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Sample records for prenatal record revision

  1. Provincial prenatal record revision: a multiple case study of evidence-based decision-making at the population-policy level

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nancy; Semenic, Sonia; Premji, Shahirose; Montgomery, Phyllis; Williams, Beverly; Olson, Joanne; Mansi, Omaima

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a significant gap in the knowledge translation literature related to how research evidence actually contributes to health care decision-making. Decisions around what care to provide at the population (rather than individual) level are particularly complex, involving considerations such as feasibility, cost, and population needs in addition to scientific evidence. One example of decision-making at this "population-policy" level involves what screening questions and intervention guides to include on standardized provincial prenatal records. As mandatory medical reporting forms, prenatal records are potentially powerful vehicles for promoting population-wide evidence-based care. However, the extent to which Canadian prenatal records reflect best-practice recommendations for the assessment of well-known risk factors such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption varies markedly across Canadian provinces and territories. The goal of this study is to better understand the interaction of contextual factors and research evidence on decision-making at the population-policy level, by examining the processes by which provincial prenatal records are reviewed and revised. Methods Guided by Dobrow et al.'s (2004) conceptual model for context-based evidence-based decision-making, this study will use a multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis to examine contextual factors influencing the prenatal record revision process in different Canadian provinces and territories. Data will be collected using multiple methods to construct detailed case descriptions for each province/territory. Using qualitative data analysis techniques, decision-making processes involving prenatal record content specifically related to maternal smoking and alcohol use will be compared both within and across each case, to identify key contextual factors influencing the uptake and application of research evidence by prenatal record review committees. All study participants

  2. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  3. Implementation of the Zambia Electronic Perinatal Record System for comprehensive prenatal and delivery care

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Benjamin H.; Vwalika, Bellington; Killam, William P.; Wamalume, Chibesa; Giganti, Mark J.; Mbewe, Reuben; Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Chintu, Namwinga T.; Putta, Nande B.; Liu, Katherine C.; Chibwesha, Carla J.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize prenatal and delivery care in an urban African setting. Methods The Zambia Electronic Perinatal Record System (ZEPRS) was implemented to record demographic characteristics, past medical and obstetric history, prenatal care, and delivery and newborn care for pregnant women across 25 facilities in the Lusaka public health sector. Results From June 1, 2007, to January 31, 2010, 115 552 pregnant women had prenatal and delivery information recorded in ZEPRS. Median gestation age at first prenatal visit was 23 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 19–26). Syphilis screening was documented in 95 663 (83%) pregnancies: 2449 (2.6%) women tested positive, of whom 1589 (64.9%) were treated appropriately. 111 108 (96%) women agreed to HIV testing, of whom 22% were diagnosed with HIV. Overall, 112 813 (98%) of recorded pregnancies resulted in a live birth, and 2739 (2%) in a stillbirth. The median gestational age was 38 weeks (IQR 35–40) at delivery; the median birth weight of newborns was 3000 g (IQR 2700–3300 g). Conclusion The results demonstrate the feasibility of using a comprehensive electronic medical record in an urban African setting, and highlight its important role in ongoing efforts to improve clinical care. PMID:21315347

  4. The Best of "The Running Record." Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This revised edition of the first volume of the "Best of the Running Record Newsletter" contains 23 articles published between March 1989 and Spring 1998--some selections are from the now out-of-print first edition. Articles are arranged by subject matter to assist the reader in finding articles which address a particular point of interest.…

  5. Effectiveness of the Revised Ontario School Record System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Edward H.; Elwood, Bryan C.

    Results of a study conducted for the Ministry of Education (Ontario) and designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Ontario School Record System (OSR) as revised in 1973 are reported in this paper. In order to evaluate the OSR's effectiveness, the study team examined educators', parents and students' perceived needs for student information,…

  6. Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Initially published by the Children's Bureau in 1913, this pamphlet has been revised frequently. Its purpose is to point out the importance of medical care during pregnancy. Comfortable pregnancies, easy labor, and better care for their new infants are the usual concerns of prospective mothers. Consequently, this 1962 edition of "Prenatal Care"…

  7. Maternal recall versus medical records of metabolic conditions from the prenatal period: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Methods Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Results Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73% to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57% to 77% and specificity from 93% to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC=0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κwt=0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κwt=0.85 and κwt=0.84, respectively; P=0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. Conclusions For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  8. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility computer software release cover sheet and revision record

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, R.J.

    1994-11-28

    This supporting document contains the computer software release cover sheet and revision records for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The previous revision was controlled by CH2M Hill which developed the software. A 7-page listing of the contents of directory C:{backslash}TEDF is contained in this report.

  9. Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Prenatal tests Prenatal tests E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... if you’re feeling fine. What are prenatal tests? Prenatal tests are medical tests you get during ...

  10. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our ePublications > Prenatal care fact sheet ePublications Prenatal care fact sheet Print this fact sheet Health Care ... More information on prenatal care What is prenatal care? Prenatal care is the health care you get ...

  11. The Revised Sunspot Record in Comparison to Cosmogenic Radionuclide-Based Solar Activity Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Herbst, Konstantin; Nilsson, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Recent revisions in the sunspot records illustrate the challenges related to obtaining a 400-year-long observational record of past solar-activity changes. Cosmogenic radionuclides offer the possibility of obtaining an alternative and completely independent record of solar variability. Here, we illustrate that these records offer great potential for quantitative solar-activity reconstructions far back into the past, and we provide updated radionuclide-based solar-activity reconstructions for the past 2000 years. However, cosmogenic-radionuclide records are also influenced by processes independent of solar activity, leading to the need for critical assessment and correction for the non-solar influences. Independent of these uncertainties, we show a very good agreement between the revised sunspot records and the 10Be records from Antarctica and, in particular, the 14C-based solar-activity reconstructions. This comparison offers the potential of identifying remaining non-solar processes in the radionuclide-based solar-activity reconstructions, but it also helps identifying remaining biases in the recently revised sunspot records.

  12. 78 FR 20108 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of Revised System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal agency, Travel Management Center (TMC), online booking engine suppliers and the airlines that are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of Revised System of Records AGENCY: General Services...

  13. The Early Cretaceous Sulfur Isotope Record: New Data, Revised Ages, and Updated Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristall, B.; Hurtgen, M.; Sageman, B. B.; Jacobson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous is a time of significant transformation with the continued break-up of Pangea, the emplacement of several LIPs, and a climatic shift from a cool greenhouse to a warm greenhouse. The timing of these major events and their relationship to seawater geochemistry (as recorded in isotope records) is critical for understanding changes in global biogeochemical cycles during this time. Within this context, recent revisions to the Cretaceous portion of the geologic timescale necessitate a reevaluation of the Cretaceous S isotope record as recorded in marine barite (Paytan et al., 2004). We present a revised Early Cretaceous S isotope record and present new δ34Sbarite data that extend the record further back in time and provide more detail during two major S isotope shifts of the Early Cretaceous. The new data maintain the major ~5‰ negative shift but raise questions on the timing and structure of this perturbation. Furthermore, recently updated estimates for global rates of marine microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) (Bowles et al., 2014) and sulfate burial during the Phanerozoic (Halevy et al., 2012) require notable revisions in the fluxes and isotopic values used to model the global S cycle. We present a revised global S cycle box model and reconstruct the evolution of the Early Cretaceous S isotope record primarily through perturbations in volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes (e.g., submarine LIPs). Changes to the weathering and pyrite burial fluxes and the global integrated fractionation factor for MSR are also used to modulate, balance, and smooth the LIP-driven perturbation. The massive evaporite burial during the Late Aptian post dates the major -5‰ shift and has little affect on the modeled S isotope composition of seawater sulfate, despite causing a major drop in sulfate concentration. The S cycle box model is coupled to a Sr cycle box model to provide additional constraints on the magnitude and timing of perturbations within the S isotope record.

  14. The Impact of the Revised Sunspot Record on Solar Irradiance Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, G.; Krivova, N.; Wu, C. J.; Lean, J.

    2016-03-01

    Reliable historical records of the total solar irradiance (TSI) are needed to assess the extent to which long-term variations in the Sun's radiant energy that is incident upon Earth may exacerbate (or mitigate) the more dominant warming in recent centuries that is due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. We investigate the effects that the new Sunspot Index and Long-term Solar Observations (SILSO) sunspot-number time series may have on model reconstructions of the TSI. In contemporary TSI records, variations on timescales longer than about a day are dominated by the opposing effects of sunspot darkening and facular brightening. These two surface magnetic features, retrieved either from direct observations or from solar-activity proxies, are combined in TSI models to reproduce the current TSI observational record. Indices that manifest solar-surface magnetic activity, in particular the sunspot-number record, then enable reconstructing historical TSI. Revisions of the sunspot-number record therefore affect the magnitude and temporal structure of TSI variability on centennial timescales according to the model reconstruction methods that are employed. We estimate the effects of the new SILSO record on two widely used TSI reconstructions, namely the NRLTSI2 and the SATIRE models. We find that the SILSO record has little effect on either model after 1885, but leads to solar-cycle fluctuations with greater amplitude in the TSI reconstructions prior. This suggests that many eighteenth- and nineteenth-century cycles could be similar in amplitude to those of the current Modern Maximum. TSI records based on the revised sunspot data do not suggest a significant change in Maunder Minimum TSI values, and from comparing this era to the present, we find only very small potential differences in the estimated solar contributions to the climate with this new sunspot record.

  15. A comparison of LMP-based and ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age using linked California livebirth and prenatal screening records.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Patricia M; England, Lucinda J; Callaghan, William M; Pearl, Michelle; Wier, Megan L; Kharrazi, Martin

    2007-09-01

    Although early ultrasound (<20 weeks' gestation) systematically underestimates the gestational age of smaller fetuses by approximately 1-2 days, this bias is relatively small compared with the large error introduced by last menstrual period (LMP) estimates of gestation, as evidenced by the number of implausible birthweight-for-gestational age. To characterise this misclassification, we compared gestational age estimates based on LMP from California birth certificates with those based on early ultrasound from a California linked Statewide Expanded Alpha-fetoprotein Screening Program (XAFP). The final sample comprised 165 908 women. Birthweight distributions were plotted by gestational age; sensitivity and positive predictive value for preterm rates according to LMP were calculated using ultrasound as the 'gold standard'. For gestational ages 20-27 and 28-31 weeks, the LMP-based birthweight distributions were bimodal, whereas the ultrasound-based distributions were unimodal, but had long right tails. At 32-36 weeks, the LMP distribution was wider, flatter, and shifted to the right, compared with the ultrasound distribution. LMP vs. ultrasound estimates were, respectively, 8.7% vs. 7.9% preterm (<37 weeks), 81.2% vs. 91.0% term (37-41 weeks), and 10.1% vs. 1.1% post-term (>or=42 weeks). The sensitivity of the LMP-based preterm birth estimate was 64.3%, and the positive predictive value was 58.7%. Overall, 17.2% of the records had estimates with an absolute difference of >14 days. The groups most likely to have inconsistent gestational age estimates included African American and Hispanic women, younger and less-educated women, and those who entered prenatal care after the second month of pregnancy. In conclusion, we found substantial misclassification of LMP-based gestational age. The 2003 revised US Standard Certificate of Live Birth includes a new gestational age item, the obstetric estimate. It will be important to assess whether this estimate addresses the problems

  16. The Impact of the Revised Sunspot Record on Solar Irradiance Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, G.; Krivova, N.; Lean, J.; Wu, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the expected effects of the new sunspot number time series on proxy model based reconstructions of the total solar irradiance (TSI), which is largely explained by the opposing effects of dark sunspots and bright faculae. Regressions of indices for facular brightening and sunspot darkening with time series of direct TSI observations during the recent 37-year spacecraft TSI measurement era determine the relative contributions from each. Historical TSI reconstructions are enabled by extending these proxy models back in time prior to the start of the measurement record using a variety of solar activity indices including the sunspot number time series alone prior to 1882. Such reconstructions are critical for Earth climate research, which requires knowledge of the incident energy from the Sun to assess climate sensitivity to the natural influence of solar variability. Two prominent TSI reconstructions that utilize the sunspot record starting in 1610 are the NRLTSI and the SATIRE models. We review the indices that each currently uses and estimate the effects the revised sunspot record has on these reconstructions.

  17. 75 FR 34714 - Updated Record of Decision (ROD) for Revised Army Growth and Force; Structure Realignment Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Department of the Army Updated Record of Decision (ROD) for Revised Army Growth and Force; Structure Realignment Decisions AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of availability (NOA). SUMMARY: The Department of the Army announces the availability of an updated ROD for Army Growth and Force...

  18. Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-10-21

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new 230-kV transmission line from there to CPUD's Wauna Substation, which is already connected to the FCRTS. As part of this revised decision, BPA will facilitate CPUD development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line by allowing joint use of BPA right-of-way. This will involve reconstructing a section of BPA's 115-kV Allston-Astoria No. 1 transmission line from single-circuit H-frame wood-pole design to double-circuit single metal pole design. Terms of BPA participation in CPUD's development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line will be documented in a Construction Agreement. This optional interconnection plan is in addition to BPA's previous offer for interconnection of the Project at BPA's Allston Substation, as documented in the July 25, 2003, ROD. As with the initial interconnection plan, the decision to offer terms to interconnect the Project through the optional interconnection plan is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 1995). This decision thus is similarly tiered to the Business Plan ROD.

  19. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... many problems and prevent others. Your doctor or midwife will give you a schedule for your prenatal ... diabetes or high blood pressure, your doctor or midwife will probably want to see you more often. ...

  20. Reliability of Reported Maternal Smoking: Comparing the Birth Certificate to Maternal Worksheets and Prenatal and Hospital Medical Records, New York City and Vermont, 2009.

    PubMed

    Howland, Renata E; Mulready-Ward, Candace; Madsen, Ann M; Sackoff, Judith; Nyland-Funke, Michael; Bombard, Jennifer M; Tong, Van T

    2015-09-01

    Maternal smoking is captured on the 2003 US Standard Birth Certificate based on self-reported tobacco use before and during pregnancy collected on post-delivery maternal worksheets. Study objectives were to compare smoking reported on the birth certificate to maternal worksheets and prenatal and hospital medical records. The authors analyzed a sample of New York City (NYC) and Vermont women (n = 1,037) with a live birth from January to August 2009 whose responses to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey were linked with birth certificates and abstracted medical records and maternal worksheets. We calculated smoking prevalence and agreement (kappa) between sources overall and by maternal and hospital characteristics. Smoking before and during pregnancy was 13.7 and 10.4% using birth certificates, 15.2 and 10.7% using maternal worksheets, 18.1 and 14.1% using medical records, and 20.5 and 15.0% using either maternal worksheets or medical records. Birth certificates had "almost perfect" agreement with maternal worksheets for smoking before and during pregnancy (κ = 0.92 and 0.89) and "substantial" agreement with medical records (κ = 0.70 and 0.74), with variation by education, insurance, and parity. Smoking information on NYC and Vermont birth certificates closely agreed with maternal worksheets but was underestimated compared with medical records, with variation by select maternal characteristics. Opportunities exist to improve birth certificate smoking data, such as reducing the stigma of smoking, and improving the collection, transcription, and source of information. PMID:25676044

  1. Revision and Validation of the Individual Child Engagement Record: A Practitioner-Friendly Measure of Learning Opportunities for Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Yuriko; Kemp, Coral; Carter, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to revise and validate the "Individual Child Engagement Record" (ICER), an instrument designed to observe and measure the engagement of children with disabilities in early childhood settings. Method: The ICER was revised with reference to pilot study results and the literature. Inter-observer reliability…

  2. A revised atmospheric δ13C-CO2 record covering the last 1000 years from Law Dome, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, M.; Etheridge, D. M.; Trudinger, C. M.; Allison, C.; Battle, M. O.; Bender, M. L.; Langenfelds, R.; Steele, P.; Curran, M.; Blunier, T.; Jenk, T. M.; Francey, R.

    2012-12-01

    We present a revised and expanded record of atmospheric δ13C-CO2 extracted from ice cores sampled at Law Dome (East Antarctica) and firn air sampled at Law Dome and at South Pole covering the last 1000 years. We have performed new measurements of 13C of CO2 extracted from ice, incorporated the results from new firn sampling campaigns in Antarctica and merged them with a revised version of the previous δ13C-CO2 measurements [Francey et al., 1999]. Our new measurements from Law Dome ice increase the temporal sampling density over the last 200 years and show good agreement with the results from South Pole firn, providing evidence that our new record reliably extend the Cape Grim δ13C-CO2 record back in time. We also show the preliminary measurements aimed at covering the preindustrial period with higher sample density, including the 10 ppm CO2 decrease observed in ice from Law Dome at the beginning of 1600 AD [Etheridge et al., 1996, MacFarling Meure et al., 2006]. Having higher sample density for both CO2 and δ13C-CO2 in that period allows us to infer sources and sinks of CO2 with higher confidence. Corresponding author: Mauro Rubino, mauro.rubino@csiro.au, +61(0)392394634 References Etheridge, D. et al. (1996), ISSN: 01480227. MacFarling Meure, C. et al. (2006), DOI: 10.1029/2006GL026152. Francey, R. J. et al. (1999), ISSN: 02806509.

  3. Effectiveness of Revised Pharmacology Record Books as a Teaching-Learning Method for Second Year Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Gangadhar, Reneega

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of teaching medical undergraduates Pharmacology is to form a sound foundation of therapeutics. The pharmacology record books are maintained as a part of the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback of the medical students about the new record adopted in the institution after major revision Materials and Methods This was a questionnaire based study done in a Government Medical College of Kerala in February 2013. The data was analysed using SPSS. The feedback on clinical pharmacology exercises was given positive and negative scores. Results Majority (64.5%) opined that the content in pharmacology record was good. A total of 78.1% completed the record during discussions in practical classes. Majority wrote the records for understanding pharmacology. For 79.8% General Pharmacology exercises were most relevant, 33.8% considered Clinical Pharmacology exercises to be the most thought provoking. Drug use in special groups received the maximum positive score. Conclusion The new improved pharmacology record is an effective teaching-learning method. Inclusion of more clinically oriented exercises has increased the interest of the students in the subject. PMID:26894083

  4. Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  5. 78 FR 65884 - 2014 Edition Electronic Health Record Certification Criteria: Revision to the Definition of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... electronic health record (EHR) technology testing and certification. DATES: Effective date: This regulation... Computer technology, Electronic health record, Electronic information system, Electronic transactions... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary 45 CFR Part 170 RIN 0991-AB91 2014 Edition Electronic...

  6. 77 FR 62059 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Revisions to Existing Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Parking Permit Records NTSB-12 Employee Travel Card Records NTSB-13 Airman or Mariner Certificate... NTSB-25 Employee Purchase Card Holders NTSB-26 Office of Workers' Compensation Claim Records NTSB-27... between NTSB-5 and OGE/GOVT-2. OGE/GOVT-2 is available at 68 FR 3098 (Jan. 22, 2003), as updated at 68...

  7. School Administration Handbook for Approved Schools for Medical Record Technicians. Revised April 66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Medical Record Librarians, Chicago, IL.

    These guidelines are for the development and operation of approved programs to prepare medical record technicians. "School Approval" discusses the cooperative roles of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education and the American Association of Medical Record Librarians (AAMRL) in connection with program approval, and other…

  8. 77 FR 15835 - Privacy Act of 1974: Revision of Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... amending its Privacy Act System of Records Notice, which was previously published at 74 FR 14890 (April 1..., Madison, WI 53715. Springfield Branch Office 330 Ginger Creek Road, Suite B, Springfield, IL 62711....

  9. The Technique of the Sound Studio: Radio, Record Production, Television, and Film. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Alec

    Detailed explanations of the studio techniques used in radio, record, television, and film sound production are presented in as non-technical language as possible. An introductory chapter discusses the physics and physiology of sound. Subsequent chapters detail standards for sound control in the studio; explain the planning and routine of a sound…

  10. 2014 Edition Electronic Health Record certification criteria: revision to the definition of "common Meaningful Use (MU) Data Set." Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    This interim final rule with comment period revises one paragraph in the Common Meaningful Use (MU) Data Set definition at 45 CFR 170.102 to allow more flexibility with respect to the representation of dental procedures data for electronic health record (EHR) technology testing and certification. PMID:24195145

  11. Project Records Information System (PRIS) user`s manual. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Cline, B.E.; Smith, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Project Records Information System (PRIS) is an interactive system developed for the Information Management Services (IMS) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to perform indexing, maintenance, and retrieval of information about Engineering project record documents for which they are responsible. This PRIS User`s Manual provides instruction on the use of this system. Section 2.0 of this manual presents an overview of PRIS, describing the system`s purpose; the data that it handles; functions it performs; hardware, software, and access; and help and error functions. Section 3.0 describes the interactive menu-driven operation of PRIS. Appendixes A, B, and C contain help screens, report descriptions, and the data dictionary, respectively.

  12. Project Records Information System (PRIS) user`s manual. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Cline, B.E.; Smith, P.S.

    1993-10-01

    The Project Records Information System (PRIS) is an interactive system developed for the Information Services Division (ISD) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to perform indexing, maintenance, and retrieval of information about Engineering project record documents for which they are responsible. This PRIS User`s Manual provides instruction on the use of this system. Section 2.0 of this manual presents an overview of PRIS, describing the system`s purpose; the data that it handles; functions it performs; hardware, software, and access; and help and error functions. Section 3.0 describes the interactive menu-driven operation of PRIS. Appendixes A, B, and C contain help screens, report descriptions, and the data dictionary, respectively.

  13. Health information technology: revisions to the 2014 edition electronic health record certification criteria; and Medicare and Medicaid programs; revisions to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is issuing this interim final rule with comment period to replace the Data Element Catalog (DEC) standard and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture (QRDA) Category III standard adopted in the final rule published on September 4, 2012 in the Federal Register with updated versions of those standards. This interim final rule with comment period also revises the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Programs by adding an alternative measure for the Stage 2 meaningful use (MU) objective for hospitals to provide structured electronic laboratory results to ambulatory providers, correcting the regulation text for the measures associated with the objective for hospitals to provide patients the ability to view online, download, and transmit information about a hospital admission, and making the case number threshold exemption for clinical quality measure (CQM) reporting applicable for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) beginning with FY 2013. This rule also provides notice of CMS's intention to issue technical corrections to the electronic specifications for CQMs released on October 25, 2012. PMID:23227573

  14. New leafhopper species of Jikradia from Mesoamerica with new records, revised key to species, distribution, origin, and checklist (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae: Teruliini).

    PubMed

    Nielson, Mervin W; Zack, Richard S; Poggi, Francesco; Nickel, Herbert

    2014-12-01

    The following four new species of leafhoppers are described and illustrated: Jikradia dentata n. sp. and J. trispinata n. sp. from Guatemala, J. variabilis n. sp. from Belize, and J. exilis n. sp. from Costa Rica. Jikradia basipendula Nielson and J. krameri Nielson are new records for Guatemala. Belize is a new record for the genus. A record of the first introduction of the genus in the Old World is reviewed. A revised key to the known species is provided with a review of its possible origin. A checklist of all known species is also given.

  15. Revised estimates of Greenland ice sheet thinning histories based on ice-core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecavalier, Benoit S.; Milne, Glenn A.; Vinther, Bo M.; Fisher, David A.; Dyke, Arthur S.; Simpson, Matthew J. R.

    2013-03-01

    Ice core records were recently used to infer elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet throughout the Holocene. The inferred elevation changes show a significantly greater elevation reduction than those output from numerical models, bringing into question the accuracy of the model-based reconstructions and, to some extent, the estimated elevation histories. A key component of the ice core analysis involved removing the influence of vertical surface motion on the δ18O signal measured from the Agassiz and Renland ice caps. We re-visit the original analysis with the intent to determine if the use of more accurate land uplift curves can account for some of the above noted discrepancy. To improve on the original analysis, we apply a geophysical model of glacial isostatic adjustment calibrated to sea-level records from the Queen Elizabeth Islands and Greenland to calculate the influence of land height changes on the δ18O signal from the two ice cores. This procedure is complicated by the fact that δ18O contained in Agassiz ice is influenced by land height changes distant from the ice cap and so selecting a single location at which to compute the land height signal is not possible. Uncertainty in this selection is further complicated by the possible influence of Innuitian ice during the early Holocene (12-8 ka BP). Our results indicate that a more accurate treatment of the uplift correction leads to elevation histories that are, in general, shifted down relative to the original curves at GRIP, NGRIP, DYE-3 and Camp Century. In addition, compared to the original analysis, the 1-σ uncertainty is considerably larger at GRIP and NGRIP. These changes reduce the data-model discrepancy reported by Vinther et al. (2009) at GRIP, NGRIP, DYE-3 and Camp Century. A more accurate treatment of isostasy and surface loading also acts to improve the data-model fits such that the residuals at all four sites for the period 8 ka BP to present are significantly reduced compared to the

  16. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}2 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-08

    This Record of Technical Change updates the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--515.

  17. [Access to dental care during prenatal assistance].

    PubMed

    dos Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich; Zandonade, Eliana; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate the self-perceived response to dental care during prenatal assistance in the Unified Health System (SUS) in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. 1032 postpartum women were interviewed and 1006 prenatal records copied. Postpartum women's self-perceived response was measured by the Oral Health Index Profile-14. When an impact was identified, dental care rendered in educational, preventive and curative terms was considered adequate. When there was no impact, assistance was considered adequate in educational and preventive terms. The Chi-square test revealed an association between prenatal care and dental care. Oral health impact on quality of life was 14.7%. Dental care received by mothers in educational terms was rated at 41.3%, while in preventive terms it was 21% and in curative terms it was 16.6%. Six or more prenatal appointments coupled with educational activities was closely associated with adequate dental care (p < 0.05). Access to dental care is facilitated when pregnant women attend health services and become involved in educational activities during the prenatal period. Consequently, educational measures appear to indicate an improvement in prenatal care in the SUS.

  18. The last 850 millennia recorded at the Stari Slankamen loess-paleosol sequence: revised chronostratigraphy and long-term environmental trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, S. B.; Hambach, U.; Machalett, B.; Stevens, T.; Kukla, G. J.; Heller, F.; Ouches, E. A.; McCoy, W. D.; Buggle, B.; Zoeller, L.; Basarin, B.; Milojkovic, N.; Lukic, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Stari Slankamen loess section is located on the northeastern part of the Srem Loess Plateau (Vojvodina region, North Serbia) on the west bank of the Danube River opposite the Tisa (Tisza) confluence. The ca. 40-m thick cliff is comprised of loess intercalated with 7 major paleo-pedocomplexes and can be considered to be one of the most significant, nearly continuous, Quaternary sections in the Carpathian (Panonnian) Basin area. Here we present magnetostratigraphic and aminostratigraphic evidence that further emphasizes the importance of the site in terms of its age and the long-term paleoclimatic record it preserves. Characteristic remnant magnetization, obtained through alternating field demagnetization, was obtained on 59 oriented samples and demonstrates the presence of the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (MBB) at a profile depth of 36 m, within loess unit V-L7. This interpretation is confirmed by new high resolution paleomagnetic investigations (434 oriented samples) from the lower of the profile. Low frequency field magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ in the lower 20 m of the exposure and in the laboratory on samples taken from the upper 20 m of the loess-paleosol sequence. As a record of pedogenic alteration, the magnetic susceptibility (MS) record provides a mean of correlating the sequence with key loess sites in Central and Southeastern Europe, China, and with key climate archives such as the marine oxygen-isotope record. The MS records and evidence from amino acid geochronology measurements indicate a missing pedocomlex (V-S2), the result of an erosion event represented by distinct layer overlying an erosion unconformity. In addition, the magnetostratigraphic and aminostratigraphic based age model requires a significant revision of hitherto published chronostratigraphic subdivisions of the sequence. Our revised chronostratigraphic model suggests that previous age estimates, including results of previous thermoluminescence dating, need to be

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Golbus, M S; Hall, B D; Filly, R A; Poskanzer, L B

    1977-09-01

    Severe rhizomelic and mesomelic dwarfism was demonstrated in a 20-week gestation fetus by amniography. A systematic progressive approach to prenatal diagnosis in the absence of a definitive diagnosis and the use of contrast radiography is discussed. PMID:894421

  20. Invasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, A.

    1988-01-01

    Invasive prenatal diagnosis is a major diagnostic tool which is used in modern obstetrical care. A synopsis of these techniques is provided to assist the family practitioner in providing this information to his patients. PMID:21253097

  1. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meli, Giampiero; Ottl, Birgit; Paladini, Angela; Cataldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Schizophrenia could be considered the most severe of all psychiatric disorders. It shows a heterogeneous clinical picture and presents an etiopathogenesis that is not cleared sufficiently. Even if the etiopathogenesis remains a puzzle, there is a scientific consensus that it is an expression of interaction between genotype and environmental factors. In the present article, following a study of literature and the accumulated evidence, the role of prenatal and perinatal factors in the development of schizophrenia will be revised and synthesized. We think that better knowledge of the risk factors could be helpful not only for better comprehension of the pathogenesis but especially to optimize interventions for prevention of the disorder. PMID:22646662

  2. Revision of the genus Acanthaspis Amyot & Serville (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae) from China, with new records of species to adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liangming; Rédei, Dávid; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-12-04

    The assassin bugs of the genus Acanthaspis Amyot & Serville (Reduviinae) from China are revised. Fourteen species are recognized, described or redescribed and illustrated. Three species, A. fulviconnexa, A. melanota, and A. octoguttata, are described as new to science. Acanthaspis subinermis Hsiao 1976 is synonymized with A. laoensis Distant 1919. A key for the identification of Chinese species of Acanthaspis is provided. The biology of A. cincticrus Stål is briefly noted. The following species are newly recorded from adjacent countries: A. collaris Hsiao from Laos and Thailand, A. geniculata Hsiao from Vietnam, A. picta Hsiao from Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, A. quinquespinosa (Fabricius) from Nepal, A. ruficeps Hsiao from Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, and A. laoensis Distant  from Thailand. 

  3. Revision of the genus Acanthaspis Amyot & Serville (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae) from China, with new records of species to adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liangming; Rédei, Dávid; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    The assassin bugs of the genus Acanthaspis Amyot & Serville (Reduviinae) from China are revised. Fourteen species are recognized, described or redescribed and illustrated. Three species, A. fulviconnexa, A. melanota, and A. octoguttata, are described as new to science. Acanthaspis subinermis Hsiao 1976 is synonymized with A. laoensis Distant 1919. A key for the identification of Chinese species of Acanthaspis is provided. The biology of A. cincticrus Stål is briefly noted. The following species are newly recorded from adjacent countries: A. collaris Hsiao from Laos and Thailand, A. geniculata Hsiao from Vietnam, A. picta Hsiao from Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, A. quinquespinosa (Fabricius) from Nepal, A. ruficeps Hsiao from Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, and A. laoensis Distant  from Thailand.  PMID:25544374

  4. Prenatal music exposure induces long-term neural effects.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Eino; Kujala, Teija; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural correlates induced by prenatal exposure to melodies using brains' event-related potentials (ERPs). During the last trimester of pregnancy, the mothers in the learning group played the 'Twinkle twinkle little star'-melody 5 times per week. After birth and again at the age of 4 months, we played the infants a modified melody in which some of the notes were changed while ERPs to unchanged and changed notes were recorded. The ERPs were also recorded from a control group, who received no prenatal stimulation. Both at birth and at the age of 4 months, infants in the learning group had stronger ERPs to the unchanged notes than the control group. Furthermore, the ERP amplitudes to the changed and unchanged notes at birth were correlated with the amount of prenatal exposure. Our results show that extensive prenatal exposure to a melody induces neural representations that last for several months. PMID:24205353

  5. [Adequacy of prenatal care in a family health strategy program from Porto Alegre-RS].

    PubMed

    Hass, Cimone Noal; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Beghetto, Mariur Gomes

    2013-09-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the adequacy of low-risk prenatal care, as recommended by the Ministry of Health, concerning the minimum number of consultations, and identify possible associated factors. Prenatal care was evaluated in a historical cohort study of 95 pregnant women. Over 50% of the women underwent six or more prenatal consultations. The beginning of the prenatal care began in the first trimester of the gestation for 52% of the women, 84.2% of the women did all their prenatal medical tests, and only 16.8% had postpartum consultations. Prenatal assistance was considered adequate for 2.1% of the sample. A higher number of prenatal consultation was observed among women who had a partner and who had other children. The records reveal a low adequacy level with all minimum criteria established and few factors seem to explain this scenario. PMID:24344581

  6. 76 FR 66950 - Privacy Act; Notice of Revision of System of Records, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... initiative supports HUD mission to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality affordable homes. This notice deletes and supersedes prior notice published in the Federal Register at 73 FR 24604..., ``Federal Responsibilities for Maintaining Records About Individuals,'' July 25, 1994 (59 FR...

  7. Sound and Video Recordings--E. S. Bird Library. Syracuse University Resources for Educators of Adults, MSS 23. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N., Comp.; Abbott, George, Comp.

    This document is a catalog of the adult education sound and videotape recordings available at the E. S. Bird Library at Syracuse University. The collection was gathered for use by practitioners and educators of adults who are conducting research. In the library collection, each media item has been catalogued by title, series, subject, author,…

  8. Prenatal Influences on the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of embryology and prenatal brain, sensory, and motor development. Includes discussion of maternal nutrition, chemical exposure, prenatal drug and alcohol hazards, cigarette smoking, and some causes of neural tube defects and premature birth. (Author/KB)

  9. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Genetic Counseling Print ... how can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating ...

  10. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Providers project include HRSA, March of Dimes Foundation, National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics, Genetic ... Prenatal Providers project include HRSA, March of Dimes Foundation, National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics, Genetic ...

  11. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River.

  12. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area.

  13. Human prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Filkins, K.; Russo, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Advances in the field of prenatal diagnosis have been rapid during the past decade. Moreover, liberal use of birth control methods and restriction of family size have placed greater emphasis on optimum outcome of each pregnancy. There are many prenatal diagnostic techniques of proven value; the risks, including false negatives and false positives, are known. With the rapid proliferation of new and experimental techniques, many disorders are potential diagnosable or even treatable; however, risk factors are unknown and issues relating to quality control have not been resolved. These problems are readily appreciated in the dramatic new techniques involving recombinant DNA, chorion villus sampling, and fetal surgery. Unfortunately, clinicians may not appreciate the difficulties that may also be encountered in the more mundane prenatal diagnostic tests such as ultrasonography or enzymatic testing. The aim of this volume is to clarify and rationalize certain aspects of diagnosis, genetic counseling, and intervention. New and experimental techniques are presented in the light of current knowledge.

  14. Re-evaluation of the Bispingen palaeolake record - a revised chronology for the Eemian in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterbach, S.; Brauer, A.; Litt, T.; Schettler, G.

    2012-04-01

    Detailed studies of climate development during past interglacials, i.e. prior to significant human interference, can provide important information about natural climate variability and thus the extent of anthropogenic impact on present and future climate. However, comparison of palaeoclimate records from different regions and archives is often hampered by chronological uncertainties. For example, an asynchronous climate development with a several-thousand-year-long steep climatic gradient in Central Europe at the end of the Last Interglacial has been inferred from differences in the duration of the Eemian in German and French palaeoclimate records (Kukla et al. 1997). One of the key sites in this context is the Bispingen palaeolake sequence in Northern Germany, where a length of about 11 000 years for the Eemian has been estimated from varve counting (Müller 1974), which is a couple of thousand years shorter than in other sediment records in the North Atlantic realm (cf. Kukla et al. 2002). Here we present detailed microfacies analyses on new sediment cores from the Bispingen palaeolake combined with geochemical and pollen analyses, documenting changes in the depositional environment and vegetation during the Last Interglacial. Microscopic varve counting in the distinctly laminated lower part and sedimentation rate estimates for the faintly laminated upper part of the sequence enable a better assessment of the length of the Eemian in Northern Germany than in previous studies. Detailed lithological and palynological comparison of the new Bispingen cores with the record from Müller (1974) indicates the existence of major gaps in the old profile, leading to an underestimation of the duration of the Eemian in Northern Germany. The duration of about 17 000 years obtained from the new Bispingen cores is in good accordance with results from a marine record off Portugal (Shackleton et al. 2002) and the varve-dated Lake Monticchio record in southern Italy (Brauer et al

  15. Prenatal and Perinatal Factors Associated with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilder, Deborah A.; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Bakian, Amanda V.; Miller, Judith S.; Dorius, Josette T.; Nangle, Barry; McMahon, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal and perinatal risk factors associated with intellectual disability (ID) were studied in 8-year-old Utah children from a 1994 birth cohort (N = 26,108) using broad ascertainment methods and birth records following the most current recording guidelines. Risk factor analyses were performed inclusive and exclusive of children with a known or…

  16. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Gunnison ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish numerical model boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Gunnison processing site; and modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  17. Ambiguous genitalia: what prenatal genetic testing is practical?

    PubMed

    Adam, Margaret P; Fechner, Patricia Y; Ramsdell, Linda A; Badaru, Angela; Grady, Richard E; Pagon, Roberta A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Cheng, Edith Y; Parisi, Melissa A; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2012-06-01

    Concern for ambiguous genitalia or chromosome-phenotype discordance detected in a prenatal setting has increased over the last two decades. Practitioners faced with this prenatal finding have a variety of genetic tests available to them; however, it is unclear to what extent prenatal testing for disorders of sex development (DSD) is useful or practical. We undertook a retrospective review of the medical records of 140 individuals evaluated through the DSD clinic at Seattle Children's Hospital with birthdates from 01/01/1994 through 08/16/2011 to determine the rate of prenatal detection of ambiguous genitalia in individuals with DSD, what prenatal diagnostic workup was undertaken, and the postnatal outcome, including whether a postnatal genetic diagnosis was confirmed. Of all 140 subjects, 34 (24%) were identified prenatally. The most common postnatal diagnoses were penoscrotal hypospadias with transposition of the scrotum with no known genetic cause (24/140; 17%) and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (20/140; 14%). Apart from these, no single diagnosis comprised more than a few cases. Prenatal diagnostic testing varied widely, from no tests to multiple molecular tests with amniotic fluid hormone concentrations. In the absence of other fetal anomalies or growth retardation on ultrasound, prenatal karyotype with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the SRY gene is the most useful test when ambiguous genitalia is suspected. Further prenatal testing for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in 46,XY individuals and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 46,XX individuals may be considered. However, targeted molecular testing for rare DSD conditions in the absence of a family history of DSD has a low yield.

  18. Prenatal Care Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Michael

    Described is the development and evaluation of a prenatal instructional program designed to prevent birth defects. It is explained that the program, composed of five slide tape units on such topics as nutrition and environmental factors, was field tested and found effective with 97 participants (pregnant high school students, nursing students, and…

  19. Prenatal diagnosis: whose right?

    PubMed

    Heyd, D

    1995-10-01

    The question who is the subject of the right to prenatal diagnosis may be answered in four ways: the parents, the child, society, or no one. This article investigates the philosophical issues involved in each of these answers, which touch upon the conditions of personal identity, the principle of privacy, the scope of social responsibility, and the debate about impersonalism in ethics.

  20. Revised paleoenvironmental analysis of the Holocene portion of the Barbados sea-level record: Cobbler's Reef revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, Marguerite A.

    2016-06-01

    Sample elevations corrected for tectonic uplift and assessed relative to local modeled sea levels provide a new perspective on paleoenvironmental history at Cobbler's Reef, Barbados. Previously, 14C-dated surface samples of fragmented Acropora palmata plotted above paleo sea level based on their present (uplifted) elevations, suggesting supratidal rubble deposited during a period of extreme storms (4500-3000 cal BP), precipitating reef demise. At several sites, however, A. palmata persisted, existing until ~370 cal BP. Uplift-corrected A. palmata sample elevations lie below the western Atlantic sea-level curve, and ~2 m below ICE-6G-modeled paleo sea level, under slow rates of sea-level rise, negating the possibility that Cobbler's Reef is a supratidal storm ridge. Most sites show limited age ranges from corals likely damaged/killed on the reef crest, not the mixed ages of rubble ridges, strongly suggesting the reef framework died off in stages over 6500 yr. Reef crest death assemblages invoke multiple paleohistoric causes, from ubiquitous hurricanes to anthropogenic impacts. Comparison of death assemblage ages to dated regional paleotempestological sequences, proxy-based paleotemperatures, recorded hurricanes, tsunamis, European settlement, deforestation, and resulting turbidity, reveals many possible factors inimical to the survival of A. palmata along Cobbler's Reef.

  1. The Prenatal Care at School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Carol H.; Nasso, Jacqueline T.; Swider, Susan; Ellison, Brenda R.; Griswold, Daniel L.; Brooks, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    School absenteeism and poor compliance with prenatal appointments are concerns for pregnant teens. The Prenatal Care at School (PAS) program is a new model of prenatal care involving local health care providers and school personnel to reduce the need for students to leave school for prenatal care. The program combines prenatal care and education…

  2. First verified record of the ant genus Calyptomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India, along with a revised key to known Indomalayan species

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Himender

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The members of genus Calyptomyrmex are mostly encountered under rotten logs, in the soil, under stones and in leaf litter samples. These ants are seldom in collections making estimation of their true distributional patterns problematic (Shattuck 2011). The deep antennal scrobes and the unique configuration of the clypeus are distinct to the genus (Bolton 1981). New information Herein Calyptomyrmex wittmeri Baroni Urbani, 1975 is redescribed and reported for the first time from India. This also confirms the first valid published record of the genus from the country. The image hosted by AntWeb as C. vedda (CASENT0280817; AntWeb 2015b) collected by Besuchet, Löbl, Mussard from Kerala, India and identified by Brown is actually C. wittmeri (Brown was uncertain of his determination of C. vedda and cautiously inserted an interrogation point in front of his determination). Two workers recently collected at Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Kerala present similarities to the specimen identified by Brown. However, characters as the lack of well-developed promesonotal suture, absence of clavate setae, and narrow petiolar node, concur with the diagnosis of C. wittmeri. A revised key to known Indomalayan species of the genus is provided herewith. PMID:26696759

  3. The last million years recorded at the Stari Slankamen (Northern Serbia) loess-palaeosol sequence: revised chronostratigraphy and long-term environmental trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, Slobodan B.; Hambach, Ulrich; Stevens, Thomas; Kukla, George J.; Heller, Friedrich; McCoy, William D.; Oches, Eric A.; Buggle, Björn; Zöller, Ludwig

    2011-05-01

    The Stari Slankamen loess-palaeosol section is located on the northeastern part of the Srem Loess Plateau (Vojvodina region, North Serbia). The c. 40-m thick cliff comprises loess intercalated with 9 major palaeo pedocomplexes and can be considered to be one of the most important Quaternary sections in the Carpathian (Panonnian) basin. Here we present new magnetostratigraphic and aminostratigraphic evidence that demonstrates the importance of the site in terms of its age and the long-term palaeoclimatic record it preserves. Directional palaeomagnetic data, obtained through alternating field demagnetization demonstrates the presence of reversed polarity below a profile depth of 36 m indicating a Matuyama chron age of this interval. This interpretation is confirmed by new high resolution palaeomagnetic investigations (434 oriented samples) from the lower part of the profile. The new magnetic susceptibility record and aminostratigraphy indicate a missing pedocomplex (V-S2), with an erosional unconformity represented by a distinct gravel layer. The combined new magnetostratigraphic and aminostratigraphic based age model requires a significant revision of hitherto published chronostratigraphic subdivisions at the site. The relative completeness and long time frame covered by the section is unusual in European loess sequences. Hence, the sequence could form the basis of a continental scale stratigraphic scheme that would alleviate much current chronostratigraphic uncertainty and enable more broad-scale climatic reconstructions. The section also provides a rare opportunity to investigate detailed and long-term climatic change over the Middle Pleistocene in a region influenced by air masses originating from high and middle latitudes, as well as the North Atlantic and Mediterranean. The changing relative importance of these air masses through time provides insight into local and regional atmospheric systems and their evolution through the last c.1 Ma. The section can thus

  4. [Prenatal care in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Buekens, P; Hernández, P; Infante, C

    1990-01-01

    Available data on the coverage of prenatal care in Latin America were reviewed. In recent years, only Bolivia had a coverage of prenatal care of less than 50 per cent. More than 90 per cent of pregnant women received prenatal care in Chile, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Prenatal care increased between the 1970 and 1980 in the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru. The coverage of prenatal care decreased in Bolivia and Colombia. The mean number of visits increased in Cuba and Puerto Rico. The increase of prenatal care in Guatemala and Honduras is due to increased care by traditional birth attendants, compared to the role of health care institutions. We compared the more recent data on tetanus immunization of pregnant women to the more recent data on prenatal care. The rates of tetanus immunization are always lower than the rates of prenatal care attendance, except in Costa Rica. The rates of tetanus immunization was less than half as compared to the rates of prenatal care in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. To improve the content of prenatal care should be an objective complementary to the increase of the number of attending women.

  5. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before ... A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a baby before birth may seem ...

  6. Human prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of colobomatous microphthalmos.

    PubMed

    Dar, Suhail A; Johal, Sheila C; Marino, Meghan J; Singh, Arun D

    2015-04-30

    Optic nerve coloboma and microphthalmos with colobomatous cyst are rare congenital anomalies that are difficult to detect on prenatal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Only four cases of optic nerve coloboma and two cases of microphthalmos with colobomatous cyst have been detected on prenatal imaging. The authors report a case of a fetus initially suspected to have retinoblastoma of the right eye on prenatal ultrasonography who was later diagnosed as having microphthalmos on fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Following delivery, she was noted to have microphthalmos with colobomatous cyst of the right eye and optic nerve coloboma of the left eye. The authors also review the prenatal ocular imaging findings of the differential diagnosis.

  8. Group Prenatal Care: Model Fidelity and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    NOVICK, Gina; REID, Allecia E.; LEWIS, Jessica; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon S.; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes. However, there is likely variation in how the model is implemented in clinical practice, which may be associated with efficacy, and therefore variation, in outcomes. We examined the association of fidelity to process and content of the CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care model with outcomes previously shown to be affected in a clinical trial: preterm birth, adequacy of prenatal care and breastfeeding initiation. Study Design Participants were 519 women who received CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care. Process fidelity reflected how facilitative leaders were and how involved participants were in each session. Content fidelity reflected whether recommended content was discussed in each session. Fidelity was rated at each session by a trained researcher. Preterm birth and adequacy of care were abstracted from medical records. Participants self-reported breastfeeding initiation at 6-months postpartum. Results Controlling for important clinical predictors, greater process fidelity was associated with significantly lower odds of both preterm birth (B=−0.43, Wald χ2=8.65, P=.001) and intensive utilization of care (B=−0.29, Wald χ2=3.91, P=.05). Greater content fidelity was associated with lower odds of intensive utilization of care (B=−0.03, Wald χ2=9.31, P=.001). Conclusion Maintaining fidelity to facilitative group processes in CenteringPregnancy was associated with significant reductions in preterm birth and intensive care utilization of care. Content fidelity also was associated with reductions in intensive utilization of care. Clinicians learning to facilitate group care should receive training in facilitative leadership, emphasizing the critical role that creating a participatory atmosphere can play in improving outcomes. PMID:23524175

  9. AGRICOLA User's Guide. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilreath, Charles L.

    This document is the newest revision of the third manual documenting the National Agricultural Library database. Since it began in 1970, the AGRICOLA database has continued to grow and to change steadily; new subfiles have been added, database record formats have been expanded, and subject category code schemes have been modified several times.…

  10. Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality.

  11. Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?

    PubMed

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits.

  12. Prenatal nutrition: special considerations.

    PubMed

    Cox, J T; Phelan, S T

    2009-10-01

    Awareness of the importance of nutrition during pregnancy has increased in recent years.Pregnancy outcomes vary by prepregnant weight as well as gestational weight gain. Inappropriate gain may have both short- and long-term consequences for mother and infant. This review article includes the newly released US Institute of Medicine prenatal weight gain guidelines, as well as the Dietary Reference Intakes for the US and selected European societies.Food safety topics are discussed including Listeria, Toxoplasma, peanuts, mercury and other contaminants. Preconceptual nutrition is discussed, as are specific at-risk prenatal nutrients, including folic acid, choline, vitamin B12, omega-3 fatty acids, iodine, calcium, vitamin D, and iron. Current controversies are discussed and practical suggestions are given to safely optimize nutrient intake. As part of the medical team, a local Registered Dietitian or other nutrition professional can give much more detailed guidance and support for a pregnant woman given her particular risk factors, including her pre-existing medical conditions and cultural concerns, and will emphasize nutritional quality rather than just pounds gained. PMID:19749670

  13. Women’s Experiences of Group Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cohen, Sally S.; Groce, Nora E.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Group prenatal care (GPNC) is an innovative alternative to individual prenatal care. In this longitudinal study we used ethnographic methods to explore African American and Hispanic women’s experiences of receiving GPNC in two urban clinics. Methods included individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews of women and group leaders in GPNC, participant observation of GPNC sessions, and medical record review. GPNC offered positive experiences and met many of the women’s expressed preferences regarding prenatal care. Six themes were identified, which represented separate aspects of women’s experiences: investment, collaborative venture, a social gathering, relationships with boundaries, learning in the group, and changing self. Taken together, the themes conveyed the overall experience of GPNC. Women were especially enthusiastic about learning in groups, about their relationships with group leaders, and about having their pregnancy-related changes and fears normalized. There were also important boundaries on relationships between participants, and some women wished for greater privacy during physical examinations. PMID:20693516

  14. Prenatal substance use in a Western urban community.

    PubMed Central

    Buchi, K F; Varner, M W

    1994-01-01

    To assess the extent of prenatal substance use in a predominantly white population in an urban area of the western United States and to develop a risk profile for this population, a cross-sectional prevalence study was done. Prenatal clinics (10 public and 10 private) anonymously recorded demographic information about and collected aliquots of routinely obtained urine specimens from women during prenatal visits. Urine specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay for amphetamines, marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and ethanol. Of the 935 women screened, 92 (9.8%) had urine specimens positive for one or more of these substances. Urine screens were positive in 56 (10.0%) of 562 women attending private clinics and 36 (9.6%) of 373 women attending public clinics. Only 7 of the 935 women (0.7%) had screens positive for cocaine. Ethanol was the most frequently detected substance in the private clinic group (6.4%), whereas marijuana was most common among women attending public clinics (5.1%). Although substance use in this group of pregnant women occurs at a lower rate and a different pattern from those found in other more densely populated areas, the rate is high enough to be of concern to all prenatal care professionals, who should incorporate substance use history taking and selective urine drug screening into their routine prenatal practices. PMID:7810126

  15. Eugenics and prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R

    1986-01-01

    Prejudices against people with disabilities, poor people, and immigrants during the nineteenth century generated a science of "race improvement" called eugenics. In the United States, a number of eugenic measures were enacted early in this century, but it was in Nazi Germany that eugenics flourished under the name of racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene). In the guise of furthering the health of the German people, German scientists and physicians initially designed programs of sterilization. Next came euthanasia and finally mass extermination of "lives not worth living." Remembering this history, many German women oppose the new technical developments in prenatal diagnosis because they see them as yet another way to specify what kinds of people are and are not fit to inhabit the world. This paper tries to place the new technologies in the context of eugenics and to point out some of the ways in which the new, supposedly liberating, choices in fact limit women's control over our lives.

  16. [Agreement between data from prenatal care cards and maternal recall in a medium-sized Brazilian city].

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Mariza; Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; Cesar, Juraci A; Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal care is a key indicator of the quality of health services. The current study aimed to evaluate the correlation between data from prenatal care cards and maternal recall in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The cross-sectional study included all mothers from 2010 who had received prenatal care. Interviews were conducted with a pre-coded questionnaire in the maternity hospital. Of the 2,288 mothers interviewed, 1,228 (53.7%) had the prenatal care card with them and thus comprised the group for comparison. The analysis used kappa correlation and confidence interval. The variables six or more prenatal visits, clinical breast and gynecological examination, two blood tests, VDRL, HIV serology, urine test, and tetanus vaccination showed statistically significant differences between annotated and maternal recall data (p ≤ 0.001). Adequacy of prenatal care based on the guidelines of the Program for Humanization of Prenatal Care (PHPN) was 23.9% according to information provided by the patients and 4.4% according to information recorded on the prenatal cards (p ≤ 0.001). The prenatal care card showed underreporting, which limited the quality assessment of prenatal care. PMID:23703007

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of colobomatous microphthalmos.

    PubMed

    Dar, Suhail A; Johal, Sheila C; Marino, Meghan J; Singh, Arun D

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerve coloboma and microphthalmos with colobomatous cyst are rare congenital anomalies that are difficult to detect on prenatal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Only four cases of optic nerve coloboma and two cases of microphthalmos with colobomatous cyst have been detected on prenatal imaging. The authors report a case of a fetus initially suspected to have retinoblastoma of the right eye on prenatal ultrasonography who was later diagnosed as having microphthalmos on fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Following delivery, she was noted to have microphthalmos with colobomatous cyst of the right eye and optic nerve coloboma of the left eye. The authors also review the prenatal ocular imaging findings of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25942066

  18. Ethical issues in prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Burgess, M M

    1994-04-01

    Many ethical concerns raised by prenatal testing are based on the use and effects of genetic information in nonclinical contexts. Correct or incorrect beliefs about social uses of genetic information may limit the voluntariness of informed consent to prenatal testing. A qualitative study of persons predictively tested for Huntington's disease illustrates how the social context, in this case the family history of being at risk, affects the interpretation of the genetic information and alters relationships. This constitutes a risk of genetic testing. Prenatal testing also requires ethical analysis based on careful understanding of how social attitudes and nonclinical uses affect voluntariness and potential harm and benefits of testing. Investigators conducting research on prenatal tests share the responsibility to evaluate social attitudes toward at-risk persons, nonclinical uses of genetic information, and the social benefits and harm of such uses.

  19. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (p<0.01) indicates positive health status of the newborns verifies that prenatal meditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (p<0.05) at fifth month reflects the importance of prenatal meditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  20. Prenatal Depression Restricts Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify whether prenatal depression is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Methods Midgestation (18-20 weeks GA) estimated fetal weight and urine cortisol and birth weight and gestational age at birth data were collected on a sample of 40 depressed and 40 non-depressed women. Estimated fetal weight and birthweight data were then used to compute fetal growth rates. Results Depressed women had a 13% greater incidence of premature delivery (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61) and 15% greater incidence of low birthweight (OR = 4.75) than non-depressed women. Depressed women also had elevated prenatal cortisol levels (p = .006) and fetuses who were smaller (p = .001) and who showed slower fetal growth rates (p = .011) and lower birthweights (p = .008). Mediation analyses further revealed that prenatal maternal cortisol levels were a potential mediator for the relationship between maternal symptoms of depression and both gestational age at birth and the rate of fetal growth. After controlling for maternal demographic variables, prenatal maternal cortisol levels were associated with 30% of the variance in gestational age at birth and 14% of the variance in the rate of fetal growth. Conclusion Prenatal depression was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, including premature delivery and slower fetal growth rates. Prenatal maternal cortisol levels appear to play a role in mediating these outcomes. PMID:18723301

  1. Ethical Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  2. "Makin' Somethin' Outta Little-to-Nufin'': Racism, Revision and Rotating Records--The Hip-Hop DJ in Composition Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Prompted by a moment in the classroom in which the DJ becomes integral for the writing instructor, this article looks at how the hip-hop DJ and hip-hop DJ/Producer become the intrinsic examples for first-year college writing students to think about how they conduct revision in their writing. After a review of two seminal hip-hop books and other…

  3. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  4. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  5. Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Genetic counseling (and prenatal diagnosis) provides parents with the knowledge to make intelligent, informed decisions regarding possible pregnancy and its outcome. If a pregnancy occurs the couple may want to evaluate the fetus by prenatal diagnosis.

  6. Difficult prenatal diagnosis: fetal coarctation

    PubMed Central

    Buyens, A.; Gyselaers, W.; Coumans, A.; Al Nasiry, S.; Willekes, C.; Boshoff, D.; Frijns, J.-P.; Witters, I.

    2012-01-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of fetal coarctation is still challenging. It is mainly suspected by ventricular disproportion (smaller left ventricle than right ventricle). The sensitivity of ventricular discrepancy is however moderate for the diagnosis of coarctation and there is a high false positive rate. Prenatal diagnosis of coarctation is important because the delivery can be arranged in a centre with a pediatric cardiac intensive careand this reduces postnatal complications and longterm morbidity. For many years the prenatal diagnosis of coarctation has been investigated to improve specificity and sensitivity by several of measurements. This article reviews all relevant articles from 2000 until 2011 searching pubmed and the reference list of interesting articles. An overview of specific measurements and techniques that can improve the diagnosis of coarctation has been made, such as the isthmus diameter, ductal diameter, isthmus/ductal ratio, z-scores derived from measurements of the distal aortic isthmus and arterial duct, the presence of a shelf andisthmal flow disturbance. Also 3-dimensional (3D) and 4-dimensional (4D) imaging with or without STIC has been suggested to be used as newer techniques to improve diagnosis of coarctation in fetal life. Although more methods regarding prenatal diagnosis of coarctationare being investigated, the ultrasound specialist remains challenged to correctly diagnose this cardiac anomaly in prenatal life. PMID:24753914

  7. Prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning among children in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Sohel, Nazmul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Yunus, Mohammad; Bhuiya, Abbas; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing concern regarding adverse effects of prenatal arsenic exposure on the neurodevelopment of children. We analyzed mortality data for children, who were born to 11,414 pregnant women between 2002 and 2004, with an average age of 5 years of follow-up. Individual drinking-water arsenic exposure during pregnancy was calculated using tubewell water arsenic concentration between last menstrual period and date of birth. There were 84 drowning deaths registered, with cause of death ascertained using verbal autopsy (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes X65-X70). The prenatal water arsenic exposure distribution was tertiled, and the risk of drowning mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning in children aged 1-5 years in the highest exposure tertile (HR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.03-2.94). This study showed that in utero arsenic exposure might be associated with excess mortality among children aged 1-5 years due to drowning.

  8. Record of a new species of the genus Viridopromontorius Luna de Carvalho (Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae) from India with a revised key to Corioxenidae.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sukhendu; Hazra, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Viridopromontorius Luna de Carvalho is described from West Bengal, India. The new species V. aequus differs from the other member of Viridopromontorius by having approximately equal size of antennomeres IV and V, maxillary palp nearly twice the length of base, vein R4 curved towards R2, very small distal process on tarsomeres II-III, tarsomere IV almost trapezoidal and acumen to some extent upwardly bent (in lateral view). A revised key of the family Corioxenidae is also provided. PMID:27615860

  9. Update on prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation. PMID:24506122

  10. Prenatal diagnosis and telemedicine consultation of fetal urologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Nader Z; Canon, Stephen; Patel, Ashay; Zamilpa, Ismael; Magann, Everett F; Higley, Jared

    2016-06-01

    In Arkansas, telemedicine is used commonly in obstetrics through Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education and Learning System (ANGELS), the existing statewide telemedicine network. This network is used primarily for tele-ultrasound and maternal-fetal medicine consultation. This study is a retrospective case series, describing all the patients who had a prenatally diagnosed urologic anomaly that required prenatal urologic consultation. From 2009-2013, approximately 1300 anomalies were recorded in the Arkansas Fetal Diagnosis and Management (AFDM) database, 14% of which were urologic anomalies. Twenty-six cases required prenatal urologic consultation, 25 of which were conducted via telemedicine. Teleconsultation allowed patients to combine maternal-fetal medicine and urologic consultations in one visit, saving time and effort and ultimately, for most patients, providing reassurance that delivery could be accomplished locally with postnatal follow-up already arranged. While there are several studies reporting the use of telemedicine for various subspecialty consultations, to our knowledge, this is the first to describe the use of telemedicine for prenatal urology consultation. Future research could randomize patients prospectively to allow comparison of both the outcomes as well as the patient experience.

  11. The impact of group prenatal care on pregnancy and postpartum weight trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Magriples, Urania; Boynton, Marcella H.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Epel, Elissa; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate whether group prenatal care (Centering Pregnancy Plus [CP+]) has an impact on pregnancy weight gain and postpartum weight loss trajectories and to determine whether prenatal depression and distress might moderate these trajectories. STUDY DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized trial of CP+ in 14 Community Health Centers and hospitals in New York City. Participants were pregnant women aged 14–21 years (n = 984). Medical record review and 4 structured interviews were conducted: in the second and third trimesters and 6 and 12 months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling was utilized to evaluate the weight change trajectories in the control and intervention groups. Prenatal distress and depression were also assessed to examine their impact on weight change. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in baseline demographics. Thirty-five percent of the participants were overweight or obese, and more than 50% had excessive weight gain by Institute of Medicine standards. CP+ was associated with improved weight trajectories compared with controls (P < .0001): women at clinical sites randomized to group prenatal care gained less weight during pregnancy and lost more weight postpartum. This effect was sustained among women who were categorized as obese based on prepregnancy body mass index (P < .01). Prenatal depression and distress were significantly associated with higher antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Women with the highest levels of depression and prenatal distress exhibited the greatest positive impact of group prenatal care on weight trajectories during pregnancy and through 12 months postpartum. CONCLUSION Group prenatal care has a significant impact on weight gain trajectories in pregnancy and postpartum. The intervention also appeared to mitigate the effects of depression and prenatal distress on antepartum weight

  12. Prenatal Nutrition and Later Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of 47,XXX.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Collado, Fady; Wehbeh, Ammar N; Fisher, Allan J; Bombard, Allan T; Weiner, Zeev

    2005-05-01

    We report 2 cases of 47,XXX that were diagnosed prenatally and were screened positive for trisomy 21 by biochemical and ultrasound markers. These cases underline the importance of discussing the sex chromosome abnormalities during the genetic counseling after an abnormal triple screen test or ultrasound examination.

  14. New Mexico women with no prenatal care: reasons, outcomes, and nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P G; Burton, M

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine why women received no prenatal care during pregnancy and their subsequent maternal and neonatal outcomes. Five hundred and eighty medical records from 1990 through 1993 that were labeled as no care were reviewed. Actually, only 270 records had no care and of these, 92 had 156 recorded reasons as to why women did not receive prenatal care. These reasons were categorized into three types of barriers: attitudinal, sociodemographic, and system-related. The majority of the women were young, Hispanic, unmarried, between 20 and 29 years of age, and uninsured, and had one to three children. Overall, the women did not smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use drugs during pregnancy. Overall, the women had good maternal and newborn outcomes. Results suggest a need to reevaluate the effect of prenatal care use on young Hispanic women.

  15. Prenatal exposure to ethanol disrupts spatial memory: effect of the training-testing delay period.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D B; Simson, P E

    1998-04-01

    The present study investigated how variations in the period of delay between training and testing in the Morris water maze task affect the use of spatial memory in adult rats that were prenatally exposed to ethanol. Previous results utilizing the Morris water maze task have shown that prenatal, or early postnatal, exposure to ethanol produces deficits in the use of spatial memory, a type of memory that is dependent on an intact hippocampus. However, in these prior studies the delay period between the training of animals and the testing of spatial memory is typically fixed at only 1 day. In the current study, which utilized a revised training procedure within the Morris water maze task, the period of delay between training and testing was altered such that it was either 1 day or 3 days. Following the 3-day delay, different levels of prenatal exposure to ethanol impaired the use of spatial memory. In contrast, following the 1-day delay, prenatal exposure to ethanol failed to impair the use of spatial memory. The present study thus shows that prenatal exposure to ethanol differentially affects spatial memory in the Morris water maze task depending on the period of delay between training and testing.

  16. Revision of Poa L. (Poaceae, Pooideae, Poeae, Poinae) in Mexico: new records, re-evaluation of P. ruprechtii, and two new species, P. palmeri and P. wendtii

    PubMed Central

    Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A revision and key to the 23 species and eight subspecies of Poa (including Dissanthelium) known to occur in Mexico is provided. All voucher specimens seen are cited for accepted taxa, except Poa annua for which one voucher per state is provided. Taxa not previously known from, or poorly understood in, Mexico are discussed.Poa palmeri sp. nov. is endemic to forested slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental, and we distinguished it from Poa ruprechtii s.s., a species of central Mexico that is here emended to include Poa sharpii (syn. nov.). Poa wendtii sp. nov. is described from the Sierra Santa Rosa in northern Coahuila. Poa tacanae is placed in synonymy in Poa seleri. Poa gymnantha and Poa occidentalis are newly reported for Mexico, and material historically identified as Poa villaroelii areplaced in Poa chamaeclinos.The genus Dissanthelium is considered to belong within Poa, and the Mexican taxa, Dissanthelium calycina subsp. mathewsii and Dissanthelium californicum, are treated as Poa calycina var. mathewsii and Poa thomasii, respectively. Poa subsect. Papillopoa subsect. nov. is erected for Poa mulleri. Lectotypes are designated for Poa conglomerata and Poa seleri. PMID:23185125

  17. Neural tube defects: issues in prenatal diagnosis and counselling.

    PubMed

    Main, D M; Mennuti, M T

    1986-01-01

    Neural tube defects are a heterogeneous group of malformations resulting from failure of neural tube closure during early embryogenesis. They range widely in severity from the lethal condition of anencephaly, to severely disabling meningomyeloceles, to completely surgically correctable meningoceles. Occurring in 1.4 to 1.6 per 1000 live births, neural tube defects rank second only to cardiac abnormalities as a cause of major congenital malformations in the United States. Technical developments over the past decade have enabled better detection of these conditions prenatally. Understanding of the etiology, neonatal treatment, and potential prevention of neural tube defects is increasing. Further, the ethical issues of treatment and screening are being widely discussed in both news magazines and the Congressional Record. Thus, it is timely to review this important area of prenatal counselling, diagnosis, and management.

  18. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at the New Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River.

  19. Effects of Prenatal Social Stress and Maternal Dietary Fatty Acid Ratio on Infant Temperament: Does Race Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Brunst, Kelly J.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kannan, Srimathi; Carroll, Kecia N.; Coull, Brent A.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant temperament predicts a range of developmental and behavioral outcomes throughout childhood. Both maternal fatty acid intake and psychosocial stress exposures during pregnancy may influence infant temperament. Furthermore, maternal race may modify prenatal diet and stress effects. The goals of this study are to examine the joint effects of prenatal diet and stress and the modifying effects of race on infant behavior. Methods Analyses included N=255 mother-infant dyads, primarily minorities (21% Blacks; 42% Hispanics), enrolled in an urban pregnancy cohort. Maternal prenatal stress was indexed by a negative life events (NLEs) score on the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey. Prenatal total daily intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (n3, n6) were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire; n3:n6 ratios were calculated. Mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), a measure of infant temperament, when the children were 6 months old. Three commonly used dimensions were derived: Orienting & Regulation, Extraversion, and Negative Affectivity. Associations among prenatal stress, maternal n3:n6 ratio, and race/ethnicity on infant temperament, controlling for maternal education and age and child sex, were examined. Results Among Blacks, prenatal stress effects on infant Orienting & Regulation scores were modified by maternal n3:n6 ratios (p=0.03): As NLEs increased, lower n3:n6 ratios predicted lower infant Orienting & Regulation scores, whereas higher n3:n6 ratios attenuated the effect of prenatal stress. There were no main or interaction effects predicting Extraversion or Negative Affectivity. Conclusions An optimal PUFA ratio may protect the fetus from stress effects on infant behavior, particularly among Blacks. These findings may have implications for later neurodevelopment and social functioning predicted by early temperamental characteristics. PMID:25328835

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformation.

    PubMed

    Peiro, Jose L; Scorletti, Federico; Sbragia, Lourenco

    2016-04-01

    Persistent cloaca malformation is the most severe type of anorectal and urogenital malformation. Decisions concerning the surgical treatment for this condition are taken during the first hours of life and may determine the quality of life of these patients. Thus, prenatal diagnosis becomes important for a prompt and efficient management of the fetus and newborn, and accurate counseling of the parents regarding its consequences and the future of the baby. Careful evaluation by ultrasonography, and further in-depth analysis with MRI, allow prenatal detection of characteristic findings, which can lead to diagnose or at least suspect this condition. We reviewed our experience and the literature in order to highlight the most important clues that can guide the physician in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26969229

  1. Revision of Ernst Antevs' New England Varve Chronology: A Record of Meltwater Production and Southeastern LIS Recession: 18.2-12.5 kyr BP (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridge, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    runoff, vegetation, and erosion on a recently deglaciated paraglacial landscape. However, in this case cooling events are recognized by higher sediment input and thicker varves. Comparison of varve thickness records to GISP2 ice core records (δ18O original measurements with GICC05 time scale applied) show that from 15.0-12.5 kyr BP climate changes of decadal and longer scale recorded in both records appear identical in spacing and magnitude. Independent time scales for both records (varve 14C calibration and ice core layer counts) are different by 55 yr (well within time scale uncertainties) when similar features in the two records are matched. Varves and the Greenland ice cores appear to simultaneously record the same regional climate changes or, less likely, there is a consistent offset at all scales. After 15.0 yr BP there appears to have been a link between North Atlantic climate and glacial processes (ablation, meltwater production, and ice recession/advance). Prior to 15.0 kyr BP, glacial events are marked by more subtle changes in varve thickness but there is only a weak relationship between varve thickness and Greenland climate.

  2. The Future of Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Pergament, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The future of prenatal diagnosis and screening lies in developing clinical approaches and laboratory technologies applicable to genetic analyses and therapeutic interventions during embryonic development. PMID:26237604

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. PMID:27241964

  4. Health information technology: standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria for electronic health record technology, 2014 edition; revisions to the permanent certification program for health information technology. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    With this final rule, the Secretary of Health and Human Services adopts certification criteria that establish the technical capabilities and specify the related standards and implementation specifications that Certified Electronic Health Record (EHR) Technology will need to include to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use by eligible professionals, eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs beginning with the EHR reporting periods in fiscal year and calendar year 2014. This final rule also makes changes to the permanent certification program for health information technology, including changing the program's name to the ONC HIT Certification Program. PMID:22946139

  5. Health information technology: standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria for electronic health record technology, 2014 edition; revisions to the permanent certification program for health information technology. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    With this final rule, the Secretary of Health and Human Services adopts certification criteria that establish the technical capabilities and specify the related standards and implementation specifications that Certified Electronic Health Record (EHR) Technology will need to include to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use by eligible professionals, eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs beginning with the EHR reporting periods in fiscal year and calendar year 2014. This final rule also makes changes to the permanent certification program for health information technology, including changing the program's name to the ONC HIT Certification Program.

  6. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%), who self-reported as black (1.8%) or mixed (1.2%), those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%), and those attending public (1.37%) or mixed (0.93%) health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions. Regional

  7. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. PMID:27348804

  8. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the impact of maternal self-esteem on children's inattention behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C.; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. Study design We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994 to 2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith-Self-esteem-Inventory. When children were 7-to-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners’ Parental-Rating-Scales-Revised (CPRS-R) and Behavior-Rating-Inventory-of-Executive-Function-Parent Form (BRIEF-P) were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Results Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, p-values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels < 0.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6-to-1.3-point decrease in CPRS-R and BRIEF-P T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Conclusions Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school-age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. PMID:26047683

  9. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations.

  10. [Advances in prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart diseases].

    PubMed

    Muner-Hernando, Marta; Gil-Mira, Mar; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2013-06-01

    Congenital heart diseases are the most frequent abnormalities at the time of delivery. Their importance lays in the fact that they represent 46% of neonatal deaths and they are cause of a high morbidity rate. However, an early diagnosis is difficult. The aim of this revision is to give an update on the advances in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart diseases and their advantages compared to conventional sonography. The introduction of new technology in the detection of congenital heart diseases has improved the acquisition of better images in terms of resolution and quality. However, there is a lack of large studies to prove its benefits in non-selected population, although preliminary studies seem to give faithful results.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Diukman, R; Goldberg, J D

    1993-01-01

    Advances in the prenatal diagnosis of inherited metabolic disease have provided new reproductive options to at-risk couples. These advances have occurred in both sampling techniques and methods of analysis. In this review we present an overview of the currently available prenatal diagnostic approaches for the diagnosis of metabolic disease in a fetus. Images PMID:8236980

  12. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  13. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  14. Prenatal microwave exposure and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The hypotheses for the initial investigation was based on the idea that failure to observe structural teratogenesis following microwave exposure did not preclude the possibility that such exposure would result in behavioral changes. We also proposed that such exposure might specifically alter some aspect of thermoregulatory behavior. The results of these studies support both of these hypotheses. Whether the studies show enhanced thermal sensitivity or enhanced development, they do support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to microwave radiation is more likely to alter postnatal sensitivity to thermally related stimuli or conditions as compared to stimuli that are thermally neutral.

  15. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

  16. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  17. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  18. Hemimegalencephaly: prenatal diagnosis and outcome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rosa María; García-Díaz, Lutgardo; Márquez, Javier; Fajardo, Manuel; Rivas, Eloy; García-Lozano, Juan Carlos; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a developmental abnormality of the central nervous system (CNS) which may present as either a syndromic or isolated case. Here, we present two cases of early prenatal diagnosis of HME. Prenatal CNS ultrasound and MRI in the first case revealed ventricular asymmetry, midline shift with displacement of the occipital lobe across the midline, large dilatation mainly at the posterior horn of the left lateral ventricle, and a head circumference in the 90th percentile without involvement of the brain stem and cerebellum, as well as abdominal lymphangioma. Right hemispherectomy was performed at 3 months of age due to intractable seizures. The pathological specimen showed findings characteristic of HME, including a disorganized cytoarchitecture with lack of neuronal lamination, focal areas of polymicrogyria, and neuronal heterotopias with dysplastic cells. In the second case, 2D and 3D neurosonography demonstrated similar findings (asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres, midline shift, and dilation of the posterior horn of the left lateral cerebral ventricle). Posterior fossa structures were unremarkable. HME was diagnosed and the pregnancy was terminated. Autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of HME.

  19. Within prisons, is there an association between the quantity of prenatal care and infant birthweight?

    PubMed

    Howard, David L; Strobino, Donna; Sherman, Susan; Crum, Rosa

    2008-07-01

    There is still controversy surrounding the effectiveness of prenatal care in reducing low birthweight. In addition, very few studies have assessed the relationship between prenatal care and infant birthweight among pregnant women within the prison system. We sought to ascertain whether there is an association between the quantity of prenatal care and infant birthweight among pregnant women within such a setting. We examined the prison medical records of 147 infants born to women delivering at term (37-41 weeks of gestation) between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2004 who were incarcerated during pregnancy in Texas state prisons. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the number of prison prenatal care visits and infant birthweight while adjusting for potential confounders (age, gravidity, maternal education, maternal race, history of substance use, history of alcohol use, history of tobacco use and the presence of any chronic disease). We also adjusted for the interaction between the gestational age at admission to prison and the number of prison prenatal care visits. There was a statistically significant 120.5 g increase in adjusted mean birthweight with each additional prison prenatal care visit (P = 0.001) among study infants whose mothers entered prison during the first trimester. This trend was not observed among women who came in after the first trimester. There appears to be a positive association between the amount of prison prenatal care and infant birthweight among incarcerated pregnant women delivering at term, but this association appears to be limited to women entering prison during the first trimester of pregnancy.

  20. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Caused by P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Hughes, Beverly A.; Ivison, Hannah E.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Hendon, Laura G.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Nielsen, Shelly; Harrison, Rachel; Blair, Edward M.; Dhir, Vivek; Krone, Nils; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies, also termed P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD). Major clinical features present in PORD are disordered sex development in affected individuals of both sexes, glucocorticoid deficiency, and multiple skeletal malformations. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish a noninvasive approach to prenatal diagnosis of PORD including assessment of malformation severity to facilitate optimized prenatal diagnosis and timely treatment. Design: We analyzed 20 pregnancies with children homozygous or compound heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations and 1 pregnancy with a child carrying a heterozygous POR mutation by recording clinical and biochemical presentations and fetal ultrasound findings. In 4 of the pregnancies (3 homozygous and 1 heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations), prenatal analysis of steroid metabolite excretion in maternal urine was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry during gestational weeks 11–23. Results: Pregnancy complications in our cohort included maternal virilization (6 of 20) with onset in the second trimester. Seven pregnant women presented with low unconjugated estriol at prenatal screening (triple or quadruple antenatal screening test). Overt dysmorphic features were noted in 19 of the 20 babies at birth but observed in only 5 by prenatal ultrasound. These 5 had the most severe malformation phenotypes and poor outcome, whereas the other babies showed normal development. Steroid profiling of maternal urine revealed significantly increased steroids of fetal origin, namely the pregnenolone metabolite epiallopregnanediol and the androgen metabolite androsterone, with concomitant low values for estriol. Diagnostic steroid ratios conclusively indicated PORD as early as gestational week 12. In the heterozygous

  1. The prenatal care at school program.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Carol H; Nasso, Jacqueline T; Swider, Susan; Ellison, Brenda R; Griswold, Daniel L; Brooks, Marilyn

    2013-06-01

    School absenteeism and poor compliance with prenatal appointments are concerns for pregnant teens. The Prenatal Care at School (PAS) program is a new model of prenatal care involving local health care providers and school personnel to reduce the need for students to leave school for prenatal care. The program combines prenatal care and education designed specifically for adolescents. Twenty-eight girls attended PAS in the fall of 2010. Program evaluation results showed a 14.2% increase in school attendance among students enrolled compared to peers enrolled the previous year, a 5.7% increase over a local teen clinic's attendance to their group prenatal care program, and a 42% increase in pregnancy and childbirth knowledge. Satisfaction surveys indicated that participants all believed that PAS helped prepare them for labor and delivery and 92% felt encouraged to stay in school. This pilot program benefited pregnant teens by increasing school educational time, improving preparation for labor and delivery, and increasing participation with prenatal care. PMID:23144051

  2. Postnatal Evaluation and Outcome of Prenatal Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ansari-Moghadam, Alireza; Rashidi, Somaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy. Objectives: There is a direct relationship between APD of renal pelvis and outcome of PNH. Therefore we were to find the best cutoff point APD of renal pelvis which leads to surgical outcome. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 200 patients 1 to 60 days old with diagnosis of PNH based on before or after birth ultrasonography; as a prenatal or postnatal detected, respectively. These patients were referred to the nephrology clinic in Zahedan Iran during 2011 to 2013. The first step of investigation was a postnatal renal US, by the same expert radiologist and classifying the patients into 3 groups; normal, mild/moderate and severe. The second step was to perform voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for mild/moderate to severe cases at 4 - 6 weeks of life. Tc-diethylene triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was the last step and for those with normal VCUG who did not show improvement in follow-up examination, US to evaluate obstruction and renal function. Finally all patients with mild/moderate to severe PNH received conservative therapy and surgery was preserved only for progressive cases, obstruction or renal function ≤35%. All patients’ data and radiologic information was recorded in separate data forms, and then analyzed by SPSS (version 22). Results: 200 screened PNH patients with male to female ratio 3.5:1 underwent first postnatal control US, of whom 65% had normal, 18% mild

  3. Prenatal and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Voet, Thierry; Devriendt, Koenraad

    2016-09-15

    The past decade has seen the development of technologies that have revolutionized prenatal genetic testing; that is, genetic testing from conception until birth. Genome-wide single-cell arrays and high-throughput sequencing analyses are dramatically increasing our ability to detect embryonic and fetal genetic lesions, and have substantially improved embryo selection for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Moreover, both invasive and non-invasive mutation scanning of the genome are helping to identify the genetic causes of prenatal developmental disorders. These advances are changing clinical practice and pose novel challenges for genetic counselling and prenatal care. PMID:27629932

  4. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances the trigeminocardiac reflex via serotonin receptor facilitation in brainstem pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, C.; Jameson, H.; Woerman, A. L.; Perry, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used a rat model for prenatal nicotine exposure to test whether clinically relevant concentrations of brain nicotine and cotinine are passed from dams exposed to nicotine to her pups, whether this changes the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), and whether serotonergic function in the TCR brainstem circuitry is altered. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 6 mg·kg−1·day−1 of nicotine via osmotic minipumps for the duration of pregnancy. Following birth dams and pups were killed, blood was collected, and brain nicotine and cotinine levels were measured. A separate group of prenatal nicotine-exposed pups was used for electrophysiological recordings. A horizontal brainstem slice was obtained by carefully preserving the trigeminal nerve with fluorescent identification of cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus. Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evoked excitatory postsynaptic current in CVNs. Our data demonstrate that prenatal nicotine exposure significantly exaggerates both the TCR-evoked changes in heart rate in conscious unrestrained pups, and the excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs upon trigeminal afferent nerve stimulation within this brainstem reflex circuit. Application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (100 μM) and 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ketanserin (10 μM)significantly decreased neurotransmission, indicating an increased facilitation of 5-HT function in prenatal nicotine-exposed animals. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances activation of 5-HT receptors and exaggerates the trigeminocardiac reflex. PMID:23766497

  5. Prenatal exposure: The effects of prenatal cocaine and methamphetamine exposure on the developing child.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lynne M; Santos, Lucinda S

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal substance use remains a significant issue in the United States. Initial reports regarding prenatal cocaine and methamphetamine exposure suggested profound adverse effects on child development. However, subsequent prospective, longitudinal investigations have found more subtle effects. What follows is a brief review of the health, growth, behavioral, and intellectual outcomes for children exposed to prenatal cocaine and prenatal methamphetamine. Factors that may mitigate or intensify subtle adverse effects manifested in exposed children will also be discussed. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:142-146, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27345014

  6. Prenatal cannibalism in an insect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Thomas; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2007-06-01

    Host selection and infection strategies of parasitoids often correlate with high parental investment and low numbers of progeny. In this study, we investigate how additional internal mechanisms might shape brood size and fitness of the offspring. Emblemasoma auditrix is a parasitoid fly in which about 38 larvae hatch simultaneously in utero. After host location, a single larva is deposited into the host, where it rapidly develops and pupates after about 5 days. The search for hosts can take several weeks, and during that time, the larvae arrest their development and remain in the first larval instar. Nevertheless, the larvae increase in weight within the uterus, and this growth correlates to a decrease in the number of larvae, although no larvae are deposited. Thus, our data indicate a first case of prenatal cannibalism in an invertebrate with larvae feeding on each other within the uterus of the adult.

  7. [Reverse genetics and prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Plauchu, H

    1988-05-01

    "Reverse" genetics is a research process consisting in finding the gene of a disease, then in "descending" toward the final product that it codes. This reasoning is the reverse of the one normally used which "ascends from the protein to the gene" and can be applied to the discovery of the pathogenic mechanism of a disease. There are numerous spin-offs of this new type of approach for prenatal diagnosis (PND). Thus, the discovery of polymorphic tracers surrounding the gene enables an indirect PND in informative families. Reliability is great if we have many probes at our disposal. Then, discovery of the gene itself permits a direct PND with the use of intragenic probes and synthetic oligonucleotides.

  8. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure Linked with Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... a sequence of effects following prenatal exposure to cocaine, a stimulant similar to methamphetamine. Identifying such problems ...

  9. Prenatal Care for the 80s

    PubMed Central

    Mohide, P. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite improvements in the last decade, Canada's perinatal mortality rate is still higher than those of many other developed countries. Consumer expectations have increased not only for a good outcome, but also a more personal and humane process. The physician has to make a decision to be involved in prenatal care. Appropriate steps are suggested for initial assessment, genetic evaluation, and ongoing prenatal care. PMID:21289752

  10. Steroids in the assessment of prenatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, G.; Kitchin, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for identifying the fetus at risk and monitoring fetal well-being as pregnancy progresses are now an established part of prenatal care in the Western World. In this short review the use of steroids in the assessment of prenatal development is discussed. The metabolism of oestrogens, progestogens, corticosteroids and androgens during pregnancy is outlined and the relative merits, in terms of usefulness and practicability, of urinary and plasma steroid assays are discussed. PMID:792854

  11. Recording and cataloging hazards information, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A data collection process is described for the purpose of discerning causation factors of accidents, and the establishment of boundaries or controls aimed at mitigating and eliminating accidents. A procedure is proposed that suggests a discipline approach to hazard identification based on energy interrelationships together with an integrated control technique which takes the form of checklists.

  12. Prenatal transportation stress alters temperament and serum cortisol concentrations in suckling Brahman calves.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, B P; Price, D M; Banta, J P; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2016-02-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor used was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 h at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves ( = 41) were compared with controls ( = 44; dams did not undergo transportation during pregnancy) from 2 wk of age until weaning (average age at weaning = 174.8 ± 1.3 d). Temperament was defined by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = excitable), exit velocity (EV; m/sec), and temperament score (TS; (PS + EV)/2) and was recorded for each calf on d -168, -140, -112, -84, -56, -28, and 0 relative to weaning (d 0 = weaning). Cortisol concentrations were determined in serum samples obtained on d -168, -140, -28, and 0 relative to weaning. Birth weight and weaning weight were not different between treatment groups ( > 0.1). Pen score was greater ( = 0.03) in prenatally stressed calves (2.84 ± 0.21) relative to controls (2.31 ± 0.21). Exit velocity was greater ( < 0.01) in prenatally stressed calves (2.1 ± 0.14 m/sec) than in controls (1.61 ± 0.14 m/sec). Exit velocity was affected by a treatment × calf sex interaction ( = 0.04) and was greater in prenatally stressed females. Exit velocity was also affected by day ( < 0.0001). Temperament score was greater ( = 0.01) in prenatally stressed calves (2.45 ± 0.16) than in controls (1.95 ± 0.16). Temperament score was affected by day ( < 0.01). Basal cortisol concentrations were greater ( = 0.04) in prenatally stressed calves (15.87 ± 1.04 ng/mL) than in controls (13.42 ± 1.03 ng/mL). Basal cortisol concentrations were greater ( < 0.01) in females (16.61 ± 1.06 ng/mL) than in males (12.68 ± 1.02 ng/mL). Cortisol concentrations were positively correlated ( < 0.01) with PS ( = 0.55, < 0.01), EV ( = 0.4, < 0.01), and TS ( = 0.55, < 0.01). Overall, suckling Brahman calves that were prenatally stressed were more temperamental and

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.Y.F.

    1996-03-01

    I read with great interest the paper on {open_quotes}Prenatal Diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: Implications for Postnatal Outcome{close_quotes} by Koeberl et al. They reported their experience with 12 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and made a clinical comparison between those 12 cases and their own 41 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. As expected, they found an overall milder phenotypic manifestation in the prenatal cases than in the postnatal ones. These authors report a lack of previous prognostic information on this type of prenatally diagnosis of mosaicism and offer their findings to fill this need. However, considerable information on this topic has been published. There have been >200 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX. According to my data on 189 cases with a prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (Hsu 1992), there are 114 cases with available information on phenotypic outcome. Of these, 12 (10.5%) were reported to have some features of Turner syndrome, 4 had other anomalies probably not related to Turner syndrome, and 2 resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate for an abnormal phenotype in this category was thus 16/114 (14.03%). However, we must realize that, even in patients with a nonmosaic 45,X complement, the major features of Turner syndrome, such as short stature and sexual infantilism, are manifested only later in childhood or in adolescence. 3 refs.

  14. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care.

  15. The Padua Inventory: Do Revisions Need Revision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonner, Sascha; Ecker, Willi; Leonhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties, factorial structure, and validity of the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision and of the Padua Inventory-Revised in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 228) and with anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 213). The…

  16. 76 FR 55880 - Recording Assignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...-1595) and the Trademark Recordation Form Cover Sheet (PTO-1594), which capture all of the necessary.... Data OMB Number: 0651-0027. Form Number(s): PTO-1594 and PTO-1595. Type of Review: Revision of a... Recordation Form Cover Sheet (PTO-1595) 30 100,115 50,058 Trademark Recordation Form Cover Sheet (PTO-1594)...

  17. Prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer in twins

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, E.B.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Honeyman, M.; Flannery, J.T.

    1985-02-28

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to x-rays and childhood cancer, including leukemia, in over 32,000 twins born in Connecticut from 1930 to 1969. Twins as opposed to single births were chosen for study to reduce the likelihood of medical selection bias, since twins were often exposed to x-rays to diagnose the twin pregnancy or to determine fetal positioning before delivery and not because of medical conditions that may conceivably pre-dispose to cancer. Each of 31 incident cases of cancer, identified by linking the Connecticut twin and tumor registries, was matched with four twin controls according to sex, year of birth, and race. Records of hospitals, radiologists, and private physicians were searched for histories of x-ray exposure and other potentially important risk factors. Documented prenatal x-ray exposures were found for 39 per cent of the cases (12 of 31) and for 26 per cent of the controls (28 of 109). No other pregnancy, delivery, or maternal conditions were associated with cancer risk except low birth weight: 38 per cent of the cases as compared with 25 per cent of the controls weighed under 2.27 kg at birth. When birth weight was adjusted for, twins in whom leukemia or other childhood cancer developed were twice as likely to have been exposed to x-rays in utero as twins who were free of disease (relative risk, 2.4; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.9). The results, though based on small numbers, provide further evidence that low-dose prenatal irradiation may increase the risk of childhood cancer.

  18. Neandertals revised

    PubMed Central

    Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen a significant growth of our knowledge of the Neandertals, a population of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers who lived in (western) Eurasia between ∼400,000 and 40,000 y ago. Starting from a source population deep in the Middle Pleistocene, the hundreds of thousands of years of relative separation between African and Eurasian groups led to the emergence of different phenotypes in Late Pleistocene Europe and Africa. Both recently obtained genetic evidence and archeological data show that the biological and cultural gaps between these populations were probably smaller than previously thought. These data, reviewed here, falsify inferences to the effect that, compared with their near-modern contemporaries in Africa, Neandertals were outliers in terms of behavioral complexity. It is only around 40,000 y ago, tens of thousands of years after anatomically modern humans first left Africa and thousands of years after documented interbreeding between modern humans, Neandertals and Denisovans, that we see major changes in the archeological record, from western Eurasia to Southeast Asia, e.g., the emergence of representational imagery and the colonization of arctic areas and of greater Australia (Sahul). PMID:27274044

  19. Neandertals revised.

    PubMed

    Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant growth of our knowledge of the Neandertals, a population of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers who lived in (western) Eurasia between ∼400,000 and 40,000 y ago. Starting from a source population deep in the Middle Pleistocene, the hundreds of thousands of years of relative separation between African and Eurasian groups led to the emergence of different phenotypes in Late Pleistocene Europe and Africa. Both recently obtained genetic evidence and archeological data show that the biological and cultural gaps between these populations were probably smaller than previously thought. These data, reviewed here, falsify inferences to the effect that, compared with their near-modern contemporaries in Africa, Neandertals were outliers in terms of behavioral complexity. It is only around 40,000 y ago, tens of thousands of years after anatomically modern humans first left Africa and thousands of years after documented interbreeding between modern humans, Neandertals and Denisovans, that we see major changes in the archeological record, from western Eurasia to Southeast Asia, e.g., the emergence of representational imagery and the colonization of arctic areas and of greater Australia (Sahul). PMID:27274044

  20. Prenatal testing for genetic disorders among Arabs.

    PubMed

    Zlotogora, J; Reshef, N

    1998-03-01

    Since, at least in the near future, prenatal testing and abortion of affected fetuses will remain the main way of the prevention of genetic diseases, knowledge about the way of its acceptance in different cultures is important. The Israeli population includes two major groups: Jewish and Arabs, but while there is wide experience about the Jewish population and its attitude towards prenatal testing, little is known about the Arab population. This knowledge is particularly important, since genetic disorders are relatively frequent in the Arab world (Teebi and Farag, 1997). From 1992 to 1996, 816 prenatal tests were performed in our department on Arab women [143 chorionic villus sampling (CVS) procedures and 673 amniocenteses]. The indication for an early prenatal test was a high risk for a monogenic disorder in 140 out of the 146 tests performed (143 CVS procedures and three early amniocenteses). In 26 cases, the fetus was found to be affected and early abortion was chosen by the couple in 25 cases (96 per cent). The 670 late prenatal tests were done for various reasons including monogenic disorders (13 per cent), increased risk because of a previous child affected with Down syndrome or a neural tube defect (4.8 per cent), and an increased risk for a chromosomal aberration (78 per cent). In 31 cases of a late prenatal test, the fetus was found to be affected and only 21 couples (70 per cent) opted for an abortion. The major reason for this observation is probably related to religious and cultural factors. Since Arab women do not wish to have prenatal testing for only knowledge or reassurance, these factors should be taken into consideration during pre-amniocentesis counselling. PMID:9556038

  1. Prenatal stress and brain development.

    PubMed

    Charil, Arnaud; Laplante, David P; Vaillancourt, Cathy; King, Suzanne

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been linked to abnormal cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in both animals and humans. Animal studies have clearly demonstrated PS effects on the offspring's brain, however, while it has been speculated that PS most likely affects the brains of exposed human fetuses as well, no study has to date examined this possibility prospectively using an independent stressor (i.e., a stressful event that the pregnant woman has no control over, such as a natural disaster). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing animal literature by focusing on specific brain regions that have been shown to be affected by PS both macroscopically and microscopically. These regions include the hippocampus, amygdala, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus. We first discuss the mechanisms by which the effects of PS might occur. In particular, we show that maternal and fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, and the placenta, are the most likely candidates for these mechanisms. We see that, although animal studies have obvious advantages over human studies, the integration of findings in animals and the transfer of these findings to human populations remains a complex issue. Finally, we show how it is possible to circumvent these challenges by studying the effects of PS on brain development directly in humans, by taking advantage of natural or man-made disasters and assessing the impact and consequences of such stressful events on pregnant women and their offspring prospectively.

  2. [Prenatal diagnosis of choledochal cyst].

    PubMed

    Hernández Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Flores Santos, Roberto; Hinojosa Salinas, Adán; Ramos González, René; Ramírez González, Beatriz

    2013-02-01

    The choledocal cyst is a defect of the biliary extrahepatic route, the incidence is 1 in 100-150,000 newborns. This paper reports the case of a female newborn with choledocal cyst detected prenatally, from a 32-year-old mother, 2nd term pregnancy, who was diagnosed in the routine obstetric ultrasound as an abdominal fetal cyst. An anatomic obstetric ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis that was defined of a probable hepatic origin. Newborn was delivered at 39 weeks by caesarean section, with weight of 3,980 g and Apgar score 9-9 in conventional time. Newborn presented a maxim bilirubin level of 16 mg, controlled with phototherapy; the hepatic function was normal. Ultrasound showed a choledocal cyst which measured 50 x 49 x 48 mm, with dilatation of the hepatic common conduct, the gall bladder was normal. The abdominal scan reported a cystic mass in the middle abdominal region of 44 x 53 x 52 mm confirming a choledocal cyst. The diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Patient had a satisfactory post-surgical evolution. PMID:23596735

  3. Predictive accuracy of the Miller assessment for preschoolers in children with prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L; Harris, Susan R

    2005-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP) is a standardized test purported to identify preschool-aged children at risk for later learning difficulties. We evaluated the predictive validity of the MAP Total Score, relative to later cognitive performance and across a range of possible cut-points, in 37 preschool-aged children with prenatal drug exposure. Criterion measures were the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), Test of Early Reading Ability-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, and Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. The highest predictive accuracy was demonstrated when the WPPSI-R was the criterion measure. The 14th percentile cutoff point demonstrated the highest predictive accuracy across all measures.

  4. DEC Personnel Preparation Standards: Revision 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Cochran, Deborah C.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Christensen, Kimberly A.; Stayton, Vicki D.

    2011-01-01

    The revision and process of validation of standards for early childhood special education (ECSE) and early intervention (EI) personnel at the initial and advanced levels of preparation, which occurred during 2005-2008, are described to provide a record of the process and to inform future cycles of standards revision. Central components focus on…

  5. Knowledge, action and resistance: the selective use of pre-natal screening among Bedouin women of the Negev, Israel.

    PubMed

    Lewando-Hundt, G; Shoham-Vardi, I; Beckerleg, S; Belmaker, I; Kassem, F; Jaafar, A A

    2001-02-01

    The selective use of prenatal screening by Bedouin women attending Ministry of Health, maternal and child health clinics in Israel is examined. The data consist of a review of 537 prenatal care records, 16 in depth interviews with mothers, and four interviews with health personnel. These data are part of a larger study that took place between 1994-99 amongst Negev Bedouin women, part of the Palestinian Arab minority within Israel. The record review shows that the majority of women who attend prenatal care do not take up referrals for Maternal Serum Alpha Feto Protein (MSAFP) testing or for amniocentesis tests. Although many women interviewed talked about the value of prenatal screening, they also spoke of 'false alarms' that may result from testing. Similarly, women were aware that the socially preferred pattern of consanguinity in marriage amongst the Bedouin may cause medical problems, however test uptake was unrelated to consanguinity. There was a variety of views concerning the permissibility of terminating a pregnancy. This study shows that women use prenatal screening selectively in a way that helps them to balance social and medical risk.

  6. [Osteochondrodysplasias. Prenatal diagnosis and pathological-anatomic findings].

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, C; Bartho, S; Bollmann, R; Schwenke, A; Nitz, I; Rothe, K

    1993-03-01

    Prenatal sonographic investigations were applied for malformations to 7,194 foetuses, between October 1985 and April 1992, with 28 cases of osteochondrodysplasia (OCD) and one case of dysostosis being dissected. Included were 20 cases of lethal osteochondrodysplasia, among them two cases of lethal hypophosphatasia, five cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case each of Type II shortrib (polydactyly) syndrome (VERMA-NAUMOFF) and metatropic dysplasia, three cases of campomelic dysplasia and eight cases of Type II A imperfect osteogenesis. Also observed were eight cases of nonlethal OCD, among them three cases of diastrophic dysplasia and five of achondroplasia. Dysostosis was recorded from one case and was diagnosed as Type V acrocephalosyndactyly (Pfeiffer). Identification of a specific OCD proved to be difficult in the second or third trimenon. Hence, the form of OCD was prenatally diagnosed only in ten of all cases investigated. Tentative diagnosis was first established from the postmortem radiograph. Additional malformations and other abnormalities then were detected by complementary pathologico-anatomic processing of findings. The final diagnosis was derived from radiological, pathologico-anatomic and histological findings. Diagnosis of this constitutional osteopathy is quite difficult and calls for interdisciplinary cooperation between gynaecologists, neonatologists, paediatric surgeons, radiologists, geneticists and pathologists. More effective counselling of affected families is the major purpose of all the efforts involved. PMID:8499423

  7. A fingerprint characteristic associated with the early prenatal environment.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Henry S; Graff, Mariaelisa; Stein, Aryeh D; Zybert, Patricia A; McKeague, Ian W; Lumey, L H

    2008-01-01

    Fingerprints and fingertip ridge counts (RCs) have a significant genetic component. However, they also reflect the nongenetic environment of early pregnancy, an important time window for tissue differentiation and organogenesis. Fingerprints are permanently configured before the 20th week of gestation, and each fingertip's RC is related to the growth and regression of its early fetal volar pads. Rostral and caudal aspects of the embryonic limb bud have different relations to somite segments and to morphogen-activator functions. We hypothesized, therefore, that early fetal circumstances would be associated with a contrast in RCs between the thumb (digit 1) and little finger (digit 5). We obtained RCs from the fingerprints of a sample of 658 Dutch adults identified through prenatal and delivery records of Dutch urban births occurring during 1943-1947, an historical era that included months of wartime disruption with a winter famine. We calculated the mean of left- and right-hand RC differences between digits 1 and 5 (Md15). The Md15 fluctuated in relation to the calendar season of the mother's last menstrual period, but only if the gestation occurred outside of the wartime disruption interval. If the gestation occurred during the disruption interval, the Md15 seasonal fluctuation was not evident. This finding suggests that parental environmental factors may influence the fingerprints of the offspring. Fingerprint RC differences observed in postnatal life may be useful in the study of metabolic or anatomic programming related to the early prenatal environment.

  8. Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. METHODS Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of age, with determination of prenatal PAH exposure through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH exposure and IQ. RESULTS After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m3) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-exposure group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (≤2.26 ng/m3). The associations between logarithmically transformed, continuous, PAH levels and these IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: β = −3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: β = −3.53; P = .002). CONCLUSION These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect children’s IQ adversely. PMID:19620194

  9. Prenatal Depressive Symptoms and Toddler Behavior Problems: The Role of Maternal Sensitivity and Child Sex.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Renee C; Hans, Sydney L

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that maternal depression during pregnancy is associated with child behavioral outcomes even after accounting for later maternal depression. The purpose of this study was to examine various mechanisms, including maternal sensitivity, neonatal problems, and concurrent maternal depression, that might explain the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavior problems. Young, low income, African American mothers (n = 196) were interviewed during pregnancy and at 24-months postpartum, medical records were collected at the birth, and mother-child interactions were video-recorded at 24 months. Path analyses revealed that the association between prenatal depression and toddler behavior problems was mediated by maternal sensitivity and maternal depressive symptoms at 24 months. No evidence was found for a mediating effect of neonatal problems. Path models examining sex differences suggested that different mediating factors may be important for boys and girls, with boys being particularly susceptible to the effects of maternal sensitivity. PMID:26521260

  10. Prenatal Depressive Symptoms and Toddler Behavior Problems: The Role of Maternal Sensitivity and Child Sex.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Renee C; Hans, Sydney L

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that maternal depression during pregnancy is associated with child behavioral outcomes even after accounting for later maternal depression. The purpose of this study was to examine various mechanisms, including maternal sensitivity, neonatal problems, and concurrent maternal depression, that might explain the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavior problems. Young, low income, African American mothers (n = 196) were interviewed during pregnancy and at 24-months postpartum, medical records were collected at the birth, and mother-child interactions were video-recorded at 24 months. Path analyses revealed that the association between prenatal depression and toddler behavior problems was mediated by maternal sensitivity and maternal depressive symptoms at 24 months. No evidence was found for a mediating effect of neonatal problems. Path models examining sex differences suggested that different mediating factors may be important for boys and girls, with boys being particularly susceptible to the effects of maternal sensitivity.

  11. The economic impact of revision otologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Nadimi, Sahar; Leonetti, John P; Pontikis, George

    2016-03-01

    Revision otologic surgery places a significant economic burden on patients and the healthcare system. We conducted a retrospective chart analysis to estimate the economic impact of revision canal-wall-down (CWD) mastoidectomy. We reviewed the medical records of all 189 adults who had undergone CWD mastoidectomy performed by the senior author between June 2006 and August 2011 at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Ill. Institutional charges and collections for all patients were extrapolated to estimate the overall healthcare cost of revision surgery in Illinois and at the national level. Of the 189 CWD mastoidectomies, 89 were primary and 100 were revision procedures. The total charge for the revision cases was $2,783,700, and the net reimbursement (collections) was $846,289 (30.4%). Using Illinois Hospital Association data, we estimated that reimbursement for 387 revision CWD mastoidectomies that had been performed in fiscal year 2011 was nearly $3.3 million. By extrapolating our data to the national level, we estimated that 9,214 patients underwent revision CWD mastoidectomy in the United States during 2011, which cost the national healthcare system roughly $76 million, not including lost wages and productivity. Known causes of failed CWD mastoidectomies that often result in revision surgery include an inadequate meatoplasty, a facial ridge that is too high, residual diseased air cells, and recurrent cholesteatoma. A better understanding of these factors can reduce the need for revision surgery, which could have a positive impact on the economic strain related to this procedure at the local, state, and national levels. PMID:26991218

  12. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Miller, Mark F

    2015-10-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong links between low-level early-life environmental exposures and the later development of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease, reproductive effects, immune system function and cancer. Now scientists must engage with communities, industry, policy makers, and clinicians to leverage our newfound understanding of prenatal programing and toxicity into better health outcomes across the lifespan. PMID:26241073

  13. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    PubMed

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  14. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Miller, Mark F

    2015-10-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong links between low-level early-life environmental exposures and the later development of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease, reproductive effects, immune system function and cancer. Now scientists must engage with communities, industry, policy makers, and clinicians to leverage our newfound understanding of prenatal programing and toxicity into better health outcomes across the lifespan.

  15. Associations of Prenatal Growth with Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Nutritional Status in Chilean Children

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Francisco; Arnaiz, Pilar; Pacheco, Paz; Dominguez, Angelica; Villarroel, Luis; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barja, Salesa; Farías, Marcelo; Castillo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS), and insulin resistance (IR) was studied in school-age children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. Results. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years) were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW) and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01–4.40) at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500–2,999). The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL) and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66–20.67) at BL < 48 cm compared to BL 52-53 cm). A U-shaped association between BL and BP ≥ 90th percentile was observed. Significant ORs were also found for MS and IR. Adjustments for present fat mass increased or maintained the most prenatal growth influences. Conclusions. Prenatal growth influences MS, IR, and nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes. PMID:25025054

  16. Validation of Minimum Data of Archetyped Telehealth Clinical Report for Monitoring Prenatal Care.

    PubMed

    Santos Alves, Danielle; Times, Valéria Cesário; de Araújo Novaes, Magdala

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the validation of minimum data sets from international information standards have drawn the attention of the academic community to the identification of necessary requirements for the development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). The primary motivation of such studies is the development of systems using archetypes. The aim of this study was to validate the minimum data set that should be used when constructing an archetyped EHR for prenatal care applications in telehealth. In order to achieve this, a data validation tool was built and used by nine expert obstetricians. The statistical analysis employed was the percentage of agreement and the content validity index. The study was conducted in three steps: 1) Literature review, 2)Instrument development, and 3) Validation of the minimum data set. Of the 179 evaluated pieces of data, 157 of them were validated to be included in the archetyped record of the first prenatal consultation, while 56 of them were allocated for the subsequent consultation record. The benefit of this research is the standardization (data validation for an archetyped system) of prenatal care, with the perspective of employing, both nationally and internationally, an archtyped telehealth system. PMID:26262011

  17. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Wood Fuel Smoke and Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Amna R.; Gold, Ellen B.; Yang, Xiaowei; Lee, Kiyoung; Brown, Kenneth H.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal exposure to wood fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth due to hypoxia and or oxidative stress from smoke constituents such as carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Objectives We studied the risk of low birth weight (LBW) and reduced mean birth weight in relation to reported use of wood for cooking during the prenatal period, compared with natural gas (NG). Methods We studied a historical cohort of women who had a singleton live birth in the years 2000–2002, from a semirural area of Pakistan. Infant’s birth weight was obtained from records, and prenatal records had data for maternal body mass index and parity. Cooking habits, daytime sleep habits, and type of fuel used during the pregnancies in 2000–2002 were ascertained by a survey done in 2004–2005. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression modeling using propensity scores to adjust for confounding variables. Results Unadjusted mean (± SD) birth weight was 2.78 ± 0.45 kg in wood users, and 2.84 ± 0.43 kg (p < 0.06) in NG users. Infants born to wood users averaged 82 g lighter than infants born to NG users when weight was adjusted for confounders (p < 0.07). The rate of LBW (< 2,500 g) was 22.7% among wood users compared with 15.0% in NG users (p < 0.01), for an adjusted relative risk of 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.10–2.34). The population attributable risk for LBW explained by wood use was estimated to be 24%. Conclusion Cooking with wood fuel during pregnancy, a potentially modifiable exposure, was associated with LBW and marginally lower mean birth weight compared with using NG. PMID:18414641

  19. Prenatal diagnosis and assessment of congenital spinal anomalies: Review for prenatal counseling.

    PubMed

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Ketwaroo, Pamela Deaver; Estroff, Judy A; Warf, Benjamin C; Emans, John B; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-07-18

    The last two decades have seen continuous advances in prenatal ultrasonography and in utero magnetic resonance imaging. These technologies have increasingly enabled the identification of various spinal pathologies during early stages of gestation. The purpose of this paper is to review the range of fetal spine anomalies and their management, with the goal of improving the clinician's ability to counsel expectant parents prenatally. PMID:27458551

  20. Prenatal diagnosis and assessment of congenital spinal anomalies: Review for prenatal counseling

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Ketwaroo, Pamela Deaver; Estroff, Judy A; Warf, Benjamin C; Emans, John B; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen continuous advances in prenatal ultrasonography and in utero magnetic resonance imaging. These technologies have increasingly enabled the identification of various spinal pathologies during early stages of gestation. The purpose of this paper is to review the range of fetal spine anomalies and their management, with the goal of improving the clinician’s ability to counsel expectant parents prenatally. PMID:27458551

  1. Prenatal nutrition services: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Splett, P L; Caldwell, H M; Holey, E S; Alton, I R

    1987-02-01

    The scarcity of information about program costs in relation to quality care prompted a cost analysis of prenatal nutrition services in two urban settings. This study examined prenatal nutrition services in terms of total costs, per client costs, per visit costs, and cost per successful outcome. Standard cost-accounting principles were used. Outcome measures, based on written quality assurance criteria, were audited using standard procedures. In the studied programs, nutrition services were delivered for a per client cost of $72 in a health department setting and $121 in a hospital-based prenatal care program. Further analysis illustrates that total and per client costs can be misleading and that costs related to successful outcomes are much higher. The three levels of cost analysis reported provide baseline data for quantifying the costs of providing prenatal nutrition services to healthy pregnant women. Cost information from these cost analysis procedures can be used to guide adjustments in service delivery to assure successful outcomes of nutrition care. Accurate cost and outcome data are necessary prerequisites to cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies.

  2. Coadaptation of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Lock, Judith E; Smiseth, Per T; Moore, Patricia J; Moore, Allen J

    2007-11-01

    In a wide variety of species, a female's age of first reproduction influences offspring size and survival, suggesting that there exists an optimal timing of reproduction. Mothers in many species also influence offspring size and survival after birth through variation in parental care. We experimentally separated these effects in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides to test for coadaptation between prenatal and postnatal maternal effects associated with age at first reproduction. Females that reproduced early produced offspring with lower birth weight. The amount of parental care depended on the age of first reproduction of the caretaker, as did the extent of offspring begging. As predicted for a coadaptation of maternal effects, prenatal and postnatal effects were opposite for different-aged mothers, and larval weight gain and survival was greatest when the age of the caretaker and birth mother matched. Thus, prenatal effects intrinsically associated with age of first reproduction can be ameliorated by innate plasticity in postnatal care. A coadaptation of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects may evolve to allow variable timing of the first reproductive attempt. Such a coadaptation might be particularly valuable when females are constrained from reproducing at an optimal age, as, for example, in species that breed on scarce and unpredictable resources.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Laxmi Devi; Hamza, Zareena V; Thampi, Madhavan Venugopalan; Nampoothiri, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period. PMID:27081225

  4. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Laxmi Devi; Hamza, Zareena V; Thampi, Madhavan Venugopalan; Nampoothiri, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period.

  6. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  7. Prenatal Drug Exposure: Meeting the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sluder, Linda C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Stresses need for early childhood educators to be prepared for prenatal drug exposed children, who may exhibit multiple disabilities in many areas. Suggests that cognitive and behavioral extremes preclude a list of best practices with this population. Recommends small, stable learning environments. Discusses need for educators and care providers…

  8. Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2005-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

  9. A teen-driven prenatal program.

    PubMed

    Fedak, J M; Peart, D E; Connolly, L M

    1996-01-01

    After years of achieving only disappointing participation rates in a prenatal program for pregnant adolescents, public health nurses in Brantford, Ontario, evaluated the program and reviewed other prenatal programs to determine how to improve attendance. The results of the evaluation indicated that the adolescents thought the prenatal program was not important or relevant. Using adolescent development theory, a new prenatal program was designed with the help of adolescents. This new program utilizes three teaching approaches: provision of relevant information, offering of information on a "need to know" basis, and provision of problem-solving activities. Topics such as how to deal with the pain of labor; how to care for an infant; and the health hazards of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco are presented using small group exercises and games. Problem-solving skills are developed through large and small group discussions, games, puzzles, and activities incorporating movement. The new 10-week program has been in effect since 1993 and has proved to be so popular that additional series have been necessary. Program participants are pregnant teenagers, the fathers of their babies, and/or their labor coaches. Because the classes are scheduled at supper time, they include a hands-on nutritional component in the form of meal preparation. Ongoing evaluations echo the good results revealed by the improved attendance figures and allow the participants to recommend new methods and ideas for the course. One such idea developed into a weekly postnatal drop-in program. PMID:8920557

  10. Prenatal depression effects and interventions: a review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-12-01

    This review covers research on the negative effects of prenatal depression and cortisol on fetal growth, prematurity and low birthweight. Although prenatal depression and cortisol were typically measured at around 20 weeks gestation, other research suggests the stability of depression and cortisol levels across pregnancy. Women with Dysthymia as compared to Major Depression Disorder had higher cortisol levels, and their newborns had lower gestational age and birthweight. The cortisol effects in these studies were unfortunately confounded by low serotonin and low dopamine levels which in themselves could contribute to non-optimal pregnancy outcomes. The negative effects of depression and cortisol were also potentially confounded by comorbid anxiety, by demographic factors including younger age, less education and lower SES of the mothers and by the absence of a partner or a partner who was unhappy about the pregnancy or a partner who was depressed. Substance use (especially caffeine use) was still another risk factor. All of these problems including prenatal depression, elevated cortisol, prematurity and low birthweight and even postpartum depression have been reduced by prenatal massage therapy provided by the women's partners. Massage therapy combined with group interpersonal psychotherapy was also effective for reducing depression and cortisol levels. Several limitations of these studies were noted and suggestions for future research included exploring other predictor variables like progesterone/estriol ratios, immune factors and genetic determinants. Further research is needed both on the potential use of cortisol as a screening measure and the use of other therapies that might reduce prenatal depression and cortisol in the women and prematurity and low birthweight in their infants.

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  12. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  13. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  14. [Production of data for the pre-natal information system in basic health units].

    PubMed

    Lima, Aline Pinto de; Corrêa, Aurea Christina de Paula

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the process of data production for Information System Prenatal and Birth (SISPRENATAL) in Basic Health Units of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. This qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was developed in eight units of Basic Health Coordination, through semi-structured interviews with professionals who worked with SISPRENATAL (nurses, physicians, managers and data entry) and comparative document analysis between system data and the written patient records. Data analysis revealed a lack of definition of the team's participation in the production of data and different modes of completing forms within the system. Professionals' knowledge about many aspects of the formswas divergent, completion of the forms was inadequate, and flaws in the computerized system were identified. Measures such as professional training, the review of the system and its forms are indispensible for the production of reliable information about prenatal care in the municipality.

  15. Prenatal Phenol and Phthalate Exposures and Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Mary S.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J.; Zhu, Chenbo; Wetmur, James; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many phthalates and phenols are hormonally active and are suspected to alter the course of development. Objective We investigated prenatal exposures to phthalate and phenol metabolites and their associations with body size measures of the infants at birth. Methods We measured 5 phenol and 10 phthalate urinary metabolites in a multiethnic cohort of 404 women in New York City during their third trimester of pregnancy and recorded size of infants at birth. Results Median urinary concentrations were > 10 μg/L for 2 of 5 phenols and 6 of 10 phthalate monoester metabolites. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight phthalate monoesters (low-MWP) were approximately 5-fold greater than those of high-molecular-weight metabolites. Low-MWP metabolites had a positive association with gestational age [0.97 day gestational age per ln-biomarker; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07–1.9 days, multivariate adjusted] and with head circumference. Higher prenatal exposures to 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) predicted lower birth weight in boys (−210 g average birth weight difference between the third tertile and first tertile of 2,5-DCP; 95% CI, 71–348 g). Higher maternal benzophenone-3 (BP3) concentrations were associated with a similar decrease in birth weight among girls but with greater birth weight in boys. Conclusions We observed a range of phthalate and phenol exposures during pregnancy in our population, but few were associated with birth size. The association of 2,5-DCP and BP3 with reduced or increased birth weight could be important in very early or small-size births. In addition, positive associations of urinary metabolites with some outcomes may be attributable partly to unresolved confounding with maternal anthropometric factors. PMID:18709157

  16. Regional disparities in prenatal care services in rural China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Shen, Jay J; Chen, Gang; Moseley, Charles B; Sun, Mei; Gao, Fei; Wang, Ying; Mao, Yuming; Hao, Mo

    2011-09-01

    The study compared the prenatal care programs in the Central-East, Northwest, and Southwest regions of China. Data were collected on 14 indicators of the quality of the prenatal care process, as well as the percentage of women with high-risk pregnancies who were screened. The average number of prenatal examinations for those women who received prenatal care was 5.01, and 62.6% of pregnant women had their first examination within 12 weeks of their pregnancy. About 35% of these pregnant women had at least 1 high-risk screening, and 20.8% had 3 high-risk screenings. Among the 3 regions, the Central-East region had the best overall quality prenatal services, and the Northwest area had the poorest quality. The quality of prenatal health care in poor, rural China is in need of improvement.

  17. Religious Traditions and Prenatal Genetic Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rebecca Rae

    2009-01-01

    Members of organized religious groups may look to their faith traditions for guidance regarding the moral implications of prenatal diagnosis and intervention. Many denominations have doctrinal statements relevant to these deliberations. In this paper, common spiritual issues arising in the genetic counseling encounter are described. Representative doctrinal positions, derived from the responses of 31 U.S. religious denominations to a survey relating to prenatal genetic counseling, are given. Because the long-term adjustment of patients may be dependent in part on their ability to reconcile their actions with their faith traditions, genetic counselors best serve their patients when they invite discussion of matters of faith. Unless invited, patients may assume these topics are ‘off limits’ or that care providers are indifferent to their beliefs. Although genetics professionals ought not assume the role of spiritual advisor, a working knowledge of doctrinal approaches should help counselors frame the issues, and avoid missteps. PMID:19170093

  18. Prenatal nutritional influence on skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Elizabeth; Cheah, Jonathan; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that prenatal nutritional factors may have long-term effects on the offspring. Osteoporosis is a worldwide public health problem leading to both morbidity and mortality, through associated bone fractures. Although in clinical practice most effort in fracture prevention is aimed at slowing the rate of age-related bone loss, there is accumulating evidence that peak bone mass, achieved in early adulthood, is an important factor in determining bone strength in later life. A variety of studies have shown that peak bone mass is influenced by early life events, including nutrition in the prenatal period. This chapter will use the example of bone development to consider the effects of maternal diet and nutritional status on the offspring. PMID:23428680

  19. Prenatal environmental exposures, epigenetics, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica; Herbstman, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes recent evidence that prenatal exposure to diverse environmental chemicals dysregulates the fetal epigenome, with potential consequences for subsequent developmental disorders and disease manifesting in childhood, over the lifecourse, or even transgenerationally. The primordial germ cells, embryo, and fetus are highly susceptible to epigenetic dysregulation by environmental chemicals, which can thereby exert multiple adverse effects. The data reviewed here on environmental contaminants have potential implications for risk assessment although more data are needed on individual susceptibility to epigenetic alterations and their persistence before this information can be used in formal risk assessments. The findings discussed indicate that identification of environmental chemicals that dysregulate the prenatal epigenome should be a priority in health research and disease prevention. PMID:21256208

  20. Structural chromosomal mosaicism and prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pipiras, E; Dupont, C; Chantot-Bastaraud, S; Siffroi, J P; Bucourt, M; Batallan, A; Largillière, C; Uzan, M; Wolf, J P; Benzacken, B

    2004-02-01

    True structural chromosomal mosaicism are rare events in prenatal cytogenetics practice and may lead to diagnostic and prognostic problems. Here is described the case of a fetus carrying an abnormal chromosome 15 made of a whole chromosome 2p translocated on its short arm in 10% of the cells, in association with a normal cell line. The fetal karyotype was 46,XX,add(15)(p10).ish t(2;15)(p10;q10)(WCP2+)[3]/46,XX[27]. Pregnancy was terminated and fetus examination revealed a growth retardation associated with a dysmorphism including dolichocephaly, hypertelorism, high forehead, low-set ears with prominent anthelix and a small nose, which were characteristic of partial trisomy 2p. Possible aetiologies for prenatal mosaicism involving a chromosomal structural abnormality are discussed. PMID:14974115

  1. Noninvasive prenatal testing: limitations and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Lutgendorf, Monica A; Stoll, Katie A; Knutzen, Dana M; Foglia, Lisa M

    2014-04-01

    The clinical use of noninvasive prenatal testing to screen high-risk patients for fetal aneuploidy is becoming increasingly common. Initial studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity, and there is hope that these tests will result in a reduction of invasive diagnostic procedures as well as their associated risks. Guidelines on the use of this testing in clinical practice have been published; however, data on actual test performance in a clinical setting are lacking, and there are no guidelines on quality control and assurance. The different noninvasive prenatal tests employ complex methodologies, which may be challenging for health-care providers to understand and utilize in counseling patients, particularly as the field continues to evolve. How these new tests should be integrated into current screening programs and their effect on health-care costs remain uncertain. PMID:24009001

  2. Chromosomal Microarray versus Karyotyping for Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wapner, Ronald J.; Martin, Christa Lese; Levy, Brynn; Ballif, Blake C.; Eng, Christine M.; Zachary, Julia M.; Savage, Melissa; Platt, Lawrence D.; Saltzman, Daniel; Grobman, William A.; Klugman, Susan; Scholl, Thomas; Simpson, Joe Leigh; McCall, Kimberly; Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Bunke, Brian; Nahum, Odelia; Patel, Ankita; Lamb, Allen N.; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Ledbetter, David H.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Jackson, Laird

    2013-01-01

    Background Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Methods Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. Results We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down’s syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. Conclusions In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.) PMID:23215555

  3. Prenatal Carrier Screening for Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Wood, S Lindsay; Brewer, Fallon; Ellison, Rebecca; Biggio, Joseph R; Edwards, Rodney K

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neurodegenerative genetic disorder, affects 1:5,000 to 1:10,000 infants. Carrier rates are 1:25 to 1:50. We implemented ACOG-endorsed prenatal SMA screening in mid-2014 and sought to assess uptake, observed carrier rate, and providers' knowledge and attitudes toward genetic conditions and carrier screening. Methods Retrospective cohort study of all patients receiving prenatal genetic counseling at our institution from August 2014 to April 2015. Factors associated with screening uptake were assessed. Proportions who accepted screening, were screen-positive, had partners tested, had partners who were screen-positive, and had fetuses tested were calculated. Providers' knowledge and attitudes were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Results Of 1,158 patients offered SMA screening, 224 accepted (19.3%, 95% CI 17.2-21.7). Uptake differed by race, parity, religion, and genetic counselor seen. Five (2.2% or 1:45, 95% CI 0.8-5.3 or 1:19-1:125) women were identified as carriers. Of 3 partners screened, none screened positive (0%, 95% CI 0-5.3). There were no prenatal SMA diagnoses (0%, 95% CI 0-1.4). Of 90 survey respondents, 42% incorrectly answered 1 of 9 knowledge questions. Provider attitudes toward screening were contradictory. Conclusion Despite significant resources utilized, prenatal SMA carrier screening identified no fetal cases. Cost-effectiveness and other barriers should be considered prior to large-scale adoption of more comprehensive genetic screening. PMID:27611803

  4. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  5. Prenatal investments, breastfeeding, and birth order.

    PubMed

    Buckles, Kasey; Kolka, Shawna

    2014-10-01

    Mothers have many opportunities to invest in their own or their child's health and well-being during pregnancy and immediately after birth. These investments include seeking prenatal care, taking prenatal vitamins, and breastfeeding. In this paper, we investigate a potential determinant of mothers' investments that has been largely overlooked by previous research-birth order. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) Child and Young Adult Survey, which provides detailed information on pre- and post-natal behaviors of women from the NLSY79. These women were between the ages of 14 and 22 in 1979, and form a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Our sample includes births to these women between 1973 and 2010 (10,328 births to 3755 mothers). We use fixed effects regression models to estimate within-mother differences in pre- and post-natal behaviors across births. We find that mothers are 6.6 percent less likely to take prenatal vitamins in a fourth or higher-order birth than in a first and are 10.6 percent less likely to receive early prenatal care. Remarkably, mothers are 15.4 percent less likely to breastfeed a second-born child than a first, and are 20.9 percent less likely to breastfeed a fourth or higher-order child. These results are not explained by changing attitudes toward investments over time. These findings suggest that providers may want to increase efforts to encourage these behaviors at women with higher parity. The results also identify a potential mechanism for the emergence of differences in health and other outcomes across birth orders.

  6. Prenatal Methamphetamine Use and Neonatal Neurobehavioral Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Fallone, Melissa; LiuPhD, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. How prenatal MA exposure affects neonatal neurobehavior is unknown. Objective To examine the neurobehavioral effects of prenatal MA exposure. Design The Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study screened 13,808 subjects and 1632 were eligible and consented. 166 (n=74 exposed) were enrolled in a longitudinal follow up. Exposure was determined by meconium assay and self-report with alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco present in both groups. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was administered within the first 5 days of life. Analyses conducted on NNNS summary scores included exposure group effects, heavy MA use effects, association with frequency of use by trimester, and dose-response relationships with amphetamine metabolites. Results After adjusting for covariates, exposure to MA was associated with increased physiological stress. Heavy MA use was related to lower arousal, more lethargy, and increased physiological stress. First trimester MA use was related to elevated physiological stress. Third trimester use was related to poorer quality of movement. Higher level of amphetamine metabolites in meconium was associated with increased CNS stress. Conclusions Prenatal MA exposure was associated with neurobehavioral patterns of decreased arousal, increased stress, and poor quality of movement. The dose response relationships may represent neurotoxic effects from MA. PMID:18031987

  7. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  8. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually.

  9. Psychosocial determinants of late prenatal care: the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Bluestein, D; Rutledge, C M

    1993-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for investigating psychosocial determinants of delayed prenatal care among disadvantaged women. This framework is based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), which postulates that beliefs concerning prenatal care are modified by psychological and social attributes and may predispose one to delay prenatal care enrollment. The HBM has a number of advantages for family medicine researchers in comparison to other models; its use in future investigations can provide the understanding necessary for overcoming psychosocial deterrents to entry into prenatal care.

  10. Scar revision - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery to revise scars is done while the patient is awake, sleeping (sedated), or deep asleep and pain-free (local anesthesia or general anesthesia). Massive injuries (such as burns) can cause loss of a large area of ...

  11. Differential effects of prenatal stress on metabolic programming in diet-induced obese and dietary-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Varde, Pratibha A; Abdallah, Simon Labib; Najjar, Sonia M; MohanKumar, P S; MohanKumar, Sheba M J

    2015-09-15

    Stress during pregnancy is a known contributing factor for the development of obesity in the offspring. Since maternal obesity is on the rise, we wanted to identify the effects of prenatal stress in the offspring of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and compare them with the offspring of dietary-resistant (DR) rats. We hypothesized that prenatal stress would make both DIO and DR offspring susceptible to obesity, but the effect would be more pronounced in DIO rats. Pregnant DIO and DR rats were divided into two groups: nonstressed controls (control) and prenatal stress (subjected to restraint stress, three times/day from days 14 to 21 of gestation). After recording birth weight and weaning weight, male offspring were weaned onto a chow diet for 9 wk and shifted to a high-fat (HF) diet for 1 wk. At the end of the 10th wk the animals were euthanized, and visceral adipose mass, blood glucose, serum insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured. Prenatal stress resulted in hyperinsulinemia and higher C-peptide levels without altering caloric intake, body weight gain, or fat mass in the DIO offspring after 1 wk of HF intake, but not in DR offspring. To determine the mechanism underlying the hyperinsulinemia, we measured the levels of CEACAM1 that are responsible for insulin clearance. CEACAM1 levels in the liver were reduced in prenatally stressed DIO offspring after the HF challenge, suggesting that preexisting genetic predisposition in combination with prenatal stress increases the risk for obesity in adulthood, especially when offspring are fed a HF diet.

  12. Differential effects of prenatal stress on metabolic programming in diet-induced obese and dietary-resistant rats

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Varde, Pratibha A.; Abdallah, Simon Labib; Najjar, Sonia M.; MohanKumar, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Stress during pregnancy is a known contributing factor for the development of obesity in the offspring. Since maternal obesity is on the rise, we wanted to identify the effects of prenatal stress in the offspring of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and compare them with the offspring of dietary-resistant (DR) rats. We hypothesized that prenatal stress would make both DIO and DR offspring susceptible to obesity, but the effect would be more pronounced in DIO rats. Pregnant DIO and DR rats were divided into two groups: nonstressed controls (control) and prenatal stress (subjected to restraint stress, three times/day from days 14 to 21 of gestation). After recording birth weight and weaning weight, male offspring were weaned onto a chow diet for 9 wk and shifted to a high-fat (HF) diet for 1 wk. At the end of the 10th wk the animals were euthanized, and visceral adipose mass, blood glucose, serum insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured. Prenatal stress resulted in hyperinsulinemia and higher C-peptide levels without altering caloric intake, body weight gain, or fat mass in the DIO offspring after 1 wk of HF intake, but not in DR offspring. To determine the mechanism underlying the hyperinsulinemia, we measured the levels of CEACAM1 that are responsible for insulin clearance. CEACAM1 levels in the liver were reduced in prenatally stressed DIO offspring after the HF challenge, suggesting that preexisting genetic predisposition in combination with prenatal stress increases the risk for obesity in adulthood, especially when offspring are fed a HF diet. PMID:26219866

  13. NASA records disposition handbook: Procedures governing the retention, retirement, and destruction of agency records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This handbook sets forth the disposition of official records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Its provisions are applicable to NASA Headquarters and all field installations. This revised edition has been enlarged in scope and re-titled to provide guidance in all aspects of records retirements, transfers, destruction, and retrievals from Federal Records Centers. New records control schedules have been added and others revised. Also included are procedures for making recommendations for improved coverage of records categories by additions or revisions. The NASA Records Control Schedules are issued under authority of the NASA Records Management Officer in accordance with Section 101-11.406, Federal Property Management Regulations. They were approved for NASA use by the National Archives and Records Service, the General Accounting Office, and by the Joint Committee on the Disposition of Executive Papers, U.S. Congress.

  14. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 to ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV-519

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-25

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' DOE/NV--519.

  15. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p < 0.05). Similarly, when compared to extremely preterm neonates without exposure to prenatal stress, extremely preterm neonates with exposure to prenatal stress show significantly less connectivity between the left amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p < 0.05). Exploratory analysis of the combined cohorts suggests additive effects of prenatal stress on alterations in amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these

  16. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p < 0.05). Similarly, when compared to extremely preterm neonates without exposure to prenatal stress, extremely preterm neonates with exposure to prenatal stress show significantly less connectivity between the left amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p < 0.05). Exploratory analysis of the combined cohorts suggests additive effects of prenatal stress on alterations in amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these

  17. Adult neuropsychological performance following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure.

  18. Prenatal exposure to H2 blockers and to proton pump inhibitors and asthma development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Yitshak-Sade, Maayan; Gorodischer, Rafael; Aviram, Micha; Novack, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Fetal exposure to H2 blockers (H2 Bs) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been reported to be associated with asthma in children. We evaluated the risk of asthma in offspring following prenatal H2 Bs. We enrolled 91 428 children and their mothers who resided in southern Israel during 1998-2011. The computerized medications database was linked with records from the district hospital. Of the eligible children, 11 227 developed asthma, and overall 5.5% had been exposed to H2 Bs or PPIs prenatally. The risk of developing asthma was slightly higher in the group exposed to H2 Bs or PPIs (RR, 1.09; P = .023). At greater risk were children whose mothers purchased these medications more than 3 times (RR, 1.22; P = .038) or exposed to >20 defined daily doses or prenatally exposed to lansoprazole. The statistical association was significant and depended on magnitude of exposure and specific medication, but the absolute risk was low. The association between maternal consumption of H2 Bs or PPIs and asthma and childhood remained statistically significant 2 years after delivery, raising the possibility of confounding by the indication phenomenon. In view of the findings, a causal relationship could not be ascertained, and an unidentified etiological factor could be operative.

  19. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and marijuana: effects on motor development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Chandler, L S; Richardson, G A; Gallagher, J D; Day, N L

    1996-05-01

    Gross motor development of preschool children prenatally exposed to alcohol and marijuana was assessed as part of a longitudinal study. Most mothers in the study were light to moderate users and discontinued or decreased use of alcohol and marijuana after the first trimester of pregnancy. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, half of the sample was African-American, and most were single. Gross motor development was evaluated with balance and ball-handling items at 3 years. Balance items included walking on a line, walking on a balance beam, standing on one foot, standing on tiptoes, and stair climbing and descent. Ball-handling items included catching, throwing, and kicking a ball. Refusal to perform items was also recorded. Prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure did not negatively affect gross motor development. The composite score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, age at assessment, gender, and examiner were significant predictors of gross motor performance and of refusal to participate in the balance items. The ponderal index, number of siblings, current income, examiner, current maternal use of tranquilizers, and first trimester exposure to amphetamines were also significant predictors of balance skills. Gender and number of hospitalizations predicted refusal to participate in balance items, whereas hearing and vision problems predicted refusal on ball-handling items. The components of timing, speed, and fine motor control have not been addressed in this study, and therefore it is premature to conclude that there is no impact of prenatal substance use on motor development.

  20. Prenatal care in primary health care centers of Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al Teheawy, M M

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the performance of Al Hassa primary health care (PHC) centers in the scope of prenatal care and to have a baseline data for future evaluation of achievement in that field. A retrospective study was done by collecting information on a pre-designed form from the available records in the PHC centers. The number of registered pregnant ladies for prenatal care in PHC centers was 10,594 which was equal to 58% of the estimated number of pregnant ladies in Al-Hassa, in 1409 H (the official calendar of Saudi Arabia corresponding to 1989). The immunization coverage by tetanus toxoid of the registered pregnant ladies was 66.7% for the first dose and 40.3% for the second dose. Forty six percent of the registered pregnancies was identified by PHC staff as high risk pregnancy. It was found that 64.4% of the high risk pregnancy was due to causes in the reproductive history, 25.4% due to associated medical conditions and 7.2% due to causes in the present pregnancy. A self criticism and future need to improve prenatal services are discussed.

  1. Noninvasive prenatal testing/noninvasive prenatal diagnosis: the position of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    PubMed

    Devers, Patricia L; Cronister, Amy; Ormond, Kelly E; Facio, Flavia; Brasington, Campbell K; Flodman, Pamela

    2013-06-01

    The 1997 discovery of free fetal DNA in maternal plasma launched clinical researchers' efforts to establish a reliable method for non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal genetic conditions. Various methods, including, but not limited to, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) and selective analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma, have recently been developed as highly sensitive and specific noninvasive screening tools for common fetal chromosome aneuploidies. Incorporating these new noninvasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counseling plays an integral role. The National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) currently supports Noninvasive Prenatal Testing/Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis (NIPT/NIPD) as an option for patients whose pregnancies are considered to be at an increased risk for certain chromosome abnormalities. NSGC urges that NIPT/NIPD only be offered in the context of informed consent, education, and counseling by a qualified provider, such as a certified genetic counselor. Patients whose NIPT/NIPD results are abnormal, or who have other factors suggestive of a chromosome abnormality, should receive genetic counseling and be given the option of standard confirmatory diagnostic testing.

  2. Prenatal Estrogens and the Development of Homosexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that prenatal estrogens contribute to the development of human sexual orientation. Several groups of women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared with several samples of control women. Findings showed that more DES-exposed women than controls were rated as bisexual or homosexual,…

  3. Prenatal Care: A Content-Based ESL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Elissa Anne

    A content-based curriculum in English as a Second Language (ESL) focusing on prenatal self-care is presented. The course was designed as a solution to the problem of inadequate prenatal care for limited-English-proficient Mexican immigrant women. The first three sections offer background information on and discussion of (1) content-based ESL…

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  5. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  6. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  7. Psychological Functioning of Children Exposed to Cocaine Prenatally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granick, Samuel

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 25 children exposed prenatally to cocaine was compared with a control group of 18 children not exposed to any drugs prenatally. Using the AGS (American Guidance Service) Screening Profile, results indicated that the control group was significantly superior on all subtests except for the Motor Coordination and Speech Articulation…

  8. Does Rural Residence Affect Access to Prenatal Care in Oregon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Beth; Grant, Therese; Schiff, Melissa; Kasehagen, Laurin

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying how maternal residential location affects late initiation of prenatal care is important for policy planning and allocation of resources for intervention. Purpose: To determine how rural residence and other social and demographic characteristics affect late initiation of prenatal care, and how residence status is associated…

  9. Triangular congenital cataract morphology associated with prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael E; Schloff, Susan; Bothun, Erick D

    2009-08-01

    Bilateral congenital cataracts are often characterized by morphology, etiology, and related conditions. We report a case of unique congenital cataracts with triangular morphology and associated prenatal methamphetamine exposure. Although this association is likely coincidental, the cataract's morphology in light of the specific timing of prenatal drug use deserves reporting.

  10. Maternal Prenatal Positive Affect, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Birth Outcomes: The PREDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuusinen, Tiina; Tuovinen, Soile; Villa, Pia; Hämäläinen, Esa; Laivuori, Hannele; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether maternal prenatal emotions are associated with gestational length and birth weight in the large PREDO Study with multiple measurement points of emotions during gestation. Methods Altogether 3376 pregnant women self-assessed their positive affect (PA, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and anxiety (Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, STAI) symptoms up to 14 times during gestation. Birth characteristics were derived from the National Birth Register and from medical records. Results One standard deviation (SD) unit higher PA during the third pregnancy trimester was associated with a 0.05 SD unit longer gestational length, whereas one SD unit higher CES-D and STAI scores during the third trimester were associated with 0.04–0.05 SD unit shorter gestational lengths (P-values ≤ 0.02), corresponding to only 0.1–0.2% of the variation in gestational length. Higher PA during the third trimester was associated with a significantly decreased risk for preterm (< 37 weeks) delivery (for each SD unit higher positive affect, odds ratio was 0.8-fold (P = 0.02). Mothers with preterm delivery showed a decline in PA and an increase in CES-D and STAI during eight weeks prior to delivery. Post-term birth (≥ 42 weeks), birth weight and fetal growth were not associated with maternal prenatal emotions. Conclusions This study with 14 measurements of maternal emotions during pregnancy show modest effects of prenatal emotions during the third pregnancy trimester, particularly in the weeks close to delivery, on gestational length. From the clinical perspective, the effects were negligible. No associations were detected between prenatal emotions and birth weight. PMID:26919119

  11. DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID PARTIALLY AMELIORATES DEFICITS IN SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ULTRASONIC VOCALIZATIONS CAUSED BY PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Wellmann, Kristen A.; George, Finney; Brnouti, Fares; Mooney, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts social behavior in humans and rodents. One system particularly important for social behavior is the somatosensory system. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the structure and function of this area. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is necessary for normal brain development and brains from ethanol-exposed animals are DHA deficient. Thus, we determined whether postnatal DHA supplementation ameliorated behavioral deficits induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of three groups: ad libitum access to an ethanol-containing liquid diet, pair fed an isocaloric isonutritive non-alcohol liquid diet, or ad libitum access to chow and water. Pups were assigned to one of two postnatal treatment groups; gavaged intragastrically once per day between postnatal day (P)11 and P20 with DHA (10 g/kg in artificial rat milk) or artificial rat milk. A third group was left untreated. Isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (iUSVs) were recorded on P14. Social behavior and play-induced USVs were tested on P28 or P42. Somatosensory performance was tested with a gap crossing test around P33 or on P42. Anxiety was tested on elevated plus maze around P35. Animals exposed to ethanol prenatally vocalized less, play fought less, and crossed a significantly shorter gap than control-treated animals. Administration of DHA ameliorated these ethanol-induced deficits such that the ethanol-exposed animals given DHA were no longer significantly different to control-treated animals. Thus, DHA administration may have therapeutic value to reverse some of ethanol’s damaging effects. PMID:25746516

  12. Effects of prenatal cocaine on the ventilatory response to hypoxia in newborn rabbits.

    PubMed

    Weese-Mayer, D E; Klemka-Walden, L M; Barkov, G A; Gingras, J L

    1992-01-01

    Recently, investigators have reported an alteration of postnatal respiratory pattern, deficient hypoxic arousal from sleep, and an increased incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) among human infants exposed to cocaine prenatally, thus suggesting that prenatal cocaine exposure may perturb the maturation of respiratory control thereby increasing the risk for SIDS. To investigate the effects of prenatal cocaine on postnatal respiration, we evaluated the ventilatory response to 0.21 FIO2 (baseline) and at 0.15, 0.10, and 0.08 FIO2 by the barometric method on days 4-5 of life in 23 New Zealand White rabbit pups born to cocaine-exposed (30 mg/kg/day of cocaine HCl by continuous subcutaneous infusion), pair-fed and free-fed does. The chamber pressure deflection (proportional to VT after appropriate calculation) was computer-sampled at 200 Hz when the unanesthetized pups were resting quietly with no gross body movements. Recording was made after 10 min acclimatization to a specific FIO2. We found that baseline ventilation did not differ significantly among study groups. However, minute ventilation (VI), inspiratory flow (VT/TI), tidal volume (VT), increased significantly with hypoxia to peak values at 0.08 FIO2 in pair-fed and free-fed pups but these measurements did not increase significantly in cocaine-exposed pups. Our finding of a deficient second phase of the hypoxic ventilatory response among cocaine-exposed pups supports the hypothesis that prenatal cocaine perturbs the maturation of respiratory control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1483357

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid partially ameliorates deficits in social behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Kristen A; George, Finney; Brnouti, Fares; Mooney, Sandra M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts social behavior in humans and rodents. One system particularly important for social behavior is the somatosensory system. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the structure and function of this area. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is necessary for normal brain development and brains from ethanol-exposed animals are DHA deficient. Thus, we determined whether postnatal DHA supplementation ameliorated behavioral deficits induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of three groups: ad libitum access to an ethanol-containing liquid diet, pair fed an isocaloric isonutritive non-alcohol liquid diet, or ad libitum access to chow and water. Pups were assigned to one of two postnatal treatment groups; gavaged intragastrically once per day between postnatal day (P)11 and P20 with DHA (10g/kg in artificial rat milk) or artificial rat milk. A third group was left untreated. Isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (iUSVs) were recorded on P14. Social behavior and play-induced USVs were tested on P28 or P42. Somatosensory performance was tested with a gap crossing test around P33 or on P42. Anxiety was tested on elevated plus maze around P35. Animals exposed to ethanol prenatally vocalized less, play fought less, and crossed a significantly shorter gap than control-treated animals. Administration of DHA ameliorated these ethanol-induced deficits such that the ethanol-exposed animals given DHA were no longer significantly different to control-treated animals. Thus, DHA administration may have therapeutic value to reverse some of ethanol's damaging effects.

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid partially ameliorates deficits in social behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Kristen A; George, Finney; Brnouti, Fares; Mooney, Sandra M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts social behavior in humans and rodents. One system particularly important for social behavior is the somatosensory system. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the structure and function of this area. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is necessary for normal brain development and brains from ethanol-exposed animals are DHA deficient. Thus, we determined whether postnatal DHA supplementation ameliorated behavioral deficits induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of three groups: ad libitum access to an ethanol-containing liquid diet, pair fed an isocaloric isonutritive non-alcohol liquid diet, or ad libitum access to chow and water. Pups were assigned to one of two postnatal treatment groups; gavaged intragastrically once per day between postnatal day (P)11 and P20 with DHA (10g/kg in artificial rat milk) or artificial rat milk. A third group was left untreated. Isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (iUSVs) were recorded on P14. Social behavior and play-induced USVs were tested on P28 or P42. Somatosensory performance was tested with a gap crossing test around P33 or on P42. Anxiety was tested on elevated plus maze around P35. Animals exposed to ethanol prenatally vocalized less, play fought less, and crossed a significantly shorter gap than control-treated animals. Administration of DHA ameliorated these ethanol-induced deficits such that the ethanol-exposed animals given DHA were no longer significantly different to control-treated animals. Thus, DHA administration may have therapeutic value to reverse some of ethanol's damaging effects. PMID:25746516

  15. Social Behavior of Offspring Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Rodents: A Comparison with Prenatal Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Sobrian, Sonya K.; Holson, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently complex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking, and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms, and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation. PMID:22144967

  16. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  17. Prenatal Brain-Body Allometry in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Halley, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Variation in relative brain size among adult mammals is produced by different patterns of brain and body growth across ontogeny. Fetal development plays a central role in generating this diversity, and aspects of prenatal physiology such as maternal relative metabolic rate, altriciality, and placental morphology have been proposed to explain allometric differences in neonates and adults. Primates are also uniquely encephalized across fetal development, but it remains unclear when this pattern emerges during development and whether it is common to all primate radiations. To reexamine these questions across a wider range of mammalian radiations, data on the primarily fetal rapid growth phase (RGP) of ontogenetic brain-body allometry was compiled for diverse primate (np = 12) and nonprimate (nnp = 16) mammalian species, and was complemented by later ontogenetic data in 16 additional species (np = 9; nnp = 7) as well as neonatal proportions in a much larger sample (np = 38; nnp = 83). Relative BMR, litter size, altriciality, and placental morphology fail to predict RGP slopes as would be expected if physiological and life history variables constrained fetal brain growth, but are associated with differences in birth timing along allometric trajectories. Prenatal encephalization is shared by all primate radiations, is unique to the primate Order, and is characterized by: (1) a robust change in early embryonic brain/body proportions, and (2) higher average RGP allometric slopes due to slower fetal body growth. While high slopes are observed in several nonprimate species, primates alone exhibit an intercept shift at 1 g body size. This suggests that primate prenatal encephalization is a consequence of early changes to embryonic neural and somatic tissue growth in primates that remain poorly understood. PMID:27561684

  18. Empowering Women's Prenatal Communication: Does Literacy Matter?

    PubMed

    Roter, Debra L; Erby, Lori H; Rimal, Rajiv N; Smith, Katherine C; Larson, Susan; Bennett, Ian M; Cole, Katie Washington; Guan, Yue; Molloy, Matthew; Bienstock, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of an interactive computer program developed to empower prenatal communication among women with restricted literacy skills. A total of 83 women seeing 17 clinicians were randomized to a computer-based communication activation intervention (Healthy Babies Healthy Moms [HBHM]) or prenatal education (Baby Basics [BB]) prior to their prenatal visit. Visit communication was coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System, and postvisit satisfaction was reported. Participants were on average 24 years of age and 25 weeks pregnant; 80% were African American. Two thirds scored ≤8th grade on a literacy screener. Women with literacy deficits were more verbally active, disclosed more medical and psychosocial/lifestyle information, and were rated as more dominant by coders in the HBHM group relative to their counterparts in the BB group (all ps < .05). Clinicians were less verbally dominant and more patient centered with literate HBHM relative to BB group women (p < .05); there was a similar, nonsignificant trend (p < .1) for lower literate women. Clinicians communicated less medical information and made fewer reassurance statements to lower literate women in the HBHM relative to the BB group (p < .05). There was a trend toward lower visit satisfaction for women with restricted literacy in the HBHM relative to the BB group (p < .1); no difference in satisfaction was evident for more literate women. The HBHM intervention empowered communication of all women and facilitated verbal engagement and relevant disclosure of medical and psychosocial information of women with literacy deficits. Satisfaction, however, tended to be lower for these women.

  19. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care.

  20. Sociodemographic factors and the quality of prenatal care.

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, M J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, maternal sociodemographic factors are examined in relationship to the quality of prenatal health services US women receive. METHODS: Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey and 1980 Fetal Mortality Survey were used for the analysis. Indicator variables for prenatal care quality are the percentages of prenatal visits at which blood pressure and urine were tested, the performance of hemoglobin or hematocrit tests, and the presence or absence of advice regarding salt restriction and diuretics usage during pregnancy. RESULTS: Distribution of the basic examinations in prenatal care vary according to marital status, parity, education, and residence in a metropolitan or nonmetropolitan county. The advice received concerning salt and diuretics usage was also influenced by sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses reveal that prenatal care is not of even minimally acceptable quality for many women. PMID:1953875

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of osteochondrodysplasias in high risk pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gordienko IYu; Grechanina EYa; Sopko, N I; Tarapurova, E N; Mikchailets, L P

    1996-05-01

    We collected data on 39 prenatally diagnosed osteochondrodysplasias. We detected 30 (76.9%) cases in the first and second trimesters, including 18 (46.2%) with two twins before the 24th week of gestation. Of 39 cases 11 (28.2%) had osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II. Verification of the prenatal diagnosis was attempted in 26 cases on the basis of the data obtained from ultrasonographs, radiographs, external examination, and autopsy protocols. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed in 19 (73%) fetuses. In 13 cases verification was not possible because one or several investigations could not be performed. Counselling followed all identified cases with osteochondrodysplasia. We present the pedigree of two families indicating the possibility of early prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type I and metatropic dysplasia. We propose indications for ultrasonographic anatomical screening with subsequent phenotype analysis in high risk pregnancy to provide for the prenatal detection of malformations and hereditary diseases. PMID:8723093

  2. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, prenatal diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hohlfeld, P; Biedermann, K; Extermann, P; Gyr, T

    1995-01-01

    Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy occurs in more than 500 women per year in Switzerland. Systematic screening at the beginning of pregnancy allows the introduction of health education programs. The screening during pregnancy is performed to diagnose primary maternal infections and to propose prenatal diagnosis and treatment. The administration of specific antibiotherapy during pregnancy (spiramycine or the association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides) significantly reduces the risk of fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is possible and reliable. It avoids unnecessary termination of pregnancy when the fetus is not infected and specific therapy in case of infection (association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides). Prenatal treatment may be proposed without prenatal diagnosis as of the 16th week of gestation. In any case, prenatal treatment seems to reduce the incidence of severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of ductus arteriosus aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, S; Hutchinson, D P; Sampson, A J

    2015-11-01

    The ductus arteriosus holds major functional importance within the fetal circulation, and anomalies within the ductus arteriosus may interfere with the integrity of the fetal circulation. Ductus arteriosus aneurysm, previously considered a rare lesion, is now a well-reported finding in infancy with some reports describing this finding in the prenatal period. Postnatally, most ductus arteriosus aneurysms resolve spontaneously; however, a small group of infants show complications such as connective-tissue disorders, thrombo-embolism, compression of surrounding thoracic structures and life-threatening spontaneous rupture requiring surgical correction. As such, postnatal assessment in this group is recommended. PMID:27433265

  4. Prenatal choline and the development of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    FREEDMAN, Robert; ROSS, Randal G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The primary prevention of illness at the population level, the ultimate aim of medicine, seems out of reach for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia has a strong genetic component, and its pathogenesis begins long before the emergence of psychosis, as early as fetal brain development. Cholinergic neurotransmission at nicotinic receptors is a pathophysiological mechanism related to one aspect of this genetic risk. Choline activates these nicotinic receptors during fetal brain development. Dietary supplementation of maternal choline thus emerges as a possible intervention in pregnancy to alter the earliest developmental course of the illness. Aim Review available literature on the relationship of choline supplementation or choline levels during pregnancy and fetal brain development. Methods A Medline search was used to identify studies assessing effects of choline in human fetal development. Studies of other prenatal risk factors for schizophrenia and the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in its pathophysiology were also identified. Results Dietary requirements for choline are high during pregnancy because of its several uses, including membrane biosynthesis, one-carbon metabolism, and cholinergic neurotransmission. Its ability to act directly at high concentrations as a nicotinic agonist is critical for normal brain circuit development. Dietary supplementation in the second and third trimesters with phosphatidyl-choline supports these functions and is associated generally with better fetal outcome. Improvement in inhibitory neuronal functions whose deficit is associated with schizophrenia and attention deficit disorder has been observed. Conclusion Prenatal dietary supplementation with phosphatidyl-choline and promotion of diets rich in choline-containing foods (meats, soybeans, and eggs) are possible interventions to promote fetal brain development and thereby decrease the risk of subsequent mental illnesses. The low risk and short (sixmonth) duration of the

  5. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  6. Efficacy of a Prenatal Oral Health Program Follow-up with Mothers and their Children.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Charles D; Larsen, Michael D; Ambrose, Terri; Degano, Robert; Gallo, Leonard; Cardo, Vito A

    2016-04-01

    Brookdale Hospital and Medical Center's Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) provides oral health education and treatment to expectant mothers from a minority, impoverished, high-risk population. A chart review examined dental records for 42 children of mothers who took PCAP training versus 49 children of mothers who did not. At age 2, the children of PCAP mothers had fewer dental caries, less severe dental caries and fewer extractions. When combining children at ages 2 and 3, results were statistically significant and clinically important. Evidence strongly suggests the PCAP program can lead to vastly improved oral health of participants' young children. PMID:27348946

  7. Student/Pupil Accounting: Standard Terminology and Guide for Managing Student Data in Elementary and Secondary Schools, Community/Junior Colleges, and Adult Education. State Educational Records and Reports Series: Handbook V. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, John F.

    This handbook's fundamental purpose is to provide terms and definitions for the data and information educators use in student services. It identifies concepts used in decisionmaking, provides standardized terms and definitions, classifies the terms, provides guidelines for developing and managing student records, and recommends the development of…

  8. Arthroscopic Hip Revision Surgery for Residual FAI

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher M.; Giveans, Russell; Bedi, Asheesh; Samuelson, Kathryn M.; Stone, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: There is a steep surgical learning curve when managing femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and residual FAI can lead to continued pain and disability. There is very limited data reporting outcomes after revision arthroscopy for residual FAI. Methods: The records of patients that underwent arthroscopic hip revision surgery for residual FAI based on plain radiographs and 3D CT scans were reviewed. Pre and post-operative structural pathomorphology, intra-operative findings, and pre and post-operative outcomes measures using Modified Harris Hip Scoring (MHHS), SF-12 scoring, and pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated. Outcomes after revision arthroscopic FAI correction were compared to a cohort that underwent primary arthroscopic FAI correction. Results: 59 patients (85 hips) underwent arthroscopic revision FAI correction (mean 20.8 months follow-up). There were 98 previous arthroscopic surgeries and 4 previous surgical dislocations. There were 39 males and 46 females with a mean age of 29.5 years (range 16 - 59). 80 hips had residual cam-type FAI, and 64 hips had residual pincer-type FAI and underwent femoral and rim resections, respectively. The labrum was debrided in 27 hips, repaired in 48 hips and reconstructed with allograft in 8 hips. Adhesions were excised for 54 hips. The results of revision arthroscopic FAI correction were compared to 154 patients (169 hips) that underwent primary arthroscopic FAI correction (mean 25.2 months follow-up). The mean improvement for outcomes scores after revision FAI correction was 18.9 points (MHHS, p<.01), 13.4 points (SF-12, p<.01), and 2.2 points (VAS, p<.01) compared to 23.7 points (MHHS, p<.01), 22.3 points (SF-12, p<.01), and 4.6 points (VAS, p<.01) after primary arthroscopic FAI correction. Most recent outcomes scores and mean improvement in outcome scores were significantly better after primary (81.1% good/ excellent results) compared to revision (69.8% good/excellent results) FAI correction (MHS

  9. Prenatal buprenorphine exposure decreases neurogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hung, Chih-Jen; Shen, Ching-Hui; Chen, Wen-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Liao, Su-Lan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-02-10

    Perinatal opioid exposure has a negative effect on neurogenesis and produces neurological consequences. However, its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed opioid agonist/antagonist, is an alternative medication for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of decreased neurogenesis and depression-like consequences following prenatal exposure to buprenorphine and sheds light on mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days and a cultured neurosphere model. Results of forced swimming test and tail suspension test showed that pups at postnatal day 21 had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by reduction of neuronal composition, biochemical parameters of neural stem/progenitor cells, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B phosphorylation, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. Results of parallel cell studies further demonstrated a negative impact of buprenorphine on cultured neurospheres, including proliferation, differentiation, BDNF expression and signaling, and PKA activity. Taken together, our results suggest that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine might result in depression-like phenotypes associated with impaired BDNF action and decreased neurogenesis in the developing brain of weanlings.

  10. Parental Virtue and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Research.

    PubMed

    Tonkens, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration (PGA) purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one's child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA (research): given the current state of the art, good parents have compelling reason not to consent to PGA (research) for their child, especially as part of the first wave(s) of PGA research participants and especially for non-medically oriented purposes. This is because doing otherwise is inconsistent with a plausible and defensible understanding of virtuous parenting and parental virtues, founded on a genuine concern for promoting the overall flourishing of the eventual child. In essence, given the current and foreseeable state of the art, parents who allow prenatal genetic alteration of their children are less-than-virtuous parents to those children, even in cases where they have a right to do so and even if PGA turns out to be beneficial to the eventual child. PMID:26160602

  11. Environmental noise and human prenatal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    To determine whether chronic exposure to relatively loud noise has demonstrable biological effects in humans, a study was conducted on the effect of mother's exposure to airport noise while pregnant, and of social and biological characteristics of the family upon birthweight and gestation length. The sample of births was drawn from a community located adjacent to an international airport in the U.S., where noise levels had been measured previously. Mother's noise exposure was based upon noise levels near her residence in the community while she was pregnant. Data from 115 births were used, these being from mothers whose noise exposure history was most complete throughout the pregnancy. Using multivariate analysis to correct for family characteristics, the partial correlation coefficient for noise exposure and gestation length was negative, large, and significant in girls (r . -0.49, p less than 0.001). In boys the partial correlation coefficient was also negative but was smaller and did not quite reach statistical significance. Partial correlations with birthweight were smaller in both boys and girls and not significant. These results agree best with previous studies that suggest that noise may reduce prenatal growth. The size of the observed effects may be related to a conservative research design biased towards underestimation, as well as to the real effects of noise upon human prenatal growth.

  12. [Polish Gynaecological Society guideline on prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis is a multidisciplinary issue where obstetricians, geneticists, neonatologists and doctors representing other specialities are involved. The guideline will provide up-to-date information, based on clinical evidence optimal techniques and timing, training and competence and clinical governance issues. Prenatal screening for chromosomal defects should be performed in concordance with Polish Gynaecological Society guidelines and recommendations on antenatal care, ultrasound in pregnancy and fetal therapy, and Fetal Medicine Foundation (London, UK) rules. There is no doubt that maternal age alone as a method of screening for chromosomal abnormalities should be abandoned as it has low Detection Rate with high False Positive Rate hence high Invasive Procedure Rate and unnecessary high pregnancy loss rate. The Working Party recommends that screening methods based on ultrasound examination at 11(+0)-13(+6) wks and maternal serum biochemistry should be implemented. Special attention must be paid to ensure that sufficiently high Detection Rate is achieved (at least 75% for 5% False Positive Rate) in screening for trisomy 21. PMID:19548462

  13. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.

  14. Business Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This revised curriculum gives information on the skills and knowledge students should acquire through a business education program. The competencies listed reflect the skills that employers see as necessary for success in clerical and accounting occupations. The handbook is organized in seven sections that cover the following: (1) the concept of…

  15. What Research Says about Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Larry A.

    The process, content, and effect of revision in the writing process is analyzed in light of recent writing process research. Taylor calls for an approach to English as second language composition in which students are taught how to write with an emphasis on revision. Most authorities agree that revision entails a complex set of behaviors that…

  16. Factors Affecting Improved Prenatal Screening: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Arabi, Hoda; Salehi, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal screening deals with the detection of structural and functional abnormalities in the fetus. Health care providers can minimize unintended pregnancy outcomes by providing proper counseling and performing prenatal screening. The purpose of the present review study is to investigate factors affecting improved prenatal screening. Methods: The present study is a narrative review searching public databases such as Google Scholar and specialized databases such as Pubmed, Magiran, Scientific Information Database, Elsevier, Ovid and Science Direct as well. Using the keywords “prenatal screening”, “fetus health” and “prenatal counseling”, 70 relevant articles published from 1994 to 2014 were selected. After reviewing the abstracts, the full data from 26 articles were ultimately used for writing the present review study. Results: Three general themes emerged from reviewing the studies: health care providers’ skills, clients’ characteristics and ethical considerations, which were the main factors affecting improved prenatal screening. Conclusion: Prenatal screening can be successful if performed by a trained and experienced expert through techniques suitable for the mother’s age. Also simultaneously providing proper counseling and giving a full description of the risks and benefits of the procedures for clients is recommended. PMID:26652091

  17. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Arpita K; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30-90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells -c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess.

  18. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Arpita K; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30-90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells -c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess. PMID:27328820

  19. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use.

  20. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Arpita K.; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30–90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells –c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess. PMID:27328820

  1. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    PubMed Central

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Phthalates and Infant Neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Yolton, Kimberly; Xu, Yingying; Strauss, Donna; Altaye, Mekibib; Calafat, Antonia M.; Khoury, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and select common phthalates with infant neurobehavior measured at 5 weeks. Methods We compared the concentration of maternal urinary metabolites of bisphenol A and phthalates at two distinct time points in pregnancy (16w, 26w) with scores on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) at 5 weeks of age in a cohort of 350 mother/infant pairs. Results Prenatal exposure to BPA was not significantly associated with neurobehavioral outcomes at 5 weeks. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to measured phthalates and infant neurobehavioral outcomes differed by type of phthalate and were only seen with exposure measured at 26 weeks. Higher total di-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites at 26w was associated with improved behavioral organization evidenced by decreased arousal (p=.04), increased self-regulation (p=.052), and decreased handling (p=.02). In males, higher total di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites at 26w was associated with more nonoptimal reflexes (p=.02). Conclusion The association between prenatal phthalate exposure and infant neurobehavior differed by type of phthalate and was evident only with exposure measured at 26w. Prenatal exposure to DBP was associated with improved behavioral organization in 5-week-old infants. Prenatal exposure to DEHP was associated with nonoptimal reflexes in male infants. There was no evidence of an association between prenatal BPA exposure and infant neurobehavior. PMID:21854843

  3. Prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis: contemporary practices in light of the past.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2016-06-01

    The 20th century eugenics movement in the USA and contemporary practices involving prenatal screening (PNS), prenatal diagnosis (PND), abortion and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) share important morally relevant similarities. I summarise some features of the 20th century eugenics movement; describe the contemporary standard of care in the USA regarding PNS, PND, abortion and PGD; and demonstrate that the 'old eugenics' the contemporary standard of care share the underlying view that social resources should be invested to prevent the birth of people with certain characteristics. This comparison makes evident the difficulty of crafting moral arguments that treat some uses of PNS, PND, abortion and PGD as licit and others as illicit. PMID:27161556

  4. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  5. Prenatal stress and inhibitory neuron systems: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Rebecca; Zhang, Jie; Stevens, Hanna E.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress is a risk factor for several psychiatric disorders in which inhibitory neuron pathology is implicated. A growing body of research demonstrates that inhibitory circuitry in the brain is directly and persistently affected by prenatal stress. This review synthesizes research that elucidates how this early, developmental risk factor impacts inhibitory neurons and how these findings intersect with research on risk factors and inhibitory neuron pathophysiology in schizophrenia, anxiety, autism and Tourette syndrome. The specific impact of prenatal stress on inhibitory neurons, particularly developmental mechanisms, may elucidate further the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:24751963

  6. [Prenatal care in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Zetina, M; Richardson, V; Avila, H; Caraveo, V E; Salomón, R E; Bacardí, M; Jiménez-Cruz, A

    2000-02-01

    This study was intended to explore the conditions under which prenatal care is delivered in the border city of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, and to assess the possible associations between that care and neonatal results in terms of birthweight, health of the neonate, and prematurity. Seven hospitals serving persons from different socioeconomic strata were chosen, and between December 1993 and March 1994 interviews were conducted with 279 women who were in the first 24 to 48 hours of puerperium. During the interviews data were collected on socioeconomic level; the mothers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning obstetric health; the mothers' perceptions of access to prenatal care; the quality of prenatal care visits (evaluated in terms of having blood and urine tested and weight and blood pressure measured); and the gynecological and obstetric and health history of the mother. A database was created using the SPSS statistics software package. Possible associations were explored, with prenatal care as the independent variable and various dependent variables, by means of contingency tables and a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. None of the neonates was premature, ill, or had a birthweight of < or = 2,500 g. For this reason it was decided to divide the variable corresponding to birthweight into two groupings, < or = 3,000 g and > 3,000 g. A significant (P < 0.00038) relationship was found between a lack of prenatal care and low birthweight. In addition, a lack of prenatal care was associated with: low family income; the mother's financial dependence on the father; the mother being in an unmarried relationship; little communication with the partner; having no medical insurance; an unwanted pregnancy; and giving delivery at the General Hospital. Out of the total sample of 279 women, 15 (5.4%) had received no prenatal care. None of these 15 women reported they had encountered difficulties that prevented them from obtaining prenatal care, but only 7 of those

  7. Contribution of maternal radionuclide burdens to prenatal radiation doses. Interim Recommendations: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sikov, M.R.; Hui, T.E.; Meznarich, H.K.; Thrall, K.D.; Traub, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses approaches to calculating and expressing radiation doses to the embryo/fetus from internal radionuclides. Information was obtained for selected, occupationally significant radionuclides in chemical forms that provided a spectrum of metabolic and dosimetric characteristics. Fractional placental transfer and/or ratios of concentration in the embryo/fetus to that in the woman were estimated for these materials, and were combined with data from biokinetic transfer models to predict radioactivity levels in the embryo/fetus as a function of stage of pregnancy and time after entry into the transfer compartment or blood of the pregnant woman. Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodologies were extended to formalize and describe details for calculating radiation absorbed doses to the embryo/fetus. Calculations were performed for representative situations; introduction of 1 {mu}Ci into a woman`s blood at successive months of pregnancy was assumed to accommodate the stage dependence of geometric relationships and biological behaviors. Summary tables of results, correlations, and dosimetric relations, and of tentative generalized categorizations, are provided in the report.

  8. Comparing CenteringPregnancy® to standard prenatal care plus prenatal education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is significant evidence to support the importance of prenatal care in preventing adverse outcomes such as preterm birth and low infant birth weight. Previous studies have indicated that the benefits of prenatal care are not evenly distributed throughout the social strata. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that among particular populations, rates of preterm birth are unchanged or increasing. This suggests that an alternate care model is necessary, one that seeks to addresses some of the myriad of social factors that also contribute to adverse birth outcomes. In previous studies, the group prenatal care model CenteringPregnancy® had been shown to reduce adverse birth outcomes, but to date, no comparison had been made with a model that included prenatal education. This study sought to investigate whether any significant difference remained within the comparison groups when both models accounted for social factors. Methods This analysis was based on survey data collected from a prospective cohort of pregnant women through the All Our Babies Study in Calgary, Alberta. Results At baseline, there were significant differences between the comparison groups in their psychosocial health, with the women in the CenteringPregnancy® group scoring higher levels of depressive symptoms, stress and anxiety. At four months postpartum, the differences between the groups were no longer significant. Conclusions: These results suggest that CenteringPregnancy® can recruit and retain a demographically vulnerable group of women with a constellation of risk factors for poor pregnancy and birth outcomes, including poverty, language barriers and poor mental health. Post program, the rates of stress, anxiety and depression were similar to other women with more social and financial advantage. These findings suggest that CenteringPregnancy® may be a community based care strategy that contributes to improved mental health, knowledge, and behaviours to optimize outcomes

  9. 75 FR 26851 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... forth in the Federal Register 71 FR 6133. VA is amending the system of records by revising the Routine... disclose records in this system of records in legal proceedings before a court or administrative body after... AFFAIRS Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION:...

  10. Disentangling prenatal and postnatal maternal genetic effects reveals persistent prenatal effects on offspring growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jason B; Leamy, Larry J; Roseman, Charles C; Cheverud, James M

    2011-11-01

    Mothers are often the most important determinant of traits expressed by their offspring. These "maternal effects" (MEs) are especially crucial in early development, but can also persist into adulthood. They have been shown to play a role in a diversity of evolutionary and ecological processes, especially when genetically based. Although the importance of MEs is becoming widely appreciated, we know little about their underlying genetic basis. We address the dearth of genetic data by providing a simple approach, using combined genotype information from parents and offspring, to identify "maternal genetic effects" (MGEs) contributing to natural variation in complex traits. Combined with experimental cross-fostering, our approach also allows for the separation of pre- and postnatal MGEs, providing rare insights into prenatal effects. Applying this approach to an experimental mouse population, we identified 13 ME loci affecting body weight, most of which (12/13) exhibited prenatal effects, and nearly half (6/13) exhibiting postnatal effects. MGEs contributed more to variation in body weight than the direct effects of the offsprings' own genotypes until mice reached adulthood, but continued to represent a major component of variation through adulthood. Prenatal effects always contributed more variation than postnatal effects, especially for those effects that persisted into adulthood. These results suggest that MGEs may be an important component of genetic architecture that is generally overlooked in studies focused on direct mapping from genotype to phenotype. Our approach can be used in both experimental and natural populations, providing a widely practicable means of expanding our understanding of MGEs.

  11. 36 CFR 1210.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 1210.25 Section 1210.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Program Management § 1210.25 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the...

  12. 36 CFR 1210.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Revision of budget and program plans. 1210.25 Section 1210.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Program Management § 1210.25 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the...

  13. 36 CFR 1210.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 1210.25 Section 1210.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Program Management § 1210.25 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 1210.25 Section 1210.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Program Management § 1210.25 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the...

  15. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  17. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before, during, and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Results revealed cocaine-exposed infants had a high amplitude trajectory of cortisol reactivity compared to non-cocaine-exposed infants. Infant gender and caregiving instability moderated this association. The findings support a dual hazard vulnerability model and have implications for evolutionary-developmental theories of individual differences in biological sensitivity to context. PMID:19467009

  18. Effect of Prenatal Zinc Supplementation on Birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beatty, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthweight between the study groups, although the effect of iron-zinc supplementation on the mean birthweight was masked by a strong interaction between the type of supplement and the iron status of participants [F (1,179)=5.614, p=0.019]. Prenatal iron-zinc supplementation was effective in increasing the mean birthweight among anaemic and iron-deficient women but not among women with elevated iron stores in early pregnancy. PMID:19902797

  19. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis and the trouble with eugenics.

    PubMed

    Landeweerd, Laurens

    2009-01-01

    In the past few years we have witnessed huge steps forwards in reproductive technology. Specifically genetic diagnosis has created a range of possibilities. This carries along benefits for prenatal care as well as carrying along unprecedented ethical dilemmas that demonstrate some more problematic sides of several basic notions in medical ethics. These new technologies also led to a widespread public ethical debate on the desirability of these technologies. Concerns are felt specifically with the potential eugenic application of these technologies. To have a correct overview of the possibilities to a new eugenics, one needs to explore the actual developments in the field of human genetics in recent years. This is important to avoid deviating from what is actually occurring into the realm of science fiction.

  1. Mosaicism and uniparental disomy in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Eggermann, Thomas; Soellner, Lukas; Buiting, Karin; Kotzot, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is the presence of numerous cell lines with different chromosomal complements in the same individual. Uniparental disomy (UPD) is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from the same parent. These genetic anomalies arise from errors in meiosis and/or mitosis and can occur independently or in combination. Due to the formation mechanisms of UPD, low-level or undetected mosaicisms are assumed for a significant number of UPD cases. The pre- and postnatal clinical consequences of mosaicism for chromosomal aberrations and/or UPD depend on the gene content of the involved chromosome. In prenatal evaluation of chromosomal mosaicism and UPD, genetic counseling should be offered before any laboratory testing. PMID:25547535

  2. The role of FISH in prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulch, P.; Crandall, B.F.; Hsi, C.

    1994-09-01

    FISH provides a cytogenetic technique which is useful in defining de novo translocations, deletions, insertions, and marker chromosomes in prenatal diagnosis. While the cytogenetic interpretation may be improved with FISH, it may not resolve questions concerning prognosis and options which are genetic counseling issues. Two recent cases illustrate this. Case 1 involved a 45,X/46,X,+mar karyotype from amniocentesis. 22/50 cells had 46,X/46,X+mar; 28/50 cells had 45,X. The marker was smaller than a G. C banding did not confirm this as a Y. The father`s peripheral blood study was normal and his Y did not resemble the marker. It appeared likely that the marker was a structurally abnormal Y since male external genitalia were detected by fetal ultrasound. FISH using alpha- and classical (DYZ1/DYZ3) satellite Y-specific probes did not identify the marker as a Y. Case 2 was a fetus which had a de novo translocation 46,XX,t(3;11)(q26.3;q21) by amniocentesis and confirmed by UBS. FISH for the number 3 and 11 chromosomes confirmed this rearrangement. The parents were advised of the risk associated with a de novo balanced translocation. The possible prognosis for these two different fetuses was not changed by the FISH analysis. FISH, while helpful, is only one aspect of the studies done to provide more accurate genetic counseling to parents; the pregnancy/family history, fetal ultrasound, other possible prenatal studies and pregnancy outcome from perspective studies compose other important aspects that are not mutually exclusive.

  3. Midsagittal dimensions of the prenatal human cranium.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, E; Bach-Petersen, S; van den Eynde, B; Solow, B; Kjaer, I

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the linear dimensions of the cranial base and the anterior facial heights in the median plane of human fetal crania during the second trimester. The distances measured were related to gestational age (GA), crown-rump length (CRL) and maturation stages of the cranial base (MSS). The material comprised midsagittal tissue blocks of the crania from 52 normal human fetuses aged 13 to 22 weeks GA with CRL from 78 to 230 mm and cranial base maturation from MSS 3 to MSS 7. The measurements of the cranial and facial dimensions were performed on radiographs of these tissue blocks. The study confirmed previous observations regarding the dimensional increase in the linear dimensions of the cranial base and the upper facial height in the second trimester. The assessment of absolute changes was further supplemented by an analysis of the percentage changes. This analysis showed that the percentage changes from MSS 3 to MSS 7 of the linear dimensions of the cranial base and the upper facial heights were similar. On the other hand, the percentage increase in the lower anterior facial height during the second trimester was found to be much larger than that of the cranial base and the upper anterior facial height. It is suggested that this is related to the marked increase of the tooth germs during the period and the concurrent growth of the alveolar processes. Standards for normal prenatal cranial dimensions in relation to stages of maturation in the midsagittal cranial base were provided. These data may be of value for use in prenatal diagnostics. PMID:7601913

  4. CD Recorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of CD (compact disc) recorders describes recording applications, including storing large graphic files, creating audio CDs, and storing material downloaded from the Internet; backing up files; lifespan; CD recording formats; continuous recording; recording software; recorder media; vulnerability of CDs; basic computer requirements; and…

  5. 10 CFR 70.51 - Records requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposal of licensed material made under 10 CFR 20.2002 (including burials authorized before January 28... contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981. (2) Records required by 10 CFR 20.2103(b)(4); and (3) Records required by § 70.25(g). (b) If licensed activities are...

  6. 10 CFR 70.51 - Records requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposal of licensed material made under 10 CFR 20.2002 (including burials authorized before January 28... contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981. (2) Records required by 10 CFR 20.2103(b)(4); and (3) Records required by § 70.25(g). (b) If licensed activities are...

  7. Innovations in prenatal genetic testing beyond the fetal karyotype.

    PubMed

    Founds, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Current trends in prenatal genetic testing will affect nursing practice, education, research, and policy making. Although fetal genetic testing has been the traditional focus, new technologies open the possibility of acquiring genomic information for both parents and offspring, revealing windows onto individuals' lifelong health. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA also has become a reality. Some of the recent advances in detecting cytogenetic and heritable molecular variants in pregnancy are overviewed. Exemplars of prenatal tests are presented and related ethical, legal, and social implications are considered. Educating clinicians with updated genomic knowledge has been outpaced by new technologies and direct-to-consumer marketing of prenatal tests. Implications for nursing are discussed.

  8. Methodological Issues in Assessing the Impact of Prenatal Drug Exposure.

    PubMed

    Konijnenberg, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure is a common public health concern that can result in perinatal complications, birth defects, and developmental disorders. The growing literature regarding the effects of prenatal exposure to specific drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, and heroin is often conflicting and constantly changing. This review discusses several reasons why the effects of prenatal drug exposure are so difficult to determine, including variations in dose, timing, duration of exposure, polydrug use, unreliable measures of drug exposure, latent or "sleeper" effects, genetic factors, and socioenvironmental influences. In addition to providing research guidelines, this review also aims to help clinicians and policy makers to identify the strengths and weaknesses in studies investigating the effects of prenatal drug exposure. This knowledge may be used to make better informed decisions regarding the appropriate treatment for pregnant, drug-dependent women and their children. PMID:26604776

  9. Prenatal stimulation and postnatal testosterone affects infanticide in female rats.

    PubMed

    Miley, W M; Blustein, J; Kennedy, K

    1982-04-01

    Prenatal handling, prenatal stress, and early postnatal exogeneous testosterone were examined in female rats for their effects on rat pup-killing and pup retrieval. During each of the last 5 days of pregnancy. Long-Evans rats received either 3 minutes of handling, 45 minutes of restraint and intense illumination or remained untouched. Half of the offspring of each group received testosterone from Day 1 after birth to Day 30. In adulthood, animals that received handling prenatally and testosterone postnatally killed pups more rapidly than any other group and a larger proportion did so than in the control groups. Animals not manipulated at any time retrieved pups more rapidly and a larger proportion did so than the combined other groups. The study suggests that prenatal handling interacts with testosterone presented immediately postnatally to increase infanticide in female rats. A variety of perinatal manipulations seem to suppress pup retrieval. PMID:7200619

  10. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Seiji; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells to demonstrate: (1) molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, (2) the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and (3) interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26074774

  11. Methodological Issues in Assessing the Impact of Prenatal Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Konijnenberg, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure is a common public health concern that can result in perinatal complications, birth defects, and developmental disorders. The growing literature regarding the effects of prenatal exposure to specific drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, and heroin is often conflicting and constantly changing. This review discusses several reasons why the effects of prenatal drug exposure are so difficult to determine, including variations in dose, timing, duration of exposure, polydrug use, unreliable measures of drug exposure, latent or “sleeper” effects, genetic factors, and socioenvironmental influences. In addition to providing research guidelines, this review also aims to help clinicians and policy makers to identify the strengths and weaknesses in studies investigating the effects of prenatal drug exposure. This knowledge may be used to make better informed decisions regarding the appropriate treatment for pregnant, drug-dependent women and their children. PMID:26604776

  12. First trimester prenatal diagnosis: earlier is not necessarily better.

    PubMed Central

    Boss, J A

    1994-01-01

    In the past few years considerable attention has been given to a relatively new method of prenatal diagnosis known as chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Because CVS can be performed in the first trimester it is hailed by many as a significant advance over amniocentesis. What has not been as publicized, however, are the disadvantages of CVS and earlier prenatal diagnosis. The emotional costs of CVS in terms of the greater number of both spontaneous and selective abortions following CVS, the use of CVS for sex selection and, because of the greater social acceptability of first trimester abortion, the possibility of increased pressure on women to undergo prenatal diagnosis by health insurance companies, medical professionals and government agencies, all need to be weighed against the advantages of early prenatal diagnosis. PMID:7996559

  13. Were our forebears aware of prenatal alcohol exposure and its effects? A review of the history of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sanders, James L

    2009-01-01

    Many historical records have been taken out of context when reviewing the history of prenatal alcohol exposure, and the impacts of these histories on modern-day FASD research have been overestimated. Historical records, as early as biblical times, do suggest at least a working awareness of an interaction between alcohol and reproduction of some kind. Contrary to assertions made in some fetal alcohol research, these records do not suggest an ancient awareness of the deleterious effects of alcohol on the developing fetus. Historical records regarding alcoholism and reproduction need to be interpreted critically, in context, and in consideration of the Zeitgeist, or the Spirit of the Times.

  14. Variation in Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Quartermain, Michael D.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Hill, Kevin D.; Goldberg, David J.; Huhta, James C.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Kim, Sunghee; Ungerleider, Ross M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal diagnosis allows for improved peri-operative outcomes of fetuses with certain forms of congenital heart disease (CHD). Variability in prenatal diagnosis has been demonstrated in other countries, leading to efforts to improve fetal imaging protocols and access to care, but has not been examined across the United States. Objective To evaluate national variation in prenatal detection across geographic region and defect type in neonates and infants with CHD undergoing heart surgery. Methods Cardiovascular operations performed in patients ≤ 6 months of age within the United States and included in the STS-CHS Surgical Database (2006–2012) were eligible for inclusion. Centers with >15% missing prenatal diagnosis data were excluded from the study. Prenatal diagnosis rates were compared across geographic location of residence and defect type using the Chi-square test. Results Overall, the study included 31,374 patients from 91 STS-CHS participating centers across the United States. Prenatal detection occurred in 34% and increased every year from 26% (2006) to 42% (2012). There was significant geographic variation in rates of prenatal diagnosis across states (range 11.8 – 53.4%, p < 0.0001). Significant variability by defect type was also observed with higher rates for lesions identifiable on 4-chamber view versus those requiring outflow tract visualization (57% versus 32%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Rates of prenatal CHD detection in the United States remain low for patients undergoing surgical intervention, with significant variability between states and across defect type. Further studies are needed to identify reasons for this variation and the potential impact on patient outcomes. PMID:26216324

  15. Invasive prenatal genetic testing: A Catholic healthcare provider's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bringman, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive prenatal testing is performed for a variety of reasons, but the most common indication is for genetic testing of the fetus. Although many times the information obtained from this type of testing results in selective termination of fetuses with genetic diagnoses, the information itself may be morally neutral. Should a Catholic healthcare provider be willing to perform invasive prenatal testing in the setting of uncertainty with respect to the patient's plans following a diagnosis of a genetic abnormality? PMID:25473130

  16. Implementing an oral health program in a group prenatal practice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joanne; Iida, Hiroko; Ingersoll, Gail

    2007-01-01

    The Rochester Adolescent Maternity Program (RAMP) has incorporated evidence-based oral health guidelines into its prenatal care. These guidelines focus on tracking oral health services, screening and triaging prenatal patients, and providing patient and staff with the education needed to decrease oral health risks to mother, fetus, and baby. The RAMP process serves as a model for promoting quality oral health practices in pregnant teenagers and their babies.

  17. Prenatal and Postnatal Maternal Stress and Wheeze in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Coull, Brent A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Wooley, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Critical periods for programming early wheeze risk may include pregnancy and infancy. Effects of timing remain poorly understood. Objectives: Associations among prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and children’s wheeze were prospectively examined in 653 families. Effect modification by maternal sensitization was also examined. Methods: Stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score (range, 0–9) ascertained during pregnancy and between 1 and 2 years postpartum. Mothers reported child wheeze every 3 months up to age 2 years. Relationships of prenatal and postnatal maternal NLEs with repeated wheeze (≥2 episodes) were examined using logistic regression adjusting for covariates. Penalized splines were implemented to explore possible nonlinear associations. We also examined the interaction between prenatal stress and maternal sensitization indexed by allergen-specific IgE from maternal prenatal serum. Measurements and Main Results: Adjusted models considering prenatal or postnatal NLEs alone both showed an exposure-response relationship between higher stress and child wheeze. When considering prenatal and postnatal stress concurrently, only children of mothers with high stress in both periods were significantly more likely to wheeze (adjusted odds ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–5.53) than children of mothers reporting low stress in both periods. Associations between high prenatal stress and wheeze were significant in children born to nonsensitized mothers (any IgE <0.35 kU/L) but not in the sensitized group (P for interaction = 0.03). Conclusions: Although children have heightened sensitivity to maternal stress in utero and in early childhood, those with higher stress in both periods were particularly at risk for wheeze. The prenatal maternal immune milieu modified effects. PMID:22582161

  18. [Fetal ocular anomalies: the advantages of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Brémond-Gignac, D; Copin, H; Elmaleh, M; Milazzo, S

    2010-05-01

    Congenital ocular malformations are uncommon and require prenatal diagnosis. Severe anomalies are more often detected by trained teams and minor anomalies are more difficult to identify and must be systematically sought, particularly when multiple malformations or a family and maternal history is known. The prenatal diagnosis-imaging tool most commonly used is ultrasound but it can be completed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which contributes crucial information. Fetal dysmorphism can occur in various types of dysfunction and prenatal diagnosis must recognize fetal ocular anomalies. After systematic morphologic ultrasound imaging, different abnormalities detected by MRI are studied. Classical parameters such as binocular and interorbital measurements are used to detect hypotelorism and hypertelorism. Prenatal ocular anomalies such as cataract microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma have been described. Fetal MRI added to prenatal sonography is essential in detecting cerebral and general anomalies and can give more information on the size and morphology of the eyeball. Fetal abnormality detection includes a detailed family and maternal history, an amniotic fluid sample for karyotype, and other analyses for a better understanding of the images. Each pregnancy must be discussed with all specialists for genetic counseling. With severe malformations, termination of pregnancy is proposed because of risk of blindness and associated cerebral or systemic anomalies. Early prenatal diagnosis of ocular malformations can also detect associated abnormalities, taking congenital cataracts that need surgical treatment into account as early as possible. Finally, various associated syndromes need a pediatric check-up that could lead to emergency treatment.

  19. Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by prenatal maternal seizure.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tao; Wang, Wei-ping; Jia, Li-jing; Mao, Zhuo-feng; Qu, Zhen-zhen; Luan, Shao-qun; Kan, Min-chen

    2012-08-27

    Maternal seizure has adverse effects on brain histology as well as on learning and memory ability in progeny. An enriched environment (EE) is known to promote structural changes in the brain and improve cognitive and motor deficits following a variety of brain injuries. Whether EE treatment in early postnatal periods could restore cognitive impairment induced by prenatal maternal seizure is unknown. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and were injected intraperitoneally either saline or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) for 30 days. Then the fully kindled rats and control animals were allowed to mate. PTZ administration was continued until delivery, while the control group received saline at the same time. After weaning at postnatal day 22, one-half of the male offspring in the control and in the prenatal maternal group were given the environmental enrichment treatment through all the experiments until they were tested. Morris water maze testing was performed at 8 weeks of age. Western blot and synaptic ultrastructure analysis were then performed. We found that EE treatment reversed spatial learning deficits induced by prenatal maternal seizure. An EE also reversed the changes in synaptic ultrastructure following prenatal maternal seizure. In addition, prenatal maternal seizure significantly decreased phosphorylation states of cAMP response element binding (CREB) in the hippocampus, whereas EE reversed this reduced expression. These findings suggest that EE treatment on early postnatal periods could be a potential therapy for improving cognitive deficits induced by prenatal maternal seizure.

  20. Prenatal screening: an ethical agenda for the near future.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome differs from other forms of population screening in that the usual aim of achieving health gains through treatment or prevention does not seem to apply. This type of screening leads to no other options but the choice between continuing or terminating the pregnancy and can only be morally justified if its aim is to provide meaningful options for reproductive choice to pregnant women and their partners. However, this aim should not be understood as maximizing reproductive choice per se. Only if understood as allowing prospective parents to avoid suffering related to living with (a child with) serious disorders and handicaps can prenatal screening be a publicly or collectively funded programme. The alternative of moving prenatal testing outside the healthcare system into the private sector is problematic, as it makes these tests accessible only to those who can afford to pay for it. New developments in prenatal screening will have to be assessed in terms of whether and to what extent they either contribute to or undermine the stated aim of providing meaningful options for reproductive choice. In the light of this criterion, this article discusses the introduction of the new non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT), the tendency to widen the scope of follow-up testing, as well as the possible future scenarios of genome-wide screening and 'prenatal personalised medicine'. The article ends with recommendations for further debate, research and analysis. PMID:25521973

  1. Prenatal screening: an ethical agenda for the near future.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome differs from other forms of population screening in that the usual aim of achieving health gains through treatment or prevention does not seem to apply. This type of screening leads to no other options but the choice between continuing or terminating the pregnancy and can only be morally justified if its aim is to provide meaningful options for reproductive choice to pregnant women and their partners. However, this aim should not be understood as maximizing reproductive choice per se. Only if understood as allowing prospective parents to avoid suffering related to living with (a child with) serious disorders and handicaps can prenatal screening be a publicly or collectively funded programme. The alternative of moving prenatal testing outside the healthcare system into the private sector is problematic, as it makes these tests accessible only to those who can afford to pay for it. New developments in prenatal screening will have to be assessed in terms of whether and to what extent they either contribute to or undermine the stated aim of providing meaningful options for reproductive choice. In the light of this criterion, this article discusses the introduction of the new non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT), the tendency to widen the scope of follow-up testing, as well as the possible future scenarios of genome-wide screening and 'prenatal personalised medicine'. The article ends with recommendations for further debate, research and analysis.

  2. Effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on preschoolers' behavior.

    PubMed

    Day, N L; Richardson, G A; Goldschmidt, L; Cornelius, M D

    2000-06-01

    This is a longitudinal study of the relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure and the development of behavior problems in 672 children at the age of 3 years. Women from a prenatal clinic were interviewed about substance use at the end of each trimester of their pregnancy and at 3 years postpartum. Children were assessed at the age of 3 years with maternal ratings of behavior problems, activity, and attention. The prevalence of tobacco use was high in this cohort; 54.3% and 52.3% of the women smoked tobacco in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. At 3 years postpartum, 61.6% of the women were smokers. There were significant effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on the children's behavior at age 3 years. Increases in scores on the Oppositional Behavior, Immaturity, Emotional Instability, Physical Aggression, and Activity scales and in the total score on the Toddler Behavior Checklist (TBC) were significantly associated with prenatal tobacco exposure. Smoking one pack of tobacco cigarettes per day during the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increase of 6 points in the total problem behavior score. Among the subscales of the TBC, tobacco exposure had the largest effect on oppositional behavior. Impulsivity and peer problems were associated with both prenatal and current tobacco exposure. Only current tobacco exposure predicted attention problems. Prenatal tobacco exposure had a significant negative effect on the development of behavior problems among preschoolers. PMID:10883878

  3. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time.

  4. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:25544089

  5. Narrative and Descriptive Text Revising Strategies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piolat, Annie; Roussey, Jean-Yves

    1991-01-01

    Presents study results on text revision strategies using a simplified word processor that records movements of linguistic units. Reports that adult subjects used the simultaneous strategy for correcting narrative and local-then-global strategy for correcting description whereas children used the local-then-global strategy for the narrative, but no…

  6. The LS Graph: A Methodology for Visualizing Writing Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Eva; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.

    2002-01-01

    Computer keystroke-logging programs, which record all keystrokes and mouse actions, facilitate the collection of quantitative data about text creation during writing revision. Presents the LS graph, a novel way of graphically representing and summarizing the quantitative data collected when keystroke logging. (Author/VWL)

  7. NASA records retention schedules: Procedures governing the retention, retirement, and destruction of agency records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This handbook sets forth the minimum retention periods of official records of NASA. Its provisions are applicable to NASA Headquarters and all field installations. This revised edition has been correlated to the 'NASA Uniform Files Index (UFI) (NHB 1442.1B), the General Records Schedules' produced by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and has been enlarged in scope to cover Privacy Act Systems of Records and record series previously omitted. Guidance is provided in the areas of record retirement, transfer, and retrieval from Federal Record Centers (FRC) and disposal actions. Included are provisions for making changes to these schedules by addition of new items or revision of current items. The NASA Records Retention Schedules (NRRS) were approved for NASA use by NARA, the General Services Administration, and the General Accounting Office.

  8. [CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM REACTIVITY IN PRENATALLY STRESSED RATS DURING THE LATE PERIOD OF ONTOGENESIS].

    PubMed

    Khudaverdyan, A; Saroyan, M; Khudaverdyan, D

    2015-09-01

    Systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined in normal rats and those exposed to influence of chronic stress during gestation. Data were registered six months after the birth and in 5, 24 and 48 hours after their immobilization. Analysis of the data showed that in rats undergoing stress, recorded systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate both before and during all periods of immobilization were significantly below than in control group. It is concluded that the maximum limit of motor activity in the prenatally stressed rats accompanied by a decrease in the values ​​recorded performance of the cardiovascular system, which is reflecting the decrease in these animals reactivity of the cardiovascular system, and thus the adaptive capacity for action of stress factors.

  9. The Alteration of Neonatal Raphe Neurons by Prenatal-Perinatal Nicotine. Meaning for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cerpa, Verónica J; Aylwin, María de la Luz O; Beltrán-Castillo, Sebastián; Bravo, Eduardo U; Llona, Isabel R; Richerson, George B; Eugenín, Jaime L

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine may link maternal cigarette smoking with respiratory dysfunctions in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure blunts ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and reduces central respiratory chemoreception in mouse neonates at Postnatal Days 0 (P0) to P3. This suggests that raphe neurons, which are altered in SIDS and contribute to central respiratory chemoreception, may be affected by nicotine. We therefore investigated whether prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure affects the activity, electrical properties, and chemosensitivity of raphe obscurus (ROb) neurons in mouse neonates. Osmotic minipumps, implanted subcutaneously in 5- to 7-day-pregnant CF1 mice, delivered nicotine bitartrate (60 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or saline (control) for up to 28 days. In neonates, ventilation was recorded by head-out plethysmography, c-Fos (neuronal activity marker), or serotonin autoreceptors (5HT1AR) were immunodetected using light microscopy, and patch-clamp recordings were made from raphe neurons in brainstem slices under normocarbia and hypercarbia. Prenatal-perinatal nicotine exposure decreased the hypercarbia-induced ventilatory responses at P1-P5, reduced both the number of c-Fos-positive ROb neurons during eucapnic normoxia at P1-P3 and their hypercapnia-induced recruitment at P3, increased 5HT1AR immunolabeling of ROb neurons at P3-P5, and reduced the spontaneous firing frequency of ROb neurons at P3 without affecting their CO2 sensitivity or their passive and active electrical properties. These findings reveal that prenatal-perinatal nicotine reduces the activity of neonatal ROb neurons, likely as a consequence of increased expression of 5HT1ARs. This hypoactivity may change the functional state of the respiratory neural network leading to breathing vulnerability and chemosensory failure as seen in SIDS.

  10. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway. PMID:25817235

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  12. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposed Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index.

    PubMed Central

    Kotelchuck, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The assessment of the adequacy of prenatal care utilization is heavily shaped by the way in which utilization is measured. Although it is widely used, the current major index of utilization, the Kessner/Institute of Medicine Index, has not been subjected to systematic examination. This paper provides such an examination. METHODS. Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey are used to disaggregate the components of the Kessner Index for detailed analysis. An alternative two-part index, the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, is proposed that combines independent assessments of the timing of prenatal care initiation and the frequency of visits received after initiation. RESULTS. The Kessner Index is seriously flawed. It is heavily weighted toward timing of prenatal care initiation does not distinguish timing of initiation from poor subsequent utilization, inaccurately measures utilization for full- or post-term pregnancies, and lacks sufficient documentation for consistent computer programming. CONCLUSIONS. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index offers a more accurate and comprehensive set of measures of prenatal care utilization than the Kessner Index. PMID:8092364

  13. Do increases in payments for obstetrical deliveries affect prenatal care?

    PubMed

    Fox, M H; Phua, K L

    1995-01-01

    Raising fees is one of the primary means that State Medicaid Programs employ to maintain provider participation. While a number of studies have sought to quantify the extent to which this policy retains or attracts providers, few have looked at the impact of these incentives on patients. In this study, the authors used Medicaid claims data to examine changes in volume and site of prenatal care among women who delivered babies after the Maryland Medicaid Program raised physicians fees for deliveries 200 percent at the end of its 1986 fiscal year. Although the State's intent was to stabilize the pool of nonhospital providers who were willing to deliver Medicaid babies, it was also hoped that women would benefit through greater access to prenatal care, especially care rendered in a nonhospital setting. The authors' hypotheses were that (a) the fee increase for obstetrical deliveries would result in an increase in prenatal visits by women on Medicaid, and (b) the fee increase would lead to a shift in prenatal visits from hospital to community based providers. The data for Maryland's Medicaid claims for the fiscal years 1985 through 1987 were used. Comparisons were made in the average number of prenatal visits and the ratio of hospital to nonhospital prenatal visits before and after the fee increase. Data for continuously enrolled women who delivered in the last 4 months of each fiscal year were analyzed for between and within year differences using Student's t-test and ANOVA techniques. The findings indicate very little overall change in either the amount or location of prenatal care during the year after the large fee increase for deliveries.Though significant increases in the number of prenatal visits occurred for women who lived outside of Baltimore City, it is difficult to attribute these changes solely to the fee increase. Where an effect was observed, it appeared to be greatest in non urban areas of the State, probably because coordination of care by fewer

  14. Medicare and Medicaid programs; modifications to the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for 2014 and other changes to EHR Incentive Program; and health information technology: revision to the certified EHR technology definition and EHR certification changes related to standards. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    This final rule changes the meaningful use stage timeline and the definition of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) to allow options in the use of CEHRT for the EHR reporting period in 2014. It also sets the requirements for reporting on meaningful use objectives and measures as well as clinical quality measure (CQM) reporting in 2014 for providers who use one of the CEHRT options finalized in this rule for their EHR reporting period in 2014. In addition, it finalizes revisions to the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs to adopt an alternate measure for the Stage 2 meaningful use objective for hospitals to provide structured electronic laboratory results to ambulatory providers; to correct the regulation text for the measures associated with the objective for hospitals to provide patients the ability to view online, download, and transmit information about a hospital admission; and to set a case number threshold exemption for CQM reporting applicable for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) beginning with FY 2013. Finally, this rule finalizes the provisionally adopted replacement of the Data Element Catalog (DEC) and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture (QRDA) Category III standards with updated versions of these standards.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of female monozygotic twins discordant for Turner syndrome: implications for prenatal genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, B; Yardin, C; Briault, S; Belin, V; Lienhardt, A; Aubard, Y; Battin, J; Servaud, M; Philippe, H J; Lacombe, D

    2002-08-01

    We describe a set of monozygotic (MZ) female twins, one of whom presented with a typical Turner syndrome (TS) phenotype and the other a normal female phenotype. Prenatal fetal ultrasonographic examination showed a monochorial diamniotic pregnancy with a hygroma colli and growth delay in Twin A and no anomalies in Twin B. Karyotypic analysis performed on fetal blood samples demonstrated a 46,XX/45,X (23/2) mosaicism in Twin A and a normal 46,XX chromosome constitution in Twin B. At birth, Twin A presented with a typical TS and Twin B had a normal female phenotype. Postnatal cytogenetic investigation of blood lymphocytes showed the same 46,XX/45,X mosaicism in both twins: 46,XX/45,X (40/7) in Twin A and 46,XX/45,X (40/5) in Twin B. Further investigations at the age of 10 months showed in Twin A a 46,XX/45,X (98/2) mosaicism in lymphocytes and 100% of 45,X (50 analysed cells) in fibroblasts, and in Twin B a normal 46,XX (100 analysed cells) chromosome constitution in lymphocytes but a mild 46,XX/45,X (78/2) mosaicism in fibroblasts. Monozygosity was confirmed by molecular analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of prenatal diagnosis of MZ female twins discordant for TS. Review of reported sets of MZ female twins (eight cases) or triplets (one case) discordant for TS shows, as in the present case, that the phenotype correlates better with the chromosomal distribution of mosaicism in fibroblasts than in lymphocytes. In the blood of MZ twins chimerism may modify the initial allocation of the mosaicism. These results suggest that, in cases of prenatal diagnosis of MZ female twins discordant for TS, the phenotype of each twin would be better predicted from karyotype analysis of cells from amniotic fluid than from fetal blood.

  16. Disentangling Prenatal and Postnatal Maternal Genetic Effects Reveals Persistent Prenatal Effects on Offspring Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jason B.; Leamy, Larry J.; Roseman, Charles C.; Cheverud, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Mothers are often the most important determinant of traits expressed by their offspring. These “maternal effects” (MEs) are especially crucial in early development, but can also persist into adulthood. They have been shown to play a role in a diversity of evolutionary and ecological processes, especially when genetically based. Although the importance of MEs is becoming widely appreciated, we know little about their underlying genetic basis. We address the dearth of genetic data by providing a simple approach, using combined genotype information from parents and offspring, to identify “maternal genetic effects” (MGEs) contributing to natural variation in complex traits. Combined with experimental cross-fostering, our approach also allows for the separation of pre- and postnatal MGEs, providing rare insights into prenatal effects. Applying this approach to an experimental mouse population, we identified 13 ME loci affecting body weight, most of which (12/13) exhibited prenatal effects, and nearly half (6/13) exhibiting postnatal effects. MGEs contributed more to variation in body weight than the direct effects of the offsprings’ own genotypes until mice reached adulthood, but continued to represent a major component of variation through adulthood. Prenatal effects always contributed more variation than postnatal effects, especially for those effects that persisted into adulthood. These results suggest that MGEs may be an important component of genetic architecture that is generally overlooked in studies focused on direct mapping from genotype to phenotype. Our approach can be used in both experimental and natural populations, providing a widely practicable means of expanding our understanding of MGEs. PMID:21890739

  17. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on development in rats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Abou, Elizabeth J; Dominguez, Hector D

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a range of physical, neurological, and behavioral alterations referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Variability in outcome observed among children with FASD is likely related to various pre- and postnatal factors, including nutritional variables. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent animal research indicates that prenatal choline supplementation leads to long-lasting cognitive enhancement, as well as changes in brain morphology, electrophysiology and neurochemistry. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during ethanol exposure effectively reduces fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant dams were exposed to 6.0g/kg/day ethanol via intubation from gestational days (GD) 5-20; pair-fed and lab chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group received choline chloride (250mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Physical development and behavioral development (righting reflex, geotactic reflex, cliff avoidance, reflex suspension and hindlimb coordination) were examined. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited reduced birth weight and brain weight, delays in eye opening and incisor emergence, and alterations in the development of all behaviors. Choline supplementation significantly attenuated ethanol's effects on birth and brain weight, incisor emergence, and most behavioral measures. In fact, behavioral performance of ethanol-exposed subjects treated with choline did not differ from that of controls. Importantly, choline supplementation did not influence peak blood alcohol level or metabolism, indicating that choline's effects were not due to differential alcohol exposure. These data indicate early dietary supplements may reduce the severity of some fetal alcohol effects, findings with important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy.

  18. Evaluation of a novel electronic genetic screening and clinical decision support tool in prenatal clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin; O'Leary, James; Vasquez, Lisa; Copeland, Sara; Galvin, Shelley L; DeGroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Gregory Feero, W; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan

    2014-07-01

    "The Pregnancy and Health Profile" (PHP) is a free prenatal genetic screening and clinical decision support (CDS) software tool for prenatal providers. PHP collects family health history (FHH) during intake and provides point-of-care risk assessment for providers and education for patients. This pilot study evaluated patient and provider responses to PHP and effects of using PHP in practice. PHP was implemented in four clinics. Surveys assessed provider confidence and knowledge and patient and provider satisfaction with PHP. Data on the implementation process were obtained through semi-structured interviews with administrators. Quantitative survey data were analyzed using Chi square test, Fisher's exact test, paired t tests, and multivariate logistic regression. Open-ended survey questions and interviews were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. Of the 83% (513/618) of patients that provided feedback, 97% felt PHP was easy to use and 98% easy to understand. Thirty percent (21/71) of participating physicians completed both pre- and post-implementation feedback surveys [13 obstetricians (OBs) and 8 family medicine physicians (FPs)]. Confidence in managing genetic risks significantly improved for OBs on 2/6 measures (p values ≤0.001) but not for FPs. Physician knowledge did not significantly change. Providers reported value in added patient engagement and reported mixed feedback about the CDS report. We identified key steps, resources, and staff support required to implement PHP in a clinical setting. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the integration of patient-completed, electronically captured and CDS-enabled FHH software into primary prenatal practice. PHP is acceptable to patients and providers. Key to successful implementation in the future will be customization options and interoperability with electronic health records.

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice; Rogers, Sarah; Gallagher, Lisa; Winter, Michael; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas; Ozonoff, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Prior studies of prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown mixed results regarding its effect on birth weight and gestational age. Objectives In this retrospective cohort study we examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking-water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the birth weight and gestational duration of children whose mothers were exposed before the child’s delivery. Methods The study included 1,353 children whose mothers were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water and a comparable group of 772 children of unexposed mothers. Birth records were used to identify subjects and provide information on the outcomes. Mothers completed a questionnaire to gather information on residential histories and confounding variables. PCE exposure was estimated using EPANET water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a fate and transport model. Results We found no meaningful associations between PCE exposure and birth weight or gestational duration. Compared with children whose mothers were unexposed during the year of the last menstrual period (LMP), adjusted mean differences in birth weight were 20.9, 6.2, 30.1, and 15.2 g for children whose mothers’ average monthly exposure during the LMP year ranged from the lowest to highest quartile. Similarly, compared with unexposed children, adjusted mean differences in gestational age were −0.2, 0.1, −0.1, and −0.2 weeks for children whose mothers’ average monthly exposure ranged from the lowest to highest quartile. Similar results were observed for two other measures of prenatal exposure. Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal PCE exposure does not have an adverse effect on these birth outcomes at the exposure levels experienced by this population. PMID:18560539

  20. Over-inhibition of Corticostriatal Activity following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wengang; Nitulescu, Ioana; Lewis, Justin S.; Lemos, Julia C.; Bamford, Ian J.; Posielski, Natasza M.; Storey, Granville P; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Bamford, Nigel S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) can cause persistent neuropsychological and motor abnormalities in affected children, but the physiological consequences of PCE remain unclear. Conclusions drawn from clinical studies can sometimes be confounded by poly-substance abuse and nutritional deprivation. However, existing observations suggest that cocaine exposure in utero, as in adults, increases synaptic dopamine and promotes enduring dopamine-dependent plasticity at striatal synapses, altering behaviors and basal ganglia function. Methods We used a combination of behavioral measures, electrophysiology, optical imaging, and biochemical and electrochemical recordings to examine corticostriatal activity in adolescent mice exposed to cocaine in utero. Results We show that PCE caused abnormal dopamine-dependent behaviors, including heightened excitation following stress and blunted locomotor augmentation to repeated treatment with amphetamine. These abnormal behaviors were consistent with abnormal GABA interneuron function, which promoted a reversible depression in corticostriatal activity. PCE hyperpolarized and reduced tonic GABA currents in both fast-spiking and PLTS-type GABA interneurons to increase tonic inhibition at GABAB receptors on presynaptic corticostriatal terminals. While D2 receptors paradoxically increased glutamate release following PCE, normal corticostriatal modulation by dopamine was reestablished with a GABAAR antagonist. Interpretation The dynamic alterations at corticostriatal synapses that occur in response to PCE parallel the reported effects of repeated psychostimulants in mature animals, but differ in being specifically generated through GABA. Our results indicate that approaches which normalize GABA and D2 receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity may be useful for treating the behavioral effects of PCE and other developmental disorders that are generated through abnormal GABAergic signaling. PMID:23225132

  1. Maternal Prenatal Weight Gain and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Viskochil, Joseph; Clark, Erin A.S.; Botts, Elizabeth L.; Smith, Ken R.; Pimentel, Richard; McMahon, William M.; Coon, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising population of individuals identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) calls for further investigation of its underlying etiology. A disturbance in the fetal steroid hormone environment may be a mechanism in which environmental and genetic risk factors interact. The mother, fetus, and placenta collectively create the fetal steroid environment. Prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain have served as markers for fetal steroid hormone exposure in other disease states. This study’s objective is to determine whether prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain are associated with increased ASD risk across study designs and cohorts while controlling for important confounding variables. METHODS: A population-based Utah ASD cohort (n = 128) was ascertained in a 3-county surveillance area and gender- and age-matched to 10 920 control subjects. A second, research-based ASD cohort of Utah children (n = 288) and their unaffected siblings (n = 493) were ascertained through participation in an ASD genetics study. Prenatal variables were obtained from birth certificate records. RESULTS: ASD risk was significantly associated with pregnancy weight gain (adjusted odds ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.17; adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.35 for each 5 pounds of weight gained), but not prepregnancy BMI, in population and research-based cohorts, respectively. When analyses were restricted to ASD cases with normal IQ, these associations remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: ASD risk associated with a modest yet consistent increase in pregnancy weight gain suggests that pregnancy weight gain may serve as an important marker for autism’s underlying gestational etiology. This justifies an investigation into phenomena that link pregnancy weight gain and ASD independent of prepregnancy BMI. PMID:24167172

  2. The Association between Prenatal Yoga and the Administration of Ritodrine Hydrochloride during Pregnancy: An Adjunct Study of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Saijo, Yasuaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Takahiko; Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Sengoku, Kazuo; Ito, Yoshiya; Miyashita, Chihiro; Araki, Atsuko; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While the beneficial effects of prenatal yoga have been reported in recent years, little is known about its effectiveness in pregnant Japanese women. Despite several adverse effects, ritodrine hydrochloride is frequently prescribed to suppress preterm labor in Japan, and its usage may therefore indicate cases of preterm labor. This study aimed to clarify the association between prenatal yoga and ritodrine hydrochloride use during pregnancy. Methods An observational study was conducted as an adjunct study by the Hokkaido unit of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. Information on prenatal yoga practice was collected using a self-questionnaire between March 21, 2012, and July 7, 2015, targeting women who had recently delivered. Ritodrine hydrochloride use was identified from medical records. A total of 2,692 women were analyzed using logistic regression models that adjusted for possible confounders. Results There were 567 (21.1%) women who practiced prenatal yoga, which was associated with a lower risk of ritodrine hydrochloride use (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.77; 95% CI 0.61–0.98). This was especially evident in women with a total practice duration that exceeded 900 minutes throughout their pregnancy (adjusted OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.38–0.76). A sensitivity analysis that excluded patients with threatened abortion during the study period produced similar results. Conclusions Prenatal yoga was associated with a lower risk of ritodrine hydrochloride use, particularly in women with more than 900 minutes of practice time over the course of their pregnancy. Prenatal yoga may be a beneficial option for pregnant women in the selection of alternative therapies. PMID:27348869

  3. Assessing infant cognitive development after prenatal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Ross, Alleyne P; Goodman, Gay

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on infant behavioral development outcomes of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Studies performed to date, all of which relied on global developmental assessments, have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to psychomotor development, negative findings with regard to mental development, and no information as to the development of specific cognitive functions. Our review of these studies leads us to suspect that the use of global developmental assessments might partially explain the negative and inconsistent findings. To identify cognitive processes that might be sensitive to prenatal iodine supplementation, we examined the timing of thyroid hormone action on specific brain systems. The development of infant visual attention is sensitive to thyroid hormone during the early prenatal period, when the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormone. For this reason, infant visual attention has the potential to be a sensitive measure of infant outcomes in prenatal iodine supplementation studies. We suggest the assessment of infant visual attention, with follow-up examination of childhood executive functions, as a means of capturing the effects of maternal iodine deficiency and prenatal iodine supplementation on specific cognitive processes. In particular, we propose comparison of infant performance on global developmental tests and specialized tests of visual attention in pilot trials of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Only by comparing the 2 types of tests side by side will it be possible to establish whether the use of a sensitive measure of infant visual attention will increase the reliability of such supplementation studies. Recognizing that exposure misclassification may also provide a partial explanation for the inconsistent neurodevelopmental outcomes in previous studies, we suggest that urinary iodine concentration or

  4. Assessing infant cognitive development after prenatal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Ross, Alleyne P; Goodman, Gay

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on infant behavioral development outcomes of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Studies performed to date, all of which relied on global developmental assessments, have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to psychomotor development, negative findings with regard to mental development, and no information as to the development of specific cognitive functions. Our review of these studies leads us to suspect that the use of global developmental assessments might partially explain the negative and inconsistent findings. To identify cognitive processes that might be sensitive to prenatal iodine supplementation, we examined the timing of thyroid hormone action on specific brain systems. The development of infant visual attention is sensitive to thyroid hormone during the early prenatal period, when the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormone. For this reason, infant visual attention has the potential to be a sensitive measure of infant outcomes in prenatal iodine supplementation studies. We suggest the assessment of infant visual attention, with follow-up examination of childhood executive functions, as a means of capturing the effects of maternal iodine deficiency and prenatal iodine supplementation on specific cognitive processes. In particular, we propose comparison of infant performance on global developmental tests and specialized tests of visual attention in pilot trials of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Only by comparing the 2 types of tests side by side will it be possible to establish whether the use of a sensitive measure of infant visual attention will increase the reliability of such supplementation studies. Recognizing that exposure misclassification may also provide a partial explanation for the inconsistent neurodevelopmental outcomes in previous studies, we suggest that urinary iodine concentration or

  5. Prenatal Depression and Adverse Birth Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Accortt, Eynav Elgavish; Cheadle, Alyssa C. D.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2015-01-01

    Complications related to preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Prenatal depression is a hypothesized psychosocial risk factor for both birth outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine evidence published between 1977 and 2013 on prenatal depression and risks of these primary adverse birth outcomes. A systematic search of the PUBMED and PsycINFO databases was conducted to identify studies testing the associations between prenatal depressive symptoms, or diagnoses of depression, and risk of PTB or LBW. We systematically selected 50 published reports on PTB and length of gestation, and 33 reports on LBW and BW. Results were reviewed by two independent reviewers and we evaluated the quality of the evidence with an established systematic review method, the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. We then undertook a narrative synthesis of the results following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Less than a quarter of 50 published reports found that prenatal depression was significantly associated with PTB or gestational age. In contrast, slightly more than half of the 33 reports found that prenatal depression was associated with LBW or BW. When weighing methodological features, we determined that the effects of prenatal depression on LBW are more consistent than effects on length of gestation or PTB. Although the evidence may not be strong enough to support routine depression screening for risk of adverse outcomes, screening to enable detection and timely treatment to reduce risk of postpartum depression is warranted. Further rigorous research on prenatal depression and adverse birth outcomes is needed. PMID:25452215

  6. Maternal age–based prenatal screening for chromosomal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Rideout, Andrea; Wilson, Brenda J.; Allanson, Judith; Blaine, Sean; Esplen, Mary Jane; Farrell, Sandra; Graham, Gail E.; MacKenzie, Jennifer; Meschino, Wendy S.; Prakash, Preeti; Shuman, Cheryl; Taylor, Sherry; Tobin, Stasey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore views of women and health care providers (HCPs) about the changing recommendations regarding maternal age–based prenatal screening. Design Mixed-methods design. Setting Ontario. Participants A sample of women who had given birth within the previous 2 years and who had attended a family medicine centre, midwifery practice, or baby and mother wellness program (n = 42); and a random sample of family physicians (n = 1600), and all Ontario obstetricians (n = 694) and midwives (n = 334) who provided prenatal care. Methods We used focus groups (FGs) to explore women's views. Content analysis was used to uncover themes and delineate meaning. To explore HCPs' views, we conducted a cross-sectional self-completion survey. Main findings All FG participants (42 women in 6 FGs) expressed the importance of individual choice of prenatal screening modality, regardless of age. They described their perception that society considers women older than 35 to be at high obstetric risk and raised concerns that change in the maternal age–related screening policy would require education. The HCP survey response rate was 40%. Results showed 24% of HCPs agreed that women of any age should be eligible for invasive diagnostic testing regardless of prenatal screening results; 15% agreed that the age for diagnostic testing should be increased to 40 years, 14% agreed that diagnostic testing should be reserved for women with positive prenatal screening results, and 45% agreed that prenatal screening should remain unchanged. Conclusion Maternity care organizations have recommended that maternal age–based prenatal screening is no longer appropriate. Informed choice is of paramount importance to women and should be part of any change. Health care providers need to be engaged in and educated about any change to screening guidelines to offer women informed choices. PMID:23341678

  7. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30–90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level. PMID:25919188

  8. Revision and Validation of the Revised Teacher Beliefs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Jane

    This study revised the Teacher Beliefs Survey (S. Wooley and A. Wooley, 1999; TBS), an instrument to assess teachers beliefs related to constructivist and behaviorist theories of learning, and then studied the validity of the revised TBS. Drawing on a literature review, researchers added items for the existing constructs of the TBS and added a new…

  9. Prenatal and developmental toxicology of arsenicals.

    PubMed

    Willhite, C C; Ferm, V H

    1984-01-01

    A variety of species, including the human, have been shown to be susceptible to the embryotoxic effects of inorganic arsenic. Malformations of the axial skeleton, neurocranium, viscerocranium, eyes, and genitourinary systems as well as prenatal death followed a bolus dose of trivalent or pentavalent inorganic arsenic. Trivalent arsenic was more teratogenic than pentavalent arsenic; in contrast, the methylated metabolites of arsenic possessed only limited teratogenic activity. Administration of inorganic arsenic to mammals results in concentration of arsenic within the placenta and small amounts are deposited within the embryo. Studies concerning the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced axial skeletal lesions revealed early failure of neural fold elevation and a subsequent, persistent failure of closure of the neural tube. Physical factors, drugs and heavy metals may modify the response to a teratogenic dose of inorganic arsenic. Medical problems associated with industrial or agricultural arsenicalism are most often typified by chronic exposure; future studies should emphasize those routes of administration and types of exposure that are characteristic of arsenic intoxication.

  10. Aneuploidy among prenatally detected neural tube defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hume, R.F. Jr.; Lampinen, J.; Martin, L.S.; Johnson, M.P.; Evans, M.I.

    1996-01-11

    We have reported previously a 10% aneuploidy detection rate among 39 cases of fetal neural tube defects (NTD). Subsequently we amassed an additional experience of over 17,000 prenatal diagnosis cases over a 5-year period. During this period 106 cases of NTDs were identified; 44 with anencephaly, 62 with open spina bifida. The average maternal age of this population with NTDs was 29 years (15-40); 6 patients declined amniocentesis. Six of 100 cytogenetic studies were aneuploid; on anencephalic fetus had inherited a maternal marker chromosome, and 5 NTD cases had trisomy 18. The average maternal age of the aneuploid cases was 21 (19-40); 3 were 35 years or older. Four of 5 trisomy 18 cases had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The overall aneuploidy detection rate in our cohort was 5-6, while aneuploidy occurred in 2% of the isolated NTD cases, and 24% of the MCA cases. Combining the earlier experience, 4/39 aneuploidy (2 trisomy 18, 4p+, del 13q) yields an aneuploidy detection frequency of 10/145 (7%), of which most (7/10) had trisomy 18. These data support fetal karyotyping for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and recurrence-risk counseling. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

  12. Prenatal presentation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Niranjana; Tully, Hannah M; Chapman, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    We present the case of a female infant referred for prenatal MR evaluation of ventriculomegaly, which had been attributed by the referring obstetrician to aqueductal stenosis. Fetal MR confirmed ventriculomegaly but also demonstrated cerebral volume loss and white matter abnormalities. After birth, the infant developed persistent lactic acidosis. A diagnosis of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency was made on the basis of metabolic and molecular genetic studies. Ventriculomegaly is a common referral reason for fetal MR, yet there are few published reports of the radiographic findings that accompany inborn errors of metabolism, one potentially under-recognized cause of enlarged ventricles. This case contributes to this small body of literature on the imaging features of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency by describing pre- and postnatal MR findings and key clinical details. Our report emphasizes the necessity of considering pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and other metabolic disorders as potential etiologies for fetal ventriculomegaly since prompt diagnosis may allow for early initiation of treatment and improve outcome. PMID:27026023

  13. Prenatal Chemical Exposures and Child Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey LC; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both man made (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g. lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury—for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. PMID:26255253

  14. Transcriptional Landscape of the Prenatal Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeremy A.; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M.; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L.; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James M.; Bennet, Crissa; Bertagnolli, Darren; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cuhaciyan, Christine; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Facer, Benjamin A. C.; Feng, David; Fliss, Tim P.; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W.; Gu, Guangyu; Howard, Robert E.; Jochim, Jayson M.; Kuan, Chihchau L.; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Lemon, Tracy A.; Lesnar, Phil; McMurray, Bergen; Mastan, Naveed; Mosqueda, Nerick F.; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Ngo, Nhan-Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D.; Parry, Sheana E.; Player, Allison Stevens; Pletikos, Mihovil; Reding, Melissa; Royall, Joshua J.; Roll, Kate; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapouri, Sheila; Shapovalova, Nadiya V.; Shen, Elaine H.; Sjoquist, Nathan; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R.; Smith, Michael; Sodt, Andy J.; Williams, Derric; Zöllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Gerstein, Mark B.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Glass, Ian A.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hevner, Robert F.; Huang, Hao; Jones, Allan R.; Knowles, James A.; Levitt, Pat; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Dang, Chinh; Bernard, Amy; Hohmann, John G.; Lein, Ed S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is largely determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and postmitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and human-expanded outer subventricular zones. Both germinal and postmitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development. PMID:24695229

  15. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal halothane

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Robert E.; Smith, Robert F.

    1977-01-01

    Permanent neurobehavioral toxicological effects have been theorized to occur at the lowest doses of a toxic agent if exposure occurs during early development compared to exposure during adulthood. Data are reviewed showing the exposure to 10 ppm of halothane from conception to day 60 of life post-partum led to adult rats (≥ 135 days of age) which were hyperalgesic to electric footshock and which committed 30% more errors learning a light-dark discrimination to escape footshock, or learning the shortest path to a food reward in a maze. Exposure only during adulthood to 10 ppm of halothane (from day 60 of life onwards) had no effects. To determine prenatal periods sensitive to halothane, rats were exposed to 12,500 ppm of halothane (with 35% oxygen) on day 3, 10, or 17 of gestation. As adults (≥ 75 days of age) day 3- and day 10-exposed rats, but not day 17-exposed rats, were hyperalgesic and committed 40% more errors in learning a visual discrimination to escape footshock. Food and water consumption, body weight, and running wheel activity were unaffected. Finally, adult rats exposed to 10, 50, or 100 ppm of halothane from conception to day 28 postpartum had 15% less 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in brain, but normal 5-hydroxytryptophan, noradrenalin, and dopamine. The possibility is discussed that the hyperalgesia noted above results from a permanently reduced turnover of brain serotonin produced by halothane present in brain at days 10-15 of gestation. PMID:612445

  16. [Radiation effects of exposure during prenatal development].

    PubMed

    Streffer, C

    1995-03-01

    The embryo and fetus are very radiosensitive during the total prenatal development period. The quality and extent of radiation effects depend strongly on the developmental stage at which the exposure occurs. During the preimplantation period radiation exposure can cause death of the embryo after radiation doses of 0.2 Gy and higher. Malformations are only observed in very rare cases when genetic predispositions exist. Macroscopic-anatomical malformations are induced only after irradiation during the major organogenesis. On the basis of experimental data with mammals it is assumed that a radiation dose of about 0.2 Gy doubles the malformation risk. Studies in humans give rise to the assumption that the human embryo is more radioresistant than the embryos of mice and rats. Radiation exposure during the major organogenesis and the early fetal period lead to disturbances in the growth and developmental processes. During early fetogenesis (week 8-15 post corruption) high radiosensitivity exists for the development of the central nervous system. Radiation doses of 1 Gy cause severe mental retardation in about 50% of exposed fetuses. Analysis of the dose-effect curves shows that there is probably a dose-effect curve with a threshold for this effect. It must be taken into account that radiation exposure during the fetal period also induces cancer. The studies, however, do not allow quantitative estimate of this radiation risk at present. It is therefore generally assumed that the risk is about the same level as for children.

  17. Oregon's Coordinated Care Organizations Increased Timely Prenatal Care Initiation And Decreased Disparities.

    PubMed

    Muoto, Ifeoma; Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Policies at the state and federal levels affect access to health services, including prenatal care. In 2012 the State of Oregon implemented a major reform of its Medicaid program. The new model, called a coordinated care organization (CCO), is designed to improve the coordination of care for Medicaid beneficiaries. This reform effort provides an ideal opportunity to evaluate the impact of broad financing and delivery reforms on prenatal care use. Using birth certificate data from Oregon and Washington State, we evaluated the effect of CCO implementation on the probability of early prenatal care initiation, prenatal care adequacy, and disparities in prenatal care use by type of insurance. Following CCO implementation, we found significant increases in early prenatal care initiation and a reduction in disparities across insurance types but no difference in overall prenatal care adequacy. Oregon's reforms could serve as a model for other Medicaid and commercial health plans seeking to improve prenatal care quality and reduce disparities. PMID:27605642

  18. Routine Prenatal Care Visits by Provider Specialty in the United States, 2009-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... of prenatal visits to non-ob/gyn providers did not differ by race and ethnicity group in ... Generally, women of different race and ethnicity groups did not differ in the percentage of prenatal care ...

  19. A prenatal case with discrepant findings between non-invasive prenatal testing and fetal genetic testings.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qiong; Sun, Baojuan; Huang, Xiaoli; Jing, Xin; Liu, Hailiang; Jiang, Fuman; Zhou, Jie; Lin, Mengmeng; Yue, Hongni; Hu, Ping; Ning, Ying

    2014-01-01

    At 17(+4) week, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results of a 24-years-old mother showed high risk of monosomy X (45, X). Abnormally shaped head and cardiac defects were observed in prenatal ultrasound scan at 19(+3) week. Amniocentesis conducted at 19(+3) week identified karyotype 47, XX, +18, which suggested that the NIPT failed to detect trisomy 18 (T18) in this case. With a further massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of maternal blood, fetal and placental tissues, we found a confined placental mosaicism (CPM) with non-mosaic T18 fetus and multiclonal placenta with high prevalence of 45, X and low level of T18 cells. FISH and SNP-array evidence from the placental tissue confirmed genetic discrepancy between the fetus and placenta. Because the primary source of the fetal cell-free DNA that NIPT assesses is mostly originated from trophoblast cells, the level of T18 placental mosaicism may cause false negative NIPT result in this rare case of double aneuploidy.

  20. Practice Bulletin No. 162: Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal genetic diagnostic testing is intended to determine, with as much certainty as possible, whether a specific genetic disorder or condition is present in the fetus. In contrast, prenatal genetic screening is designed to assess whether a patient is at increased risk of having a fetus affected by a genetic disorder. Originally, prenatal genetic testing focused primarily on Down syndrome (trisomy 21), but now it is able to detect a broad range of genetic disorders. Although it is necessary to perform amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) to definitively diagnose most genetic disorders, in some circumstances, fetal imaging with ultrasonography, echocardiography, or magnetic resonance imaging may be diagnostic of a particular structural fetal abnormality that is suggestive of an underlying genetic condition.The objective of prenatal genetic testing is to detect health problems that could affect the woman, fetus, or newborn and provide the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider with enough information to allow a fully informed decision about pregnancy management. Prenatal genetic testing cannot identify all abnormalities or problems in a fetus, and any testing should be focused on the individual patient's risks, reproductive goals, and preferences. It is important that patients understand the benefits and limitations of all prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, including the conditions for which tests are available and the conditions that will not be detected by testing. It also is important that patients realize that there is a broad range of clinical presentations, or phenotypes, for many genetic disorders and that results of genetic testing cannot predict all outcomes. Prenatal genetic testing has many benefits, including reassuring patients when results are normal, identifying disorders for which prenatal treatment may provide benefit, optimizing neonatal outcomes by ensuring the appropriate location for

  1. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy. PMID:22287891

  2. [Prenatal exposure to androgens as a factor of fetal programming].

    PubMed

    Recabarren, Sergio E; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Maliqueo, Manuel; Lobos, Alejandro; Rojas-García, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Both epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest a relationship between the prenatal environment and the risk of developing diseases during adulthood. The first observations about this relationship showed that prenatal growth retardation or stress conditions during fetal life were associated to cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases in later life. However, not only those conditions may have lasting effects after birth. Growing evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to steroids (either of fetal or maternal origin) could be another source of prenatal programming with detrimental consequences during adulthood. We have recently demonstrated that pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome exhibit elevated androgen levels compared to normal pregnant women, which could provide an androgen excess for both female or male fetuses. We have further tested this hypothesis in an animal model of prenatal androgenization, finding that females born from androgenized mothers have a low birth weight and high insulin resistance, that starts at an early age. On the other hand, males have low testosterone and LH secretion in response to a GnRH analogue test compared to control males and alterations in seminal parameters. We therefore propose that our efforts should be directed to modify the hyperandrogenic intrauterine environment to reduce the potential development of reproductive and metabolic diseases during adulthood.

  3. Postnatal outcomes of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Mari J; Sybert, Virginia P

    2016-05-01

    High quality information is critical for informed decision-making in pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidy. The goal of this study was to define the spectrum of outcomes in patients with prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX mosaic Turner syndrome in order to provide a better basis for genetic counseling at the time of intrauterine diagnosis. Phenotype data for twenty-five patients with prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX mosaicism were collected by retrospective chart review and, when possible, semi-structured telephone interview. Existing data from a cohort of 58 patients with postnatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX mosaicism were used for comparison. Relative to those diagnosed postnatally, prenatal patients were more likely to have normal growth and normal secondary sexual development, less likely to manifest distinctive Turner syndrome features such as nuchal webbing and edema, and had significantly fewer renal defects. These differences underscore the need for a nuanced approach to prenatal counseling in cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism.

  4. Structural chromosomal anomalies detected by prenatal genetic diagnosis: our experience.

    PubMed

    Farcaş, Simona; Crişan, C D; Andreescu, Nicoleta; Stoian, Monica; Motoc, A G M

    2013-01-01

    The prenatal diagnosis is currently widely spread and facilitates the acquiring of important genetic information about the fetus by a rate extremely accelerate and considered without precedent. In this paper, we like to present our experience concerning the genetic diagnosis and counseling offered for pregnancies in which a structural chromosomal aberration was found. The study group is formed by 528 prenatal samples of amniotic fluid and chorionic villi, received by our laboratory from 2006 through October 2012 for cytogenetic diagnosis. The appropriate genetic investigation was selected based on the indications for prenatal diagnosis. The cases with structural chromosomal anomalies and polymorphic variants were analyzed as regard to the maternal age, gestational age, referral indications and type of chromosomal anomaly found. A total number of 21 structural chromosomal anomalies and polymorphic variants were identified in the study group. Out of 21 structural chromosomal anomalies and polymorphic variants, six deletions and microdeletions, four situations with abnormal long "p" arm of acrocentric chromosomes, two duplications, two reciprocal translocations, two inversions, two additions, one Robertsonian translocation associating trisomy 13, one 9q heteromorphism and one complex chromosome rearrangement were noticed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Romanian study in which the diagnostic strategies and the management of the prenatal cases with structural rearrangements are presented. The data provided about the diagnosis strategy and the management of the prenatal cases with structural chromosomal anomalies represents a useful tool in genetic counseling of pregnancies diagnosed with rare structural chromosomal anomalies. PMID:23771085

  5. Fractalkine Attenuates Microglial Cell Activation Induced by Prenatal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Chamera, Katarzyna; Roman, Adam; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure. Our study found that the microglia do not express fractalkine. Prenatal stress decreases the expression of the fractalkine receptor, which in turn is enhanced by the administration of exogenous fractalkine. Moreover, treatment with fractalkine diminishes the prenatal stress-induced overproduction of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, or NO in the microglial cells derived from prenatally stressed newborns. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the pathological activation of microglia in prenatally stressed newborns may be attenuated by fractalkine administration. Therefore, understanding of the role of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 system may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuron-microglia interaction and its role in pathological conditions in the brain. PMID:27239349

  6. Melatonin influences sex-specific prenatal mortality in meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Gorman, M R; Ferkin, M H; Dark, J

    1994-11-01

    Meadow voles exhibit seasonal changes in litter size, ovulation rates, and prenatal mortality. To investigate the proximate bases of seasonal changes in reproductive effort, adult female voles, maintained in long photoperiods (14 h of light/day), were injected daily with 10 micrograms melatonin 2 h before light offset to extend the duration of the nighttime melatonin pulse. At parturition the number, sex, and weight of offspring were assessed. The number of ovarian corpora lutea (CL), an index of potential litter size, was used to calculate rates of prenatal survival (i.e., pups per CL). Prenatal survival rates were reduced in female but not male pups of dams that had been injected before blastocyst implantation (Days 1-6 of pregnancy) with melatonin as compared with saline. Melatonin injections initiated after blastocyst implantation (Days 7-21 of pregnancy) did not affect prenatal survival, nor were birth weights of pups affected by either pre- or postimplantation melatonin treatment. We conclude that sex-specific prenatal survival is a labile feature of vole reproduction that may be under proximate control of photoperiod and melatonin before blastocyst implantation. PMID:7849189

  7. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  8. Gendered Performances during Peer Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the ways gender is accomplished in varied social contexts during the peer revision process in a secondary English classroom. Using a post-structural feminist theoretical framework, an analysis of classroom discourse provided a basis for understanding the performance of gender during peer revision, the effects of gender…

  9. Profiling β Thalassemia Mutations in Consanguinity and Nonconsanguinity for Prenatal Screening and Awareness Programme.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Arya, Vandana; Agarwal, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Mutation spectrum varies significantly in different parts and different ethnic groups of India. Social factors such as preference to marry within the community and among 1st degree relatives (consanguinity) play an important role in impeding the gene pool of the disease within the community and so in society by and large. The present paper discusses the role of consanguinity in profiling of beta thalassemia mutation, and thus the approach for prenatal screening and prevention based awareness programme. Clinically diagnosed 516 cases of beta thalassemia were screened at molecular level. A detailed clinical Proforma was recorded with the information of origin of the family, ethnicity, and consanguinity. The present study reports that subjects originating from Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, and Jharkhand have c.92+5G>C and c.124_127delTTCT mutation as the commonest mutation compared to the subjects hailing from Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and Nepal where sickle mutation was found more common. In 40 consanguineous unions more common and specific beta mutations with higher rate of homozygosity have been reported. This consanguinity-based data helps not only in deciding target oriented prenatal diagnostic strategies but also in objective based awareness programmes in prevention of thalassemia major birth. PMID:26576156

  10. Seasonal variation in adolescent conceptions, induced abortions, and late initiation of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Petersen, D J; Alexander, G R

    1992-01-01

    The monthly distribution of conceptions among adolescents and the proportion of adolescent pregnancies that are voluntarily terminated by induced abortion by month of conception are the objects of this study. Additionally, seasonal variations in the timing of initiation of prenatal care services by adolescents are investigated. Vital records files of single live births, fetal deaths, and induced terminations of pregnancy to residents in the State of South Carolina, 1979-86, were aggregated to estimate conceptions. There was a significant difference between adolescents and adults in the monthly distribution of conceptions. The peak month of adolescent conceptions coincided with the end of the school year. Pregnancies of adolescents occurring at this time further demonstrated later access of prenatal care services than conceptions occurring at other times of the year, most notably during the school term. These findings suggest that there is considerable opportunity for improving the availability of reproductive health care services for adolescents. The results specifically suggest the potential benefit of increasing adolescent pregnancy prevention efforts prior to high-risk events and increasing the availability of and access to health care and counseling services to adolescents during the school recess months of the summer.

  11. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Adiposity, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Methylation in Offspring, Grand-Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghai; Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Champagne, Frances A.; Wu, Licheng; McDonald, Jacob D.; Yan, Beizhan; Schwartz, Gary J.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Objectives We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. Materials and Methods Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α, cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. Findings Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. Conclusions Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny. PMID:25347678

  12. 75 FR 34684 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... system of records is being revised for the following reasons: 1. USDA/ARS-2, Research Medical Records System on Patients and Human Volunteers Participating in Research at the ARS Human Nutrition Research... deleting two systems of records maintained by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS). EFFECTIVE DATE:...

  13. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  14. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  15. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  16. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  17. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  18. Surgical Scar Revision: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092

  19. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  20. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  1. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  2. Prenatal Stress and Risk for Psychopathology: Specific Effects or Induction of General Susceptibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizink, Anja C.; Mulder, Edu J. H.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on prenatal stress as a risk factor for psychopathology. Evidence from animal studies is summarized, and the relevance of prenatal stress models in animals for human studies is discussed. In the offspring of prenatally stressed animals, overactivity and impaired negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal…

  3. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  4. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  5. Prenatal stress due to a natural disaster predicts insulin secretion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey N; Veru, Franz; Andersen, Ross E; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal stress might increase cardiometabolic disease risk. We measured prenatal stress due to an ice storm in 1998, and measured glucose tolerance among a subsample of 32 exposed adolescents in 2011. Severity of stress was positively associated with insulin secretion, suggesting that prenatal stress independently predicts metabolic outcomes in adolescence.

  6. Recent Revisions to PVWATTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Anderberg, M.; Gray-Hann, P.

    2005-11-01

    PVWATTS is an Internet-accessible software program that allows the user to easily calculate the energy production and cost savings for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems located throughout the United States. To ensure that PVWATTS continues to meet its users' needs, an online survey form was provided to users to identify areas for improvement. The results of the survey were used to prioritize improvements to PVWATTS in FY2005. PVWATTS was revised by changing the PV system specification input for system size from an AC power rating to a nameplate DC power rating; adding an input for an overall DC to AC derate factor; updating the residential electric rates; adding monthly and yearly solar radiation values for the PV array; and simplifying the user interface for Version 2.

  7. Prenatal triclosan exposure and cord blood immune system biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Marshall, Jean

    2016-07-01

    Triclosan is widely used as an antimicrobial agent and preservative that has been hypothesized to play a role in asthma and allergic disease. The limited body of literature regarding the allergenicity of triclosan has not evaluated prenatal exposure and subsequent potential effects on the developing immune system. The objective of the present study was to determine the association between prenatal urinary triclosan concentrations and cord blood immune system biomarker concentrations. Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Biobank and were tested for three immune system biomarkers: immunoglobulin E (IgE), thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33). Triclosan concentrations were measured in urine at 6-13 weeks gestation. No statistically significant associations were observed between prenatal triclosan concentrations and elevated concentrations of any immune system biomarker (n=1219 participants). Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine how the observed findings at birth translate into childhood.

  8. Anatomy of corpus callosum in prenatally malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ricardo; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Hernández, Alejandro; Aboitiz, Francisco; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Gil, Julio; Ortiz, Alexis; Flores, Osvaldo; Gimeno, Miguel; Laborda, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The effect of prenatal malnutrition on the anatomy of the corpus callosum was assessed in adult rats (45-52 days old). In the prenatally malnourished animals we observed a significant reduction of the corpus callosum total area, partial areas, and perimeter, as compared with normal animals. In addition, the splenium of corpus callosum (posterior fifth) showed a significant decrease of fiber diameters in the myelinated fibers without changing density. There was also a significant decrease in diameter and a significant increase in density of unmyelinated fibers. Measurements of perimeter's fractal dimensions from sagittal sections of the brain and corpus callosum did not show significant differences between malnourished and control animals. These findings indicate that cortico-cortical connections are vulnerable to the prenatal malnutrition, and suggest this may affect interhemispheric conduction velocity, particularly in visual connections (splenium).

  9. Prenatal development of respiratory chemoreceptors in endothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hempleman, Steven C; Pilarski, Jason Q

    2011-08-31

    Respiratory chemoreceptors are neurons that detect PCO(2), PO(2), and/or pH in body fluids and provide sensory feedback for the control of breathing. They play a critical role in coupling pulmonary ventilation to metabolic demand in endothermic vertebrates. During birth in mammals and hatching in birds, the state change from placental or chorioallantoic gas exchange to pulmonary respiration makes acute demands on the neonatal lungs and ventilatory control system, including the respiratory chemoreceptors. Here we review the literature on prenatal development of carotid body chemoreceptors, central chemoreceptors, and airway chemoreceptors, with emphasis on the histology, histochemistry, and neurophysiology of chemosensory cells or their afferents, and their physiological genomics if known. In general, respiratory chemoreceptors develop prenatally and are functional but immature at birth or hatching. Each type of respiratory chemoreceptor has a unique prenatal developmental time course, and all studied to date require a period of postnatal maturation to express the full adult response.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of Gaucher disease using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shinichiro; Kido, Jun; Matsumoto, Shirou; Momosaki, Ken; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Sugawara, Keishin; Endo, Fumio; Nakamura, Kimitoshi

    2016-09-01

    In the prenatal diagnosis of Gaucher disease (GD), glucocerebrosidase (GBA) activity is measured with fetal cells, and gene analysis is performed when pathogenic mutations in GBA are identified in advance. Herein is described prenatal diagnosis in a family in which two children had GD. Although prior genetic information for this GD family was not obtained, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out for this family because immediate prenatal diagnosis was necessary. Three mutations were identified in this GD family. The father had one mutation in intron 3 (IVS2 + 1), the mother had two mutations in exons 3 (I[-20]V) and 5 (M85T), and child 1 had all three of these mutations; child 3 had none of these mutations. On NGS the present fetus (child 3) was not a carrier of GD-related mutations. NGS may facilitate early detection and treatment before disease onset. PMID:27682613

  11. Commercial Landscape of noninvasive prenatal testing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and scientific, legal, and business publications. We also describe the patenting and licensing landscape of technologies underlying these tests and ongoing patent litigation in the United States. Finally, we discuss how IP issues may affect clinical translation of NIPT and their potential implications for stakeholders. Fetal medicine professionals (clinicians and researchers), genetic counselors, insurers, regulators, test developers and patients may be able to use this information to make informed decisions about clinical implementation of current and emerging noninvasive prenatal tests. PMID:23686656

  12. Benign prenatal hypophosphatasia: a treatable disease not to be missed.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tachikawa, Kanako; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal bowing of the long bones is often associated with severe bone dysplasias. We report a child who presented marked bowing of the long bones at birth but showed a relatively benign postnatal course with spontaneous improvement of bowing. The fetal imaging showed normal skeletal mineralization and normal chest and abdominal circumferences despite the limb bowing and shortening. Decreased serum alkaline phosphatase activity and elevated urine phosphoethanolamine was biochemically evident, and compound heterozygous mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene were identified, which confirmed the diagnosis of a benign form of prenatal hypophosphatasia. Benign prenatal hypophosphatasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital bowing of the long bones. PMID:24145968

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of Gaucher disease using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shinichiro; Kido, Jun; Matsumoto, Shirou; Momosaki, Ken; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Sugawara, Keishin; Endo, Fumio; Nakamura, Kimitoshi

    2016-09-01

    In the prenatal diagnosis of Gaucher disease (GD), glucocerebrosidase (GBA) activity is measured with fetal cells, and gene analysis is performed when pathogenic mutations in GBA are identified in advance. Herein is described prenatal diagnosis in a family in which two children had GD. Although prior genetic information for this GD family was not obtained, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out for this family because immediate prenatal diagnosis was necessary. Three mutations were identified in this GD family. The father had one mutation in intron 3 (IVS2 + 1), the mother had two mutations in exons 3 (I[-20]V) and 5 (M85T), and child 1 had all three of these mutations; child 3 had none of these mutations. On NGS the present fetus (child 3) was not a carrier of GD-related mutations. NGS may facilitate early detection and treatment before disease onset.

  14. Commercial landscape of noninvasive prenatal testing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C; Cho, Mildred K; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2013-06-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times, and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and scientific, legal, and business publications. We also describe the patenting and licensing landscape of technologies underlying these tests and ongoing patent litigation in the United States. Finally, we discuss how IP issues may affect clinical translation of NIPT and their potential implications for stakeholders. Fetal medicine professionals (clinicians and researchers), genetic counselors, insurers, regulators, test developers, and patients may be able to use this information to make informed decisions about clinical implementation of current and emerging noninvasive prenatal tests.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of isolated congenital pyloric atresia in a sibling.

    PubMed

    Usui, Noriaki; Kamiyama, Masafumi; Kimura, Takuya; Kamata, Shinkichi; Nose, Keisuke; Fukuzawa, Masahiro

    2013-02-01

    Although familial occurrence of congenital pyloric atresia (CPA) has been frequently reported in the past, many of these cases were associated with epidermolysis bullosa (EB), and familial isolated CPA was a relatively rare condition. We prenatally diagnosed and successfully treated a sibling of a subject with isolated CPA, who was diagnosed prenatally by fetal ultrasonography based on the findings of a distended stomach combined with polyhydramnios. The first case was a 2398-g female infant born at 36 weeks of gestation, who had been prenatally diagnosed as CPA. The second case, a younger sister of the first case, was a female infant weighing 2434 g, who had been also diagnosed as CPA by fetal ultrasonography at the check-up for the polyhydramnios of the same mother. Neither of the infants showed dermal lesions such as EB, and both underwent pyloroplasty with an excision of the pyloric membrane successfully after birth. PMID:23409992

  16. Prenatal nutrition and the human fetus.

    PubMed

    1971-09-01

    Although animal studies show that impaired maternal nutrition can cause congenital anomalies, intrauterine death, and a reduction in birthweight, it is not definitely known whether the same applies to man. A major factor in neonatal and infant mortality in man is low birthweight. Low birthweight in man has been correlated with height and weight of the mother, weight gain during pregnancy, her socioeconomic status, and smoking habits. With respect to nutrition, data on birthweight of infants born in times of wartime famine showed that timing of nutritional deprivation was a critical factor; analysis of winter 1944-45 Dutch experience showed that babies born to mothers whose famine exposure occurred only during the first half of pregnancy were, on the average, of normal birthweight; those whose mothers had nutritional deprivation during the last half of pregnancy, had average birthweight reduced by about 10%. Studies on the effects of less extreme degrees of nutritional deprivation (e.g., dietary supplementation of mothers from lower socioeconomic groups) have so far yielded inconclusive results. This is because of the technical difficulties, such as subject compliance, inherent in such studies. Charney et al reported that only 2/3 to 3/4 of patients take drugs as prescribed by their physicians. Degree of compliance with dietary advice, especially of the pregnant woman with a capricious appetite, is understandably difficult to assess. It was concluded that unless the mother is grossly malnourished, it is not easy to detect the influence of prenatal nutrition on fetal growth performance. A well-designed, unbiased experimental approach to the problem should throw light into the subject.

  17. Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. Results A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Conclusion Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the

  18. Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J.

    2006-03-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

  19. Student Records: Complying with Federal Privacy Laws May be Simpler than You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoop, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) was passed in 1974 and revised in 1996. This act, also known as the Buckley Amendment, guarantees parents access to their children's education records and limits the disclosure of those records. The revised law regards most information that teachers, school administrators, and education…

  20. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue. PMID:25521968

  1. Prenatal exposure to amphetamines. Risks and adverse outcomes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Plessinger, M A

    1998-03-01

    Based on findings in humans and the confirmation of prenatal exposures in animals, amphetamines and methamphetamines increase the risk of an adverse outcome when abused during pregnancy. Clefting, cardiac anomalies, and fetal growth reduction deficits that have been seen in infants exposed to amphetamines during pregnancy have all been reproduced in animal studies involving prenatal exposures to amphetamines. The differential effects of amphetamines between genetic strains of mice and between species demonstrate that pharmacokinetics and the genetic disposition of the mother and developing embryo can have an enormous influence on enhancing or reducing these potential risks. The effects of prenatal exposure to amphetamines in producing altered behavior in humans appear less compelling when one considers other confounding variables of human environment, genetics, and polydrug abuse. In view of the animal data concerning altered behavior and learning tasks in comparison with learning deficits observed in humans, the influence of the confounding variables in humans may serve to increase the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to prenatal exposure to amphetamines. These factors and others may predispose the developing conceptus to the damaging effects of amphetamines by actually lowering the threshold of susceptibility at the sites where damage occurs. Knowledge of the effects of prenatal exposure of the fetus and the mother to designer amphetamines is lacking. Based on the few studies in which designer drugs have been examined in animal models, more questions are raised than answered. Possible reasons why no malformations or significant fetal effects were found in the study by St. Omer include the genetic strain of rat used, the conservative exposure profile, or the fact that the placenta metabolized MDMA before reaching the embryo. These questions underscore the need for further investigations concerning the prenatal exposure effects of designer compounds and

  2. Prenatal screening and its impact on persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D

    1993-09-01

    A lawyer from the World Institute on Disability uses a disability perspective to explore some policy effects of prenatal screening. This perspective is grounded in life experiences of persons with disabilities who hold academic, scientific, and social positions that allow them the opportunity to share their on the value of living with a disability. Society must first clarify what goals it wants to attain before it considers the effectiveness of prenatal screening. If society wants to save future humans from suffering a terrible quality of life, it must be confident that a link exists between predictable genetic consequences and a negative life experience. If the goal is to deal with economic or social disadvantages related to genetic disabilities, society should at least study whether methods other than prenatal screening can achieve this goal and society should scrutinize these alternatives. Even though the disability rights movement acknowledges economic and social disadvantages, it also knows that many persons with disabilities have satisfying jobs, happy family situations, and various community roles. Thus, the disadvantages can be eliminated without getting rid of persons with disabilities. Advocacy for civil rights protection, legislation to eliminate environmental obstacles, agendas to promote and make available technology, and more effective social support programs are ways the disability rights movement tries to remove social and economic barriers. Prenatal screening seems to not match the goals of the movement. Further, many of its leaders challenge its value and ethical basis. Some people view prenatal screening as a technology that is advancing without a firm foundation in social policy. The constant growth of information about human genetics makes it more complex to address the value and ethical questions. Society must incorporate persons with disabilities into prenatal diagnosis research and examination of policy alternatives. The disability community

  3. Prenatal exposure to amphetamines. Risks and adverse outcomes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Plessinger, M A

    1998-03-01

    Based on findings in humans and the confirmation of prenatal exposures in animals, amphetamines and methamphetamines increase the risk of an adverse outcome when abused during pregnancy. Clefting, cardiac anomalies, and fetal growth reduction deficits that have been seen in infants exposed to amphetamines during pregnancy have all been reproduced in animal studies involving prenatal exposures to amphetamines. The differential effects of amphetamines between genetic strains of mice and between species demonstrate that pharmacokinetics and the genetic disposition of the mother and developing embryo can have an enormous influence on enhancing or reducing these potential risks. The effects of prenatal exposure to amphetamines in producing altered behavior in humans appear less compelling when one considers other confounding variables of human environment, genetics, and polydrug abuse. In view of the animal data concerning altered behavior and learning tasks in comparison with learning deficits observed in humans, the influence of the confounding variables in humans may serve to increase the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to prenatal exposure to amphetamines. These factors and others may predispose the developing conceptus to the damaging effects of amphetamines by actually lowering the threshold of susceptibility at the sites where damage occurs. Knowledge of the effects of prenatal exposure of the fetus and the mother to designer amphetamines is lacking. Based on the few studies in which designer drugs have been examined in animal models, more questions are raised than answered. Possible reasons why no malformations or significant fetal effects were found in the study by St. Omer include the genetic strain of rat used, the conservative exposure profile, or the fact that the placenta metabolized MDMA before reaching the embryo. These questions underscore the need for further investigations concerning the prenatal exposure effects of designer compounds and

  4. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue.

  5. Predictors of bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Michael R; Klika, Alison K; Lee, Ho H; Joyce, David M; Mehta, Priyesh; Barsoum, Wael K

    2010-03-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) requires preoperative planning to enable the reconstruction of bony deficiencies. The objective of this project was to identify predictors of bone loss management at RTKA based on the preoperative failure mode and patient demographics known preoperatively. We retrospectively reviewed 245 consecutive RTKA procedures in which the same revision knee system was utilized. Patient demographic and treatment data were recorded, and locations of bone loss were identified based on the reconstructive management. We identified significant predictors for use of femoral augments at all four positions. Several predictors significantly predisposed to use of a thick (>19 mm) polyethylene; however, no predictors of tibial augments were significant. Although the reconstruction of bone loss is primarily based on the intraoperative assessment, these findings may provide additional information to help the surgeon prepare for difficult revision procedures. PMID:20812582

  6. ATTENTION FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURE.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Dominique A; Suchan, Boris; Schölmerich, Axel; Schneider, Dominik T; Gawehn, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children born to drug abusers are exposed to teratogenic influences on intrauterine brain development and undergo postnatal withdrawal. We investigated the interplay of different domains and levels of attention functioning in 24 prenatally exposed and 25 nonexposed children who were 5 to 6 years old. Assessment included parent ratings and neuropsychological and electrophysiological methods. Exposed children had a higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms, tended to have poorer performance in an attention test battery, and showed EEG alterations in P3 and N2c. Findings suggest long-term effects of prenatal drug exposure on specific domains and on different levels of attention functioning. PMID:26331969

  7. ATTENTION FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURE.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Dominique A; Suchan, Boris; Schölmerich, Axel; Schneider, Dominik T; Gawehn, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children born to drug abusers are exposed to teratogenic influences on intrauterine brain development and undergo postnatal withdrawal. We investigated the interplay of different domains and levels of attention functioning in 24 prenatally exposed and 25 nonexposed children who were 5 to 6 years old. Assessment included parent ratings and neuropsychological and electrophysiological methods. Exposed children had a higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms, tended to have poorer performance in an attention test battery, and showed EEG alterations in P3 and N2c. Findings suggest long-term effects of prenatal drug exposure on specific domains and on different levels of attention functioning.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of Chudley-McCullough syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa; Perez, Francisco A; Ishak, Gisele E; Doherty, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a complex brain malformation and profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Postnatal brain imaging findings include ventriculomegaly, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, inferior cerebellar dysplasia, arachnoid cysts, and malformations of cortical development including frontal subcortical heterotopia and polymicrogyria. Prenatal diagnosis of CMS is important due to the markedly less severe neurodevelopmental prognosis compared to disorders with similar brain imaging findings. We report prenatal imaging features that help distinguish CMS from other disorders, including slit-like frontal horns, agenesis of the corpus callosum, frontal subcortical heterotopia, arachnoid cysts, and cerebellar dysplasia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27312216

  9. Screening for gonorrhea in a prenatal clinic in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Goh, T H; Ngeow, Y F; Teoh, S K

    1981-01-01

    Screening by culture of endocervical specimens revealed four cases of gonorrhea among 744 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic at the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The observed prevalence of gonorrhea (0.54%) in pregnant women is similar to that in Great Britain (0.2-0.7%), but lower than the prevalences reported for North America (2.5-7.5%) and Thailand (11.9%). The results indicate that routine screening of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Malaysia would aid in the control of gonorrhea in that country. PMID:7256495

  10. Screening for gonorrhea in a prenatal clinic in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Goh, T H; Ngeow, Y F; Teoh, S K

    1981-01-01

    Screening by culture of endocervical specimens revealed four cases of gonorrhea among 744 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic at the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The observed prevalence of gonorrhea (0.54%) in pregnant women is similar to that in Great Britain (0.2-0.7%), but lower than the prevalences reported for North America (2.5-7.5%) and Thailand (11.9%). The results indicate that routine screening of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Malaysia would aid in the control of gonorrhea in that country.

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis of Concurrent Achondroplasia and Klinefelter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Carbajo, Esther; Sanfrutos-Llorente, Luis; Cruz-Melguizo, Sara; Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Iglesias-Goy, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most frequent nonlethal skeletal dysplasia, with a prevalence of 1 : 5000 to 1 : 40,000 live births, and it is caused by a fibroblast growth factor receptor alteration. The combination of achondroplasia and Klinefelter syndrome is extremely rare and just four reports have been published in the literature, which were all diagnosed postnatally. We report the fifth case described of this uncommon association and its prenatal diagnosis. In cases of prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia with additional suspicious morphological abnormalities, an invasive test such as amniocentesis must be carried out to assess the karyotype normality. PMID:25789188

  12. Prediction, prevention and personalisation of medication for the prenatal period: genetic prenatal tests for both rare and common diseases.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Munis; Uzak, Asli Subasioglu; Erdogan, Murat; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-06-01

    Genetic testing usually helps physicians to determine possible genetic diseases in unborn babies, genetic disorders of patients and the carriers who might pass the mutant gene on to their children. They are performed on blood, tissues or other body fluids. In recent years, the screening tests and diagnostic tests have improved quickly and, as a result, the risks of pregnancy can be determined more commonly and physicians can diagnose several genetic disorders in the prenatal period. Detecting the abnormalities in utero enables correct management of the pregnancy, prenatal and postnatal medical care, and it is also important for making well informed decisions about continuing or terminating a pregnancy. Besides the improvements of conventional invasive diagnostic tests, the discovery of circulating cell-free foetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma has developed a new point of view for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis recently.

  13. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea: A nationwide epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13-19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P < 0.001). About 14.4% of teenage mothers had never received prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers more often experienced preterm delivery and perineal laceration (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers (<20 years) were 2.47 times more likely to have preterm delivery than older mothers (20-34 years; P < 0.001). Teenage mothers had higher risk of inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001). PMID:27559960

  14. Exogenous prenatal corticosterone exposure mimics the effects of prenatal stress on adult brain stress response systems and fear extinction behavior.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Brian C; Sheela Rani, C S; Frazer, Alan; Strong, Randy; Morilak, David A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of cognitive and emotional disorders later in life. We previously demonstrated that prenatal stress (PNS) in rats results in long-term, stable changes in central stress-response systems and impairs the ability to extinguish conditioned fear responding, a component of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maternal corticosterone (CORT), released during prenatal stress, is a possible mediator of these effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether fetal exposure to CORT at levels induced by PNS is sufficient to alter the development of adult stress neurobiology and fear extinction behavior. Pregnant dams were subject to either PNS (60 min immobilization/day from ED 14-21) or a daily injection of CORT (10mg/kg), which approximated both fetal and maternal plasma CORT levels elicited during PNS. Control dams were given injections of oil vehicle. Male offspring were allowed to grow to adulthood undisturbed, at which point they were sacrificed and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, hypothalamus, and a section of the rostral pons containing the locus coeruleus (LC) were dissected. PNS and prenatal CORT treatment decreased glucocorticoid receptor protein levels in the mPFC, hippocampus, and hypothalamus when compared to control offspring. Both treatments also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the LC. Finally, the effect of prenatal CORT exposure on fear extinction behavior was examined following chronic stress. Prenatal CORT impaired both acquisition and recall of cue-conditioned fear extinction. This effect was additive to the impairment induced by previous chronic stress. Thus, these data suggest that fetal exposure to high levels of maternal CORT is responsible for many of the lasting neurobiological consequences of PNS as they relate to the processes underlying extinction of learned fear. The data further suggest that adverse prenatal environments constitute a

  15. [Profile of adolescents with repeated pregnancies attended at a prenatal clinic].

    PubMed

    Persona, Lia; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda; Tarallo, Maria Celina

    2004-01-01

    This study identified the biopsychosocial profile of adolescent with repeated pregnancies, who were attended at a prenatal clinic. Data were collected through patient records and interviews and were subject to quantitative analysis. Based on the obtained results and in accordance with literature, factors that are strongly associated with the occurrence of pregnancy repetition were selected in the adolescents' profiles. These are: early menarche; first sexual intercourse shortly after menarche; school repetition; school dropout; non remunerated occupation; low family income; involvement with older partners; living with the partner; consensual union with the partner; one partner; low condom use; family history of adolescent pregnancy; father's absence because of death or abandonment; positive family reaction to previous pregnancy; previous abortion; adolescent's positive concepts about previous delivery; and absence from previous postpartum consultations.

  16. Revising probability estimates: Why increasing likelihood means increasing impact.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Sam J; Polman, Evan

    2016-08-01

    Forecasted probabilities rarely stay the same for long. Instead, they are subject to constant revision-moving upward or downward, uncertain events become more or less likely. Yet little is known about how people interpret probability estimates beyond static snapshots, like a 30% chance of rain. Here, we consider the cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of revisions to probability forecasts. Stemming from a lay belief that revisions signal the emergence of a trend, we find in 10 studies (comprising uncertain events such as weather, climate change, sex, sports, and wine) that upward changes to event-probability (e.g., increasing from 20% to 30%) cause events to feel less remote than downward changes (e.g., decreasing from 40% to 30%), and subsequently change people's behavior regarding those events despite the revised event-probabilities being the same. Our research sheds light on how revising the probabilities for future events changes how people manage those uncertain events. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281350

  17. Revision of some ophiuroid records (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Brogger, Martin I; O'Hara, Timothy D

    2015-06-12

    The taxonomy of some ophiuroids reported from off Argentina, western Antarctica and the SW Atlantic Ocean is reviewed. The species Amphilepis sanmatiensis, known only from the small holotype, is a synonym of Amphioplus lucyae. This synonymy removes the only reported endemic ophiuroid from Argentina. The species name "Ophiacantha ingrata Koehler, 1923" used for specimens from South Georgia is invalid; the specimens are likely to belong to one of two cryptic species within the O. vivipara complex. Specimens of Amphiura joubini reported from Argentina are re-identified as Amphiura princeps, and specimens of Ophiactis amator from the Antarctic Peninsula are re-identified as Ophiactis asperula.

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Benzo(a)pyrene Impairs Later-Life Cortical Neuronal Function

    PubMed Central

    McCallister, Monique M.; Maguire, Mark; Ramesh, Aramandla; Aimin, Qiao; Liu, Sheng; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Aschner, Michael; Ebner, Ford F.; Hood, Darryl B.

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants, such as Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] has been shown to impair brain development. The overarching hypothesis of our work is that glutamate receptor subunit expression is crucial for cortical evoked responses and that prenatal B(a)P exposure modulates the temporal developmental expression of glutamatergic receptor subunits in the somatosensory cortex. To characterize prenatal B(a)P exposure on the development of cortical function, pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to low-level B(a)P (300μg/kg BW) by oral gavage on gestational days 14 to 17. At this exposure dose, there was no significant effect of B(a)P on 1) the number of pups born per litter, 2) the pre-weaning growth curves and 3) initial and final brain to body weight ratios. Control and B(a)P-exposed offspring were profiled for B(a)P metabolites in plasma and whole brain during the pre-weaning period. No detectable levels of metabolites were found in the control offspring. However, a time-dependent decrease in total metabolite concentration was observed in B(a)P-exposed offspring. On PND100-120, cerebrocortical mRNA expression was determined for the glutamatergic NMDA receptor subunit (NR2B) in control and B(a)P-exposed offspring. Neural activity was also recorded from neurons in primary somatic sensory (barrel) cortex. Semiquantitative PCR from B(a)P-exposed offspring revealed a significant 50% reduction in NR2B mRNA expression in B(a)P-exposed offspring relative to controls. Recordings from B(a)P-exposed offspring revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor -dependent neuronal activity in barrel cortex evoked by whisker stimulation was also significantly reduced (70%) as compared to controls. Analysis showed that the greatest deficit in cortical neuronal responses occurred in the shorter latency epochs from 5-20ms post-stimulus. The results suggest that in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene results in diminished mRNA expression of the NMDA NR2B receptor

  19. The California Prenatal Screening Program: "options and choices" not "coercion and eugenics".

    PubMed

    Flessel, Monica C; Lorey, Fred W

    2011-08-01

    The California Prenatal Screening Program is designed to make prenatal screening available to the state's large and diverse population. The Program provides information to women which will allow them to make informed choices regarding prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. Since the Program's inception in 1986, women in California have had the option to participate in prenatal screening or to decline prenatal screening. The California Program offers prenatal diagnostic services to women whose screening tests indicate an increased risk for birth defects, including Down syndrome. Women can decline any or all of these follow-up services. Genetic counseling, diagnostic services, and the presentation of diagnostic results are performed by medical professionals (not State staff) who follow established guidelines for nondirective counseling. Program data clearly demonstrate that women in California have a wide range of options and make a wide range of choices regarding prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. California's comprehensive Prenatal Screening Program promotes optimal care for all women within all options and choices. The important and necessary communication among organizations and stakeholders involved in prenatal screening and diagnosis, and in related care for pregnant women and for people with Down syndrome, is not served by misrepresentation and inflammatory rhetoric.

  20. Annotation and Classification of Argumentative Writing Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the annotation and classification of students' revision behaviors in argumentative writing. A sentence-level revision schema is proposed to capture why and how students make revisions. Based on the proposed schema, a small corpus of student essays and revisions was annotated. Studies show that manual annotation is reliable with…

  1. OMB revises overhead rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    After pressure from university administrators, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has issued a new plan for saving money on research overhead costs, in place of a controversial proposal that was originally published in February 1986 (Eos, May 20, 1986, p. 481). The agency made the new plan more palatable to administrators and faculty by choosing to cap the rate of reimbursement for the activity that researchers say they find among the most difficult to document: the time they spend on administration of federally sponsored grants and contracts. An amendment to a bill signed by President Ronald Reagan on July 2 might force OMB to make additional concessions to colleges and universities.How much money the federal government would save under this policy is a matter of dispute. The agency's revisions to OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions,” call for fixing the reimbursement rate at 3% of modified total direct costs for departmental administration work done by “department heads, directors of divisions faculty, and professional staff.” The 3% figure represents about half of the current national average rate of reimbursement for these costs and would lead to federal government savings of $100 million a year, according to OMB.

  2. Facilitating Visitation for Infants with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burry, Caroline Long; Wright, Lois

    2006-01-01

    Permanency planning for infants with prenatal substance exposure is challenging due to characteristics of the infants and the ongoing substance use or relapse of the parents. Visitation is a primary mechanism through which child welfare workers determine and support permanency planning. Productive use of visitation for permanency planning for…

  3. Promoting Prenatal Health in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirgan, Irene

    The continuing surge of women into the work force and the tendency for women to remain on the job throughout pregnancy and to return to work within months after delivery have led companies to initiate and place increasing importance on prenatal health promotion. Such programs have been found to improve employees' prospects for healthy pregnancies…

  4. Digynic triploidy: utility and challenges of noninvasive prenatal testing

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Julie; Shenoy, Archana; Goetzinger, Katherine; Cottrell, Catherine E; Baldridge, Dustin; White, Frances V; Shinawi, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Low fraction fetal DNA in noninvasive prenatal testing in the context of fetal growth restriction and multiple congenital anomalies should alert medical professionals to the possibility of digynic triploidy. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray can detect the parental origin of triploidy and explain its mechanism. PMID:26185638

  5. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:27014443

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, type II.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Aughton, D J; Comstock, C H; von Oeyen, P T; Higgins, J V; Schulz, R

    1994-01-15

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, type II (SLOS-II) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a distinctive face, unusual cleft palate, postaxial polydactyly, congenital heart defects, renal anomalies, and male pseudohermaphroditism. We present the first report of prenatal diagnosis of SLOS-II, as well as an additional report of prenatal detection of multiple anomalies, in which a positive diagnosis of SLOS II was made postnatally. In neither case was the pregnancy known prospectively to be at risk for SLOS-II. In the former case, targeted sonographic examination at 31 weeks of gestation showed intrauterine growth retardation, atrioventricular septal defect, mesomelic shortening of the arms, small kidneys, overlapping fingers, and female external genitalia; a 46,XY chromosome constitution had been ascertained previously. A provisional diagnosis of SLOS-II was made prenatally. In the latter case, targeted sonographic examination at 18 weeks of gestation showed severe oligohydramnios, atrioventricular septal defect, and Dandy-Walker malformation. The kidneys and bladder were not visualized. The chromosome constitution was 46,XX. The diagnosis of SLOS-II was made postnatally. In both cases, additional findings compatible with SLOS-II were noted postnatally. Prenatal detection of congenital heart defects and renal abnormalities, in combination with certain additional findings (most notably, female external genitalia in the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, polydactyly, disproportionately short limbs, or intrauterine growth retardation) and a normal karyotype, suggests the diagnosis of SLOS-II, and warrants further investigation.

  7. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Increases Brain Cholesterol Content in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E.; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content is known to change in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43%, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total PUFA, in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6 n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of post-natal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats. PMID:23996454

  8. Maternal prenatal stress and infant regulatory capacity in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Betty; Crnic, Keith A; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2014-11-01

    The early postpartum period lays important groundwork for later self-regulation as infants' dispositional traits interact with caregivers' co-regulatory behaviors to produce the earliest forms of self-regulation. Although emerging literature suggests that fetal exposure to maternal stress may be integral in determining child self-regulatory capacity, the complex pathways that characterize these early developmental processes remain unclear. The current study considers these complex, transactional processes in a low income, Mexican American sample. Data were collected from 295 Mexican American infants and their mothers during prenatal, 6- and 12-week postpartum home interviews. Mother reports of stress were obtained prenatally, and mother reports of infant temperament were obtained at 6 weeks. Observer ratings of maternal sensitivity and infant regulatory behaviors were obtained at the 6- and 12-week time points. Study results indicate that prenatal stress predicts higher levels of infant negativity and surgency, both of which directly or interactively predict later engagement in regulatory behaviors. Unexpectedly, prenatal stress also predicted more engagement in orienting, but not self-comforting behaviors. Advancing understandings about the nature of these developmental pathways may have significant implications for targets of early intervention in this high risk population. PMID:25113917

  9. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  10. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA.

  11. Prenatal hyperandrogenism induces alterations that affect liver lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Heber, Maria Florencia; Ferreira, Silvana Rocio; Velez, Leandro Martin; Reynoso, Roxana; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis.

  12. Getting to Know Your Baby and Yourself: Prenatal to Birth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Grace C.

    This illustrated booklet on prenatal care and birth is part of a related curriculum on parenting and child development designed for school-age mothers. Conception, embryonic and fetal development, the birth process, nutrition during pregnancy, and emotional and physical characteristics of pregnant women are explained. Short quizzes and answers are…

  13. Gender-related behavior in women exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, R R

    1993-01-01

    Accumulating evidence in experimental animals over the past three decades suggests that mammalian brain development and differentiation of the central nervous system are influenced by perinatal exposure to sex hormones. Hence, changes in human behavioral patterns may be associated with prenatal exposure to estrogenic substances such as diethylstilbestrol (DES). This paper reviews relevant studies from a series of laboratories and finds that no clear-cut differences can be demonstrated to date between unexposed and DES-exposed women in gender-related behavior, although the physical and psychological impact of the problems associated with exposure to DES are well documented. If both prenatal and postnatal influences such as social, economic, and environmental factors are taken into consideration, individual variation is more apparent than differences in gender-related behavior between unexposed and DES-exposed women. In summary, gender-related behavior is determined by a complex array of interacting factors, and prenatal influences are only one of many developmental events. More studies are needed using larger populations with carefully controlled selection criteria to suggest a direct role of prenatal DES exposure on subsequent gender-related behavior. Images p208-a PMID:8404755

  14. Cell-Free Fetal DNA Testing for Prenatal Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Drury, S; Hill, M; Chitty, L S

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis and screening have undergone rapid development in recent years, with advances in molecular technology driving the change. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome as a highly sensitive screening test is now available worldwide through the commercial sector with many countries moving toward implementation into their publically funded maternity systems. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed for definitive diagnosis of some recessive and X-linked conditions, rather than just paternally inherited dominant and de novo conditions. NIPD/T offers pregnant couples greater choice during their pregnancy as these safer methods avoid the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive testing. As the cost of sequencing falls and technology develops further, there may well be potential for whole exome and whole genome sequencing of the unborn fetus using cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. How such assays can or should be implemented into the clinical setting remain an area of significant debate, but it is clear that the progress made to date for safer prenatal testing has been welcomed by expectant couples and their healthcare professionals. PMID:27645814

  15. Effects of prenatal stress on sexual partner preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Meek, Leslie R; Schulz, Kalynn M; Keith, Courtney A

    2006-09-30

    Three-month old, male Swiss Webster mice were born to either control dams or dams who had been prenatally stressed with light, heat, noise and handling during the last week of gestation. As adults, male offspring were tested on sexual partner preference and sexual behavior (mounting, intromissions and lordosis) with a sexually experienced male stimulus animal and a stimulus estrous female. In comparison to males born to control dams, prenatally stressed males showed a sexual partner preference for the sexually active male as demonstrated by a negative partner preference score, more and longer visits to the male's compartment, fewer and shorter visits to the female's compartment and longer latencies to and lower frequencies of mounts and intromissions of females. In addition, stressed males showed a greater frequency of lordosis and a higher lordosis quotient than did control males. This study is the first to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone, without hormonal manipulation, on sexual partner preference using both a partner preference paradigm and measures of sexual behavior such as mounting, intromissions and lordosis. These findings support the suggestion that prenatal stress alone is enough to significantly affect sexual partner preference in male mice.

  16. The effect of prenatal natural disaster exposure on school outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sarah C

    2014-08-01

    This study looks at the impact of exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy on the educational outcomes of North Carolina children at the third grade level. A broad literature relates negative birth outcomes to poor educational performance, and a number of recent studies have examined the effect of prenatal exposure to natural disasters on birth outcomes. This study takes the next step by considering how prenatal exposure affects later outcomes. Combining North Carolina administrative data on births and school performance with disaster declarations from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allows for the identification of children who were exposed to disasters during prenatal development. These children are compared with other children born in the same county who were not exposed to disasters while in utero. Regression results suggest that children exposed to hurricanes prenatally have lower scores on third grade standardized tests in math and reading. Those exposed to flooding or tornadoes also have somewhat lower math scores. Additionally, results suggest that these negative effects are more concentrated among children in disadvantaged subgroups, especially children born to black mothers. However, no evidence exists that these effects are mediated by common measures of birth outcomes, including birth weight and gestational age.

  17. Effects of prenatal stress on male offspring sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Nancy; Mayer, Nora; Gauna, Héctor F

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stimulations have been shown to have long-term effects on at reproductive activity. We evaluated the influence of the prenatal stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis in male offsprings from mothers with high number of offsprings per litter (HNL) and low number of offsprings per litter (LNL) after hypothesizing that the number of offsprings per litter may modify the effect of the prenatal stress on the HPG of adult offsprings. Pregnant Wistar rats were used for this study. Immobilization (IMO) stress was used, 30 min, 3 times per week, from the 5th to 21st day of pregnancy. The weight of adrenal and gonads, and the corticosterone (COR), testosterone (TES) and luteinizing hormone (LH) plasmatic levels were analyzed in the male offspring at 30, 45 and 70 days of age. The offspring males coming from LNL showed a decrease in testicle weight and TES levels, without changes in the plasmatic LH levels. However, the offspring of HNL showed a decrease of LH levels. It is possible to conclude that in LNL prenatal stress would produce alterations to gonadal level, while in HNL the effect of stress would be evident at pituitary level.

  18. Another case of prenatally diagnosed 48,XYY,+21

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.

    1995-02-13

    We report on a 20-month-old boy with 48,XYY,+21, the third prenatally diagnosed patient with this rare double aneuploidy syndrome. A review of 14 literature cases suggests that the Down syndrome phenotype appears unaltered by the extra Y chromosome. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population. PMID:8497574

  20. Perceptions of Latinas on the Traditional Prenatal Genetic Counseling Model.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Lemons, Jennifer; Peterson, Susan K; Carreno, Carlos; Harbison, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    The traditional genetic counseling model encompasses an individualized counseling session that includes the presentation of information about genes, chromosomes, personalized risk assessment, and genetic testing and screening options. Counselors are challenged to balance the provision of enough basic genetic information to ensure clients' understanding of the genetic condition in question with a personalized discussion of what this information means to them. This study explored the perceptions Latinas have about prenatal genetic counseling sessions and aimed to determine if they had preferences about the delivery of care. Data were collected through focus groups and one-on-one, semi-structured interviews of 25 Spanish speaking Latinas who received genetic counseling during their current pregnancy. We implemented grounded theory to evaluate participant responses, and were able to identify common emergent themes. Several themes were identified including an overall satisfaction with their prenatal genetic counseling appointment, desire for a healthy baby, peace of mind following their appointment, lack of desire for invasive testing, and faith in God. Several participants stated a preference for group genetic counseling over the traditional individual genetic counseling model. Our data indicate that Latinas value the information presented at prenatal genetic counseling appointments despite disinterest in pursuing genetic testing or screening and suggest that group prenatal genetic counseling may be an effective alternative to the traditional genetic counseling model in the Latina population. PMID:25475921

  1. Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development because of greater reactivity and reduced regulation during challenging tasks. Few studies have examined whether cocaine-exposed children show such difficulties during the preschool years, a period marked by increased social and cognitive…

  2. The Relationship between Prenatal Parental Stress and Pregnancy Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihardt, Joanne E.

    To explore the relationship between prenatal parental stress and pregnancy outcome, this study investigated the hypothesis that parents of infants with defects would report greater amounts of stress in the year prior to their infant's birth than would parents of normally developing infants. Data on levels of parental stress were obtained from 37…

  3. Adolescent Initiation of Drug Use: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at…

  4. Perceptions of Latinas on the Traditional Prenatal Genetic Counseling Model.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Lemons, Jennifer; Peterson, Susan K; Carreno, Carlos; Harbison, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    The traditional genetic counseling model encompasses an individualized counseling session that includes the presentation of information about genes, chromosomes, personalized risk assessment, and genetic testing and screening options. Counselors are challenged to balance the provision of enough basic genetic information to ensure clients' understanding of the genetic condition in question with a personalized discussion of what this information means to them. This study explored the perceptions Latinas have about prenatal genetic counseling sessions and aimed to determine if they had preferences about the delivery of care. Data were collected through focus groups and one-on-one, semi-structured interviews of 25 Spanish speaking Latinas who received genetic counseling during their current pregnancy. We implemented grounded theory to evaluate participant responses, and were able to identify common emergent themes. Several themes were identified including an overall satisfaction with their prenatal genetic counseling appointment, desire for a healthy baby, peace of mind following their appointment, lack of desire for invasive testing, and faith in God. Several participants stated a preference for group genetic counseling over the traditional individual genetic counseling model. Our data indicate that Latinas value the information presented at prenatal genetic counseling appointments despite disinterest in pursuing genetic testing or screening and suggest that group prenatal genetic counseling may be an effective alternative to the traditional genetic counseling model in the Latina population.

  5. Risk Preferences and Prenatal Exposure to Sex Hormones for Ladinos

    PubMed Central

    Aycinena, Diego; Baltaduonis, Rimvydas; Rentschler, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D), which is negatively (positively) correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen). We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups. PMID:25084091

  6. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    PubMed

    Aycinena, Diego; Baltaduonis, Rimvydas; Rentschler, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D), which is negatively (positively) correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen). We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups. PMID:25084091

  7. Intervention Strategies for the Child with Prenatal Drug Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jean Gardner

    The behavior of the infant with prenatal drug exposure (PDE) is different from a nonexposed infant, and it is a difference that changes the rules of interaction for the caregiver. Infants exposed to opiates such as heroin or methadone demonstrate very specific signs of neurobehavioral dysfunction as they go through classic withdrawal symptoms.…

  8. Maternal alexithymic traits, prenatal stress, and infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Kantonen, T; Karlsson, L; Nolvi, S; Karukivi, M; Tolvanen, M; Karlsson, H

    2015-11-01

    We aimed at investigating, whether maternal alexithymia or prenatal anxiety influences infant temperament (Infant Temperament Questionnaire, IBQ) at six months. Maternal alexithymic trait of "Difficulty in Identifying Feelings" predicted higher infant "Duration of Orienting". "Fear of Bearing a Handicapped Child" predicted lower infant "Activity Level".

  9. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA. PMID:27117661

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Ansary, Althaf; Manjunatha, C M; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Colpocephaly is a rare abnormality of the brain, described as persistence of primitive foetal configuration of lateral ventricles. It has been found in association with several abnormalities of the brain. Herein we report a case of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum, confirmed antenatally with foetal MRI following diagnostic suspicion based on absent septum pellucidum at prenatal sonography.

  11. Prenatal emotion management improves obstetric outcomes: a randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Li, He-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Mao, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Wen-Ying; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Negative emotions can cause a number of prenatal problems and disturb obstetric outcomes. We determined the effectiveness of prenatal emotional management on obstetric outcomes in nulliparas. Methods: All participants completed the PHQ-9 at the baseline assessment. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the emotional management (EM) and usual care (UC) groups. The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks gestation and the participants were followed up to 42 days postpartum. Each subject in the EM group received an extra EM program while the participants in the UC groups received routine prenatal care and education only. The PHQ-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) were used for assessment. Results: The EM group had a lower PHQ-9 score at 36 weeks gestation, and 7 and 42 days after delivery (P < 0.01), and a lower EPDS score 42 days postpartum (P < 0.05). The rate of cesarean section in the EM group was lower than the UC group (P < 0.01), and the cesarean section rate without a medical indication was lower (P < 0.01). The duration of the second stage of labor in the EM group was shorter than the UC group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Prenatal EM intervention could control anxiety and depressive feelings in nulliparas, and improve obstetric outcomes. It may serve as an innovative approach to reduce the cesarean section rate in China. PMID:26309641

  12. Effects of prenatal stress on sexual partner preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Meek, Leslie R; Schulz, Kalynn M; Keith, Courtney A

    2006-09-30

    Three-month old, male Swiss Webster mice were born to either control dams or dams who had been prenatally stressed with light, heat, noise and handling during the last week of gestation. As adults, male offspring were tested on sexual partner preference and sexual behavior (mounting, intromissions and lordosis) with a sexually experienced male stimulus animal and a stimulus estrous female. In comparison to males born to control dams, prenatally stressed males showed a sexual partner preference for the sexually active male as demonstrated by a negative partner preference score, more and longer visits to the male's compartment, fewer and shorter visits to the female's compartment and longer latencies to and lower frequencies of mounts and intromissions of females. In addition, stressed males showed a greater frequency of lordosis and a higher lordosis quotient than did control males. This study is the first to investigate the effects of prenatal stress alone, without hormonal manipulation, on sexual partner preference using both a partner preference paradigm and measures of sexual behavior such as mounting, intromissions and lordosis. These findings support the suggestion that prenatal stress alone is enough to significantly affect sexual partner preference in male mice. PMID:16844154

  13. Newborn Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABRs): Prenatal and Contemporary Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann D.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are a literature review and new data on correlates of newborn auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs). Concludes that disorders of the central components of the ABR may be more of prenatal than of postnatal origin. The I-V interval had low but reliable correlations with four of 11 Brazelton scale variables. (RH)

  14. Differential Effects of Prenatal Rhythmic Stimulation on Neonatal Arousal States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Corinne R.; Steinschneider, Alfred

    1975-01-01

    This study tested Salk's hypothesis that the human fetus is prenatally imprinted to the repetitive intermittent sound of the maternal heartbeat. The prediction that neonates would quiet most to their own mother's heart rate compared with the unfamiliar heart rate was not supported. (Author/CS)

  15. Prenatal Chemosensory Learning by the Predatory Mite Neoseiulus californicus

    PubMed Central

    Peralta Quesada, Paulo C.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal or embryonic learning, behavioral change following experience made prior to birth, may have significant consequences for postnatal foraging behavior in a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and molluscs. However, prenatal learning has not been previously shown in arthropods such as insects, spiders and mites. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined prenatal chemosensory learning in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus. We exposed these predators in the embryonic stage to two flavors (vanillin or anisaldehyde) or no flavor (neutral) by feeding their mothers on spider mite prey enriched with these flavors or not enriched with any flavor (neutral). After the predators reached the protonymphal stage, we assessed their prey choice through residence and feeding preferences in experiments, in which they were offered spider mites matching the maternal diet (neutral, vanillin or anisaldehyde spider mites) and non-matching spider mites. Predator protonymphs preferentially resided in the vicinity of spider mites matching the maternal diet irrespective of the type of maternal diet and choice situation. Across treatments, the protonymphs preferentially fed on spider mites matching the maternal diet. Prey and predator sizes did not differ among neutral, vanillin and anisaldehyde treatments, excluding the hypothesis that size-assortative predation influenced the outcome of the experiments. Conclusions/Significance Our study reports the first example of prenatal learning in arthropods. PMID:23300897

  16. The effect of prenatal natural disaster exposure on school outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sarah C

    2014-08-01

    This study looks at the impact of exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy on the educational outcomes of North Carolina children at the third grade level. A broad literature relates negative birth outcomes to poor educational performance, and a number of recent studies have examined the effect of prenatal exposure to natural disasters on birth outcomes. This study takes the next step by considering how prenatal exposure affects later outcomes. Combining North Carolina administrative data on births and school performance with disaster declarations from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allows for the identification of children who were exposed to disasters during prenatal development. These children are compared with other children born in the same county who were not exposed to disasters while in utero. Regression results suggest that children exposed to hurricanes prenatally have lower scores on third grade standardized tests in math and reading. Those exposed to flooding or tornadoes also have somewhat lower math scores. Additionally, results suggest that these negative effects are more concentrated among children in disadvantaged subgroups, especially children born to black mothers. However, no evidence exists that these effects are mediated by common measures of birth outcomes, including birth weight and gestational age. PMID:24903841

  17. Prenatal Depression: Best Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.; Gintner, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide counselors with an overview of best practices for the treatment of women who experience prenatal depression (PND). The authors first discuss issues in the screening and diagnosis of PND. Next, the 2 most common treatments, antidepressants and psychotherapy, are reviewed and discussed in relation to current…

  18. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infants' Preference for Novelty and Distractibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.; Gingras, Jeannine L.; Martin, Mindy; DeBrule, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The authors used the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (J. F. Fagan, L. T. Singer, J. E. Montie, & P. A. Shepherd, 1986) to examine preferences for novelty and to evaluate several indicators of attention (off- and on-task indexes and durations) in 6- and 9-month-old infants who had been prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke only or to cocaine plus…

  19. Case report: prenatally detected dumdbell-shaped retroperitoneal duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    May, D A; Spottswood, S E; Ridick-Young, M; Nwomeh, B C

    2000-10-01

    Enteric duplication cysts are infrequently located in the retroperitoneum. Such cysts are typically spherical or ovoid. We report a retroperitoneal duplication cyst with extension across the abdominal midline in a previously unreported dumbbell configuration. This is the third reported case of prenatally detected retroperitoneal enteric duplication cyst.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis and fetopathological investigation of dorsolumbosacral agenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Gyula Richárd; Csapó, Zsolt; Barakonyi, Emese; Nagy, Bálint; Rigó, János

    2009-01-01

    Sacral and lumbosacral spine agenesis, as characteristic signs of a rare congenital malformation--caudal regression syndrome--has been well described. However, dorsolumbosacral agenesis involving the lower thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae has rarely been reported, and prenatal diagnosis of this severe form has not been published yet. A 37-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 0) who had diabetes mellitus asked for termination of her pregnancy, because second-trimester ultrasound screening showed dorsolumbosacral agenesis of the fetus. Fetopathological examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis and showed that the lower seven thoracic and all lumbosacral segments were absent. The noticed small "bony" structure in the lumbar region supported the idea that caudal regression syndrome can be regarded as a "multisegmental" spinal dysgenesis that involves the caudal part of the spine. Reliable prenatal diagnosis of dorsolumbosacral agenesis is possible by second-trimester ultrasound. The prenatal sonologist should always try to look for and assess abnormalities during examinations. Emphasis should be placed especially on those types that have a higher risk of being present in the fetus because of the known risk factors in the particular pregnancy. Fetopathological examination emphasized the suggestion that segmental spinal dysgenesis and caudal regression syndrome may represent two faces of a single spectrum of segmental malformations of the spine and spinal cord. PMID:19185430

  1. Maternal alexithymic traits, prenatal stress, and infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Kantonen, T; Karlsson, L; Nolvi, S; Karukivi, M; Tolvanen, M; Karlsson, H

    2015-11-01

    We aimed at investigating, whether maternal alexithymia or prenatal anxiety influences infant temperament (Infant Temperament Questionnaire, IBQ) at six months. Maternal alexithymic trait of "Difficulty in Identifying Feelings" predicted higher infant "Duration of Orienting". "Fear of Bearing a Handicapped Child" predicted lower infant "Activity Level". PMID:26263082

  2. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Nathan Anthony; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Context: A popular form of pregnancy physical activity (PA) is prenatal yoga. However, little is known about the intensity and energy cost of this practice. Aims: To examine the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga. Methods: Pregnant women in a prenatal yoga class (n = 19) wore a Sense Wear Armband during eleven 60 min classes each, and self-reported demographic variables, height and weight, prepregnancy weight, and PA behaviors and beliefs. Sense Wear Armband data included kilocalories, metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and time spent in various intensities. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were utilized to describe energy expenditure and intensity. Results: Energy expenditure averaged 109 ± 8 kcals, and the average MET value was 1.5 ± 0.02. On average, 93% and 7% of classes were sedentary and moderate intensity PA, respectively. Conclusions: Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability. PMID:26865776

  3. Fetal Right Ventricular Diverticulum Detected by Prenatal Ultrasound Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kaori; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Ono, Tetsuo; Ishiko, Akiko; Takahashi, Kentaro; Murakami, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal ultrasound screening has allowed for the detection of in utero cardiac abnormalities. Specifically, distinction is possible between ventricular diverticula and aneurysms, which is important because each condition has a different clinical outcome. We report the case of a 35-year-old, gravida 1, para 1 woman, with no significant past medical history, who underwent routine prenatal ultrasound screening at 32 weeks' gestation. A four-chamber ultrasound of the fetal heart combined with M-mode echocardiography showed abnormal dilatation of the right ventricular chamber measuring 2.2 cm × 1.0 cm but with normal contractility. Delivery was performed at full term by cesarean section, and a right ventricular diverticulum was confirmed by postnatal cardiac computed tomography. The baby developed normally with no cardiac sequelae during followup. This case demonstrates the importance of making a correct diagnosis of ventricular diverticula by prenatal ultrasound when abnormal dilatation of the fetal ventricle is identified during routine screening. Because evaluating the wall contractility by M-mode ultrasound leads to evaluating whether it has the myocardium, we conclude that M-mode echocardiography is effective for the purpose of prenatal cardiac diagnosis and can distinguish between ventricular aneurysms and functioning ventricular diverticula.

  4. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Qi, Lihong

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted…

  5. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Upregulates BDNF-TrkB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Andres; Bakshi, Kalindi P.; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure causes profound changes in neurobehavior as well as synaptic function and structure with compromised glutamatergic transmission. Since synaptic health and glutamatergic activity are tightly regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its cognate tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), we hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure alters BDNF-TrkB signaling during brain development. Here we show prenatal cocaine exposure enhances BDNF-TrkB signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFCX) of 21-day-old rats without affecting the expression levels of TrkB, P75NTR, signaling molecules, NMDA receptor—NR1 subunit as well as proBDNF and BDNF. Prenatal cocaine exposure reduces activity-dependent proBDNF and BDNF release and elevates BDNF affinity for TrkB leading to increased tyrosine-phosphorylated TrkB, heightened Phospholipase C-γ1 and N-Shc/Shc recruitment and higher downstream PI3K and ERK activation in response to ex vivo BDNF. The augmented BDNF-TrkB signaling is accompanied by increases in association between activated TrkB and NMDARs. These data suggest that cocaine exposure during gestation upregulates BDNF-TrkB signaling and its interaction with NMDARs by increasing BDNF affinity, perhaps in an attempt to restore the diminished excitatory neurotransmission. PMID:27494324

  6. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Upregulates BDNF-TrkB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Andres; Bakshi, Kalindi P; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure causes profound changes in neurobehavior as well as synaptic function and structure with compromised glutamatergic transmission. Since synaptic health and glutamatergic activity are tightly regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its cognate tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), we hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure alters BDNF-TrkB signaling during brain development. Here we show prenatal cocaine exposure enhances BDNF-TrkB signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFCX) of 21-day-old rats without affecting the expression levels of TrkB, P75NTR, signaling molecules, NMDA receptor-NR1 subunit as well as proBDNF and BDNF. Prenatal cocaine exposure reduces activity-dependent proBDNF and BDNF release and elevates BDNF affinity for TrkB leading to increased tyrosine-phosphorylated TrkB, heightened Phospholipase C-γ1 and N-Shc/Shc recruitment and higher downstream PI3K and ERK activation in response to ex vivo BDNF. The augmented BDNF-TrkB signaling is accompanied by increases in association between activated TrkB and NMDARs. These data suggest that cocaine exposure during gestation upregulates BDNF-TrkB signaling and its interaction with NMDARs by increasing BDNF affinity, perhaps in an attempt to restore the diminished excitatory neurotransmission. PMID:27494324

  7. 76 FR 25663 - Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision to a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... currently approved information collection. Abstract: Section 1491 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision to a... of Agriculture to require that certified pesticide applicators maintain records of applications...

  8. Mutation-based prenatal diagnosis of Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Christiano, A M; Pulkkinen, L; McGrath, J A; Uitto, J

    1997-04-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of heritable diseases which manifest with blistering and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes. Due of life-threatening complications and significant long-term morbidity associated with the severe, neonatal lethal (Herlitz) form of junctional EB (H-JEB), there has been a demand for prenatal diagnosis from families at risk for recurrence. Previously, the only reliable method of prenatal diagnosis of EB was a fetal skin biopsy performed at 16-20 weeks' gestation and analysed by electron microscopy. Recently, the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, encoding the polypeptide subunits of laminin 5, an anchoring filament protein, have been shown to contain mutations in H-JEB. In this study, direct detection of pathogenetic mutations in the laminin 5 genes was used to perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based prenatal testing. DNA was obtained by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at 10-15 weeks or amniocentesis at 12-19 weeks' gestation in 15 families at risk for recurrence of JEB. In 13 cases, the fetus was predicted to be either genetically normal or a clinically unaffected carrier of a mutation in one allele. These predictions have been validated in all cases by the birth of a healthy child. In two cases, an affected fetus was predicted, and the diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent fetal skin biopsy. These results demonstrate that DNA-based prenatal testing offers an early, expedient, and accurate method of prenatal diagnosis or an exclusion of Herlitz JEB. PMID:9160387

  9. Maternal prenatal stress is associated with the infant intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Korpela, Katri; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Vos, Willem M; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been often associated with infant physical development and health, as well as psychological functioning and behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying these relations remain elusive. The goal of the present study was to prospectively investigate the development of the intestinal microbiota as a potential pathway linking maternal prenatal stress and infant health. The development of the infant intestinal microbiota was followed over the first 110 days after birth in a healthy cohort of 56 vaginally born Dutch infants. Additionally, the relation between infant intestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal and allergic symptoms was examined. Results showed that maternal prenatal stress, i.e., either reported stress or elevated basal maternal salivary cortisol concentrations or both, was strongly and persistently associated with the infants' microbiota composition as determined by a phylogenetic microarray. Infants of mothers with high cumulative stress (i.e., high reported stress and high cortisol concentrations) during pregnancy had significantly higher relative abundances of Proteobacterial groups known to contain pathogens (related to Escherichia, Serratia, and Enterobacter), and lower relative abundances of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Lactobacillus, Lactoccus, Aerococcus) and Bifidobacteria, altogether characteristics of a potentially increased level of inflammation. Furthermore, this aberrant colonization pattern was related to more maternally reported infant gastrointestinal symptoms and allergic reactions. In conclusion, clear links were found between maternal prenatal stress and the infant intestinal microbiota and health. Although causality cannot be concluded, the results suggest a possible mechanism by which maternal prenatal stress influences the offspring development. These results suggest a potential for bacterial interventions to enhance offspring health and development in pregnant women with stress.

  10. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues explored.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Frints, Suzanne G M; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become 'normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical traits as well. In our view, however, the real moral challenge of NIPD testing consists in the possibility of linking up a technique with these features (easy, safe and early) with new genomic technologies that allow prenatal diagnostic testing for a much broader range of abnormalities than is the case in current procedures. An increase in uptake and more selective abortions need not in itself be taken to signal a thoughtless acceptance of these procedures. However, combining this with considerably enlarging the scope of NIPD testing will indeed make informed consent more difficult and challenge the notion of prenatal screening as serving reproductive autonomy. If broad NIPD testing includes later-onset diseases, the 'right not to know' of the future child will become a new issue in the debate about prenatal screening. With regard to the controversial issue of selective abortion, it may make a morally relevant difference that after NIPD testing, abortion can be done early. A lower moral status may be attributed to the foetus at that moment, given the dominant opinion that the moral status of the foetus progressively increases with its development. PMID:19953123

  11. Maternal prenatal stress is associated with the infant intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Korpela, Katri; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Vos, Willem M; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been often associated with infant physical development and health, as well as psychological functioning and behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying these relations remain elusive. The goal of the present study was to prospectively investigate the development of the intestinal microbiota as a potential pathway linking maternal prenatal stress and infant health. The development of the infant intestinal microbiota was followed over the first 110 days after birth in a healthy cohort of 56 vaginally born Dutch infants. Additionally, the relation between infant intestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal and allergic symptoms was examined. Results showed that maternal prenatal stress, i.e., either reported stress or elevated basal maternal salivary cortisol concentrations or both, was strongly and persistently associated with the infants' microbiota composition as determined by a phylogenetic microarray. Infants of mothers with high cumulative stress (i.e., high reported stress and high cortisol concentrations) during pregnancy had significantly higher relative abundances of Proteobacterial groups known to contain pathogens (related to Escherichia, Serratia, and Enterobacter), and lower relative abundances of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Lactobacillus, Lactoccus, Aerococcus) and Bifidobacteria, altogether characteristics of a potentially increased level of inflammation. Furthermore, this aberrant colonization pattern was related to more maternally reported infant gastrointestinal symptoms and allergic reactions. In conclusion, clear links were found between maternal prenatal stress and the infant intestinal microbiota and health. Although causality cannot be concluded, the results suggest a possible mechanism by which maternal prenatal stress influences the offspring development. These results suggest a potential for bacterial interventions to enhance offspring health and development in pregnant women with stress. PMID:25638481

  12. Revision of Trachelissa Aurivillius, 1912 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Quintino, Hingrid Yara S; Monné, Marcela L

    2014-01-01

    A revision of the genus Trachelissa Aurivillius, 1912, based on a study of external morphology and terminalia, is presented. The genus and its species are redescribed. Five species are recognized, two of which are described as new: T. bella sp. nov. from Bolivia and T. opaca sp. nov. from Argentina. A new host plant for T. maculicollis Audinet-Serville, 1834 is recorded. A key to all species, and their photographs and distribution maps are provided. 

  13. Revision of the Rhinophoridae (Diptera: Calyptratae) of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Daichi; Tachi, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese species of the family Rhinophoridae are revised. Melanophora roralis (Linnaeus) is newly recorded from Japan and is hypothesized as having been introduced to the country; one species, Acompomintho itoshimensis sp. nov., is described as new. Images of the habitus, wing and male terminalia are provided for all four Japanese species, together with an identification key and a map showing their distribution. PMID:27615871

  14. 10 CFR 40.61 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... authorization. See § 20.304 contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981. (2... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records. 40.61 Section 40.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... a clear and legible copy after storage for the period specified by Commission regulations....

  15. 10 CFR 40.61 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authorization. See § 20.304 contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981. (2... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records. 40.61 Section 40.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... a clear and legible copy after storage for the period specified by Commission regulations....

  16. Prenatal stress puzzle, the oxytocin piece: Prenatal stress alters the behaviour and autonomic regulation in piglets, insights from oxytocin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental changes in response to prenatal stressors (PNS) may represent an adaptive strategy to enhance survival traits in the offspring. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety, whereas OT deficiencies are...

  17. EPA's proposal to revise the PM standards

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Page

    2006-06-15

    Over the next few months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be finalizing its proposal to revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for fine and coarse particulate matter (PM). Since issuing the proposal in December 2005, the agency has sought comments from all interested parties, and will base its final decision on the record that was established through the comment period, which ended on April 17. In this issue articles present perspectives from some of the many non-EPA stakeholders who have played an important role in this review process. This article summarizes EPA's proposal, as well as the extensive process EPA goes through when setting air quality standards. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Infant care practices in rural China and their relation to prenatal care utilisation.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, B I; Wu, Z; Hemminki, E

    2011-01-01

    Studies describing postpartum childcare practices and the influence of prenatal care on infant care outcomes in rural China are scarce. This study looked at data for 1479 women who had given birth during the preceding 2 years (median age of the child was 8 months). Data were available from a Knowledge, Attitude and Perception cross-sectional survey collected from 2001 to 2003, after a prenatal care intervention in Anhui County, China, with a response rate of 97%. Prenatal care utilisation was categorised using the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index. Logistic regression was used to study the association between prenatal care utilisation and infant care practices. Mothers' uptake of breastfeeding, introduction of milk formula, cereal/porridge, meat and uptake of any immunisation were found to be in accordance with national recommendations. Intermediate prenatal care uptake was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of cereal/porridge. Inadequate care was positively associated with never breastfeeding, early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge, and early start of work after delivery. Initiation to prenatal care after the third month was positively associated with early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge. Having no prenatal care was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of milk formula. Mothers' uptake of infant care practices in this population was largely in accordance with national recommendations. Women with less than adequate utilisation of prenatal care and those who had initiated prenatal care late were less likely to follow recommendations on infant care.

  19. A revision of the genus Mecistostethus Marseul (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.; Dégallier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We revise the genus Mecistostethus Marseul, sinking the monotypic genus Tarsilister Bruch as a junior synonym. Mecistostethus contains six valid species: Mecistostethus pilifer Marseul, Mecistostethus loretoensis (Bruch), comb. n., Mecistostethus seagorum sp. n., Mecistostethus carltoni sp. n., Mecistostethus marseuli sp. n., and Mecistostethus flechtmanni sp. n. The few existing records show the genus to be widespread in tropical and subtropical South America, from northern Argentina to western Amazonian Ecuador and French Guiana. Only a single host record associates one species with the ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae), but it is possible that related ants host all the species. PMID:22933855

  20. A revision of the Chinese Aulacidae (Hymenoptera, Evanioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-yan; Turrisi, Giuseppe Fabrizio; Xu, Zai-fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese Aulacidae are revised, keyed and illustrated for the first time. In total twenty-five species are recorded from China, included within two genera Aulacus Jurine, 1807 and Pristaulacus Kieffer, 1900, with five and twenty species respectively. Among the treated species, six are newly described for science: Aulacus magnus sp. n., Pristaulacus calidus sp. n., Pristaulacus centralis sp. n., Pristaulacus fopingi sp. n., Pristaulacus obscurus sp. n., and Pristaulacus pseudoiosephi sp. n. Three species are newly recorded from China: Pristaulacus excisus Turner, 1922, Pristaulacus iosephi Turrisi & Madl, 2013, and Pristaulacus rufobalteatus Cameron, 1907. PMID:27408528

  1. Revision of Primary Series Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a 50-year effort to provide primary series map coverage of the United States. Many of these maps now need to be updated to reflect the construction of new roads and highways and other changes that have taken place over time. The USGS has formulated a graphic revision plan to help keep the primary series maps current. Primary series maps include 1:20,000-scale quadrangles of Puerto Rico, 1:24,000- or 1:25,000-scale quadrangles of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and U.S. Territories, and 1:63,360-scale quadrangles of Alaska. The revision of primary series maps from new collection sources is accomplished using a variety of processes. The raster revision process combines the scanned content of paper maps with raster updating technologies. The vector revision process involves the automated plotting of updated vector files. Traditional processes use analog stereoplotters and manual scribing instruments on specially coated map separates. The ability to select from or combine these processes increases the efficiency of the National Mapping Division map revision program.

  2. Neuropathological Consequences of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jia-Qian; Malanga, C.J.; Tabit, Eddy; Kosofsky, Barry E.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an animal model in Swiss Webster mice to identify mechanisms by which prenatal exposure to cocaine results in persistent alterations in brain structure and function. Clinical data suggests that children who demonstrate the largest impairments in prenatal brain growth, which are positively correlated with the highest level of prenatal cocaine exposure, are more likely to demonstrate selective impairment in postnatal brain growth, as well as postnatal impairments in motor function, attention and language skills. We conducted neuroanatomic studies to identify the postnatal evolution of structural changes in the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex of the developing mouse brain following prenatal exposure to cocaine. Our previous work, and that of others, provides evidence that many of the processes underlying corticogenesis are disrupted by gestational exposure of the developing mouse brain to cocaine, and that from the earliest phases of corticogenesis that there is an imprecision in the development of cortical lamination. We performed morphometric comparisons between the brains of animals prenatally exposed to varying amounts of cocaine with vehicle and malnutrition controls on postnatal (P) days P9 and P50. We found that on P50, but not P9, the relative number of cortical neurons in S1 is significantly less in cocaine exposed animals as compared with controls. The significant decrease in the number of cells in cocaine exposed animals on P50 is evident as a decreased density of cells restricted to the infragranular compartment (layers 5 and 6). Those changes are not seen in malnourished animals. Taken together our findings support the conclusion that cocaine-induced alterations in SI cortical cytoarchitectonics are in part a consequence of altered postnatal survival of infragranular cortical neurons, which are lost during the interval between P9 and P50. Determining whether a similar process is evident in a subset of humans following in utero cocaine

  3. Prenatal Stress Alters Hippocampal Neuroglia and Increases Anxiety in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Greer A; Palliser, Hannah K; Shaw, Julia C; Walker, David; Hirst, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with detrimental outcomes of pregnancy, including altered brain development leading to behavioural pathologies. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone has been implicated in mediating some of these adverse outcomes following prenatal stress due to its potent inhibitory and anxiolytic effects on the brain. The aims of the current study were to characterise key markers for brain development as well as behavioural parameters, adrenocortical responses to handling and possible neurosteroid influences towards outcomes in guinea pig offspring in childhood. Pregnant guinea pig dams were exposed to strobe light for 2 h (9-11 a.m.) on gestational days 50, 55, 60, and 65 and were left to deliver spontaneously at term and care for their litter. Behavioural testing (open-field test, object exploration test) of the offspring was performed at postnatal day 18 (with salivary cortisol and DHEA measured), and brains were collected at post-mortem on day 21. Markers of brain development myelin basic protein (MBP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were assessed via immunohistochemistry, and the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its rate-limiting enzymes 5α-reductase types 1 and 2 (5αR1/2) were measured in neonatal brains by radioimmunoassay, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot, respectively. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein was measured as a marker of synaptic plasticity, and GABAA receptor subunit expression was also assessed using RT-PCR. Neonates born from mothers stressed during late pregnancy showed a reduction in both MBP (p < 0.01) and GFAP (p < 0.05) expression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus at 21 days of age. Pups of prenatally stressed pregnancies also showed higher levels of anxiety and neophobic behaviours at the equivalent of childhood (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes observed in allopregnanolone levels, 5αR1/2 expression, or GABAA receptor subunit expression in

  4. Prenatal Maternal and Possible Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects on Milk Production

    PubMed Central

    Gudex, Boyd; Johnson, David; Singh, Kuljeet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the prenatal maternal environment in dairy cattle influences the postnatal milking performance of the resulting daughters and grand-daughters. Linear mixed models were used to analyse whole season milk production from ∼46000 Jersey and ∼123000 Holstein Friesian cows in their 1st and 2nd lactations. Variation in the prenatal environment was associated with a small but significant (P<0.05) proportion of the total phenotypic variation (0.010 to 0.015) in all traits in Holstein Friesian cows and in the first lactation milk volume (0.011) and milk protein (0.011), and the second lactation milk fat (0.015) in the Jersey breed. This indicates that the prenatal environment does influence the adult performance of the subsequent daughter. Associations between daughter performance and dam and grand-dam traits indicative of their prenatal environment were also estimated. A one litre increase in the dam’s herd test milk volume was associated with a 7.5 litre increase in the daughters’ whole season milk yield and a 1% increase in either the dams’ herd test milk fat or protein percentage was associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk volume (−49.6 and −45.0 litres for dam fat and protein, respectively). Similar results between the grand-dam herd test traits ansd the daughters’ whole season milk production were observed with a 1% increase in either grand-dam milk fat or protein percentage associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk yield (−34.7 and −9.7 litres for fat and protein, respectively). This study revealed that the prenatal environment of the dam and the grand-dam can influence milk production in the subsequent daughters, though the effects are small. The similarity of the results between the dam daughter and the grand-dam daughter analyses suggests that the majority of the prenatal maternal effects are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24901792

  5. Prenatal exposure to antibiotics, cesarean section and risk of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Whyatt, R; Hoepner, L; Oberfield, S; Dominguez-Bello, MG; Widen, EM; Hassoun, A; Perera, F; Rundle, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cesarean section (CS) and antibiotic use during pregnancy may alter normal maternal-offspring microbiota exchange, thereby contributing to aberrant microbial colonization of the infant gut and increased susceptibility to obesity later in life. We hypothesized that (i) maternal use of antibiotics in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and (ii) CS are independently associated with higher risk of childhood obesity in the offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS Of the 727 mothers enrolled in the Northern Manhattan Mothers and Children Study, we analyzed the 436 mother–child dyads followed until 7 years of age with complete data. We ascertained prenatal antibiotic use by a questionnaire administered late in the third trimester, and delivery mode by medical record. We derived age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores using the CDC SAS Macro, and defined obesity as BMI z ≥ 95th percentile. We used binary regression with robust variance and linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, pre-gravid BMI, maternal receipt of public assistance, birth weight, sex, breastfeeding in the first year and gestational antibiotics or delivery mode. RESULTS Compared with children not exposed to antibiotics during the second or third trimester, those exposed had 84% (33–154%) higher risk of obesity, after multivariable adjustment. Second or third trimester antibiotic exposure was also positively associated with BMI z-scores, waist circumference and % body fat (all P<0.05). Independent of prenatal antibiotic usage, CS was associated with 46% (8–98%) higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Associations were similar for elective and non-elective CS. CONCLUSIONS In our cohort, CS and exposure to antibiotics in the second or third trimester were associated with higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Future studies that address the limitations of our study are warranted to determine if prenatal antibiotic use is associated with

  6. Rayleigh's Scattering Revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiets, Sergey; Gorelik, Andrey

    Mie’s waves while sounding within coincident volumes. Being sensitive to the size of scatters, Mie’s waves can give us additional information about particle size distribution. But how about using several wavelengths corresponding to Rayleigh’s diffraction on scatters only? Can any effects be detected in such a case and what performance characteristics of the equipment are required to detect them? The deceptive simplicity of the negative answer to the first part of the question posed will disappear if one collects different definitions of Rayleigh's scattering and consider them more closely than usually. Several definitions borrowed from the introductory texts and most popular textbooks and articles can be seen as one of the reasons for the research presented in the report. Hopefully, based on the comparison of them all, anyone could easily conclude that Rayleigh's scattering has been analyzed extensively, but despite this extensive analysis made fundamental ambiguities in introductory texts are not eliminated completely to date. Moreover, there may be found unreasonably many examples on how these ambiguities have already caused an error to be foreseen, published on the one article, amplified in another one, then cited with approval in the third one, before being finally corrected. Everything indicated that in the light of all the lesions learned and based on modern experimental data, it is time to address these issues again. After the discussion of ambiguities of Rayleigh's scattering concepts, the development of the corrections to original ideas looks relatively easy. In particular, there may be distinguished at least three characteristic regions of the revised models application from the point of view of the scattered field statistical averaging. The authors of the report suggest naming them Rayleigh’s region, Einstein’s region and the region with compensations of the scattering intensity. The most important fact is that the limits of applicability of all

  7. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  8. The revised classification of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Adl, Sina M; Simpson, Alastair G B; Lane, Christopher E; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S; Brown, Matthew W; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; Le Gall, Line; Lynn, Denis H; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A D; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E; Parfrey, Laura W; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Laura; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad L; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W

    2012-09-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52 (2005) 399], retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information.

  9. Development of auditory event-related potentials in infants prenatally exposed to methadone.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jonathan A; Logan, Beth A; Krishnan, Ramesh; Heller, Nicole A; Morrison, Deborah G; Pritham, Ursula A; Tisher, Paul W; Troese, Marcia; Brown, Mark S; Hayes, Marie J

    2014-07-01

    Developmental features of the P2 auditory ERP in a change detection paradigm were examined in infants prenatally exposed to methadone. Opiate dependent pregnant women maintained on methadone replacement therapy were recruited during pregnancy (N = 60). Current and historical alcohol and substance use, SES, and psychiatric status were assessed with a maternal interview during the third trimester. Medical records were used to collect information regarding maternal medications, monthly urinalysis, and breathalyzer to confirm comorbid drug and alcohol exposures. Between birth and 4 months infant ERP change detection performance was evaluated on one occasion with the oddball paradigm (.2 probability oddball) using pure-tone stimuli (standard = 1 kHz and oddball = 2 kHz frequency) at midline electrode sites, Fz, Cz, Pz. Infant groups were examined in the following developmental windows: 4-15, 16-32, or 33-120 days PNA. Older groups showed increased P2 amplitude at Fz and effective change detection performance at P2 not seen in the newborn group. Developmental maturation of amplitude and stimulus discrimination for P2 has been reported in developing infants at all of the ages tested and data reported here in the older infants are consistent with typical development. However, it has been previously reported that the P2 amplitude difference is detectable in neonates; therefore, absence of a difference in P2 amplitude between stimuli in the 4-15 days group may represent impaired ERP performance by neonatal abstinence syndrome or prenatal methadone exposure. PMID:24019057

  10. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized.

  11. Neurobiological plausibility of prenatal nutritional deprivation as a risk factor for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brown, A S; Susser, E S; Butler, P D; Richardson Andrews, R; Kaufmann, C A; Gorman, J M

    1996-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that schizophrenia may in some cases be a neurodevelopmental disorder, resulting in part from the effects of prenatal exposures. Studies by our group have focused attention on the potential role of prenatal nutritional deficiency as a potential etiological factor. Therefore, we sought to examine the biological plausibility of prenatal nutritional deprivation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. We conducted a review of the pertinent literature. Four lines of evidence support prenatal nutritional deficiencies as a plausible set of risk factors for schizophrenia: a) their effects are not incompatible with the epidemiology of schizophrenia; b) they have adverse effects on brain development; c) general malnutrition results in neuropathological anomalies of brain regions implicated in schizophrenia; and d) prenatal malnutrition affects maternal systems critical to the developing fetal nervous system. There is sufficient evidence to warrant further studies of prenatal nutritional deficits as risk factors for schizophrenia. A strategy for testing these hypotheses is outlined. PMID:8596115

  12. The effect of social health insurance on prenatal care: the case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abrokwah, Stephen O; Moser, Christine M; Norton, Edward C

    2014-12-01

    Many developing countries have introduced social health insurance programs to help address two of the United Nations' millennium development goals-reducing infant mortality and improving maternal health outcomes. By making modern health care more accessible and affordable, policymakers hope that more women will seek prenatal care and thereby improve health outcomes. This paper studies how Ghana's social health insurance program affects prenatal care use and out-of-pocket expenditures, using the two-part model to model prenatal care expenditures. We test whether Ghana's social health insurance improved prenatal care use, reduced out-of-pocket expenditures, and increased the number of prenatal care visits. District-level differences in the timing of implementation provide exogenous variation in access to health insurance, and therefore strong identification. Those with access to social health insurance have a higher probability of receiving care, a higher number of prenatal care visits, and lower out-of-pocket expenditures conditional on spending on care.

  13. Enriched environment treatment counteracts enhanced addictive and depressive-like behavior induced by prenatal chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianli; Li, Weihui; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Zexuan; Li, Hongying; Yang, Guifu; Xu, Lin; Li, Lingjiang

    2006-12-13

    Prenatal stress can cause many long-term behavior changes in offspring, but whether prenatal stress can alter addictive behavior in offspring and postnatal enriched environment treatment (EE) can restore these changes are unknown. We reported here that prenatal chronic stress (10 unpredictable, 1 s, 0.8 mA foot-shocks per day during gestational days 13-19) enhanced morphine-induced (10 mg/kg, s.c., per day, 6 consecutive days) place preference. Moreover, prenatal chronic stress caused higher depressive-like behavior in forced swimming test in adult offspring. However, enriched environment housing treatment on postnatal days 22-52 counteracted both the abnormal behaviors alterations. This work observed a phenomenon that might contribute to the understanding of clinically important interactions among addiction, prenatal stress and enriched environment treatment. Postnatal enriched environment treatment might be an important therapeutic intervention in preventing the prenatal stress-induced addictive disorders.

  14. 78 FR 27481 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

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  15. 75 FR 36374 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

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  16. 76 FR 41497 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... treatment information related to drug abuse, alcoholism or alcohol abuse, sickle cell anemia or infection... Register 67 FR 66712. VA is amending the system records by revising the Routine Uses of Records Maintained... required by 5 U.S.C. 552a(r) (Privacy Act) and guidelines issued by OMB (65 FR 77677), December 12,...

  18. 18 CFR 401.105 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indexes of certain... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.105 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at least quarterly, for...

  19. 18 CFR 401.105 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indexes of certain... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.105 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at least quarterly, for...

  20. 18 CFR 401.105 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indexes of certain... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.105 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at least quarterly, for...

  1. 18 CFR 401.105 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Indexes of certain... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.105 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at least quarterly, for...

  2. 75 FR 4458 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Register 65 FR 25531. VA is amending the system of records by revising the Routine Uses of Records... INFORMATION CONTACT: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Privacy Officer, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810... guidelines issued by OMB (65 FR 77677), December 12, 2000. Dated: December 23, 2009. John R. Gingrich,...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... General Privacy Act Systems of Records. These modifications reflect the title and address changes... their amended systems of records in the Federal Register when there is a revision, change, or addition... leadership teams. These changes are proposed for the reasons discussed below. II. Rationale for Changes...

  4. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. Method This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. Results 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). Interpretation In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties. PMID:25267502

  5. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

  6. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making. PMID:26530119

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis Innovation: Genome Sequencing of Maternal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Felix C K; Lo, Y M Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is accomplished by analysis of circulating cell-free fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma. The advent of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has enabled NIPT of chromosomal aneuploidies with unprecedented robustness, and these tests are now widely available for clinical use. Moreover, MPS-based NIPT of subchromosomal deletions/duplications and single-gene disorders has also been achieved, and the number of applications is growing. In addition to specific fetal genetic disorders, the whole fetal genome, transcriptome, and methylome have been revealed by deep sequencing of maternal plasma. The analysis of the fetal transcriptome and methylome may yield valuable information on fetal and maternal health. With continued improvement in sequencing technology and reduction in sequencing costs, the analysis of cell-free nucleic acids would play an increasingly important role in prenatal screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and risk stratification of fetal as well as maternal conditions. PMID:26473414

  8. Prenatal TCDD Exposure Predisposes for Mammary Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Sarah; Rowell, Craig; Wang, Jun; Lamartiniere, Coral A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data are conflicting in the link between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure and breast cancer causation. We have hypothesized that timing of exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as TCDD, will alter breast cancer susceptibility. Using a carcinogen induced rat mammary cancer model, we have shown that prenatal exposure to TCDD alters mammary gland differentiation and increases susceptibility for mammary cancer. Investigations into imprinting via DNA methylation mechanisms showed that there were no changes in protein expression in DNA methyltransferases, ER-alpha, ER-beta, GST-pi, or MDGI. Using 2-D gels and mass spectrometry, we have found seven proteins to be differentially regulated, including a decrease in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Down-regulation of SOD1 could provide an environment ill equipped to deal with subsequent free radical exposure. We conclude that prenatal TCDD can predispose for mammary cancer susceptibility in the adult offspring by altering the mammary proteome. PMID:17157473

  9. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.; Birnkrant, Jennifer M.; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and pubertal development. Children (n=192; 41% with PCE) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (Petersen, et al. 1988) and provided salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) samples at 6 month intervals from 11 to 13 years. PCE was examined as a predictor of pubertal status, pubertal tempo, and DHEA levels in mixed models analyses controlling for age, sex, environmental risk, neonatal medical problems, other prenatal exposures, and BMI. PCE interacted with age such that PCE predicted slower pubertal tempo during early adolescence. PCE also interacted with age to predict slower increases in DHEA levels during early adolescence. These findings suggest that PCE may affect pubertal development and, if slower pubertal tempo continues, could lead to delayed pubertal status in mid-adolescence. PMID:25446013

  10. Maternal decisions regarding prenatal diagnosis: rational choices or sensible decisions?

    PubMed

    Lawson, Karen L; Pierson, Roger A

    2007-03-01

    The premise underlying prenatal testing is that knowing the health status of the fetus will enable expectant parents to make rational reproductive decisions. Accordingly, rational-choice perspectives have informed both counselling protocols and the majority of investigations into the psychological processes involved in making decisions about testing and selective abortion. However, because conditions inherent in the testing situation may not adhere to the basic assumptions of rational choice models, the use of these models may be inappropriate. The individualistic focus of rational choice models may be too narrow to encompass the social and psychological factors relevant to making a decision about testing. In light of these limitations, we make a case for adopting a contextual framework for conceptualizing decisions regarding the use of prenatal testing. PMID:17346494

  11. Heterotaxy in southern Nevada: prenatal detection and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Acherman, Ruben J; Restrepo, Humberto

    2015-06-01

    We retrospectively analyzed a combination of prenatally detected and postnatally diagnosed patients with heterotaxic situs that included those with situs inversus, bilateral left-sidedness, and bilateral right-sidedness for the period between April 2002 and July 2014. We found a statistically higher prevalence in the Hispanic population of Southern Nevada of 2.7/10,000 live births (95 % confidence intervals of 1.7-3.9) versus the non-Hispanic population of 1.6/10,000 live births (95 % confidence intervals of 1.1-2.1), p = 0.04. Additionally, we noted a high prenatal detection rate of 68 % over the 12-year period of time, rising to 100 % over the last 2 years.

  12. Confounding of the Comparative Safety of Prenatal Opioid Agonist Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brogly, Susan B; Hahn, Kristen A; Diaz, Sonia Hernandez; Werler, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal opioid agonist therapy with methadone or buprenorphine prevents maternal illicit opioid use and withdrawal and improves pregnancy outcomes compared to heroin use alone. Historically, methadone has been the first-line opioid agonist therapy for pregnant opioid dependent women; in recent years buprenorphine has become first-line treatment for some opioid dependent pregnant women. While there is some evidence of better outcomes in neonates exposed to buprenorphine vs. methadone, the effect of confounding from differences in women who use buprenorphine and methadone has not been carefully examined in most studies. This review explores mechanisms by which confounding can arise in measuring associations between prenatal buprenorphine vs. methadone exposure on neonatal outcomes using a graphical approach, directed acyclic graphs. The goal of this paper is to facilitate better understanding of the factors influencing neonatal abstinence syndrome and accurate assessment of the comparative safety of opioid agonist therapies on the neonate. PMID:27547489

  13. Progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood: prenatal diagnosis by MRI.

    PubMed

    de Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Roffi, Fabio; Audibert, François; Guis, Françoise; Lacroix, Catherine; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Landrieu, Pierre; Labrune, Philippe

    2005-04-01

    We report two cases in the same family of progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood--Alpers syndrome--with prenatal MRI findings in one case. The first infant presented at birth with severe microcephaly, then rapidly evolved to progressive encephalopathy with refractory epilepsy, leading to death at 10 months. Biochemical investigations including liver function tests were normal. CT and MRI showed severe diffuse brain atrophy. The diagnosis of progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood was made on the clinical and imaging data. The second pregnancy was marked by gradual decrease of fetal cerebral biometry and a prenatal MRI performed at 32 weeks showed diffuse cortical atrophy, as observed in the sibling. The infant died at 5 months. Neuropathological findings were consistent with Alpers syndrome. PMID:15852481

  14. Nondirectiveness in prenatal genetics: patients read between the lines.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G

    1999-03-01

    For decades questionnaires have been used to measure the cognitive and psychological effects of prenatal genetic testing, but little is known about why some women undergo testing and others decline. Research indicates that many factors influence decision making, including values and beliefs. What is often denied rather than recognized is that the professional and personal values and beliefs held by the health care provider influence the patient's decision. It is assumed that, if genetic services are delivered in a nondirective manner, patients will not be affected by the provider's personal and professional standpoint. The qualitative research data reported here challenge this assumption. Getting to know patients' moral understanding and patterns of ethical reasoning by listening to their personal stories is recommended as a better way for nurses to help patients to make informed and autonomous decisions about prenatal genetic screening or diagnostic tests. PMID:10358528

  15. The Latina Paradox: An Opportunity for Restructuring Prenatal Care Delivery

    PubMed Central

    McGlade, Michael S.; Saha, Somnath; Dahlstrom, Marie E.

    2004-01-01

    Latina mothers in the United States enjoy surprisingly favorable birth outcomes despite their social disadvantages. This “Latina paradox” is particularly evident among Mexican-born women. The social and cultural factors that contribute to this paradox are maintained by community networks—informal systems of prenatal care that are composed of family, friends, community members, and lay health workers. This informal system confers protective factors that provide a behavioral context for healthy births. US-born Latinas are losing this protection, although it could be maintained with the support of community-based informal care systems. We recommend steps to harness the benefits of informal systems of prenatal care in Latino communities to meet the increasing needs of pregnant Latina women. PMID:15569952

  16. Heterotaxy in southern Nevada: prenatal detection and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Acherman, Ruben J; Restrepo, Humberto

    2015-06-01

    We retrospectively analyzed a combination of prenatally detected and postnatally diagnosed patients with heterotaxic situs that included those with situs inversus, bilateral left-sidedness, and bilateral right-sidedness for the period between April 2002 and July 2014. We found a statistically higher prevalence in the Hispanic population of Southern Nevada of 2.7/10,000 live births (95 % confidence intervals of 1.7-3.9) versus the non-Hispanic population of 1.6/10,000 live births (95 % confidence intervals of 1.1-2.1), p = 0.04. Additionally, we noted a high prenatal detection rate of 68 % over the 12-year period of time, rising to 100 % over the last 2 years. PMID:25586256

  17. Prenatal detection of a congenital pancreatic cyst by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-Joon; Kang, Min-Chang; Kim, Young-Hye; Lim, Ju-Sung; Lim, Sung-Chul; Chang, Jung-Hwan

    2007-02-01

    We present a case of a fetal pancreatic cyst, a rare disease in fetal life, detected prenatally at 30 weeks' gestation by ultrasound. Routine ultrasound examination at 30 weeks' gestation by primary obstetrician showed a cyst on the fetal abdomen. Initially, the suspected diagnosis was a mesenteric cyst. Subsequent ultrasound examination at weeks 32, 36 showed a fetal retroperitoneal cyst. A 3.6 kg female neonate was born to 23 yr old woman by spontaneous vaginal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation. The fetus underwent exploratory laparotomy. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical diagnosis revealed the cyst to be a pancreatic cyst. Surgical outcome was excellent. Thus, we report this case of a pancreatic cyst detected via prenatal ultrasonography.

  18. Fetal tumors: prenatal ultrasonographic findings and clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of fetal tumors has been increased due to generalization of prenatal evaluation and improvement of imaging techniques. The early detection of a fetal tumor and understanding of its imaging features are very important for fetal, maternal, and neonatal care. Ultrasonography is usually used for the detection and differential diagnosis of fetal tumors, and magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used as a complementary study. Many fetal tumors have different clinical and imaging features compared with pediatric tumors. Although several fetal tumors may mimic other common anomalies, some specific imaging features may carry early accurate diagnosis of fetal tumors, which may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitate immediate postnatal treatment. PMID:25116458

  19. Revised evaluations for ENDF/B-VI Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.Q.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on revised cross-section evaluations for 17 nuclides that have been prepared for ENDF/B-VI Revision 2. The nuclides considered include five fission products and various isotopes of cadmium and hafnium. The previous ENDF/B-VI evaluations for these 17 nuclides were carried over from ENDF/B-V and were completed in the 1974--1980 time period. By utilizing the experimental data that have become available since 1980 the revised evaluations will result in significant improvements in the evaluated nuclear data files. The primary emphasis was placed on the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, but new experimental data were also used to improve the cross sections for energies above the unresolved resonance region. Negative elastic scattering cross sections were encountered in some of the previous evaluations; since the revised evaluations use multilevel Breit-Wigner (MLBW) parameters, rather than single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW), this problem is eliminated.

  20. Participation of endogenous opioids in pathogenesis of early neuroendocrine manifestations of prenatal stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reznikov, A G; Nosenko, N D; Tarasenko, L V

    2003-05-01

    We studied sex dimorphism in the content of norepinephrine and activity of enzymes involved in testosterone metabolism in the preoptic hypothalamic area of 10-day-old rats. Prenatal stress eliminated sex-related differences in these indices. These disturbances were absent in rats subjected to prenatal stress under conditions of opioid receptor blockade with naltrexone. These data attests to the important role of opioids in the pathogenesis of prenatal stress syndrome. PMID:12910275

  1. Prenatal substance abuse: short- and long-term effects on the exposed fetus.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Marylou; Smith, Vincent C

    2013-03-01

    Prenatal substance abuse continues to be a significant problem in this country and poses important health risks for the developing fetus. The primary care pediatrician's role in addressing prenatal substance exposure includes prevention, identification of exposure, recognition of medical issues for the exposed newborn infant, protection of the infant, and follow-up of the exposed infant. This report will provide information for the most common drugs involved in prenatal exposure: nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, cocaine, and methamphetamine.

  2. The prevention of preterm delivery through prenatal care: an intervention study in Martinique.

    PubMed

    Goujon, H; Papiernik, E; Maine, D

    1984-10-01

    During 1976-1978, improvements were made in the free prenatal care provided by the maternal and child health authority (PMI) of Martinique. Central to these changes was implementation of a program of preventive prenatal care developed in France by one of the authors (EP). Data on all births during 1980-1982 show no significant difference in pregnancy outcomes between women receiving free prenatal care from the government and women receiving private care from obstetricians.

  3. Huntington's disease: prenatal screening for late onset disease.

    PubMed

    Post, S G

    1992-06-01

    This article presents a set of moral arguments regarding the selective abortion of fetuses on the basis of prenatal screening for late onset genetic diseases only, and for Huntington's Disease* in particular. After discussion of human suffering, human perfection and the distinctive features of the lives of people confronting late onset genetic disease, the author concludes that selective abortion is difficult to justify ethically, although it must remain a matter of personal choice.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis, selective abortion, and the Abortion (Amendment) Bill.

    PubMed

    Laurence, K M

    1980-02-01

    The rapid development of early prenatal diagnostic tests for some fetal malformations and abnormalities and the introduction of this approach to malformation into clinical practice in most areas of the United Kingdom has, to a great extent, been made possible by the 1967 Abortion Act. Although at least 30 of every 1000 pregnancies will end in a seriously malformed infant with reduced survival, or survival with impaired quality of life, only less than 1/3 of these abnormal fetuses are currently amenable to early antenatal detection. Yet, it has been estimated that about 10% of all pregnancies can be identified as having a risk of 1 of these detectable abnormalities of more than 1 in 100. Most prenatal diagnostic tests available at this time involve an amniocentesis, which cannot generally be carried out safely and successfully before 15 or 16 weeks' gestation. Laboratory tests on the amniotic fluid itself or on the cells it contains must follow, generally after a period of cell culture. Fetosocopy at about 18 weeks or later is at present rarely used because of its technical difficulties as well as its relatively high risk of complications. Ultrasound is largely used as a preliminary to amniocentesis or to identify anencephaly. 1 of the problems of these prenatal tests often involving lengthy laboratory techniques is reflected in the late termination times reported from 1 large center, where barely 1/2 the terminations for fetal malformations could be performed before 20 weeks' gestation. 2 provisions of John Corrie's Bill now before Parliament may have a profound effect on prenatal diagnosis and related aspects of secondary prevention of fetal malformation. These are the suggested lowering of the gestational age at which abortions can normally be performed, and the strengthening of the conscience clause enabling physicians to refuse to provide a certificate for abortion.

  5. Rat models of prenatal and adolescent cannabis exposure.

    PubMed

    Dinieri, Jennifer A; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the illicit drug most commonly used by two vulnerable populations relevant to neurodevelopment-pregnant women and teenagers. Human longitudinal studies have linked prenatal and adolescent cannabis exposure with long-term behavioral abnormalities as well as increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Animal models provide a means of studying the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects. This chapter provides an overview of the animal models we have used to study the developmental impact of cannabis.

  6. Prenatal maternal programming determines testosterone response during social challenge.

    PubMed

    Kemme, Kristina; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    The present study investigated in domestic guinea pigs whether the effects of prenatal social stress are pathological consequences of adverse social conditions; or whether mothers adjust their offspring to the environment they experience during pregnancy. As a prenatal stressor social instability was used: we studied male guinea pig offspring whose mothers lived in a stable social environment (SE-sons) or in an unstable social environment (UE-sons) during pregnancy. Eight experimental groups were established, consisting of one SE-son, one UE-son and five females, respectively. All experimental groups remained in a stable group composition for the whole investigation time. We hypothesized that if mothers prenatally adapt their offspring, in a stable social environment SE-sons will be dominant, display agonistic and courtship behavior more frequently, have higher body weights, be less stressed and have higher testosterone concentrations than UE-sons. Our results show no significant differences between SE- and UE-sons concerning behavior, body weight or plasma-cortisol concentrations. Hence no evidence exists that an unstable social environment during pregnancy has pathological consequences for the male offsprings' phenotype. However, SE-sons had significantly higher plasma testosterone concentrations than UE-sons in phases when females were receptive. A higher reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis might enable SE-males to adjust testosterone levels to the present social situation: they are significantly elevated in decisive phases of female receptivity, but remain on a lower level before and after reproductive challenge. Thus, mothers who experienced social stability during pregnancy provide their sons prenatally with a promising reproductive strategy in competitive situations later in life.

  7. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and reproductive hormones in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wise, L A; Troisi, R; Hatch, E E; Titus, L J; Rothman, K J; Harlow, B L

    2015-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women in the mid-1900s, is a potent endocrine disruptor. Prenatal DES exposure has been associated with reproductive disorders in women, but little is known about its effects on endogenous hormones. We assessed the association between prenatal DES exposure and reproductive hormones among participants from the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles (HSMC), a longitudinal study of premenopausal women aged 36-45 years from Massachusetts (1995-1999). Prenatal DES exposure was reported at baseline (43 DES exposed and 782 unexposed). Early follicular-phase concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were measured at baseline and every 6 months during 36 months of follow-up. Inhibin B concentrations were measured through 18 months. We used multivariable logistic and repeated-measures linear regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and percent differences in mean hormone values (β), respectively, comparing DES exposed with unexposed women, adjusted for potential confounders. DES-exposed women had lower mean concentrations of estradiol (pg/ml) (β=-15.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -26.5%, -3.2%) and inhibin B (pg/ml) (β=-20.3%, CI: -35.1%, -2.3%), and higher mean concentrations of FSH (IU/I) (β=12.2%, CI: -1.5%, 27.9%) and LH (IU/I) (β=10.4%, CI: -7.2%, 31.3%), than unexposed women. ORs for the association of DES with maximum FSH>10 IU/I and minimum inhibin B<45 pg/ml--indicators of low ovarian reserve--were 1.90 (CI: 0.86, 4.22) and 4.00 (CI: 0.88-18.1), respectively. Prenatal DES exposure was associated with variation in concentrations of FSH, estradiol and inhibin B among women of late reproductive age.

  8. Discordance of Prenatal and Neonatal Brain Development in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Niyati; Kang, Chaeryon; Wolfe, Honor M.; Hertzberg, Barbara S.; Smith, J. Keith; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Hamer, Robert M.; Gilmore, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Discordance of birth weight has been observed in twin pairs, though little is known about prenatal and early neonatal discordance of head and brain size, and the role that zygosity and chorionicity play in discordances of early brain development in twins. Aims To compare prenatal and neonatal discordances of head size in monozygotic –monochorionic (MZ-MC), monozygotic-dichorionic (MZ-DC), and same-sex dizygotic-dichorionic twin pairs (DZ). Study Design Subjects prospectively had ultrasounds at 22 and 32 weeks gestational age, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain MRI after birth. Subjects 88 twin pairs recruited from two university hospital prenatal diagnostic clinics; 22 MZ-MC, 17 MZ-DC, and 49 same sex DZ pairs. Outcome measures Discordance of head circumference (HC) and weight at 22 weeks, 32 weeks and birth, as well as intracranial volume (ICV) on neonatal MRI. Results There were no group differences in discordance of head circumference and weight on the 22 or 32 week ultrasounds, or at birth. MZ-MC twins tended to have numerically greater discordances of HC and weight. There was a significant group difference in ICV on neonatal MRI (ANOVA, p = 0.0143), with DZ twins having significantly greater discordance than MZ-MC (p = 0.028) or MZ-DC (p = 0.0131) twins. Conclusions This study indicates that zygosity and chorionicity do not contribute to significant discordances of head size in late prenatal development. DZ twins do have significantly greater discordances of ICV on neonatal MRI, suggesting a relatively greater genetic influence on brain growth in the first weeks after birth. PMID:18804925

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital myopathies and muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Massalska, D; Zimowski, J G; Bijok, J; Kucińska-Chahwan, A; Łusakowska, A; Jakiel, G; Roszkowski, T

    2016-09-01

    Congenital myopathies and muscular dystrophies constitute a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of rare inherited diseases characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy, motor delay and respiratory insufficiency. To date, curative care is not available for these diseases, which may severely affect both life-span and quality of life. We discuss prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for families at risk, as well as diagnostic possibilities in sporadic cases. PMID:27197572

  10. Assessment of Prenatal Exposure to Arsenic in Tenerife Island

    PubMed Central

    Vall, Oriol; Gómez-Culebras, Mario; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Joya, Xavier; Velez, Dinoraz; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Eva; Puig, Carme

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Increasing awareness of the potential chronic health effects of arsenic (As) at low exposure levels has motivated efforts to better understand impaired child development during pregnancy by biomarkers of exposure. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prenatal exposure to As by analysis of an alternative matrix (meconium), to examine its effects on neonatal outcomes and investigate the association with maternal lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy. Methods A transversal descriptive study was conducted in Tenerife (Spain). A total of 96 mother-child pairs participated in the study. A questionnaire on sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy was administered the day after the delivery. Analysis of total As in meconium was performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. Results Total As was detected in 37 (38.5%) meconium samples. The univariate logistic regression model indicates that prenatal exposure to As was associated with a low intake of eggs per week (OR 0.56; CI (95%): 0.34–0.94) during pregnancy. Conversely, frequent intake of vegetables was associated with prenatal As exposure (OR: 1.19; CI (95%): 1.01–1.41) and frequent intake of processed meat (as bacon, Frankfurt’s sausage, and hamburger) shows a trend to As prenatal exposure (OR: 8.54; CI (95%): 0.80–90.89). The adjusted multivariate logistic regression model indicates that only frequent intake of vegetables maintains the association (OR: 1.31; CI (95%): 1.02–1.68). Conclusion The studied population presented a low As exposure and was not associated with neonatal effects. Maternal consumption of vegetables during pregnancy was associated with detectable meconium As levels; however the concentration detected in meconium was too low to be considered a major public health concern in this geographical area. PMID:23209747

  11. Effectiveness of a combined prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation program.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Anne; Adams, Laurie; Tallman, Nancy; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Women frequently quit smoking during pregnancy but then relapse postpartum. The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program combines prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation counseling and biomarker feedback with monthly postpartum incentives. The settings included 22 sites (WIC offices and prenatal clinics) in upstate New York. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate this intervention, that included four face-to-face prenatal sessions with a counselor who did smoking cessation counseling, carbon monoxide testing and random saliva cotinine testing. For 1 year postpartum, mothers were biochemically tested every 3-4 weeks and, if negative, were issued a voucher for diapers. Three implementation models were studied: multi-tasking counselors at fixed sites (Models 1 and 2) versus itinerant smoking cessation specialists (Model 3). Outcomes included biochemically validated abstinence rates during pregnancy and postpartum. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of postpartum abstinence and program dropout. Proportional hazards regression was used to compare implementation models. Of the 777 pregnant women who enrolled in the program, 588 were eligible for the postpartum program. The intention to treat pregnancy quit rate was 60%. Postpartum, Model 3 showed consistently better quit outcomes than the other models. Predictors of abstinence at 6 months postpartum are: older age (OR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.12), lower baseline carbon monoxide level (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. 0.49-0.97), Model 3 (OR = 4.60, 95% C.I. 2.80-7.57) and attending more prenatal sessions (OR = 3.52; 95% C.I. 2.19-5.65). The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program is an effective smoking cessation program for pregnant and parenting women.

  12. Arthroscopic Hip Revision Surgery for Residual FAI: Surgical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher M.; Giveans, Russell; Bedi, Asheesh; Samuelson, Kathryn M.; Stone, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: There is a steep surgical learning curve when managing femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and residual FAI can lead to continued pain and disability. There is very limited data reporting outcomes after revision arthroscopy for residual FAI. Methods: The records of patients that underwent arthroscopic hip revision surgery for residual FAI based on plain radiographs and 3D CT scans were reviewed. Pre and post-operative structural pathomorphology, intra-operative findings, and pre and post-operative outcomes measures using Modified Harris Hip Scoring (MHHS), SF-12 scoring, and pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated. Outcomes after revision arthroscopic FAI correction were compared to a cohort that underwent primary arthroscopic FAI correction. Results: 48 patients (53 hips) underwent arthroscopic revision FAI correction (mean 20.0 months follow-up). There were 62 previous arthroscopic surgeries and 4 previous surgical dislocations. There were 23 males and 25 females with a mean age of 29.9 years (range 18 - 59). 48 hips had residual cam-type FAI, and 40 hips had residual pincer-type FAI and underwent femoral and rim resections, respectively. The labrum was debrided in 27 hips, repaired in 24 hips and reconstructed with allograft in 2 hips. Adhesions were excised for 35 hips. The results of revision arthroscopic FAI correction were compared to 154 patients (169 hips) that underwent primary arthroscopic FAI correction (mean 25.2 months follow-up). The mean improvement for outcomes scores after revision FAI correction was 13.7 points (MHHS, p<.01), 8.6 points (SF-12, p<.01), and 2.6 points (VAS, p<.01) compared to 23.7 points (MHHS, p<.01), 22.3 points (SF-12, p<.01), and 4.6 points (VAS, p<.01) after primary arthroscopic FAI correction. Most recent outcomes scores and mean improvement in outcome scores were significantly better after primary (81% good/ excellent results) compared to revision (63.3% good/excellent results) FAI correction (MHS (p

  13. Regulatory T cells and the immune pathogenesis of prenatal infection.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jared H; Ertelt, James M; Xin, Lijun; Way, Sing Sing

    2013-12-01

    Pregnancy in placental mammals offers exceptional comprehensive benefits of in utero protection, nutrition, and metabolic waste elimination for the developing fetus. However, these benefits also require durable strategies to mitigate maternal rejection of fetal tissues expressing foreign paternal antigens. Since the initial postulate of expanded maternal immune tolerance by Sir Peter Medawar 60 years ago, an amazingly elaborate assortment of molecular and cellular modifications acting both locally at the maternal-placental interface and systemically have been shown to silence potentially detrimental maternal immune responses. In turn, simultaneously maintaining host defense against the infinite array of potential pathogens during pregnancy is equally important. Fortunately, resistance against most infections is preserved seamlessly throughout gestation. On the other hand, recent studies on pathogens with unique predisposition for prenatal infections have uncovered distinctive holes in host defense associated with the reproductive process. Using these infections to probe the response during pregnancy, the immune suppressive regulatory subset of maternal CD4 T cells has been increasingly shown to dictate the inter-workings between prenatal infection susceptibility and pathogenesis of ensuing pregnancy complications. Herein, the recent literature suggesting a necessity for maternal regulatory T cells (Tregs) in pregnancy-induced immunological shifts that sustain fetal tolerance is reviewed. Additional discussion is focused on how expansion of maternal Treg suppression may become exploited by pathogens that cause prenatal infections and the perilous potential of infection-induced immune activation that may mitigate fetal tolerance and inadvertently inject hostility into the protective in utero environment.

  14. Using fetal cells for prenatal diagnosis: History and recent progress.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Arthur L

    2016-06-01

    The potential to use fetal cells in the mother's circulation during the first or second trimester for prenatal diagnosis was described in 1968, but it has not been possible do develop a routine clinical prenatal test despite extensive commercial and academic research efforts. Early attention focused on the detection of aneuploidy, but more recent technology opens the possibility of high resolution detection of copy number abnormalities and even whole genome or exome sequencing to detect both inherited and de novo mutations. In the interim, cell-free noninvasive prenatal testing NIPT has allowed improved detection of aneuploidy, but this has led to a sharp reduction in the number of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) procedures, which inevitably implies reduced detection of serious de novo deletion abnormalities. Attention has focused of both fetal nucleated red blood cells (fnRBCs) and trophoblasts. Recent progress presented at meetings, but not yet published, suggests that it will soon be possible to perform genome-wide relatively high resolution detection of deletions and duplications by recovering fetal trophoblasts during the first trimester and analyzing them by whole gene genome amplification followed by copy number analysis using arrays or next generation sequencing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27133782

  15. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis and management in fetuses with cystic hygromata colli.

    PubMed

    Gembruch, U; Hansmann, M; Bald, R; Zerres, K; Schwanitz, G; Födisch, H J

    1988-12-01

    We report on 45 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed bilateral cystic hygromata colli by ultrasound. Two of the 45 cases involved a twin pregnancy with only one fetus showing hygromata colli. In 2 cases there was only isolated hygromata colli. The other 43 cases showed the signs of non-immune hydrops fetalis. The cytogenetic findings were: 9 fetuses with Turner syndrome, 1 fetus with Turner mosaicism, 1 fetus with trisomy 18, 6 fetuses with trisomy 21, 12 fetuses with normal karyotype, and 16 fetuses with a failed chromosome culture. In fetuses with Turner syndrome and normal karyotype the sonographic findings were similar: massive bilateral hygromata colli, substantial fluid accumulations in skin and body cavities, oligohydramnios and intra-uterine growth retardation. In the cases with trisomy 21, the relative size of the hygromata colli was smaller. Intra-uterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios were not observed. The sole survivor of our group (elective pregnancy interruption: 30 cases; intra-uterine death: 14 cases) (karyotype: 46,XY) presented sonographically with massive ascites, a moderate cystic hygroma, and appropriate fetal development, and a normal amniotic fluid quantity. These findings are analysed in order to provide recommendations for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal management and genetic counselling of the couples concerned.

  17. Implications of prenatal steroid perturbations for neurodevelopment, behavior, and autism.

    PubMed

    Gore, Andrea C; Martien, Katherine M; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-12-01

    The prenatal brain develops under the influence of an ever-changing hormonal milieu that includes endogenous fetal gonadal and adrenal hormones, placental and maternal hormones, and exogenous substances with hormonal activity that can cross the placental barrier. This review discusses the influences of endogenous fetal and maternal hormones on normal brain development and potential consequences of pathophysiological hormonal perturbations to the developing brain, with particular reference to autism. We also consider the effects of hormonal pharmaceuticals used for assisted reproduction, the maintenance of pregnancy, the prevention of congenital adrenal hypertrophy, and hormonal contraceptives continued into an unanticipated pregnancy, among others. These treatments, although in some instances life-saving, may have unintended consequences on the developing fetuses. Additional concern is raised by fetal exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals encountered universally by pregnant women from food/water containers, contaminated food, household chemicals, and other sources. What are the potential outcomes of prenatal steroid perturbations on neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders, including autism-spectrum disorders? Our purposes here are 1) to summarize some consequences of steroid exposures during pregnancy for the development of brain and behavior in the offspring; 2) to summarize what is known about the relationships between exposures and behavior, including autism spectrum disorders; 3) to discuss the molecular underpinnings of such effects, especially molecular epigenetic mechanisms of prenatal steroid manipulations, a field that may explain effects of direct exposures, and even transgenerational effects; and 4) for all of these, to add cautionary notes about their interpretation in the name of scientific rigor.

  18. Evaluation of the Missouri WIC program: prenatal components.

    PubMed

    Stockbauer, J W

    1986-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the prenatal components of the Missouri Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program. The study used WIC prenatal participants delivering in 1980 and their offspring's birth/fetal death certificates. A 93% match rate was acquired with a final study population of 6,732. Three basic methods of overall analysis were used to acquire a comparison group: covariate analysis, standardization, and pair matching. A higher mean birth weight was noted for the WIC total and WIC non-white group when the method of analysis was covariate or standardization; the latter was statistically significant. In either instance, the amount of increase was small. A reduced low-birth-weight rate was noted for the WIC total and the WIC non-white group regardless of the method of analysis used; the differences were statistically significant for the standardization method. Duration in WIC had a positive influence on both mean birth weight and low birth weight, regardless of race. High-risk groups used for program participation also were analyzed. Overall, this study showed that WIC prenatal nutritional supplementation has a positive, though not conclusive, impact on reducing low birth weight and raising mean birth weight.

  19. Interdisciplinary Prenatal Group Visits as a Significant Learning Experience

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Angela Yerdon; LaClair, Cynthia; Kenyon, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Aim Group visits offer documented benefit to patients and clinicians. They also provide an excellent venue to teach residents interdisciplinary care and group facilitation skills. Intervention Third-year residents received experiential training to provide prenatal care through group visits rather than one-on-one visits. Study Method A descriptive study is used to illustrate the effectiveness of various facets of resident skill acquisition and patient-centered prenatal care. Evaluation methods included feedback from patients, team members, learner self-reflection, and observation by a behavioral health clinician. Summary Residents collaboratively provide prenatal care in a group model during a 6-month period. Interdisciplinary team members explicitly teach and model biopsychosocial whole-person care and effective communication. This inventive experience has increased resident competency-based skills in facilitation and effective team collaboration as measured through observation. These skills are directly applicable in future primary care medical home practice. Using a group visit model benefits patients and clinicians, and promotes enriching and effective resident education. Our model can easily be implemented in other programs. PMID:22942965

  20. Piecing together the crazy quilt of prenatal care.

    PubMed Central

    Machala, M; Miner, M W

    1991-01-01

    The failure to provide adequate prenatal care for low-income pregnant women in the United States and the effects of this failure on infant mortality are well known. Many studies have identified institutional barriers against access to care as a major cause. To overcome these barriers, Public Health District V, South Central Idaho, has created a comprehensive prenatal health care model that has almost tripled participation in its program during the first year of implementation and increased it again significantly during the second year. This decentralized pregnancy program has succeeded in getting all of the physicians offering obstetrical care in the district to serve low-income pregnant clients on a rotating basis. The new program provides pregnancy testing as well as financial screening services. Also, it has combined support services into one-stop-shopping clinics that include an innovative expansion of the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. WIC food vouchers help attract clients into the prenatal care system and keep them coming. Enrichment of the duties of the public health nurse provides case coordination that pulls together the patchwork of medical and support services for the pregnant client. PMID:1908585