± 11.6 for Kaski. All other components were obtained below average. However, in retails, the storage facilities were rated ‘poor’ with mean score 36.3 ± 13.9 for Kathmandu and 36.0 ± 11.9 for Kaski. Most other components were scored above average except for ventilation which was scored ‘good’. It was found that there was no significant difference between physical premises of the pharmacies of Kathmandu and Kaski in terms of all the indicators. The findings suggest that physical premise of many pharmacies was not found appropriate as provisioned in the good pharmacy practice requirements of Codes on Sales and Distribution of Drugs. Conclusion: Most pharmacies were found non-compliant to

  6. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  7. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  8. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job...

  9. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job...

  10. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job...

  11. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  12. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  13. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  14. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  15. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  16. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension...

  17. 47 CFR 64.609 - Enforcement of related customer premises equipment rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enforcement of related customer premises... Relay Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.609 Enforcement of related customer premises equipment rules. Enforcement of §§ 64.607 and 64.608 is delegated...

  18. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  19. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  20. Distribution system water age can create premise plumbing corrosion hotspots.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-09-01

    Cumulative changes in chemical and biological properties associated with higher "water age" in distribution systems may impact water corrosivity and regulatory compliance with lead and copper action levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of water age and chemistry on corrosivity of various downstream premise plumbing pipe materials and configurations using a combination of controlled laboratory studies and a field survey. Examination of lead pipe, copper pipe with lead solder, and leaded brass materials in a replicated lab rig simulating premise plumbing stagnation events indicated that lead or copper release could increase as much as ∼440 % or decrease as much as 98 % relative to water treatment plant effluent. In field studies at five utilities, trends in lead and copper release were highly dependent on circumstance; for example, lead release increased with water age in 13 % of cases and decreased with water age in 33 % of conditions tested. Levels of copper in the distribution system were up to 50 % lower and as much as 30 % higher relative to levels at the treatment plant. In many cases, high-risks of elevated lead and copper did not co-occur, demonstrating that these contaminants will have to be sampled separately to identify "worst case" conditions for human exposure and monitoring.

  1. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  2. Prevalence of Legionella in premise plumbing in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Barna, Zsófia; Kádár, Mihály; Kálmán, Emese; Scheirich Szax, Anita; Vargha, Márta

    2016-03-01

    Legionella is one of the emerging concerns of water quality in built water environments. Premise plumbing systems are among the recognised sources of infection. In the present study, colonisation of hot water networks in health care facilities, schools, hotels, private residences, office and industrial buildings was investigated. Data was analysed in connection with building and premise plumbing characteristics. Over 60% of all buildings were colonised by Legionella; counts were over 1000 CFU/L in 49%. The most prevalent type was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2-14, isolated from 75% of the positive samples. Centrally produced hot water was found to be a key risk factor (46% of the samples were positive vs. 16% in individual systems); within this group the type of the building was less relevant. Colonisation levels in schools were similar to hotels or hospitals, representing a previously underestimated risk setting. Systems supplied by water from deep groundwater sources were significantly less likely to be colonised than more vulnerable sources (bank-wall filtration, surface water abstraction or karstic water; 28% vs. 51% positive), regardless of the type of treatment applied, including the presence of disinfection. The aggravating effect of larger, more complex and older buildings on colonisation was also confirmed. The present study represents the first baseline analysis, pre-empting regulation or monitoring requirements for Legionella. The prevalence of legionellae and the identified risk factors are indicative for other settings lacking targeted interventions. The statistically confirmed risk factors can serve as indicators for preliminary risk assessment and the prioritisation of interventions.

  3. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  4. La naissance du parsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenou, F.

    2010-01-01

    Les définitions du parsec et de la magnitude absolue sont le fruit de compromis pour régler trois problèmes entremêlés au début du XXème siècle: quelle unité de distance stellaire adopter? Quel nom lui donner? Comment comparer les luminosités intrinsèques des différentes étoiles?

  5. Conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates the transition between familiar and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to 15-year-olds. Study 2 (n = 366) found a positive effect of simply generating alternatives, but only in 19-year-olds. Study 3 (n = 92) found that 9- to 11-year-olds were able to respond logically with false premises, whereas no such ability was observed in 6- to 7-year-olds. Reasoning with false premises was found to improve reasoning with semiabstract premises in the older children. These results support the idea that alternatives generation with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning.

  6. Prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in licensed premises that are associated with alcohol-related harm.

    PubMed

    Daly, Justine B; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Wiggers, John H; Considine, Robyn J

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in a group of licensed premises associated with alcohol-related harm. During March 1999, 108 licensed premises with one or more police-identified alcohol-related incidents in the previous 3 months received a visit from a police officer. A 30-item audit checklist was used to determine the responsible hospitality policies being undertaken by each premises within eight policy domains: display required signage (three items); responsible host practices to prevent intoxication and under-age drinking (five items); written policies and guidelines for responsible service (three items); discouraging inappropriate promotions (three items); safe transport (two items); responsible management issues (seven items); physical environment (three items) and entry conditions (four items). No premises were undertaking all 30 items. Eighty per cent of the premises were undertaking 20 of the 30 items. All premises were undertaking at least 17 of the items. The proportion of premises undertaking individual items ranged from 16% to 100%. Premises were less likely to report having and providing written responsible hospitality documentation to staff, using door charges and having entry/re-entry rules. Significant differences between rural and urban premises were evident for four policies. Clubs were significantly more likely than hotels to have a written responsible service of alcohol policy and to clearly display codes of dress and conditions of entry. This study provides an indication of the extent and nature of responsible hospitality policies in a sample of licensed premises that are associated with a broad range of alcohol related harms. The finding that a large majority of such premises appear to adopt responsible hospitality policies suggests a need to assess the validity and reliability of tools used in the routine assessment of such policies, and of the potential for harm from licensed premises.

  7. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  8. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Combustible particluate fuel heater

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.H.; Jurgens, H.J.W.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a combustible particulate fired heater. It consists of: a combustion chamber defined by upright side walls extending between open top and bottom ends; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber; a retort within the combustion chamber adjacent the bottom end and having a lower particulate receiving end and an upper open end; feed conveyor means leading through the enclosure to the retort for delivering metered quantities of combustible particulates to the lower particulate receiving end of the retort; primary combustion air supply means having a primary combustion air supply manifold extending at least partially about the upper open end of the retort; primary air control means on the primary air supply means for selectively allowing entry of combustion air from outside the enclosure in to the retort; secondary combustion air supply means including a secondary air supply manifold within the combustion chamber above the primary combustion air supply manifold; secondary air control means independent of the primary air control means for selectively allowing entry of secondary air from outside the enclosure to an area within the combustion chamber above the retort; an exhaust duct opening into the enclosure; and vacuum means connected to the exhaust duct for producing a pressure differential between the area confined by the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere such that ambient air is drawn through at least one of the combustion air supply means to induce a high level of gasification and to support combustion at the retort and for drawing combustion exhaust gases out through the exhaust duct.

  10. Combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The presentation will cover the highlights of sludge, providing information as to where it comes from, projection of how much more is expected, what is sludge, what can be done with them, and finally focus in one combustion technology that can be utilized and applied to recycle sludge. The author is with Gotaverken Energy Systems Inc. where for the past 100 years they have been involved in the recovery of chemicals in chemical pulp mills. One week ago, our name was changed to Kvaerner Pulping Inc. to better reflect our present make-up which is a combination of Kamyr AB (suppliers of proprietary highly engineered totally chlorine free chemical pulp manufacturing systems, including digesters, O{sub 2} delignification systems, and bleach plant systems) and Goetaverken. Sludges that we are concerned with derive from several sources within chemical pulp mills such as: such as primary clarifier sludges, secondary clarifier sludges, and most recently those sludges derived from post consumer paper and board recycle efforts including de-inking and those from the thermal mechanical pulping processes. These sludges have been classified as non-hazardous therefore, residue can be landfilled, but the volumes involved are growing at an alarming rate.

  11. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  12. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  13. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  14. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  15. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times...

  16. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  17. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  18. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  19. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34 Section... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times...

  20. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  1. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  2. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46 Section... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  3. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times...

  4. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. 646.153 Section 646.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises....

  5. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  6. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  7. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  8. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  9. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of...

  10. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of...

  11. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of...

  12. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of...

  13. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnishing of enhanced services and customer... Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.702 Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment. (a) For the purpose of...

  14. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of premises; books...

  15. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect...

  16. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect...

  17. 27 CFR 19.134 - Bonded warehouses not on premises qualified for production of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded warehouses not on... Location and Use § 19.134 Bonded warehouses not on premises qualified for production of spirits. (a) Criteria for establishment. (1) A bonded warehouse, other than one established on the bonded premises of...

  18. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  19. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...

  20. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in...

  1. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in...

  2. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in...

  3. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in...

  4. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  5. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  6. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...

  7. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...

  8. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...

  9. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  10. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in...

  11. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...

  12. 27 CFR 19.97 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.97 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. Spirits or wines on which the tax has been paid or determined may be conveyed within...

  13. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  14. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  15. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  16. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  17. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  18. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  19. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  20. 9 CFR 77.41 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.41 Section 77.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.41 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  1. 9 CFR 77.41 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.41 Section 77.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.41 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  2. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.19 Section 77.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  3. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.19 Section 77.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  4. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.19 Section 77.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  5. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.8 Section 51.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Certain premises may be exempted from such cleaning and disinfecting requirements by approval of...

  6. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.19 Section 77.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  7. 9 CFR 77.41 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.41 Section 77.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.41 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  8. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.8 Section 51.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Certain premises may be exempted from such cleaning and disinfecting requirements by approval of...

  9. 9 CFR 77.41 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 77.41 Section 77.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.41 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  10. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36... leased premises in good condition. On expiration of the term of a lease, or when a lease is surrendered... other than oil and gas, in good order and condition, and the bondsmen will be held for such delivery...

  11. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36... leased premises in good condition. On expiration of the term of a lease, or when a lease is surrendered... other than oil and gas, in good order and condition, and the bondsmen will be held for such delivery...

  12. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36... leased premises in good condition. On expiration of the term of a lease, or when a lease is surrendered... other than oil and gas, in good order and condition, and the bondsmen will be held for such delivery...

  13. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36... leased premises in good condition. On expiration of the term of a lease, or when a lease is surrendered... other than oil and gas, in good order and condition, and the bondsmen will be held for such delivery...

  14. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36... leased premises in good condition. On expiration of the term of a lease, or when a lease is surrendered... other than oil and gas, in good order and condition, and the bondsmen will be held for such delivery...

  15. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  16. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times...

  17. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25... Inspection of premises, books and accounts. Lessee shall agree to allow the lessor and his agents or any... Department; and their books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be...

  18. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  19. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect...

  20. Conditional Reasoning with False Premises Facilitates the Transition between Familiar and Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to…

  1. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  2. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  3. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  4. Cri du chat syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infant's cry, which is high-pitched and sounds like a cat. Causes Cri du chat syndrome is rare. It is caused by a missing piece of chromosome 5. Most cases are believed to occur during the development of ... Cry that is high-pitched and may sound like a cat Downward slant to the eyes ...

  5. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-20

    future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean... future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability...C. Bruno, Italy 1430-1500 Technology to Ramjet Combustion Application of FLameless H. Mongia , GE Transportation, 1500-1530 Combustion (FLC) for

  6. Mechanisms of droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms governing droplet vaporization and combustion are discussed. Specific topics include governing equations and simplifications, the classical d(2)-Law solution and its subsequent modification, finite-rate kinetics and the flame structure, droplet dynamics, near- and super-critical combustion, combustion of multicomponent fuel blends/emulsions/suspensions, and droplet interaction. Potential research topics are suggested.

  7. Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 U.S. States: Impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Huguet, Nathalie; Ogden, Lauren; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.; Caetano, Raul; Conner, Kenneth R.; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims This study estimates the association between per capita alcohol retail outlet density and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from 51,547 suicide decedents. It also analyzes the relationship between alcohol outlet density and socio-demographic characteristics among alcohol positive suicide decedents in the United States by racial/ethnic groups and method of suicide. Design Analysis of U.S. data, 2003–11, National Violent Death Reporting System Setting Suicide decedents from 14 U.S. States Cases A total of 51,547 suicide decedents tested for blood alcohol content. Measurements Blood alcohol content and levels were derived from coroner/medical examiner reports. Densities of county level on-premise and off-premise alcohol retail outlets were calculated using the 2010 Census. Findings Multilevel logistic regression models suggested that higher off-premise alcohol outlet densities were associated with greater proportions of alcohol-related suicides among men -- for suicides with alcohol present (BAC>0; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.03–1.13). Interactions between outlet density and decedents’ characteristics were also tested. There was an interaction between off-premise alcohol availability and American Indian/Alaska Native race (AOR=1.36; 95% CI=1.10–1,69) such that this sub-group had highest BAC positivity. On-premise density was also associated with BAC > 0 (AOR=1.05; 95% CI=1.03–1.11) and BAC≥ 0.08 (AOR=1.05; 95% CI=1.02–1.09) among male decedents. Conclusions County-level on- and off-premise density are associated with alcohol-related suicide, especially among American Indians/Alaska Natives. PMID:25310999

  8. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  9. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  10. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  11. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  12. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  13. 27 CFR 19.207 - Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. 19.207 Section 19.207 Alcohol, Tobacco... use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. If a proprietor of distilled spirits plant wishes to use all or a portion of such premises alternately as a volatile...

  14. 27 CFR 19.206 - Curtailment and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. 19.206 Section 19.206 Alcohol, Tobacco... and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (a) General. The premises of... permit the use of the facilities for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (b) Qualifying documents....

  15. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  16. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  17. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  18. Survey of bed bugs in infested premises in Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    How, Yee-Fatt; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-06-01

    A total of 54 bed bug-infested sites (hotels, public accommodations, and residential premises) in Malaysia and Singapore was surveyed between July, 2005 and December, 2008. Only one species of bed bug was found, the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius). Bed bug infestations were common in hotels and public accommodations when compared to residential premises. The three most common locations of infestation within an infested premise were the bedding (31.1%), the headboard (30.3%), and cracks and crevices surrounding the baseboard, wall, or floor (23.5%). We speculate that the route of movement of bed bugs in hotels and public accommodations is more direct than in residential premises.

  19. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  20. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  1. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  2. Developpement d'une methode hybride pour le suivi du coeur et la gestion du combustible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenette, Eric

    The nuclear industry of CANDU reactors uses neutron physics methodologies (core follow-up, fuel management) that are considered out of date and do not reflect the latest developments in the field of neutronics. For instance, the software used by the reactor physics team in Gentilly-2, HQSIMEX 3, uses macroscopic cross sections ("grid-based" approach) calculated by two methods: (1) The "four factors" formula, an obsolete technique used in 1950; (2) The WIMS software, based on a microscopic cross section library. Among other method, the history-based approach is considered more precise but requires greater computing time. Processing a whole CANDU core follow-up through the history-based approach is not possible as of today with the actual computers, due to computing cost issues. The main goal of this research is to come up with a new strategy that will combine the interpolation technique of the "grid-based approach" with the isotopic depletion follow-up of the "history-based" approach.

  3. Fate of free chlorine in drinking water during distribution in premise plumbing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Muzi; He, Chunguang; He, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Free chlorine is a potent oxidizing agent and has been used extensively as a disinfectant in processes including water treatment. The presence of free chlorine residual is essential for the prevention of microbial regrowth in water distribution systems. However, excessive levels of free chlorine can cause adverse health effects. It is a major challenge to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual in premise plumbing. As the first effort to assessing the fate of chlorine in premise plumbing using actual premise plumbing pipe sections, three piping materials frequently used in premise plumbing, i.e. copper, galvanized iron, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were investigated for their performance in maintaining free chlorine residual. Free chlorine decay was shown to follow first-order kinetics for all three pipe materials tested. The most rapid chlorine decay was observed in copper pipes, suggesting the need for higher chlorine dosage to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual if copper piping is used. PVC pipes exhibited the least reactivity with free chlorine, indicative of the advantage of PVC as a premise plumbing material for maintaining free chlorine residual. The reactivity of copper piping with free chlorine was significantly hindered by the accumulation of pipe deposits. In contrast, the impact on chlorine decay by pipe deposits was not significant in galvanized iron and PVC pipes. Findings in this study are of great importance for the development of effective strategies for the control of free chlorine residual and prevention of microbiological contamination in premise plumbing.

  4. EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

  5. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  6. Fuels Combustion Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-18

    uncertainties in the future sources and characteristics of fuels has emphasized the need to better understand fuel effects on combustion , e.g. energy release...experimentally to be made. Unsuccessful comparisons can lead to impro- vements in modelling concepts . Two simplified models for the combustion of slurry...AD-A149 186 FUELS COMBUSTION RESEACCH(U) PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF i/i MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING F L DRYER ET AL. 18 JUL 84 NAE-i668 AFOSR

  7. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  8. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  9. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  10. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha

    1998-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion provides a major portion of the world's energy supply. In most practical combustion devices, liquid burns after being separated into a droplet spray. Essential to the design of efficient combustion systems is a knowledge of droplet combustion behavior. The microgravity environment aboard spacecraft provides an opportunity to investigate the complex interactions between the physical and chemical combustion processes involved in droplet combustion without the complications of natural buoyancy. Launched on STS-83 and STS-94 (April 4 and July 1, 1997), the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) investigated the fundamentals of droplet combustion under a range of pressures (0.25 to 1 atm), oxygen mole fractions (<0.5), and droplet sizes (1.5 to 5 mm). Principal DCE flight hardware features were a chamber to supply selected test environments, the use of crew-inserted bottles, and a vent system to remove unwanted gaseous combustion products. The internal apparatus contained the droplet deployment and ignition mechanisms to burn single, freely deployed droplets in microgravity. Diagnostics systems included a 35-mm high-speed motion picture camera (see the following sequence of photos) with a backlight to photograph burning droplets and a camcorder to monitor experiment operations. Additional diagnostics included an ultraviolet-light-sensitive CCD (charge couple discharge) camera to obtain flame radiation from hydroxyl radicals (see the final figure) and a 35-mm SLR (single-lens-reflex) camera to obtain color still photographs of the flames.

  11. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  12. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  13. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  14. Plasma Assisted Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-28

    2005) AIAA–2005–0405. [99] E.M. Van Veldhuizen (ed) Electrical Discharges for Environmental Purposes: Fun- damentals and Applications (New York: Nova...in russian), 18, 4, 1982, 48-51. [238] Combustion Chemestry , ed. W. Gardiner-Jr, Moscow, Mir, 1988. [239] G.P.Tewari, J.R.Wilson, Combust. Flame, 24

  15. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  16. The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory.

    PubMed

    Girotto, V; Mazzocco, A; Tasso, A

    1997-04-01

    The difference in difficulty between modus ponens (if p then q; p; therefore q) and modus tollens (if p then q; not-q; therefore not-p) arguments has been traditionally explained by assuming that the mind contains a rule for modus ponens, but not for modus tollens. According to the mental model theory, modus tollens is a more difficult deduction than modus ponens because people do not represent the case not-q in their initial model of the conditional. On the basis of this theory, we predicted that conditions in which reasoners are forced to represent the not-q case should improve correct performance on modus tollens. In particular, we predicted that the presentation of the minor premise (not-q) as the initial premise should produce facilitation. Experiment 1 showed that this is the case: whereas the inversion of the premise order did not affect modus ponens, it produced a significant increase of valid conclusions for modus tollens. Experiment 2 showed that this facilitation does not depend on the negative form (contrary vs. contradictory) of the minor premise. Experiments 3 and 4 (and/or some of their replications) demonstrated that facilitation also occurs when participants are asked to find the cases compatible with not-q or to evaluate a p conclusion. No premise order effect was found for sentences which make explicit the not-q case right from the start, i.e. p only if q conditionals and biconditionals (Experiments 5 and 6). Finally, Experiments 7 and 8 showed that the conditional fallacies are not significantly affected by the premise order.

  17. The risk of Aedes aegypti breeding and premises condition in South Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Davies, Clive R; Coleman, Paul G; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Hernández-Betancourt, Silvia; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Pinkus-Rendón, Miguel; Burciaga-Zúñiga, Pierre; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I

    2013-12-01

    A recent innovation instrumented for the Dengue Prevention and Control program in Mexico is the use of the premises condition index (PCI) as an indicator of risk for the vector Aedes aegypti infestation in dengue-endemic localities of Mexico. This paper addresses whether further improvements for the dengue control program could be made if the prevalence and productivity of Ae. aegypti populations could be reliably predicted using PCI at the household level, as well as medium-sized neighborhoods. We evaluated the use of PCI to predict the infestation with Aedes aegypti (breeding sites and immature productivity) in Merida, Mexico. The study consisted of a cross-sectional survey based on a cluster-randomized sampling design. We analyzed the statistical association between Aedes infestation and PCI, the extent to which the 3 components of PCI (house maintenance, and tidiness and shading of the patio) contributed to the association between PCI and infestation and whether infestation in a given premises was also affected by the PCI of the surrounding ones. Premises with the lowest PCI had significantly lower Aedes infestation and productivity; and as PCI scores increased infestation levels also tended to increase. Household PCI was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti breeding, largely due to the effect of patio untidiness and patio shade. The mean PCI within the surroundings premises also had a significant and independent explanatory power to predict the risk for infestation, in addition to individual PCI. This is the 1st study in Mexico showing evidence that premises condition as measured by the PCI is related to Ae. aegypti breeding sites and immature productivity. Results suggest that PCI could be used to streamline surveys to inform control efforts at least where Ae. aegypti breeds outdoors, as in Merida. The effect of individual premises, neighborhood condition, and the risk of Aedes infestation imply that the risk for dengue vector infestation can only be

  18. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of market demand for domestic civilian telecommunications services for the years 1980 to 2000 are provided. Overall demand, demand or satellite services, demand for satellite delivered Customer Premises Service (CPS), and demand for 30/20 GHz Customer Premises Services are covered. Emphasis is placed on the CPS market and demand is segmented by market, by service, by user class and by geographic region. Prices for competing services are discussed and the distribution of traffic with respect to distance is estimated. A nationwide traffic distribution model for CPS in terms of demand for CPS traffic and earth stations for each of the major SMSAs in the United States are provided.

  19. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-84-2042 ESL-TR-84-29 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH 0) PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO CANADA In JULY 1984 Final Report for...in small engincs. -291 REFERENCES 1. Gratton, M., Sampath, P., " Alternate Fuels Combustion Research Phase If", Pratt & Whitney Canada , AFWAL-TR-83-2057...for Period May 80 Sep e ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCHMa80-Sp3 4. PERFORMING ORIJ. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 4. 60ONTRA-CT-WI GANUMNER(s) *M

  20. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  1. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  2. Microbiological quality of food in relation to hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training in UK catering and retail premises.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Lock, D; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, two thirds (66%) were catering premises and one third (34%) were retail premises. Comparison with PHLS Microbiological Guidelines revealed that significantly more ready-to-eat food samples from catering premises (20%; 2,511/12,703) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality compared to samples from retail premises (12%; 1,039/8,462) (p < 0.00001). Three quarters (76%) of retail premises had hazard analysis systems in place compared with 59% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). In 87% of retail premises the manager had received some form of food hygiene training compared with 80% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). From premises where the manager had received no food hygiene training a greater proportion of samples were of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (20% retail, 27% catering) compared with premises where the manager had received food hygiene training (11% retail, 19% catering) (p < 0.00001). Where the manager of the premises had received food hygiene training, documented hazard analysis systems were more likely to be in place (p < 0.00001). Higher proportions of samples of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (17% retail, 22% catering) were from premises where there was no hazard analysis system in place compared to premises that had a documented hazard analysis system in place (10% retail, 18% catering) (p < 0.00001). Our meta-analysis suggests that the lower microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods from catering premises compared with those collected from retail premises may reflect differences in management food hygiene training and the presence of a hazard analysis system. The

  3. Combustion Technology Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  4. Fluidized coal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  5. Studies in premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)

  6. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  7. Dynamic effects of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic effects of combustion are due to the evolution of exothermic energy and its deposition in the compressible medium where the process takes place. The paper examines the dynamics of combustion phenomena, including ignition, turbulent flame propagation (inflammation), explosion, and detonation, with emphasis on their exothermic characteristics. Ignition and explosion are treated as problems of nonlinear mechanics, and their dynamic behavior is described in terms of phase space models and cinematographic laser shear interferograms. The results of a numerical random vortex model of turbulent flame propagation are confirmed in a combustion tunnel experiment, where it was observed that a fresh mixture of burnt and unburnt gases can sustain combustion with a relatively small expenditure of overall mass flow, due to the increasing specific volume of burnt gases inside the flame front. An isentropic pressure wave is found to precede the accelerating flame in the process of detonation, and components of this presssure wave are shown to propagate at local sonic velocities.

  8. 27 CFR 478.100 - Conduct of business away from licensed premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...)(1) A licensee may conduct business temporarily at a gun show or event as defined in paragraph (b) if the gun show or event is located in the same State specified on the license: Provided, That such business shall not be conducted from any motorized or towed vehicle. The premises of the gun show or...

  9. 23 CFR 750.709 - On-property or on-premise advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) When a sign consists principally of brand name or trade name advertising and the product or service... lease sign which also advertises any product or service not conducted upon and unrelated to the business... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false On-property or on-premise advertising. 750.709...

  10. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  11. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  12. 25 CFR 162.599 - What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises? 162.599 Section 162.599 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Effectiveness, Compliance, and...

  13. 25 CFR 162.599 - What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises? 162.599 Section 162.599 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Effectiveness, Compliance, and...

  14. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel... pricing flexibility with respect to channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. (b) Phase I triggers. To obtain Phase I pricing flexibility, as specified in § 69.727(a) of this part,...

  15. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel... pricing flexibility with respect to channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. (b) Phase I triggers. To obtain Phase I pricing flexibility, as specified in § 69.727(a) of this part,...

  16. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel... pricing flexibility with respect to channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. (b) Phase I triggers. To obtain Phase I pricing flexibility, as specified in § 69.727(a) of this part,...

  17. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel... pricing flexibility with respect to channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. (b) Phase I triggers. To obtain Phase I pricing flexibility, as specified in § 69.727(a) of this part,...

  18. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel... pricing flexibility with respect to channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. (b) Phase I triggers. To obtain Phase I pricing flexibility, as specified in § 69.727(a) of this part,...

  19. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  20. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  1. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  2. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  3. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  4. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  5. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  6. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  7. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... is not contrary to specific provisions of law, the approval of the Brewer's Notice, Form 5130.10... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is...

  8. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... is not contrary to specific provisions of law, the approval of the Brewer's Notice, Form 5130.10... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is...

  9. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... is not contrary to specific provisions of law, the approval of the Brewer's Notice, Form 5130.10... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is...

  10. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... is not contrary to specific provisions of law, the approval of the Brewer's Notice, Form 5130.10... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is...

  11. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... is not contrary to specific provisions of law, the approval of the Brewer's Notice, Form 5130.10... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is...

  12. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of...

  13. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of...

  14. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of...

  15. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 225.35 Section 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of...

  16. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  17. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  18. 27 CFR 24.131 - Change in building construction and use of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in building construction and use of premises. 24.131 Section 24.131 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Changes Subsequent to Original Establishment...

  19. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... of Principles Employees âsuffered Or Permittedâ to Work § 785.12 Work performed away from...

  20. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine...

  1. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine...

  2. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine...

  3. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine...

  4. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine...

  5. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  6. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  7. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  8. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  9. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  10. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  11. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  12. Planning an On-Premise Telecommunication System: The University of Michigan Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwick, Leslie B.

    1988-01-01

    The first of two articles describing the University of Michigan's experiences in installing an on-premise telecommunications system covers: (1) the physical, historical, and cultural context; (2) planning for the new system; (3) voice and data strategies of the system; (4) switching equipment and transmission media; and (5) financing and rates.…

  13. 9 CFR 55.4 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 55.4 Section 55.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... paid will be responsible for expenses incurred in connection with the cleaning and disinfection,...

  14. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 52.7 Section 52.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... cleaning and disinfection, unless an official pseudorabies epidemiologist determines that a shorter...

  15. 9 CFR 55.4 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 55.4 Section 55.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... paid will be responsible for expenses incurred in connection with the cleaning and disinfection,...

  16. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 52.7 Section 52.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... cleaning and disinfection, unless an official pseudorabies epidemiologist determines that a shorter...

  17. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-35 - F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. Destination, Within... Clauses 52.247-35 F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises. As prescribed in 47.303-7(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when the delivery term is f.o.b....

  19. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-35 - F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. Destination, Within... Clauses 52.247-35 F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises. As prescribed in 47.303-7(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when the delivery term is f.o.b....

  1. 27 CFR 40.382 - Authority of TTB officers to enter premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes General § 40.382... premises where cigarette papers and tubes are produced or kept, so far as it may be necessary for the... permit the appropriate TTB officer to examine such cigarette papers and tubes shall be liable to...

  2. 25 CFR 226.23 - Easements for wells off leased premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Easements for wells off leased premises. 226.23 Section 226.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.23 Easements for wells off...

  3. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Employees âsuffered...

  4. Generalities on combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuentzmann, Paul

    The main manifestations of combustion instabilities are reviewed, and the specific characteristics of instabilities in solid-propellant rocket engines are analyzed, with the Minuteman III third-stage engine and the SRB engine of Titan 34 D considered as examples. The main approaches for predicting combustion instabilities are discussed, including the linear approach based on the acoustic balance, the nonlinear mode-coupling approach, and the nonlinear approach using numerical calculation. Projected directions for future research are also examined.

  5. Scramjet Combustion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    plan for these flights is as follows: Scramjet Combustion Processes RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 21 HyShot 5 – A Free-Flying Hypersonic Glider HyShot...5 will be a hypersonic glider designed to fly at Mach 8. It will separate from its rocket booster in space and perform controlled manoeuvres as it...RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 1 Scramjet Combustion Processes Michael Smart and Ray Stalker Centre for Hypersonics The University of Queensland

  6. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  7. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  8. Matériaux pour la combustion catalytique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunot, C.

    2002-04-01

    La combustion catalytique est l'une des technologies les plus prometteuses pour réaliser une combustion ultra-propre des hydrocarbures et notamment du gaz naturel. Aujourd'hui, cependant, les produits commerciaux utilisant cette technologie sont peu nombreux et le plus souvent réservés à des applications basse température (500-700°C) à cause de la limitation liée à la durée de vie des catalyseurs utilisés (métaux précieux). Le développement de cette technologie est donc intimement lié à des défis “matériaux”, et notamment à l'obtention de catalyseurs actifs et durables au moins plusieurs milliers d'heures à des températures comprises entre 700 et 1 100°C. Or les catalyseurs de type métaux précieux, très actifs y compris à basse température, ont une durée de vie (maintien de leur activité catalytique dans le temps) d'autant plus limitée que la température de l'application est élevée. A l'inverse, les catalyseurs de type pérovskite ou hexaaluminate, dont la durée de vie à haute température est satisfaisante, présentent une activité plus faible qui rend notamment l'amorçage de la combustion catalytique délicate. C'est pourquoi les solutions potentielles sont à rechercher non seulement du côté matériaux de catalyseurs mais aussi du côté ingénierie et conception des matériels associés.

  9. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal..., and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. Cars and...

  10. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... representative or an accredited veterinarian before such premises are again used for livestock or poultry. (b) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  11. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys... representative or an accredited veterinarian before such premises are again used for livestock or poultry. (b) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  12. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector. 72.8 Section 72.8 Animals and... cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector. Cattle located in...

  13. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  14. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  15. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  16. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. (a) Sales of wines. Any wholesale dealer in liquors (including the proprietor of a bonded wine...

  17. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. (a) Sales of wines. Any wholesale dealer in liquors (including the proprietor of a bonded wine...

  18. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  19. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  20. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  1. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  2. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  3. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter and manure removed... which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be destroyed or treated by...

  4. Relating Off-Premises Alcohol Outlet Density to Intentional and Unintentional Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Smith, Karen; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.; Lee, Juliet P.; Cameron, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigated the hypotheses that (i) intentional and unintentional injuries occur more frequently in areas with greater density of off-premises alcohol outlets; and (ii) larger and chain outlets selling cheaper alcohol contribute more substantially to injury risk than smaller and independent outlets. Design Ecological cross-sectional. Setting From the 256 Statistical Area level 2 (SA2) Census units in Melbourne, Australia, we selected a random sample of 62 units. There were 2,119 Statistical Area level 1 (SA1) units nested within the selected SA2 units. Participants The selected units contained 295 off-premises outlets. Measurements Two independent observers conducted premises assessments in all off-premises outlets, assessing the volume of alcohol available for sale (paces of shelf space), price (least wine price), and other operating characteristics (chain vs. independent, drive-through). Outlet counts, assessed outlet characteristics, and other area characteristics (population density, median age, median income, retail zoning) were aggregated within SA1 units. Dependent variables were counts of ambulance attended intentional injuries (assaults, stabbings, shootings) and unintentional injuries (falls, crush injuries, and object strikes). Findings In univariable analyses, chain outlets were larger (r = 0.383; p < 0.001) and sold cheaper alcohol (r = −0.484; p < 0.001) compared with independent outlets. In Bayesian spatial Poisson models, off-premises outlet density was positively related to both intentional (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.38; 95% Credible Interval: 1.19, 1.60) and unintentional injuries (IRR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.30). After disaggregation by outlet characteristics, chain outlet density was also related to both intentional (IRR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.64) and unintentional injuries (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.38). Conclusions Greater off-premises outlet density is related to greater incidence of traumatic injury, and chain outlets

  5. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  6. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  7. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  8. Combustion chamber noise suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.M.

    1986-08-19

    A combustion chamber is described for a hot fog generating machine comprising a hollow cylindrical combustion chamber shell having a closure plate at one end and outlet means at the opposite end for directing hot combustion gasses to a fogging nozzle, air inlet means disposed adjacent the outlet means, fuel inlet means and ignition means mounted in the closure plate and liner means disposed concentrically within the cylindrical combustion chamber for controlling the flow of air and combustion gasses within the shell. The liner means includes a liner base having a frustroconical configuration with the smaller diameter end thereof disposed in communication with the outlet means and with the larger diameter end thereof disposed in spaced relation to the shell, circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending fins extending outwardly from the liner base intermediate the liner base and the shell, a cylindrical liner midsection having circumferentially spaced fins extending outwardly therefrom between the midsection and the shell with the fins supporting the midsection on the larger diameter end of the liner base.

  9. Combustion in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, F.J.; La Nauze, R.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion systems have become popular since the late 1970s, and, given the current level of activity in the area,it is clear that this technology has a stable future in the boiler market. For standard coal combustion applications, competition is fierce with mature pulverized-fuel-based (PF) technology set to maintain a strong profile. CFB systems, however, can be more cost effective than PF systems when emission control is considered, and, as CFB technology matures, it is expected that an ever-increasing proportion of boiler installations will utilize the CFB concept. CFB systems have advantages in the combustion of low-grade fuels such as coal waste and biomass. In competition with conventional bubbling beds, the CFB boiler often demonstrates superior carbon burn-out efficiency. The key to this combustion technique is the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluidized bed. This article begins with a description of the fundamental fluid dynamic behavior of the CFB system. This is followed by an examination of the combustion process in such an environment and a discussion of the current status of the major CFB technologies.

  10. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  11. LES of Mild Combustion using Pareto-efficient Combustion Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Evans, Michael; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Moderate or Intense Low-Oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is a combustion regime that provides opportunities for improved thermal efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. In this study, large-eddy simulation is used to investigate the ignition, mixing, and stabilization of a jet flame in this kinetics-controlled combustion regime. The combustion process is modeled by a Pareto-efficient combustion (PEC) formulation that optimally combines reaction-transport and chemistry combustion models. In this approach, a three-stream flamelet/progress variable model is used as a computationally efficient description of equilibrated flame regions, and a finite-rate chemistry representation is employed to accurately represent the ignition behavior and flame stabilization. Through comparisons with experiments and simulations with single-regime combustion models, it will be shown that this Pareto-efficient combustion submodel assignment accurately captures important dynamics in complex turbulent flame configurations.

  12. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  13. Cri du Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-09-05

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and delta-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made

  14. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  15. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  16. Thermodynamics and combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.

  17. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  18. Internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  19. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Antipollution combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Caruel, J.E.; Gastebois, P.M.

    1981-01-27

    The invention concerns a combustion chamber for turbojet engines. The combustion chamber is of the annular type and consists of two coaxial flame tubes opening into a common dilution and mixing zone. The inner tube is designed for low operating ratings of the engine, the outer tube for high ratings. Air is injected as far upstream as possible into the dilution zone, to enhance the homogenization of the gaseous flow issuing from the two tubes prior to their passage into the turbine and to assure the optimum radial distribution of temperatures. The combustion chamber according to the invention finds application in a particularly advantageous manner in turbojet engines used in aircraft propulsion because of the reduced emission of pollutants it affords.

  1. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Dosanjh, S.S.; Pagni, P.J.; Fernandez-Pello, A.C.

    1987-05-01

    An analytic model of the propagation of smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is presented. Here smoldering is initiated at the top of a long, radially insulated, uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward forced flow of oxidizer. Because the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer enter the reaction zone from the same direction, this configuration is referred to as cocurrent (or premixed-flame-like). It is assumed that the propagation of the smolder wave is one-dimensional and steady in a frame of reference moving with the wave. Buoyancy is included and shown to be negligible in the proposed application of a smoldering combustion experiment for use on the Space Shuttle. Radiation heat transfer is incorporated using the diffusion approximation and smoldering combustion is modeled by a finite rate, one-step reaction mechanism.

  2. Applications attract DuPont

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-08-07

    Scientists at DuPont say they have demonstrated the first chemical processing application for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets. DuPont says the work, which uses a HTS magnet to separate mineral contaminants from kaolin, points to the feasibility of a range of HTS applications in industrial processing, including those involving polymerization. DuPont`s success comes after 10 years of work to commercialize high-temperature superconductors. And while superconductors have lost much of their luster since the late 1980s, the company says it is still bullish on their prospects. {open_quotes}At the moment, there`s no real market for superconductors,{close_quotes} says Alan Lauder, general manager/superconductivity. But, he says, several potentially lucrative applications could be commercialized within the next several years.

  3. On-premises digital communications upgrades with emphasis on fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. A.; Hanson, A. G.

    1986-11-01

    The Federal Telecommunications Standards Committee has established a Fiber Optics Task Group, one purpose of which is to develop guidelines for Federal agencies planning to use fiber optics in on-premises communications upgrades. The report describes the key technical elements under consideration in the Task Group. These technical elements include local area networks (LANs), digital private automatic branch exchanges (PABXs), building-wiring distribution architecture, and the application of optical fiber waveguides in the implementation of these on-premises systems. The report develops some fundamental principles necessary to do tradeoff analyses required to make decisions regarding cost versus early technological obsolescence. Some examples of commercially available technology representing the present state of the art are included. Brief summaries of technology readiness, as presented by several key industry representatives to the Fiber Optics Task Group, are provided.

  4. Universal Information Multiplexer: A Solution For On-Premises Information Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Dave

    1988-12-01

    A universal information multiplexer (UNIMUX) is capable of simultanously supporting a multitude of heterogenous interfaces such as RS-232, V.35, IBM 3270 coaxial links, T-1, 802.5 token-ring LANs, telephones and other devices over one fiberoptic backbone within a campus environment. As such, the UNIMUX is capable of providing economical alternatives for on-premises data distribution without sacrificing performance.

  5. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  6. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    AFWAL-TR-83-2057 AD A13 8 5 7 5 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH PHASE RI ’~*~~4 & IWITEY CMAAA * ’s~t:Uwz, ONTARIO October 1983 I•oerls Report...83-2057 P_______________ C TITLE (mod ,,--tt-) 5. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Alternate Fuels ioahusticn Research Interim Report for Period Phase...I$. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse sirte it necessear and identify by block number) FUELS ALTERNATE FUELS GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION EXHAUST EMISSIONS 0

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  8. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  9. Transition nozzle combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier

    2016-11-29

    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.

  10. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  11. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  12. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  13. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  14. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  15. Poumon du puisatier

    PubMed Central

    Elidrissi, Amal Moustarhfir; Zaghba, Nahid; Benjelloun, Hanane; Yassine, Najiba

    2016-01-01

    Le puisatier a pour profession le creusement et l'entretien des puits pour fournir de l'eau. Il est au contact de divers minerais, particulièrement la silice, particule qui présente un risque certain de développement des maladies pulmonaires connues sous le nom de silicose. Le but de notre travail est de préciser le profil épidémiologique, clinique, radiologique et évolutif des patients puisatiers silicotiques. C'est une étude rétrospective concernant 54 cas de puisatiers ayant une silicose, colligés au service des maladies respiratoires du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca, de Mars 1997 à Janvier 2016. Tous les malades étaient des puisatiers, de sexe masculin, avec une moyenne d'âge de 50 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé dans 36 cas et un antécédent de tuberculose était noté dans huit cas. La radiographie thoracique retrouvait des grandes opacités dans 39 cas, des petites opacités dans 15 cas, et un épaississement des septats dans 11 cas. Ce tableau de silicose s'était compliqué d'une surinfection bactérienne dans 37% des cas, d' un pneumothorax dans 4% des cas et d'une tuberculose dans 20% des cas. La prise en charge thérapeutique était celle des complications. La déclaration de la maladie professionnelle et de l'indemnisation était faite. L'évolution était bonne dans 12 cas, stationnaire dans 17 cas et mauvaise dans 16 cas. La silicose est une pneumoconiose fréquente chez les puisatiers. Elle retentit sur la fonction respiratoire. Nous soulignons l'association fréquente de tuberculose et nous insistons sur la prévention qui reste le meilleur traitement. PMID:28292119

  16. Combustible dust tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  17. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The various physical processes that occur in the gas turbine combustor and the development of analytical models that accurately describe these processes are discussed. Aspects covered include fuel sprays; fluid mixing; combustion dynamics; radiation and chemistry and numeric techniques which can be applied to highly turbulent, recirculating, reacting flow fields.

  18. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  19. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.

  20. Monopropellant combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Gerald R. (Inventor); Mueller, Donn C. (Inventor); Parish, Mark W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for decomposition of a propellant. The propellant includes an ionic salt and an additional fuel. Means are provided for decomposing a major portion of the ionic salt. Means are provided for combusting the additional fuel and decomposition products of the ionic salt.

  1. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  2. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  3. Modelling of CWS combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybenko, I. A.; Ermakova, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the combustion process of coal water slurry (CWS) drops. The physico-chemical process scheme consisting of several independent parallel-sequential stages is offered. This scheme of drops combustion process is proved by the particle size distribution test and research stereomicroscopic analysis of combustion products. The results of mathematical modelling and optimization of stationary regimes of CWS combustion are provided. During modeling the problem of defining possible equilibrium composition of products, which can be obtained as a result of CWS combustion processes at different temperatures, is solved.

  4. Rupture sous-cutanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce: à propos de 5 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Rachid; Abbassi, Najib; Erraji, Moncef; Abdeljawad, Najib; Yacoubi, Hicham; Daoudi, Abdelkrim

    2014-01-01

    La rupture spontanée du muscle long extenseur du pouce (EPL) du tendon au niveau du poignet est rare et principalement rapportés après fracture du radius distal à tubercule de Lister, dans la synovite, ténosynovite ou la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. Nous rapportons 5 cas de rupture spontanée du tendon long extenseur du pouce, traités par une greffe ou un transfert tendineux. PMID:25317233

  5. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  6. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  7. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Combustion of Ethanol and Gasoline Combustion in AN Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent spark ignition engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Step-scan equipped Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally resolved infrared spectral data were acquired and compared for combustion in the modified Mark III engine. Measurements performed with the FTIR system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion and also provides an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion. Measurements were performed using ethanol and gasoline.

  8. Standardized inspections of food premises during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: descriptive analysis and risk factors for unsatisfactory results.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Varzakas, Theodoros; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    Standardized inspections of food premises are part of environmental health systems implemented worldwide. The food safety strategy for the 2004 Olympic Games included standardized inspections to ensure uniformity and consistency of procedures and effective electronic management of data. Inspections were carried out by 196 inspectors in the five Olympic cities: Athens, Thessalonica, Volos, Iraklio, and Patra. From January 2003 to September 2004, a total of 1,249 food premises were inspected. An unsatisfactory inspection result (C grade) was received by 347 (27.8%) food premises, a relatively satisfactory result (B grade) was received by 332 (26.6%), and a satisfactory result (A grade) was received by 570 (45.6%). About 16% of inspected premises did not hold a valid permit. Unsatisfactory inspection results were more frequent for premises located in the two largest Greek cities in comparison with the other smaller cities (relative risk = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.80). Based on logistic regression analysis, unsatisfactory inspection results were positively associated with food premises that were not located on a ground floor (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.73) and negatively associated with application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.71). Food hygiene education through formal training programs should be encouraged to improve compliance of food premises. Food premises located on hotel floors and serving buffet meals are at higher risk for unsatisfactory conditions. Businesses that implemented a HACCP system within their operations to ensure food safety operated under more hygienic conditions. Future inspections by Public Health Authorities should involve elements of audit after the legislation for the application of HACCP principles.

  9. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G.; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I.; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls. We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude–latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA. There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15–9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26–5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41–11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs. On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed. PMID:27175699

  10. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  11. Stratified combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Solheim, R.G.

    1987-03-17

    The method is described of operating an internal combustion engine having a cylinder with an inner wall. The method comprises admitting, adjacent to the inner wall of the cylinder, a quantity of substantially pure air in a spirally rapidly rotating layer and directing all of the quantity uniformly coaxially relative to the cylinder and toward and against only the adjacent inner wall of the cylinder, and held thereat by Coanda effect and centrifugal force. This is done while also admitting a quantity of fuel mixture in a non-rotating and non-turbulent manner between the layer of rotating pure air and the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, compressing the rotating pure air and the non-rotating fuel mixture simultaneously and firing the non-rotating fuel mixture and exhausting the products of combustion and pure air uniformly coaxially relative to the cylinder and only from a region adjacent to the inner wall and uniformly and completely from the inner wall.

  12. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  13. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Arduino, Matthew J.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexisting risk factors and frequently require hospitalization. Objectives The objectives of this report are to alert professionals of the impact of OPPPs, the fact that 30% of the population may be exposed to OPPPs, and the need to develop means to reduce OPPP exposure. We herein present a review of the epidemiology and ecology of these three bacterial OPPPs, specifically to identify common and unique features. Methods A Water Research Foundation–sponsored workshop gathered experts from across the United States to review the characteristics of OPPPs, identify problems, and develop a list of research priorities to address critical knowledge gaps with respect to increasing OPPP-associated disease. Discussion OPPPs share the common characteristics of disinfectant resistance and growth in biofilms in water distribution systems or premise plumbing. Thus, they share a number of habitats with humans (e.g., showers) that can lead to exposure and infection. The frequency of OPPP-infected individuals is rising and will likely continue to rise as the number of at-risk individuals is increasing. Improved reporting of OPPP disease and increased understanding of the genetic, physiologic, and structural characteristics governing the persistence and growth of OPPPs in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing is needed. Conclusions Because broadly effective community-level engineering interventions for the control of OPPPs have yet to be identified, and because the number of at-risk individuals will continue to rise, it is likely that OPPP-related infections will continue to increase. However, it is possible that individuals can take measures (e.g., raise hot water heater temperatures and filter

  14. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    4.2 Ignition, Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows ......................... 18 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding...high- speed flows), plasma -assisted combustion, flameholding (particularly in a high-speed flow), and development and application of diagnostic...Flameholding, and Flame Propagation in Supersonic Flows 4.2.1 Plasma -Assisted Ignition and Flameholding Key questions that have guided this

  15. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  16. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  17. Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking.

    PubMed

    Melton, Lula H

    1996-08-01

    The following article is excerpted from the document Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking - Proposed Organizational Structure and Process, which is available from the Technology Transfer Network (TTN), a computer bulletin board. To access the TTN, call (919) 541-5742; to obtain help with the TTN, call (919) 541-5384. The Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) document is evolving, reflecting an ongoing dialogue with various stakeholders; therefore, there may be changes between this article and the ICCR as it is implemented. EPA would like to thank all stakeholders (e.g., representatives from various companies and trade associations, state and local air pollution control agencies, and environmental organizations) who have offered suggestions and comments on development of the ICCR. As mentioned in the implications statement, the overall goal of the ICCR is to develop a unified set of federal air emissions regulations. The proposed ICCR will achieve this goal by: • Obtaining active participation from stakeholders, including environmental groups, regulated industries, and state and local regulatory agencies in all phases of regulatory development. • Coordinating the schedule and approach for development of regulations under Sections 111, 112, and 129 of the Clean Air Act that affect ICI combustion. • Determining the most effective ways to address the environmental issues associated with toxic and criteria pollutants from the range of combustion sources. • More effectively considering interactions among the regulations by analyzing the combined benefits and economic impacts of the group of Section 111, 112, and 129 regulations. • Considering strategies to simplify the regulations and allow flexibility in the methods of compliance while maintaining full environmental benefits.

  18. Combustion Characteristics of Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    regarded by implication or otherwise, or in any way licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to...00 _’N 1. TI TLE inctuat Security CZaaafication5 Combustion Characteristics of Sprays 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Sohrab, Siavash H. 13& TYPE OF REPORT...to ?!HF of rich butane/air 3unsen flames. .lso, the rotacion speed and :he oerodic temDeracure fluc:uations of rotacfng ?HF are examined. :’!naily

  19. Combustible Cartridge Case Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    University (NYU) has resulted in the selection of two cross-linked melamine / formaldehyde acrylic styrene resin systems that can be used in the beater additive... melamine resin Akaradit II stabilizer 20. ABSTRACT (con) Test coupons of combustible cartridge case material were fabricated using these recommended...and agitated for 30 min before the pH was slowly lowered to 3 with p-toluene sulfonic acid. In order to maintain this pH in the felting tank, it was

  20. Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm; Pothmann, PH

    1923-01-01

    It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.

  1. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  2. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  3. Device for improved combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Polomchak, R.W.; Yacko, M.

    1988-03-08

    A device for improved combustion is described comprising: a tubular housing member having a first end and a second end, the first and second ends each having a circular opening therethrough; a combustion chamber disposed about the second end of the-tubular-housing member; a first conduit member extending from the first end of the tubular housing member and in fluid communication with the circular opening in the first end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of air therethrough; a second conduit member axially disposed within the first conduit member and extending through the first conduit member and through the tubular housing member to the circular opening the second end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of fuel therethrough; means for effecting turbulence in the air passing through the tubular housing member; means for effecting turbulence in the fuel passing through the second conduit member; means for intermixing and emitting the turbulent air and the fuel in a mushroom shaped configuration with the turbulent air surrounding the mushroom shaped configuration so as to substantially eliminate noxious waste gases as by-product of combustion of the air and fuel mixture.

  4. Strobes: an oscillatory combustion.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Justine M L; Lingen, Joost N J; Zevenbergen, John F; Gijzeman, Onno L J; Meijerink, Andries

    2012-04-26

    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the chemical and physical processes involved in this curious oscillatory combustion remain unknown. Several theories have been proposed: One claims that two different reactions occur: one during the slow dark phase and another during the fast flash phase. The alternation between the phases is ascribed to heat variations. Other theories suggest that the formation of intermediate species during the dark phase and the change of phase are caused by variations in their concentration. A ternary strobe composition with ammonium perchlorate, magnalium, and barium sulfate is analyzed. The role of barium sulfate is studied by replacing it by other metal sulfates that have different physical properties (melting points), and the burning of the compositions is recorded with a high-speed camera and a spectrometer coupled with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Experimental results show noticeable differences in the physical and chemical processes involved in the strobe reactions.

  5. Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    The first space-based experiments were performed on the combustion of free, individual liquid fuel droplets in oxidizing atmospheres. The fuel was heptane, with initial droplet diameters ranging about from 1 mm to 4 mm. The atmospheres were mixtures of helium and oxygen, at pressures of 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 bar, with oxygen mole fractions between 20% and 40%, as well as normal Spacelab cabin air. The temperatures of the atmospheres and of the initial liquid fuel were nominally 300 K. A total of 44 droplets were burned successfully on the two flights, 8 on the shortened STS-83 mission and 36 on STS-94. The results spanned the full range of heptane droplet combustion behavior, from radiative flame extinction at larger droplet diameters in the more dilute atmospheres to diffusive extinction in the less dilute atmospheres, with the droplet disappearing prior to flame extinction at the highest oxygen concentrations. Quasisteady histories of droplet diameters were observed along with unsteady histories of flame diameters. New and detailed information was obtained on burning rates, flame characteristics and soot behavior. The results have motivated new computational and theoretical investigations of droplet combustion, improving knowledge of the chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer processes involved in burning liquid fuels.

  6. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  7. Feedback control of combustion oscillations in combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Jing; Li, Dong-hai; Zhu, Min; Xue, Ya-li

    2010-11-01

    Model-based algorithms are generally employed in active control of combustion oscillations. Since practical combustion processes consist of complex thermal and acoustic couplings, their accurate models and parameters may not be obtained in advance economically, a model free controller is necessary for the control of thermoacoustic instabilities. Active compensation based control algorithm is applied in the suppression of combustion instabilities. Tuning the controller parameters on line, the amplitudes of the acoustic waves can be modulated to desired values. Simulations performed on a control oriented, typical longitudinal oscillations combustor model illustrate the controllers' capability to attenuate combustion oscillations.

  8. Reduced cost alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra R.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of premises wiring keeps increasing due to personnel moves, new equipment, capacity upgrades etc. It would be desirable to have a wireless interface from the workstations to the fixed network, so as to minimize the wiring changes needed. New technologies such as microcellular personal communication systems are promising to bring down the cost of wireless communication. Another promising technology is Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), which could dramatically increase the bandwidth available for wireless connections. In addition, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is emerging as a technique for integrated management of voice, data, and video traffic on a single network. The focus of this investigation will be to assess the future utility of these new technologies for reducing the premise wiring cost at KSC. One of the issues to be studied is the cost comparison of 'old' versus 'new,' especially as time and technology progress. An additional issue for closer study is a feasible time-line for progress in technological capability.

  9. Energy Conversion and Combustion Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    Rotational /Continuous Detonation • Only Single Initiation needed (Circumvent Initiation/DDT difficulty/loss in PDE ) • 10-100x cycle rate increase • Near...new fuels: 1. Rotational or Continuous Detonation (intense/concentrated combustion); 2. Flameless combustion (distributed combustion process...Steady Exit Flow *CFD Courtesy of NRL Rotational Detonation : (PI: Schauer, AFRL/RZ, working with NRL) Rotational Approach Allows Continuous

  10. Combustion characteristics of husk charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, H.; Kimura, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Terui, T.

    1984-07-01

    This paper analyzes the factors involved in the extraordinary temperature generation in husk combustion furnaces, and investigates methods of protecting furnaces from heat damage. The combustion characteristics of fixed carbon in rice husks are examined in relation to the air flow rate using different husk charcoals. The theoretical flame temperature in a practical bed was determined from the combustion propagation velocity. It is determined that deviation from the regression line relating the combustion propagation velocity with the specific air flow rate showed a slight correlation with the bulk density of the charcoal samples used.

  11. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  12. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  13. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  15. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  16. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  17. Combustion of White Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P.

    2001-07-01

    The reaction of white phosphorus with pure oxygen is conveniently and safely demonstrated by carrying out the reaction in a retort that has its open end submerged in water. After filling the retort with oxygen gas, a small amount of white phosphorus is introduced and heated with a hot-plate until it ignites. The spectacular reaction leads to consumption and expulsion of oxygen gas, creation of a partial vacuum in the retort, and back suction of water that extinguishes the combustion. Featured on the Cover

  18. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    lithium vapors generated with air formed an intense white flame that produced branched- chain condensation aerosol particles, of concentrations 򓆄 mg/im3...generated chain -aggregate lithium combustion aerosols in dry, COg-free air prior to reaction with 0, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, 1.75, or 5.0% CO in air at a...In order to burn in gaseous chlorine or in bromine or iodine vapor, lithium needs to be heated. With iodine vapor, the reaction is accompanied by

  19. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  20. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  1. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  2. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  3. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  4. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  5. Can I have a beer, please? A study of alcohol service to young adults on licensed premises in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Eva; Andreásson, Sven

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a community alcohol prevention program on the frequency of alcohol service to young adults at licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. We used a pretest (1996)-posttests (1998 and 2001) design with intervention and control areas. The multicomponent intervention combines training of serving staff in responsible beverage service, policy initiatives, and enforcement of existing alcohol regulations. Adolescents 18 years old (the legal drinking age on licensed premises in Sweden), but younger looking according to an expert panel, visited licensed premises in pairs, where each adolescent ordered a beer. At baseline in 1996, the adolescents made 600 attempts to order. At follow-up in 1998, the number of attempts to order was 252, and at the second follow-up in 2001, the adolescents made 238 attempts. We found no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control areas. Overall, the frequency of alcohol service to adolescents on licensed premises in these areas of Stockholm decreased significantly over time, from 45 to 41 and to 32%, in 1996, 1998, and 2001, respectively. The decrease in alcohol service in 2001 was statistically significant compared to the baseline in 1996. One explanation for this improvement could be more effective enforcement of existing alcohol laws in both the intervention and control areas. We also found that licensed premises that used doormen to screen potential customers were less likely to sell to minors.

  6. Fuel Effects on Gas Turbine Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    W. S., Combustion Considerations for Future Jet Fuels, Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion , The Combustion Institute, pp. 1631-1638...AFWAL-TR-83-2004 -. i FUEL EFFECTS ON SGAS TURBINE COMBUSTION A. H. Lefebvre <.A t • Combustion Laboratory Thermal Science and Propulsion Center...PERIOD COVEREDFinal Report for Period FUEL EFFECTS ON GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION 21 Sep 81 - 23 Dec 82 6. PERFORMING OIG. REPORT NUMBER ś. AUT"HOR(.) S

  7. Métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein: à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    Loubna, Mezouar; Mohamed, El Hfid; Tijani, El Harroudi; Fouzia, Ghadouani; Hanane, Haj Kacem; Zouhour, Bourhaleb; Asmae, Ouabdelmoumen

    2013-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, notamment au Maroc, avec un taux de mortalité élevé. Les métastases gastro-intestinales d'un carcinome canalaire du sein sont rares. Leur diagnostic est difficile du fait de la nature non spécifique des symptômes. Nous rapportons deux observations originales de métastases gastroduodénales d'un cancer canalaire infiltrant du sein. Les métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein sont très rares; la présence de symptômes gastro-intestinaux chez une malade ayant un antécédent de cancer du sein doit faire suspecter une atteinte métastatique gastro-intestinale. PMID:24198876

  8. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding

  9. Thermoelectricity in Disordered Organic Semiconductors under the Premise of the Gaussian Disorder Model and Its Variants.

    PubMed

    Mendels, Dan; Tessler, Nir

    2014-09-18

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the thermoelectric properties of disordered organic semiconductors under the premise of the Gaussian disorder model and its variants. In doing so, we provide much needed additional dimensions for comparison between these theoretical frameworks and real systems beyond those based on extensively studied charge-transport properties and aim to provide a frame-of-reference for rising interest in these systems for thermoelectric-based applications. To illustrate the potential existing in the implementation of combined transport and thermoelectric investigation, we discuss strategies to experimentally deduce a system's DOS shape and the temperature dependence of its transport energy (which can discern hopping transport from multiple trapping transport), infer whether a system's activation energy originates from inherent energetic disorder or a polaron activation energy (while deducing the given polaron activation energy), and discerning whether a system's energetic disorder is spatially correlated or accompanied by off-diagonal disorder.

  10. Nitrification in premise plumbing: role of phosphate, pH and pipe corrosion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Griffin, Allian; Edwards, Marc

    2008-06-15

    Nitrification in PVC premise plumbing is a weak function of pH over the range 6.5--8.5 and is insensitive to phosphate concentrations 5--1000 ppb. Lead pipe enhanced nitrification relative to PVC, consistent with expectations that nitrifiers could benefit from ammonia recycled from nitrate via lead corrosion. Relatively new copper pipe (< 1.5-years-old) did not allow nitrifiers to establish, but nitrifiers gradually colonized over a period of months in brass pipes when copper concentrations were reduced by pH adjustment or orthophosphate. Nitrifiers were inhibited by trace copper, but not by lead levels up to 8000 ppb. In some systems using chloramines, brass in plastic plumbing systems might be more susceptible to lead/copper leaching, and accelerated dezincification, due to lower pH values resulting from nitrification.

  11. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  12. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B.

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  13. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-30

    extend methodologies for the modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion. Probability density function (PDF) calculations were performed of piloted...were developed to implement the combined methodology of large-eddy simulation (LES) and filtered density function (FDF). Second-order schemes were...was to advance and extend methodologies for the modeling and simulation of turbulent combustion. Probability density function (PDF) calculations were

  14. Method for in situ combustion

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Shuck, Lowell Z.; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved in situ combustion method for the recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean earth formations containing carbonaceous material. The method is practiced by penetrating the subterranean earth formation with a borehole projecting into the coal bed along a horizontal plane and extending along a plane disposed perpendicular to the plane of maximum permeability. The subterranean earth formation is also penetrated with a plurality of spaced-apart vertical boreholes disposed along a plane spaced from and generally parallel to that of the horizontal borehole. Fractures are then induced at each of the vertical boreholes which project from the vertical boreholes along the plane of maximum permeability and intersect the horizontal borehole. The combustion is initiated at the horizontal borehole and the products of combustion and fluids displaced from the earth formation by the combustion are removed from the subterranean earth formation via the vertical boreholes. Each of the vertical boreholes are, in turn, provided with suitable flow controls for regulating the flow of fluid from the combustion zone and the earth formation so as to control the configuration and rate of propagation of the combustion zone. The fractures provide a positive communication with the combustion zone so as to facilitate the removal of the products resulting from the combustion of the carbonaceous material.

  15. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h-1 to 0.520 μGy h-1, and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h-1, which is close to 0.04 μGy h-1, which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected. PMID:26911302

  16. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-06-08

    This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h(-1) to 0.520 μGy h(-1), and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h(-1), which is close to 0.04 μGy h(-1), which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected.

  17. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1997-01-01

    Combustion is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. For example, electric power production, home heating, surface and air transportation, space propulsion, and materials synthesis all utilize combustion as a source of energy. Yet, although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. For example, pollutants, atmospheric change and global warming, unwanted fires and explosions, and the incineration of hazardous wastes are major problem areas which would benefit from improved understanding of combustion. Effects of gravitational forces impede combustion studies more than most other areas of science since combustion involves production of high-temperature gases whose low density results in buoyant motion, vastly complicating the execution and interpretation of experiments. Effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that their enormous negative impact on the rational development of combustion science is generally not recognized. Buoyant motion also triggers the onset of turbulence, yielding complicating unsteady effects. Finally, gravity forces cause particles and drops to settle, inhibiting deconvoluted studies of heterogeneous flames important to furnace, incineration and power generation technologies. Thus, effects of buoyancy have seriously limited our capabilities to carry out 'clean' experiments needed for fundamental understanding of flame phenomena. Combustion scientists can use microgravity to simplify the study of many combustion processes, allowing fresh insights into important problems via a deeper understanding of elemental phenomena also found in Earth-based combustion processes and to additionally provide valuable information concerning how fires behave in microgravity and how fire safety on spacecraft can be enhanced.

  18. Developpement d'un catalyseur nickel-alumine efficace pour le reformage de diesel a la vapeur d'eau et etude du systeme reactionnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauteux-Lefebvre, Clemence

    Le developpement de sources d'energie alternatives fiables et efficaces est aujourd'hui une necessite. L' interet dans le reformage d'hydrocarbures liquides est ainsi croissant puisqu'il s'agit d'une voie pour l'alimentation des piles a combustible. Les piles a combustible ont une efficacite pour la conversion d'energie en electricite plus grande que celle des moteurs a combustion et font ainsi partie de la recherche de solution en efficacite energetique. Ces piles consomment de l'hydrogene comme combustible pour produire de l'electricite, d'ou l'interet pour le reformage. En effet, cette reaction permet de produire de l'hydrogene et du monoxyde de carbone (un autre combustible des piles a combustible a electrolyte solide) a partir d'hydrocarbure liquide, notamment le diesel. Les piles pourraient donc etre integrees avec une unite de reformage leur fournissant directement le combustible necessaire a partir de diesel. Dans ce projet de recherche, un nouveau catalyseur de nickel sous forme de spinelle nickel-alumine (spinelle NiAl2O4 sur support d'alumine et de zircone stabilisee avec yttria) a ete developpe et teste en laboratoire pour du reformage de propane, d'hydrocarbures liquides et de diesel, a la vapeur d'eau. Par ailleurs, une methode d'ajout des reactifs novatrice a ete utilisee afin de diminuer la pyrolyse precedant le reformage, en utilisant une emulsion. Les resultats de reformage d'hydrocarbures purs ont montre des concentrations tres pres de l'equilibre thermodynamique et une activite constante sans desactivation du catalyseur ni formation de carbone, et ce avec des ratios H2O/C de moins de 2.5 et des temperatures d'operation variant entre 630 °C et 750 °C. Lors de tests effectues en utilisant du diesel fossile, a 705°C, avec un debit volumique des reactifs de plus de 50 000 cm3gcat-1h-1 et un ratio H2O/C de moins de 2.5, l'activite a ete maintenue pendant plus de 15 heures, malgre une operation en cycles. L'analyse du catalyseur apres cette

  19. Combustion instability control in the model of combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmadullin, A. N.; Ahmethanov, E. N.; Iovleva, O. V.; Mitrofanov, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    An experimental study of the influence of external periodic perturbations on the instability of the combustion chamber in a pulsating combustion. As an external periodic disturbances were used sound waves emitted by the electrodynamics. The purpose of the study was to determine the possibility of using the method of external periodic perturbation to control the combustion instability. The study was conducted on a specially created model of the combustion chamber with a swirl burner in the frequency range from 100 to 1400 Hz. The study found that the method of external periodic perturbations may be used to control combustion instability. Depending on the frequency of the external periodic perturbation is observed as an increase and decrease in the amplitude of the oscillations in the combustion chamber. These effects are due to the mechanisms of synchronous and asynchronous action. External periodic disturbance generated in the path feeding the gaseous fuel, showing the high efficiency of the method of management in terms of energy costs. Power required to initiate periodic disturbances (50 W) is significantly smaller than the thermal capacity of the combustion chamber (100 kW).

  20. Multiuser Droplet Combustion Apparatus Developed to Conduct Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    A major portion of the energy produced in the world today comes from the combustion or burning of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in the form of droplets. However, despite vigorous scientific examinations for over a century, researchers still lack a full understanding of many fundamental combustion processes of liquid fuels. Understanding how these fuel droplets ignite, spread, and extinguish themselves will help us develop more efficient ways of energy production and propulsion, as well as help us deal better with the problems of combustion-generated pollution and fire hazards associated with liquid combustibles. The ability to conduct more controlled experiments in space, without the complication of gravity, provides scientists with an opportunity to examine these complicated processes closely. The Multiuser Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) supports this continued research under microgravity conditions. The objectives are to improve understanding of fundamental droplet phenomena affected by gravity, to use research results to advance droplet combustion science and technology on Earth, and to address issues of fire hazards associated with liquid combustibles on Earth and in space. MDCA is a multiuser facility designed to accommodate different combustion science experiments. The modular approach permits the on-orbit replacement of droplet combustion principal investigator experiments such as different fuels, droplet-dispensing needles, and droplet-tethering mechanisms. Large components such as the avionics, diagnostics, and base-plate remain on the International Space Station to reduce the launch mass of new experiments. MDCA is also designed to operate in concert with ground systems on Earth to minimize the involvement of the crew during orbit.

  1. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  2. Fluids and Combustion Facility-Combustion Integrated Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the concept of performing Combustion microgravity experiments in the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS). The extended duration microgravity environment of the ISS will enable microgravity research to enter into a new era of increased scientific and technological data return. The FCF is designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific and technological data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. This paper also describes how the FCF will cost effectively accommodate these experiments.

  3. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  4. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  5. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  6. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  7. SOHC type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, N.; Iwata, T.; Oikawa, T.

    1989-01-10

    An SOHC type internal combustion engine is described comprising a cylinder head which has a combustion chamber defined therein, a camshaft carried thereon, an ignition plug mounting hole opening to a center portion of a top surface of the combustion chamber and a protecting cylinder formed therein with an ignition plug insertion hole. The journal for the camshaft has a diameter larger than a path of rotation of a lobe of a cam on the camshaft and is supported by a bearing hole formed in a camshaft receiving wall which is provided on the cylinder head. The protecting cylinder and the camshaft receiving wall are formed in a single piece.

  8. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  9. An overview of fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) product requirements and qualification programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebizlioglu, Osman S.; Gallo, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    downstream (from the CO to the customer) voice and data transmission is offered over 1490 nm, the video (analog, digital and HDTV) transmission will be offered over 1550-nm wavelength, and the 1625-nm will be reserved for overhead, surveillance, and management functions. This paper will cover some of the new products that will be needed and the requirements that would apply. The FTTP deployments require the placement of a number of new products in the FTTP network from the CO to the customer premises. These new products are designed to be installed in an efficient manner with acceptable cost to the service provider in the outside plant and to perform the required functions. One such new product is an HFOC (Hardened Fiber Optic Connector). The HFOC products provide drop connections to customers from fiber distribution networks. They may be placed in pedestal closures, aerial and buried closures, or equipment located at a Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH) enclosure or optical network termination (ONT) unit near customer premises. Current versions of this HFOC product have been based on a well-known and widely used SC fiber optic connector. Simply described, it consists of an SC connector in a protective shell made of a polymeric (plastic) material, and it allows highly efficient connections between the distribution cables from the FDH (Fiber Distribution Hub) where optical signal on a feeder cable from the CO is split for transmission over distribution cables and drop cables in locations near customer premises. In addition to the description of new products, the paper will review the environmental, mechanical and optical test criteria. Attendees would benefit from the knowledge of products and requirements needed to support FTTP deployment.

  10. 49 CFR 172.544 - COMBUSTIBLE placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false COMBUSTIBLE placard. 172.544 Section 172.544... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.544 COMBUSTIBLE placard. (a) Except for size and color, the COMBUSTIBLE... on the COMBUSTIBLE placard must be red. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be...

  11. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  12. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal...; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. Cars and other vehicles, and...

  13. Differential growth of Legionella pneumophila strains within a range of amoebae at various temperatures associated with in-premise plumbing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of in-premise plumbing temperatures (24, 32, 37 and 41 °C) on the growth of five different L. pneumophila strains within free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria fowleri) was examined. Compared to controls only fed E...

  14. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8 Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector....

  15. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8 Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector....

  16. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8 Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector....

  17. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8 Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector....

  18. Satellite provided customer premise services: A forecast of potential domestic demand through the year 2000. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Bowyer, J.; Bhushan, C.; Steinnagel, K.; Kaushal, D.; Al-Kinani, G.

    1983-01-01

    Voice applications, data applications, video applications, impacted baseline forecasts, market distribution, potential CPS (customers premises services) user classes, net long haul forecasts, CPS cost analysis, overall satellite forecast, CPS satellite market, Ka-band CPS satellite forecast, nationwide traffic distribution model, and intra-urban topology are discussed.

  19. 9 CFR 56.5 - Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction and disposal of poultry... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.5 Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  20. 9 CFR 56.5 - Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction and disposal of poultry... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.5 Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  1. 9 CFR 56.5 - Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction and disposal of poultry... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.5 Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  2. 9 CFR 56.5 - Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction and disposal of poultry... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.5 Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  3. 9 CFR 56.5 - Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction and disposal of poultry... AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.5 Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances,...

  4. On the road toward formal reasoning: reasoning with factual causal and contrary-to-fact causal premises during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the development of conditional (if-then) reasoning is critical for theoretical and educational reasons. Here we examined the hypothesis that there is a developmental transition between reasoning with true and contrary-to-fact (CF) causal conditionals. A total of 535 students between 11 and 14 years of age received priming conditions designed to encourage use of either a true or CF alternatives generation strategy and reasoning problems with true causal and CF causal premises (with counterbalanced order). Results show that priming had no effect on reasoning with true causal premises. By contrast, priming with CF alternatives significantly improved logical reasoning with CF premises. Analysis of the effect of order showed that reasoning with CF premises reduced logical responding among younger students but had no effect among older students. Results support the idea that there is a transition in the reasoning processes in this age range associated with the nature of the alternatives generation process required for logical reasoning with true and CF causal conditionals.

  5. Constructing Scientific Explanations through Premise-Reasoning-Outcome (PRO): An Exploratory Study to Scaffold Students in Structuring Written Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and enactment of an instructional strategy aimed to support students in constructing scientific explanations. Informed by the philosophy of science and linguistic studies of science, a new instructional framework called premise--reasoning--outcome (PRO) was conceptualized, developed, and tested over two years in…

  6. Eukaryotic diversity in premise drinking water using 18S rDNA sequencing: implications for health risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial eukaryotes over a 12 month period, so as to provide insight into the occurrence of potentially important predators and bacterial hosts in hot and cold premise plumbing. Nearly 6,300 partial (600 bp) 18S rRNA gene sequences from...

  7. 17 CFR 1.44 - Records and reports of warehouses, depositories, and other similar entities; visitation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouses, depositories, and other similar entities; visitation of premises. 1.44 Section 1.44 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.44 Records and reports of warehouses, depositories, and other similar...

  8. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...

  9. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...

  10. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as âexposed.â 71.4 Section 71.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  11. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning... Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.22 Cars,...

  12. 9 CFR 71.7 - Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. 71.7 Section 71.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning... Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.22 Cars,...

  14. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning... Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.22 Cars,...

  15. Flameless Combustion for Gas Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Li, Guoqiang; Overman, Nick; Cornwell, Michael; Stankovic, Dragan; Fuchs, Laszlo; Milosavljevic, Vladimir

    2006-11-01

    An experimental study of a novel flameless combustor for gas turbine engines is presented. Flameless combustion is characterized by distributed flame and even temperature distribution for high preheat air temperature and large amount of recirculating low oxygen exhaust gases. Extremely low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC are reported. Measurements of the flame chemiluminescence, CO and NOx emissions, acoustic pressure, temperature and velocity fields as a function of the preheat temperature, inlet air mass flow rate, exhaust nozzle contraction ratio, and combustor chamber diameter are described. The data indicate that larger pressure drop promotes flameless combustion and low NOx emissions at the same flame temperature. High preheated temperature and flow rates also help in forming stable combustion and therefore are favorable for flameless combustion.

  16. Putting combustion optimization to work

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, N.

    2009-05-15

    New plants and plants that are retrofitting can benefit from combustion optimization. Boiler tuning and optimization can complement each other. The continuous emissions monitoring system CEMS, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy TDLAS can be used for optimisation. NeuCO's CombustionOpt neural network software can determine optimal fuel and air set points. Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group Inc's Flame Doctor can be used in conjunction with other systems to diagnose and correct coal-fired burner performance. The four units of the Colstrip power plant in Colstrips, Montana were recently fitted with combustion optimization systems based on advanced model predictive multi variable controls (MPCs), ABB's Predict & Control tool. Unit 4 of Tampa Electric's Big Bend plant in Florida is fitted with Emerson's SmartProcess fuzzy neural model based combustion optimisation system. 1 photo.

  17. Thermophysics Characterization of Kerosene Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    A one-formula surrogate fuel formulation and its quasi-global combustion kinetics model are developed to support the design of injectors and thrust chambers of kerosene-fueled rocket engines. This surrogate fuel model depicts a fuel blend that properly represents the general physical and chemical properties of kerosene. The accompanying gaseous-phase thermodynamics of the surrogate fuel is anchored with the heat of formation of kerosene and verified by comparing a series of one-dimensional rocket thrust chamber calculations. The quasi-global combustion kinetics model consists of several global steps for parent fuel decomposition, soot formation, and soot oxidation and a detailed wet-CO mechanism to complete the combustion process. The final thermophysics formulations are incorporated with a computational fluid dynamics model for prediction of the combustion efficiency of an unielement, tripropellant combustor and the radiation of a kerosene-fueled thruster plume. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with those of the tests.

  18. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Slagle, Frank D.; Notestein, John E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  19. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  20. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  1. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    ScienceCinema

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-07-12

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  2. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  3. Initial supersonic combustion facility measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, Roland H.; Whitehurst, R. Bradford, III; Abitt, John D., III; Segal, Corin; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A combustion test tunnel designed for continuous operation to 2000 K was assembled. Flow quality of a Mach 2 nozzle for use with this tunnel was examined using an array of impact probes. The performance of gas shields used to protect optical windows was examined using both shadowgraphs and planar laser induced iodine fluorescence. High speed videography was used to aid in design of pressure relief panels related to hydrogen combustion testing safety.

  4. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  5. Lean premixed/prevaporized combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, A. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Recommendations were formulated on the status and application of lean premixed/prevaporized combustion to the aircraft gas turbine for the reduction of pollutant emissions. The approach taken by the NASA Stratospheric Cruise Emission Reduction Program (SCERP) in pursuing the lean premixed/prevaporized combustion technique was also discussed. The proceedings contains an overview of the SCERP program, the discussions and recommendations of the participants, and an overall summary.

  6. National Combustion Code: Parallel Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the National Combustion Code (NCC). The NCC is an integrated system of codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The advanced features of the NCC meet designers' requirements for model accuracy and turn-around time. The fundamental features at the inception of the NCC were parallel processing and unstructured mesh. The design and performance of the NCC are discussed.

  7. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, John

    1995-01-01

    This program started in February 1991, and is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena by the modeling of various configurations undergoing experimental study by others. Results through 1992 were reported in the second workshop. Work since that time has examined the following topics: Flame-balls; Intrinsic and acoustic instabilities in multiphase mixtures; Radiation effects in premixed combustion; Smouldering, both forward and reverse, as well as two dimensional smoulder.

  8. The Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Sampa

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity is an environment with very weak gravitational effects. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS) will support the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. The Fluid Combustion Facility's design will permit both independent and remote control operations from the Telescience Support Center. The crew of the International Space Station will continue to insert and remove the experiment module, store and reload removable data storage and media data tapes, and reconfigure diagnostics on either side of the optics benches. Upon completion of the Fluids Combustion Facility, about ten experiments will be conducted within a ten-year period. Several different areas of fluid physics will be studied in the Fluids Combustion Facility. These areas include complex fluids, interfacial phenomena, dynamics and instabilities, and multiphase flows and phase change. Recently, emphasis has been placed in areas that relate directly to NASA missions including life support, power, propulsion, and thermal control systems. By 2006 or 2007, a Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and a Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) will be installed inside the International Space Station. The Fluids Integrated Rack will contain all the hardware and software necessary to perform experiments in fluid physics. A wide range of experiments that meet the requirements of the international space station, including research from other specialties, will be considered. Experiments will be contained in subsystems such as the international standard payload rack, the active rack isolation system, the optics bench, environmental subsystem, electrical power control unit, the gas interface subsystem, and the command and data management subsystem. In conclusion, the Fluids and Combustion Facility will allow researchers to study fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. Additional information is

  9. Customer premise service study for 30/20 GHz satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, R. T.; Ross, D. P.; Harcar, A. R.; Freedenberg, P.; Schoen, D.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite systems in which the space segment operates in the 30/20 GHz frequency band are defined and compared as to their potential for providing various types of communications services to customer premises and the economic and technical feasibility of doing so. Technical tasks performed include: market postulation, definition of the ground segment, definition of the space segment, definition of the integrated satellite system, service costs for satellite systems, sensitivity analysis, and critical technology. Based on an analysis of market data, a sufficiently large market for services is projected so as to make the system economically viable. A large market, and hence a high capacity satellite system, is found to be necessary to minimize service costs, i.e., economy of scale is found to hold. The wide bandwidth expected to be available in the 30/20 GHz band, along with frequency reuse which further increases the effective system bandwidth, makes possible the high capacity system. Extensive ground networking is required in most systems to both connect users into the system and to interconnect Earth stations to provide spatial diversity. Earth station spatial diversity is found to be a cost effective means of compensating the large fading encountered in the 30/20 GHz operating band.

  10. Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: evidence for developmental change.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Brickman, Daniel; Gelman, Susan A

    2008-08-01

    Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N=133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.

  11. Examining the premises supporting the empirically supported intervention approach to social work practice.

    PubMed

    McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations.

  12. Clinical use of relaxin to facilitate birth: reasons for investigating the premise.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Yul; Zhao, Shuangping; Fields, P A; Sherwood, O D

    2005-05-01

    In the United States, both medical and nonmedical factors have driven the cesarean section rate to over 26% of all deliveries. In addition to questions of increased cost associated with operative delivery, some have questioned the ethics of performing cesarean section for nonmedical reasons. Reduction of both the duration and the pain associated with vaginal delivery would likely bring about a decline in the rate of both medical and nonmedical cesarean sections. This chapter summarizes recent findings that support the premise that through its growth-promoting and softening effects on the cervix, short-term subcutaneous administration of pharmacologic amounts of relaxin to women at term holds promise as a means of reducing the duration and discomfort associated with delivery. Two recent studies conducted in pregnant rats demonstrated that the cervix is highly responsive to relaxin during the antepartum period and that short-term subcutaneous administration of the hormone to relaxin-deficient animals not only promotes growth and softening of the cervix, but also reduces the duration of labor and delivery. Moreover, recent human clinical trials examining the influence of 24 weeks of continuous subcutaneous administration of recombinant human relaxin for the treatment of scleroderma provided evidence not only that the human reproductive tract is responsive to relaxin, but also that the administration of the hormone does not cause serious adverse side effects. It is concluded that recent findings provide an impetus for an investigation into relaxin's potential for cervical remodeling and facilitating birth in women.

  13. Seasonal Assessment of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens in Roof-Harvested Rainwater Tanks.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kerry A; Ahmed, Warish; Palmer, Andrew; Smith, Kylie; Toze, Simon; Haas, Charles N

    2017-02-07

    A seasonal study on the occurrence of six opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) in 24 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tanks repeatedly sampled over six monthly sampling events (n = 144) from August 2015 to March 2016 was conducted using quantitative qPCR. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus spp. were enumerated using culture-based methods. All tank water samples over the six events were positive for at least one OPPP (Legionella spp., Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Pseudmonas aeruginosa, or Acanthamoeba spp.) during the entire course of the study. FIB were positively but weakly correlated with P. aeruginosa (E. coli vs P. aeruginosa τ = 0.090, p = 0.027; Enterococcus spp. vs P. aeruginosa τ = 0.126, p = 0.002), but not the other OPPPs. FIBs were more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season, and L. pneumophila was only observed during the wet season. However, concentrations of Legionella spp., M. intracellulare, Acanthamoeba spp., and M. avium peaked during the dry season. Correlations were assessed between FIB and OPPPs with meteorological variables, and it was determined that P. aeruginosa was the only OPPP positively associated with an increased antecedent dry period, suggesting stagnation time may play a role for the occurrence of this OPPP in tank water. Infection risks may exceed commonly cited benchmarks for uses reported in the rainwater usage survey such as pool top-up, and warrant further exploration through quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA).

  14. Gaze modulates non-propositional reasoning: further evidence for spatial representation of reasoning premises.

    PubMed

    Brunamonti, E; Genovesio, A; Carbè, K; Ferraina, S

    2011-01-26

    Human and animals are able to decide that A>C after having learnt that A>B and B>C. This basic property of logical thinking has been studied by transitive inference (TI) tasks. It has been hypothesized that subjects displace the premises of the inference on a mental line to solve the task. An evidence in favor of this interpretation is the observation of the symbolic distance effect, that is the improvement of the performance as the distance between items increases. This effect has been interpreted as support to the hypothesis that ability to perform TI tasks follows the same rules and is mediated by the same brain circuits involved in the performance of spatial tasks. We tested ten subjects performing a TI on an ordered list of Japanese characters while they were fixating either leftwards or rightwards, to evaluate whether the eye position modulated the performance in making TI as it does in spatial tasks. Our results show a significant linear decrease of the reaction time with the increase of the symbolic distance and a shift of this trend towards lower reaction times when subjects were fixating to the left. We interpret this eye position effect as a further evidence that spatial and reasoning tasks share the same underlying mechanisms and neural substrates. The eye position effect also points to a parietal cortex involvement in the neural circuit involved in transitive reasoning.

  15. Thermoelectricity in Disordered Organic Semiconductors under the Premise of the Gaussian Disorder Model and its Variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendels, Dan; Tessler, Nir; Organic Materials; Devices Team

    2015-03-01

    Charge transport in disordered organic systems has been in recent decades mainly discerned from the perspective of a variety of phenomenological models prominent of which those stemming from the Gaussian Disorder Model. But while the use of these models has been prevalent, uncertainty regarding the extent of their validity remains due to the large number of free parameters they consist and their frequent deficiency to consistently account for large sets of experiments while keeping model input parameters and distributions unchanged. In the presented study, we have investigated using Monte Carlo simulations the thermoelectric properties of disordered organic semiconductors under the premise of the Gaussian Disorder Model and its variants. Doing so enabled the provision of additional dimensions for comparison between the aforementioned theoretical frameworks and real systems, beyond those based on extensively studied charge transport properties, and the provision of a frame-of-reference for rising interest in these systems for thermoelectric applications. To illustrate the potential existing in the implementation of combined transport and thermoelectric investigation, strategies will be discussed to experimentally deduce the DOS shape, infer whether a system's activation energy originates from its energetic disorder or a polaron activation energy (while deducing the given polaron activation energy), and discerning whether a system's energetic disorder is spatially correlated or accompanied by off-diagonal disorder.

  16. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  17. Aerovalve pulse combustion: Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Narayanaswami, L.

    1994-07-01

    The authors present a mathematical model and an experimental investigation of aerodynamically valved pulse combustion. The model uses a control-volume approach to solve conservation laws in several regions of a pulse combustor. Mixing between the fresh charge and combustion products is modeled as a two-step process, with the mixing occurring slowly for a specified eddy time during each cycle, and then changing to a higher rate. Results of model simulations demonstrate that eddy time plays a significant role in determining the frequency and amplitude of combustion oscillation. The authors show that short eddy times produce steady, rather than pulsating, combustion. And they show that changes to the mixing process alter the temperature-species history of combustion gases in a manner that could prevent or promote the formation of nitrogen oxides, depending on specific mixing rates. The relatively simple control-volume approach used in this model allows rapid investigation of a wide range of geometric and operating parameters, and also defines characteristic length and time scales relevant to aerovalve pulse combustion. Experimental measurements compare favorably to model predictions. The authors place particular emphasis on time-averaged pressure differences through the combustor, which act as an indicator of pressure gain performance. They investigate both operating conditions and combustor geometry, and they show that a complex interaction between the inlet and exit flows of a combustor makes it difficult to produce general correlations among the various parameters. They use a scaling rule to produce a combustor geometry capable of producing pressure gain.

  18. Industrial Facility Combustion Energy Use

    DOE Data Explorer

    McMillan, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Facility-level industrial combustion energy use is calculated from greenhouse gas emissions data reported by large emitters (>25,000 metric tons CO2e per year) under the U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP, https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting). The calculation applies EPA default emissions factors to reported fuel use by fuel type. Additional facility information is included with calculated combustion energy values, such as industry type (six-digit NAICS code), location (lat, long, zip code, county, and state), combustion unit type, and combustion unit name. Further identification of combustion energy use is provided by calculating energy end use (e.g., conventional boiler use, co-generation/CHP use, process heating, other facility support) by manufacturing NAICS code. Manufacturing facilities are matched by their NAICS code and reported fuel type with the proportion of combustion fuel energy for each end use category identified in the 2010 Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS, http://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2010/). MECS data are adjusted to account for data that were withheld or whose end use was unspecified following the procedure described in Fox, Don B., Daniel Sutter, and Jefferson W. Tester. 2011. The Thermal Spectrum of Low-Temperature Energy Use in the United States, NY: Cornell Energy Institute.

  19. Direct simulation of turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsot, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding and modeling of turbulent combustion are key-problems in the computation of numerous practical systems. Because of the lack of analytical theories in this field and of the difficulty of performing precise experiments, direct simulation appears to be one of the most attractive tools to use in addressing this problem. The present work can be split into two parts: (1) Development and validation of a direct simulation method for turbulent combustion; (2) Applications of the method to premixed turbulent combustion problems. The goal of part 1 is to define and to test a numerical method for direct simulation of reacting flows. A high level of confidence should be attached to direct simulation results, and this can only be achieved through extensive validation tests. In part 2, direct simulation is used to address some of the many critical problems related to turbulent combustion. At the present time, I have limited this work to premixed combustion and considered only four basic issues: (1) The effect of pressure waves on flame propagation; (2) The interaction between flame fronts and vortices; (3) The influence of curvature on premixed flame fronts; and (4) The validation of flamelet models for premixed turbulent combustion.

  20. Combustion instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory and computer program for combustion instability analysis are presented. The basic theoretical foundation resides in the concept of entropy-controlled energy growth or decay. Third order perturbation expansion is performed on the entropy-controlled acoustic energy equation to obtain the first order integrodifferential equation for the energy growth factor in terms of the linear, second, and third order energy growth parameters. These parameters are calculated from Navier-Stokes solutions with time averages performed on as many Navier-Stokes time steps as required to cover at least one peak wave period. Applications are made for a 1-D Navier-Stokes solution for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) thrust chamber with cross section area variations taken into account. It is shown that instability occurs when the mean pressure is set at 2000 psi with 30 percent disturbances. Instability also arises when the mean pressure is set at 2935 psi with 20 percent disturbances. The system with mean pressures and disturbances more adverse that these cases were shown to be unstable.

  1. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Nakamori, M.; Honda, S.; Ishida, Y.; Nakanishi, T.

    1988-05-03

    An internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) an engine body having a chamber; (b) a crankshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (c) a camshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (d) an oil lubricated endless transmission member extended around and operatively engaged with the crankshaft and the camshaft, the endless transmission member being movable along a closed path of travel in the chamber; (e) a tensioner hanger comprising an upper hanger member detachably secured to the engine body and a lower hanger member secured at an upper portion thereof to the upper hanger member, the upper hanger member having oil passage means adapted to receive lubrication oil from the endless transmission member at an inlet and guide the oil downwardly therethrough to an outlet; (f) a hollow mounting member affixed at an upper portion thereof to a lower portion of the lower hanger member of the tensioner hanger; (g) a hydraulic lock mechanism comprising a hollow cylinder and a plunger slidably received in the cylinder to define a hydraulic chamber in the cylinder; (h) a replenishable oil reservoir defined by a funnel-shaped space between the mounting member and the cylinder for receiving oil from the oil passage means and for holding the oil received therein; and (i) a tensioner member movably attached to the engine body and operatively engaged with the plunger.

  2. Asymmetrical internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Barret, P.

    1983-03-08

    An internal combustion engine adapted to be powered by a burnable gaseous fuel includes one cylinder, first and second pistons reciprocally movable in the cylinder substantially in opposite directions, inlet and outlet valves for controlling the flow of the gaseous fuel into the cylinder, and the exhaust of the burnt fuel therefrom, respectively, and a linkage device connected to the pistons for converting the reciprocating movement thereof into a rotary movement. The linkage device includes change-of-rate-of-displacement devices for increasing the rate of velocity in the maximum acceleration range, and for reducing the rate of displacement in the maximum velocity range of one piston with respect to the other piston, first and second piston rods pivotably connected to the first and second pistons, respectively, first and second crankshafts pivotably connected to the first and second piston rods, rotatable about first and second axes disposed substantially parallel to, and displaced by a predetermined angle from one another, respectively, and a gear train coupling the first and second crankshafts to one another. The gear train includes first and second fixedly mounted gearwheels, first and second concentrically mounted gear wheels, and a position-shiftable coupling mechanism for coupling the first gear wheels and the second gear wheels to one another, respectively, and an engaging device for meshing the eccentrically mounted gear wheels with one another.

  3. Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

    2009-03-31

    One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

  4. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report defines and characterizes types of medical waste, discusses the impacts of burning medical waste on combustor emissions, and outlines important handling and operating considerations. Facility-specific design, handling, and operating practiced are also discussed for municipal waste combustors (MWCs) that reportedly accept medical waste in the U.S., Europe, and Canada. nly very limited data are available on the emission impacts associated with the combustion of medical waste in MWGs. Especially lacking is information needed to fully evaluate the impacts on acid gas, dioxin, and metals emissions, as well as the design and operating requirements for complete destruction of solvents, cytotoxic chemicals, and pathogens. The EPA's Office of Air Quatity Planning and Standards is developing emission standards and guidelines for new and existing MWCs under Sections 111(b) and 111(d) of the Clean Air Act. In support of these regulatory development efforts, the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory in EPA's Office of Research and Development has conducted an assessment to examine the incineration of medical waste in MWGs from an emission standpoint. Potential worker safety and health problems associated with handling of medical wastes and residues were also identified. information

  5. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion has been a subject of increasingly vigorous scientific research for over a century, not surprising considering that combustion accounts for approximately 85% of the world's energy production and is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. Although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it also poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. A major goal of combustion research is production of fundamental (foundational) knowledge that can be used in developing accurate simulations of complex combustion processes, replacing current "cut-and-try" approaches and allowing developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion. With full understanding of the physics and chemistry involved in a given combustion process, including details of the unit processes and their interactions, physically accurate models which can then be used for parametric exploration of new combustion domains via computer simulation can be developed, with possible resultant definition of radically different approaches to accomplishment of various combustion goals. Effects of gravitational forces on earth impede combustion studies more than they impede most other areas of science. The effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that we often do not appreciate the enormous negative impact that they have had on the rational development of combustion science. Microgravity offers potential for major gains in combustion science understanding in that it offers unique capability to establish the flow environment rather than having it dominated by uncontrollable (under normal gravity) buoyancy effects and, through this control, to extend the range of test conditions that can be studied. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that our program is dedicated to taking advantage of microgravity to untangle complications caused

  6. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap: A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-04-01

    Combustion system users and manufacturers joined forces in 1999 to develop the Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. The roadmap outlines R&D priorities for developing advanced, highly efficient combustion systems that U.S. industry will require in the future.

  7. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  8. Spherical combustion clouds in explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, A. L.; Bell, J. B.; Beckner, V. E.; Balakrishnan, K.; Aspden, A. J.

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the properties of spherical combustion clouds in explosions. Two cases are investigated: (1) detonation of a TNT charge and combustion of its detonation products with air, and (2) shock dispersion of aluminum powder and its combustion with air. The evolution of the blast wave and ensuing combustion cloud dynamics are studied via numerical simulations with our adaptive mesh refinement combustion code. The code solves the multi-phase conservation laws for a dilute heterogeneous continuum as formulated by Nigmatulin. Single-phase combustion (e.g., TNT with air) is modeled in the fast-chemistry limit. Two-phase combustion (e.g., Al powder with air) uses an induction time model based on Arrhenius fits to Boiko's shock tube data, along with an ignition temperature criterion based on fits to Gurevich's data, and an ignition probability model that accounts for multi-particle effects on cloud ignition. Equations of state are based on polynomial fits to thermodynamic calculations with the Cheetah code, assuming frozen reactants and equilibrium products. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to resolve thin reaction zones and capture the energy-bearing scales of turbulence on the computational mesh (ILES approach). Taking advantage of the symmetry of the problem, azimuthal averaging was used to extract the mean and rms fluctuations from the numerical solution, including: thermodynamic profiles, kinematic profiles, and reaction-zone profiles across the combustion cloud. Fuel consumption was limited to ˜ 60-70 %, due to the limited amount of air a spherical combustion cloud can entrain before the turbulent velocity field decays away. Turbulent kinetic energy spectra of the solution were found to have both rotational and dilatational components, due to compressibility effects. The dilatational component was typically about 1 % of the rotational component; both seemed to preserve their spectra as they decayed. Kinetic energy of the blast wave decayed due to the

  9. Descriptive study of California egg layer premises and analysis of risk factors for Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis as characterized by manure drag swabs.

    PubMed

    Castellan, David M; Kinde, Hailu; Kass, Philip H; Cutler, Gregg; Breitmeyer, Richard E; Bell, Donald D; Ernst, Ralph A; Kerr, David C; Little, Herbert E; Willoughby, David; Riemann, Hans P; Ardans, Alex; Snowdon, Jill A; Kuney, Douglas R

    2004-09-01

    This cross-sectional, double-blind study reports the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis (SE) on California egg layer premises using single vs. pooled manure drag swabs and presents a description of egg production and management systems in the state and an initial analysis of risk factors for SE. The study included 91% of all known eligible egg premises in California, representing the majority of eggs produced in the state. The overall prevalence of SE on California egg layer premises was 10.5%, while 1.1% of all rows sampled were positive for SE. The percentage of positive rows for SE on any premises never exceeded 25% of the 16 swabs collected per premises. A description of egg production and management on California egg layer premises is presented. Statistically significant associations for SE were not evident and were limited because of sample size and the low prevalence of SE on California egg layer premises. Several biological and management factors, such as flock health, stage of production, manure management, ventilation, and watering systems, show trend associations with premises positive for SE and require further investigation. Manure drag swabs serve as a useful tool to validate the core components of an egg quality assurance program for SE based on process control principles.

  10. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  11. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  12. Engine combustion control responsive to location and magnitude of peak combustion pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tombley, D.E.

    1987-11-17

    A combustion control is described for an internal combustion engine of the type having combustion chambers, means for supplying a combustible charge to and igniting the combustible charge within each combustion chamber, power output apparatus including a rotating crankshaft, and means for sensing the crankshaft angle (LPP) and magnitude (MPP) of peak combustion pressure for each combustion chamber. The combustion control consists of: means for deriving the average magnitude of peak combustion pressure (AMPP); means for determining base values; memory means for storing tables of LPP ignition trim values, MPP ignition trim values and A/F trim values for each combustion chamber; means for comparing the sensed LPP value for each combustion chamber with a desired LPP value (DLPP) for that combustion chamber and adjusting the LPP ignition trim value for the predetermined engine operating parameters; means for comparing the MPP value for each combustion chamber with the average magnitude of peak combustion pressure; means to adjust the A/F trim value in the rich direction and reset the MPP ignition trim value; means to adjust the MPP ignition trim value in the advance direction; means to adjust the A/F trim value in the lean direction and reset the MPP ignition trim value; means for determining the combustible charge mixture for each combustion chamber from the base value thereof and the A/F trim value for the sensed predetermined engine operating parameters; means for determining the ignition timing for each combustion.

  13. Trends in the spin combustion of thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoryankin, A.V.; Merzhanov, A.G.; Strunina, A.G.

    1982-09-01

    This article presents results on the main laws of spin combustion for thermite compositions. Examines the combustion in various thermite systems with various degrees of component dilution with reaction products in order to choose the objects. Discusses effects of external factors, effects of system parameters, and temperature distribution in spin combustion. Finds that oscillatory combustion (synchronous pulsation in the combustion rate at all points on the front) and spin modes (spiral displacement of a luminous focus) are separated by a combustion mode in the form of a set of luminous points moving in a random fashion over the combustion front; the low-calorie spin mode is sensitive to shift in the general heat balance in either sense during the combustion; and in the spin mode, the combustion is substantially influenced by the topology of the surface.

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  15. Computing and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Coming into the Combustion Branch of the Turbomachinery and Propulsion Systems Division, there was not any set project planned out for me to work on. This was understandable, considering I am only at my sophmore year in college. Also, my mentor was a division chief and it was expected that I would be passed down the line. It took about a week for me to be placed with somebody who could use me. My first project was to write a macro for TecPlot. Commonly, a person would have a 3D contour volume modeling something such as a combustion engine. This 3D volume needed to have slices extracted from it and made into 2D scientific plots with all of the appropriate axis and titles. This was very tedious to do by hand. My macro needed to automate the process. There was some education I needed before I could start, however. First, TecPlot ran on Unix and Linux, like a growing majority of scientific applications. I knew a little about Linux, but I would need to know more to use the software at hand. I took two classes at the Learning Center on Unix and am now comfortable with Linux and Unix. I already had taken Computer Science I and II, and had undergone the transformation from Computer Programmer to Procedural Epistemologist. I knew how to design efficient algorithms, I just needed to learn the macro language. After a little less than a week, I had learned the basics of the language. Like most languages, the best way to learn more of it was by using it. It was decided that it was best that I do the macro in layers, starting simple and adding features as I went. The macro started out slicing with respect to only one axis, and did not make 2D plots out of the slices. Instead, it lined them up inside the solid. Next, I allowed for more than one axis and placed each slice in a separate frame. After this, I added code that transformed each individual slice-frame into a scientific plot. I also made frames for composite volumes, which showed all of the slices in the same XYZ space. I

  16. Combustion Instabilities Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Advanced Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch is investigating active control strategies to mitigate or eliminate the combustion instabilities prevalent in lean-burning, low-emission combustors. These instabilities result from coupling between the heat-release mechanisms of the burning process and the acoustic flow field of the combustor. Control design and implementation require a simulation capability that is both fast and accurate. It must capture the essential physics of the system, yet be as simple as possible. A quasi-one-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation has been developed which may meet these requirements. The Euler equations of mass, momentum, and energy have been used, along with a single reactive species transport equation to simulate coupled thermoacoustic oscillations. A very simple numerical integration scheme was chosen to reduce computing time. Robust boundary condition procedures were incorporated to simulate various flow conditions (e.g., valves, open ends, and choked inflow) as well as to accommodate flow reversals that may arise during large flow-field oscillations. The accompanying figure shows a sample simulation result. A combustor with an open inlet, a choked outlet, and a large constriction approximately two thirds of the way down the length is shown. The middle plot shows normalized, time-averaged distributions of the relevant flow quantities, and the bottom plot illustrates the acoustic mode shape of the resulting thermoacoustic oscillation. For this simulation, the limit cycle peak-to-peak pressure fluctuations were 13 percent of the mean. The simulation used 100 numerical cells. The total normalized simulation time was 50 units (approximately 15 oscillations), which took 26 sec on a Sun Ultra2.

  17. Kawasaki Disease: Laboratory Findings and an Immunopathogenesis on the Premise of a "Protein Homeostasis System"

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Kang, Jin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited systemic inflammatory illness, and coronary artery lesions (CALs) are a major complication determining the prognosis of the disease. Epidemiologic studies in Asian children suggest that the etiologic agent(s) of KD may be associated with environmental changes. Laboratory findings are useful for the diagnosis of incomplete KD, and they can guide the next-step in treatment of initial intravenous immunoglobulin non-responders. CALs seem to develop in the early stages of the disease before a peak in inflammation. Therefore early treatment, before the peak in inflammation, is mandatory to reduce the risk of CAL progression and severity of CALs. The immunopathogenesis of KD is more likely that of acute rheumatic fever than scarlet fever. A hypothetical pathogenesis of KD is proposed under the premise of a "protein homeostasis system"; where innate and adaptive immune cells control pathogenic proteins that are toxic to host cells at a molecular level. After an infection of unknown KD pathogen(s), the pathogenic proteins produced from an unknown focus, spread and bind to endothelial cells of coronary arteries as main target cells. To control the action of pathogenic proteins and/or substances from the injured cells, immune cells are activated. Initially, non-specific T cells and non-specific antibodies are involved in this reaction, while hyperactivated immune cells produce various cytokines, leading to a cytokine imbalance associated with further endothelial cell injury. After the emergence of specific T cells and specific antibodies against the pathogenic proteins, tissue injury ceases and a repair reaction begins with the immune cells. PMID:22318812

  18. Modélisation de la combustion dans un moteur diesel d'automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinchon, Philippe

    La plupart des moteurs diesels utilisés pour la traction des véhicules automobiles sont des moteurs à préchambre. Le combustible y est introduit sous forme liquide, à haute pression, se vaporise, auto-inflamme et brûle dans un espace confiné dans lequel règnent des vitesses d'écoulement très élevées. La vitesse de combustion, et donc le rendement du moteur, sont très sensibles à divers paramètres liés à l'injection ou à la géométrie de la chambre. Cette dernière joue un rôle prédominant sur l'aérodynamique interne et son interaction avec la propagation de la flamme.

  19. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), a unique, state-of-the-art facility for conducting combustion research, is located at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The ASCR, which was nearing completion at the close of 1995, will be capable of simulating the very high pressure and high temperature conditions that are expected to exist in future, advanced subsonic gas turbine (jet) engines. Future environmental regulations will require much cleaner burning (more environmentally friendly) aircraft engines. The ASCR is critical to the development of these cleaner engines. It will allow NASA and U.S. aircraft engine industry researchers to identify and test promising clean-burning gas turbine engine combustion concepts under the pressure and temperature conditions that are expected for those future engines. Combustion processes will be investigated for a variety of next-generation aircraft engine sizes, including engines for large, long-range aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 3000 mi) and for regional aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 400 mi). The ASCR design was conceived and initiated in 1993, and fabrication and construction of the rig, including the buildup of an advanced control room, took place throughout 1994 and 1995. In early 1996, the ASCR will be operational for obtaining research data. The ASCR is an intricate part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program, which is aimed at developing technologies critical to the next generation of gas turbine engines. This effort is in collaboration with the U.S. aircraft gas turbine engine industry. A goal of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program is to develop combustion concepts and technologies that will result in gas turbine engines that produce 50 percent less nitrous oxide (NO_x) pollutants than current engines do. This facility is unique in its capability to simulate advanced subsonic engine pressure, temperature, and air flow rate conditions

  20. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Combustion Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a modular, multi-user, two-rack facility dedicated to combustion and fluids science in the US Laboratory Destiny on the International Space Station. FCF is a permanent facility that is capable of accommodating up to ten combustion and fluid science investigations per year. FCF research in combustion and fluid science supports NASA's Exploration of Space Initiative for on-orbit fire suppression, fire safety, and space system fluids management. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two racks in the FCF. The CIR major structural elements include the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR), Experiment Assembly (optics bench and combustion chamber), Air Thermal Control Unit (ATCU), Rack Door, and Lower Structure Assembly (Input/Output Processor and Electrical Power Control Unit). The load path through the rack structure is outlined. The CIR modal survey was conducted to validate the load path predicted by the CIR finite element model (FEM). The modal survey is done by experimentally measuring the CIR frequencies and mode shapes. The CIR model was test correlated by updating the model to represent the test mode shapes. The correlated CIR model delivery is required by NASA JSC at Launch-10.5 months. The test correlated CIR flight FEM is analytically integrated into the Shuttle for a coupled loads analysis of the launch configuration. The analysis frequency range of interest is 0-50 Hz. A coupled loads analysis is the analytical integration of the Shuttle with its cargo element, the Mini Payload Logistics Module (MPLM), in the Shuttle cargo bay. For each Shuttle launch configuration, a verification coupled loads analysis is performed to determine the loads in the cargo bay as part of the structural certification process.