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Sample records for preoperative care

  1. [Valvular heart disease: preoperative assessment and postoperative care].

    PubMed

    Nägele, Reto; Kaufmann, Beat A

    2013-10-30

    Patients with valvular heart disease or with a prosthetic heart valve replacement are seen with increasing frequency in clinical practice. The medical care and evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease before valve surgery, but also the post-operative treatment is complex and managed by general practitioners, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. In this mini-review we will first discuss the preoperative assessment of the two most common valvulopathies, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. Then we will discuss the post-operative care, which includes the management of anticoagulation, serial follow up and as well as the diagnostic assessment of complications such as thromboembolism, hemolysis, endocarditis and valve dysfunction.

  2. [Nursing practice of care to patients undergoing elective surgery in the immediate preoperative period].

    PubMed

    de Sena, Adnairdes Cabral; do Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira; Maia, Ana Rosete Camargo Rodrigues

    2013-09-01

    Research that aimed to analyze the care of nurses to patients, in the daily professional practice, provided in the preoperative period for patients undergoing elective surgery. It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach that involved 15 nurses from Surgical Units and two nurses from the Surgical Centre of a hospital in the southern region of Brazil. Data was collected in semi-structured interviews conducted from April to July 2011. Data was analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD) technique. The information obtained generated three CDS focused on the following ideas: administrative care, instruction in the preoperative period and surgical care in the immediate preoperative period. The results showed that caring consists mostly of giving instructions to the patient in the preoperative period. It is concluded that the care was directed to the physical aspects to the detriment of the psychological, in disagreement with the assistance methodology adopted in the hospital, supported by the Theory of Basic Human Needs.

  3. [Systematized care in cardiac preoperative: theory of human caring in the perspective of nurses and users].

    PubMed

    Amorim, Thais Vasconselos; Arreguy-Sena, Cristina; Alves, Marcelo da Silva; Salimena, Anna Maria de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study research that aimed to know, with the adoption of the Theory of Human Caring, the meanings of therapeutic interpersonal relationship between nurse and user on the preoperative nursing visit after the experience of the surgical process. The convenience sample was composed of three nurses and three users of an institution that has updated records to perform highly complex cardiovascular surgery, comprising nine combinations of therapeutic interactions. It was used instruments, structured according to the theory of Jean Watson and North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, Nursing Intervention Classification and Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomies. The legal and ethical aspects of research involving human subjects were assured. The results revealed three clusters to grasp the significance of preoperative visits by users and five clusters to capture the perception of nurses when they experience this clinical experience.

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Preoperative Screening and Postoperative Care.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Robert M; Pomerantz, Jonathan; Miller, Deborah E; Weiss-Coleman, Rebecca; Solomonides, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has reached epidemic proportions, and it is an often unrecognized cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Profound hypoxic injury from apnea during the postoperative period is often misdiagnosed as cardiac arrest due to other causes. Almost a quarter of patients entering a hospital for elective surgery have OSA, and >80% of these cases are undiagnosed at the time of surgery. The perioperative period puts patients at high risk of apneic episodes because of drug effects from sedatives, narcotics, and general anesthesia, as well as from the effects of postoperative rapid eye movement sleep changes and postoperative positioning in the hospital bed. For adults, preoperative screening using the STOP or STOP-Bang questionnaires can help to identify adult patients at increased risk of OSA. In the pediatric setting, a question about snoring should be part of every preoperative examination. For patients with known OSA, continuous positive airway pressure should be continued postoperatively. Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring with an alarm system can help to prevent apneic catastrophes caused by OSA in the postoperative period.

  5. Preoperative oral health care reduces postoperative inflammation and complications in oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Ono, Shigehiro; Shimasue, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Yoshiaki; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Tada, Misato; Ishida, Fumi; Okui, Gaku; Okumura, Toshiya; Fukui, Akiko; Kubozono, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Yoko; Seino, Sayaka; Hashikata, Miho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Naruse, Takako; Rahman, Mohammad Zeshaan; Uetsuki, Ryo; Nimiya, Akiko; Takamoto, Megumi; Dainobu, Kana; Tokikazu, Tomoko; Nishi, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Takechi, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The records of 70 patients with oral cancer who were treated at a single institution between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed. The body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared between those who had received preoperative oral care (oral care group) and those who had not received any (non-oral care group). When the patients were divided into those who underwent minimally invasive surgery and those who underwent severely invasive surgery, the mean CRP level in the early postoperative period was lower in the oral care group as compared with the non-oral care group in those who underwent minimally invasive surgery as well as those who underwent severely invasive surgery. However, the mean CRP level was most evidently reduced in the severely invasive group on days 1 and 3–5. However, no significant differences were observed with regard to the percentage of postoperative infectious complications (for example, surgical site infection, anastomotic leak and pneumonia) between the oral care (13.6%) and non-oral care (20.8%) groups, though a reduced prevalence of postoperative complications following preoperative oral care was noted. The results of the present study suggest that preoperative oral care can decrease inflammation during the early postoperative stage in patients with oral cancer who undergo severely invasive surgery. PMID:27588111

  6. Impact of value based breast cancer care pathway implementation on pre-operative breast magnetic resonance imaging utilization

    PubMed Central

    McCray, Devina K. S.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used in the diagnostic workup of breast cancer (BC) to assess extent of disease and identify occult foci of disease. However, evidence for routine use of pre-operative MRI is lacking. Breast MRI is costly and can lead to unnecessary tests and treatment delays. Clinical care pathways (care paths) are value-based guidelines, which define management recommendations derived by expert consensus and available evidence based data. At Cleveland Clinic, care paths created for newly diagnosed BC patients recommend selective use of pre-operative MRI. We evaluated the number of pre-operative MRIs ordered before and after implementing an institution wide BC care paths in April 2014. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of BC cases during the years 2012, 2014, and part of 2015. Patient, tumor and treatment characteristics were collected. Pre-operative MRI utilization was compared before and after care path implementation. Results We identified 1,515 BC patients during the study period. Patients were more likely to undergo pre-operative MRI in 2012 than 2014 (OR: 2.77; P<0.001; 95% CI: 1.94–3.94) or 2015 (OR: 4.14; P<0.001; 95% CI: 2.51–6.83). There was a significant decrease in pre-operative MRI utilization between 2012 and 2014 (P<0.001) after adjustment for pre-operative MRIs ordered for care path indications. Conclusions Implementation of online BC care paths at our institution was associated with a decreased use of pre-operative MRI overall and in patients without a BC care path indication, driving value based care through the reduction of pre-operative breast MRIs. PMID:28210553

  7. The association of pre-operative STOP-BANG scores with postoperative critical care admission.

    PubMed

    Chia, P; Seet, E; Macachor, J D; Iyer, U S; Wu, D

    2013-09-01

    The STOP-BANG questionnaire screens for obstructive sleep apnoea. We retrospectively analysed the independent association of pre-operative variables with postoperative critical care admission using multivariable logistic regression for patients undergoing elective surgery from January to December 2011. Of 5432 patients, 338 (6.2%) were admitted postoperatively to the critical care unit. In multivariate analysis, the odds ratios (95% CI) for critical care admission were: 2.2 (1.1-4.6), p = 0.037; 3.2 (1.2-8.1), p = 0.017; and 5.1 (1.8-14.9), p = 0.002, for STOP-BANG scores of 4, 5 and ≥ 6, respectively. The odds ratio was also independently increased for: each year of age, 1.015 (1.004-1.026), p = 0.019; asthma, 1.6 (1.1-2.4), p = 0.016; obstructive sleep apnoea, 3.2 (1.9-5.6), p < 0.001; and for ASA physical status 2, 3 and ≥ 4, 2.1 (1.4-3.3), 6.5 (3.9-11.0), 6.3 (2.9-13.8), respectively, p < 0.001 for all.

  8. Level of anxiety versus self-care in the preoperative and postoperative periods of total laryngectomy patients 1

    PubMed Central

    Almonacid, Clara Inés Flórez; Ramos, Alfredo Jurado; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: estimate the prevalence of anxiety in laryngectomy patients in the pre and postoperative periods and its relation with the self-care level. Method: observational research of 40 patients with stage IV laryngeal cancer. Three observations took place: in the preoperative phase, at seven and at 14 days after the surgery; between June 2010 and December 2012. Two self-care levels were defined: self-sufficient and needing help for activities of daily living and treatment-related activities. To assess the anxiety levels, Zigmond's hospital anxiety scale (1983) was used. Results: in the preoperative and postoperative phases, the patients presented high levels of anxiety. Concerning self-care, on average, self-sufficient patients presented lower levels of anxiety than patients who needed help to accomplish activities of daily living and activities deriving from the surgery, without significant differences. Conclusion: anxiety is present at all times in laryngectomy patients and the reduction of the self-care deficit seems to decrease it, without putting a permanent end to it. PMID:27305181

  9. [Reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality with preoperative risk evaluation and with refined perioperative medical care].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kanji

    2012-05-01

    Reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality is important not only for patients' outcome but for reduction of financial burden on society. Precise and accurate preoperative evaluation of surgical risk factors is crucial to plan appropriate postoperative allocation of medical resources. American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status is a traditional measure to describe preoperative risk of patients undergoing surgery. In the last decade, several scoring systems with better sensitivity and specificity were reported and validated. Charlson Age-comorbidity Index, Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) are frequently used scoring systems. Several lines of evidence indicate that negligence of medical caregivers cause substantial numbers of errors to patients and often leads to severe complications or deaths. Full compliances to surgical checklists and implementation of medical team will help reduce these errors and lead to better patients' postoperative outcomes.

  10. Preoperative predictive factors for intensive care unit admission after pulmonary resection*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Liana; Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Perfeito, João Aléssio Juliano; Izbicki, Meyer; Ramos, Roberta Pulcheri; Faresin, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the use of a set of preoperative variables can predict the need for postoperative ICU admission. Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study of 120 patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection between July of 2009 and April of 2012. Prediction of ICU admission was based on the presence of one or more of the following preoperative characteristics: predicted pneumonectomy; severe/very severe COPD; severe restrictive lung disease; FEV1 or DLCO predicted to be < 40% postoperatively; SpO2 on room air at rest < 90%; need for cardiac monitoring as a precautionary measure; or American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ 3. The gold standard for mandatory admission to the ICU was based on the presence of one or more of the following postoperative characteristics: maintenance of mechanical ventilation or reintubation; acute respiratory failure or need for noninvasive ventilation; hemodynamic instability or shock; intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications (clinical or surgical); or a recommendation by the anesthesiologist or surgeon to continue treatment in the ICU. Results: Among the 120 patients evaluated, 24 (20.0%) were predicted to require ICU admission, and ICU admission was considered mandatory in 16 (66.6%) of those 24. In contrast, among the 96 patients for whom ICU admission was not predicted, it was required in 14 (14.5%). The use of the criteria for predicting ICU admission showed good accuracy (81.6%), sensitivity of 53.3%, specificity of 91%, positive predictive value of 66.6%, and negative predictive value of 85.4%. Conclusions: The use of preoperative criteria for predicting the need for ICU admission after elective pulmonary resection is feasible and can reduce the number of patients staying in the ICU only for monitoring. PMID:25750672

  11. Effect of screen-based computer simulation on knowledge and skill in nursing students' learning of preoperative and postoperative care management: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Aylin; Dicle, Aklime; Cakan, Emre; Cakir, Şen

    2012-04-01

    Screen-based computer simulations are considered a method of skill teaching in health education. This study examined the effect of screen-based computer simulation on knowledge, skill, and the clinical decision-making process in teaching preoperative and postoperative care management to second-year students in an undergraduate school of nursing. It is a randomized controlled study. The study sample was composed of 82 students. They received education in screen-based computer simulation (n = 41) and skill laboratories (n = 41). Three instruments were used: a preoperative and postoperative care management cognitive level assessment test, skill control lists of preoperative and postoperative care management, and the Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale. There was not a significant difference between the students' posteducation knowledge levels (P = .421), practical deep breathing and coughing exercise education skills (P = .867), or clinical decision-making scale total and subscale scores (P = .065). However, a significant difference was found between the admission of the patient in the surgical clinic after surgery skill scores of the students (P = .04). Education provided in the screen-based computer simulation laboratory was equivalent to that provided in the skill laboratory.

  12. Patient and family satisfaction levels in the intensive care unit after elective cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a preoperative patient education intervention

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Patricia; Chiu, Chun Hung; Ho, Ka Man; Gomersall, Charles David; Underwood, Malcolm John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients and their families are understandably anxious about the risk of complications and unfamiliar experiences following cardiac surgery. Providing information about postoperative care in the intensive care unit (ICU) to patients and families may lead to lower anxiety levels, and increased satisfaction with healthcare. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of preoperative patient education provided for patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods and analysis 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft, with or without valve replacement surgery, will be recruited into a 2-group, parallel, superiority, double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to either preoperative patient education comprising of a video and ICU tour with standard care (intervention) or standard education (control). The primary outcome measures are the satisfaction levels of patients and family members with ICU care and decision-making in the ICU. The secondary outcome measures are patient anxiety and depression levels before and after surgery. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong—New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee (reference number CREC 2015.308). The findings will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Study participants will receive a 1-page plain language summary of results. Trial registration number ChiCTR-IOR-15006971. PMID:27334883

  13. Platelet concentrates transfusion in cardiac surgery in relation to preoperative point-of-care assessment of platelet adhesion and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Cristina; Hartmann, Jennifer; Osthaus, Alexander; Schöchl, Herbert; Raymondos, Kostas; Koppert, Wolfgang; Rahe-Meyer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Platelet dysfunction is an important cause of bleeding early after cardiac surgery. Whole-blood multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), investigating the adhesion and aggregation of activated platelets onto metal electrodes, has shown correlations with platelet concentrates transfusion in this setting. Platelet activity in vivo is dependent on shear stress, an aspect that cannot be investigated with MEA, but with the cone and plate(let) analyzer (CPA) Impact-R that measures the interaction of platelets and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in whole blood under shear. We hypothesized that preoperative CPA may show better correlation with platelet concentrates transfusion post-cardiac surgery than MEA, since it is dependent on both platelet activity and platelet interaction with vWF multimers. Blood was obtained preoperatively from 30 patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass (ACB) and 20 patients with aortic valve (AV) surgery. MEA was performed in hirudin-anticoagulated blood. The Impact-R analyses were performed in blood anticoagulated with hirudin, heparin or the standard anticoagulant citrate. For the light microscopy images obtained, the parameter surface coverage (SC) was calculated. Preoperative Impact-R results were abnormally decreased in AV patients and significantly lower than in ACB patients. For the Impact-R analysis performed in citrated blood, no correlation with platelet concentrates transfusion was observed. In contrast, MEA was comparable between the groups and correlated significantly with intraoperative platelet concentrates transfusion in both groups (rho between -0.47 and -0.62, p < 0.05). Multiple electrode aggregometry appeared more useful and easier to apply than CPA for preoperatively identifying patients with platelet concentrates transfusion in cardiac surgery.

  14. [Preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac surgery. Joint recommendations of German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, German Society of Surgery and German Society of Internal Medicine].

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of the patient's medical history and a physical examination are the cornerstones of risk assessment prior to elective surgery and may help to optimize the patient's preoperative medical condition and to guide perioperative management. Whether the performance of additional technical tests (e.g. blood chemistry, ECG, spirometry, chest-x-ray) can contribute to a reduction of perioperative risk is often not very well known or controversial. Similarly, there is considerable uncertainty among anesthesiologists, internists and surgeons with respect to the perioperative management of the patient's long-term medication. Therefore, the German Scientific Societies of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), Internal Medicine (DGIM) and Surgery (DGCH) have joined to elaborate and publish recommendations on the preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac and non-lung resection surgery. In the first part the general principles of preoperative evaluation are described (part A). The current concepts for extended evaluation of patients with known or suspected major cardiovascular disease are presented in part B. Finally, the perioperative management of patients' long-term medication is discussed (part C). The concepts proposed in these interdisciplinary recommendations endorsed by the DGAI, DGIM and DGCH provide a common basis for a structured preoperative risk assessment and management. These recommendations aim to ensure that surgical patients undergo a rational preoperative assessment and at the same time to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially dangerous testing. The joint recommendations reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge as well as expert opinions because scientific-based evidence is not always available. These recommendations will be subject to regular re-evaluation and updating when new validated evidence becomes available.

  15. [Preoperative analysis in rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Levet, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Preoperative analysis in rhinoplasty consists in analyzing individual anatomical and functional characteristics without losing sight of the initial requirements of the patient to which priority should be given. The examination is primarily clinical but it also uses preoperative photographs taken at specific accurate angles. Detecting functional disorders or associated general pathologies, which will reduce the risk of complications. All of these factors taken into account, the surgeon can work out a rhinoplasty plan which he or she will subsequently explain to the patient and obtain his or her approbation.

  16. The Preoperative Neurological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Probasco, John; Sahin, Bogachan; Tran, Tung; Chung, Tae Hwan; Rosenthal, Liana Shapiro; Mari, Zoltan; Levy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neurological diseases are prevalent in the general population, and the neurohospitalist has an important role to play in the preoperative planning for patients with and at risk for developing neurological disease. The neurohospitalist can provide patients and their families as well as anesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitalists, and other providers guidance in particular to the patient’s neurological disease and those he or she is at risk for. Here we present considerations and guidance for the neurohospitalist providing preoperative consultation for the neurological patient with or at risk of disturbances of consciousness, cerebrovascular and carotid disease, epilepsy, neuromuscular disease, and Parkinson disease. PMID:24198903

  17. Pre-operative anaemia.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, B; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    Pre-operative anaemia is a relatively common finding, affecting a third of patients undergoing elective surgery. Traditionally associated with chronic disease, management has historically focused on the use of blood transfusion as a solution for anaemia in the peri-operative period. Data from large series now suggest that anaemia is an independent risk associated with poor outcome in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Furthermore, blood transfusion does not appear to ameliorate this risk, and in fact may increase the risk of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay. Consequently, there is a need to identify, diagnose and manage pre-operative anaemia to reduce surgical risk. Discoveries in the pathways of iron metabolism have found that chronic disease can cause a state of functional iron deficiency leading to anaemia. The key iron regulatory protein hepcidin, activated in response to inflammation, inhibits absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and further reduces bioavailability of iron stores for red cell production. Consequently, although iron stores (predominantly ferritin) may be normal, the transport of iron either from the gastrointestinal tract or iron stores to the bone marrow is inhibited, leading to a state of 'functional' iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia. Since absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is blocked, increasing oral iron intake is ineffective, and studies are now looking at the role of intravenous iron to treat anaemia in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the incidence and impact of anaemia on the pre-operative patient. We explain how anaemia may be caused by functional iron deficiency, and how iron deficiency anaemia may be diagnosed and treated.

  18. [Preoperative assessment of patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-07-01

    The perioperative morbidity of diabetic patients is related to preoperative end-organ damage. Due to the microvascular pathology, autonomic neuropathy is common and cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypertension, painless myocardial ischemia, and orthostatic hypotension may predispose patients to perioperative cardiovascular instability. Autonomic dysfunction also contributes to delayed gastric emptying, and preoperative administration of a histamine antagonist and a gastric emptying agent is needed. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to glycosylation of tissue proteins and the accumulation of abnormal collagen can cause stiff joint syndrome resulting in difficult tracheal intubation. The primary goal of pre and intraoperative blood glucose control is to avoid hypoglycemia and ketosis. Moreover, the tight glycemic control has been reported to improve survival in critically ill patients who were treated in the intensive care unit.

  19. Development, Functioning, and Effectiveness of a Preoperative Risk Assessment Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Hassan; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Kulkarni, Salil; Hanif, Sana; Toolsie, Omesh; Abbas, Hafsa; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Lee first described the concept of preoperative assessment testing (PAT) clinic in 1949. An efficiently run clinic is associated with increased cost-effectiveness by lowering preoperative admission time and thus reducing the length of stay and the associated costs. The setup of the PAT clinic should be based on the needs, culture, and resources of the institution. Various models for the setup of PAT clinic have been described, including the concept of a perioperative surgical home, which is a patient-centered model designed to improve health and the delivery of health care and to reduce the cost of care. Although there are several constraints in the development of PAT clinics, with increasing awareness about the usefulness of pre-operative risk assessments, growing bodies of literature, and evidence-based guidelines, these clinics are becoming a medical necessity for the improvement of perioperative care. PMID:27812286

  20. Development, Functioning, and Effectiveness of a Preoperative Risk Assessment Clinic.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Hassan; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Kulkarni, Salil; Hanif, Sana; Toolsie, Omesh; Abbas, Hafsa; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Lee first described the concept of preoperative assessment testing (PAT) clinic in 1949. An efficiently run clinic is associated with increased cost-effectiveness by lowering preoperative admission time and thus reducing the length of stay and the associated costs. The setup of the PAT clinic should be based on the needs, culture, and resources of the institution. Various models for the setup of PAT clinic have been described, including the concept of a perioperative surgical home, which is a patient-centered model designed to improve health and the delivery of health care and to reduce the cost of care. Although there are several constraints in the development of PAT clinics, with increasing awareness about the usefulness of pre-operative risk assessments, growing bodies of literature, and evidence-based guidelines, these clinics are becoming a medical necessity for the improvement of perioperative care.

  1. An ICU Preanesthesia Evaluation Form Reduces Missing Preoperative Key Information

    PubMed Central

    Chuy, Katherine; Yan, Zhe; Fleisher, Lee; Liu, Renyu

    2013-01-01

    Background A comprehensive preoperative evaluation is critical for providing anesthetic care for patients from the intensive care unit (ICU). There has been no preoperative evaluation form specific for ICU patients that allows for a rapid and focused evaluation by anesthesia providers, including junior residents. In this study, a specific preoperative form was designed for ICU patients and evaluated to allow residents to perform the most relevant and important preoperative evaluations efficiently. Methods The following steps were utilized for developing the preoperative evaluation form: 1) designed a new preoperative form specific for ICU patients; 2) had the form reviewed by attending physicians and residents, followed by multiple revisions; 3) conducted test releases and revisions; 4) released the final version and conducted a survey; 5) compared data collection from new ICU form with that from a previously used generic form. Each piece of information on the forms was assigned a score, and the score for the total missing information was determined. The score for each form was presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD), and compared by unpaired t test. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Of 52 anesthesiologists (19 attending physicians, 33 residents) responding to the survey, 90% preferred the final new form; and 56% thought the new form would reduce perioperative risk for ICU patients. Forty percent were unsure whether the form would reduce perioperative risk. Over a three month period, we randomly collected 32 generic forms and 25 new forms. The average score for missing data was 23 ± 10 for the generic form and 8 ± 4 for the new form (P = 2.58E-11). Conclusions A preoperative evaluation form designed specifically for ICU patients is well accepted by anesthesia providers and helped to reduce missing key preoperative information. Such an approach is important for perioperative patient safety. PMID:23853741

  2. Fundoplication for laryngopharyngeal reflux despite preoperative dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Falk, G L; Van der Wall, H; Burton, L; Falk, M G; O'Donnell, H; Vivian, S J

    2017-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Fundoplication for laryngopharyngeal disease with oesophageal dysmotility has led to mixed outcomes. In the presence of preoperative dysphagia and oesophageal dysmotility, this procedure has engendered concern in certain regards. METHODS This paper describes a consecutive series of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) patients with a high frequency of dysmotility. Patients were selected for surgery with 24-hour dual channel pH monitoring, oesophageal manometry and standardised reflux scintigraphy. RESULTS Following careful patient selection, 33 patients underwent fundoplication by laparoscopy. Surgery had high efficacy in symptom control and there was no adverse dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS Evidence of proximal reflux can select a group of patients for good results of fundoplication for atypical symptoms.

  3. Preoperative blood transfusions for sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally

    2016-01-01

    interval 0.36 to 1.55) (one trial, 230 participants, very low quality evidence);a transfusion-related complication, risk ratio 1.85 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 3.88) (one trial, 230 participants, very low quality evidence). Preoperative transfusion versus no preoperative transfusion Two trials (434 participants) compared a preoperative transfusion plus standard care to a group receiving standard care. Overall, the quality of the evidence was low to very low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. This was due to the trials being at high risk of bias due to lack of blinding, and outcome estimates being imprecise. One trial was stopped early because more people in the no transfusion arm developed an acute chest syndrome. There was no difference in all-cause mortality between people receiving preoperative transfusions and those receiving no preoperative transfusions (two trials, 434 participants, no deaths occurred). There was significant heterogeneity between the two trials in the number of people developing an acute chest syndrome, a meta-analysis was therefore not performed. One trial showed a reduced number of people developing acute chest syndrome between people receiving preoperative transfusions and those receiving no preoperative transfusions, risk ratio 0.11 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.80) (65 participants), whereas the other trial did not, risk ratio 4.81 (95% confidence interval 0.23 to 99.61) (369 participants). There were no differences between the preoperative transfusion groups and the groups without preoperative transfusion in the number of people developing: a vaso-occlusive crisis, Peto odds ratio 1.91 (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 6.04) (two trials, 434 participants, very low quality evidence).a serious infection, Peto odds ratio 1.29 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 5.71) (two trials, 434 participants, very low quality evidence);any perioperative complications, risk ratio 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 2.05) (one

  4. Caregivers' reactions to preoperative procedures in outpatient pediatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Velhote, André Bohomol; Bohomol, Elena; Velhote, Manoel Carlos Prieto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify pediatric caregivers' reactions in outpatient surgery settings. Methods: A quantitative descriptive/exploratory survey-based study involving application of a semi-structured questionnaire to 62 caregivers in two hospitals. Results: Most caregivers (88.7%) were mothers who submitted to preoperative fasting with their children. Nervousness, anxiety and concern were the most common feelings reported by caregivers on the day of the surgery. Conclusion: Medical instructions regarding preoperative procedures had significant positive impacts on patient care, and on patient and caregiver stress levels. PMID:27759831

  5. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    PubMed

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery.

  6. Preoperative Psychological Preparation of Children

    PubMed Central

    Güleç, Ersel; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Surgery and anaesthesia are significant sources of anxiety for children. In the preoperative period, reducing anxiety helps in preventing the negative consequences that may occur after surgery. The predetermined high-risk children in terms of the development of anxiety play an important role in reducing the negative consequences. Recently featured approaches are modelling and coping techniques, although many techniques are used in the preoperative psychological preparation. The use of computer programs in this area may facilitate important achievements, and it needs to support new studies to be performed. PMID:27366525

  7. Preoperative IABP in high risk patients undergoing CABG.

    PubMed

    Theologou, T; Field, M L

    2011-01-01

    A recent international consensus conference on the reduction in mortality in cardiac anesthesia and intensive care included intraoperative aortic balloon pump among the ancillary (i.e. non-surgical) drugs/techniques/strategies that might influence survival rates in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The consensus conferences state that "Pre-operative intraoperative aortic balloon pump might reduce 30-day mortality in elective high risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery unless specifically contraindicated". The authors of this "expert opinion" presents their insights into the use of the preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump and conclude that based on available limited randomized controlled trials and clinical experience preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump saves lives in unstable patients.

  8. Making safer preoperative arrangements for patients using vitamin K antagonists

    PubMed Central

    van Fessem, Joris; Willems, Jessica; Kruip, Marieke; Hoeks, Sanne; Jan Stolker, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Use of vitamin K antagonists creates a risk for patient health and safety. The Dutch framework “Nationwide Standard Integrated Care of Anticoagulation” propagates a shared plan and responsibility by surgeon and anesthesiologist together in the preoperative setting. In our institution, this framework had not been implemented. Therefore, a quality-improvement project was started at the Anesthesia Department to improve perioperative safety. After exploration of barriers, multiple interventions were carried out to encourage co-workers at the preoperative screening department to take shared responsibility: distribution of prints, adjustments in electronic patient records, introduction of a protocol and education sessions. Efficacy was measured retrospectively performing a before-after study collecting perioperative data of patients using vitamin K antagonists. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of predefined safe preoperative plans. Secondary outcome measures were (1) incidence of postoperative bleeding and thrombo-embolic events within the first 24 hours after intervention and (2) necessity to preoperative correction of anticoagulation. Before intervention 72 (29%) safe, 93 (38%) partially unsafe and 83 (33%) unsafe arrangements were made. After the intervention these numbers were 105 (80%), 23 (17%) en 4 (3%), respectively: a significant 51% increase in safe preoperative plans (P<0.001). We observed no significant difference (P=0.369) regarding bleeding and thrombo-embolic events: pre-intervention 12 (5%) cases of postoperative bleeding were documented, vs. 6 (5%) post intervention and the number of thrombo-embolic events was 5 (2%) vs. 0. Also, no significant differences concerning preoperative correction of anticoagulation were observed: 11 (4%) vs. 8 (6%) (P=0.489). This quality improvement project demonstrates a major improvement in safer preoperative arrangements in our institution regarding vitamin K antagonists, using the described interventions

  9. [Chronic medications in the preoperative period: should they be stopped?].

    PubMed

    López-Álvarez, A; Román-Fernández, A; Fernández-Vieitez, M B; Fossati-Puertas, S

    2014-03-01

    As different specialists are becoming increasingly involved in the preoperative management of our patients (for two main reasons; Primary Care doctors have to perform minor surgical procedures, and as coordination between Primary Care and In-hospital Care is more and more necessary in order to improve their outcomes), we believe that an update is needed as regards the management of chronic medications in this period. We will try to review the current literature dealing with the recommendations about withdrawing or continuing these drugs.

  10. Preoperative Determinants of Outcomes of Infant Heart Surgery in a Limited-Resource Setting.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Srinath; Kappanayil, Mahesh; Balachandran, Rakhi; Jenkins, Kathy J; Sudhakar, Abish; Sunil, G S; Raj, R Benedict; Kumar, R Krishna

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of preoperative determinants on early outcomes of 1028 consecutive infant heart operations in a limited-resource setting. Comprehensive data on pediatric heart surgery (January 2010-December 2012) were collected prospectively. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality, prolonged ventilation (>48 hours), and bloodstream infection (BSI) after surgery. Preoperative variables that showed significant individual association with outcome measures were entered into a logistic regression model. Weight at birth was low in 224 infants (21.8%), and failure to thrive was common (mean-weight Z score at surgery was 2.72 ± 1.7). Preoperatively, 525 infants (51%) needed intensive care, 69 infants (6.7%) were ventilated, and 80 infants (7.8%) had BSI. In-hospital mortality (4.1%) was significantly associated with risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery-1 (RACHS-1) risk category (P < 0.001). Neonatal status, preoperative BSI, and requirement of preoperative intensive care and ventilation had significant individual association with adverse outcomes, whereas low birth weight, prematurity, and severe failure to thrive (weight Z score <-3) were not associated with adverse outcomes. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, preoperative sepsis (odds ratio = 2.86; 95% CI: 1.32-6.21; P = 0.008) was associated with mortality. Preoperative intensive care unit stay, ventilation, BSI, and RACHS-1 category were associated with prolonged postoperative ventilation and postoperative sepsis. Neonatal age group was additionally associated with postoperative sepsis. Although severe failure to thrive was common, it did not adversely affect outcomes. In conclusions, preoperative BSI, preoperative intensive care, and mechanical ventilation are strongly associated with adverse outcomes after infant cardiac surgery in this large single-center experience from a developing country. Failure to thrive and low birth weight do not appear to adversely affect surgical

  11. Do psychological interventions reduce preoperative anxiety?

    PubMed

    Renouf, Tessa; Leary, Alison; Wiseman, Theresa

    The systematic review investigates whether, during preoperative assessments, nurse-delivered psychological interventions reduce anxiety levels preoperatively for patients undergoing elective surgery. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria for data extraction and in-depth critiquing. Of these, two were discarded due to lack of validity, while the remaining studies were organised thematically in a narrative synthesis, generating two principal results: patients' preoperative anxieties were lowered by nurse-delivered general preoperative psychological interventions; and patients valued individualised preoperative interventions delivered by nurses. However, the single oncology study in the review showed an elevation in preoperative anxiety, regardless of intervention, and highlights the need for more research in this under-reviewed area. In the meantime, the authors believe that service improvements should be implemented to ensure that, where possible, psychological preoperative interventions are individualised.

  12. [Organization of an anaesthesia preoperative evaluation clinic - The Anaesthesia/Patient Blood Management Clinic: one Model].

    PubMed

    Schöpper, Christa; Venherm, Stefan; Van Aken, Hugo; Ellermann, Ines; Steinbicker, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The anesthesia preoperative evaluation has been developed in recent years in a centralized clinic, that can be visited by the majority of patients, in order to evaluate and obtain patient's consent for anesthesia. In the current article, the organization and structure of such a central anesthesia preoperative evaluation clinic in the Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine at the University Hospital of Muenster, is described. Besides the central preoperative evaluation clinic, 3 clinics are localized in separate buildings and preoperative visits have to be completed in special scenarios on the wards, too. A pharmaceutical evaluation for patient's medication and the patient blood management have been integrated into the anesthesia preoperative evaluation clinic. Processes are explained and current numbers of patients are mentioned.

  13. Preoperative Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Steven L

    2016-12-06

    This issue provides a clinical overview of preoperative evaluation for noncardiac surgery, focusing on risk factors, elements of evaluation, medication management, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  14. Preoperative anxiety and emergence delirium and postoperative maladaptive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kain, Zeev N; Caldwell-Andrews, Alison A; Maranets, Inna; McClain, Brenda; Gaal, Dorothy; Mayes, Linda C; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Heping

    2004-12-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the clinical phenomena of preoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, and postoperative maladaptive behavioral changes were closely related. We examined this issue using data obtained by our laboratory over the past 6 years. Only children who underwent surgery and general anesthesia using sevoflurane/O(2)/N(2)O and who did not receive midazolam were recruited. Children's anxiety was assessed preoperatively with the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS), emergence delirium was assessed in the postanesthesia care unit, and behavioral changes were assessed with the Post Hospital Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ) on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14. Regression analysis showed that the odds of having marked symptoms of emergence delirium increased by 10% for each increment of 10 points in the child's state anxiety score (mYPAS). The odds ratio of having new-onset postoperative maladaptive behavior changes was 1.43 for children with marked emergence status as compared with children with no symptoms of emergence delirium. A 10-point increase in state anxiety scores led to a 12.5% increase in the odds that the child would have a new-onset maladaptive behavioral change after the surgery. This finding is highly significant to practicing clinicians, who can now predict the development of adverse postoperative phenomena, such as emergence delirium and postoperative behavioral changes, based on levels of preoperative anxiety.

  15. Preoperative anemia and postoperative outcomes after hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tohme, Samer; Varley, Patrick R.; Landsittel, Douglas P.; Chidi, Alexis P.; Tsung, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background Preoperative anaemia is associated with adverse outcomes after surgery but outcomes after liver surgery specifically are not well established. We aimed to analyze the incidence of and effects of preoperative anemia on morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing liver resection. Methods All elective hepatectomies performed for the period 2005–2012 recorded in the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database were evaluated. We obtained anonymized data for 30-day mortality and major morbidity (one or more major complication), demographics, and preoperative and perioperative risk factors. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the adjusted effect of anemia, which was defined as (hematocrit <39% in men, <36% in women), on postoperative outcomes. Results We obtained data for 12,987 patients, of whom 4260 (32.8%) had preoperative anemia. Patients with preoperative anemia experienced higher postoperative major morbidity and mortality rates compared to those without anemia. After adjustment for predefined variables, preoperative anemia was an independent risk factor for postoperative major morbidity (adjusted OR 1.21, 1.09–1.33). After adjustment, there was no significant difference in postoperative mortality for patients with or without preoperative anemia (adjusted OR 0.88, 0.66–1.16). Conclusion Preoperative anemia is independently associated with an increased risk of major morbidity in patients undergoing hepatectomy. Therefore, it is crucial to readdress preoperative blood management in anemic patients prior to hepatectomy. PMID:27017165

  16. Preoperative Optimization of the Heart Failure Patient Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Maxime; Liszkowski, Mark; Ducharme, Anique

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery are exposed to significant perioperative complications and high mortality. We herein review the literature concerning preoperative optimization of these patients. Salient findings are that end-organ dysfunction and medication should be optimized before surgery. Specifically: (1) reversible causes of anemia should be treated and a preoperative hemoglobin level of 100 g/L obtained; (2) renal function and volume status should be optimized; (3) liver function must be carefully evaluated; (4) nutritional status should be assessed and cachexia treated to achieve a preoperative albumin level of at least 30 g/L and a body mass index > 20; and (5) medication adjustments performed, such as withholding inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system before surgery and continuing, but not starting, β-blockers. Levels of natriuretic peptides (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal proBNP) provide additional prognostic value and therefore should be measured. In addition, individual patient's risk should be objectively assessed using standard formulas such as the EuroSCORE-II or Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk scores, which are simple and validated for various cardiac surgeries, including left ventricular assist device implantation. When patients are identified as high risk, preoperative hemodynamic optimization might be achieved with the insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter and hemodynamic-based tailored therapy. Finally, a prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump might be considered in certain circumstances to decrease morbidity and even mortality, like in some high risk heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery, whereas routine preoperative inotropes are not recommended and should be reserved for patients in shock, except maybe for levosimendan.

  17. Preoperative diagnosis of a pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Velebit, V.; Christenson, J. T.; Simonet, F.; Maurice, J.; Schmuziger, M.; Hauser, H.; Didier, D.

    1995-01-01

    A pulmonary artery sarcoma was diagnosed preoperatively by magnetic resonance imaging enhanced with gadolinium and confirmed by percutaneous computed tomographic guided needle biopsy. Accurate preoperative diagnosis allowed planned curative surgery with removal of the right ventricular outflow tract and reconstructive surgery using a cryopreserved homograft. Images PMID:8539663

  18. Guideline implementation: preoperative patient skin antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Performing preoperative skin antisepsis to remove soil and microorganisms at the surgical site may help prevent patients from developing a surgical site infection. The updated AORN "Guideline for preoperative skin antisepsis" addresses the topics of preoperative patient bathing and hair removal, selection and application of skin antiseptics, and safe handling, storage, and disposal of skin antiseptics. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel develop protocols for patient skin antisepsis. The key points include the need for the patient to take a preoperative bath or shower and the need for perioperative personnel to manage hair at the surgical site, select a safe and effective antiseptic for the individual patient, perform a safe preoperative surgical site prep, and appropriately store skin antiseptics. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  19. Preoperative hyponatremia as a clinical characteristic in elderly patients with large pituitary tumor.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, S; Yokoyama, T; Yokota, N; Ohta, S

    2000-05-01

    This study investigated the pathophysiology of preoperative hyponatremia in elderly patients with a large pituitary tumor. The tumor size, initial symptoms, and preoperative pituitary hormonal function were analyzed in 96 patients, consisting of 82 younger than 70 years old (mean age 49.7 years) and 14 older than 70 years old (mean age 72.0 years). There was no difference in tumor size between the two age groups. The initial symptom of all younger patients was visual disturbance. Preoperative hormonal evaluations revealed subclinical panhypopituitarism in four patients (4.9%). Five of the 14 older patients had severe hyponatremia (107-117 mEq/l) based on panhypopituitarism, and four of these five patients showed consciousness disturbance as the initial symptom, initiated by physical and/or psychological stress, or occurrence of intratumoral hemorrhage. Preoperative subclinical panhypopituitarism was found in another patient. The overall occurrence rate of preoperative panhypopituitarism in the older patients was 42.9%. The difference in the frequency of preoperative panhypopituitarism was statistically significant between the two groups. Preoperative severe hyponatremia associated with a large pituitary tumor is characteristic of elderly patients. The number of receptors for adrenocorticotropic hormone in the adrenal cortex decreases during the aging process. Additional physical and/or psychological stress prompts pituitary dysfunction in such patients, causing the manifestation of acute symptoms of adrenal insufficiency based on panhypopituitarism. Primary care using high dose hydrocortisone and electrolyte fluid is critical.

  20. Utility of Discography as a Preoperative Diagnostic Tool for Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Terai, Hidetomi; Dohzono, Sho; Hori, Yusuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative definitive diagnosis of intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is difficult despite the availability of various neuroradiological investigative tools. We present a case of ILDH diagnosed preoperatively by discography and computed tomography-discography (disco-CT).The patient was a 63-year-old man with acute excruciating right leg pain. Discography and disco-CT demonstrated leakage of the contrast medium into the intradural space. Based on these findings, a right L5 nerve root disturbance caused by ILDH was diagnosed. A right L5 hemi-laminectomy and a dorsal durotomy were performed. The herniated disc was carefully dissected and then completely removed. Three months after surgery, the patient had fully recovered. This report highlights the importance of making a definitive diagnosis of ILDH preoperatively for better surgical planning and improved clinical outcomes. Furthermore, discography and disco-CT are both useful preoperative diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of ILDH. PMID:27559461

  1. Pre-operative nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Corish, C A

    1999-11-01

    Protein-energy undernutrition, or the possibility of its development, has been documented to occur frequently in surgical patients admitted to hospital. Nutritional status is known to deteriorate over the course of the hospital stay, with poor awareness by medical and nursing staff as to the deleterious effects of impaired nutritional status on clinical outcome and hospital costs. While there is no consensus on the best method for assessment of the nutritional status of surgical patients pre-operatively, there are a number of techniques available. These techniques can be divided into two types, those suitable for screening for nutrition risk on admission to hospital and those used to fully assess nutritional status. Both techniques have their limitations, but if used correctly, and their limitations recognized, should identify the appropriate degree of nutritional intervention for an individual patient in a timely and cost-effective manner. The techniques currently available for nutritional screening and nutritional assessment are reviewed, and their applicability to the Irish setting are discussed in the present paper.

  2. Preoperative patient assessment: Identifying patients at high risk.

    PubMed

    Boehm, O; Baumgarten, G; Hoeft, A

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative mortality remains alarmingly high with a mortality rate ranging between 0.4% and 4%. A small subgroup of multimorbid and/or elderly patients undergoing different surgical procedures naturally confers the highest risk of complications and perioperative death. Therefore, preoperative assessment should identify these high-risk patients and stratify them to individualized monitoring and treatment throughout all phases of perioperative care. A "tailored" perioperative approach might help further reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. This article aims to elucidate individual morbidity-specific risks. It further suggests approaches to detect patients at the risk of perioperative complications.

  3. Preoperative antisepsis: critiquing a research article.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Allyson; Edwards, Peggy

    2010-11-01

    A critique of a research article on preoperative skin antisepsis was undertaken using a recognised framework. This critique drew out issues which may be of use for clinicians in making a judgement regarding implementing change into their clinical practice.

  4. Preoperative pain management education: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Katherine F

    2015-06-01

    The management of pain is one of the greatest clinical challenges for nurses who care for patients during the postoperative period. It can be even more challenging for patients who must manage their own pain after discharge from the health care facility. Research shows that postoperative pain continues to be undermanaged despite decades of education and evidence-based guidelines. Ineffective management of postoperative pain can negatively impact multiple patient outcomes. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a preoperative pain management patient education intervention on improving patients' postoperative pain management outcomes. The project was conducted with patients undergoing same-day laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an outpatient general surgery service at a teaching institution. Patients in the intervention and comparison groups completed the American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire-Revised during their first postoperative clinic visit 2 weeks after surgery. Results showed that patients who received the preoperative education intervention reported less severe pain during the first 24 hours postoperatively, experienced fewer and less severe pain medication side effects, returned to normal activities sooner, and used more nonpharmacologic pain management methods postoperatively compared with those who did not receive the education.

  5. Epidermoid Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen: Case Report and Literature Review of the Preoperative Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shin; Mori, Hideki; Zakimi, Moriya; Yamada, Koki; Chinen, Kenji; Arashiro, Masayuki; Shinoura, Susumu; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Murakami, Takahiro; Kunishima, Fumihito

    2016-01-01

    An epidermoid cyst arising within an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS) is rare, and also difficult to correctly diagnose before surgery. It is mostly misdiagnosed as a cystic tumor, such as a mucinous cystic neoplasm or as a solid tumor with cystic degeneration, such as a neuro endocrine tumor. We herein report a case of ECIAS and also perform a literature review of 35 reports of ECIAS. Although the preoperative diagnosis of ECIAS using conventional imaging is relatively difficult to make, careful preoperative examinations of the features on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging could lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis of ECIAS which might thereby reduce the number of unnecessary resections. PMID:27904107

  6. Preoperative teaching and hysterectomy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Oetker-Black, Sharon L; Jones, Susan; Estok, Patricia; Ryan, Marian; Gale, Nancy; Parker, Carla

    2003-06-01

    This study used a theoretical model to determine whether an efficacy-enhancing teaching protocol was effective in improving immediate postoperative behaviors and selected short- and long-term health outcomes in women who underwent abdominal hysterectomies. The model used was the self-efficacy theory of Albert Bandura, PhD. One hundred eight patients in a 486-bed teaching hospital in the Midwest who underwent hysterectomies participated. The participation rate was 85%, and the attrition rate was 17% during the six-month study. The major finding was that participants in the efficacy-enhancing teaching group ambulated significantly longer than participants in the usual care group. This is an important finding because the most prevalent postoperative complications after hysterectomy are atelectasis, pneumonia, paralytic ileus, and deep vein thrombosis, and postoperative ambulation has been shown to decrease or prevent all of these complications. This finding could affect the overall health status of women undergoing hysterectomies.

  7. [Preoperative correction of volemic disorders in thyrotoxicosis].

    PubMed

    Lukomskiĭ, G I; Ivanova, N A; Krivenko, N G

    1976-01-01

    The investigations conducted by the authors enabled them to pinpoint further the complex of symptoms determining a phase character of volemic disturbances in thyrotoxicosis. The phases somewhat reveal the volemic substrate of thyrotoxicosis, allowing an aimed management of some stages of the preoperative preparation. The latter is conventionally divided according to Sh. Milk into three periods: initial, intermediate and final. The main aim of the preoperative correction is to normalize hydration correlations, that is likely to be gained by excreting excessive sodium and replenishment of potassium deficit.

  8. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  9. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  10. Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation before lung cancer resection: results from two randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Benzo, Roberto; Wigle, Dennis; Novotny, Paul; Wetzstein, Marnie; Nichols, Francis; Shen, Robert K; Cassivi, Steve; Deschamps, Claude

    2011-12-01

    Complete surgical resection is the most effective curative treatment for lung cancer. However, many patients with lung cancer also have severe COPD which increases their risk of postoperative complications and their likelihood of being considered "inoperable." Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been proposed as an intervention to decrease surgical morbidity but there is no established protocol and no randomized study has been published to date. We tested two preoperative PR interventions in patients undergoing lung cancer resection and with moderate-severe COPD in a randomized single blinded design. Outcomes were length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. The first study tested 4 weeks of guideline-based PR vs. usual care: that study proved to be very difficult to recruit as patients and providers were reluctant to delay surgery. Nine patients were randomized and no differences were found between arms. The second study tested ten preoperative PR sessions using a customized protocol with nonstandard components (exercise prescription based on self efficacy, inspiratory muscle training, and the practice of slow breathing) (n=10) vs. usual care (n=9). The PR arm had shorter length of hospital stay by 3 days (p=0.058), fewer prolonged chest tubes (11% vs. 63%, p=0.03) and fewer days needing a chest tube (8.8 vs. 4.3 days p=0.04) compared to the controlled arm. A ten-session preoperative PR intervention may improve post operative lung reexpansion evidenced by shorter chest tube times and decrease the length of hospital stay, a crude estimator of post operative morbidity and costs. Our results suggest the potential for short term preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation interventions in patients with moderate-severe COPD undergoing curative lung resection. 4 weeks of conventional preoperative PR seems non feasible.

  11. Impact of preoperative chronic renal failure on liver transplantation: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Peter Chi-Ho; Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative chronic renal failure (CRF) affects the rates of postoperative complications and survival after liver transplantation. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study included 2,931 recipients of liver transplantation performed between 1998 and 2012, enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of preoperative CRF. Results The overall estimated survival rate of liver transplantation recipients (LTRs) with preoperative CRF was significantly lower than that of patients without preoperative CRF (P=0.0085). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of duration of intensive care unit stay, total hospital stay, bacteremia, postoperative bleeding, and pneumonia during hospitalization. Long-term adverse effects, including cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease, were not different between patients with versus without CRF. Conclusion These findings suggest that LTRs with preoperative CRF have a higher rate of mortality. PMID:28008264

  12. Contemporary approach to preoperative preparation of patients with adrenal cortex hormones dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kalezić, Nevena; Malenković, Vesna; Zivaljević, Vladan; Sabljak, Vera; Diklić, Aleksandar; Ivan, Paunović

    2011-01-01

    Preoperative preparation of the patients with adrenal cortex dysfunction is based on the careful preoperative evaluation of the type and the severity of the disturbance. The dysfunction involving adrenal glands may be: insufficiency (severe, mild, expressed) and hyperfunction (hypercorticism and/or hyperaldosteronism). If we speak about the patients with limited adrenal reserve (Addison's disease, therapeutic glucocorticoid application etc.) they need necessary corticosteroid supplementation, during preoperative preparation, as well as, during complete perioperative period. Doses needed for the substitution are adjusted according to the severity of adrenal insufficiency and according to the extent of the planned surgical procedure. Patients with Cushing's syndrome (or other form of hypercorticism), as well as, patients with Conn's syndrome (or other forms of hyperaldosteronism), do have numerous organ dysfunctions, that are significant in preoperative preparation, anesthesia and for the outcome of the surgical treatment. Common feature for both of the above syndromes is hydroelectrolyte disbalance, with hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypertension. Disturbances related to the adrenal cortex hyperfunction must be corrected preoperatively, in order to avoid complications. When we speak about hypokalemia it must be promptly corrected even before urgent/vital surgical procedure because it may cause severe intraoperative cardiac arrhythmia.

  13. Music listening for anxiety relief in children in the preoperative period: a randomized clinical trial 1

    PubMed Central

    Franzoi, Mariana André Honorato; Goulart, Cristina Bretas; Lara, Elizabete Oliveira; Martins, Gisele

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the effects of music listening, for 15 minutes, on the preoperative anxiety levels in children undergoing elective surgery in comparison with conventional pediatric surgical care. Method: randomized controlled clinical trial pilot study with 52 children in the preoperative period, aged 3 to 12 years, undergoing elective surgery and randomly allocated in the experimental group (n = 26) and control group (n = 26). Anxiety was assessed in both groups by the application of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and measurement of the physiological variables, upon arrival and 15 minutes after the first measurement. Results: there was a statistically significant difference in preoperative anxiety between the two groups only in relation to the physiological variable, since the respiratory rate of preschool children in the experimental group reduced in the second measurement compared to the control group (p = 0.0453). The experimental group showed a statistically significant reduction in anxiety levels after 15 minutes of music listening (p = 0.0441), specifically with regard to the behavioral domains of activity, vocalization, emotional expression and apparent awakening state. Conclusion: music listening emerges as a potential nursing intervention for relief of preoperative anxiety in children undergoing surgical procedures. RBR-7mcr59. PMID:27992027

  14. Can the pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster score predict patient satisfaction following total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Rogers, B A; Alolabi, B; Carrothers, A D; Kreder, H J; Jenkinson, R J

    2015-02-01

    In this study we evaluated whether pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis scores can predict satisfaction following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Prospective data for a cohort of patients undergoing THA from two large academic centres were collected, and pre-operative and one-year post-operative WOMAC scores and a 25-point satisfaction questionnaire were obtained for 446 patients. Satisfaction scores were dichotomised into either improvement or deterioration. Scatter plots and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used to describe the association between pre-operative WOMAC and one-year post-operative WOMAC scores and patient satisfaction. Satisfaction was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis against pre-operative, post-operative and δ WOMAC scores. We found no relationship between pre-operative WOMAC scores and one-year post-operative WOMAC or satisfaction scores, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 0.16 and -0.05, respectively. The ROC analysis showed areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.54 (pre-operative WOMAC), 0.67 (post-operative WOMAC) and 0.43 (δ WOMAC), respectively, for an improvement in satisfaction. We conclude that the pre-operative WOMAC score does not predict the post-operative WOMAC score or patient satisfaction after THA, and that WOMAC scores can therefore not be used to prioritise patient care.

  15. Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

  16. Perineovulvovaginal preoperative preparation in minor gynecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, J A

    1976-09-01

    Fifty consecutive patients underwent minor elective gynecologic surgery. Most of them were from the low socioeconomic class. Twenty-five patients had their pubic, vulval and perineal hair shaved as part of the preoperative preparation. All patients underwent the same routine perineal, vulval and vaginal swabbing in the operating room. All patients were then examined for postoperative complications. Only two women (who were shaved) complained of mild lower abdominal pain 48 hours after operation, but neither had any clinical evidence of genital or urinary infection. Their symptoms disappeared with the use of analgesics. Even in developing countries where patients with poor personal hygiene are common, preoperative vulval, pubic and perineal hair shaving prior to minor gynecologic surgery is unnecessary. We suggest that this procedure should be discontinued.

  17. Anaphylactic reaction secondary to topical preoperative moxifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Michael A; Midgley, Kirsten J; Kim, Jocelyn; Ullman, Saul

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of anaphylactic shock following topical administration of moxifloxacin for endophthalmitis prophylaxis prior to cataract surgery. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) serology and IgE skin testing confirmed the anaphylactic etiology. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation was later performed with identical preoperative preparation except for the exclusion of moxifloxacin; no anaphylactic response occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an anaphylactic response to topical moxifloxacin.

  18. Preoperative intra-aortic balloon pumping in high-risk cardiac surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chooza

    2012-01-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pumping increases myocardial oxygen supply and decreases myocardial oxygen demand by inflation and deflation of the balloon. This leads to increased perfusion of the coronary arteries during diastole. This technology has been used for critically ill cardiac patients for more than 30 years. The literature suggests that preoperative use of an intra-aortic balloon pump can be effective in high-risk coronary artery bypass grafting patients. Preoperative benefits of this technology may yield positive outcomes in terms of hemodynamic effect, decreased length of stay in both the intensive care unit and the hospital, and the reduction of complications. However, the intra-aortic balloon pump must be used with a profound understanding of proper mechanism and function, monitoring, and observation for potential complications. This requires excellent critical care nursing management.

  19. Anesthetic considerations in diabetic patients. Part I: preoperative considerations of patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kadoi, Yuji

    2010-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common disease that affects people of all ages, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Diabetic patients require perioperative care more frequently than their nondiabetic counterparts. The major risk factors for diabetics undergoing surgery are the associated end-organ diseases: cardiovascular disease, autonomic neuropathy, joint collagen tissue, and immune deficiency. Physicians need to pay extra attention to preoperative and preprocedure evaluation and treatment of these diseases to ensure optimal perioperative management.

  20. Preoperative Medical Evaluation: Part 2: Pulmonary, Endocrine, Renal, and Miscellaneous Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E

    2009-01-01

    A thorough assessment of a patient's medical status is standard practice when dental care is provided. Although this is true for procedures performed under local anesthesia alone, the information gathered may be viewed somewhat differently if the dentist is planning to provide sedation or general anesthesia as an adjunct to dental treatment. This article, the second of a 2-part sequence on preoperative assessment, will address pulmonary and other noncardiovascular disorders. PMID:20020794

  1. Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation for marginal-function lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Asra; Baciewicz, Frank A; Soubani, Ayman O; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the impact of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation in lung cancer patients undergoing pulmonary resection surgery with marginal lung function. Methods Short-term outcomes of 42 patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s < 1.6 L who underwent lung resection between 01/2006 and 12/2010 were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into group A (no preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation) and group B (receiving pulmonary rehabilitation). In group B, a second set of pulmonary function tests was obtained. Results There were no significant differences in terms of sex, age, race, pathologic stage, operative procedure, or smoking years. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in group A was 1.40 ± 0.22 L and 10.28 ± 2.64 g∙dL(-1) vs. 1.39 ± 0.13 L and 10.75 ± 2.08 g∙dL(-1) in group B. Group B showed significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s from 1.39 ± 0.13 to 1.55 ± 0.06 L ( p = 0.02). Mean intensive care unit stay was 6 ± 5 days in group A vs. 9 ± 9 days in group B ( p = 0.22). Mean hospital stay was 10 ± 4 days in group A vs. 14 ± 9 days in group B ( p = 0.31). There was no significant difference in morbidity or mortality between groups. Conclusion Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation can significantly improve forced expiratory volume in 1 s in some marginal patients undergoing lung cancer resection. However, it does not improve length of stay, morbidity, or mortality.

  2. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  3. Preoperative irradiation and cystectomy for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Batata, M; Grabstald, H; Sogani, P C; Herr, H; Whitmore, W F

    1982-03-01

    Between 1971 and 1974, 101 patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center underwent planned integrated treatment for bladder cancer with 2000 rads by megavoltage delivered to the whole pelvis over five consecutive days followed by radical cystectomy within a week. The overall five-year survival rate was 39%; the hospital mortality rate was 2%. In the pelvis alone tumor recurred in 9% of the patients. These results support other studies demonstrating the efficacy of this and other regimens of preoperative irradiation and cystectomy.

  4. Association of Preoperative Biliary Drainage With Postoperative Outcome Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Povoski, Stephen P.; Karpeh, Martin S.; Conlon, Kevin C.; Blumgart, Leslie H.; Brennan, Murray F.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Summary Background Data Pancreaticoduodenectomy is accompanied by a considerable rate of postoperative complications and potential death. Controversy exists regarding the impact of preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods Two hundred forty consecutive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed between January 1994 and January 1997 were analyzed. Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined. Pearson chi square analysis or Fisher’s exact test, when appropriate, was used for univariate comparison of all variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results One hundred seventy-five patients (73%) underwent preoperative biliary instrumentation (endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical instrumentation). One hundred twenty-six patients (53%) underwent preoperative biliary drainage (endoscopic stents, percutaneous drains/stents, or surgical drainage). The overall postoperative morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 48% (114/240). Infectious complications occurred in 34% (81/240) of patients. Intraabdominal abscess occurred in 14% (33/240) of patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 5% (12/240). Preoperative biliary drainage was determined to be the only statistically significant variable associated with complications (p = 0.025), infectious complications (p = 0.014), intraabdominal abscess (p = 0.022), and postoperative death (p = 0.037). Preoperative biliary instrumentation alone was not associated with complications, infectious complications, intraabdominal abscess, or postoperative death. Conclusions Preoperative biliary drainage, but not preoperative biliary instrumentation alone, is associated with increased

  5. Revised ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management. Implications for preoperative clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guarracino, F; Baldassarri, R; Priebe, H J

    2015-02-01

    Each year, an increasing number of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery require careful perioperative management to minimize the perioperative risk. Perioperative cardiovascular complications are the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality after major non-cardiac surgery. A Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) has recently published revised Guidelines on the perioperative cardiovascular management of patients scheduled to undergo non-cardiac surgery, which represent the official position of the ESC and ESA on various aspects of perioperative cardiac care. According to the Guidelines effective perioperative cardiac management includes preoperative risk stratification based on preoperative assessment of functional capacity, type of surgery, cardiac risk factors, and cardiovascular function. The ESC/ESA Guidelines discourage indiscriminate routine preoperative cardiac testing, because it is time- and cost-consuming, resource-limiting, and does not improve perioperative outcome. They rather emphasize the importance of individualized preoperative cardiac evaluation and the cooperation between anesthesiologists and cardiologists. We summarize the relevant changes of the 2014 Guidelines as compared to the previous ones, with particular emphasis on preoperative cardiac testing.

  6. Preoperative Preparation and Anesthesia for Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preoperative preparation should improve the likelihood of successful trabeculectomy surgery. The team can reconsider the appropriateness of the proposed surgery, and steps can be taken to maximize the chance of a good outcome. For example, adjustments to anti-hypertensive or anti-coagulant medications may be made, and topical ocular medications adjusted. Choice of anesthesia technique is of particular relevance to the trabeculectomy patient. Some anesthesia techniques are more likely to have serious complications, and glaucoma patients may be at higher risk of some sight-threatening complications, because the optic nerve is already damaged and vulnerable. Posterior placement of local anesthesia (retrobulbar, peribulbar, posterior sub-Tenon’s techniques) could potentially damage the optic nerve, and thereby cause “wipe-out” of vision. Anesthesia technique may influence the likelihood of vitreous bulge and surgical difficulty. Regarding long-term control of intraocular pressure, there is no good evidence to indicate that any particular anesthesia technique is better than another. There is little high-quality evidence on this topic. The author’s preferred technique for trabeculectomy is subconjunctival-intracameral anesthesia without sedation. How to cite this article: Eke T. Preoperative Preparation and Anesthesia for Trabeculectomy. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016; 10(1):21-35. PMID:27231416

  7. The effect of preoperative smoking cessation or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on outcomes after lung cancer surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Page, Richard; Hasler, Elise

    2013-03-01

    The preferred treatment for lung cancer is surgery if the disease is considered resectable and the patient is considered surgically fit. Preoperative smoking cessation and/or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation might improve postoperative outcomes after lung cancer surgery. The objectives of this systematic review were to determine the effectiveness of (1) preoperative smoking cessation and (2) preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on peri- and postoperative outcomes in patients who undergo resection for lung cancer. We searched MEDLINE, PreMedline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cinahl, BNI, Psychinfo, Amed, Web of Science (SCI and SSCI), and Biomed Central. Original studies published in English investigating the effect of preoperative smoking cessation or preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on operative and longer-term outcomes in ≥ 50 patients who received surgery with curative intent for lung cancer were included. Of the 7 included studies that examined the effect of preoperative smoking cessation (n = 6) and preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (n = 1) on outcomes after lung cancer surgery, none were randomized controlled trials and only 1 was prospective. The studies used different smoking classifications, the baseline characteristics differed between the study groups in some of the studies, and most had small sample sizes. No formal data synthesis was therefore possible. The included studies were marked by methodological limitations. On the basis of the reported bodies of evidence, it is not possible to make any firm conclusions about the effect of preoperative smoking cessation or of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on operative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer.

  8. Incidental sinonasal findings identified during preoperative evaluation for endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Laury, Adrienne M.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; DelGaudio, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach (eTSA) to lesions of the sellar region is typically performed jointly by neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists. Occasionally, the approach is significantly altered by sinonasal disease, anatomic variants, or previous surgery. However, there are no current guidelines that describe which physical or radiological findings should prompt a change in the plan of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of sinonasal pathology or anatomic variants noted endoscopically or by imaging that altered preoperative or intraoperative management. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 355 consecutive patients who underwent combined neurosurgery–otolaryngology endoscopic sella approach from August 1, 2007 to April 1, 2011. Our practice in these patients involves preoperative otolaryngology clinical evaluation and MRI review. Intraoperative image guidance is not routinely used in uncomplicated eTSA. Results: The most common management alteration was the addition of image guidance based on anatomic variants on MRI, which occurred in 81 patients (35.0%). Eight patients (2.9%) were preoperatively treated with antibiotics and surgery was postponed secondary to acute or chronic purulent rhinosinusitis; two (0.7%) required functional endoscopic sinus surgery for medically refractory disease before eTSA. Five patients (1.8%) required anterior septoplasty intraoperatively for severe nasal septal deviation. Two patients (0.7%) had inverted papilloma and one patient had esthesioneuroblastoma identified preoperatively during rigid nasal endoscopy. Conclusion: This is one of the larger reviews of patients undergoing eTSA for sellar lesions and the only study that describes how intraoperative management may be altered by preoperative sinonasal evaluation. We found a significant incidence of sinonasal pathology and anatomic variants that altered routine operative planning; therefore, a thorough sinonasal evaluation

  9. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-05-15

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive.

  10. Predictors of preoperative anxiety in children.

    PubMed

    Wollin, S R; Plummer, J L; Owen, H; Hawkins, R M F; Materazzo, F

    2003-02-01

    This study aimed to identify factors contributing to anxiety at induction of anaesthesia in children. One hundred and twenty children aged five to twelve years and scheduled for surgery requiring general anaesthesia were included. Children were interviewed and assessed prior to surgery. Parents completed anxiety measures prior to surgery and were interviewed after the induction of anaesthesia. The level of children's anxiety was determined at the time of induction of anaesthesia by the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. Factors associated with increased levels of anxiety in the children included increased number of people in the room at induction of anaesthesia; longer waiting time between admission at the hospital and induction of anaesthesia; negative memories of previous hospital experiences; and having a mother who does not practise a religion. Suggestions for implementation of the findings and for future research are provided.

  11. Pancoast tumors: characteristics and preoperative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Leivaditis, Vasilios; Koletsis, Efstratios; Prokakis, Christos; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Hatzimichalis, Antonios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kesisis, Georgios; Siminelakis, Stavros; Madesis, Athanasios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Superior sulcus tumors (SSTs), or as otherwise known Pancoast tumors, make up a clinically unique and challenging subset of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung (NSCLC). Although the outcome of patients with this disease has traditionally been poor, recent developments have contributed to a significant improvement in prognosis of SST patients. The combination of severe and unrelenting shoulder and arm pain along the distribution of the eighth cervical and first and second thoracic nerve trunks, Horner’s syndrome (ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis) and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles comprises a clinical entity named as “Pancoast-Tobias syndrome”. Apart NSCLC, other lesions may, although less frequently, result in Pancoast syndrome. In the current review we will present the main characteristics of the disease and focus on the preoperative assessment. PMID:24672686

  12. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  13. The correlation between preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate and postoperative outcome in adult cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bilehjani, Eissa; Fakhari, Solmaz; Farzin, Haleh; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Mirinazhad, Moussa; Shadvar, Kamran; Dehghani, Abbasali; Aboalaiy, Pariasadat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past decades, it has been recommended that preoperative assessment mainly relies on history and physical examination rather than unnecessary laboratory tests. In Iranian hospitals, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) has been routinely measured in most of the patients awaiting major surgery, which has in turn exacted heavy costs on the health system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the preoperative routine measurement of ESR in such patients. Materials and methods This is a retrospective study, in which we evaluated the medical files of 620 patients. Patients older than 18 years, who had undergone elective heart surgery in our hospital in 2014, were included in the study. The data associated with demography, heart disease diagnosis, type of surgery, significant preoperative tests, delay or postponing of surgery and the reason for it, type and characteristics of the subspecialty consultation, and finally, postoperative complication and mortality rate were collected and analyzed. The patients were categorized into four groups according to ESR value: normal (<15 mm/h in females or <20 mm/h in males), moderately increased (<40 mm/h), severely increased (≥40 mm/h), and not measured. Results Of the 620 patients’ files, 402 were of males and 218 were of females. Demographic values and preoperative characteristics were similar in the four groups. A total of 105 consultations were given to 79 patients preoperatively, where only in five cases, the elevation in ESR was the main reason for consultation. In no other cases did the consultations result in new diagnoses. Overall, postoperative complication and mortality rate were the same in all four groups; in severely increased ESR group, on the other hand, the need for long periods of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays was higher than that of other groups. Conclusion It is concluded that elevated preoperative ESR does not cancel or defer the surgery, nor does it help

  14. Preoperative psychological assessment of patients seeking weight-loss surgery: identifying challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Edwards-Hampton, Shenelle A; Wedin, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative psychosocial assessment is the standard of care for patients seeking weight-loss surgery (WLS). However, the assessment procedure varies widely by surgery site. Comprehensive assessments can provide a wealth of information that assists both the patient and the treatment team, anticipate and prepare for challenges associated with extensive behavioral and lifestyle changes that are required postsurgery. In this review, we provide an overview of the purpose of the preoperative psychosocial assessment and domains to be included. Challenges commonly identified in the assessment are discussed, including maladaptive eating behaviors, psychiatric comorbidities, and alcohol use. Potential solutions and approaches to these challenges are provided. Additionally, patient populations requiring special consideration are presented to include adolescents, those with cognitive vulnerabilities, and aging adults. PMID:26604844

  15. Preoperative pain level and patient expectation predict hospital length of stay after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Halawi, Mohamad J; Vovos, Tyler J; Green, Cindy L; Wellman, Samuel S; Attarian, David E; Bolognesi, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify preoperative predictors of length of stay after primary total hip arthroplasty in a patient population reflecting current trends toward shorter hospitalization and using readily obtainable factors that do not require scoring systems. A retrospective review of 112 consecutive patients was performed. High preoperative pain level and patient expectation of discharge to extended care facilities (ECFs) were the only significant multivariable predictors of hospitalization extending beyond 2 days (P=0.001 and P<0.001 respectively). Patient expectation remained significant after adjusting for Medicare's 3-day requirement for discharge to ECFs (P<0.001). The study was adequately powered to analyze the variables in the multivariable logistic regression model, which had a concordance index of 0.857.

  16. Pre-operative respiratory evaluation and management of patients for upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Patients presenting for surgery, be it on an elective or emergency basis, do so in the hope that the anesthetic will be without risk. Yet complications which arise are not always due to anesthesia. More often, the surgical process and factors intrinsic to the patient are major determinants of outcome. Pre-operative assessment allows review of the patient and the proposed surgery, and formation of a plan of management for the pre-, intra-, and post-operative anesthetic care. This paper provides an overview of the pre-operative assessment and management of patients who are to undergo upper abdominal surgery, with the aim of minimizing their risk of post-operative pulmonary complications. In particular, factors which contribute to the development of post-operative respiratory problems are described. PMID:1814053

  17. [Preoperative and surgical protocols for better implant integration].

    PubMed

    Takács, G

    1994-01-01

    In implant placement, different bone densities require different implant types in order to achieve maximum stability. Therefore, careful preoperative planning is essential to diagnose and/or augment the bone, to select the correct size and type of implant for each individual case, and to establish the appropriate surgical protocol. This paper and presentation discuss the essentials for establishing such protocol, ie, the quality and quantity of bone, type and size of implants, surgery, progressive loading, and shifting of the mastication forces. Serious errors in planning first appear as short-term failures, and they indicate inadequacy in osseointegration in the healing phase or overloading caused by the superstructure. Less grave errors occur later as long-term failures, due to the width, depth, and density of the bone and the angulation of the implant. Appropriate components have to be used for different types of bone: Uncoated screws are the best solution for D1 and D2 types of bone; coated screws should be used in the presinus area and after nerve transpositioning. Cylindrical implants are best suited for subantral augmentation, using a narrow drill; the bone bed is progressively widened by a conic osteotome, and the technique provides a good stability. Free gingival transplant is indicated in cases with insufficient keratinized gingiva. Masticatory overloading can be avoided by reducing the occlusal table, decreasing cusp inclination, and anteriorizing the upper mastication areas.

  18. Prevention and Intervention Strategies to Alleviate Preoperative Anxiety in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kristi D.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Finley, G. Allen; Buffett-Jerrott, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Preoperative anxiety (anxiety regarding impending surgical experience) in children is a common phenomenon that has been associated with a number of negative behaviors during the surgery experience (e.g., agitation, crying, spontaneous urination, and the need for physical restraint during anesthetic induction). Preoperative anxiety has also been…

  19. Amyloid goiter: preoperative scintigraphic diagnosis using Tc-99m pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Rubinow, A.; Pehrson, J.; Skinner, M.; Cohen, A.S.

    1984-04-01

    Amyloid goiter is a rare clinical entity. The diagnosis is rarely made preoperatively because clinical and laboratory findings are nonspecific. The authors report two cases of amyloid goiter in whom the diagnosis was made preoperatively using Tc-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy.

  20. Preoperative Sleep Disruption and Postoperative Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Sands, Laura P.; Newman, Stacey; Meckler, Gabriela; Xie, Yimeng; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe preoperative and postoperative sleep disruption and its relationship to postoperative delirium. Design: Prospective cohort study with 6 time points (3 nights pre-hospitalization and 3 nights post-surgery). Setting: University medical center. Patients: The sample consisted of 50 English-speaking patients ≥ 40 years of age scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery, with an anticipated hospital stay ≥ 3 days. Interventions: None. Measurements and results: Sleep was measured before and after surgery for a total of 6 days using a wrist actigraph to quantify movement in a continuous fashion. Postoperative delirium was measured by a structured interview using the Confusion Assessment Method. Sleep variables for patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 43) postoperative delirium were compared using the unpaired Student t-tests or χ2 tests. Repeated measures analysis of variance for the 6 days was used to examine within-subject changes over time and between group differences. The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 11 years (range 43–91 years), and it was not associated with sleep variables or postoperative delirium. The incidence of postoperative delirium observed during any of the 3 postoperative days was 14%. For the 7 patients who subsequently developed postoperative delirium, wake after sleep onset (WASO) as a percentage of total sleep time was significantly higher (44% ± 22%) during the night before surgery compared to the patients who did not subsequently developed delirium (21% ± 20%, p = 0.012). This sleep disruption continued postoperatively, and to a greater extent, for the first 2 nights after surgery. Patients with WASO < 10% did not experience postoperative delirium. Self-reported sleep disturbance did not differ between patients with vs. without postoperative delirium. Conclusions: In this pilot study of adults over 40 years of age, sleep disruption was more severe before surgery in the patients who experienced postoperative

  1. New strategies for preoperative skin antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Miriam; Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Kramer, Axel; Koburger, Torsten; Assadian, Ojan; Daeschlein, Georg; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    During the past decades, encouraging progress has been made in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSI). However, as SSI still occur today, strategic prevention measures such as standardized skin antisepsis must be implemented and rigorously promoted. Recent discoveries in skin physiology necessitate the development of novel antiseptic agents and procedures in order to ameliorate their efficacy. In particular, alternate target structures in the skin need to be taken into consideration for the development of the next generation of antiseptics. Recent investigations have shown that a high number of microorganisms are located within and in the close vicinity of the hair follicles. This suggests that these structures are an important reservoir of bacterial growth and activity in human skin. To date, it has not been fully elucidated to what extent conventional liquid antiseptics sufficiently target the hair follicle-related microbial population. Modern technologies such as tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) have been tested for their potential antiseptic efficiency by reducing the bacterial load in the skin and in the hair follicles. First experiments using liposomes to deliver antiseptics into the hair follicles have been evaluated for their potential clinical application. The present review evaluates these two innovative methods for their efficacy and applicability in preoperative skin antiseptics.

  2. The Preoperative Patient With a Systolic Murmur

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Patients with undifferentiated systolic murmurs present commonly during the perioperative period. Traditional bedside assessment and auscultation has not changed significantly in almost 200 years and relies on interpreting indirect acoustic events as a means of evaluating underlying cardiac pathology. This is notoriously inaccurate, even in expert cardiology hands, since many different valvular and cardiac diseases present with a similar auditory signal. Evidence Acquisition: The data on systolic murmurs, physical examination, perioperative valvular disease in the setting of non-cardiac surgery is reviewed. Results: Significant valvular heart disease increases perioperative risk in major non-cardiac surgery and increases long term patient morbidity and mortality. We propose a more modern approach to physical examination that incorporates the use of focused echocardiography to allow direct visualization of cardiac structure and function. This improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinical assessment, allows rational planning of surgery and anaesthesia technique, risk stratification, postoperative monitoring and appropriate referral to physicians and cardiologists. Conclusions: With a thorough preoperative assessment incorporating focused echocardiography, anaesthetists are in the unique position to enhance their role as perioperative physicians and influence short and long term outcomes of their patients. PMID:26705529

  3. Preoperative optimization of cardiovascular hemodynamics improves outcome in peripheral vascular surgery. A prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Berlauk, J F; Abrams, J H; Gilmour, I J; O'Connor, S R; Knighton, D R; Cerra, F B

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that optimizing hemodynamics using pulmonary artery (PA) catheter (preoperative 'tune-up') would improve outcome in patients undergoing limb-salvage arterial surgery was tested. Eighty-nine patients were randomized to preoperative tune-up either in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) (group 1) or the preinduction room (group 2) or to control (group 3). The tune-up consisted of fluid loading, afterload reduction, and/or inotropic support to achieve predetermined endpoints. Patients with a PA catheter had significantly fewer adverse intraoperative events (p less than 0.05), less postoperative cardiac morbidity (p less than 0.05), and less early graft thrombosis (p less than 0.05) than the control group. The overall study mortality rate was 3.4%, with a mortality rate of 9.5% in the control group and 1.5% in the PA catheter groups. There were no differences in ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, or total hospital costs, although the percentage of cost from complications was higher in group 3 (p greater than 0.05). In this group of patients, preoperative cardiac assessment and optimization is associated with improved outcome. PMID:1929610

  4. [Preoperative screening and nutritional support of nutritional deficiencies].

    PubMed

    Zazzo, J-F

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies have to be considered as an independent risk factor for postoperative morbidity. Peri-operative nutritional support reduce this risk in elective abdominal surgery for cancer and cardiac surgery. Preoperative nutritional support for 7-10 days reduce postoperative complications in undernourished patients by 10% but is not operant when administered after surgery. Enteral route is as effective. Recent studies using immunonutrients conclude that a short preoperative oral intake is able to reduce complications even in well-nourished patients. Then, a preoperative nutritional screening must be routinely performed leading to a nutritional programme.

  5. Pre-operative investigations: yield and conformity to national guidelines.

    PubMed

    Juliana, H; Lim, T A; Inbasegaran, K

    2003-03-01

    Routine ordering of pre-operative investigations yields a low true positive rate and is not cost effective. In this study, case notes of 251 adults who underwent elective surgery were reviewed. Pre-operative investigations were classified as 'indicated' or 'not indicated', based on the national guidelines. Only 56% of all tests done were indicated. The overall rates of expected and unexpected abnormal values from pre-operative blood investigations were 51.1% and 34.4% respectively. This study found that selective testing based on guidelines was beneficial. However, the results also suggest that the local guidelines need to be reviewed.

  6. Donor preoperative oxygen delivery and post-extubation hypoxia impact donation after circulatory death hypoxic cholangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chirichella, Thomas J; Dunham, C Michael; Zimmerman, Michael A; Phelan, Elise M; Mandell, M Susan; Conzen, Kendra D; Kelley, Stephen E; Nydam, Trevor L; Bak, Thomas E; Kam, Igal; Wachs, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate donation after circulatory death (DCD) orthotopic liver transplant outcomes [hypoxic cholangiopathy (HC) and patient/graft survival] and donor risk-conditions. METHODS: From 2003-2013, 45 DCD donor transplants were performed. Predonation physiologic data from UNOS DonorNet included preoperative systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, pH, SpO2, PaO2, FiO2, and hemoglobin. Mean arterial blood pressure was computed from the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Donor preoperative arterial O2 content was computed as [hemoglobin (gm/dL) × 1.37 (mL O2/gm) × SpO2%) + (0.003 × PaO2)]. The amount of preoperative donor red blood cell transfusions given and vasopressor use during the intensive care unit stay were documented. Donors who were transfused ≥ 1 unit of red-cells or received ≥ 2 vasopressors in the preoperative period were categorized as the red-cell/multi-pressor group. Following withdrawal of life support, donor ischemia time was computed as the number-of-minutes from onset of diastolic blood pressure < 60 mmHg until aortic cross clamping. Donor hypoxemia time was the number-of-minutes from onset of pulse oximetry < 80% until clamping. Donor hypoxia score was (ischemia time + hypoxemia time) ÷ donor preoperative hemoglobin. RESULTS: The 1, 3, and 5 year graft and patient survival rates were 83%, 77%, 60%; and 92%, 84%, and 72%, respectively. HC occurred in 49% with 16% requiring retransplant. HC occurred in donors with increased age (33.0 ± 10.6 years vs 25.6 ± 8.4 years, P = 0.014), less preoperative multiple vasopressors or red-cell transfusion (9.5% vs 54.6%, P = 0.002), lower preoperative hemoglobin (10.7 ± 2.2 gm/dL vs 12.3 ± 2.1 gm/dL, P = 0.017), lower preoperative arterial oxygen content (14.8 ± 2.8 mL O2/100 mL blood vs 16.8 ± 3.3 mL O2/100 mL blood, P = 0.049), greater hypoxia score >2.0 (69.6% vs 25.0%, P = 0.006), and increased preoperative mean arterial pressure (92.7 ± 16.2 mmHg vs 83.8 ± 18.5 mmHg, P = 0

  7. Use of preoperative gabapentin significantly reduces postoperative opioid consumption: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Sudha; Lau, Christine SM; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Effective postoperative pain management is crucial in the care of surgical patients. Opioids, which are commonly used in managing postoperative pain, have a potential for tolerance and addiction, along with sedating side effects. Gabapentin’s use as a multimodal analgesic regimen to treat neuropathic pain has been documented as having favorable side effects. This meta-analysis examined the use of preoperative gabapentin and its impact on postoperative opioid consumption. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify randomized control trials that evaluated preoperative gabapentin on postoperative opioid consumption. The outcomes of interest were cumulative opioid consumption following the surgery and the incidence of vomiting, somnolence, and nausea. Results A total of 1,793 patients involved in 17 randomized control trials formed the final analysis for this study. Postoperative opioid consumption was reduced when using gabapentin within the initial 24 hours following surgery (standard mean difference −1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.96 to −0.73; P<0.001). There was a significant reduction in morphine, fentanyl, and tramadol consumption (P<0.05). While a significant increase in postoperative somnolence incidence was observed (relative risk 1.30, 95% CI: 1.10–1.54, P<0.05), there were no significant effects on postoperative vomiting and nausea. Conclusion The administration of preoperative gabapentin reduced the consumption of opioids during the initial 24 hours following surgery. The reduction in postoperative opioids with preoperative gabapentin increased postoperative somnolence, but no significant differences were observed in nausea and vomiting incidences. The results from this study demonstrate that gabapentin is more beneficial in mastectomy and spinal, abdominal, and thyroid surgeries. Gabapentin is an effective analgesic adjunct, and clinicians should consider its use in multimodal treatment

  8. Pre-operative visits by ITU nurses: recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, D

    1993-12-01

    Pre-operative visiting by theatre nurses is now policy in many hospitals, following an explosion of research studies outlining the benefits to the patient. However, the author could find very little available literature on pre-operative visiting by intensive therapy unit (ITU) nurses, to patients electively admitted to ITU following surgery. The purpose of this project is to explore the need for patient information, outline the aims of an ITU nurse's pre-operative visit, and discuss the timing of the proposed visit, the information to give the patient, the inclusion of the patient's family and the provision of printed literature. Finally, recommendations are made for implementing a pre-operative visiting service by ITU nurses.

  9. Preoperative patient assessment: a review of the literature and recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, N. A.; Williams, R. W.; Spencer, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aims of preoperative assessment of patients are outlined, and the role of clinical and laboratory testing is defined. Following a review of the literature, guidelines for requesting such investigations are suggested. PMID:7979066

  10. Appraisal of guidelines for pre-operative body wash.

    PubMed

    Edström, Elisabet; Westerberg, Lisa; Henricson, Maria

    The pre-operative body wash is a strategy for reducing post-operative infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its importance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of guidelines for the pre-operative body wash using the AGREE instrument--35 guidelines containing instructions for the pre-operative body wash or preparation were included. The AGREE instrument was employed to establish a quality assessment framework that facilitated a comparison of the guidelines. The results were based on the six domains of the AGREE instrument, all of which were found to have low adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to present the assessment score. The AGREE instrument is useful for evaluating the quality of clinical guidelines. The development of evidence-based guidelines must include clinical activities. Further research is required to clarify the pre-operative body wash process and how it should be performed to reduce post-operative infection.

  11. Benefits of preoperative education for adult elective surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Kruzik, Nancy

    2009-09-01

    Patient education is a major concern for perioperative nurses in an ambulatory surgery setting. It has proven difficult to develop formal preoperative teaching programs in this environment, but research has shown that preoperative education can improve patient outcomes and satisfaction with the surgical experience. Typical patient education consists of pamphlets that are given to the patient before surgery and verbal instructions from the physicians and nurses on the day of surgery. Ideally, preoperative patient education should begin in the surgeon's office, continue through preadmission testing, and be completed at admission. Having a well-designed preoperative education program enables perioperative nurses in ambulatory surgery centers to provide a thoughtful approach to perioperative teaching in a limited time. AORN J 90 (September 2009) 381-387. (c) AORN, Inc, 2009.

  12. Is the Time Necessary to Obtain Preoperative Stabilization a Predictive Index of Outcome in Neonatal Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia?

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Andrea; De Rose, Rosina; Iannella, Elisa; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Lima, Mario; Baroncini, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    Background. The study aims to verify if the time of preoperative stabilization (≤24 or >24 hours) could be predictive for the severity of clinical condition among patients affected by congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Methods. 55 of the 73 patients enrolled in the study achieved presurgical stabilization and underwent surgical correction. Respiratory and hemodynamic indexes, postnatal scores, the need for advanced respiratory support, the length of HFOV, tracheal intubation, PICU, and hospital stay were compared between patients reaching stabilization in ≤24 or >24 hours. Results. Both groups had a 100% survival rate. Neonates stabilized in ≤24 hours are more regular in the postoperative period and had an easier intensive care path; those taking >24 hours showed more complications and their care path was longer and more complex. Conclusions. The length of preoperative stabilization does not affect mortality, but is a valid parameter to identify difficulties in survivors' clinical pathway. PMID:22262976

  13. Is the time necessary to obtain preoperative stabilization a predictive index of outcome in neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia?

    PubMed

    Gentili, Andrea; De Rose, Rosina; Iannella, Elisa; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Lima, Mario; Baroncini, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    Background. The study aims to verify if the time of preoperative stabilization (≤24 or >24 hours) could be predictive for the severity of clinical condition among patients affected by congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Methods. 55 of the 73 patients enrolled in the study achieved presurgical stabilization and underwent surgical correction. Respiratory and hemodynamic indexes, postnatal scores, the need for advanced respiratory support, the length of HFOV, tracheal intubation, PICU, and hospital stay were compared between patients reaching stabilization in ≤24 or >24 hours. Results. Both groups had a 100% survival rate. Neonates stabilized in ≤24 hours are more regular in the postoperative period and had an easier intensive care path; those taking >24 hours showed more complications and their care path was longer and more complex. Conclusions. The length of preoperative stabilization does not affect mortality, but is a valid parameter to identify difficulties in survivors' clinical pathway.

  14. The role of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics in hypospadias repair

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Emilie; Duan, Kai; Brzezinski, Alex; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to determine whether the use of preoperative antibiotics is effective in reducing postoperative wound infections and urinary tract infections (UTI) in hypospadias repair. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all hypospadias repairs performed at the Montreal Children’s Hospital between March 2009 and September 2012. All types of primary hypospadias repairs and redo cases were included. Patients with no adequate follow-up or with missing records of antibiotics were excluded. Preoperative antibiotics were given in the form of cefazolin (50 mg/kg intravenously) when appropriate. Postoperative oral antibiotics were administered as decided by the pediatric urologist. Primary outcomes included postoperative wound infection and UTI. Secondary outcomes included the need for reoperation of hypospadias due to urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture and wound dehiscence. Results: In total, 157 cases of hypospadias repair were reviewed; of these 7 were excluded due to lack of follow-up. Of the remaining 150 patients, 62 received preoperative antibiotics and 88 did not. The groups were well-matched for age, hypospadias characteristics, type of repair and repair of curvature. The group that received preoperative antibiotics had a significantly higher number of stented cases (82% vs. 52% of the non-preoperative antibiotic group). Two cases of wound infection were reported (1 in the pre-operative antibiotic group and 1 in the non-preoperative antibiotic group). There was no symptomatic UTI or culture-demonstrated UTI in either group. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of primary outcomes. The complication rate was 11% (17/150 repairs) and all patients needed reoperation. This study’s important limitations include the rarity of studied end points combined with the small sample and the retrospective nature of our study. Conclusion: Our findings do not support the routine use of

  15. Preoperative Assessment of Adult Patients for Intracranial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sivanaser, Vanitha; Manninen, Pirjo

    2010-01-01

    The preoperative assessment of the patient for neurosurgical and endovascular procedures involves the understanding of the neurological disease and its systemic presentation, and the requirements of the procedure. There is a wide spectrum of different neurosurgical disorders and procedures. This article provides an overview of the preoperative evaluation of these patients with respect to general principles of neuroanesthesia, and considerations for specific intracranial and vascular neurosurgical and interventional neuroradiological procedures. PMID:20700431

  16. Evaluating the effects of preoperative fasting and fluid limitation.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Betül; Yava, Ayla; Açıkel, Cengizhan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative fasting and fluid limitation in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although traditional long-term fasting is not recommended in current preoperative guidelines, this is still a common intervention. Visual analogue scale was used to assess hunger, thirst, sleepiness, exhaustion, nausea and pain; State and Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the preoperative anxiety of 99 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean time of preoperative fasting and fluid limitation were, respectively, 14.70 ± 3.14 and 11.25 ± 3.74 h. Preoperatively, 58.60% of the patients experienced moderate anxiety. Patients fasting 12 h or longer had higher hunger, thirst, nausea and pain scores. The mean trait anxiety score of patients fasting 12 h or longer was statistically significantly higher. Receiving nothing by mouth after midnight preoperatively is a persisted intervention and results in discomfort of patients. Clinical protocols should be revised and nurses should be trained in current fasting protocols.

  17. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure.

  18. Preoperative Evaluation of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Richman, Deborah C

    2016-03-01

    There are more than 29 million people in the United States with diabetes; it is estimated that by 2050, one in 3 individuals will have the disease. At least 50% of patients with diabetes are expected to undergo surgery in their lifetime. Complications from uncontrolled diabetes can impact multiple organ systems and affect perioperative risk. In this review, the authors discuss principles in diabetes management that will assist the perioperative clinician in caring for patients with diabetes.

  19. Prophylactic Plasma Transfusion for Surgical Patients With Abnormal Preoperative Coagulation Tests: A Propensity-Adjusted Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qing; Brown, Michael J.; Clifford, Leanne; Wilson, Gregory A.; Truty, Mark J.; Stubbs, James R.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Gajic, Ognjen; Kor, Daryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perioperative hemorrhage negatively impacts patient outcomes and results in substantial health care resource consumption. Plasma transfusions are frequently administered to address abnormal preoperative coagulation tests, with the hope of mitigating bleeding complications. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between preoperative plasma transfusion and bleeding complications in patients with elevated international normalized ratios undergoing noncardiac surgery. Methods An observational comparative effectiveness research study evaluating a consecutive sample of adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery (N=14,743) with preoperative international normalized ratios ≥ 1.5 between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011. Among the patients, 1,234 (8.4%) had an international normalized ratio ≥ 1.5 and were included in this investigation. Exposure of interest was transfusion of preoperative plasma for an elevated international normalized ratio. Primary outcome was World Health Organization grade 3 bleeding in the early perioperative period. Secondary outcomes included blood loss, reoperation for bleeding, and additional patient-important outcomes including death and lengths of stay. Hypotheses were tested with univariate and propensity-matched analyses. Multiple sensitivity analyses were performed to further evaluate the robustness of study findings. Findings Of 1,234 study participants, 139 (11.3%) received a preoperative plasma transfusion. Those who received plasma had a higher rate of perioperative (52.5% vs 32.0%; P < .0001) and intraoperative (40.3% vs 24.5%; P < .0001) red blood cell transfusion, as well as an increased rate of reoperation for bleeding (11.5% vs 4.5%; P = .0005). The increased rate of perioperative red blood cell transfusion stayed in the propensity-matched analyses (OR, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.09–2.81]; P= .0210). Results from multiple sensitivity analyses were qualitatively similar. Interpretation Preoperative plasma

  20. Effect of preoperative statin therapy on early postoperative memory impairment after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sambhunath; Nanda, Sunil K.; Bisoi, Akshya K.; Wadhawan, Ashima N.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Frequent incidence of early postoperative memory impairment (POMI) after cardiac surgery remains a concern because of associated morbidity, impaired quality of life, and increased health care cost. Aim: To assess the effect of preoperative statin therapy on POMI in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study in a tertiary level hospital. Methods: Sixty patients aged 45–65 years undergoing OPCAB surgery were allocated into two groups of 30 each. Group A patients were receiving statin and Group B patients were not receiving statins. All patients underwent memory function assessment preoperatively after admission to hospital and on the 6th postoperative day using postgraduate institute memory scale. Statistical Analysis: Appropriate tests were applied with SPSS 20 to compare both groups. The value P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Multiple regression analysis was performed with confounding factors to determine the effect on memory impairment. Results: Patients in Group A showed significant postoperative deterioration in 6 of the 10 functions and in Group B showed deterioration in 9 of 10 functions tested compared to preoperative scores. Intergroup comparison detected less POMI in Group A compared to Group B and was statistically significant in 8 memory functions. Multiple regression analysis detected statin as an independent factor in preventing memory impairment. Conclusions: Preoperative statin therapy attenuates the early POMI in patients undergoing OPCAB. Future long-term studies will define the efficacy of statin on POMI. PMID:26750672

  1. Preoperative psychological testing--another form of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Ashton, David; Favretti, Franco; Segato, Gianni

    2008-10-01

    Preoperative psychological screening of bariatric surgery candidates has become routine, and a significant proportion of patients have their surgery deferred as a consequence. If psychological testing is being used as a form of preoperative triage, both patients and surgeons are entitled to know whether there is sufficient evidence to justify its use in this way. We define the argument for psychological screening as consisting of four premises (p1-p4) and a conclusion (C) as follows: (p1) A significant minority of obese patients will not be successful in losing weight following bariatric surgery-the "failure" group; (p2) A significant minority of patients will exhibit abnormal psychological profiles during preoperative testing; (p3) The majority of individuals referred to in (p2) will be found in group (p1) i.e., abnormal psychological profiles identified preoperatively predict less favorable weight loss outcomes postoperatively; (p4) Identifying patients with adverse psychological profiles preoperatively would allow either exclusion of those at high risk of failure or provide a more secure rationale for targeted pre- and postoperative support; (C) Psychological screening should be part of the routine preoperative assessment for patients undergoing obesity surgery. We reviewed the literature to find evidence to support the premises and show that (p1) can be justified but that (p2) is problematic and can only be accepted in a heavily qualified version. We find no evidence for (p3) and since (p4) and (C) are predicated on (p3), the argument clearly fails. There is no evidence to suggest that preoperative psychological screening can predict postoperative outcomes and no justification for using such testing as a means of discriminating between candidates presenting themselves for bariatric surgery.

  2. Impact of preoperative screening for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria on the incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, John J; Hicks, Jennifer L; Wallace, Stephanie E; Seftel, Allen D

    2017-01-01

    With the universal adoption of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to prostate biopsy, the current risk of post-biopsy infection (including sepsis) is <2%. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotic regimens can vary, and although fluoroquinolones have emerged as the standard of care, there is no universally agreed upon preoperative antibiotic regimen. Recently, an increase in the proportion of postoperative infections caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (as well as other Enterobacteriaceae) has led to the exploration of simple, practical, and cost-effective methods to minimize this postoperative infection risk. We performed a prospective, nonrandomized, controlled study of preoperative rectal cultures to screen for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria using ciprofloxacin-supplemented MacConkey agar culture media. To evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this test, one provider used the results of rectal swab cultures collected during the preoperative outpatient evaluation to adjust each patient’s preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis when fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria were detected, whereas two other providers continued usual preoperative care and empiric antimicrobial prophylaxis. Rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria was detected in 19/152 (12.5%) of patients. In our intention-to-treat analysis (N=268), the rate of post-biopsy sepsis was 3.6% lower in the group that was screened for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria prior to transrectal prostate biopsy. The observed risk reduction in the rectal screening group trended toward, but did not achieve, statistical significance. We suggest that preoperative screening for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria may be a useful step toward mitigating post-prostate biopsy sepsis. PMID:28280717

  3. Effect of acupressure on preoperative anxiety: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Valiee, Sina; Bassampour, Shiva Sadat; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Pouresmaeil, Zahra; Mehran, Abbas

    2012-08-01

    Preoperative anxiety, as an emotional reaction, is common among patients undergoing surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acupressure on preoperative anxiety before abdominal surgery. The 70 subjects of this clinical trial were randomly assigned into the acupressure group (n=35), which received acupressure at the true points, or the placebo group (n=35), which received acupressure at sham (false) points. Preoperative anxiety and vital signs before and after the intervention were measured in both groups. The findings demonstrated a reduction in the level of preoperative anxiety for both groups (P<.001). Furthermore, they showed a statistically significant difference between the mean of vital signs before and after the intervention in the acupressure group (P<.001) and only statistically significant results for cardiovascular (P=.016) and respiratory rates (P=.007) in the placebo group. Overall, findings revealed that acupressure at true points (third eye and Shen men) can reduce higher preoperative anxiety of patients before abdominal surgery and that it has had a more clinically beneficial effect than sham points.

  4. Validation of a virtual preoperative evaluation clinic: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zetterman, Corey V; Sweitzer, Bobbie J; Webb, Brad; Barak-Bernhagen, Mary A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2011-01-01

    Patients scheduled for surgery at the Omaha VA Medical Center were evaluated preoperatively via telemedicine. Following the examination, patients filled out a 15 item, 5 point Likert scale questionnaire regarding their opinion of preoperative evaluation in a VTC format. Evaluations were performed under the direction of nationally recognized guidelines and recommendations of experts in the field of perioperative medicine and were overseen by a staff anesthesiologist from the Omaha VA Medical Center. No significant difficulties were encountered by the patient or the evaluator regarding the quality of the audio/visual capabilities of the VTC link and its ability to facilitate preoperative evaluation. 87.5% of patients felt that virtual evaluation would save them travel time; 87.5% felt virtual evaluation could save them money; 7.3% felt uncomfortable using the VTC link; 12.2% felt the virtual evaluation took longer than expected; 70.7% preferred to be evaluated via VTC link; 21.9% were undecided; 9.7% felt they would rather be evaluated face-to-face with 26.8% undecided; 85.0% felt that teleconsultation was as good as being seen at the Omaha surgical evaluation unit; 7.5% were undecided. Our study has shown that effective preoperative evaluation can be performed using a virtual preoperative evaluation clinic; patients are receptive to the VTC format and, in the majority of cases, prefer it to face-to-face evaluation.

  5. Measuring preoperative anxiety in patients with breast cancer using the visual analog scale.

    PubMed

    Aviado-Langer, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    Preoperative anxiety is a prevalent concern with deleterious effects in patient recovery and is not routinely assessed in the preoperative screening process. When it is assessed, it may prompt an increase in the use of anesthetic agents, heightened postoperative pain, and prolonged hospitalization. Preoperative women with breast cancer face anxiety as it relates to anesthesia, surgery, and recovery. The preoperative anxiety visual analog scale may identify and quantify anxiety in this population, provide advocacy and support, and improve the preoperative screening process.

  6. Preoperational practices for steam generators and secondary-system components

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    PWR operating experience has shown that proper control of steam generator and secondary plant cleanliness during construction will prevent corrosion of critical components, minimize impurity transport to the steam generators, and minimize startup delays. This volume contains the following guidelines which address preoperational practices: Preoperational Flushing, Cleaning, and Layup of PWR Steam/Feedwater/Condensate Systems, Revision 1; and Guidelines to Minimize Contamination of PWR Steam Generators during Plant Construction, Revision 1. The guidelines provide specific recommendations and associated justifications for maintaining steam generator cleanliness during shipment, storage, and installation; and secondary plant cleanliness during construction. Recommendations for preoperational cleaning and flushing of secondary systems are also provided. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Improving patient flow in pre-operative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Cameron; Gent, Anne; Kirkland, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Annual patient attendances at a pre-operative assessment department increased by 24.8% from 5659 in 2009, to 7062 in 2012. The unit was staffed by administrative staff, nurses, and health care assistants (HCA). Medical review was accessed via on call medical staff, or notes were sent to anaesthetists for further review. With rising demand, patient waits increased. The average lead time for a patient (time from entering the department to leaving) was 79 minutes. 9.3% of patients attended within two weeks of their scheduled surgery date. 10% of patients were asked to return on a later day, as there was not sufficient capacity to undertake their assessment. There were nine routes of referral in to the department. Patients moved between different clinic rooms and the waiting area several times. Work patterns were uneven, as many attendances were from out-patient clinics which meant peak attendance times were linked to clinic times. There were substantial differences in the approaches of different nurses, making the HCA role difficult. Patients reported dissatisfaction with waits. Using a Lean quality improvement process with rapid PDSA cycles, the service changed to one in which patients were placed in a room, and remained there for the duration of their assessment. Standard work was developed for HCWs and nurses. Rooms were standardised using 5S processes, and set up improved to reduce time spent looking for supplies. A co-ordinator role was introduced using existing staff to monitor flow and to organise the required medical assessments and ECGs. Timing of booked appointments were altered to take account of clinic times. Routes in to the department were reduced from nine to one. Ten months after the work began, the average lead time had reduced to 59 minutes. The proportion of people attending within two weeks of their surgery decreased from 9.3% to 5.3%. Referrals for an anaesthetic opinion decreased from 30% to 20%, and in the month reviewed no one had to return to

  8. Preoperative risk factors in total thyroidectomy of substernal goiter

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Aldo; Di Renzo, Raffaella Maria; D’Urbano, Gauro; Bellobono, Manuela; Addetta, Vincenzo D’; Lapergola, Alfonso; Bongarzoni, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The definition of substernal goiter (SG) is based on variable criteria leading to a considerable variation in the reported incidence (from 0.2% to 45%). The peri- and postoperative complications are higher in total thyroidectomy (TT) for SG than that for cervical goiter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preoperative risk factors associated with postoperative complications. From 2002 to 2014, 142 (8.5%; 98 women and 44 men) of the 1690 patients who underwent TT had a SG. We retrospectively evaluated the following parameters: sex, age, histology, pre- and retrovascular position, recurrence, and extension beyond the carina. These parameters were then related to the postoperative complications: seroma/hematoma, transient and permanent hypocalcemia, transient and permanent laryngeal nerve palsy, and the length of surgery. The results were further compared with a control group of 120 patients operated on in the same period with TT for cervical goiter. All but two procedures were terminated via cervicotomy, where partial sternotomies were required. No perioperative mortality was observed. Results of the statistical analysis (Student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test) indicated an association between recurrence and extension beyond the carina with all postoperative complications. The group that underwent TT of SG showed a statistically significant higher risk for transient hypocalcemia (relative risk =1.767 with 95% confidence interval: 1.131–2.7605, P=0.0124, and need to treat =7.1) and a trend toward significance for transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (relative risk =6.7806 with 95% confidence interval: 0.8577–53.2898, P=0.0696, and need to treat =20.8) compared to the group that underwent TT of cervical goiter. TT is the procedure to perform in SG even if the incidence of complications is higher than for cervical goiters. The major risk factors associated with postoperative complications are recurrence and extension beyond the carina. In the

  9. Can C.T. detect labyrinthine fistulae pre-operatively?

    PubMed

    Bates, G J; O'Donoghue, G M; Anslow, P; Houlding, T

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a controlled prospective evaluation of high resolution computerized tomography in the pre-operative diagnosis of labyrinthine fistulae. Fifty consecutive patients with chronic suppurative otitis media were scanned prior to surgery, using a Siemens DRI scanner. The radiological predictions were then compared with the surgical findings. Five patients had labyrinthine erosions and these were predicted in 4 out of the 5 (80%). The one erosion that escaped radiological detection was less than 2 mm in length. The study shows that high resolution computerized tomography is a highly accurate method for demonstrating pre-operatively all but the smallest fistulae.

  10. Phase II Study of Preoperative Helical Tomotherapy With a Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, Benedikt; Tournel, Koen; Everaert, Hendrik; Hoorens, Anne; Sermeus, Alexandra; Christian, Nicolas; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The addition of concomitant chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy is considered the standard of care for patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer. The combined treatment modality increases the complete response rate and local control (LC), but has no impact on survival or the incidence of distant metastases. In addition, it is associated with considerable toxicity. As an alternative strategy, we explored prospectively, preoperative helical tomotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Methods and Materials: A total of 108 patients were treated with intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art II system. A dose of 46 Gy, in daily fractions of 2 Gy, was delivered to the mesorectum and draining lymph nodes, without concomitant chemotherapy. Patients with an anticipated circumferential resection margin (CRM) of less than 2 mm, based on magnetic resonance imaging, received a SIB to the tumor up to a total dose of 55.2 Gy. Acute and late side effects were scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: A total of 102 patients presented with cT3-4 tumors; 57 patients entered the boost group and 51 the no-boost group. One patient in the no-boost group developed a radio-hypersensitivity reaction, resulting in a complete tumor remission, a Grade 3 acute and Grade 5 late enteritis. No other Grade {>=}3 acute toxicities occurred. With a median follow-up of 32 months, Grade {>=}3 late gastrointestinal and urinary toxicity were observed in 6% and 4% of the patients, respectively. The actuarial 2-year LC, progression-free survival and overall survival were 98%, 79%, and 93%. Conclusions: Preoperative helical tomotherapy displays a favorable acute toxicity profile in patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer. A SIB can be safely administered in patients with a narrow CRM and resulted in a promising LC.

  11. Preoperative autologous blood donation in total-hip arthroplasty. A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Healy, J C; Frankforter, S A; Graves, B K; Reddy, R L; Beck, J R

    1994-04-01

    Preoperative autologous blood donation is employed with increasing frequency, particularly in patients undergoing elective orthopedic procedures. While autologous transfusion decreases the incidence of postoperative infections and other complications, the cost-effectiveness of this therapy has not been fully investigated. We constructed a decision analytic model to study the cost-effectiveness of preoperative autologous blood donation of packed red blood cells compared with allogeneic packed red blood cells in primary hip arthroplasty. We used data from 73 patients presenting at our blood center with a prescription for 2 U of autologous red blood cells prior to hip arthroplasty to establish probabilities for the number of units that would be donated. Patients were able to donate an average of 1.9 U (range, 0 to 2 U) of autologous blood. We also reviewed the charts of 56 patients who underwent primary hip arthroplasty to model the number of units given during hospitalization (1.5 U given; range, 0 to 5 U). We applied the model to a 65-year-old patient undergoing primary hip arthroplasty. Estimates for the incidence of posttransfusion hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, postoperative bacterial infection, and fatal hemolytic transfusion reaction were derived from the literature. Patient utility was measured in life-years. Costs included the cost of preoperative autologous blood donation, blood administration, and medical care costs associated with the complications of transfusion. Costs were derived from local data and the literature. Future earnings lost were not modeled. In the baseline analysis, autologous transfusion results in a net cost savings compared with allogeneic blood over a wide range of complication rates, patient ages, and transfusion requirements. The dominant factor in the analysis is the effect of postoperative bacterial infection on length of hospital stay and the resultant increase in costs. The effect of

  12. Correlation between nipple elevation and breast resection weight: How to preoperatively plan breast reduction.

    PubMed

    Moio, Mariagrazia; Schonauer, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    Breast hypertrophy is often associated with functional limitations. Beyond the aesthetic concerns, breast reduction can improve symptoms and self-esteem. In different countries, health-care system regulations have fixed the threshold for reimbursement in 500 g of predicted tissue resection for each breast. Different preoperative measurements have been proposed to predict breast-tissue weight to be removed, showing a variable correlation with post-operative evaluation. We describe a reliable, simple measurement to predict the quantity of breast reduction in grams, which can be applicable to any surgical technique. A total of 128 patients undergoing bilateral breast reduction were evaluated. The correlation between the preoperative nipple-areola complex (NAC) lift distance and the weight of removed breast tissue was tested with linear regression and Pearson's test. Other anthropometric measurements were tested as a control. The ratio between resected grams and lift distance was explored to find a multiplication coefficient to be used at preoperative planning. The mean resection weight was 686.65 g. The mean NAC-lift distance was 7.6 cm. Positive correlation between the NAC-lift distance and the weight of breast tissue removed was found (r: 0.87; p < 0.001). The mean weight of the removed breast tissue (g) per centimetre of NAC lift was 81 g/cm in the group between 6 and 12 cm and 70 g/cm in the group with >12 cm of lift distance. The NAC-lift distance is a single, objective, repeatable measure that can provide a reliable prediction of breast-tissue grams to be removed; it helps in classifying breast-reduction indications.

  13. Pre-operative simulation of periacetabular osteotomy via a three-dimensional model constructed from salt

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Kensuke; Takahira, Naonobu; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Moriya, Mitsutoshi; Takaso, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is an effective joint-preserving procedure for young adults with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Although PAO provides excellent radiographic and clinical results, it is a technically demanding procedure with a distinct learning curve that requires careful 3D planning and, above all, has a number of potential complications. We therefore developed a pre-operative simulation method for PAO via creation of a new full-scale model. Methods: The model was prepared from the patient’s Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) formatted data from computed tomography (CT), for construction and assembly using 3D printing technology. A major feature of our model is that it is constructed from salt. In contrast to conventional models, our model provides a more accurate representation, at a lower manufacturing cost, and requires a shorter production time. Furthermore, our model realized simulated operation normally with using a chisel and drill without easy breakage or fissure. We were able to easily simulate the line of osteotomy and confirm acetabular version and coverage after moving to the osteotomized fragment. Additionally, this model allowed a dynamic assessment that avoided anterior impingement following the osteotomy. Results: Our models clearly reflected the anatomical shape of the patient’s hip. Our models allowed for surgical simulation, making realistic use of the chisel and drill. Our method of pre-operative simulation for PAO allowed for the assessment of accurate osteotomy line, determination of the position of the osteotomized fragment, and prevented anterior impingement after the operation. Conclusion: Our method of pre-operative simulation might improve the safety, accuracy, and results of PAO. PMID:28186873

  14. Five Fractions of Radiation Therapy Followed by 4 Cycles of FOLFOX Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, Robert J.; Tan, Benjamin; Hunt, Steven; Olsen, Jeffrey; Birnbaum, Elisa; Fleshman, James; Gao, Feng; Hall, Lannis; Kodner, Ira; Lockhart, A. Craig; Mutch, Matthew; Naughton, Michael; Picus, Joel; Rigden, Caron; Safar, Bashar; Sorscher, Steven; Suresh, Rama; Wang-Gillam, Andrea; Parikh, Parag

    2014-03-15

    Background: Preoperative radiation therapy with 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy is a standard of care for cT3-4 rectal cancer. Studies incorporating additional cytotoxic agents demonstrate increased morbidity with little benefit. We evaluate a template that: (1) includes the benefits of preoperative radiation therapy on local response/control; (2) provides preoperative multidrug chemotherapy; and (3) avoids the morbidity of concurrent radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with cT3-4, any N, any M rectal cancer were eligible. Patients were confirmed to be candidates for pelvic surgery, provided response was sufficient. Preoperative treatment was 5 fractions radiation therapy (25 Gy to involved mesorectum, 20 Gy to elective nodes), followed by 4 cycles of FOLFOX [5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, leucovorin]. Extirpative surgery was performed 4 to 9 weeks after preoperative chemotherapy. Postoperative chemotherapy was at the discretion of the medical oncologist. The principal objectives were to achieve T stage downstaging (ypT < cT) and preoperative grade 3+ gastrointestinal morbidity equal to or better than that of historical controls. Results: 76 evaluable cases included 7 cT4 and 69 cT3; 59 (78%) cN+, and 7 cM1. Grade 3 preoperative GI morbidity occurred in 7 cases (9%) (no grade 4 or 5). Sphincter-preserving surgery was performed on 57 (75%) patients. At surgery, 53 patients (70%) had ypT0-2 residual disease, including 21 (28%) ypT0 and 19 (25%) ypT0N0 (complete response); 24 (32%) were ypN+. At 30 months, local control for all evaluable cases and freedom from disease for M0 evaluable cases were, respectively, 95% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 89%-100%) and 87% (95% CI: 76%-98%). Cases were subanalyzed by whether disease met requirements for the recently activated PROSPECT trial for intermediate-risk rectal cancer. Thirty-eight patients met PROSPECT eligibility and achieved 16 ypT0 (42%), 15 ypT0N0 (39%), and 33 ypT0-2 (87

  15. Pre-operative preparation for otologic surgery: temporal bone simulation

    PubMed Central

    Sethia, Rishabh; Wiet, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The field of temporal bone simulation (TBS) has largely focused on the development and validation of simulators as training and assessment tools. However, as technology has progressed over the years, researchers have envisioned new clinical applications for simulators extending to pre-operative surgical planning and case rehearsal. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of the art in TBS and to highlight recent advancements in the field. Due to space limitations, we will limit our discussion to computer-based virtual reality (VR) simulators. Recent findings A review of the recent literature on TBS revealed very limited application of VR simulators for pre-operative preparation. Current evidence suggests limitations in fidelity preclude successful patient-specific case rehearsal using VR simulation. Further investigation and clinical evaluation are required to validate its use outside of training and skill assessment. Summary This article provides an overview of the current use of VR simulators with emphasis on pre-operative planning. We evaluate the limitations of the technology, and discuss potential areas of improvement for the future. More studies are necessary to assess the value of VR simulation for pre-operative preparation. PMID:26339966

  16. The effect of preoperative exercise on total knee replacement outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, D D; Colwell, C W; Morris, B A; Hardwick, M E; Kozin, F

    1996-05-01

    This study compared the effects of preoperative physical therapy of general cardiovascular conditioning exercises with the routine procedure of no preoperative physical therapy on patients undergoing primary total knee replacement. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 was the control group. Group 2 participated in a physical therapy program designed to strengthen the upper and lower limbs and improve knee range of motion. Group 3 participated in a cardiovascular conditioning program, consisting of arm ergometry, cycle ergometry, aquatic exercises, and aerobic activity. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using the Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Rating, the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale, and the Quality of Well Being instrument. Both experimental groups tolerated their respective exercise protocols extremely well. All 3 groups showed significant improvement postoperatively as measured by the Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Rating, the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale and the Quality of Well Being measurement scales. However, neither type of preoperative exercise added to the degree of improvement after surgery at any of the postoperative evaluations.

  17. Preoperative digital mammography imaging in conservative mastectomy and immediate reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Hammond, Dennis; Nava, Maurizio; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Rostagno, Roman; Gercovich, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital mammography clearly distinguishes gland tissue density from the overlying non-glandular breast tissue coverage, which corresponds to the existing tissue between the skin and the Cooper’s ligaments surrounding the gland (i.e., dermis and subcutaneous fat). Preoperative digital imaging can determine the thickness of this breast tissue coverage, thus facilitating planning of the most adequate surgical techniques and reconstructive procedures for each case. Methods This study aimed to describe the results of a retrospective study of 352 digital mammograms in 176 patients with different breast volumes who underwent preoperative conservative mastectomies. The breast tissue coverage thickness and its relationship with the breast volume were evaluated. Results The breast tissue coverage thickness ranged from 0.233 to 4.423 cm, with a mean value of 1.952 cm. A comparison of tissue coverage and breast volume revealed a non-direct relationship between these factors. Conclusions Preoperative planning should not depend only on breast volume. Flap evaluations based on preoperative imaging measurements might be helpful when planning a conservative mastectomy. Accordingly, we propose a breast tissue coverage classification (BTCC). PMID:26855903

  18. Patterns of Response After Preoperative Treatment in Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Gonzalez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Javier; Hernandez-Lizoain, Jose L.; Ciervide, Raquel; Gaztanaga, Miren; San Miguel, Inigo; Arbea, Leire; Aristu, J. Javier; Chopitea, Ana; Martinez-Regueira, Fernando; Valenti, Victor; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Sola, Jesus J.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the rate of pathologic response in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer treated with preoperative chemotherapy with and without chemoradiation at our institution. Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2007 patients were retrospectively identified who received preoperative treatment for gastric cancer (cT3-4/ N+) with induction chemotherapy (Ch) or with Ch followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy in 5 weeks) (ChRT). Surgery was planned 4-6 weeks after the completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Pathologic assessment was used to investigate the patterns of pathologic response after neoadjuvant treatment. Results: Sixty-one patients were analyzed. Of 61 patients, 58 (95%) underwent surgery. The R0 resection rate was 87%. Pathologic complete response was achieved in 12% of the patients. A major pathologic response (<10% of residual tumor) was observed in 53% of patients, and T downstaging was observed in 75%. Median follow-up was 38.7 months. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was 36.5 months. The only patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factor associated with pathologic response was the use of preoperative ChRT. Patients achieving major pathologic response had a 3-year actuarial DFS rate of 63%. Conclusions: The patterns of pathologic response after preoperative ChRT suggest encouraging intervals of DFS. Such a strategy may be of interest to be explored in gastric cancer.

  19. The Role of Preoperative TIPSS to Facilitate Curative Gastric Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.A.; Vickers, J.; Callaway, M.P. Alderson, D.

    2003-08-15

    The use of TIPSS to facilitate radical curative upper gastrointestinal surgery has not been reported. We describe a case in which curative gastric resection was performed for carcinoma of the stomach after a preoperative TIPSS and embolization of a large gastric varix in a patient with portal hypertension.

  20. The Concept of Death in Preoperational Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlicht, Manny

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen preoperational retarded boys and girls were interviewed for their concepts of death. Subjects did not have realistic concepts of when they would die, or of the permanence of death, but did have knowledge of how things die. Types of replies subjects made were significantly related to subjects' cognitive level. (Author/RH)

  1. Intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma: preoperative identification and localization by parathyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Suhaili, A.R.; Lynn, J.; Lavender, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    The authors report, probably for the first time, a successful pre-operative localization of 7 mm intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma which was successfully removed by using parathyroid imaging using a dual tracer (T1-201 and Tc-99m) and subtraction technique.

  2. Effect of preoperative oral midazolam sedation on separation anxiety and emergence delirium among children undergoing dental treatment under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    El Batawi, Hisham Yehia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible effects of preoperative oral Midazolam on parental separation anxiety, emergence delirium, and post-anesthesia care unit time on children undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Methods: Randomized, prospective, double-blind study. Seventy-eight American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I children were divided into two groups of 39 each. Children of the first group were premedicated with oral Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, while children of the control group were premedicated with a placebo. Scores for parental separation, mask acceptance, postoperative emergence delirium, and time spent in the post-anesthesia care unit were compared statistically. Results: The test group showed significantly lower parental separation scores and high acceptance rate for anesthetic mask. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding emergence delirium and time spent in post-anesthesia care unit. Conclusions: Preoperative oral Midazolam could be a useful adjunct in anxiety management for children suffering dental anxiety. The drug may not reduce the incidence of postoperative emergence delirium. The suggested dose does not seem to affect the post-anesthesia care unit time. PMID:25992332

  3. Doing Pre-operative Investigations in Emergency Department; a Clinical Audit

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Muhammad Salman; Rafiq, Maria; Rafiq, Muhammad Imran; Salman, Seema Gul; Hafeez, Sania

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pre-operative investigations for emergency surgical patients differ between centers. Following established guidelines can reduce unnecessary investigation, cost of treatment and hospital stay. The present audit was carried out to evaluate the condition of doing pre-operative investigations for three common surgical emergencies compared to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines and local criteria. Methods A retrospective clinical audit of acute-appendicitis, abscess and hernia patients admitted to the emergency department was carried out over a one-year period from July 2014 to July 2015. Data of laboratory investigations, their indication, cost and duration of hospital stay was collected and compared with NICE-guidelines. Results A total of 201 patients were admitted to the emergency department during the audit period. These included 77(38.3%) cases of acute-appendicitis, 112 (55.7%) cases of abscesses, and 12 (6%) cases of hernia. Investigations not indicated by NICE-guidelines included 42 (20.9%) full blood counts, 29 (14.4%) random blood sugars, 26 (12.9%) urea tests, 4 (2%) chest x-rays, 13 (6.5%) electrocardiographs, and 58 (28.9%) urine analyses. These cost 25,675 Rupees (245.46 Dollars) in unnecessary investigation costs and 65.7 days of additional hospital stay. Conclusions Unnecessary investigations for emergency surgical patients can be reduced by following NICE-guidelines. This will reduce workload on emergency services, treatment costs and the length of hospital stay. PMID:28286827

  4. Preoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization cannot improve the long term outcome of radical therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jianyong, Lei; Jinjing, Zhong; Lunan, Yan; Jingqiang, Zhu; Wentao, Wang; Yong, Zeng; Bo, Li; Tianfu, Wen; Jiaying, Yang

    2017-02-03

    Combinations of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radical therapies (pretransplantation, resection and radiofrequency ablation) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been reported as controversial issues in recent years. A consecutive sample of 1560 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage A/B HCC who underwent solitary Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), resection or liver transplantation (LT) or adjuvant pre-operative TACE were included. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates and tumor-free survival rates were comparable between the solitary radical therapy group and TACE combined group in the whole group and in each of the subgroups (RFA, resection and LT) (P > 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, according to BCLC stage A or B, the advantages of adjuvant TACE were also not observed (P > 0.05). A Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) more than 4, multiple tumor targets, BCLC stage B, and poor histological grade were significant contributors to the overall and tumor-free survival rates. In conclusions, our results indicated that preoperative adjuvant TACE did not prolong long-term overall or tumor-free survival, but LT should nevertheless be considered the first choice for BCLC stage A or B HCC patients. Radical therapies should be performed very carefully in BCLC stage B HCC patients.

  5. Preoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization cannot improve the long term outcome of radical therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jianyong, Lei; Jinjing, Zhong; Lunan, Yan; Jingqiang, Zhu; Wentao, Wang; Yong, Zeng; Bo, Li; Tianfu, Wen; Jiaying, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Combinations of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radical therapies (pretransplantation, resection and radiofrequency ablation) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been reported as controversial issues in recent years. A consecutive sample of 1560 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage A/B HCC who underwent solitary Radiofrequency ablation (RFA), resection or liver transplantation (LT) or adjuvant pre-operative TACE were included. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates and tumor-free survival rates were comparable between the solitary radical therapy group and TACE combined group in the whole group and in each of the subgroups (RFA, resection and LT) (P > 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, according to BCLC stage A or B, the advantages of adjuvant TACE were also not observed (P > 0.05). A Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) more than 4, multiple tumor targets, BCLC stage B, and poor histological grade were significant contributors to the overall and tumor-free survival rates. In conclusions, our results indicated that preoperative adjuvant TACE did not prolong long-term overall or tumor-free survival, but LT should nevertheless be considered the first choice for BCLC stage A or B HCC patients. Radical therapies should be performed very carefully in BCLC stage B HCC patients. PMID:28155861

  6. Pre-operative laboratory testing: A prospective study on comparison and cost analysis

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Venkatesh H; Swamy, Chidananda MN

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Pre-operative investigations are performed before any surgical intervention under anaesthesia. Many are considered as routine. However, there are no clear guidelines regarding these in India. We aim to look at the relevance of the laboratory investigations ordered routinely and their cost implications compared with the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital. A total of 163 patients scheduled for elective surgical procedures were included in this study. Neither the surgeons nor anaesthesiologists involved in the case were aware of the study. The laboratory investigations of the patients who underwent surgery were noted. All values were categorised as normal or abnormal and they were assessed as indicated or unindicated based on NICE guidelines. Results: One hundred and sixty-three patients were subjected to a total of 984 tests. Forty three patients (26%) were subjected to tests as per NICE guidelines. Of the 984 tests, 515 tests were unindicated (52%). Out of the 515 unindicated tests, 7 (1.3%) were abnormal. None of these seven tests required any intervention or change of anaesthetic plan. The most common unindicated tests done were cardiac echocardiography and chest X-ray (92.5% and 93% respectively). The additional cost incurred towards unindicated tests was 63% of the total cost for the tests. Conclusion: Pre-operative laboratory investigations add to cost significantly. Patient premorbid conditions and surgical grade should guide the clinician to request for the relevant laboratory tests. PMID:27942058

  7. Preoperative cryotherapy use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Koyonos, Loukas; Owsley, Kevin; Vollmer, Emily; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Unrelieved postoperative pain may impair rehabilitation, compromise functional outcomes, and lead to patient dissatisfaction. Preemptive multimodal analgesic techniques may improve outcomes after surgery. We hypothesized that patients using preoperative cryotherapy plus a standardized postoperative treatment plan will have lower pain scores and require less pain medication compared with patients receiving a standardized postoperative treatment plan alone after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 53 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopically assisted ACLR performed by one of seven surgeons were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 received no preoperative cryotherapy and group 2 received 30 to 90 minutes of preoperative cryotherapy to the operative leg using a commercial noncompressive cryotherapy unit. Visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were recorded for the first 4 days postoperatively. Total hours of cold therapy and continuous passive motion (CPM) use and highest degree of flexion achieved were recorded as well. Group 1 consisted of 26 patients (15 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft bone patellar tendon bone [BPTB]), and group 2 consisted of 27 patients (16 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft BPTB). Group 2 patients reported less pain (average 1.3 units, p < 0.02) and used less narcotic use (average 1.7 tablets, p < 0.02) for the first 36 hours compared with group 1. No statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups with regard to demographics, hours of postoperative cryotherapy, hours of CPM use, or maximum knee flexion achieved. Complications did not occur in either group. This is the first report we are aware of showing the postoperative effects of preoperative cryotherapy. Our results support the safety and efficacy of preoperative cryotherapy in a multimodal pain regimen for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction.

  8. Impact of preoperative diagnosis on patient satisfaction following lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Charles H; Carreon, Leah Y; Bydon, Mohamad; Asher, Anthony L; Glassman, Steven D

    2017-03-24

    OBJECTIVE Patient satisfaction is a commonly used metric in the current health care environment. While factors that affect patient satisfaction following spine surgery are complex, the authors of this study hypothesized that specific diagnostic groups of patients are more likely to be satisfied after spine surgery and that this is reflected in patient-reported outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to determine if the preoperative diagnosis-disc herniation, stenosis, spondylolisthesis, adjacent segment degeneration, or mechanical disc collapse-would impact patient satisfaction following surgery. METHODS Patients enrolled in the Quality Outcomes Database, formerly known as the National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD), completed patient-reported outcome measures, including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for back pain (NRS-BP) and leg pain (NRS-LP) preoperatively and 1-year postoperatively. Patients were stratified by diagnosis and by their response to the satisfaction question: 1) surgery met my expectations; 2) I did not improve as much as I hoped, but I would undergo the same operation for the same results; 3) surgery helped, but I would not undergo the same operation for the same results; or 4) I am the same or worse as compared with before surgery. RESULTS A greater proportion of patients with primary disc herniation or spondylolisthesis reported that surgery met expectations (66% and 67%, respectively), followed by recurrent disc herniation and stenosis (59% and 60%, respectively). A smaller proportion of patients who underwent surgery for adjacent segment degeneration or mechanical disc collapse had their expectations met (48% and 41%, respectively). The percentage of patients that would undergo the same surgery again, by diagnostic group, was as follows: disc herniation 88%, recurrent disc herniation 79%, spondylolisthesis 86%, stenosis 82%, adjacent segment disease 75%, and mechanical collapse

  9. Augmenting intraoperative ultrasound with preoperative magnetic resonance planning models for percutaneous renal access

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US) is a commonly-used intraoperative imaging modality for guiding percutaneous renal access (PRA). However, the anatomy identification and target localization abilities of the US imaging are limited. This paper evaluates the feasibility and efficiency of a proposed image-guided PRA by augmenting the intraoperative US with preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) planning models. Methods First, a preoperative surgical planning approach is presented to define an optimal needle trajectory using MR volume data. Then, a MR to US registration is proposed to transfer the preoperative planning into the intraoperative context. The proposed registration makes use of orthogonal US slices to avoid local minima while reduce processing time. During the registration, a respiratory gating method is used to minimize the impact of kidney deformation. By augmenting the intraoperative US with preoperative MR models and a virtual needle, a visual guidance is provided to guarantee the correct execution of the surgical planning. The accuracy, robustness and processing time of the proposed registration were evaluated by four urologists on human data from four volunteers. Furthermore, the PRA experiments were performed by the same four urologists on a kidney phantom. The puncture accuracy in terms of the needle-target distance was measured, while the perceptual quality in using the proposed image guidance was evaluated according to custom scoring method. Results The mean registration accuracy in terms of the root mean square (RMS) target registration error (TRE) is 3.53 mm. The RMS distance from the registered feature points to their average is 0.81 mm. The mean operating time of the registration is 6'4". In the phantom evaluation, the mean needle-target distance is 2.08 mm for the left lesion and 1.85 mm for the right one. The mean duration for all phantom PRA tests was 4'26". According to the custom scoring method, the mean scores of the Intervention Improvement

  10. [The Helsinki Declaration for Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology--preoperative assessment and preparation].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dania; Byhahn, Christian; Reyher, Christian; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2013-06-01

    The Helsinki Declaration offers guidelines for the warranty and improvement of patient safety in Anaesthesiology. The assessment of elective patients and their preoperative optimization plays a key role herein. Individual risk factors and preexisting pathologies have to be identified in order to initiate specific pre- and aftercare and an appropriate monitoring. The measures need to be evidence-based, goal-oriented and efficient. Our recommendations aim at elective adult patients planned for non-cardiac and non-lung-resecting surgery and stress the importance of gathering information from patients, performing physical examinations and arranging further diagnostic customized upon these findings only in contrast to routine testing. They shall spark the formulation or improvement of center-based, interdisciplinary standards of procedure in order to fulfill our great responsibility for the perioperative care of our patients.

  11. Lateralizing language function with pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging in early proficient bilingual patients.

    PubMed

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Japardi, Kevin; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2017-03-23

    Research on bilinguals with brain lesions is complicated by high patient variability, making it difficult to find well-matched controls. We benefitted from a database of over 700 patients and conducted an analysis of pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess language dominance in 25 early, highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals, and 25 carefully matched monolingual controls. Our results showed that early bilingualism is associated with greater bilateral hemispheric involvement, and monolingualism is associated with stronger left hemisphere lateralization (p=0.009). The bilinguals showed more pronounced right hemisphere activation (p=0.008). Although language dominance values were concordant in the bilingual group, there were a few (12%) atypical cases with different lateralization patterns in L1 and L2. Finally, we found distinct areas of activity in first and second language within the language network, in addition to regions of convergence. These data underscore the need to map all languages proficiently spoken by surgical candidates.

  12. No need for preoperative antiseptics in elective outpatient plastic surgical operations: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Hormozi, A J; Davami, Babak

    2005-08-01

    The development of antisepsis in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries revolutionized health care. The time-honored technique of skin preparation is to scrub the entire operative area of the patient for 5 to 7 minutes with a germicidal detergent solution and then paint the region with an antimicrobial solution of either tincture of povidone-iodine (Betadine) or chlorhexidine. Although antiseptics result in lower colony counts on the skin, they have side effects and higher cost in relation to normal saline. The authors have prepared patients by showering the surgical site with soap and water and rinsing it with normal saline, in 905 cases of outpatient, clean-wound plastic surgery. In another 905 cases that served as the control group, the traditional method of preoperative shower and scrub with chlorhexidine or Betadine was used. In both groups, there was no incidence of wound infection.

  13. 77 FR 71804 - Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products...). The document announced a public hearing entitled ``Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin...

  14. Molecular Genetic Changes Associated With Colorectal Carcinogenesis Are Not Prognostic for Tumor Regression Following Preoperative Chemoradiation of Rectal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zauber, N. Peter Marotta, Steven P.; Berman, Errol; Grann, Alison; Rao, Maithili; Komati, Naga; Ribiero, Kezia; Bishop, D. Timothy

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemotherapy and radiation has become the standard of care for many patients with rectal cancer. The therapy may have toxicity and delays definitive surgery. It would therefore be desirable to identify those cancers that will not regress with preoperative therapy. We assessed a series of rectal cancers for the molecular changes of loss of heterozygosity of the APC and DCC genes, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability, changes that have clearly been associated with rectal carcinogenesis. Methods and Materials: Diagnostic colonoscopic biopsies from 53 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy and radiation were assayed using polymerase chain reaction techniques followed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Regression of the primary tumor was evaluated using the surgically removed specimen. Results: Twenty-three lesions (45%) were found to have a high degree of regression. None of the molecular changes were useful as indicators of regression. Conclusions: Recognized molecular changes critical for rectal carcinogenesis including APC and DCC loss of heterozygosity, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability are not useful as indicators of tumor regression following chemoradiation for rectal carcinoma.

  15. The Prognostic Importance of Patient Pre-Operative Expectations of Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Maura D.; Daltroy, Lawren H.; Fossel, Anne H.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    1998-01-01

    Examines patients (N=257) with lumbar spinal stenosis preoperatively and at six months to relate patient expectation to baseline function and pain and to determine how patient expectations and preoperative function interact to predict postoperative outcomes. Results show that patients with many preoperative expectations, particularly those with…

  16. Preoperative diagnosis of carcinoma within fibroadenoma on screening mammograms.

    PubMed

    Borecky, N; Rickard, M

    2008-02-01

    Three cases of fibroadenoma associated with carcinoma are reported. These cases were diagnosed within a screening programme as a result of suspicious mammographic findings, and the diagnosis of malignancy was confirmed preoperatively by core biopsy in all cases. The mammographic findings suggestive of carcinoma within fibroadenoma were irregularity of margins in one case and associated new suspicious pleomorphic and linear calcifications in the two other cases. The preoperative diagnosis of carcinoma within fibroadenoma was provided by ultrasound-guided core biopsy in two cases and core biopsy under stereotactic guidance in one case. Whereas asymptomatic fibroadenoma with benign imaging appearances usually does not require further investigation, fibroadenoma with atypical imaging features requires a triple test investigation.

  17. Preoperative staging of primary breast cancer. A multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Ciatto, S; Pacini, P; Azzini, V; Neri, A; Jannini, A; Gosso, P; Molino, A; Capelli, M C; di Costanzo, F; Pucciatti, M A

    1988-03-01

    This article reports on a consecutive series of 3627 breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing preoperative staging by chest x-ray (CXR), bone x-ray (BXR) or bone scintigraphy (BS), and liver ecography (LE) or liver scintigraphy (LS). The detection rate (DR) of preclinical asymptomatic distant metastases depended on the T and N category (TNM classification system), and was very low (CXR: 0.30%, BXR: 0.64%, BS: 0.90%, LE: 0.24%, LS: 0.23%). The sensitivity, determined after a 6-month follow-up, was below 0.50% for all tests. The highest value (0.48%) was recorded for BS, which also had the lowest specificity (0.95%). The entire preoperative staging policy using the studied tests seems questionable due to poor sensitivity and an extremely low DR of distant metastases.

  18. Asian Rhinoplasty: Preoperative Simulation and Planning Using Adobe Photoshop.

    PubMed

    Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    A rhinoplasty in Asians differs from a rhinoplasty performed in patients of other ethnicities. Surgeons should understand the concept of Asian beauty, the nasal anatomy of Asians, and common problems encountered while operating on the Asian nose. With this understanding, surgeons can set appropriate goals, choose proper operative procedures, and provide an outcome that satisfies patients. In this article the authors define the concept of an Asian rhinoplasty-a paradigm shift from the traditional on-top augmentation rhinoplasty to a structurally integrated augmentation rhinoplasty-and provide a step-by-step procedure for the use of Adobe Photoshop as a preoperative program to simulate the expected surgical outcome for patients and to develop a preoperative plan for surgeons.

  19. Definitive, Preoperative, and Palliative Radiation Therapy of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Rödel, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term survival in patients with esophageal cancer remains dismal despite the recent improvements in surgery, the advances in radiotherapy (RT) technology, and the refinement of systemic treatments, including the advent of targeted therapies. Although surgery constitutes the treatment of choice for early-stage disease (stage I), a multimodal approach, including preoperative or definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and perioperative chemotherapy, is commonly pursued in patients with locally advanced disease. Methods A review of the literature was performed to assess the role of RT, alone or in combination with chemotherapy, in the management of esophageal cancer. Results Evidence from large, randomized phase III trials and meta-analyses supports the application of perioperative chemotherapy alone or preoperative concurrent CRT in patients with lower esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas. Preoperative CRT but not preoperative chemotherapy alone is now routinely used in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Additionally, definitive CRT without surgery has also emerged as a valuable approach in the management of resectable esophageal SCC to avoid surgery-related morbidity and mortality, whereas salvage surgery is reserved for those with persistent disease. Furthermore, brachytherapy offers a valuable option in the palliative treatment of patients with locally advanced, unresponsive disease. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can facilitate a more accurate treatment response assessment and patient selection. Finally, the development of modern RT techniques, such as intensity-modulated and image-guided RT as well as FDG-PET-based RT planning, could further increase the therapeutic ratio of CRT. Conclusion Altogether, CRT constitutes an important tool in the treatment armamentarium for esophageal cancer. Further optimization of CRT using modern technology and imaging, targeted therapies

  20. Cervical disk arthroplasty versus ACDF for preoperative reducible kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Xinwei; Lu, Xuhua; Yang, Haisong; Chen, Deyu

    2013-07-01

    Cervical total disk arthroplasty has proven to be an effective and safe alternative for anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of cervical disk degenerative disease. However, whether and when cervical disk arthroplasty is indicated for preoperative cervical spine kyphosis is unclear. In the authors' clinical experiences, preoperative kyphosis can generally be divided into reducible and irreducible forms according to the results of dynamic flexion-extension lateral radiographs. Reducible kyphosis is mostly related to local disk prolapse, clinical symptoms, and musculature weakness, but irreducible kyphosis is always associated with significant cervical degeneration or congenital bone malformation. In this study, 32 patients with preoperative reducible kyphosis were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either single-level total cervical arthroplasty with the Discover cervical disk prosthesis (DePuy Spine, Raynham, Massachusetts) (arthroplasty group) or single-level ACDF with a polyetheretherketone cage and plate (ACDF group). No significant differences existed in clinical and radiological results at 2-year follow-up between the arthroplasty and ACDF groups. The global and functional spinal unit angles of the arthroplasty group were significantly lower than those of the ACDF group 6 months postoperatively, which was consistent with the result of the comparison in Neck Disability Index score. However, the sagittal alignment of the overall cervical spine and the treated segment and the Neck Disability Index score significantly improved after 6 months in the arthroplasty group but not in the ACDF group. Therefore, preoperative reducible kyphosis is not a contraindication for cervical total disk arthroplasty. However, neck strength-building exercises should be emphasized for the postoperative rehabilitation after cervical total disk arthroplasty.

  1. [Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of children with multifocal musculoskeletal infections].

    PubMed

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid

    2011-04-11

    We describe the case of a three-week-old female, who presented with fever and swelling of the left thigh. Initial examination revealed signs of infection in both hips, which was confirmed at surgery. However, as the child did not recover despite relevant antibiotics, a full body MRI was performed, revealing multiple abscesses, some of which had to be managed surgically. We emphasize the benefit of MRI as part of the preoperative assessment of multifocal musculoskeletal infections in children.

  2. Prognostic value of preoperative serum tumor markers in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Jun; Du, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Jian; Shu, Yong-Qian; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9, and CA50 in patients undergoing D2 resection. METHODS: We evaluated 363 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy at our hospital from January 2006 to December 2009. Blood samples were obtained from each patient within 1 wk before surgery. The cut-off values for serum CEA, CA19-9, and CA50 were 5 ng/mL, 37 U/mL, and 20 U/mL, respectively. The correlation between preoperative tumor marker levels and prognosis was studied by means of univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The preoperative serum positive rates of CEA, CA19-9 and CA50 were 24.0%, 18.9% and 24.5%, respectively. The positivity rate of serum CEA was significantly correlated with age (P < 0.001), sex (P = 0.022), tumor size (P = 0.007) and depth of invasion (P = 0.018); CA19-9 with tumor size (P = 0.042) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001); and CA50 only with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, tumor size, T category, N category, vascular or neural invasion, and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. CA19-9 had an independent prognostic significance in patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA50 are prognostic in patients with gastric cancer. Only CA19-9 is an independent prognostic factor after surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:24829865

  3. Preoperative laxity in osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideo; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Kiga, Hiroshi; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A preoperative quantitative evaluation of soft tissues is helpful for planning total knee arthroplasty, in addition to the conventional clinical examinations involved in moving the knee manually. We evaluated preoperative coronal laxity with osteoarthritis in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty by applying a force of 150 N with an arthrometer. We examined a consecutive series of 120 knees in 102 patients. The median laxity was 0° in abduction and 8° in adduction. The femorotibial angle on non-weight-bearing standard anteroposterior radiographs was 180° and correlated with both abduction (r = −0.244, p = 0.007) and adduction (r = 0.205, p = 0.025) laxity. The results of a regression analysis suggested that the femorotibial angle is helpful for estimating both laxities. Considering the many reports on how to obtain well-balanced soft tissues, stress radiographs might help to improve the preoperative planning for gaining the optimal laxity deemed appropriate by surgeons. PMID:17938923

  4. Psychologists in preoperative programmes for children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria Cristina; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to verify whether psychologists and game activities could reduce preoperative anxiety and promote compliance in paediatric patients. More specifically, we sought to evaluate whether it would be better to propose contextualized games or just distracting activities. A total of 104 children undergoing surgery were assigned to the following 4 conditions of treatment: (1) contextual games and psychological accompaniment, (2) only contextual games, (3) distracting activities, and (4) only psychological accompaniment. Observed children's anxiety was assessed using modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and compliant behaviours with modified form of Induction Compliance Checklist. Children in the first condition (complete intervention - contextual games and psychological accompaniment) were less anxious and more cooperative in the preoperative period and during the induction of anaesthesia than in the other three conditions. In particular, contextual activities (second condition) were found to be more efficient than psychological accompaniment (fourth condition), whereas the worst condition was proposing only distracting activities (third condition). In order to help young hospitalized patients in paediatric surgery structures, it is necessary to propose games that can prepare them for what will happen as well as the support of a psychologist.

  5. Preoperative Chemotherapy for Gastric Cancer: Personal Interventions and Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Beeharry, Maneesh K.; Yan, Min; Zhu, Zhenggang

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the declining incidence of gastric cancer (GC) in recent years, the mortality rate is still high. The asymptomatic nature and nonspecific clinical manifestations combined with the lack of efficient screening programs delay the diagnosis of GC. Therefore, the prevalence of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) has prompted the need for aggressive and intensive treatment options. Among the various treatment options for AGC, surgery is still the mainstay. However, the efficacy of surgery alone is not established. Results from multiple randomized controlled trials suggest that preoperative chemotherapy is promising intervention for the treatment and management of AGC. The main objective of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is to downstage or control micrometastasis in resectable tumor before surgery. On the other hand, conversion chemotherapy refers to surgical treatment aiming at R0 resection after chemotherapy for originally nonresectable or marginally resectable tumors. Nevertheless, preoperative chemoradiotherapy is considered beneficial for AGC patients. Over the last few decades, the combination of chemotherapy and targeted therapy prior to surgery demonstrated great results for the treatment of AGC. The rapid developments in genomics and proteomics have heralded the era of precision medicine. The combination of preoperative chemotherapy and precision medicine may enhance survival in AGC patients. PMID:28105420

  6. [Comparison of four protocols for preoperative preparation in cattle].

    PubMed

    Bédard, S; Desrochers, A; Fecteau, G; Higgins, R

    2001-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate 4 preoperative skin preparations, that is, more specifically, to compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) and povidone-iodine (PI), as well as 2 hair removal techniques (clipper alone or clipper followed by razor) for preoperative skin preparation in cattle. The 4 protocols resulted in a significant decrease in the number of bacterial colony-forming units (cfu). Group 4 (clipping + shaving + CG) had a significantly lower number of preoperative cfu per gel plate compared with groups 1 (clipping + PI) and 3 (clipping + shaving + PI). Skin reaction frequency was significantly higher in groups 3 and 4 (47.8% for both protocols) than in groups 1 and 2 (clipping + PI or CG) (8.7% for both). Wound infection frequency was 4.3% (4/92) and no significant difference was observed between the 4 treatment groups. The 4 protocols tested were equivalent as to efficacy and satisfactorily decreased skin microflora. Clipping alone was shown to be preferable to clipping plus shaving as a method of hair removal in cattle, with fewer skin reactions and no more wound infections.

  7. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: preoperative diagnosis and molecular alterations.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yujiro; Kanehiro, Tetsuya; Uemura, Kenichiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Morifuji, Masahiko; Sueda, Taijiro

    2003-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor which has a less favorable prognosis than common ductal cell carcinoma of the pancreas, and a definite preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is quite difficult. We herein report two cases of this rare variant. The patients were a 41-year-old man (patient 1) and a 67-year-old woman (patient 2). Patient 1 had a hypoechoic mass measuring 3 cm in the uncus of the pancreas, while patient 2 had a huge mass, measuring 8 cm, in the tail of the pancreas. Patient 2 was successfully diagnosed preoperatively as having an adenosquamous carcinoma, by cytological examination of the pure pancreatic juice obtained by endoscopic retrograde pancreatic juice aspiration. A pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed for patient 1, and a distal pancreatectomy with resection of the spleen and the left kidney was performed for patient 2. Subsequent pathological findings of these two tumors revealed adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas. K- ras point mutation, p53 overexpression, and telomerase activity in both tumor specimens were detected by the mutant allele specific amplification method, immunohistochemical staining, and telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, respectively. The two patients died of recurrent disease 5 and 4 months, respectively, after surgery. Cytological examination of pure pancreatic juice is a useful modality for the preoperative diagnosis of this tumor, and frequent molecular alterations may be associated with the poor prognosis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas.

  8. Total ankle arthroplasty with severe preoperative varus deformity.

    PubMed

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Powell, Brian D; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-04-01

    Advancements in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) over the past several decades have led to improved patient outcomes and implant survivorship. Despite these innovations, many implant manufacturers still consider a preoperative coronal plane deformity greater than 10° a relative contraindication to TAA. Without proper intraoperative alignment, these implants may experience abnormal wear and hardware failure. Correcting these deformities, often through the use of soft tissue procedures and/or osteotomies, not only increases the difficulty of a case, but also the intraoperative time and radiation exposure. The authors report a case in which a 54-year-old man with a severe right ankle varus deformity of 29° underwent successful TAA using the INBONE II Prophecy total ankle system (Wright Medical Technology, Inc, Memphis, Tennessee) and additional soft tissue reconstruction. Intraoperatively, the patient's coronal deformity was corrected to 1.8°. At 8 months postoperatively, the patient ambulated without restriction and had substantial improvement in validated patient outcome scores, specifically the Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Module and the Short Form Health Survey-12 This unique report documents the first time that this particular implant, with an exclusive preoperative computed tomography-derived patient-specific guide, has been used effectively for a severe preoperative varus deformity greater than 20° without the need for an osteotomy. Future studies should be directed toward the prospective evaluation of different total ankle implant systems and their outcomes with severe coronal plane deformity, specifically computed tomography-derived patient-specific guided implants.

  9. Clostridium difficile colonization in preoperative colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Yun; Lv, Yinxiang; Huang, Chen; Sheng, Qinsong; Zhao, Peng; Ye, Julian; Jiang, Weiqin; Liu, Lulu; Song, Xiaojun; Tong, Zhou; Chen, Wenbin; Lin, Jianjiang; Tang, Yi-Wei; Jin, Dazhi; Fang, Weijia

    2017-01-02

    The entire process of Clostridium difficile colonization to infection develops in large intestine. However, the real colonization pattern of C. difficile in preoperative colorectal cancer patients has not been studied. In this study, 33 C. difficile strains (16.1%) were isolated from stool samples of 205 preoperative colorectal cancer patients. C. difficile colonization rates in lymph node metastasis patients (22.3%) were significantly higher than lymph node negative patients (10.8%) (OR=2.314, 95%CI=1.023-5.235, P =0.025). Meanwhile, patients positive for stool occult blood had lower C. difficile colonization rates than negative patients (11.5% vs. 24.0%, OR=0.300, 95%CI=0.131-0.685, P =0.019). A total of 16 sequence types were revealed by multilocus sequence typing. Minimum spanning tree and time-space cluster analysis indicated that all C. difficile isolates were epidemiologically unrelated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole. The results suggested that the prevalence of C. difficile colonization is high in preoperative colorectal cancer patients, and the colonization is not acquired in the hospital. Since lymph node metastasis colorectal cancer patients inevitably require adjuvant chemotherapy and C. difficile infection may halt the ongoing treatment, the call for sustained monitoring of C. difficile in those patients is apparently urgent.

  10. Preoperative imaging for hepatic resection of colorectal cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Timothy L; Gian, Richard Kinh; Jarnagin, William R

    2012-03-01

    Despite recent advances in chemotherapeutic agents, the prognosis for metastatic colon cancer remains poor. Over the past two decades, hepatic metastasectomy has emerged as a promising technique for improving survival in patients with metastatic colon cancer and in some cases providing long-term cure. To maximize safety and efficacy of metastasectomy, appropriate pre-operative imaging is needed. Advancements in computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have led to improved detection of occult lesions and better definition of surgical anatomy. While CT, PET and MRI have a comparable sensitivity for detection of large liver metastases, MRI excels at detection of subcentimeter liver metastases compared to CT and FDG-PET, especially with the combination of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and hepatocyte-specific contrast agents. CT may be useful as a screening modality or in preoperative planning such as volumetric estimation of the remnant liver size or in defining preoperative arterial anatomy for hepatic artery infusion pump placement. While technologic advancements have led to unprecedented image quality and clarity, this does not replace the need for a dedicated, competent radiologist with experience in hepatic imaging.

  11. Providing Preoperative Information for Children Undergoing Surgery: A Randomized Study Testing Different Types of Educational Material to Reduce Children's Preoperative Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, S. C.; Arriaga, P.; Esteves, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery. The…

  12. Preoperative serum markers for individual patient prognosis in stage I-III colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Giessen-Jung, Clemens; Nagel, Dorothea; Glas, Maria; Spelsberg, Fritz; Lau-Werner, Ulla; Modest, Dominik Paul; Schulz, Christoph; Heinemann, Volker; Di Gioia, Dorit; Stieber, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) remains the only recommended biomarker for follow-up care of colorectal cancer (CRC), but besides CEA, several other serological parameters have been proposed as prognostic markers for CRC. The present retrospective analysis investigates a comprehensive set of serum markers with regard to cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 472 patients with colon cancer underwent surgery for curative intent between January 1988 and June 2007. Preoperative serum was analyzed for the following parameters: albumin, alkaline phosphatase (aP), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG), bilirubin, cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), CA 72-4, CEA, C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokeratin-19 soluble fragment (CYFRA 21-1), ferritin, gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), hemoglobin, haptoglobin, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum amyloid A (SAA), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. After a median follow-up period of 5.9 years, the overall 3- and 5-year CSS was 91.7 and 84.9 % and DFS rates were 82.7 % (3 years) and 77.6 % (5 years). Multivariate analyses confirmed preoperative CEA as an independent prognostic factor with regard to CSS and DFS. CA 19-9 and γGT also provided prognostic value for CSS and DFS, respectively. Younger age was negatively associated with DFS. According to UICC stage, CEA provided significant prognostic value with regard to CSS and DFS, while CA 19-9 was only prognostic for CSS. Combined analysis is able to identify patients with favorable prognosis. In addition to tumor baseline parameters, preoperative CEA could be confirmed as prognostic marker in colon cancer. CA 19-9 and γGT also provide additional prognostic value with regard to survival and recurrence in stage III and stage I disease, respectively. The combined use of CEA together with CA 19-9 and γGT improve

  13. Percutaneous vertebroplasty guided by preoperative computed tomography measurements

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhongbao; Di, Zhenhai; Mao, Xuequn; Zhang, Jian; Zou, Rong; Wang, Qingqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is now widely performed to treat painful vertebral compression fractures. Previous researches have reported numerous advantages. However, it rarely reported that how to determine the feasibility of the unilateral or bilateral approach and how to decide the puncture angle, the skin insertion site before the procedure. The aim of this study was to discuss the feasibility of PVP using unilateral pedicular approach by the three-dimensional positioning of computed tomography (CT) image. Materials and Methods: Under fluoroscopic guidance, 108 patients with 115 diseased vertebral bodies underwent PVP. The study was divided in two groups. Group A, fifty patients with 52 vertebrae received PVP without using preoperative CT measurements and puncture simulation. Group B, 58 patients with 63 vertebrae received PVP using preoperative CT measurements and puncture simulation. The skin needle entry point and puncture angle of the transverse plane and sagittal plane were determined by the software of PACS on preoperative CT image. The choice of unilateral or bilateral pedicular approach was decided based on the CT image before the procedure. PVP was carried out according to the measurement result above. The average time for a single vertebra operation, the success rate of single puncture and complications was evaluated and compared between Group A and Group B. Results: In Group A, technical success of unilateral PVP was 63.5% (33/52 vertebrae), and 92% (58/63 vertebrae) in Group B. The average time of operation in Groups A and B were (37.5 ± 5.5) and (28.5 ± 5.5) min, respectively. There was a significant difference in the time of single-vertebra operation and the success rates of unilateral PVP between Groups A and B. No serious complications developed during the followup period. Conclusions: The CT three-dimensional positioning measurement for PVP can increase the success rate of unilateral PVP. PMID:27904217

  14. The impact of focused transthoracic echocardiography in the pre-operative clinic.

    PubMed

    Canty, D J; Royse, C F; Kilpatrick, D; Bowman, L; Royse, A G

    2012-06-01

    Patients with suspected or symptomatic cardiac disease, associated with increased peri-operative risk, are often seen by anaesthetists in the pre-assessment clinic. The use of transthoracic echocardiography in this setting has not been reported. This prospective observational study investigated the effect of echocardiography on the anaesthetic management plan in 100 patients who were older than 65 years or had suspected cardiac disease. Echocardiography was performed by an anaesthetist, and was validated by a cardiologist. Overall, the anaesthetic plan was changed in 54 patients. Haemodynamically significant cardiac disease was revealed in 31 patients, resulting in a step-up of treatment in 20 patients, including: cardiology referral (four patients); altered surgical (two) and anaesthetic (four) technique; use of invasive monitoring (13); planned use of vasopressor infusion (10); and postoperative high dependency care (five). Reassuring negative findings in 69 patients led to a step-down in treatment in 34 patients: altered anaesthetic technique (six); procedure not cancelled (10); cardiology referral not made (10); use of invasive monitoring not required (seven); and high dependency care not booked (11). We conclude that focused transthoracic echocardiography in the pre-operative clinic is feasible and frequently alters management in patients with suspected cardiac disease.

  15. Preoperative fasting: current practice and areas for improvement.

    PubMed

    Falconer, R; Skouras, C; Carter, T; Greenway, L; Paisley, A M

    2014-03-01

    Preoperative fasting aims to increase patient safety by reducing the risk of adverse events during general anaesthesia. However, prolonged fasting may be associated with dehydration, hypoglycaemia and electrolyte imbalance as well as patient discomfort. We aimed to examine compliance with the current best practice guidelines in a large surgical unit and to identify areas for improvement. Adult patients undergoing elective and emergency general, orthopaedic, gynaecology and vascular surgery procedures in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh were surveyed over a 3-month period commencing November 2011. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect information on the duration of preoperative fasting and the advice administered by medical and nursing staff. 292 patients were included. Median fast from solids was 13.5 h for elective patients (IQR 11.5-16) and 17.38 h for emergency patients (IQR 13.68-28.5 h). Similarly, the median fast from fluids was 9.36 h for elective patients (IQR 5.38-12.75 h) and 12.97 h for emergency patients (IQR 8.5-16.22 h). The instructions that elective patients received contributed to prolonged fasting times. The median fast for elective patients fully compliant with fasting advice would be 10 h for solids (IQR 8.75-12 h) and 6.25 h (IQR 3.83-9.25 h) for clear fluids. Elective patients fasted for longer than recommended confirming that clinical practice is slow to change. The use of universal fasting instructions and patient choice are factors that unnecessarily prolong preoperative fasting, which however appears to be multifactorial. Service improvement by abbreviation of the observed fasting periods will rely on targeted staff education and effective clinical communication by provision of written information for both elective and emergency surgical patients. The routine use of preoperative nutritional supplements may need to be re-examined when further evidence is available.

  16. The value of preoperative functional cortical mapping using navigated TMS.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Picht, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The surgical removal of brain tumours in so-called eloquent regions is frequently associated with a high risk of causing disabling postoperative deficits. Among the preoperative techniques proposed to help neurosurgical planning and procedure, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is increasingly performed. A high level of evidence is now available in the literature regarding the anatomical and functional accuracy of this mapping technique. This article presents the principles and facts demonstrating the value of using nTMS in clinical practice to preserve motor or language functions from deleterious lesions secondary to brain tumour resection or epilepsy surgery.

  17. Inguinal endometriosis or irreducible hernia? A difficult preoperative diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, L; Settembre, A; Capasso, P; Piccolboni, D; De Rosa, N; Corcione, F

    2001-03-01

    Two cases of endometriosis infiltrating the round ligament and associated with an inguinal hernia are presented. The initial diagnosis was irreducible hernia, since this rare association often causes unusual preoperative symptoms and diagnostic problems. Diagnosis is frequently made by histologic examination. Surgery is the treatment of choice both for hernia and for endometriosis, and is locally curative. However, in a fertile woman with a painful mass in the inguinal region the possibility of endometriosis should be considered, and if suspected at inguinal exploration a laparoscopy should be made to rule out the presence of intraperitoneal endometriosis.

  18. Preoperative staging of nodal status in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berlth, Felix; Chon, Seung-Hun; Chevallay, Mickael; Jung, Minoa Karin

    2017-01-01

    An accurate preoperative staging of nodal status is crucial in gastric cancer, because it has a great impact on prognosis and therapeutic decision-making. Different staging methods have been evaluated for gastric cancer in order to predict nodal involvement. So far, no technique could meet the necessary requirements, which include a high detection rate of infiltrated lymph nodes and a low frequency of false-positive results. This article summarizes different staging methods used to assess lymph node status in patients with gastric cancer, evaluates the evidence, and proposes to establish new methods. PMID:28217758

  19. Sinonasal glomangiopericytoma treated with preoperative embolisation and endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Psoma, Elizabeth; Karkos, Petros D; Dova, Stamatia; Gavriilidis, Michail; Markou, Konstantinos; Kouskouras, Constantinos; Haritanti, Afroditi; Finitsis, Stefanos

    2016-01-01

    Sinonasal glomangiopericytoma is a benign rare tumour of pericytes that accounts for less than 0.5% of all sinonasal tumours. It is an indolent tumour with a macroscopic appearance of common inflammatory polyps. We report the case of a 55-year-old male who presented with right nasal obstruction. CT and MRI examinations demonstrated a soft-tissue mass that obstructed mainly the right nasal cavity. Biopsy revealed glomangiopericytoma. The tumour was treated with preoperative embolisation followed by complete endoscopic resection. Very few cases have been reported to be treated in this way. PMID:27994648

  20. Pre-operative templating for trauma hemiarthroplasty (Thompson's)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Robert Nicholas; Rushton, Paul R.P.; Kramer, Derek; Inman, Dominic; Partington, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgical complications may be avoided by preoperative templating in trauma hemiarthroplasty. Materials and methods Digital templates for the Stryker™ range of Thompson's prostheses were created and fifty trauma patients that had undergone cemented hemiarthroplasty were retrospectively templated by 2 blinded surgeons. Results Templating for prosthesis size was highly accurate with excellent Inter and intra-observer reproducibility. Sensitivity for identifying femoral canals too narrow for a Thompsons was 100%. Conclusions Templating is a valuable tool and should be standard practice in trauma. We have demonstrated that it is possible to generate custom templates to allow accurate templating. PMID:26566327

  1. [Preoperative tests recommendations in adult patients for ambulatory surgery].

    PubMed

    Zaballos, M; López-Álvarez, S; Argente, P; López, A

    2015-01-01

    Anesthetic assessment traditionally included a series of laboratory tests intended to detect undiagnosed diseases, and to ensure that the patient undergoes surgery following safety criteria. These tests, without a specific clinical indication, are expensive, of questionable diagnostic value and often useless. In the context of outpatient surgery, recent evidence suggests that patients of any age without significant comorbidity, ASA physical status gradei and grade ii, do not need additional preoperative tests routinely. The aim of the present recommendations is to determine the general indications in which these tests should be performed in ASA gradei and grade ii patients undergoing ambulatory surgery.

  2. Preoperative nutritional assessment and prognosis in patients with foregut tumors.

    PubMed

    Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Weston, Antonio Carlos; Lameu, Edson Braga; Cassol, Ornella Sari; Coelho, Luisa Jussara; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Malnourished patients with gastrointestinal tumours are at risk for postoperative complications and death. The aim of this study was to determine which nutritional assessment method better predicts outcome. Seventy-four patients, 45 men and 29 women; mean (SD) age of 63 (102) yr (range = 34 to 83), undergoing surgical resections for esophageal (n = 19) gastric (n = 43) and pancreatic (n = 12) tumors were preoperatively assessed by Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and by laboratory sampling. Forty-three (58%) of them were unnourished; 25 Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)-A, 34 SGA-B, and 15 SGA-C cases. Mean (SD) of dominant hand adductor pollicis muscle thickness (DAPM) was 13 (3.5) mm and mean (SD) serum albumin was 3.8 (0.5) g/dL. Mean (SD) hospital staying for patients who complicated and died was 34 (29) days and 23 (13) days for survivors (not significant); SGA-B cases were significantly associated with higher mortality (n = 12, P<0.001). Patients with a mean (SD) DAPM below 10.8 (3.7) mm died more frequently than those with a mean (SD) greater than 14 (3) mm (P < 0.001). None of the methods was significantly related to hospital stay, but receiver operating characteristic curves (95% confidence interval) for PG-SGA and DAPM thickness (0.75 and 0.74) reliably predicted mortality (P<0.001) and these methods may be used as preoperative parameter.

  3. Analgesic Effect of Preoperative Pentazocine for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Wang, Lei; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Honglan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether preoperative pentazocine can reduce intraoperative hemodynamic changes and postoperative pain. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into two groups. Group P received intravenous 0.5 mg/kg pentazocine 10 min before surgery, and Group C received normal saline as a placebo. A standardized general anesthesia was conducted in all patients. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), and visual analog scale (VAS) scores at various time points were recorded. The tramadol consumption during the study period was recorded. Results: Group P had lower VAS scores at two, four, and eight hours postoperatively compared with Group C. MBP and HR rose significantly because of pneumoperitoneum within Group C, and no significant changes were detected in MBP and HR within Group P. Tramadol doses given were statistically fewer in Group P. Conclusion: Preoperative intravenous pentazocine can decrease intraoperative hemodynamic changes and postoperative pain. PMID:28168126

  4. Preoperative versus postoperative initiation of dalteparin thromboprophylaxis in THA.

    PubMed

    Borgen, Pål O; Dahl, Ola E; Reikeras, Olav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical thromboprophylaxis in total hip arthroplasty (THA) may increase surgical site bleeding. The drug dose and timing of such therapy is therefore important. We studied two cohorts of 298 and 301 patients undergoing THA. The first group received their first dose of dalteparin sodium 5000 IU subcutaneously the evening before surgery and the second group a half dose six hours postoperatively, followed by 5000 units daily in both groups. Blood loss was reduced by 146 ml from 1230 ml to 1084 ml (p<0.001) with postoperative prophylaxis alone. The number of patients receiving blood transfusion decreased from 53% to 35% (p=0.001), and the use of transfused packed red blood cells was reduced from 1.25 to 0.83 units per patient (p=0.001). The overall rates of non-vascular complications 6 months after surgery were 12% and 11%, bleeding related events 6.0% and 4.0%, and thromboembolic related events were 2.0% and 2.3% in the preoperative and the postoperative cohorts. Two patients died in the preoperative group and one in the postoperative group due to venous and arterial thromboembolism. This study show that 2500 IU dose of dalteparin started 6 hours after surgery significantly reduced blood loss and transfusions compared to 5000 IU dalteparin injected 12 hours before surgery. Few thromboembolic events occurred, and these were equally distributed.

  5. Preoperative Uterine Artery Embolization (PUAE) Before Uterine Fibroid Myomectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Dumousset, E.; Chabrot, P.; Rabischong, B.; Mazet, N.; Nasser, S.; Darcha, C.; Garcier, J.M.; Mage, G.; Boyer, L.

    2008-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the potential of uterine artery embolization to minimize blood loss and facilitate easier removal of fibroids during subsequent myomectomy. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 patients (median age 37 years), of whom at least 15 wished to preserve their fertility. They presented with at least one fibroid (mean diameter 85.6 mm) and had undergone preoperative uterine artery embolization (PUAE) with resorbable gelatin sponge. Results. No complication or technical failure of embolization was identified. Myomectomies were performed during laparoscopy (12 cases) and laparotomy (9 cases). One hysterectomy was performed. The following were noted: easier dissection of fibroids (mean 5.6 per patient, range 1-30); mean intervention time 113 min (range 25-210 min); almost bloodless surgery, with a mean peroperative blood loss of 90 ml (range 0-806 ml); mean hemoglobin pretherapeutically 12.3 g/dl (range 5.9-15.2 g/dl) and post-therapeutically 10.3 g/dl (range 5.6-13.3 g/dl), with no blood transfusion needed. Patients were discharged on day 4 on average and the mean sick leave was 1 month. Conclusion. Preoperative embolization is associated with minimal intraoperative blood loss. It does not increase the complication rate or impair operative dissection, and improves the chances of performing conservative surgery.

  6. [Preoperative fasting 2008: medical behaviour between empiricism and science].

    PubMed

    Weiss, G; Jacob, M

    2008-09-01

    Preoperative fasting aims at minimizing the risk of pulmonary aspiration. However, perioperative safety does not directly increase with the duration of total abstinence from food and liquids. The traditional principle "nil per os from midnight on", is based on insufficient data, overinterpretation and expert opinion. In fact, the total perioperative risk of a clinically relevant regurgitation of gastric content is low. Clear liquids are not stored within the stomach for a long time and in the healthy, a fasting period of 6 h allows the total passage of solid food. Identifying those patients with an increased risk of perioperative aspiration is still difficult. In particular, the impact of pregnancy, adipositas and diabetes, trauma, smoking, opioids and renal insufficiency has not been clarified. This lack of knowledge is reflected by national and international guidelines concerning preoperative fasting, which mention the "patient at risk" without defining it exactly. Abstention from clear liquids 2 h before and of solids 6 h before induction of anesthesia, is becoming increasingly more accepted. Feeding babies with breast milk appears to be tolerated 4 h before anesthesiological procedures.

  7. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  8. Use of preoperative embolization prior to Transplant nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yeast, Carrie; Riley, Julie M.; Holyoak, Joshua; Ross, Gilbert; Weinstein, Stephen; Wakefield, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction After a failed transplant, management of a non-functional graft with pain or recurrent infections can be challenging. Transplant nephrectomy (TN) can be a morbid procedure with the potential for significant blood loss. Embolization of the renal artery alone has been proposed as a method of reducing complications from an in vivo failed kidney transplant. While this does yield less morbidity, it may not address an infected graft or refractory hematuria or rejection. We elected to begin preoperative embolization to assess if this would help decrease the blood loss and transfusion rate associated with TN. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent non-emergent TN at our institution. Patients who had functioning grafts that later failed were included in analysis. TN was performed for recurrent infections, pain or hematuria. We evaluated for blood loss (EBL) during TN, transfusion rate and length of hospital stay. Results A total of 16 patients were identified. Nine had preoperative embolization or no blood flow to the graft prior to TN. The remaining 7 did not have preoperative embolization. The shortest time from transplant to TN was 8 months and the longest 18 years with an average of 6.3 years. Average EBL for the embolized patients (ETN) was 143.9cc compared to 621.4cc in the non-embolized (NETN) group (p=0.041). Average number of units of blood transfused was 0.44 in the ETN with only 3/9 patients requiring transfusion. The NETN patients had average of 1.29 units transfused with 5/7 requiring transfusion. The length of stay was longer for the ETN (5.4 days) compared to 3.9 in the NETN. No intraoperative complications were seen in either group and only one patient had a postoperative ileus in the NETN. Conclusion Embolization prior to TN significantly decreases the EBL but does not significantly decrease transfusion rate. However, patients do require a significantly longer hospitalization with

  9. Effect of an anaesthesia information video on preoperative maternal anxiety and postoperative satisfaction in elective caesarean section: a prospective randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Eley, V A; Searles, T; Donovan, K; Walters, E

    2013-11-01

    Video-based patient information supplementing clinician interview has been shown to reduce anxiety and improve satisfaction in patients undergoing procedures. In Queensland more than 90% of caesarean sections are performed under regional anaesthesia. We aimed to assess the effect of using an information video about neuraxial blockade in patients having regional anaesthesia for elective caesarean section. Subjects were randomised to undergo usual care (Group C), or to view a video and undergo usual care (Group V). Subjects completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory preoperatively and the Maternal Satisfaction with Caesarean Section Score questionnaire postoperatively. Satisfaction with, and duration of the preoperative anaesthetic interview, were noted. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-squared tests were used in statistical analysis. One-hundred and forty three subjects were randomised and 110 completed the protocol and analysis. Group C and Group V were similar in terms demographic and anaesthesia data. There was no difference in anxiety score (41.2 versus 39.8, P=0.50), maternal satisfaction score (118.5 versus 122.7, P=0.22) or interview duration (16.3 versus 15.8 min, P=0.69) between the two groups. The use of an anaesthesia information video does not reduce preoperative anxiety or increase the duration of the anaesthetic interview. Maternal satisfaction with neuraxial blockade for elective caesarean is high and not improved by an anaesthesia information video.

  10. The pelvic support osteotomy: indications and preoperative planning

    PubMed Central

    Pafilas, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The pelvic support osteotomy is a double level femoral osteotomy with the objective of eliminating a Trendelenburg and short limb gait in young patients with severe hip joint destruction as a consequence of neonatal septic arthritis. The osteotomy has seen several changes and a brief historical overview is provided to set the evolution of the modifications of the procedure in context. We present an analysis of the preoperative assessment that will assist the surgeon to plan out the procedure. Specifically, we set out to answer the following questions: (a) Where should the first osteotomy be performed and what is the magnitude of valgus and extension correction desired at this level? (b) Where should the second osteotomy be performed and what is the magnitude of varus and derotation desired at this level? PMID:18758686

  11. Preoperative evaluation and risk factors of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gaballo, Annarita; Corbo, Giuseppe M; Valente, Salvatore; Ciappi, Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature on resectable lung cancer, pulmonary risk factors before, during and after surgery are discussed. The role of preoperative evaluation in order to determine the patient ability to withstand radical resection is considered. Spirometric indexes as forced expired volume (FEV1) and diffusing lung carbon monoxide capacity (DLCO) should be measured first. If FEV1 and DLCO are > 60% of predicted, patients are at low risk for complications and can undergo pulmonary resection. However, if FEV1 and DLCO are <60% of predicted, further evaluation with a quantitative lung scan is required. If predicted postoperative values for FEV1 and DLCO are >40%, patients can undergo lung resection, otherwise exercise testing is necessary. If the latter shows maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of > 15ml/Kg, surgery can be performed; if VO2max is <15 ml/Kg, patients are inoperable.

  12. Biochemical Diagnosis and Preoperative Imaging of GEP NETs

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Jessica E.; O’Dorisio, Thomas M.; Howe, James R.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of neoplasms that can arise in a variety of locations throughout the body and often metastasize early. A patient’s only chance for cure is surgical removal of the primary tumor and all associated metastases, although even when surgical cure is unlikely, patients can benefit from surgical debulking of their disease. A thorough preoperative workup will often require multiple clinical tests and imaging studies to locate the primary tumor, delineate the extent of the disease, and assess tumor functionality. This review will discuss the biomarkers important for the diagnosis of these unique tumors and the imaging modalities that are most helpful for surgical planning. PMID:26610781

  13. Experience And Results With Preoperatively Shaped AO Mandibular Reconstruction Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuters, Ulrich; Prein, Joachim; Muller, Werner

    1989-04-01

    As a rule continuous bony defects of the mandible after tumour resection are temporarily bridged with the AO reconstruction plate. To precontour the plate, CT-scans of the mandible at a scale of 1:1 6 mm above and parallel to the inferior margin are needed. Corresponding layers further cranial show the anatomy of the chin. Using a lateral cephalograph, the mandibular angle and the length of the plate in the ascending ramus are measured. Of the 19 preshaped reconstruction plates implanted, 11 did not need any intraoperative adjustment of shape. The other 8 plates needed only slight modifications of contour. Preoperative bending of the reconstruction plate reduces the time taken for the operation, protects the material and the plate is precisely shaped.

  14. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  15. [Hypokalemic effect of salbutamol administered intravenously in the preoperative period].

    PubMed

    Fábregas, N; Taurá, P; Castillo, J; Tomás, A; Planella, V L; Naldá, M A

    1989-01-01

    In 8 healthy patients (ASA I-II) there was analyzed the effect of salbutamol over serum levels of potassium, glucose, insulin, AMPc and GMPc. Also were determined the arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The drug was administered intravenously, as bronchodilator, during the preoperative period. There was a significant decrease in kaliemia (p less than 0.001 immediately after receiving the salbutamol infusion and p less than 0.05 at 60 min). Their plasma potassium levels dropped from 4.03 +/- 25 to 3.45 +/- 0.16 mEq.l-1. The plasma levels of glucose and insulin increased with a significance of p less than 0.001 post salbutamol perfusion. There were no changes in the plasmatic AMPc and GMPc. Heart rate increased from 67 +/- 10.8 to 80.5 +/- 13.7 (p less than 0.01) post perfusion, returning afterwards to their basal values. Arterial blood pressure was unmodified.

  16. Digital subtraction angiography for preoperative evaluation of extremity tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Paushter, D.M.; Borkowski, G.R.; Buonocore, E.; Belhobek, G.H.; Marks, K.E.

    1983-07-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the role of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the surgical planning of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Thirteen patients with primary bone and soft-tissue tumors were examined by CT and DSA. Three patients also had conventional angiography. DSA yielded surgically useful information in 10 patients, comparable to that expected from conventional angiography. DSA was most helpful in demonstrating the presence or absence of major vessel involvement by tumor when this could not be ascertained definitely on CT. Demonstration of mass extent by CT was accurate in 11 patients. Results of this study suggest that the combination of CT and DSA is useful in the preoperative evaluation of selected extremity tumors and should diminish the need for conventional angiography.

  17. Computer-aided preoperative planning in knee osteotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, E. Y.; Sim, F. H.

    1995-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that osteoarthritis (OA) is activity related and may worsen when joint contact stress becomes excessive due to overloading. Hence, joint alignment and loading are considered to be the key biomechanical determinants for OA. The initiation of pathologic changes in the knee has been described by the mechanism termed, "vicious cycle" in which joint axial malalignment creates excessive stresses to the localized joint cartilage/subchondral bone regions and the surrounding soft tissue which in turn produces more laxity and joint deformity and thus repeats the cyclic degradation mechanism. If this degenerative cycle can be broken with joint alignment surgery such as osteotomy, a procedure to realign the knee joint and thus redistribute joint forces applied to each compartment, performed properly and at the appropriate time, the osteoarthritic disease process can be decelerated and even reversed. The main goals of this paper are to emphasize the importance of accurate preoperative planning for osteotomy in order to properly correct joint alignment, and to justify the application of an existing computer program, OASIS (Osteotomy Analysis and Simulation Software) using plain radiographs to perform appropriate surgical planning. Normal subjects and knee osteotomy patients were studied to establish a database for the purpose of establishing the utility and efficacy of the presently proposed concept. We wish to rationalize knee osteotomy as a preferred and cost-effective treatment for patients with early symptoms of OA in the knee. This paper presents a new concept of preoperative planning for knee osteotomy based on the underlying etiology of the disease and biomechanical viewpoint with strong emphasis on surgical treatment rationales. The established principles in this paper can be applied to other joints of the body and will help implement preventive measures and other non-surgical means to manage patients with axial malalignment or early degenerative

  18. US in preoperative evaluation of parotid gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gerwel, Agata; Kosik, Krzysztof; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for only 3% of all tumors of the head and neck area, but as they represent a wide variety of histological types, they are a big diagnostic challenge. The cornerstone of salivary gland neoplasm treatment, both for the benign and malignant lesions, is surgery. The main goal of the therapy is not only to achieve complete surgical tumor resection, but also to preserve adjacent structures (facial nerve, parapharyngeal space structures). Ultrasonography is an examination commonly used in the preoperative diagnosis of the lesions localized within salivary glands. Very often it is the only diagnostic imaging method used in these cases. The aim of the study was to establish diagnostic value of US examination and its parameters for the assessment of parotid gland tumors. A prospective study was performed on a group of 51 patients with parotid gland neoplasms, who over a period of 3 years underwent surgery in Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Department with Craniomaxillofacial Surgery Department of Central Clinical Hospital of Ministry of Defence in Warsaw. All the included patients underwent US examination in the preoperative period. The parameters selected for the assessment were: ill-defined tumor margins, tumor vascularity and the presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes. The results of imaging examination were compared to the final diagnosis based on pathological examination of the surgical specimen. The parameters of the US examination such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the evaluation of parotid gland tumors were established based on the examination results. An analysis was performed and ill-defined parotid tumor margins turned out to be a US parameter with higher diagnostic value for differentiating benign and malignant lesions than increased tumor vascularity. The presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes with blurred echostructure on the US examination

  19. Preoperative gait characterization of patients with ankle arthrosis.

    PubMed

    Khazzam, Michael; Long, Jason T; Marks, Richard M; Harris, Gerald F

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinematic changes that occur about the foot and ankle during gait in patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD). By comparing a normal adult population with what was found in the DJD population we determined how the motion of theses groups differed, thereby characterizing how this pathology affects foot and ankle motion. A 15-camera Vicon Motion Analysis System was used in conjunction with weight bearing radiographs to obtain three-dimensional motion of the foot and ankle during ambulation. The study was comprised of 34 patients and 35 ankles diagnosed with DJD (19 men and 15 women) of the ankle and 25 patients with normal ankles (13 men and 12 women). Dynamic foot and ankle motion was analyzed using the four-segment Milwaukee Foot Model (MFM). The data from this model resulted in three-dimensional (3D) kinematic parameters in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes as well as spatial-temporal parameters. Patient health status was evaluated using the SF-36 Health Survey and American Orthopaedics Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scores. The DJD group showed significant differences (p<0.001) as compared to normals with prolonged stance time, shortened stride length, reduced cadence and a walking speed which was only 66.96% of normal. Overall, kinematic data in the DJD cohort showed significant differences (p<0.001) in all planes of motion for tibial, hindfoot and forefoot motion as compared to normals. The average preoperative AOFAS hindfoot score was 26. DJD of the ankle results in decreased range of motion during gait. This decreased range of motion may be related to several factors including bony deformity, muscle weakness, and attempts to decrease the pain associated with weight bearing. To date there has not been a study which describes the effect of this disease process on motion of the foot and ankle. These findings may prove to be useful in the pre-operative assessment of these patients.

  20. Effects of Preoperative Clarithromycin Administration in Patients with Nasal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Perić, A; Baletić, N; Milojević, M; Sotirović, J; Živić, L; Perić, AV; Vojvodić, D

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: In recent years, various investigators have shown considerable interest in the use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of preoperative long-term, low-dose clarithromycin administration in patients with nasal polyposis. Methods: Eighty nasal polyp patients (42 non-atopic and 38 atopic) were included in this prospective, non-placebo controlled investigation and randomized equally to either the combined clarithromycin-surgical or surgical group. Forty patients received 500 mg of clarithromycin daily for eight weeks, and, after evaluation, they were treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). The other 40 patients were treated only surgically. The nasal symptom scores and endoscopic scores after macrolide treatment/surgical treatment, and after six and 12 months of follow-up were evaluated. Results: After clarithromycin therapy, we found improvement in symptom scores in 25/40, and improvement in endoscopic scores in 19/40 patients. We found no significant difference in nasal symptom score between allergic and non-allergic patients regarding the outcome to macrolide (p = 0.352) or surgical treatment (p = 0.396). When we compared differences between endoscopic scores at the time points of 12 months and six months postoperatively (ESt12 minus ESt6), we found statistically lower differences in the clarithromycin-surgery group than in the surgery group (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Preoperative clarithromycin administration postponed nasal polyp relapse after FESS. Allergies have no influence on the clinical efficacy of clarithromycin therapy and on the efficacy of FESS. PMID:25867579

  1. The impact of preoperative skin disinfection on preventing intraoperative wound contamination.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, R A; Skolnick, D; Lerer, T; Poirot, A; Graham, J; Krisuinas, E; Lyons, R

    1988-03-01

    The efficacy of total body showering and incision site scrub with disinfectant agents was evaluated in a randomized, prospective study of 575 patients undergoing selected surgical procedures. Patients who showered twice with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate had lower mean colony counts of skin bacteria at the surgical incision site in the operating room prior to the final scrub than patients who showered twice with povidone-iodine solution or medicated bar soap. Patients in the chlorhexidine group had no growth on 43% of the incision site skin cultures compared with 16% in the povidone-iodine group and 6% in the soap and water group. Patients who showered and who were scrubbed with chlorhexidine also had lower rates of intraoperative wound contamination. Bacteria were recovered from the wounds of 4% of patients using this regimen compared with 9% for patients who used povidone-iodine and 15% for patients who showered with medicated soap and water and were scrubbed with povidone-iodine. We noted no difference in surgery-specific infection rates among patients in the three treatment groups; however, our sample sizes were too small to evaluate this outcome parameter adequately. These data suggest that preoperative showering and scrubbing with chlorhexidine is an effective regimen to reduce extrinsic intraoperative contamination of the surgical wound from skin bacteria. The efficacy of this regimen to prevent postoperative wound infection needs to be evaluated in a well-designed, carefully controlled prospective trial with adequate numbers of patients to achieve statistically valid conclusions.

  2. Is the Preoperative Administration of Amiodarone or Metoprolol More Effective in Reducing Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Onk, Oruc Alper; Erkut, Bilgehan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the influence of preoperative administration of amiodarone and metoprolol in preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The study comprised 251 patients who underwent CABG surgery at our hospital between January 2012 and May 2014. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: amiodarone therapy group (n = 122 patients) and metoprolol therapy group (n = 129 patients). In the amiodarone group, the patients received amiodarone tablet orally 1 week before coronary bypass surgery and during the postoperative period. In the metoprolol group, the patients received metoprolol tablet orally 1 week before surgery and during the postoperative period. The AF development rate was retrospectively evaluated between the first 3 days and 4 weeks after surgery. AF developed in 14 patients in the amiodarone group and 16 patients in the metoprolol group 4 weeks after the operation (P = 0.612). No significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of intensive care unit and hospital stay. Furthermore, hospital charges were similar in both groups (P = 0.741). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed age, left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial diameter, and aortic cross-clamping time to be predictors for postoperative AF. This study demonstrates that amiodarone and metoprolol have similar effects in prevention of AF after cardiac surgery. However, larger-scale studies need to be conducted to substantiate these findings. PMID:26469896

  3. Incarcerated femoral hernia containing the right uterine tube. A pre-operative diagnosis is possible.

    PubMed

    Engin, Omer; Cicek, Ebru; Oner, Soner Recai; Yildirim, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    The incarcerated femoral hernia containing the right uterine tube is very rare to see. The case report is important to accumulate knowledge of very rare cases. The diagnosis of the case was established pre-operatively with abdominal computerized tomography (CT) On CT examination, the mass in the hernia sac was not connected with the intestines and a tubal structure on the right side of the uterus was shown to extend out of the abdomen. In the operation, the right uterine tube(RUT) was reduced into the abdomen after its blood supply was shown to be normal. A hernia repair was performed. Sometimes in obese patients, incarcerated femoral or inguinal hernias may not been noted. Ultrasonography, CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used frequently to diagnose abdominal wall hernias. The organs in the incarcerated sac must be examined carefully and the viability must be checked. The surgeon must decide whether or not to resect the organs. In our case, strangulation was not found and polypropylene mesh was not used for hernia repair due to a fear of infection of the prosthesis. Incarceration of the uterine tube in the sac is traumatic and this condition may lead to infection. Such conditions may lead to ectopic pregnancy. The patient must be informed about ectopic pregnancy due to a previous incarceration of the tube because ectopic pregnancy may be fatal.

  4. [Case in which transesophageal echocardiography after induction of anaesthesia was useful for reevaluation of preoperative diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ueno, Megumi; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Nagashima, Michio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Takahata, Osamu; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    A woman in her 70's had undergone two valve replacements (mitral valve and aortic valve). A transendothelial chest wall echocardiogram (TTE) showed that a flap lobe of a mitral mechanical valve had fixed the valve in a closed state, and it was diagnosed as stuck leaflet of a bileaflet prosthesis in the mitral position. She was scheduled for emergency surgery for mitral valve replacement. After induction of anaesthesia, a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe was inserted. Observation of two-dimensional images showed that the bileaflet mechanical valve in the mitral position was functioning properly. Pulsed wave Doppler measurements showed that maximum blood flow rate, pressure-half-time, maximum gradient and average gradient were 1.5 m x sec(-1), 64 ms, 9.0 mmHg and 3.5 mmHg, respectively, and there were no findings suggesting mitral stenosis. TEE showed that there was no stuck leaflet of the bileaflet prosthesis in the mitral position, and the operation was called off. The patient was followed up in the intensive care unit. In this case, TEE was useful for reevaluation of the preoperative diagnosis and for reevaluation of indication for surgery.

  5. Preoperative distraction in children: hand-held videogames vs clown therapy.

    PubMed

    Messina, M; Molinaro, F; Meucci, D; Angotti, R; Giuntini, L; Cerchia, E; Bulotta, A L; Brandigi, E

    2014-12-30

    Anxiety in children undergoing surgery is characterized by feelings of tension, apprehension, nervousness and fear which may manifest differently. Postoperative behavioural changes such as nocturnal enuresis, feeding disorders, apathy, and sleep disturbances may stem from postoperative anxiety. Some Authors pointed out that over 60% of children undergoing surgery are prone to developing behavioural alterations 2 weeks after surgery. Variables such as age, temperament and anxiety both in children and parents are considered predictors of such changes.1 Studies were published describing how psycho-behavioural interventions based on play, learning and entertainment in preparing children for surgery, may reduce preoperative anxiety. Clown-therapy is applied in the most important paediatric facilities and has proved to diminish children's emotional distress and sufferance, as well as consumption of both analgesics and sedatives and to facilitate the achievement of therapeutic goals. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of clown-therapy during the child's hospital stay, with a view to optimizing treatment and care, preventing behavioural alterations and enhancing the child's overall life quality.

  6. Evaluation of Stress Intensity and Anxiety Level in Preoperative Period of Cardiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosiek, Anna; Kornatowski, Tomasz; Rosiek-Kryszewska, Aleksandra; Leksowski, Łukasz; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The stress related to patient's stay in a hospital increases when it is necessary to perform a surgery. Therefore, the study of the phenomenon of stress intensity in hospitalized patients has become an important issue for public health. Material and Method. The study was conducted in University Hospital No. 1 in the cardiosurgery clinic. The study involved 58 patients who were admitted as planned to the hospital. The study used a standardized questionnaire measuring intensity of the stress and also deepened interviews with patients about stress and anxiety felt before the surgery. Results. The greater the patient's anxiety resulting from his state of health, the greater the intensity of stress in the preoperative period. This relationship is linear. The results of the study also made it possible to see intrapersonal factors (pain, illness, and suffering) and extrapersonal factors (anesthesia, surgery, and complications after surgery), which are causes of anxiety before surgery. Conclusion. The research showed high (negative) results of anxiety and stress associated with the disease, surgery, and complications after cardiac surgery. Active involvement in hospitalization elements, such as patient education before surgery, psychological support, and medical care organization taking into account patient's preferences, reduces the impact of stressors. PMID:27042655

  7. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity: pre-operative assessment, surgical techniques and post-operative monitoring.

    PubMed

    Breznikar, Brane; Dinevski, D

    2009-01-01

    This observational clinical analysis included 246 patients who underwent surgery for adjustable gastric banding (AGB), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), or gastric bypass (GBP) between May 2005 and December 2008. The most frequent surgical procedure was for AGB (73.2% of patients). A thorough psychological evaluation of the patients was carried out, and pre- and post-operative psychological and dietary support was offered. A total of 111/120 (92.5%) AGB patients, 21/30 (70.0%) LSG patients and 8/36 (22.2%) GBP patients have been monitored for at least 1 year, and their mean weight losses (percentage excess weight loss) were 24.7 kg (52.4%), 46.0 kg (57.9%) and 40.5 kg (77.9%), respectively. The AGB procedure was associated with the fewest complications but is not appropriate for all patients. Good pre-operative psychological evaluation has been shown to be necessary for successful outcomes and, in the super-obese, we prefer to use LSG. Surgeons should learn the skills needed to perform laparoscopic Roux-en-Y GBP as it is likely to become the standard-of-care for the surgical treatment of obesity. The best outcomes following bariatric surgery are achieved with a multidisciplinary approach, including participation in a support group guided by a psychologist.

  8. The use of Sentinel satellite data in the MACC-II Copernicus pre-operational atmosphere service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, Richard; Flemming, Johannes; Benedetti, Angela; Inness, Antje; Massart, Sebastien; Parrington, Mark; Peuch, Vincent-Henri

    2014-05-01

    The Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC-II) project is the current pre-operational atmosphere service of the European Copernicus programme. MACC-II provides data records on atmospheric composition for recent years, data for monitoring present conditions and forecasts of the distribution of key constituents for a few days ahead. MACC-II combines state-of-the-art atmospheric modelling with Earth observation data to provide information services covering European Air Quality, Global Atmospheric Composition, Climate, and UV and Solar Energy. MACC-II uses a wide array of satellite and in-situ data observing both meteorological and atmospheric composition variables to provide a best estimate of the current state of the atmosphere on a daily basis. These analyses are then used as initial conditions for 5-day global forecasts of atmospheric composition and 4-day European air quality forecasts. This presentation will provide an overview of the MACC-II pre-operational monitoring/forecasting system focusing on the use of current and future satellite data. The Sentinel missions will provide crucial new information on atmospheric composition, both for operational and research purposes, and we will show how MACC-II is preparing for these new observations and how MACC-II can provide important feedback about the data quality through careful data monitoring in the comprehensive data assimilation system. The latter information will be very beneficial for the scientific community to make more optimal use of the Sentinel data.

  9. The Effect of Structured Preadmission Preoperative Teaching on Patient Outcomes After Abdominal Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    booklet: Information About Your Admission Day Surgery ............. 86 * B. Preoperative patient education program ....... 96 C. Nomograms for inspiratory...been established in most hospitals so that patient education may be viewed as a cost to the hospital (Cook, 1985; Devine & Cook, 1983). Surgical...Impediments mean that most patients have inadequate preoperative education. Patient education and psychological support are integral components of nursing

  10. Routine preoperative insertion of IABP in high-risk off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Hunaid A; Briffa, Norman P

    2005-01-01

    The beneficial effects of intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) in coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass have been reported. However, whether preoperative insertion of IABP in high-risk off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) has any beneficial effects remains to be established. We report our experience of preoperative insertion of IABP in OPCAB.

  11. Bari-Active: A randomized controlled trial of a preoperative intervention to increase physical activity in bariatric surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Thomas, J. Graham; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Unick, Jessica L.; Jakicic, John M.; Pohl, Dieter; Ryder, Beth A.; Roye, G. Dean; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Habitual physical activity (PA) may help to optimize bariatric surgery outcomes; however objective PA measures show that most patients have low PA preoperatively and make only modest PA changes postoperatively. Patients require additional support to adopt habitual PA. Objectives: Test the efficacy of a preoperative PA intervention (PAI) versus standard pre-surgical care (SC) for increasing daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in bariatric surgery patients. Setting: University Hospital, United States. Methods: Outcomes analysis included 75 participants (86.7% women; 46.0±8.9 years; Body Mass Index [BMI]=45.0±6.5 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned preoperatively to 6 weeks of PAI (n=40) or SC (n=35). PAI received weekly individual face-to-face sessions with tailored instruction in behavioral strategies (e.g., self-monitoring, goal-setting) to increase home-based walking exercise. The primary outcome, pre- to post-intervention change in daily bout-related (≥10-min bouts) and total (≥1-minute bouts) MVPA minutes, was assessed objectively via a multi-sensor monitor worn for 7 days at baseline- and post-intervention. Results: Retention was 84% at the post-intervention primary end point. In intent-to-treat analyses with baseline value carried forward for missing data and adjusted for baseline MVPA, PAI achieved a mean increase of 16.6±20.6 minutes/day in bout-related MVPA (baseline: 4.4±5.5 to post-intervention: 21.0±21.4 minutes/day) compared to no change (−0.3±12.7 minutes/day; baseline: 7.9±16.6 to post-intervention: 7.6±11.5 minutes/day) for SC (p=0.001). Similarly, PAI achieved a mean increase of 21.0±26.9 minutes/day in total MVPA (baseline: 30.9±21.2 to post-intervention: 51.9±30.0 minutes/day), whereas SC demonstrated no change (− 0.1±16.3 minutes/day; baseline: 33.7±33.2 to post-intervention: 33.6±28.5 minutes/day) (p=0.001). Conclusions: With behavioral intervention, patients can significantly increase MVPA before bariatric

  12. Preoperative opioid strength may not affect outcomes of anterior cervical procedures: a post hoc analysis of 2 prospective, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael P.; Anderson, Paul A.; Sasso, Rick C.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Object The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between preoperative opioid strength and outcomes of anterior cervical decompressive surgery. Methods A retrospective cohort of 1004 patients enrolled in 1 of 2 investigational device exemption studies comparing cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for single-level cervical disease causing radiculopathy or myelopathy was selected. At a preoperative visit, opioid use data, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, 36-ltem Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores, and numeric rating scale scores for neck and arm pain were collected. Patients were divided into strong (oxycodone/morphine/meperidine), weak (codeine/propoxyphene/ hydrocodone), and opioid-naïve groups. Preoperative and postoperative (24 months) outcomes scores were compared within and between groups using the paired t-test and ANCOVA, respectively. Results Patients were categorized as follows: 226 strong, 762 weak, and 16 opioid naïve. The strong and weak groups were similar with respect to age, sex, race, marital status, education level, Worker's Compensation status, litigation status, and alcohol use. At 24-month follow-up, no differences in change in arm or neck pain scores (arm: strong –52.3, weak –50.6, naïve –54.0, p = 0.244; neck: strong –52.7, weak –50.8, naïve –44.6, p = 0.355); NDI scores (strong –36.0, weak –33.3, naïve –32.3, p = 0.181); or SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores (strong: 14.1, weak 13.3, naïve 21.7, p = 0.317) were present. Using a 15-point improvement in NDI to determine success, the authors found no between-groups difference in success rates (strong 80.6%, weak 82.7%, naïve 73.3%, p = 0.134). No difference existed between treatment arms (TDA vs ACDF) for any outcome at any time point. Conclusions Preoperative opioid strength did not adversely affect outcomes in this analysis. Careful patient selection can yield good results in this patient

  13. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Palliative Care KidsHealth > For Parents > Palliative Care Print A A ... decisions about their child's care. Who Needs Palliative Care? Any child who has a serious, complex, or ...

  14. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Palliative Care KidsHealth > For Parents > Palliative Care A A A ... decisions about their child's care. Who Needs Palliative Care? Any child who has a serious, complex, or ...

  15. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Take the Quiz What Is Palliative Care? Definition Palliative care (pronounced pal-lee-uh-tiv) is ... or treatment. Follow Us What Is Palliative Care Definition Pediatric Palliative Care Disease Types Glossary FAQ How ...

  16. Managed Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... three types of managed care plans: Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) usually only pay for care within the ... who coordinates most of your care. Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO) usually pay more if you get care ...

  17. Tracheostomy care

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure - tracheostomy care; Ventilator - tracheostomy care; Respiratory insufficiency - tracheostomy care ... Before you leave the hospital, health care providers will teach you how ... and suction the tube Keep the air you breathe moist Clean ...

  18. Residential Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental Care Medical ... communicate with staff Staffing Medical care is provided Personal care and assistance is provided Staff recognize persons ...

  19. Hospice Care

    MedlinePlus

    Hospice care is end-of-life care. A team of health care professionals and volunteers provides it. They give medical, psychological, and spiritual support. The goal of the care is to help people who ...

  20. Preoperative anemia increases postoperative morbidity in elective cranial neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas B.; Macki, Mohamed; Brem, Henry; Huang, Judy; Bydon, Ali; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative anemia may affect postoperative mortality and morbidity following elective cranial operations. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify elective cranial neurosurgical cases (2006-2012). Morbidity was defined as wound infection, systemic infection, cardiac, respiratory, renal, neurologic, and thromboembolic events, and unplanned returns to the operating room. For 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 8015 patients who underwent elective cranial neurosurgery, 1710 patients (21.4%) were anemic. Anemic patients had an increased 30-day mortality of 4.1% versus 1.3% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001) and an increased 30-day morbidity rate of 25.9% versus 14.14% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001). The 30-day morbidity rates for all patients undergoing cranial procedures were stratified by diagnosis: 26.5% aneurysm, 24.7% sellar tumor, 19.7% extra-axial tumor, 14.8% intra-axial tumor, 14.4% arteriovenous malformation, and 5.6% pain. Following multivariable regression, the 30-day mortality in anemic patients was threefold higher than in non-anemic patients (4.1% vs 1.3%; OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.65-4.66). The odds of postoperative morbidity in anemic patients were significantly higher than in non-anemic patients (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). There was a significant difference in postoperative morbidity event odds with a hematocrit level above (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.48) and below (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55-3.42) 33% [hemoglobin (Hgb) 11 g/dl]. Conclusions: Preoperative anemia in elective cranial neurosurgery was independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity when compared to non-anemic patients. A hematocrit level below 33% (Hgb 11 g/dl) was associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity. PMID

  1. Effect of preoperative mastoid ventilation on tympanoplasty success.

    PubMed

    Metin, Mehmet; Kaptan, Zeynep Kizilkaya; Dogan, Sedat; Yazici, Hasmet; Bayraktar, Cem; Gocmen, Hakan; Samim, Etem Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between mastoid air cell volumes and graft success after tympanoplasty. Material and Methods. This study was performed retrospectively with patients undergoing type I tympanoplasty and antrostomy. A total of 57 patients (20-35.09% female and 37-64.91% male) with a mean age of 29.69 ± SD (range 12-56 years) were included in the study. The patients were invited for a control at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months, and otoscopic examinations and audiometric tests were performed. The temporal bone computed tomography images were screened with the 4800 Dpi optic resolution scanner and transferred to the computer environment in JPG format in order to calculate the mastoid air cell volume, and the volumes were calculated using the Autocad 2007 program. Results. Although, the graft success was determined to be better in the well-ventilated group, no significant difference could be found between the groups in terms of graft success at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months (P > 0.05). No statistically significant difference could be found between the three groups in terms of the preoperative and postoperative hearing gains (P > 0.05).

  2. Effect of Preoperative Mastoid Ventilation on Tympanoplasty Success

    PubMed Central

    Metin, Mehmet; Kaptan, Zeynep Kizilkaya; Dogan, Sedat; Yazici, Hasmet; Bayraktar, Cem; Gocmen, Hakan; Samim, Etem Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between mastoid air cell volumes and graft success after tympanoplasty. Material and Methods. This study was performed retrospectively with patients undergoing type I tympanoplasty and antrostomy. A total of 57 patients (20–35.09% female and 37–64.91% male) with a mean age of 29.69 ± SD (range 12–56 years) were included in the study. The patients were invited for a control at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months, and otoscopic examinations and audiometric tests were performed. The temporal bone computed tomography images were screened with the 4800 Dpi optic resolution scanner and transferred to the computer environment in JPG format in order to calculate the mastoid air cell volume, and the volumes were calculated using the Autocad 2007 program. Results. Although, the graft success was determined to be better in the well-ventilated group, no significant difference could be found between the groups in terms of graft success at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months (P > 0.05). No statistically significant difference could be found between the three groups in terms of the preoperative and postoperative hearing gains (P > 0.05). PMID:25374605

  3. Prediction of Preoperative Anxiety in Children: Who is Most Accurate?

    PubMed Central

    MacLaren, Jill E.; Thompson, Caitlin; Weinberg, Megan; Fortier, Michelle A.; Morrison, Debra E.; Perret, Danielle; Kain, Zeev N.

    2009-01-01

    Background In this investigation, we sought to assess the ability of pediatric attending anesthesiologists, resident anesthesiologists and mothers to predict anxiety during induction of anesthesia in 2 to 16-year-old children (n=125). Methods Anesthesiologists and mothers provided predictions using a visual analog scale and children's anxiety was assessed using a valid behavior observation tool the Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). All mothers were present during anesthetic induction and no child received sedative premedication. Correlational analyses were conducted. Results A total of 125 children aged 2 to 16 years, their mothers, and their attending pediatric anesthesiologists and resident anesthesiologists were studied. Correlational analyses revealed significant associations between attending predictions and child anxiety at induction (rs= 0.38, p<0.001). Resident anesthesiologist and mother predictions were not significantly related to children's anxiety during induction (rs = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). In terms of accuracy of prediction, 47.2% of predictions made by attending anesthesiologists were within one standard deviation of the observed anxiety exhibited by the child, and 70.4% of predictions were within 2 standard deviations. Conclusions We conclude that attending anesthesiologists who practice in pediatric settings are better than mothers in predicting the anxiety of children during induction of anesthesia. While this finding has significant clinical implications, it is unclear if it can be extended to attending anesthesiologists whose practice is not mostly pediatric anesthesia. PMID:19448201

  4. Individual and ethnic aspects of preoperative planning for posttraumatic rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Szychta, Paweł; Rykała, Jan; Kruk-Jeromin, Julia

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the aesthetic results of post traumatic rhinoplasty among Europeans with populations of healthy Caucasians described in earlier reports, and to collate correct parameters of nasal shape in healthy representatives of both sexes and various races for improvement in aesthetic results of surgery. 3-D scanning of the face was performed in 54 patients after posttraumatic septorhinoplasty. Analysis of 3D model was based on two indices of the nasal proportions and four angles of the region from 18 anthropological points. Parameters of the nasal shape in addition to gender were compared to average values of healthy Caucasian population, described before. Normal characteristics of the nose among individuals of three races from previous studies were also compared to one another. In females, mean height and width of the nose as well as length of both nostrils was smaller. Neither were there any significant differences in width of the nostrils and length of the nasal pyramid nor nasal prominence. Nasal proportions were similar in both sexes. Some of the nasal angles differed in addition to gender. Posttraumatic rhinoplasty resulted in correct shape of the nose similar to the healthy Caucasian population. The aesthetic nose differ among healthy individuals of the three races analysed. While preoperative planning is important, knowledge of the normal values of parameters characterising shape in both genders is equally important as the individual differences in relation to the whole face.

  5. [Preoperative imaging/operation planning for liver surgery].

    PubMed

    Schoening, W N; Denecke, T; Neumann, U P

    2015-12-01

    The currently established standard for planning liver surgery is multistage contrast media-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CM-CT), which as a rule enables an appropriate resection planning, e.g. a precise identification and localization of primary and secondary liver tumors as well as the anatomical relation to extrahepatic and/or intrahepatic vascular and biliary structures. Furthermore, CM-CT enables the measurement of tumor volume, total liver volume and residual liver volume after resection. Under the condition of normal liver function a residual liver volume of 25 % is nowadays considered sufficient and safe. Recent studies in patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer showed a clear staging advantage of contrast media-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CM-MRI) versus CM-CT. In addition, most recent data showed that the use of liver-specific MRI contrast media further increases the sensitivity and specificity of detection of liver metastases. This imaging technology seems to lead closer to the ideal "one stop shopping" diagnostic tool in preoperative planning of liver resection.

  6. Preoperative portal vein embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: Consensus and controversy

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Taku; Kubota, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years have passed since the first report of portal vein embolization (PVE), and this procedure is widely adopted as a preoperative treatment procedure for patients with a small future liver remnant (FLR). PVE has been shown to be useful in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. However, special caution is needed when PVE is applied prior to subsequent major hepatic resection in cases with cirrhotic livers, and volumetric analysis of the liver segments in addition to evaluation of the liver functional reserve before PVE is mandatory in such cases. Advances in the embolic material and selection of the treatment approach, and combined use of PVE and transcatheter arterial embolization/chemoembolization have yielded improved outcomes after PVE and major hepatic resections. A novel procedure termed the associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy has been gaining attention because of the rapid hypertrophy of the FLR observed in patients undergoing this procedure, however, application of this technique in HCC patients requires special caution, as it has been shown to be associated with a high morbidity and mortality even in cases with essentially healthy livers. PMID:27028706

  7. Prophylactic digitalization preoperatively of patients with arteriosclerotic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bille-Brahe, N E; Engell, H C; Sørensen, M B

    1981-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the hemodynamic effect of prophylactic digitalization before major surgical procedures. Sixteen patients, all admitted for an elective vascular operation for arteriosclerotic disease and all with impaired left ventricular function, were investigated. In half of the patients, digitalis was given before the operation, the other half of the patients served as the control study. The measured parameters were pulmonary artery mean pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, blood volume and arterial, as well as venous, oxygen content. Preoperatively, before digitalization, no significant differences were noted between the two groups at rest and during exercise. Before anesthesia and postoperatively, those given digitalis had improved cardiac function. Those in both groups, however, had a normal hemodynamic response to the surgical trauma. In this study, a definite answer is not provided concerning the usefulness of prophylactic digitalization but an increase in the ability of the digitalized heart to withstand the imposition of a pressure load postoperatively is suggested.

  8. Chlorhexidine gluconate versus chloroxylenol for preoperative skin preparation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, W P; Bellah, J R; Vermaas-Hekman, D; Purich, B; Kubilis, P S

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy of 3% chloroxylenol (PCMX) or 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) for preoperative skin preparation was assessed in 100 dogs undergoing clean or clean-contaminated surgical procedures. Replication Organism Detection and Counting (RODAC) plates were used to quantify skin bacteria colony forming units (CFU) at the operative site before and after skin preparation and immediately postoperatively. Reduction of CFU after skin preparation and immediately postoperatively was significant for each agent. However, CFU levels were significantly lower in the CG group than in the PCMX group after surgical preparation, regardless of initial CFU numbers. No significant difference in CFU counts was observed between antiseptic groups postoperatively. Within-group comparisons showed PCMX to be significantly less efficacious when the prescrub CFU number was greater than 1,000. Bacterial reduction was similar in the CG group regardless of prescrub CFU levels. The number of negative cultures after skin preparation was significantly greater with CG than with PCMX. Chlorhexidine gluconate also had fewer cultures with heavy bacterial growth (> 5 CFUs) after surgical preparation. There was no significant difference between antiseptics in the number of negative cultures or cultures with more than 5 CFUs immediately after surgery. The number of skin reactions and postoperative wound infections that occurred with each technique were similar. Three percent PCMX, as used in this study, was less effective than 4% CG in its immediate antimicrobial activity, however, this difference was not associated with an increased wound infection rate.

  9. An evaluative tool for preoperative planning of brain tumor resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Garg, Ishita; Miga, Michael I.; Thompson, Reid C.

    2010-02-01

    A patient specific finite element biphasic brain model has been utilized to codify a surgeon's experience by establishing quantifiable biomechanical measures to score orientations for optimal planning of brain tumor resection. When faced with evaluating several potential approaches to tumor removal during preoperative planning, the goal of this work is to facilitate the surgeon's selection of a patient head orientation such that tumor presentation and resection is assisted via favorable brain shift conditions rather than trying to allay confounding ones. Displacement-based measures consisting of area classification of the brain surface shifting in the craniotomy region and lateral displacement of the tumor center relative to an approach vector defined by the surgeon were calculated over a range of orientations and used to form an objective function. The objective function was used in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization to find the ideal patient orientation. For a frontal lobe tumor presentation the model predicts an ideal orientation that indicates the patient should be placed in a lateral decubitus position on the side contralateral to the tumor in order to minimize unfavorable brain shift.

  10. Does Preoperative Weight Change Predict Postoperative Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy?

    PubMed

    Sherman, William E; Lane, Aaron E; Mangieri, Christopher W; Choi, Yong U; Faler, Byron J

    2015-09-01

    Background: Some institutions and insurance companies mandate a preoperative weight loss regimen prior to bariatric surgery. Previous studies suggest little to no correlation between preoperative and postoperative weight loss for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RNYGB). This study examined the impact of preoperative weight change for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing LSG at the authors' institution from 2010 to 2012. Patients were grouped based on preoperative weight gain or loss. The correlation between preoperative BMI change and postoperative BMI change was studied, as well as length of surgery. Results: Of 141 patients with 1-year follow-up, 72 lost, six maintained, and 64 gained weight preoperatively. Percentage of excess BMI loss at 1 year was not statistically different between those who lost weight and those who gained weight. Percent change in BMI from initial visit to surgery does not correlate with change in BMI at 1 year postoperatively or with length of surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative weight loss is not a reliable predictor of postoperative weight loss or shorter operative time after LSG. Potential patients who otherwise meet indications for LSG should not be denied based on inability to lose weight.

  11. Association Between Preoperative Nutritional Status and Postoperative Outcome in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Leung, John S L; Seto, Alfred; Li, George K H

    2017-04-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery often experience significant postoperative morbidities. Administering preoperative nutritional intervention may improve surgical outcomes, but there is currently a paucity of data reviewing the association between preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome. It is therefore of importance to investigate this association among head and neck cancer patients. To assess the association between preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome in head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery, a retrospective study of 70 head and neck cancer patients who were surgically treated between 2013 and 2014 in a tertiary referral head and neck surgery center in Hong Kong was conducted. Clinical data regarding preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome were retrieved from a computer record system. Logistic and linear regressions were used to analyze the appropriate parameters. A higher preoperative albumin level was associated with lower rates of postoperative complications and better wound healing (P < 0.05). In contrast, preoperative body mass index, hemoglobin level, and absolute lymphocyte count did not demonstrate significant associations with postoperative outcome. As high albumin levels are associated with better surgical outcome in head and neck cancer patients, preoperative intervention strategies that boost albumin levels could be considered for improving surgical outcome.

  12. Difficult Myotomy Is Not Determined by Preoperative Therapy and Does Not Impact Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Villadolid, Desiree V.; Al-Saadi, Sam; Rosemurgy, Alexander S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The impact of preoperative endoscopic therapy on the difficulty of laparoscopic Heller myotomy and the impact of the difficulty of the myotomy on long-term outcome has not been determined. This study was undertaken to determine whether preoperative therapy impacts the difficulty of laparoscopic Heller myotomy and whether preoperative therapy or difficulty of myotomy impacts long-term outcomes. Methods: Since 1992, 305 patients, 56% male, median age 49 years, underwent laparoscopic Heller myotomy and were prospectively followed. The difficulty of the laparoscopic Heller myotomy was scored by the operating surgeon for the most recent 170 consecutive patients on a scale of 1 (easiest) to 5 (most difficult). Patients scored their symptoms before and after myotomy using a Likert scale from 0 (never/not bothersome) to 10 (always/very bothersome). Results: Before myotomy, 66% of patients underwent endoscopic therapy: 33% dilation, 11% Botox, and 22% both. Preoperative endoscopic therapy did not correlate with the difficulty of the myotomy (P=NS). Median follow-up was 25 months. Regardless of the difficulty of the myotomy, dysphagia improved with myotomy (P<0.0001). By regression analysis, the frequency and severity of postmyotomy dysphagia correlated with neither preoperative endoscopic therapy nor the difficulty of the myotomy. Conclusions: Laparoscopic Heller myotomy improves the frequency and severity of dysphagia. The difficulty of laparoscopic Heller myotomy is not impacted by preoperative therapy, and neither preoperative therapy nor difficulty of the myotomy impact long-term outcome. PMID:17931516

  13. Preoperative widespread pain sensitization and chronic pain after hip and knee replacement: a cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wylde, Vikki; Sayers, Adrian; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain after joint replacement is common, affecting approximately 10% of patients after total hip replacement (THR) and 20% of patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Heightened generalized sensitivity to nociceptive input could be a risk factor for the development of this pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was associated with chronic pain after joint replacement. Data were analyzed from 254 patients receiving THR and 239 patients receiving TKR. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale. Preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was assessed through measurement of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the forearm using an algometer. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression and linear mixed models, and adjustments were made for confounding variables. In both the THR and TKR cohort, lower PPTs (heightened widespread pain sensitivity) were significantly associated with higher preoperative pain severity. Lower PPTs were also significantly associated with higher pain severity at 12 months after surgery in the THR cohort. However, PPTs were not associated with the change in pain severity from preoperative to 12 months postoperative in either the TKR or THR cohort. These findings suggest that although preoperative widespread pressure pain sensitivity is associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement, it is not a predictor of the amount of pain relief that patients gain from joint replacement surgery, independent of preoperative pain severity. PMID:25599300

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  15. Resection after preoperative chemotherapy versus synchronous liver resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan W.; Lee, Jong L.; Yoon, Yong S.; Park, In J.; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang S.; Kim, Tae W.; Kim, Jin C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the prognostic effects of preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CLM). We retrospectively evaluated 2 groups of patients between January 2006 and August 2012. A total of 53 patients who had ≥3 hepatic metastases underwent resection after preoperative chemotherapy (preoperative chemotherapy group), whereas 96 patients who had ≥3 hepatic metastases underwent resection with a curative intent before chemotherapy for CLM (primary resection group). A propensity score (PS) model was used to compare the both groups. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 31.7% and 20.4% in the preoperative chemotherapy and primary resection groups, respectively (log-rank = 0.015). Analyzing 32 PS matched pairs, we found that the DFS rate was significantly higher in the preoperative chemotherapy group than in the primary resection group (3-year DFS rates were 34.2% and 16.8%, respectively [log-rank = 0.019]). Preoperative chemotherapy group patients had better DFSs than primary resection group patients in various multivariate analyses, including crude, multivariable, average treatment effect with inverse probability of treatment weighting model and PS matching. Responses to chemotherapy are as important as achieving complete resection in cases of multiple hepatic metastases. Preoperative chemotherapy may therefore be preferentially considered for patients who experience difficulty undergoing complete resection for multiple hepatic metastases. PMID:28207557

  16. Influence of Preoperative Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition with Micronutrients after Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hsiu-Chih; Hu, Shu-Hui; Yang, Hui-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The inflammatory reactions are stronger after surgery of malnourished preoperative patients. Many studies have shown vitamin and trace element deficiencies appear to affect the functioning of immune cells. Enteral nutrition is often inadequate for malnourished patients. Therefore, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is considered an effective method for providing preoperative nutritional support. TPN needs a central vein catheter, and there are more risks associated with TPN. However, peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) often does not provide enough energy or nutrients. Purpose. This study investigated the inflammatory response and prognosis for patients receiving a modified form of PPN with added fat emulsion infusion, multiple vitamins (MTV), and trace elements (TE) to assess the feasibility of preoperative nutritional support. Methods. A cross-sectional design was used to compare the influence of PPN with or without adding MTV and TE on malnourished abdominal surgery patients. Results. Both preoperative groups received equal calories and protein, but due to the lack of micronutrients, patients in preoperative Group B exhibited higher inflammation, lower serum albumin levels, and higher anastomotic leak rates and also required prolonged hospital stays. Conclusion. Malnourished patients who receive micronutrient supplementation preoperatively have lower postoperative inflammatory responses and better prognoses. PPN with added fat emulsion, MTV, and TE provides valid and effective preoperative nutritional support. PMID:26000296

  17. Phonoaudiology guidance in the preoperative period in the head and neck tumors

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Grasiella Aparecida Nau; Fleig, Raquel; do Nascimento, Iramar Baptistella

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The habit of smoking and intake of alcoholic drinks can lead to the incidence of malignant tumors in several areas, including the head or neck. Phonoaudiology is an area of oncology that is always seeking to expand its applications in oncological head and neck cases, with intervention in pre- and post-operative periods and in different clinical fields. Aim: To evaluate and describe the impact of phonoaudiology preoperative guidance in patients, specifically smokers and alcohol drinkers, with head and neck cancer. Methods: Series Study. Interviews were conducted by telephone with 40 individuals diagnosed with malignant head and neck tumors. Questionnaires regarding the use of tobacco and alcohol were administered before and after the phonoaudiology preoperative guidance. Results: Among the 40 individuals who received phonoaudiology preoperative guidance, 26 were smokers before the orientation. Of these 26 individuals, 18 (69.24%) abandoned tobacco dependence, 4 (15.38%) did not quit smoking, and 4 (15.38%) quit smoking for a few months before resuming smoking after receiving phonoaudiology preoperative guidance. Regarding alcohol consumption, 31 individuals ingested alcohol before phonoaudiology preoperative guidance. Of these 31 individuals, 17 (54.84%) abandoned alcohol dependence, 8 (25.81%) did not abstain from alcohol consumption, and 6 (19.35%) resumed alcohol consumption after a period of abstinence after receiving phonoaudiology preoperative guidance. Conclusion: Phonoaudiology preoperative orientations are effective in the treatment of head and neck malignant tumors. PMID:25992003

  18. Providing preoperative information for children undergoing surgery: a randomized study testing different types of educational material to reduce children's preoperative worries.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, S C; Arriaga, P; Esteves, F

    2014-12-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the seven independent conditions that were combined into the following three main groups: an experimental group, which received educational materials with information about surgery and hospitalization (a board game, a video or a booklet); a comparison group, which received entertaining material with the same format type; and a control group, which did not receive any material. Children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety were evaluated after the experimental manipulation. Children who received educational materials were significantly less worried about surgery and hospital procedures than children in the comparison and the control groups, although no statistically differences were found between the type of materials within the experimental group, and no significant effect occurred on parental state anxiety. These results do however support the hypothesis that providing preoperative materials with educational information reduce children's preoperative worries.

  19. Associations between preoperative functional status and functional outcomes of total joint replacement in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jamie E.; Ghazinouri, Roya; Alcantara, Luis; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In developed countries, the functional status scores of patients with poor preoperative scores undergoing total joint replacement (TJR) improve more following TJR than those for patients with better preoperative scores. However, those with better preoperative scores achieve the best postoperative functional outcomes. We determined whether similar associations exist in a developing country. Methods. Dominican patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement completed WOMAC and SF-36 surveys preoperatively and at 12-month follow-up. Patients were stratified into low-, medium- and high-scoring preoperative groups based on their preoperative WOMAC function scores. We examined the associations between the baseline functional status of these groups and two outcomes—improvement in functional status over 12 months and functional status at 12 months—using analysis of variance with multivariable linear regression. Results. Patients who scored the lowest preoperatively made the greatest gains in function and pain relief following their TJRs. However, there were no significant differences in pain or function at 12-month follow-up between patients who scored low and those who scored high on preoperative WOMAC and SF-36 surveys. Conclusion. Patients with poor preoperative functional status had greater improvement but similar 12-month functional outcomes compared with patients who had a higher level of function before surgery. These results suggest that a policy of focusing scarce resources on patients with worse functional status in developing countries may optimize improvement following TJR without threatening functional outcome. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in other developing countries and to understand why these associations vary between patients in the Dominican Republic and patients from developed countries. PMID:23748412

  20. Preoperative androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Delayed biochemical recurrence in high-risk disease

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sumanta K.; Ruel, Nora; Voglezang, Nicholas; Chang, Mark; Wilson, Timothy G.; Jones, Jeremy O.; Yuh, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of preoperative androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for localized prostate cancer is controversial; prospective assessments have yielded varying results. We sought to define a subset of patients with a higher likelihood of benefit from preoperative ADT. Methods An institutional database including consecutive patients receiving definitive surgery for localized prostate cancer was interrogated. Patients recorded as having received preoperative ADT were matched in a 1:2 fashion to patients who had not received prior ADT. Patients were matched on the basis of clinicopathologic characteristics, use of adjuvant treatment strategies, and duration of PSA follow-up. Time to biochemical recurrence (TTBR) was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test for the overall study population and in subsets defined by D’Amico risk. Results No significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics were noted between recipients (n=101) and matched non-recipients (n=196) of preoperative ADT. Although not statistically significant, positive surgical margin rates, seminal vesicle invasion and extracapsular extension were less frequent in patients receiving preoperative ADT. Furthermore, a lesser incidence of perioperative complications was noted in this group (7.4% v 18.4%). No significant differences were noted in TTBR between recipients and non-recipients of preoperative ADT in the overall study population. However, amongst patients with high-risk disease, TTBR was significantly longer in those patients who had received preoperative ADT (P=0.004). Conclusions The data presented herein suggest a potential benefit with preoperative ADT in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Consideration should be given to enriching for this subset in preoperative studies of novel endocrine therapies. PMID:24342128

  1. Patient satisfaction with total knee replacement cannot be predicted from pre-operative variables alone: A cohort study from the National Joint Registry for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Baker, P N; Rushton, S; Jameson, S S; Reed, M; Gregg, P; Deehan, D J

    2013-10-01

    Pre-operative variables are increasingly being used to determine eligibility for total knee replacement (TKR). This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationships, interactions and predictive capacity of variables available pre- and post-operatively on patient satisfaction following TKR. Using nationally collected patient reported outcome measures and data from the National Joint Registry for England and Wales, we identified 22 798 patients who underwent TKR for osteoarthritis between August 2008 and September 2010. The ability of specific covariates to predict satisfaction was assessed using ordinal logistic regression and structural equational modelling. Only 4959 (22%) of 22 278 patients rated the results of their TKR as 'excellent', despite the majority (71%, n = 15 882) perceiving their knee symptoms to be much improved. The strongest predictors of satisfaction were post-operative variables. Satisfaction was significantly and positively related to the perception of symptom improvement (operative success) and the post-operative EuroQol-5D score. While also significant within the models pre-operative variables were less important and had a minimal influence upon post-operative satisfaction. The most robust predictions of satisfaction occurred only when both pre- and post-operative variables were considered together. These findings question the appropriateness of restricting access to care based on arbitrary pre-operative thresholds as these factors have little bearing on post-operative satisfaction.

  2. Hemoglobin and B-type natriuretic peptide preoperative values but not inflammatory markers, are associated with postoperative morbidity in cardiac surgery: a prospective cohort analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Risk stratification in cardiac surgery significantly impacts outcome. This study seeks to define whether there is an independent association between the preoperative serum level of hemoglobin (Hb), leukocyte count (LEUCO), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. Methods Prospective, analytic cohort study, with 554 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary cardiovascular hospital and followed up for 12 months. The cohort was distributed according to preoperative values of Hb, LEUCO, hsCRP, and BNP in independent quintiles for each of these variables. Results After adjustment for all covariates, a significant association was found between elevated preoperative BNP and the occurrence of low postoperative cardiac output (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.53–7.80, p = 0.003) or postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.45–10.38). For the combined outcome (death/acute coronary syndrome/rehospitalization within 12 months), we observed an OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.00–3.74). An interaction was found between BNP level and the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. The OR for non-diabetics was 1.26 (95% CI 0.61–2.60) and for diabetics was 18.82 (95% CI 16.2–20.5). Preoperative Hb was also significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of postoperative low cardiac output (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13–0.81, p = 0.016). Both Hb and BNP were significantly associated with the lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays and the number of transfused red blood cells (p < 0.002). Inflammatory markers, although associated with adverse outcomes, lost statistical significance when adjusted for covariates. Conclusions High preoperative BNP or low Hb shows an association of independent risk with postoperative outcomes, and their measurement could help to stratify surgical risk. The ability to predict the onset of atrial fibrillation or

  3. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guidelines on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Adult Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Memtsoudis, Stavros G.; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Nagappa, Mahesh; Opperer, Mathias; Cozowicz, Crispiana; Patrawala, Sara; Lam, David; Kumar, Anjana; Joshi, Girish P.; Fleetham, John; Ayas, Najib; Collop, Nancy; Doufas, Anthony G.; Eikermann, Matthias; Englesakis, Marina; Gali, Bhargavi; Gay, Peter; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Kaw, Roop; Kezirian, Eric J.; Malhotra, Atul; Mokhlesi, Babak; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Stierer, Tracey; Wappler, Frank; Hillman, David R.; Auckley, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading to indicate the level of evidence upon which recommendations were based. This guideline may not be appropriate for all clinical situations and all patients. The decision whether to follow these recommendations must be made by a responsible physician on an individual basis. Protocols should be developed by individual institutions taking into account the patients’ conditions, extent of interventions and available resources. This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The adherence to these guidelines cannot in any way guarantee successful outcomes and is rather meant to help individuals and institutions formulate plans to better deal with the challenges posed by perioperative patients with OSA. These recommendations reflect the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a group of experts in the field at the time of publication. While these guidelines will be periodically updated, new information that becomes available between updates should be taken into account. Deviations in practice from guidelines may be justifiable and such deviations should not be interpreted as a basis for claims of negligence. PMID:27442772

  4. [Responsibility of the anaesthetist in preoperative risk management. Comments on the legal implications of medical publications in this field].

    PubMed

    Bock, R-W; Dudziak, R; Wilke, H J

    2004-06-01

    There is an increasing number of publications in the medical literature which address the medical and legal obligations of a specialist in a given field. These articles, mostly editorials, seek to delineate the optimal course of treatment based on the current state of the art and science of medicine. However, we believe that the unreflected adoption of these often highly theoretical ideas and suggestions carries its own dangers. For one thing, there is the threatening financial crisis in the public health system. In addition, the feasibility of implementing these suggestions in routine medical and surgical practice is questionable. Last but not least, suggestions and guidelines for preoperative risk management by, for instance, Lingnau and Strohmenger 2002 cross the well established boundaries of the various medical and surgical specialties, which obviously demands careful deliberations among the specialties involved. So far, few specialty boards have seen fit to act on these suggestions. Our article on the medical and legal responsibilities of the anaesthesiologist in perioperative risk management restates the aforementioned concerns. We attempt to point out medical and legal points of controversy. In particular, we caution against the ever present danger of a bona fide adoption of visionary guidelines as the "standard of care" by both medical and legal experts. We feel that it is imperative to carefully evaluate editorial comments and suggestions, however well meaning, in the light of established teaching and practice, lest these comments and suggestions become the basis of an unjustified determination of a physicians innocence or guilt in a court of law.

  5. Preoperative Versus Postoperative Initiation of Warfarin Therapy in Patients Undergoing Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Cara; Erdle, Nicholas; Li, Kai; Curtin, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The optimal strategy for postoperative deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis remains controversial in hip and knee arthroplasty. Warfarin causes transient hypercoagulability; however, the optimal timing of treatment remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of preoperative versus postoperative warfarin therapy with a primary endpoint of perioperative change in hemoglobin. Warfarin was dosed according to a standard nomogram. No difference in perioperative hemoglobin change was observed. The preoperative group demonstrated higher INRs. Initiation of warfarin preoperatively was not associated with any difference in perioperative hemoglobin change. Larger studies are needed to determine whether the risk of adverse events is increased with either strategy.

  6. Staging of renal cell carcinoma: cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.J.; Broaddus, S.B.; Leadbetter, G.W. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    The use of bone scans in the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma has become routine in many centers. In a retrospective analysis of 42 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, the authors analyzed the cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative bone scans. Although these scans accurately predict metastatic disease to bone, they are not cost-effective as a routine preoperative tool because they do not alter outcome. In selected patients with bone pain and no other positive staging studies, preoperative bone scans may be of value in the decision to perform extirpative surgery.

  7. Clown intervention to reduce preoperative anxiety in children and parents: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Alberto; Sangiorgi, Diego; Flangini, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated whether a clown doctor intervention could reduce preoperative anxiety in children hospitalized for minor surgery and in their parents. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 77 children and 119 parents: the clown group consisted of 52 children accompanied in the preoperating room by their parents (n = 89) and two clowns while the comparison group consisted of children accompanied by the parents only. The clown intervention significantly reduced the children's preoperative anxiety: children benefited from the clown's presence and showed better adjustment than children in the comparison group. Mothers in Comparison Group showed higher anxiety.

  8. A novel visual facial anxiety scale for assessing preoperative anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xuezhao; Yumul, Roya; Elvir Lazo, Ofelia Loani; Friedman, Jeremy; Durra, Omar; Zhang, Xiao; White, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is currently no widely accepted instrument for measuring preoperative anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop a simple visual facial anxiety scale (VFAS) for assessing acute preoperative anxiety. Methods The initial VFAS was comprised of 11 similarly styled stick-figure reflecting different types of facial expressions (Fig 1). After obtaining IRB approval, a total of 265 participant-healthcare providers (e.g., anesthesiologists, anesthesiology residents, and perioperative nurses) were recruited to participate in this study. The participants were asked to: (1) rank the 11 faces from 0–10 (0 = no anxiety, while 10 = highest anxiety) and then to (2) match one of the 11 facial expression with a numeric verbal rating scale (NVRS) (0 = no anxiety and 10 = highest level of anxiety) and a specific categorical level of anxiety, namely no anxiety, mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderate-high or highest anxiety. Based on these data, the Spearman correlation and frequencies of the 11 faces in relation to the 11-point numerical anxiety scale and 6 categorical anxiety levels were calculated. The highest frequency of a face assigned to a level of the numerical anxiety scale resulted in a finalized order of faces corresponding to the 11-point numeric rating scale. Results The highest frequency for each of the NVRS anxiety scores were as follow: A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A6, A8, A9 and A10 (Fig 2). For the six categorical anxiety levels, a total of 260 (98.1%) participants chose the face A0 as representing ‘no’ anxiety, 250 (94.3%) participants chose the face A10 as representing ‘highest’ anxiety and 147 (55.5%) participants chose the face A8 as representing ‘moderate-high’ anxiety. Spearman analysis showed a significant correlation between the faces A3 and A5 assigned to the mild-moderate anxiety category (r = 0.58), but A5 was ultimately chosen due to its higher frequency compared to the frequency of A3 (30.6% vs 24.9%)(Fig 3

  9. Preoperative Nutritional Status of the Surgical Patients in Jeju

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Myung-Sang; Lee, Sang-Yup; Jeon, Dal-Jae; Yoon, Min-Geun; Kim, Sung-Sim; Moon, Hanlim

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the preoperative nutritional status of patients with various disorders and to provide data for pre- and postoperative patient management plans, particularly in the elderly. There is no published information on age-matched and disease-matched preoperative nutritional/immunologic status for orthopedic patients, especially in the elderly, in Jeju. Methods In total, 331 patients with four categories of orthopedic conditions were assessed: 92 elective surgery patients, 59 arthroplasty patients, 145 patients with fractures, and 35 infection patients. Malnutrition was defined as body mass index (BMI) below 18 kg/m2 of expected body weight (below 20% of normal), serum albumin/globulin ratio below 1.5 (normal range, 1.5 to 2.3), albumin level below 3.5 g/dL, total lymphocyte count below 1,500 cells/mm3, and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio below 5 versus 1. Results In 92 elective surgery patients, the average BMI was 23 kg/m2, hemoglobin was 15 g/dL, lymphocytes (2,486 cells)/monocytes (465 cells) ratio was 6.1, and the albumin (4.4 g/dL)/globulin (2.5 g/dL) ratio as a protein quotient was 1.7. Among the 59 hip and knee arthroplasty patients, the average BMI was 25 kg/m2, hemoglobin was 12 g/dL, lymphocytes (2,038 cells)/monocytes (391 cells) ratio was 6.6, and albumin (4.1 g/dL)/globulin (2.4 g/dL) ratio was 1.6. No subject showed malnutrition. Among the 145 fracture patients, the average BMI was 23 kg/m2. The hemoglobin level was 13 g/dL, monocytes (495 cells)/lymphocytes (1,905 cells) ratio was 1 versus 4.6, and albumin (4.1 d/gL)/globulin (2.5 d/gL) ratio was 1.6. However, both ratios decreased after 70 years of age. Among the 17 of 35 infection patients, albumin levels were below 3.5 g/dL, the average BMI was 22 kg/m2, lymphocytes (1,532 cells)/monocytes (545 cells) ratio was 2.4 versus 1, and albumin (3.0 g/dL)/globulin (3.3 g/dL) ratio was 0.9, while in 18 patients albumin levels were over 3.5 g/dL, the average BMI was 22 kg/m2, hemoglobin was 12 g

  10. Standardized phase angle indicates nutritional status in hospitalized preoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Thiane R; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; Bastos, João Luiz; Nakazora, Lívia M; Scheunemann, Lisiane

    2010-09-01

    There is currently no criterion standard to assess nutritional status, and different methods have been used in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement and the association between bioelectrical impedance analysis derived by standardized phase angle (SPA) and other methods used for the nutritional assessment of body composition, metabolic status, and functional status in surgical patients. The hypothesis was that the SPA is effective for evaluating nutritional status in surgical patients; therefore, it could be used when the application of other assessment methods is not possible. The sample consisted of 125 patients (20-94 years of age) before elective gastrointestinal or hernia repair. The participants were from the Surgical Clinic 1 at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Nutritional status was evaluated during the preoperative period based on the triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, body mass index, percent weight loss, nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS 2002), subjective global assessment (SGA), and SPA. The agreement between the SPA and the other methods was assessed with the k coefficient. The agreement between the SPA and the methods of nutritional assessment that were investigated for diagnosing malnutrition was moderate for NRS 2002 and SGA, weak for percent weight loss, and poor for triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, and body mass index. There was a significant association between SPA and both NRS 2002 and SGA (P < .001). Our results suggest that SPA is able to indicate the risk of nutritional deficiency in the patients assessed. However, good agreement between SPA and the methods investigated was not observed.

  11. Differential Network Analysis Applied to Preoperative Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Response

    PubMed Central

    Warsow, Gregor; Struckmann, Stephan; Kerkhoff, Claus; Reimer, Toralf; Engel, Nadja; Fuellen, Georg

    2013-01-01

    In silico approaches are increasingly considered to improve breast cancer treatment. One of these treatments, neoadjuvant TFAC chemotherapy, is used in cases where application of preoperative systemic therapy is indicated. Estimating response to treatment allows or improves clinical decision-making and this, in turn, may be based on a good understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Ever increasing amounts of high throughput data become available for integration into functional networks. In this study, we applied our software tool ExprEssence to identify specific mechanisms relevant for TFAC therapy response, from a gene/protein interaction network. We contrasted the resulting active subnetwork to the subnetworks of two other such methods, OptDis and KeyPathwayMiner. We could show that the ExprEssence subnetwork is more related to the mechanistic functional principles of TFAC therapy than the subnetworks of the other two methods despite the simplicity of ExprEssence. We were able to validate our method by recovering known mechanisms and as an application example of our method, we identified a mechanism that may further explain the synergism between paclitaxel and doxorubicin in TFAC treatment: Paclitaxel may attenuate MELK gene expression, resulting in lower levels of its target MYBL2, already associated with doxorubicin synergism in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We tested our hypothesis in three breast cancer cell lines, confirming it in part. In particular, the predicted effect on MYBL2 could be validated, and a synergistic effect of paclitaxel and doxorubicin could be demonstrated in the breast cancer cell lines SKBR3 and MCF-7. PMID:24349128

  12. Connectome analysis for pre-operative brain mapping in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Michael G.; Price, Stephen J.; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Object: Brain mapping has entered a new era focusing on complex network connectivity. Central to this is the search for the connectome or the brains ‘wiring diagram’. Graph theory analysis of the connectome allows understanding of the importance of regions to network function, and the consequences of their impairment or excision. Our goal was to apply connectome analysis in patients with brain tumours to characterise overall network topology and individual patterns of connectivity alterations. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired using multi-echo, echo planar imaging pre-operatively from five participants each with a right temporal–parietal–occipital glioblastoma. Complex networks analysis was initiated by parcellating the brain into anatomically regions amongst which connections were identified by retaining the most significant correlations between the respective wavelet decomposed time-series. Results: Key characteristics of complex networks described in healthy controls were preserved in these patients, including ubiquitous small world organization. An exponentially truncated power law fit to the degree distribution predicted findings of general network robustness to injury but with a core of hubs exhibiting disproportionate vulnerability. Tumours produced a consistent reduction in local and long-range connectivity with distinct patterns of connection loss depending on lesion location. Conclusions: Connectome analysis is a feasible and novel approach to brain mapping in individual patients with brain tumours. Applications to pre-surgical planning include identifying regions critical to network function that should be preserved and visualising connections at risk from tumour resection. In the future one could use such data to model functional plasticity and recovery of cognitive deficits. PMID:27447756

  13. Preoperative duplex ultrasound parameters predicting male fertility after successful varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, Fahad M.; Akbar, Mahboob H.; Altwairgi, Adel K.; AlThaqufi, Omar J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess duplex ultrasound (DUS) parameters, and predicti the outcome of varicocele ligation in male infertility. Methods: This retrospective and follow up study was conducted at Dr. Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital, AlQassim, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and December 2012. Eighty-two patients were selected, who presented with clinical/subclinical varicocele and male infertility. All these patients had DUS of the scrotum and underwent for low ligation varicocelectomy. These patients were followed for a period of 12-24 months after surgery for the occurrence of paternity. We reviewed pre-operative scrotal DUS of these 82 patients for the testicular size and volume, pampiniform veins caliber and duration of reflux in the dilated veins at rest, and after valsalva maneuver. These DUS parameters were correlated with the postoperative paternity rate. Results: Postoperative paternity was achieved in 18 patients (31.6%) with normal-sized testes, and in 3 patients (12%) with small size testes. The positive paternity rate was higher (38.5%) in patients with clinically detected varicocele, compared with only 16.7% of patients with subclinical varicocele (detected by ultrasound only). In addition, postoperative paternity was significantly higher in patients with bilateral varicocele (70.6%), with shunt-type varicocele (71.4%), and patients with a permanent grade of venous reflux (62.5%). Conclusion: Selection of patients for the successful paternity after varicocele repair depends mainly on DUS parameters, which includes normal size testicles with shunt type of bilateral varicocele and continuous reflux. PMID:26620986

  14. The medical evaluation of the elderly preoperative patient.

    PubMed

    Daly, M P

    1989-06-01

    Improvements in anesthesia and surgical techniques have greatly reduced the perioperative mortality and morbidity of elderly patients. Mortality is more closely correlated with pathology, type of surgery, and duration of anesthesia rather than with age. Particular attention should be directed toward cardiac and pulmonary status, because operative mortality and morbidity is related, for the most part, to cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. Postoperatively, the occurrence of pulmonary emboli and painless myocardial infarctions is more common in this age group. Elderly patients are more often confused postoperatively owing to the residual effect of anesthetics, analgesics, fever, and electrolyte disturbances. The stress of surgery and unfamiliar surroundings are also frequent precipitating causes. Orthostatic blood pressure and pulse readings should be checked before ambulating elderly patients who have been at bed rest for more than 2 to 3 days because of the frequent occurrence of orthostatic hypotension. Pressure sores, incontinence, and aspiration pneumonia may also occur owing to immobility. The elderly patient's functional status and mental status may be enhanced by simple encouragement, early mobilization, and by social interaction. It is not possible to precisely define the risks of proposed procedure, nor can the physician eliminate all risks from a surgical procedure. The risks a particular patient is subjected to depend on the complex interplay of the preoperative medical condition of the patient, the type of surgery proposed, and the skill and expertise of the anesthesiologist and surgeon. We must strive to achieve the goal of bringing our patient to the operating room in the best possible condition in the time available.

  15. Neck Pain, Preoperative Opioids, and Functionality After Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Faour, Mhamad; Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2017-01-01

    The use of opioids among patients with workers' compensation claims is associated with tremendous costs, especially for patients who undergo spinal surgery. This study compared return-to-work rates after single-level cervical fusion for degenerative disk disease between patients who received opioids before surgery and patients who underwent fusion with no previous opioid use. All study subjects qualified for workers' compensation benefits for injuries sustained at work between 1993 and 2011. The study population included 281 subjects who underwent single-level cervical fusion for degenerative disk disease with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology code algorithms. The opioid group included 77 subjects who received opioids preoperatively. The control group included 204 subjects who had surgery with no previous opioid use. The primary outcome was meeting return-to-work criteria within 3 years of follow-up after fusion. Secondary outcome measures after surgery, surgical details, and presurgical characteristics for each cohort also were collected. In 36.4% of the opioid group, return-to-work criteria were met compared with 56.4% of the control group. Patients who took opioids were less likely to meet return-to-work criteria compared with the control group (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.76; P=.0028). Return-to-work rates within the first year after fusion were 24.7% for the opioid group and 45.6% for the control group (P=.0014). Patients who used opioids were absent from work for 255 more days compared with the control group (P=.0001). The use of opioids for management of diskogenic neck pain, with the possibility of surgical intervention, is a negative predictor of successful return to work after fusion in a workers' compensation population. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):25-32.].

  16. Optimizing perioperative care in bariatric surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Lemanu, Daniel P; Srinivasa, Sanket; Singh, Primal P; Johannsen, Sharon; MacCormick, Andrew D; Hill, Andrew G

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs have been shown to minimise morbidity in other types of surgery, but comparatively less data exist investigating ERAS in bariatric surgery. This article reviews the existing literature to identify interventions which may be included in an ERAS program for bariatric surgery. A narrative literature review was conducted. Search terms included 'bariatric surgery', 'weight loss surgery', 'gastric bypass', 'ERAS', 'enhanced recovery', 'enhanced recovery after surgery', 'fast-track surgery', 'perioperative care', 'postoperative care', 'intraoperative care' and 'preoperative care'. Interventions recovered by the database search, as well as interventions garnered from clinical experience in ERAS, were used as individual search terms. A large volume of evidence exists detailing the role of multiple interventions in perioperative care. However, efficacy and safety for a proportion of these interventions for ERAS in bariatric surgery remain unclear. This review concludes that there is potential to implement ERAS programs in bariatric surgery.

  17. Pre-operative variables affecting final vision outcome with a critical review of ocular trauma classification for posterior open globe (zone III) injury

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Ho, Sue Wei; Teoh, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify pre-operative variables affecting the outcome of posterior open globe (zone III) injuries. Secondary objective was to re-look at the definition or landmarks for zone III injury and its clinical significance for predicting visual prognosis following open globe injury. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of all hospitalized patients with surgical repair of open globe injury over last 10 years at a tertiary referral eye care center in Singapore. Out of 172 eyes with open globe injury, 28 eyes (16.3%) with zone III injury was identified and reviewed further. Pre-operative visual acuity (VA) and other variables, extent of scleral wound in reference to rectus insertion, relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) and final vision outcome were recorded. Results: Median age was 37 years with male predilection (92.9%). Mean follow-up was 12.9 months. Pre-operative VA was no light perception (NLP) in 16 (57.1%) eyes. Final VA remained NLP in 14 eyes (50.0%). The factors contributing to poor post-operative vision based on univariate regression analysis were the presence of RAPD, poor pre-operative VA, blunt trauma, extent of trauma, associated traumatic cataract, hyphema, vitreous loss and associated vitreo-retinal trauma. Further on, zone III injuries with scleral wound limited anterior to rectus insertion (6 eyes) had better vision outcome than those with injuries extending beyond rectus insertion (22 eyes). Conclusion: Initial VA, blunt ocular trauma, visual axis involvement, loss of light perception, presence of RAPD, traumatic cataract, hyphema, vitreous loss were the important determinants for final visual outcome in patients with zone III injury. Wound extending posterior to rectus insertion has poorer outcome as those limited anterior to rectus insertion. We suggest that there may be a need to relook at zone III injuries with reference to rectus insertion for prognostic significance, and further studies are warranted. PMID

  18. Roy in the postanesthesia care unit.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D A

    1990-06-01

    The adaptation model developed by Sister Callista Roy, RN, PhD, was used as the organizing framework for developing a preoperative assessment tool for PACU nurses. The purpose of preoperative assessment of a surgical patient by a PACU nurse is to determine the patient's location on the health-illness continuum. This is done by analyzing data regarding the patient's biopsychosocial needs, evaluating the data, and determining from that information what problems need intervention. Roy's theory advocates assessing the patient's biopsychosocial needs using four different adaptive modes: self-concept, physiological function, role function, and interdependence (level I assessment). After completing the PACU preoperative assessment tool, each mode in level I assessment is identified as either positive (adaptive) or negative (maladaptive) depending on the patient's behavior identified by the tool. If a maladaptive behavior is identified during the preoperative assessment, a level II assessment is made to collect data regarding focal, contextual, and residual stimuli. A nursing diagnosis, expected outcomes, nursing interventions, and evaluation are listed on the patient care plan based on the data obtained from the assessment.

  19. Precision Medicine With Point-of-Care Ultrasound: The Future of Personalized Pediatric Emergency Care.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David; Ng, Lorraine; Tessaro, Mark; Fischer, Jason

    2017-03-01

    The Precision Medicine Initiative spearheaded by the National Institute of Health has pioneered a new model of health care focused on health care delivery that is tailored to an individual. Medical advances have already provided clinicians with the tools to better predict treatment outcomes based on the individual needs of each patient's disease process. Three-dimensional printing allows medical devices and implants to be custom made-to-order. Technological advances in preoperative imaging have augmented the ability for surgeons to plan a specific surgical approach for each patient. In a similar vein, point-of-care ultrasound offers the emergency care provider an opportunity to move beyond protocols and provide precise medical care tailored to the acute needs of each ill or injured emergent patient. In this article, we explore several cutting-edge applications of point-of-care ultrasound that can help providers develop a personalized approach to resuscitation and emergent procedures in pediatrics.

  20. 77 FR 15813 - Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Instrument and Control Air Systems AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... testing of the instrument and control air systems (ICAS) in a commercial nuclear power plant....

  1. [Effect of practical use of preoperative immunonutrition with impact on prevention of postoperative pneumonia after esophagectomy].

    PubMed

    Kano, Masayuki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Akutsu, Yasunori; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Uesato, Masaya; Miyazawa, Yukimasa; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2009-11-01

    To clarify the clinical benefits of administering immune-enhancing diet, Impact,we examined retrospectively the effect of preoperative immunonutrition with Impact on prevention of postoperative pneumonia after esophagectomy. In 47 patients without preoperative radiotherapy, no patient who preoperatively administered Impact>or=2,250 mL failed to develop pneumonia. The patients whose postoperative hospital stay was more than 30 days were administered Impactpreoperative administration of less amount of Impact than an estimated maximum dose, depending on patients' condition, may be beneficial to prevent postoperative pneumonia and a long hospital stay after surgery.

  2. Preoperational Environmental Survey for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    2000-10-12

    This document represents the report for environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptograms, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities located in 100 K and 200 East Areas in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

  3. Preoperational Environmental Survey for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.M.

    2000-09-28

    This document represents the report for environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptograms, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities located in 100 K and 200 East Areas in support of the preoperational environmental survey.

  4. Preoperative evaluation and workup of the cataract and intraocular lens implant patient.

    PubMed

    Hagan, J C; Wyatt, B

    1993-01-01

    1. Cataract and intraocular lens (IOL) implant surgery is the most common operation in ophthalmology. Much of the success of cataract and implant surgery depends on thorough and accurate preoperative patient counseling, testing, and biometric measurements. 2. The preoperative workup of cataract and implant surgery should include a complete ocular history and physical examination, patient education, preoperative testing, and informed consent. 3. Essential preoperative testing includes keratometric readings, ultrasound axial length of the eye (A-scan), and a calculation of implant power requirements using a modern implant formula. 4. In some circumstances, corneal endothelial cell counts, corneal pachymetry, and B-scan ultrasonographic scanning of the posterior segment will be needed. Optional testing also might include potential visual acuity (PVA) testing, ophthalmic photography, and corneal topographic scanning.

  5. Oral glucose tolerance test for preoperative assessment of liver function in liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Rachapoodivenkata, Raghavendra Rao

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims We intended to determine the role of the Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in addition to volumetry, in preoperative assessment of patients undergoing liver resection. Methods This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital, between February 2009 and February 2011. OGTT curve (parabolic/linear), linearity index (LI) and Parenchymal Hepatic Resection Rate (PHRR) were correlated with postoperative outcomes in terms of postoperative liver failure (PLF), by 50-50 criteria, morbidity, mortality and hospital stay. Results Of the 33 patients included in the study, 23 (69.7%) patients underwent major liver resections. Hepatocellular carcinoma (30.3%) was the leading indication. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 72.7%, but major complications occurred in 3 (9.1%) patients only. There was no 90-day mortality. The 50-50 criteria were met by 3 patients undergoing major resection. Significant correlation was noted between the linear OGTT curve and the overall hospital stay (12.1 days vs. 9.6 days in parabolic; p=0.04). Patients with linear OGTT met the 50-50 criteria more often (18%) than those having a parabolic curve (4.5%; p=0.25). Although the OGTT was more often linear with occurrence of morbidity (41.7% vs 11.1%), major morbidity (66.7% vs 30%) and PLF by 50-50 criteria (66.7% vs 30%), it was not statistically significant. The linearity index was marginally lower (0.9 vs 1.2) in the presence of major morbidity and PLF by 50-50 criteria. Conclusions Linear OGTT affects the PLF and major morbidity, therein impacting the hospital stay. OGTT LI and PHRR can help predict postoperative outcome for a given extent of liver resection. PMID:28317039

  6. Phase II study of bevacizumab and preoperative chemoradiation for esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Manjit S.; Park, Do Joong; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Rizk, Nabil P.; Yoon, Sam S.; Millang, Brittanie; Capanu, Marinela; Goodman, Karyn A.; Ilson, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A standard-of-care for locally advanced esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma is pre-operative chemoradiation. Elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been associated with worse outcomes following chemoradiation and anti-VEGF therapies can potentiate radiation efficacy. Methods In this single-arm phase II study, we added bevacizumab to induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation with cisplatin/irinotecan for locally advanced esophageal and GEJ adenocarcinomas. Results Thirty-three patients were enrolled, with all evaluable. All tumors involved the GEJ and 67% were node-positive by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and imaging. Twenty-eight patients completed chemoradiation and 26 patients underwent surgery (25 R0 resections). Toxicities were not clearly increased. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 15%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 15.1 and 30.5 months respectively. Higher baseline VEGF-A levels were associated with a trend toward improved OS (not reached vs. 21.0 months, P=0.11). Response on positron emission tomography (PET) scan after induction chemotherapy was predictive of PFS and showed trends toward improved OS and pCR rate. Conclusions The addition of bevacizumab to chemoradiation was not associated with clear worsening of toxicities but also led to no improvement in outcomes, when compared to a prior phase II study of 55 patients. Higher baseline VEGF-A levels correlated with a trend toward improved survival and might be used to stratify or select patients for future studies incorporating this or similar agents. PET scan to assess response following induction chemotherapy and change chemotherapy in non-responders during chemoradiation is the subject of a fully-accrued national trial (NCT01333033). PMID:28078107

  7. Preoperative interscalene brachial plexus block aids in perioperative temperature management during arthroscopic shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se Hun; Lee, Wonjin; Park, JaeGwan; Kim, Myoung-hun; Cho, Kwangrae; Lee, Jeong Han; Cheong, Soon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypothermia is common during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia, and anesthetic-impaired thermoregulation is thought to be the major cause of hypothermia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare perioperative temperature during arthroscopic shoulder surgery with interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) followed by general anesthesia vs. general anesthesia alone. Methods Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly allocated to receive IBPB followed by general anesthesia (group GB, n = 20) or general anesthesia alone (group GO, n = 20), and intraoperative and postoperative body temperatures were measured. Results The initial body temperatures were 36.5 ± 0.3℃ vs. 36.4 ± 0.4℃ in group GB vs. GO, respectively (P = 0.215). The body temperature at 120 minutes after induction of anesthesia was significantly higher in group GB than in group GO (35.8 ± 0.3℃ vs. 34.9 ± 0.3℃; P < 0.001). The body temperatures at 60 minutes after admission to the post-anesthesia care unit were 35.8 ± 0.3℃ vs. 35.2 ± 0.2℃ in group GB vs. GO, respectively (P < 0.001). The concentrations of desflurane at 0, 15, and 120 minutes after induction of anesthesia were 6.0 vs. 6.0% (P = 0.330), 5.0 ± 0.8% vs. 5.8 ± 0.4% (P = 0.001), and 3.4 ± 0.4% vs. 7.1 ± 0.9% (P < 0.001) in group GB vs. GO, respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that preoperative IBPB could reduce both the intraoperative concentration of desflurane and the reduction in body temperature during and after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. PMID:27482313

  8. Hospice Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Hospice Care What is Hospice Care? When is Hospice ... Other Family Counseling and Support Services What is Hospice Care? Hospice programs are available to help terminally ...

  9. Self Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Connections Experiences Research Learning Evaluation Print Email Self Care If you are living with a chronic ... help you cope can make a real difference. Self-care techniques are things you can do for ...

  10. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    Palliative care is treatment of the discomfort, symptoms, and stress of serious illness. It provides relief from distressing symptoms ... of the medical treatments you're receiving. Hospice care, care at the end of life, always includes ...

  11. Hospice care

    MedlinePlus

    Palliative care - hospice; End-of-life care - hospice; Dying - hospice; Cancer - hospice ... Hospice care helps people with illnesses that cannot be cured and who are nearing death. The goal is to ...

  12. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  13. Does preoperative depression and/or serotonin transporter gene polymorphism predict outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barry; Aghahoseini, Assad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether preoperative psychological depression and/or serotonin transporter gene polymorphism are associated with poor outcomes after the common procedure of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Design Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were genotyped for the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and assessed for psychological morbidity before and 6 weeks after surgery. The main outcome was postoperative depression; secondary outcomes included fatigue, perceived pain, quality of life and subjective perception about return to usual. Results Full genetic and psychological data were obtained from 273 out of 330 patients consented to the study (82% female). Significantly fewer people with preoperative depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score >5) had returned to employment (57% vs 86%, p<0.001) or made a full recovery (11% vs 44%, p<0.001) 6 weeks after surgery. Independent predictors for subjective return to usual after surgery included preoperative depression, body mass index and postoperative pain scores. Independent predictors of postoperative depression included preoperative antidepressant use and preoperative depression. SS genotype was associated with use of antidepressants preoperatively and higher anxiety levels after surgery. However, it was not associated with other salient postoperative psychosocial outcomes. Conclusions Depressive psychological morbidity preoperatively, pain and body mass index appear to be important factors in predicting recovery after this common surgical procedure. There may be a place to include preoperative brief psychological screening to enable targeted support. Our results suggest that the serotonin transporter gene is unlikely to be a useful clinical predictor of outcome in this group. Trial registration number ISRCTN40219584. PMID:27601483

  14. A clinical evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate spray as compared with iodophor scrub for preoperative skin preparation.

    PubMed

    Brown, T R; Ehrlich, C E; Stehman, F B; Golichowski, A M; Madura, J A; Eitzen, H E

    1984-04-01

    In a prospective, randomized study, 737 patients who were evaluated had the operative site prepared preoperatively by either a 0.5 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate spray or povidone-iodine scrub. The wound infection rate in these two comparable groups was not statistically different, although slightly favoring the spray technique (6.0 versus 8.1 per cent). The spray technique challenges the conventional preoperative scrub and offers further advantages of increased effectiveness while also offering savings of time and expense.

  15. Clinically Silent Preoperative Brain Injuries Do Not Worsen with Surgery in Newborns with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Block, AJ; McQuillen, PS; Chau, V; Glass, H; Poskitt, KJ; Barkovich, AJ; Esch, M; Soulikias, W; Azakie, A; Campbell, A; Miller, SP

    2010-01-01

    Objective Preoperative brain injury, particularly stroke and white matter injury (WMI), is common in newborns with congenital heart disease (CHD). The objective of this study was to determine the risk of hemorrhage or extension of preoperative brain injury with cardiac surgery. Methods This dual-center prospective cohort study recruited 92 term newborns: 62 with transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and 30 with single ventricle physiology from two tertiary referral centers. Newborns underwent brain MRI scans before and after cardiac surgery. Results Brain injury was identified in 40 (43%) newborns on the preoperative MRI scan (median five days of life): stroke in 23, WMI in 21, and intraventricular hemorrhage in 7. None of the brain lesions presented clinically with overt signs or seizures. Preoperative brain injury was associated with balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) (P=0.003) and lowest SaO2 (P=0.007); in a multivariable model, only the effect of BAS remained significant when adjusting for lowest SaO2. On postoperative MRI in 78 newborns (median 21 days of life), none of the preoperative lesions showed evidence of extension or hemorrhagic transformation (0/40 [95% CI: 0-7%]). The presence of preoperative brain injury was not a significant risk factor for acquiring new injury on the postoperative MRI (P=0.8). Conclusion Clinically silent brain injuries identified preoperatively in newborns with CHD, including stroke, have a low risk of progression with surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass, and should therefore not delay clinically indicated cardiac surgery. In this multi-center cohort, BAS remains an important risk factor for preoperative brain injury, particularly stroke. PMID:20434174

  16. Preoperative Albumin to Globulin Ratio (AGR) as Prognostic Factor in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaobo; Guo, Shengjie; Chen, Dong; Yang, Guangwei; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Yijun; He, Qiuming; Qin, Zike; Liu, Zhuowei; Xue, Yunfei; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Ruiwu; Zhou, Fangjian; Han, Hui; Yao, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition and systemic inflammatory response are frequently associated with prognosis in patients with several types of cancer, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study is aimed to investigate the ability of preoperative serum albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) to predict the long-term mortality of RCC patients. Methods: The study is a retrospective study of an unselected cohort of 895 RCC patients who underwent a curative radical or partial nephrectomy at the Department of Urology in the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between January 2000 and December 2012 and had documented preoperative serum total protein and albumin (ALB) levels. The preoperative AGR was calculated as the ratio of ALB to (total protein-ALB) and its association with other clinical indices was assessed using survival analysis. Results: Low preoperative AGR was associated with older population, lower hemoglobin, higher total protein, lower ALB, lower body mass index and advanced stage. The univariate and multivariate Cox analyses demonstrated that preoperative AGR was an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio (HR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43 to 0.93, P=0.022). In addition, patients with low preoperative AGR at pT1-2, pT3-4, pN0, pN1, pM0 and pM1 stages had significantly shorter OS than patients with high preoperative AGR. Conclusion: Preoperative AGR is a proven objective, reproducible, inexpensive survival predictor of RCC patients following surgical resection and should be considered for routine clinical use. PMID:28243330

  17. Effectiveness of non-cardiac preoperative testing in non-cardiac elective surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johansson, T; Fritsch, G; Flamm, M; Hansbauer, B; Bachofner, N; Mann, E; Bock, M; Sönnichsen, A C

    2013-06-01

    Elective surgery is usually preceded by preoperative diagnostics to minimize risk. The results are assumed to elicit preventive measures or even cancellation of surgery. Moreover, physicians perform preoperative tests as a baseline to detect subsequent changes. This systematic review aims to explore whether preoperative testing leads to changes in management or reduces perioperative mortality or morbidity in unselected patients undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery. We systematically searched all relevant databases from January 2001 to February 2011 for studies investigating the relationship between preoperative diagnostics and perioperative outcome. Our methodology was based on the manual of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Health Technology Assessment, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) handbook, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews. One hundred and one of the 25 281 publications retrieved met our inclusion criteria. Three test grid studies used a randomized controlled design and 98 studies used an observational design. The test grid studies show that in cataract surgery and ambulatory surgery, there are no significant differences between patients with indicated preoperative testing and no testing regarding perioperative outcome. The observational studies do not provide valid evidence that preoperative testing is beneficial in healthy adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. There is no evidence derived from high-quality studies that supports routine preoperative testing in healthy adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Testing according to pathological findings in a patient's medical history or physical examination seems justified, although the evidence is scarce. High-quality studies, especially large randomized controlled trials, are needed to explore the effectiveness of indicated preoperative testing.

  18. [Preoperative full-body magnetic resonance imaging is indicated on suspicion of multifocal infection in children].

    PubMed

    Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech

    2011-04-11

    Musculoskeletal infections in children present a challenge regarding diagnosis and treatment. Conventional radiographs guide the initial radiographic assessment. Additional imaging is often performed to improve the diagnosis of the abnormality. The modalities used are ultrasound, bone-scan, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On suspicion of multifocal musculoskeletal infections (MMI), MRI may save time and improve preoperative planning. We highly recommend the use of MRI for the preoperative assessment of children with MMI.

  19. Pre-operative rehabilitation evaluation of the dysvascular patient prior to amputation.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Kevin N

    2009-11-01

    Lower-extremity amputation secondary to dysvascular disease, including diabetes and peripheral vascular disease, is a major health problem in the United States. Due to the increased comorbidities in this patient population, pre-operative rehabilitation evaluation by a multidisciplinary team is crucial to ensure optimal patient outcomes. This article discusses the key factors that may affect functional outcomes in this patient population and outlines important history and physical examination components that should be evaluated pre-operatively.

  20. Is Combat Exposure Predictive of Higher Preoperative Stress in Military Members?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-26

    of anxiety, depression , PTSD symptoms, and combat experience(s) were assessed. On the day of surgery, preoperative stress was measured using the...Regression modeling suggested anxiety, depression , PTSD, and combat exposure explained 21% of negative emotions (dysphoria) on the day of surgery, R2...213, adjusted R2 = .180, F (3, 72) = 6.488, p < .001. In addition, trait depression may be the best predictor of increased preoperative stress, B

  1. Is extended preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for high-risk patients necessary before percutaneous nephrolithotomy?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Alyssa M.; Bauman, Tyler M.; Larson, Jeffrey A.; Vetter, Joel M.; Benway, Brian M.; Desai, Alana C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to compare the rate of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) between patients who received 7, 2, or 0 days of preoperative antibiotics. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed a series of consecutive PCNLs performed at our institution. Patients with infected preoperative urine cultures were excluded. High-risk patients were defined as those with a history of previous urinary tract infection (UTI), hydronephrosis, or stone size ≥2 cm. Patients were treated with 7, 2, or 0 days of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis prior to PCNL. All patients received a single preoperative dose of antibiotics within 60 minutes of the start of surgery. Fisher exact test was used to compare the rate of SIRS by preoperative antibiotic length. Results Of the 292 patients identified, 138 (47.3%) had sterile urine and met high-risk criteria, of which 27 (19.6%), 39 (28.3%), and 72 (52.2%) received 7, 2, and 0 days of preoperative antibiotics, respectively. The 3 groups were similar in age, sex, and duration of surgery (p>0.05). There was no difference in the rate of SIRS between the groups, with 1 of 27 (3.7%), 2 of 39 (5.1%) and 3 of 72 patients (4.2%) meeting criteria in the 7, 2, and 0 days antibiotic groups (p=~1). Conclusions Extended preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis was not found to reduce the risk of SIRS after PCNL in our institutional experience of high-risk patients. For these patients, a single preoperative dose of antibiotics is sufficient. PMID:27847915

  2. Preoperative Antihypertensive Medication in Relation to Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ai-Guo; Chen, An-ji; Zhang, Xiong-fei; Deng, Hui-wei

    2017-01-01

    Background. We undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of preoperative hypertension and preoperative antihypertensive medication to postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to March 2016) for eligible studies. The outcomes were the effects of preoperative hypertension, preoperative calcium antagonists regimen, preoperative ACE inhibitors regimen, and preoperative beta blocking agents regimen with POAF. We calculated pooled risk ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Twenty-five trials involving 130087 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that the number of preoperative hypertension patients in POAF group was significantly higher (P < 0.05), while we found that there are no significant differences between two groups in Asia patients by subgroup analysis, which is in contrast to other outcomes. Compared with the Non-POAF group, the number of patients who used calcium antagonists and ACE inhibitors preoperatively in POAF group was significantly higher (P < 0.05). And we found that there were no significant differences between two groups of preoperative beta blocking agents used (P = 0.08). Conclusions. Preoperative hypertension and preoperative antihypertensive medication in patients undergoing cardiac operations seem to be associated with higher risk of POAF. PMID:28286753

  3. Analysing a family-centred preoperative intervention programme: a dismantling approach

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, M. A.; Blount, R. L.; Wang, S.-M.; Mayes, L. C.; Kain, Z. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The goal of this project was to identify key effective components of ADVANCE, a family-centred preoperative intervention programme, through the use of a dismantling approach. ADVANCE was previously demonstrated to be more effective than parental presence and just as effective as midazolam in reducing children's preoperative anxiety. The total programme, however, may be difficult to implement in hospitals across the country. Methods Subjects in this follow-up dismantling report were 96 children aged 2–10 who were part of the original study and who underwent anaesthesia and surgery. Baseline characteristics, parental adherence to the components of ADVANCE, and child and parent anxiety were assessed. Results We found that greater parental adherence to the ADVANCE intervention was associated with lower child anxiety before surgery. The two components of ADVANCE that emerged as having a significant impact on children's anxiety were practising with the anaesthesia mask at home and parental planning and use of distraction in the preoperative holding area. In fact, not only did children experience significantly less preoperative anxiety when their parents were adherent to mask practise and use of distraction, their anxiety tended to remain stable and relatively low throughout the preoperative period. Conclusions Shaping and exposure (i.e. practise with the anaesthesia mask) and parental use of distraction in the surgical setting are two beneficial components that could be included in preoperative preparation programmes that will be designed in the future. PMID:21324929

  4. Prospective clinical observational study evaluating gender-associated differences of preoperative pain intensity

    PubMed Central

    Tafelski, Sascha; Kerper, Léonie F; Salz, Anna-Lena; Spies, Claudia; Reuter, Eva; Nachtigall, Irit; Schäfer, Michael; Krannich, Alexander; Krampe, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies reported conflicting results concerning different pain perceptions of men and women. Recent research found higher pain levels in men after major surgery, contrasted by women after minor procedures. This trial investigates differences in self-reported preoperative pain intensity between genders before surgery. Patients were enrolled in 2011 and 2012 presenting for preoperative evaluation at the anesthesiological assessment clinic at Charité University hospital. Out of 5102 patients completing a computer-assisted self-assessment, 3042 surgical patients with any preoperative pain were included into this prospective observational clinical study. Preoperative pain intensity (0–100 VAS, visual analog scale) was evaluated integrating psychological cofactors into analysis. Women reported higher preoperative pain intensity than men with median VAS scores of 30 (25th–75th percentiles: 10–52) versus 21 (10–46) (P < 0.001). Adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that female gender remained statistically significantly associated with higher pain intensity (P < 0.001). Gender differences were consistent across several subgroups especially with varying patterns in elderly. Women scheduled for minor and moderate surgical procedures showed largest differences in overall pain compared to men. This large clinical study observed significantly higher preoperative pain intensity in female surgical patients. This gender difference was larger in the elderly potentially contradicting the current hypothesis of a primary sex-hormone derived effect. The observed variability in specific patient subgroups may help to explain heterogeneous findings of previous studies. PMID:27399095

  5. Flexible ureteroscopy for renal stone without preoperative ureteral stenting shows good prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaqiao; Xu, Chuou; He, Deng; Lu, Yuchao; Hu, Henglong; Qin, Baolong; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Qing; Li, Cong; Liu, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To clarify the outcome of flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) for management of renal calculi without preoperative stenting. Methods A total of 171 patients who received 176 fURS procedures for unilateral renal stones were reviewed. All procedures were divided into two groups depending on whether they received ureteral stenting preoperatively. Baseline characteristics of patients, stone burden, operation time, stone-free rates, and complications were compared between both groups. Results Successful primary access to the renal pelvis was achieved in 104 of 114 (91.2%) patients without preoperative stenting, while all procedures with preoperative stenting (n = 62) were successfully performed. A total of 156 procedures were included for further data analysis (56 procedures in stenting group and 100 in non-stenting group). No significant differences was found regardless of a preoperative stent placement in terms of stone-free rate (73.2% with stenting vs. 71.0% without, P = 0.854), operative time (70.4 ± 32.8 with stenting vs. 70.2 ± 32.1 without, P = 0.969). Conclusions fURS for management of renal stone without preoperative ureteral stenting are associated with well outcome in short term follow-up. Our study may help patients and doctors to decide if an optional stent is placed or not. PMID:27917317

  6. Preoperative zoledronic acid therapy prevent hungry bone syndrome in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Mayilvaganan, Sabaretnam; Vijaya Sarathi, H. A.; Shivaprasad, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hungry bone syndrome is a common complication of surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism in India which often leads to prolonged hospitalization. There are varying reports on the use and efficacy of bisphosphonates in the prevention of hungry bone syndrome. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the effect of preoperative bisphosphonate therapy on rates of hungry bone syndrome in our patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. A total of 19 patients underwent surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism at our institute between January 2013 and June 2015 among whom eight did not receive preoperative bisphosphonates and 11 received intravenous zoledronic acid 4 mg, 24–48 h preoperatively. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to age, gender, duration of symptoms, preoperative serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and the presence of radiological evidence of hyperparathyroid bone disease also did not differ between the groups. Three out of the eight patients who did not receive preoperative zoledronic acid therapy had hungry bone syndrome but none in the zoledronic acid group. The prevalence of hungry bone syndrome tended to be lower in the zoledronic acid group (P = 0.058). The need for intravenous calcium and duration of postoperative hospital stay were significantly lesser in the zoledronic acid group. Conclusion: Preoperative intravenous zoledronic acid significantly reduces the need for intravenous calcium therapy and duration of postoperative hospital stay and seems a promising option to reduce the rate of hungry bone syndrome in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:28217502

  7. Preoperative risk factors of malnutrition for cardiac surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Donata, Ringaitienė; Dalia, Gineitytė; Vaidas, Vicka; Tadas, Žvirblis; Jūratė, Šipylaitė; Algimantas, Irnius; Juozas, Ivaškevičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition (MN) is prevalent in cardiac surgery, but there are no specific preoperative risk factors of MN. The aim of this study is to assess the clinically relevant risk factors of MN for cardiac surgery patients. Materials and methods. The nutritional state of the patients was evaluated one day prior to surgery using a bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle (PA). Two groups of patients were generated according to low PA: malnourished and well nourished. Risk factors of MN were divided into three clinically relevant groups: psychosocial and lifestyle factors, laboratory findings and disease-associated factors. Variables in each different group were entered into separate multivariate logistic regression models. Results. A total of 712 patients were included in the study. The majority of them were 65-year old men after a CABG procedure. Low PA was present in 22.9% (163) of patients. The analysis of disease-related factors of MN revealed the importance of heart functions (NYHA IV class OR: 3.073, CI95%: 1.416–6.668, p = 0.007), valve pathology (OR: 1.825, CI95%: 1.182–2.819, p = 0.007), renal insufficiency (OR: 4.091, CI95%: 1.995–8.389, p < 0.001) and body mass index (OR: 0.928, CI95%: 0.890–0.968, p < 0.001). Laboratory values related to MN were levels of haemoglobin (OR: 0.967, CI95%: 0.951–0.983, p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (OR: 1.015, CI95%: 1.002–1.028, p = 0.0279). The lifestyle variables that qualified as risk factors concerned the intake of food (OR: 3.030, CI95%: 1.353–6.757, p = 0.007) and mobility (OR: 2.770, CI95%: 1.067–7.194, p = 0.036). Conclusions. MN risk factors comprise three different clinical groups: psychosocial and lifestyle factors, laboratory findings and disease-associated factors. The patients who are most likely to be malnourished are those with valve pathology, severe imparted heart function, insufficient renal function and high inflammatory markers. Also these patients have decreased mobility

  8. Preoperative use of pregabalin for acute pain in spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-liang; Huang, Shuang; Song, Jiang; Wang, Xiang; Cao, Zhong-shu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for pain management following spine surgery. Methods: In September 2016, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. RCTs of patients prepared for spine surgery that compared pregabalin with placebo were retrieved. The primary endpoint was the VAS score with rest or mobilization at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours and cumulative morphine consumption at 24 hours and 48 hours. The secondary outcomes were complications of nausea, sedation, dizziness, headache, and visual disturbances. After testing for publication bias and heterogeneity between studies, data were aggregated for random-effects models when necessary. Results: Ten clinical studies with 535 patients (pregabalin group = 294, control group = 241) were included in the meta-analysis. Pregabalin was associated with reduced pain scores at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours, corresponding to a reduction of 1.91 points (95% CI, –4.07 to 0.24 point) at 12 hours, 2.66 points (95% CI, –4.51 to –0.81 point) at 24 hours, and 4.33 points (95% confidence interval, –6.38 to –2.99 point) at 48 hours on a 100-point numeric rating scale. There was no significant difference between VAS scores with mobilization at 12 hours, 24 hours, or 48 hours. Similarly, pregabalin was associated with a reduction in cumulative morphine consumption at 24 hours (–7.07, 95% CI –9.84, –4.30) and 48 hours (–6.52, 95% CI –7.78, –5.25, P = 0.000). Furthermore, pregabalin can reduce the occurrence of nausea (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41, 0.79, P = 0.001, number needed to treat = 8.4). There were no significant differences in the occurrence of sedation, dizziness, headache, or visual disturbances. Conclusions: Preoperative use of pregabalin was

  9. Functional connectivity networks for preoperative brain mapping in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hart, Michael G; Price, Stephen J; Suckling, John

    2016-08-26

    OBJECTIVE Resection of focal brain lesions involves maximizing the resection while preserving brain function. Mapping brain function has entered a new era focusing on distributed connectivity networks at "rest," that is, in the absence of a specific task or stimulus, requiring minimal participant engagement. Central to this frame shift has been the development of methods for the rapid assessment of whole-brain connectivity with functional MRI (fMRI) involving blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging. The authors appraised the feasibility of fMRI-based mapping of a repertoire of functional connectivity networks in neurosurgical patients with focal lesions and the potential benefits of resting-state connectivity mapping for surgical planning. METHODS Resting-state fMRI sequences with a 3-T scanner and multiecho echo-planar imaging coupled to independent component analysis were acquired preoperatively from 5 study participants who had a right temporoparietooccipital glioblastoma. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was performed with InstaCorr. Network identification focused on 7 major functional connectivity networks described in the literature and a putative language network centered on Broca's area. RESULTS All 8 functional connectivity networks were identified in each participant. Tumor-related topological changes to the default mode network were observed in all participants. In addition, each participant had at least 1 other abnormal network, and each network was abnormal in at least 1 participant. Individual patterns of network irregularities were identified with a qualitative approach and included local displacement due to mass effect, loss of a functional network component, and recruitment of new regions. CONCLUSIONS Resting-state fMRI can reliably and rapidly detect common functional connectivity networks in patients with glioblastoma and also has sufficient sensitivity for identifying patterns of network alterations. Mapping of functional

  10. Preoperative evaluation of renal artery in patients with renal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liangsong; Wu, Guangyu; Wang, Jianfeng; Huang, Jiwei; Kong, Wen; Chen, Yonghui; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the feasibility of the noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) to evaluate renal arteries before partial nephrectomy (PN). Retrospective analyzed 479 patients who underwent renal surgery between January 2013 and December 2015 with NCE-MRA or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) renal artery image reconstruction preoperative in our department. The renal artery reconstruction score (RARS) was based on the level of artery visualization in a 4-class criterion, and the R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score (R.E.N.A.L), arterial based complexity (ABC) were also analyzed. Of the 479 patients, the overall-lever RARS was 3.62, and the average in 2 groups was no significant difference (NCE-MRA vs CTA, P = 0.072). The performance of NCE-MRA in PN group was similar with CTA. Further comparison demonstrated that the efficiency of NCE-MRA in moderate- or low-degree tumor according to the R.E.N.A.L and ABC complexity less than 3S was equal to CTA. However, high degree (P < 0.001), 3S (P = 0.027), or 3H (P < 0.001) would affect the imaging of renal artery. Intragroup analysis showed that tumor complexity such as max tumor size (r = −o.351, P < 0.001), R.E.N.A.L (r = −0.439, P < 0.001), and ABC (r = −0.619, P < 0.001) were closely correlated with the NCE-MRA performance. The images of 2 sides of the kidney were compared in single person as well, which was meaningful for NCE-MRA patients only (NCE-MRA, P < 0.001; CTA, P = 0.182). The renal artery reconstruction performed by NCE-MRA is feasible and has a similar achievement in the PN potential recipients, with a lower side effect, and meets the requirements for making surgical decision. It has a broad application prospect in clinical practice; however, it still needs to further improve the ability in more complex tumors. PMID:27759632

  11. Pre-operative nutritional assessment in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Corish, C A

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional depletion has been frequently documented in adult surgical patients admitted to hospital with nutritional status being known to deteriorate over the course of the hospital stay. In the elderly in particular, undernutrition has serious implications for health and for recovery from illness or surgery. This, in turn, has cost implications for the health service and the efficient distribution of health care. Because nutritional depletion is often insidious, nutritional problems frequently go unrecognised and untreated. Nutritional screening and assessment of nutritional status should therefore form an essential part of the health care of any elderly patient who requires surgical intervention. This paper aims to review the screening and assessment techniques currently available and their applicability to the elderly surgical patient.

  12. Outpatient Preoperative Education Needs Identified by Nurses and Patients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Quality of care can be measured by outcomes that are a result of patient education . The emphasis on ambulatory surgery and the accompanying minimum lengths...34, "move them out" routine may perpetuate insensitivity to patients, decrease patient education , and distance nurses from realizing what is most...important to their patients. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations Standards (JCAHO) (1997) state the goal of patient education is

  13. Reviewing Cancer Care Team Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Weaver, Sallie; Salas, Eduardo; Chollette, Veronica; Edwards, Heather M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Kosty, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The management of cancer varies across its type, stage, and natural history. This necessitates involvement of a variety of individuals and groups across a number of provider types. Evidence from other fields suggests that a team-based approach helps organize and optimize tasks that involve individuals and groups, but team effectiveness has not been fully evaluated in oncology-related care. Methods: We undertook a systematic review of literature published between 2009 and 2014 to identify studies of all teams with clear membership, a comparator group, and patient-level metrics of cancer care. When those teams included two or more people with specialty training relevant to the care of patients with cancer, we called them multidisciplinary care teams (MDTs). After reviews and exclusions, 16 studies were thoroughly evaluated: two addressing screening and diagnosis, 11 addressing treatment, two addressing palliative care, and one addressing end-of-life care. The studies included a variety of end points (eg, adherence to quality indicators, patient satisfaction with care, mortality). Results: Teams for screening and its follow-up improved screening use and reduced time to follow-up colonoscopy after an abnormal screen. Discussion of cases within MDTs improved the planning of therapy, adherence to recommended preoperative assessment, pain control, and adherence to medications. We did not see convincing evidence that MDTs affect patient survival or cost of care, or studies of how or which MDT processes and structures were associated with success. Conclusion: Further research should focus on the association between team processes and structures, efficiency in delivery of care, and mortality. PMID:25873056

  14. Preoperative evaluation and outcome of corneal transplantation for limbal dermoids: a ten-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Meng; Gong, Yue-Rong; Jiang, Shan-Hao; Dai, Chun-Hua; Li, Su-Xia; Shi, Wei-Yun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To summarize preoperative evaluation and outcome of corneal transplantation for limbal dermoids for ten years. METHODS Eighty-five patients diagnosed with limbal dermoids and treated with corneal transplantation were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were further divided into two groups according to absence or presence of neovascularization surrounding the dermoids in the corneal stroma. Eighty-two eyes were treated with tumor excision combined with partial lamellar sclerokeratoplasty, and the other three eyes were performed by penetrating keratoplasty. The size and location of the tumor, the associated ocular and systemic anomalies, the depth of the corneal penetration of tumor tissues, the preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), graft survival and cosmetic outcome, and surgical complications were recorded respectively. RESULTS The average age at surgery was 5.3y (range, 3mo-36y). The mean size of dermoids was 6.1±1.6 mm. The 43.5% of eyes (37/85) were present with hair at the surface of the dermoid and 72.9% of dermoids were located inferotemporal of the eye. Amplyopia was present in 34.1% of patients (29/85) and 9.4% of patients (8/85) had lipodermoids. Eighteen patients suffered from Goldenhar's syndrome with an accessory ear. The 75% of patients in group 1 had involvement of the corneal deep stroma down to Descemet's membrane without involving it, but 71.4% of patients had Descemet's membrane involvement in group 2. Preoperative BCVA ranged from counting fingers to 20/20. Postoperatively 81.1% had a BCVA of 20/800 or better. There was no significant difference between the post-surgical BCVA of the two groups (t=1.584, P>0.05). The grafts of 70.5% patients were present as 1+ opacity, 21.1% as 2+ opacity, 8.2% as 3+ opacity and none as 4+ opacity. Surgical complications included graft rejection, microperforation, prolonged reepithelialization, steroid glaucoma, interface neovascularization, and interface hemorrhage

  15. Hydro-dynamic CT preoperative staging of gastric cancer: correlation with pathological findings. A prospective study of 107 cases.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, F; Zingarelli, A; Palli, D; Grani, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dynamic CT in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer. One hundred seven patients affected by gastric cancer diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy were prospectively staged by dynamic CT prior to tumor resection. After an oral intake of 400-600 ml of tap water and an intravenous infusion of a hypotonic agent, 200 ml of non-ionic contrast agent were administered by power injector using a biphasic technique. The CT findings were prospectively analyzed and correlated with the pathological findings at surgery. The accuracy of dynamic CT for tumor detection was 80 and 99% in early and advanced gastric cancer, respectively, with overall detection rate of 96% (103 of 107). Three early (pT1) and one advanced (pT2) cancers were undetected. Tumor stage as determined by dynamic CT agreed with pathological findings in 83 of 107 patients with an overall accuracy of 78%. The accuracy of CT in detecting increasing degrees of depth of tumor invasion when compared with pathological TNM staging was 20% (3 of 15) and 87% (80 of 92) in early and advanced cancer, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CT in the preoperative staging (pT3-pT4 vs pT1-pT2) was 93, 90, and 91.6%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CT in assessing metastasis to regional lymph nodes was 97.2, 65.7, and 87%, respectively. Computed tomography correctly staged liver metastases in 105 of 107 patients with an overall sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 99 %. The sensitivity of peritoneal involvement was 30% when ascites or peritoneal nodules were absent. Our findings show that dynamic CTcan play a role in the preoperative definition of gastric cancer stage. The results can be used to optimize the therapeutic strategy for each individual patient prior to surgery, thus avoiding unnecessary intervention and allowing careful planning of extended surgery in eligible patients.

  16. Preoperative evaluation of the adult patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Stefan; Imberger, Georgina; Carlisle, John; Diemunsch, Pierre; Fritsch, Gerhard; Moppett, Iain; Solca, Maurizio; Staender, Sven; Wappler, Frank; Smith, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of these guidelines on the preoperative evaluation of the adult non-cardiac surgery patient is to present recommendations based on available relevant clinical evidence. The ultimate aims of preoperative evaluation are two-fold. First, we aim to identify those patients for whom the perioperative period may constitute an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, aside from the risks associated with the underlying disease. Second, this should help us to design perioperative strategies that aim to reduce additional perioperative risks. Very few well performed randomised studies on the topic are available and many recommendations rely heavily on expert opinion and are adapted specifically to the healthcare systems in individual countries. This report aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject with an assessment of the quality of the evidence in order to allow anaesthetists all over Europe to integrate - wherever possible - this knowledge into daily patient care. The Guidelines Committee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) formed a task force with members of subcommittees of scientific subcommittees and individual members of the ESA. Electronic databases were searched from the year 2000 until July 2010 without language restrictions. These searches produced 15 425 abstracts. Relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys were selected. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system was used to assess the level of evidence and to grade recommendations. The final draft guideline was posted on the ESA website for 4 weeks and the link was sent to all ESA members, individual or national (thus including most European national anaesthesia societies). Comments were collated and the guidelines amended as appropriate. When the final draft was complete, the Guidelines Committee and ESA Board ratified the guidelines.

  17. Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  18. Elevated preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and the incidence of venous thromboembolism in Japanese females with gynecological cancer.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Junichi; Seki, Noriko; Fukushima, Chikako; Kusumoto, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Keiichiro; Hongo, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of increased levels of D-dimer and associated factors in preoperative patients with gynecological cancer. Furthermore, we determined the incidence and risk factors associated with preoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Overall, 456 patients with invasive gynecological cancer scheduled to undergo surgery were recruited. Preoperative plasma D-dimer levels were measured and patients whose plasma D-dimer concentration exceeded the pre-set cut-off value underwent computed tomography scanning. The incidence of elevated D-dimer and VTE was identified as significantly higher in patients with ovarian cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed that advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were independent factors for preoperative elevations in plasma D-dimer levels. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE. Massive ascites and the presence of co-morbidities were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in ovarian cancer. Advanced age and stage were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE in endometrial cancer. Advanced age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in cervical cancer. Plasma D-dimer levels and the incidence of preoperative VTE were higher in patients with ovarian cancer compared with those with other gynecological cancers. Advanced age, low hemoglobin levels and elevated CRP levels were significant factors associated with elevated plasma D-dimer levels and age was an independent risk factor for preoperative VTE in gynecological cancer.

  19. Assessing patients for joint replacement: can pre-operative Oxford hip and knee scores be used to predict patient satisfaction following joint replacement surgery and to guide patient selection?

    PubMed

    Judge, A; Arden, N K; Price, A; Glyn-Jones, S; Beard, D; Carr, A J; Dawson, J; Fitzpatrick, R; Field, R E

    2011-12-01

    We obtained pre-operative and six-month post-operative Oxford hip (OHS) and knee scores (OKS) for 1523 patients who underwent total hip replacement and 1784 patients who underwent total knee replacement. They all also completed a six-month satisfaction question. Scatter plots showed no relationship between pre-operative Oxford scores and six-month satisfaction scores. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were -0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.09 to 0.01) between OHS and satisfaction and 0.04 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.08) between OKS and satisfaction. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify a cut-off point for the pre-operative OHS/OKS that identifies whether or not a patient is satisfied with surgery. We obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.51 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.56) for hip replacement and 0.56 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.60) for knee replacement, indicating that pre-operative Oxford scores have no predictive accuracy in distinguishing satisfied from dissatisfied patients. In the NHS widespread attempts are being made to use patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) data for the purpose of prioritising patients for surgery. Oxford hip and knee scores have no predictive accuracy in relation to post-operative patient satisfaction. This evidence does not support their current use in prioritising access to care.

  20. Effect of behavioral intervention using smartphone application for preoperative anxiety in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Jung, Han-Kil; Lee, Gang-geun; Kim, Han-Young; Park, Sun-Gyoo

    2013-01-01

    Background Children and parents experience significant anxiety and distress during the preoperative period. This is important because preoperative anxiety in children is associated with adverse postoperative outcome. So we suggest behaviorally oriented preoperative anxiety intervention program based on the anesthesia and psychology with smartphone application, world-widely used. Methods A total 120 patients (aged 1-10 years old) who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia was included in this randomized controlled trial. We randomized the patients into three groups, with using intravenous (IV) midazolam sedation (M group), with using smartphone application program (S group), and with using low dose IV midazolam plus smartphone application program (SM group). And the child anxiety was assessed using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) at holding area, 5 min after intervention, entrance to operating room. Results In all three groups, mYPAS after intervention were lower than the preoperative holding area (M group 52.8 ± 11.8 vs 41.0 ± 7.0, S group 59.2 ± 17.6 vs 36.4 ± 7.3, SM group 58.3 ± 17.5 vs 26.0 ± 3.4). A comparison of mYPAS scores between each group showed that the S group reduced anxiety lower than M group (P < 0.01), and the SM group exhibited significantly lower anxiety than the two other groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions The preoperative preparation program using smartphone application is simple and customized by individual development that effective in the reduction of preoperative anxiety. PMID:24427456

  1. An audit of preoperative fasting compliance at a major tertiary referral hospital in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hsien Jer; Lee, Hanjing; Ti, Lian Kah

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION To avoid the risk of pulmonary aspiration, fasting before anaesthesia is important. We postulated that the rate of noncompliance with fasting would be high in patients who were admitted on the day of surgery. Therefore, we surveyed patients in our institution to determine the rate of fasting compliance. We also examined patients’ knowledge on preoperative fasting, as well as their perception of and attitudes toward preoperative fasting. METHODS Patients scheduled for ‘day surgery’ or ‘same day admission surgery’ under general or regional anaesthesia were surveyed over a four-week period. The patients were asked to answer an eighteen-point questionnaire on demographics, preoperative fasting and attitudes toward fasting. RESULTS A total of 130 patients were surveyed. 128 patients fasted before surgery, 111 patients knew that they needed to fast for at least six hours before surgery, and 121 patients believed that preoperative fasting was important, with 103 believing that preoperative fasting was necessary to avoid perioperative complications. However, patient understanding was poor, with only 44.6% of patients knowing the reason for fasting, and 10.8% of patients thinking that preoperative fasting did not include abstinence from beverages and sweets. When patients who did and did not know the reason for fasting were compared, we did not find any significant differences in age, gender or educational status. CONCLUSION Despite the patients’ poor understanding of the reason for fasting, they were highly compliant with preoperative fasting. This is likely a result of their perception that fasting was important. However, poor understanding of the reason for fasting may lead to unintentional noncompliance. PMID:24452973

  2. Treatment Guidelines for Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Preliminary Consensus of an International Expert Panel

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Wang, Dian; Haas, Rick L.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Kirsch, David G.; Roberge, David; Salerno, Kilian; Deville, Curtiland; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; O'Sullivan, Brian; Petersen, Ivy A.; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Abrams, Ross A.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Evidence for external beam radiation therapy (RT) as part of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is limited. Preoperative RT is the subject of a current randomized trial, but the results will not be available for many years. In the meantime, many practitioners use preoperative RT for RPS, and although this approach is used in practice, there are no radiation treatment guidelines. An international expert panel was convened to develop consensus treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Methods and Materials: An expert panel of 15 academic radiation oncologists who specialize in the treatment of sarcoma was assembled. A systematic review of reports related to RT for RPS, RT for extremity sarcoma, and RT-related toxicities for organs at risk was performed. Due to the paucity of high-quality published data on the subject of RT for RPS, consensus recommendations were based largely on expert opinion derived from clinical experience and extrapolation of relevant published reports. It is intended that these clinical practice guidelines be updated as pertinent data become available. Results: Treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS are presented. Conclusions: An international panel of radiation oncologists who specialize in sarcoma reached consensus guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Many of the recommendations are based on expert opinion because of the absence of higher level evidence and, thus, are best regarded as preliminary. We emphasize that the role of preoperative RT for RPS has not been proven, and we await data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study of preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with RPS. Further data are also anticipated pertaining to normal tissue dose constraints, particularly for bowel tolerance. Nonetheless, as we await these data, the guidelines herein can be used to establish treatment uniformity to aid future assessments of efficacy

  3. Preoperative education for lumbar radiculopathy: A survey of US spine surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Adriaan; Butler, David S.; Diener, Ina; Puentedura, Emilio J.

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to determine current utilization, importance, content, and delivery methods of preoperative education by spine surgeons in the United States for patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was used to study a random sample of spine surgeons in the United States. The Spinal Surgery Education Questionnaire (SSEQ) was developed based on previous related surveys and assessed for face and content validity by an expert panel. The SSEQ captured information on demographics, content, delivery methods, utilization, and importance of preoperative education as rated by surgeons. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the current utilization, importance, content, and delivery methods of preoperative education by spine surgeons in the United States for patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Results Of 200 surgeons, 89 (45% response rate) responded to the online survey. The majority (64.2%) provide preoperative education informally during the course of clinical consultation versus a formal preoperative education session. The mean time from the decision to undergo surgery to the date of surgery was 33.65 days. The highest rated educational topics are surgical procedure (96.3%), complications (96.3%), outcomes/expectations (93.8%), anatomy (92.6%), amount of postoperative pain expected (90.1%), and hospital stay (90.1%). Surgeons estimated spending approximately 20% of the preoperative education time specifically addressing pain. Seventy-five percent of the surgeons personally provide the education, and nearly all surgeons (96.3%) use verbal communication with the use of a spine model. Conclusions Spine surgeons believe that preoperative education is important and use a predominantly biomedical approach in preparing patients for surgery. Larger studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:25694882

  4. "I feel your pain": a research study addressing perianesthesia health care providers' knowledge and attitudes toward pain.

    PubMed

    Burns, Julie; Magee, Kerstin T; Cooley, Hayley; Hensler, Anne; Montana, Joanne; Shumaker, Daria; Snyder, Jane; Polk, Artisha R

    2010-02-01

    Patients' feedback about their perianesthesia experience at an acute care 609-bed teaching hospital in Washington, DC, indicated that pain management was an area in need of improvement. A nonexperimental descriptive study related to pain management was conducted in the perianesthesia areas to assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers. McCaffrey and Ferrell's 38-item self-report questionnaire was given to anesthesia providers, preoperative nurses, Phase I nurses, and Phase II nurses (N=138). Seventy-two participants responded, yielding a 52% response rate. Results showed a statistically significant difference between the scores of the anesthesia care providers and the preoperative area nurses and between the Phase I nurses and the preoperative nurses. No statistically significant differences were found between the anesthesia providers, and Phase I and Phase II nurses, indicating that at this hospital, nurses who provide postoperative care have similar knowledge and attitudes regarding pain as the anesthesia providers.

  5. Effects of preoperative physiotherapy in hip osteoarthritis patients awaiting total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Czyżewska, Anna; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Krawczak, Karolina; Cabaj, Dominika; Górecki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) claimed osteoarthritis as a civilization-related disease. The effectiveness of preoperative physiotherapy among patients suffering hip osteoarthritis (OA) at the end of their conservative treatment is rarely described in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and musculoskeletal health status of patients who received preoperative physiotherapy before total hip replacement (THR) surgery within a year prior to admission for a scheduled THR and those who did not. Material and methods Forty-five patients, admitted to the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology of Locomotor System for elective total hip replacement surgery, were recruited for this study. The assessment consisted of a detailed interview using various questionnaires: the Harris Hip Score (HHS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), as well as physical examination. Patients were assigned to groups based on their attendance of preoperative physiotherapy within a year prior to surgery. Results Among patients who received preoperative physiotherapy a significant improvement was found for pain, daily functioning, vitality, psychological health, social life, and (active and passive) internal rotation (p < 0.05). Conclusions Patients are not routinely referred to physiotherapy within a year before total hip replacement surgery. This study confirmed that pre-operative physiotherapy may have a positive influence on selected musculoskeletal system status indicators and quality of life in hip osteoarthritis patients awaiting surgery. PMID:25395951

  6. Incidence, Natural History, and Patterns of Locoregional Recurrence in Gastric Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Mansfield, Paul F.; Bhosale, Priya R.; Kim, Michelle; Das, Prajnan; Janjan, Nora A.; Delclos, Marc E.; Lowy, Andrew M.; Feig, Barry W.; Pisters, Peter W.T.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the incidence and patterns (in-field, marginal, or out-of-field) of locoregional gastric cancer recurrence in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy and to determine the outcome in these patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2004, 149 patients with gastric carcinoma were treated according to institutional protocols with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Ultimately, 105 patients had an R0 resection. Of these 105 patients, 65 received preoperative chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and 40 received preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Most (96%) of these patients received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy during radiotherapy, and the median radiation dose was 45 Gy. We retrospectively identified and classified the patterns of locoregional recurrence. Results: The 3-year actuarial incidence of locoregional recurrence was 13%, with locoregional disease recurring as any part of the failure pattern in 14 patients. Most (64%) of the evaluable locoregional recurrences were in-field. Of the 4 patients with a marginal recurrence, 2 had had inadequate coverage of the regional nodal volumes on their oblique fields. The pathologic complete response rate was 23%. A pathologic complete response was the only statistically significant predictor of locoregional control. Conclusion: Patients with gastric cancer who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy had low rates of locoregional recurrence. This strategy merits prospective multi-institutional and randomized evaluation.

  7. Preoperative Expectations and Postoperative Outcomes of Visual Functioning among Cataract Patients in Urban Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Bo; Gao, Wuyou; Zuo, Yajing; Peng, Wenyan; Jin, Ling; Yu, Minbin; Lamoureux, Ecosse

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between preoperative expectations and actual postoperative outcomes of visual function (VF) among patients undergoing first eye cataract surgery. Methods A longitudinal study of 182 patients from hospitals in urban Southern China were surveyed prior to surgery and 3 month after cataract surgery regarding their preoperative, expected postoperative and actual postoperative VF for each of the items on the Catquest-9SF and their satisfaction with cataract surgery. In addition, detailed clinical data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively. Results The majority of cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for VF outcomes after cataract surgery and in most cases postoperative outcomes achieved the expected level of improvement. The mean (standard deviation, SD) preoperative Catquest-9SF score was 15.7 (5.86) and the mean (SD) expected postoperative score was 26.3 (2.93). The discrepancy between actual and expected improvement was significantly correlated with patients’ health literacy, presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity, preoperative visual acuity of the surgery eye, LOCS III nuclear opalescence and cortical cataract grading. Conclusion Cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for surgery outcomes. Patients with low level of health literacy and the presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity may need a comprehensive counseling to decrease the discrepancy regarding expected and actual outcomes. PMID:28068402

  8. Management of Rectal Cancer: Short- vs. Long-Course Preoperative Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed Marks, John; Marks, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    There is considerable debate on the optimum approach to neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer. This review of major published studies of short-course preoperative radiation and the more conventional approach of long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation was undertaken in an effort to understand the potential advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches. Studies were evaluated with regard to patient selection, clinical outcomes, and toxicities. Short-course preoperative radiation has shown a clear advantage over surgery alone in reducing local recurrence rates and improving survival of patients with rectal cancer. However, studies using short-course preoperative treatment have included a significant number of early (30%; Stage I/II) and more proximal cancers yet appear to have higher positive margin rates, higher abdominoperineal resection rates, and lower aggregate survival than patients treated with long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Although long-course preoperative chemoradiation is associated with higher rates of reversible acute toxicity, there appears to be more significant and a higher rate of late gastrointestinal toxicity observed in short-course preoperative radiation studies. Patient convenience and lower cost of treatment, however, can be a significant advantage in using a short-course treatment schedule. Selective utilization of either of these approaches should be based on extent of disease and goals of treatment. Patients with distal cancers or more advanced disease (T3/T4) appear to have better outcomes with neoadjuvant chemoradiation, especially where downstaging of disease is critical for more complete surgical resection and sphincter preservation.

  9. Right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device insertion: preoperative risk factors.

    PubMed

    Santambrogio, Luisa; Bianchi, Tiziana; Fuardo, Marinella; Gazzoli, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Roberto; Braschi, Antonio; Maurelli, Marco

    2006-08-01

    Right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device placement is the major concern on weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and it is one of the most serious complications in the postoperative period. This complication has a poor prognosis and is generally unpredictable. The identification of pre-operative risk factor for this serious complication is incomplete yet. In order to determine pre-operative risk for severe right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device support we analyzed preoperative hemodynamics, laboratory data and characteristics of 48 patients who received Novacor (World Heart Corp., Ottawa, ON, Canada). We compared the data from the patients who developed right ventricular failure and the patients who did not. Right ventricular failure occurred in 16% of the patients. There was no significant difference between the groups in demographic characteristics. We identified as preoperative risk factors the pre-operative low mean pulmonary artery and the impairment of hepatic and renal function on laboratory data. Our results confirm in part the findings of the few previous studies. This information may be useful for the patient selection for isolated left ventricular assist device implantation, but other studies are necessary before establishing criteria for patient selection for univentricular support universally accepted.

  10. Incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm in patients after major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong Min; Cho, Chol Kyoon; Koh, Yang Seok; Kim, Hee Joon; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Despite hepatolithiasis being a risk factor for biliary neoplasm including cholangiocarcinoma, the incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm is unknown in patients with preoperative benign hepatolithiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm in patients who underwent major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis. Methods Between March 2005 and December 2015, 73 patients who underwent major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis were enrolled in this study. The incidence and pathological differentiation of concomitant biliary neoplasm were retrospectively determined by review of medical records. Postoperative complications after major hepatectomy were evaluated. Results Concomitant biliary neoplasm was pathologically confirmed in 20 patients (27.4%). Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BIN) was detected in 12 patients (16.4%), and 1 patient (1.4%) had intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), as the premalignant lesion. Cholangiocarcinoma was pathologically confirmed in 7 patients (9.6%). Preoperative imaging of the 73 patients revealed biliary stricture at the first branch of bile duct in 31 patients (42.5%), and at the second branch of bile duct in 39 patients (53.4%). Postoperative complications developed in 14 patients (19.1%). Almost all patients recovered from complications, including intra-abdominal abscess (9.6%), bile leakage (4.1%), pleural effusion (2.7%), and wound infection (1.4%). Only 1 patient (1.4%) died from aspiration pneumonia. Conclusions The incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm was not negligible in the patients with hepatolithiasis, despite meticulous preoperative evaluations. PMID:28261696

  11. Effect of Anaesthesia Method on Preoperative Anxiety Level in Elective Caesarean Section Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Akildiz, Mahmut; Aksoy, Yakup; Kaydu, Ayhan; Kaçar, Cem Kıvılcım; Şahin, Ömer Fatih; Yıldırım, Zeynep Baysal

    2017-01-01

    Objective In this study, the effect of the anaesthesia method on preoperative anxiety in parturients scheduled to undergo elective caesarean surgery was investigated. Methods After Dicle University Ethics Committee approval, 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II parturients, aged between 18 and 45 years, were included in this study from 2011 to 2012 at the Dicle University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anaesthesiology. The parturients were divided into two groups, with 50 patients in each group: general anaesthesia (GA) and spinal anaesthesia (SA). Patients were evaluated during the preoperative visit. Demographic data and STAI TX-1 form to measure preoperative anxiety were recorded. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in maternal age, gestational age, level of education and number of children (p>0.05). The average anxiety score was significantly higher in the SA group than in the GA group (p<0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, spinal anaesthesia is associated with a higher preoperative anxiety level than general anaesthesia in obstetric patients. Therefore, it is necessary to take prevention against preoperative anxiety for the patients undergoing caesarean section surgeries under spinal anaesthesia. PMID:28377838

  12. Minimum graft size calculated from preoperative recipient status in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Marubashi, Shigeru; Nagano, Hiroaki; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Wada, Hiroshi; Asaoka, Tadafumi; Tomimaru, Yoshito; Tomokuni, Akira; Umeshita, Koji; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    Small-for-size graft syndrome is an inevitable complication in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We hypothesized that graft weight (GW) measured after graft procurement is one of the variables predicting postoperative graft function. A total of 138 consecutive recipients of adult-to-adult LDLT between March 1999 and October 2014 were included in this study. We investigated the factors associated with small-for-size-associated graft loss (SAGL) to determine the GW required for each patient. Both preoperatively assessed and postoperatively obtained risk factors for SAGL were analyzed in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Twelve (8.8%) of the transplant recipients had SAGL. In multivariate logistic regression analyses using preoperatively assessed variables, the preoperative Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (P < 0.001) and actual GW/recipient standard liver volume (SLV) ratio (P = 0.008) were independent predictors of SAGL. The recommended graft volume by preoperative computed tomography volumetry was calculated as SLV × (1.616 × MELD + 0.344)/100/0.85 (mL) [MELD ≥ 18.2], or SLV × 0.35 (mL) [MELD < 18.2]. The required allograft volume in LDLT can be determined by the preoperative MELD score of the recipient, and patients with higher MELD scores require larger grafts or deceased donor whole liver transplant to avoid SAGL. Liver Transplantation 22 599-606 2016 AASLD.

  13. Research evidence for the use of preoperative exercise in patients preparing for total hip or total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Barbay, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative exercise/rehabilitation is currently being considered to improve outcomes for orthopaedic surgery. This article presents an evidence-based practice review of the current research literature from 1998 to 2008 to determine whether preoperative exercise alone will be beneficial to patients preparing for total knee or hip arthroplasty. Only 3 studies met the inclusion criteria of preoperative exercise as the sole intervention. Each of these studies indicated that preoperative exercise had some postoperative benefit to total knee or hip arthroplasty patients. In general, the results are inconclusive due to the lack of strong research evidence, and only a pragmatic recommendation for preoperative exercise prior to total hip or knee arthroplasty is supported. More research is needed in the area of preoperative exercise for persons preparing for total hip or knee arthroplasty.

  14. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guideline on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Frances; Memtsoudis, Stavros; Krishna Ramachandran, Satya; Nagappa, Mahesh; Opperer, Mathias; Cozowicz, Crispiana; Patrawala, Sara; Lam, David; Kumar, Anjana; Joshi, Girish P; Fleetham, John; Ayas, Najib; Collop, Nancy; Doufas, Anthony; Eikermann, Matthias; Englesakis, Marina; Gali, Bhargavi; Gay, Peter; Hernandes, Adrian; Kaw, Roop; Kezirian, Eric; Malhotra, Atul; Mokhlesi, Babak; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Stierer, Tracey; Wappler, Frank; Hillman, David R; Auckley, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is to present recommendations based on the available clinical evidence on the topic where possible. As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations were developed by experts in the field through consensus processes involving utilization of evidence grading to indicate the level of evidence upon which recommendations were based. This guideline may not be appropriate for all clinical situations and all patients. The decision whether to follow these recommendations must be made by a responsible physician on an individual basis. Protocols should be developed by individual institutions taking into account the patients' conditions, extent of interventions and available resources. This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The adherence to these guidelines cannot in any way guarantee successful outcomes and is rather meant to help individuals and institutions formulate plans to better deal with the challenges posed by perioperative patients with OSA. These recommendations reflect the current state of knowledge and its interpretation by a group of experts in the field at the time of publication. While these guidelines will be periodically updated, new information that becomes available between updates should be taken into account. Deviations in practice from guidelines may be justifiable and such deviations should not be interpreted as a basis for claims of negligence.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  15. Endovascular Preoperative Embolization of Orbital Hemangiopericytoma With n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Kaitlyn M.; Alaraj, Ali; Aakalu, Vinay K.; Aletich, Victor; Setabutr, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon neoplasm that may present in myriad locations, including the lower extremities, pelvic area, and the head and neck area, including the orbit.1 Orbital hemangiopericytoma is often described as synonymous with orbital solitary fibrous tumor, giant cell angiofibroma, and fibrous histiocytoma, as they all belong to a spectrum of collagen-rich fibroblastic tumors that are often CD34-positive and have overlapping histopathologic features.2 Many cases of orbital hemangiopericytoma have been reported in the literature along with various surgical approaches, long-term outcomes, and techniques to manage recurrence; however, few have discussed preoperative embolization.1,3-5 Intraoperative hemorrhage is a concern in both the congenital and the adult form of these cases6,7 and may be an indication for preoperative embolization. A unique case of preoperative embolization was presented with n-butyl cyanoacrylate for surgical resection of a large orbital hemangiopericytoma in a 58-year-old woman. PMID:24317100

  16. Preoperative preparation of patients with cardiomyopathies in non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bradić, Zeljko; Ivanović, Branislava; Marković, Dejan; Simić, Dusica; Janković, Radmilo; Kalezić, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies are myocardial diseases in which there is structural and functional disorder of the heart muscle, in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease and congenital heart disease. Cardiomyopathies are grouped into specific morphological and functional phenotypes: dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and unclassified cardiomyopathies. Patients with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomypathy are prone to the development of congestive heart failure in the perioperative period. Also, patients with hypertrophic and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy are prone to arrhythmias in the perioperative period. Preoperative evaluation includes history, physical examination, ECG, chest radiography, complete blood count, electrolytes, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, glucose, liver enzymes, urin analysis, BNP and echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function. Drug therapy should be optimized and continued preoperatively. Surgery should be delayed (unless urgent) in patients with decompensated or untreated cardiomyopathy. Preoperative evaluation requires integrated multidisciplinary approach of anesthesiologists, cardiologist and surgeons.

  17. Preoperative computerized dynamic posturography as a prognostic indicator of balance function in patients with acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Bergson, Eric; Sataloff, Robert T

    2005-03-01

    We conducted a study to determine the prognostic reliability of preoperative computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) in patients undergoing surgical excision of an acoustic neuroma. Our goal was to determine the correlation between objective preoperative assessments of balance function and subjective postoperative patient self-assessments. To that end, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 21 adults who had undergone preoperative CDP, and we subsequently obtained their subjective assessments of balance function by follow-up telephone surveys at least 1 year postoperatively. We conclude that although CDP has proven to be useful in many aspects of balance evaluation, it did not appear to be a valuable predictor of subjective postoperative balance function in these patients.

  18. Laparoscopically assisted splenectomy following preoperative splenic artery embolization using contour emboli for myelofibrosis with massive splenomegaly.

    PubMed

    Iwase, K; Higaki, J; Mikata, S; Tanaka, Y; Yoshikawa, M; Hori, S; Osuga, K; Kosugi, S; Tamaki, T; Kamiike, W

    1999-06-01

    Laparoscopically assisted splenectomy with an 8- to 10-cm left upper paramedian laparotomy was performed following preoperative splenic artery embolization using painless contour emboli (super absorbent polymer microsphere) with early successful results in two men (46 and 37 years old) with myelofibrosis accompanied by massive splenomegaly. Dissection around the lower part of the spleen and the hilum initially was performed intracorporeally with the usual laparoscopic view under 12 mm Hg pneumoperitoneum. The alternating changes of viewpoints between the direct view through an 8- to 10-cm incision and the usual laparoscopic view with or without application of a retraction method were effective for safe hilar devascularization. Preoperative splenic artery embolization at the distal site was effective for safe dissection around the enlarged spleen. The patients did not complain of pain before operation. Preoperative painless embolization and laparoscopically assisted splenectomy with small laparotomy promotes the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive splenectomy for myelofibrosis with massive splenomegaly.

  19. A Preoperative Medical History and Physical Should Not Be a Requirement for All Cataract Patients.

    PubMed

    Schein, Oliver D; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-03-20

    Cataract surgery poses minimal systemic medical risk, yet a preoperative general medical history and physical is required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other regulatory bodies within 1 month of cataract surgery. Based on prior research and practice guidelines, there is professional consensus that preoperative laboratory testing confers no benefit when routinely performed on cataract surgical patients. Such testing remains commonplace. Although not yet tested in a large-scale trial, there is also no evidence that the required history and physical yields a benefit for most cataract surgical patients above and beyond the screening performed by anesthesia staff on the day of surgery. We propose that the minority of patients who might benefit from a preoperative medical history and physical can be identified prospectively. Regulatory agencies should not constrain medical practice in a way that adds enormous cost and patient burden in the absence of value.

  20. Preoperative factors affecting the outcome of unruptured posterior circulation aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2011-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated preoperative variables contributing to adverse surgical outcome for repair of unruptured posterior circulation aneurysms on data collected prospectively between October 1989 and March 2010. Putative risk factors including age, sex, smoking status, positive family history, modified Rankin Score prior to the surgery, size of the aneurysm, specific site (basilar caput and trunk, vertebral artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery), midline location, presence of calcium, thrombus or irregularity in the aneurysm on preoperative imaging, associated arteriovenous malformation and preoperative coiling were investigated using regression analyses. In a total of 121 operations, surgical mortality and morbidity was 16.3%. For patients with aneurysms less than 9mm this rate was 3.2%. Among the investigated variables we found that size, calcification of the aneurysm and age were each predictors of surgical outcome of unruptured posterior circulation aneurysms.

  1. Influence of preoperative parenteral alimentation on postoperative growth in adolescent Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lake, A M; Kim, S; Mathis, R K; Walker, W A

    1985-04-01

    The postoperative growth rates achieved in eight early pubertal adolescent males with Crohn's disease undergoing surgery for obstructive complications is reported as a function of the use of 1 month's preoperative central venous alimentation. All patients had ileal strictures with ileocolitis, bone ages less than 13, Tanner stages 1 or 2, and growth velocities below the 3rd percentile for age. During a 3-year follow-up, those receiving preoperative venous alimentation demonstrated greater oral caloric intake (significant for 1 year) and greater postoperative growth velocity (significant for 2 years) in comparison to those patients who did not receive preoperative venous alimentation. There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients in postoperative weight gain, sexual development, and 3-year disease control.

  2. Continuum of Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Options Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care Hospice Care Brain Tumor Treatments Brain Tumor Treatment Locations ... Options Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care Hospice Care Brain Tumor Treatments Brain Tumor Treatment Locations ...

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  4. Home Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Based Care Nursing Homes Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Home Care Basic Facts & ... March 2013 Posted: March 2012 © 2017 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  5. Preoperative biliary drainage in Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Identifying patients who require percutaneous drainage after failed endoscopic drainage

    PubMed Central

    Wiggers, Jimme K; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; Coelen, Robert J; Rauws, Erik A; Schattner, Mark A; Nio, C Yung; Brown, Karen T; Gonen, Mithat; van Dieren, Susan; van Lienden, Krijn P; Allen, Peter J; Besselink, Marc GH; Busch, Olivier RC; D’Angelica, Michael I; DeMatteo, Robert P; Gouma, Dirk J; Kingham, T Peter; Jarnagin, William R; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims Preoperative biliary drainage is often initiated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with potentially resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC), but additional percutaneous transhepatic catheter (PTC) drainage is frequently required. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model to identify patients with a high risk of inadequate ERCP drainage. Patients and Methods Patients with potentially resectable PHC and preoperative (attempted) ERCP drainage were included from two specialty center cohorts between 2001 and 2013. Indications for additional PTC drainage were failure to place an endoscopic stent, failure to relieve jaundice, cholangitis, or insufficient drainage of the future liver remnant. A prediction model was derived from the European cohort and externally validated in the USA cohort. Results 108 of 288 patients (38%) required additional preoperative PTC after inadequate ERCP drainage. Independent risk factors for additional PTC were proximal biliary obstruction on preoperative imaging (Bismuth 3 or 4) and pre-drainage total bilirubin level. The prediction model identified three subgroups: patients with a low risk of 7%, a moderate risk of 40%, and a high risk of 62%. The high-risk group consisted of patients with a total bilirubin level above 150 μmol/L and Bismuth 3a or 4 tumours, who typically require preoperative drainage of the angulated left bile ducts. The prediction model had good discrimination (AUC 0.74) and adequate calibration in the external validation cohort. Conclusions Selected patients with potentially resectable PHC have a high risk (62%) of inadequate preoperative ERCP drainage requiring additional PTC. These patients might do better with initial PTC instead of ERCP. PMID:26382308

  6. Perioperative Complications of Total En Bloc Spondylectomy: Adverse Effects of Preoperative Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Noriaki; Murakami, Hideki; Demura, Satoru; Kato, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Takayoshi; Igarashi, Takashi; Fang, Xiang; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) is associated with a high complication rate because it is technically demanding and involves patients compromised by cancer. Specifically, perioperative complications are more likely to occur in patients receiving preoperative irradiation. We examined the perioperative complications associated with TES in patients receiving preoperative irradiation. Methods Seventy-seven patients underwent TES between May 2010 and April 2013. We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data for 50 patients with metastatic tumors of the thoracic spine, excluding patients with primary spinal tumors, lumbar spinal metastasis, and combined anterior and posterior approach TES. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with preoperative irradiation (RT-TES group, 18 patients) and those without preoperative irradiation (TES group, 32 patients). The following perioperative complications, occurring within 2 months of surgery, were compared between the groups: intraoperative dural injuries, epidural hematomas, deep surgical-site infections, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, wound dehiscence, pleural effusions, and neurological deficits. Results Significant differences in patient characteristics were not observed between the RT-TES and TES groups. Perioperative TES complications occurred in 20/50 patients (40.0%). The complication rate in the RT-TES group was 77.8% (14 out of 18), threefold higher than the 18.8% (6 out of 32) in the TES group (P<0.01). The incidence of complications, including intraoperative dural injuries, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, wound dehiscence, and pleural effusions, was significantly higher in the RT-TES group (P<0.01). Conclusion The perioperative complication rate associated with TES for spinal metastasis was significantly higher among patients receiving preoperative irradiation than among those not receiving preoperative irradiation. PMID:24893004

  7. Preoperative Therapy for Lower Rectal Cancer and Modifications in Distance From Anal Sphincter

    SciTech Connect

    Gavioli, Margherita Losi, Lorena; Luppi, Gabriele; Iacchetta, Francesco; Zironi, Sandra; Bertolini, Federica; Falchi, Anna Maria; Bertoni, Filippo; Natalini, Gianni

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the frequency and magnitude of changes in lower rectal cancer resulting from preoperative therapy and its impact on sphincter-saving surgery. Preoperative therapy can increase the rate of preserving surgery by shrinking the tumor and enhancing its distance from the anal sphincter. However, reliable data concerning these modifications are not yet available in published reports. Methods and Materials: A total of 98 cases of locally advanced cancer of the lower rectum (90 Stage uT3-T4N0-N+ and 8 uT2N+M0) that had undergone preoperative therapy were studied by endorectal ultrasonography. The maximal size of the tumor and its distance from the anal sphincter were measured in millimeters before and after preoperative therapy. Surgery was performed 6-8 weeks after therapy, and the histopathologic margins were compared with the endorectal ultrasound data. Results: Of the 90 cases, 82.5% showed tumor downsizing, varying from one-third to two-thirds or more of the original tumor mass. The distance between the tumor and the anal sphincter increased in 60.2% of cases. The median increase was 0.73 cm (range, 0.2-2.5). Downsizing was not always associated with an increase in distance. Preserving surgery was performed in 60.6% of cases. It was possible in nearly 30% of patients in whom the cancer had reached the anal sphincter before the preoperative therapy. The distal margin was tumor free in these cases. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that in very low rectal cancer, preoperative therapy causes tumor downsizing in >80% of cases and in more than one-half enhances the distance between the tumor and anal sphincter. These modifications affect the primary surgical options, facilitating or making sphincter-saving surgery possible.

  8. The role of preoperative ultrasonography, computed tomography, and sestamibi scintigraphy localization in secondary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Bok; Kim, Woo Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The role of preoperative localization studies is controversial in surgery of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). The aim of study was to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative ultrasonography (USG), CT, and 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI) in localizing enlarged parathyroid glands and to find the impact of correct localization in successful parathyroidectomy. Methods We compared operative findings with the preoperative localization of ultrasonography, computerized tomography and sestamibi scintigraphy in 109 patients with sHPT and identified well-visualized locations of abnormal parathyroid glands by evaluating the sensitivity of each imaging study with regard to typical locations of glands. We investigated the effect of preoperative imaging localization on the surgical outcomes by measuring the intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) decrement for positive or negative imaging localization. Results USG (91.5%) had the highest sensitivity and MIBI (56.1%) had the lowest among 3 modalities. The sensitivity of combined USG and CT (95.0%) was the highest among combined 2 modalities. The combination of all 3 modalities (95.4%) had the highest sensitivity among the combinations of modalities. The reduction of ioPTH in patients with positive imaging localization (86.6%) was greater than negative imaging localization (84.2%), with no significant difference (P = 0.586). The recurrence or persistence of sHPT was not correlated with preoperative imaging localization (19 patients in negative, 16 in positive; P = 0.14). Conclusion Preoperative imaging localization contributed to surgical success but not to surgical outcomes. The combination of ioPTH measurement with imaging localization might be valuable for better surgical results in sHPT. PMID:26665124

  9. Evaluation of Preoperative and Intraoperative RBC Transfusion Practices at Maputo Central Hospital, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Zachary; Chen, James; Conceicao, Celson; Hoffman, Risa; Miller, Lee; Taela, Atanasio; DeUgarte, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative and intraoperative blood transfusion practices in Hospital Central (Maputo, Mozambique) and estimate the number of potentially avoidable transfusions. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed. Age, comorbidities, hemoglobin, the potential for blood loss, and units of packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusions were recorded. Preoperative transfusions were evaluated to determine whether they met criteria established by the Mozambican Ministry of Health as well as proposed guidelines based on more restrictive protocols. Avoidable blood transfusions were defined as those preoperative transfusions that were not indicated based on these guidelines. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors that predicted transfusion. RESULTS Two-hundred and five patients (age range: 0.1 - 86 years) underwent surgery in the main operating room during the two-week study period. Overall, thirty-five (17%) patients received sixty-eight transfusions. Of these, thirty-six transfusions were given preoperatively and thirty-two were given intraoperatively. Thirty-six percent of preoperative transfusions were avoidable according to national guidelines. Ninety-two percent were avoidable using more restrictive guidelines. The primary predictors of preoperative blood transfusion were lower hemoglobin (odd's ratio 0.390 / 1 g/dl; p<0.0001) and the potential for blood loss (odd's ratio 3.73; p=0.0410). CONCLUSIONS Adherence to existing hemoglobin thresholds recommended by national blood transfusion guidelines could significantly reduce the number of transfusions and the association risk of transfusion-transmissible infections. Adoption of more restrictive guidelines is recommended to further improve blood transfusion utilization and further reduce the transmission risk of HIV and hepatitis. PMID:23692441

  10. Development of a preoperative predictive model for major complications following adult spinal deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Justin K; Smith, Justin S; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Bess, Shay; Daniels, Alan H; Hart, Robert A; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Mundis, Gregory M; Sciubba, Daniel M; Ailon, Tamir; Burton, Douglas C; Klineberg, Eric; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-03-24

    OBJECTIVE The operative management of patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has a high complication rate and it remains unknown whether baseline patient characteristics and surgical variables can predict early complications (intraoperative and perioperative [within 6 weeks]). The development of an accurate preoperative predictive model can aid in patient counseling, shared decision making, and improved surgical planning. The purpose of this study was to develop a model based on baseline demographic, radiographic, and surgical factors that can predict if patients will sustain an intraoperative or perioperative major complication. METHODS This study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective, multicenter ASD database. The inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years and the presence of ASD. In total, 45 variables were used in the initial training of the model including demographic data, comorbidities, modifiable surgical variables, baseline health-related quality of life, and coronal and sagittal radiographic parameters. Patients were grouped as either having at least 1 major intraoperative or perioperative complication (COMP group) or not (NOCOMP group). An ensemble of decision trees was constructed utilizing the C5.0 algorithm with 5 different bootstrapped models. Internal validation was accomplished via a 70/30 data split for training and testing each model, respectively. Overall accuracy, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, and predictor importance were calculated. RESULTS Five hundred fifty-seven patients were included: 409 (73.4%) in the NOCOMP group, and 148 (26.6%) in the COMP group. The overall model accuracy was 87.6% correct with an AUROC curve of 0.89 indicating a very good model fit. Twenty variables were determined to be the top predictors (importance ≥ 0.90 as determined by the model) and included (in decreasing importance): age, leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, number of decompression levels, number of

  11. Preoperative evaluation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with synchronous liver metastasis: Diagnosis and assessment of unresectability

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hao-Jun; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify predictors for synchronous liver metastasis from resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and assess unresectability of synchronous liver metastasis. METHODS Retrospective records of PDAC patients with synchronous liver metastasis who underwent simultaneous resections of primary PDAC and synchronous liver metastasis, or palliative surgical bypass, were collected from 2007 to 2015. A series of pre-operative clinical parameters, including tumor markers and inflammation-based indices, were analyzed by logistic regression to figure out predictive factors and assess unresectability of synchronous liver metastasis. Cox regression was used to identify prognostic factors in liver-metastasized PDAC patients after surgery, with intention to validate their conformance to the indications of simultaneous resections and palliative surgical bypass. Survival of patients from different groups were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Intra- and post-operative courses were compared, including complications. PDAC patients with no distant metastases who underwent curative resection served as the control group. RESULTS CA125 > 38 U/mL (OR = 12.397, 95%CI: 5.468-28.105, P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.343, 95%CI: 1.539-7.262, P = 0.002) independently predicted synchronous liver metastasis from resectable PDAC. CA125 > 62 U/mL (OR = 5.181, 95%CI: 1.612-16.665, P = 0.006) and age > 62 years (OR = 3.921, 95%CI: 1.217-12.632, P = 0.022) correlated with unresectability of synchronous liver metastasis, both of which also indicated a worse long-term outcome of liver-metastasized PDAC patients after surgery. After the simultaneous resections, patients with post-operatively elevated serum CA125 levels had shorter survival than those with post-operatively reduced serum CA125 levels (7.7 mo vs 16.3 mo, P = 0.013). The survival of liver-metastasized PDAC patients who underwent the simultaneous resections was similar to that of non-metastasized PDAC patients who

  12. Preoperative albumin level is a marker of alveolar echinococcosis recurrence after hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Joliat, Gaëtan-Romain; Labgaa, Ismail; Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify a preoperative blood marker predictive of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) recurrence after hepatectomy. METHODS All consecutive patients who underwent operation for liver AE at the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) between January 1992 and December 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative laboratory values of leukocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), thrombocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin were collected and analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors for AE recurrence after liver resection. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define the best discrimination threshold of the blood marker. Moreover, recurrence-free survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS The cohort included 68 adult patients (37 females) with median age of 61 years [interquartile range (IQR): 46-71]. Eight of the patients (12%) presented a recurrence over a median follow-up time of 76 mo (IQR: 34-128). Median time to recurrence was 10 mo (IQR: 6-11). Median preoperative leukocyte, MCV, RDW, thrombocyte and CRP levels were similar between recurrent and non-recurrent cases. Median preoperative albumin level was 43 g/L (IQR: 41-45) for non-recurrent cases and 36 g/L (IQR: 33-42) for recurrent cases (P = 0.005). The area under the ROC curve for preoperative albumin level to predict recurrence was 0.840 (95%CI: 0.642-1, P = 0.002). The cut-off albumin level value was 37.5 g/L for sensitivity of 94.5% and specificity of 75%. In multivariate analysis, preoperative albumin and surgical resection margins were independent predictors of AE recurrence (HR = 0.099, P = 0.007 and HR = 0.182, P = 0.045 respectively). CONCLUSION Low preoperative albumin level was associated with AE recurrence in the present cohort. Thus, preoperative albumin may be a useful biomarker to guide follow-up. PMID:28223729

  13. Computed tomography evaluation of the adrenal gland in the preoperative assessment of bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.; Madrazo, B.L.; Gitschlag, K.F.; Gross, S.C.

    1982-12-01

    One hundred ten patients with proved bronchogenic carcinoma who were undergoing computed tomography (CT) of the thorax also underwent CT of the adrenals to determine the value of routine preoperative assessement of this gland. Sixteen adrenal masses were found in 11 patients. In five patients the adrenals were the only site of metastasis. CT of the adrenals should be performed routinely when the thorax is examined pre-operatively in patients with non-oat-cell bronchogenic carcinoma to improve patient selection for thoractomy.

  14. Study of Preoperative Predictive Signs in Management of Facial Nerve in Parotid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    CHIRILA, Magdalena; MURESAN, Mihaela; BOLBOACA, Sorana D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To find preoperative predictive signs for better surgical planning of the facial nerve in parotid tumors. Methods: Prospective study in patients with primary parotid malignancies. Patients with primary parotid malignant tumor were investigated for preoperative clinical signs in correlation with histological findings and surgical management of the facial nerve. Outcomes: The study included 47 patients. Several clinical findings as facial pain, paresthesia, and rapid growth of tumor might suggest the risk of malignancy. Paresis/palsy of the facial nerve was correlates with direct neural involvement. Conclusion: There are several predictive clinical signs that might suggest malignancy of a parotid tumor. PMID:25553124

  15. Complications associated with preoperative radiation therapy and Iodine-125 brachytherapy for localized prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Flanigan, R.C.; Patterson, J.; Mendiondo, O.A.; Gee, W.F.; Lucas, B.A.; McRoberts, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-five consecutive patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with 1,050 rad preoperative radiation therapy and Iodine-125 seed brachytherapy are reviewed. Significant long-term postoperative complications included radiation cystitis (12%), radiation proctitis (4%), genital and leg edema (12%), stress incontinence (8%), total incontinence (4%), and impotence (26%). Complications occurred in 75 per cent of patients who received additional postoperative radiation. Improved staging with CT scan, lymphangiography, and Chiba needle biopsy of any possibly abnormal lymph nodes provided excellent preoperative staging with only 1 patient (6%) upstaged at surgery to Stage D1.

  16. Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium: a 5-year experience utilizing preoperative cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Belinson, J.L.; Spirou, B.; McClure, M.; Badger, G.; Pretorius, R.G.; Roland, T.A.

    1985-03-01

    A treatment protocol for the management of stage I endometrial carcinoma utilizing preoperative cesium is evaluated. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients were treated according to this protocol over a 5-year period. Based on this experience and a literature review a new protocol is recommended. The significant changes include primary surgery without preoperative cesium, primary treatment based on grade without regard to uterine size, modified radical hysterectomy for G3 tumors, pelvic radiotherapy for clear cell carcinoma confined to the pelvis regardless of depth of invasion, cytoxan, adriamycin, and cis-platinum for papillary serous tumors, and postoperative vaginal cuff cesium for G2 and G3 tumors not requiring pelvic radiotherapy.

  17. Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Initially published by the Children's Bureau in 1913, this pamphlet has been revised frequently. Its purpose is to point out the importance of medical care during pregnancy. Comfortable pregnancies, easy labor, and better care for their new infants are the usual concerns of prospective mothers. Consequently, this 1962 edition of "Prenatal Care"…

  18. [Preoperative evaluation and predictors of mortality in lung cancer resection].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Andrés; Opazo, Marcela; Hernández, Marcela; Ávila, Paulina; Villalobos, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Surgical resection of lung cancer, the only available curative option today, is strongly associated with mortality. The goal during the perioperative period is to identify and evaluate appropriate candidates for lung resection in a more careful way and reduce the immediate perioperative risk and posterior disability. This is a narrative review of perioperative risk assessment in lung cancer resection. Instruments designed to facilitate decision-making have been implemented in recent years but with contradictory results. Cardiovascular risk assessment should be the first step before a potential lung resection, considering that most of these patients are old, smokers and have atherosclerosis. Respiratory mechanics determined by postoperative forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), the evaluation of the alveolar-capillary membrane by diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide and cardiopulmonary function measuring the maximum O2 consumption, will give clues about the patient's respiratory and cardiac response to stress. With these assessments, the patient and its attending team can reach a treatment decision balancing the perioperative risk, the chances of survival and the pulmonary long-term disability.

  19. Who Cares for Care Leavers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Julie; Rodgers, Paul; West, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a programme of learning and development at the University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, to support looked-after children and care leavers (youth previously provided care outside or beyond family) throughout the student lifecycle. In this context, looked-after children are those cared for by a town/city authority where…

  20. Duloxetine in OsteoArthritis (DOA) study: study protocol of a pragmatic open-label randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of preoperative pain treatment on postoperative outcome after total hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Blikman, T; Rienstra, W; van Raaij, T M; ten Hagen, A J; Dijkstra, B; Zijlstra, W P; Bulstra, S K; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Stevens, M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Residual pain is a major factor in patient dissatisfaction following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). The proportion of patients with unfavourable long-term residual pain is high, ranging from 7% to 34%. There are studies indicating that a preoperative degree of central sensitisation (CS) is associated with poorer postoperative outcomes and residual pain. It is thus hypothesised that preoperative treatment of CS could enhance postoperative outcomes. Duloxetine has been shown to be effective for several chronic pain syndromes, including knee osteoarthritis (OA), in which CS is most likely one of the underlying pain mechanisms. This study aims to evaluate the postoperative effects of preoperative screening and targeted duloxetine treatment of CS on residual pain compared with care-as-usual. Methods and analysis This multicentre, pragmatic, prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial includes patients with idiopathic hip/knee OA who are on a waiting list for primary THA/TKA. Patients at risk for CS will be randomly allocated to the preoperative duloxetine treatment programme group or the care-as-usual control group. The primary end point is the degree of postoperative pain 6 months after THA/TKA. Secondary end points at multiple time points up to 12 months postoperatively are: pain, neuropathic pain-like symptoms, (pain) sensitisation, pain catastrophising, joint-associated problems, physical activity, health-related quality of life, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and perceived improvement. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (METc 2014/087) and will be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and the Good Clinical Practice standard (GCP), and in compliance with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO). Trial registration number 2013-004313-41; Pre

  1. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Combination with Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for the Preoperative Cardiac Evaluation of Liver Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Moon; Kong, Yu-Gyeong

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the best treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cirrhosis, fulminant liver failure, and end-stage liver diseases. Even though advances in surgical techniques and perioperative care have improved postoperative outcomes, perioperative cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality following liver transplantation. Ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy are the most common cardiovascular diseases and could be negative predictors of postoperative outcomes in liver transplant recipients. Therefore, comprehensive cardiovascular evaluations are required to assess perioperative risks and prevent concomitant cardiovascular complications that would preclude good outcomes in liver transplant recipients. The two major types of cardiac computed tomography are the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). CCTA in combination with the CACS is a validated noninvasive alternative to coronary angiography for diagnosing and grading the severity of CAD. A CACS > 400 is associated with significant CAD and a known important predictor of posttransplant cardiovascular complications in liver transplant recipients. In this review article, we discuss the usefulness, advantages, and disadvantages of CCTA combined with CACS as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for preoperative cardiac evaluation and for maximizing the perioperative outcomes of liver transplant recipients. PMID:28164120

  2. Is the Preoperative Administration of Amiodarone or Metoprolol More Effective in Reducing Atrial Fibrillation: After Coronary Bypass Surgery?

    PubMed

    Onk, Oruc Alper; Erkut, Bilgehan

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the influence of preoperative administration of amiodarone and metoprolol in preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery.The study comprised 251 patients who underwent CABG surgery at our hospital between January 2012 and May 2014. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: amiodarone therapy group (n = 122 patients) and metoprolol therapy group (n = 129 patients).In the amiodarone group, the patients received amiodarone tablet orally 1 week before coronary bypass surgery and during the postoperative period. In the metoprolol group, the patients received metoprolol tablet orally 1 week before surgery and during the postoperative period. The AF development rate was retrospectively evaluated between the first 3 days and 4 weeks after surgery.AF developed in 14 patients in the amiodarone group and 16 patients in the metoprolol group 4 weeks after the operation (P = 0.612).No significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of intensive care unit and hospital stay. Furthermore, hospital charges were similar in both groups (P = 0.741).The results of the logistic regression analysis showed age, left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial diameter, and aortic cross-clamping time to be predictors for postoperative AF.This study demonstrates that amiodarone and metoprolol have similar effects in prevention of AF after cardiac surgery. However, larger-scale studies need to be conducted to substantiate these findings.

  3. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen is related to tumour stage and long-term survival in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, M. A.; Buckley, D.; Henson, D. B.; Armitage, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence as to the value of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in guiding treatment for patients with colorectal cancer is conflicting. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the value of preoperative CEA in predicting tumour factors of proven prognostic value and long-term survival in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. Preoperative serum CEA, tumour ploidy, stage and grade were ascertained in 277 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. This cohort of patients were followed up for a minimum of 5 years, or until death, in a dedicated colorectal clinic. Patients with an elevated CEA had a 5 year survival of 39%. This increased to 57% if the CEA was normal (P=0.001). The proportion of patients with a raised CEA increased with a more advanced tumour stage (P < 0.000001) and a poorly differentiated tumour grade (P < 0.005). Once stage had been controlled for, CEA was not a predictor of survival. No relationship between tumour ploidy and CEA was found. In conclusion, a raised preoperative serum CEA is likely to be associated with advanced tumour stage and poor long-term survival, compared with patients with a normal value. PMID:9823977

  4. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen is related to tumour stage and long-term survival in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M A; Buckley, D; Henson, D B; Armitage, N C

    1998-11-01

    Evidence as to the value of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in guiding treatment for patients with colorectal cancer is conflicting. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the value of preoperative CEA in predicting tumour factors of proven prognostic value and long-term survival in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. Preoperative serum CEA, tumour ploidy, stage and grade were ascertained in 277 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. This cohort of patients were followed up for a minimum of 5 years, or until death, in a dedicated colorectal clinic. Patients with an elevated CEA had a 5 year survival of 39%. This increased to 57% if the CEA was normal (P=0.001). The proportion of patients with a raised CEA increased with a more advanced tumour stage (P < 0.000001) and a poorly differentiated tumour grade (P < 0.005). Once stage had been controlled for, CEA was not a predictor of survival. No relationship between tumour ploidy and CEA was found. In conclusion, a raised preoperative serum CEA is likely to be associated with advanced tumour stage and poor long-term survival, compared with patients with a normal value.

  5. Preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands with 4D-CT.

    PubMed

    Lundstroem, Anke Katrin; Trolle, Waldemar; Soerensen, Christian Hjort; Myschetzky, Peter Sand

    2016-05-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is almost exclusively the result of a solitary parathyroid adenoma. In most cases, the affected gland can be surgically removed, but precise preoperative imaging is essential for adenoma localization prior to surgical intervention. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) as a preoperative imaging tool in relation to the localization of pathologic parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT and negative sestamibi scans. This study included 43 consecutive patients with pHPT referred for parathyroidectomy at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet in 2011 and 2012. All patients had a 4D-CT performed prior to parathyroidectomy. CT localization of the suspected adenoma was correlated to the actual surgical findings and subsequent histological diagnosis was also available as references for the accuracy of this imaging tool. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands were found in 40 patients. 4D-CT identified 32 solitary hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands located on the correct side of the neck (PPV 76 %) and 21 located within the correct quadrant (PPV 49 %). Unilateral resection was performed in 72 % of patients due to the localization findings of preoperative imaging. 4D-CT can, therefore, be considered an effective method for the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and is an important tool in surgical intervention for patients referred to parathyroidectomy.

  6. Prolonged preoperative fasting in elective surgical patients: why should we reduce it?

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Gunther Peres; de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    Despite the abundance of evidence to the contrary, 6-8 hours of total preoperative fasting is still considered essential by many surgeons and anesthesiologists, based on the strength of old concepts. Patients frequently end up fasting for 12 hours or more because of delays and changes in operating room schedules. The metabolic response to long fasting leads to intensification of the organic response occurring after trauma, which is mainly manifested as increased insulin resistance, an acute-phase response, and loss of lean body mass. In fact, there has not been any evidence indicating that a shorter fast of 2-3 hours, which includes oral clear or carbohydrate (CHO)-rich (12.5% carbohydrates, 50 kcal/100 mL) fluids, results in an increased risk of aspiration, regurgitation, or related morbidity compared with the standard policy of "nil by mouth after midnight." In addition, preoperative treatment with CHO-rich fluids may reduce postoperative discomfort and, for patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, may decrease the duration of postoperative hospitalization. New formulas for preoperative oral fluids containing amino acid or protein such as glutamine or whey protein are also potential candidates for early preoperative treatment and merit further study.

  7. The effect of a preoperative education programme on perioperative anxiety in children: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mariam; Glasper, Alan; Keeton, Diana; Spargo, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The distress of children at the induction of anesthesia (DAI) is unpleasant for all involved and potentially harmful. Many strategies such as premedication or parental presence at induction have been described to minimize it. A preoperative education programme [the 'Saturday Morning Club' or (SMC)] has been in existence in our institution for a number of years and an observational study of children undergoing day case surgery was undertaken to assess the influence of attendance at the SMC on DAI. Ninety-four children aged between 2 and 16 years of age were included in the study; 21 attended the SMC and 73 did not. Patient anxiety using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale was measured by blinded observers on the day ward, in the preoperative waiting room and at induction of anesthesia. Parental anxiety at the same locations was self reported using a visual analogue scale. Attendance at the SMC had a favorable effect on patient anxiety levels in all three locations but only reached statistical significance in the waiting room (P = 0.007, Mann-Whitney U-test). At present there is little evidence to support the use of preoperative education programmes in the UK and further studies are required to determine their benefit.

  8. Reliability and validity of Korean version of modified: Yale preoperative anxiety scale

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyuwhan; Hwang, Jeong-Min; Oh, Ah-Young; Park, Moon Seok; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Kim, Seong-Chan; Jung, Sun-Woo; Sohn, Hyejin; Yoon, Mi-Ok; Jang, Mi-Suk; Moon, Suk-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) was developed for evaluating the level of preoperative anxiety in children. The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean version of the mYPAS (K-mYPAS) and to establish its validity and reliability based on the Korean preoperative pediatric patients. Methods K-mYPAS was made through stringent back-translation procedure. Total enrolled 102 patients answered questionnaires of Korean version of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (K-STAIC), and were videotaped for 2 to 5 minutes before induction of anesthesia. Three observers of experienced psychiatrist, surgeon, and nurse analyzed videotape with K-mYPAS comparing to K-STAIC. The inter- and intraobservers reliability, concurrent and construct validity, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value were analyzed. Results The value of Cronbach α for interobservers reliability was 0.939 and intraobserver reliability was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Concurrent and construct validity were also statistically significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 81.3%, 91.4%, 81.3%, 91.4%, and 88.2%, respectively. Conclusion The K-mYPAS had good psychometric properties and can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of preoperative anxiety in children. PMID:26793692

  9. Prognostic significance of the preoperative lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Iseki, Yasuhito; Ikeya, Tetsuro; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2017-01-01

    A correlation between the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and the survival of patients with hematological malignancies has been reported previously. However, there have been few studies investigating the prognostic significance of LMR in patients with solid tumors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative LMR in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 189 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery for CRC were enrolled. The LMR was calculated from preoperative blood samples by dividing absolute lymphocyte count by absolute monocyte count. A cut-off value of 4.8 was set based on the receiver operating characteristic curve; 116 patients were classified as high-LMR, and 73 patients classified as low-LMR. The high-LMR group exhibited significantly better relapse-free survival (P=0.0018) and overall survival (P=0.0127) rates than the low-LMR group. According to the multivariate analysis of survival, preoperative LMR was identified as an independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (P=0.041) and overall survival (P=0.031). Therefore, preoperative LMR is a useful prognostic marker in patients with CRC.

  10. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed. PMID:27433470

  11. CT-based surgical planning software improves the accuracy of total hip replacement preoperative planning.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, M; Lattanzi, R; Antonietti, B; Paderni, S; Olmi, R; Sudanese, A; Toni, A

    2003-06-01

    The present study is aimed to compare accuracy and the repeatability in planning total hip replacements with the conventional templates on radiographs to that attainable on the same clinical cases when using CT-based planning software. The sizes of the cementless components planned with new computer aided preoperative planning system called Hip-Op and with standard templates were compared to those effectively implanted. The study group intentionally included only difficult clinical cases. The most common aetiology was congenital dysplasia of hip (65.6%). The Hip-Op planning system allowed the surgeons to obtain a preoperative planning more accurate than with templates, especially for the socket. Assuming correct a size planned one calliper above or below that implanted the accuracy increased from 83% for the stem and 69% for the socket when using templates to 86% for the stem and 93% for the socket when using the Hip-Op system. The repeatability of the Hip-Op system was found comparable to that of the template procedure, which is much more familiar to the surgeons. Furthermore, the repeatability of the preoperative planning with the Hip-Op system was consistent between surgeons, independently from their major or minor experience. The study clearly shows the advantages of a three-dimensional computer-based preoperative planning over the traditional template planning, especially when deformed anatomies are involved. The surgical planning performed with the Hip-Op system is accurate and repeatable, especially for the socket and for less experienced surgeons.

  12. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by transanal local excision for T3 distal rectal cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YEO, SEUNG-GU

    2016-01-01

    Local excision (LE) for rectal cancer is currently indicated for selected T1 stage tumors. However, preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer not only improves local disease control, but also leads to a decrease in the stage and size of the primary mural tumor, along with a decrease in the risk of regional lymphadenopathy. The present study reports the outcome of a patient with T3N0M0 rectal cancer who was treated with LE following preoperative CRT. The distal pole of the tumor was located 2 cm from the anal verge. Preoperative pelvic radiotherapy of 50.4 Gy was administered in 28 fractions. Chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin was administered during the first and last weeks of radiotherapy. The tumor response to CRT, was found to be marked at 7 weeks after CRT completion, and a complete response was presumed clinically. Transanal full-thickness LE was performed, and pathological examination revealed the absence of residual cancer cells. After 30 months of close follow-up, the patient was alive with no evidence of disease, and treatment-associated severe toxicities were not observed. Although a longer follow-up period is required, this case report suggests that LE may also be a feasible alternative treatment for T3 rectal cancer, which exhibits a marked response to preoperative CRT, particularly in elderly and comorbid patients contraindicated for radical surgery, or patients who are reluctant to undergo sphincter-ablation surgery. PMID:27073466

  13. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

  14. 77 FR 69863 - Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... be sterile. Bacteria can contaminate these products at the time of manufacture or during product use... reduce the number of bacteria on the skin prior to medical procedures or injections. Although they are... activity, patient preoperative skin preparations may become contaminated with bacteria. A number of...

  15. Short-term preoperative octreotide treatment for TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Noriaki; Horiguchi, Kentaro; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hisanori; Takeshita, Akira; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Inoshita, Naoko; Yamada, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative control of hyperthyroidism in patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) may avoid perioperative thyroid storm. Perioperative administration of octreotide may control hyperthyroidism, as well as shrink tumor size. The effects of preoperative octreotide treatment were assessed in a large number of patients with TSHomas. Of 81 patients who underwent surgery for TSHoma at Toranomon Hospital between January 2001 and May 2013, 44 received preoperative short-term octreotide. After excluding one patient because of side effects, 19 received octreotide as a subcutaneous injection, and 24 as a long-acting release (LAR) injection. Median duration between initiation of octreotide treatment and surgery was 33.5 days. Octreotide normalized free T4 in 36 of 43 patients (84%) and shrank tumors in 23 of 38 (61%). Length of octreotide treatment did not differ significantly in patients with and without hormonal normalization (p=0.09) and with and without tumor shrinkage (p=0.84). Serum TSH and free T4 concentrations, duration of treatment, incidence of growth hormone (GH) co-secretion, results of octreotide loading tests, form of administration (subcutaneous injection or LAR), tumor volume, and tumor consistency did not differ significantly in patients with and without hormonal normalization and with and without tumor shrinkage. Short-term preoperative octreotide administration was highly effective for TSHoma shrinkage and normalization of excess hormone concentrations, with tolerable side effects.

  16. Reduction of operative morbidity and mortality by combined preoperative and postoperative nutritional support.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, J L; Buzby, G P; Matthews, D C; Smale, B F; Rosato, E F

    1980-01-01

    A previously developed and validated predictive nutritional assessment model (Prognostic Nutritional Index) was applied to a heterogenous surgical population. Without knowledge of the then undeveloped PNI, adequate preoperative nutritional repletion (TPN) was provided on clinical indications alone to 50 of 145 patients with the remaining 95 patients receiving no preoperative total parenteral nutrition. Analysis of the two groups found no baseline differences in nutritional status, type and severity of disease and/or operative therapy, and other potentially important variables. In the high-risk stratified group as defined by admission nutritional assessment and calculated PNI (greater than or equal to 50%), adequate preoperative TPN reduced postoperative complications 2.5-fold (p < 0.01), postoperative major sepsis six-fold (p < 0.005) and mortality five-fold (p < 0.01). Clinical "eyeball" evaluation of nutritional status cannot identify high-risk individuals. This nutritional assessment predictive model (PNI) identifies the subset of operative candidates in whom adequate preoperative nutritional support significantly reduces operative morbidity and/or mortality. PMID:6776917

  17. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments... Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy.'' DG-1294... regulations, techniques that the staff uses in evaluating specific problems or postulated accidents, and...

  18. Fusion of intraoperative cortical images with preoperative models for neurosurgical planning and guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, An; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Parrent, Andrew G.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    During surgery for epilepsy it is important for the surgeon to correlate the preoperative cortical morphology (from preoperative images) with the intraoperative environment. We extend our visualization method presented earlier, to achieves this goal by fusing a direct (photographic) view of the surgical field with the 3D patient model. To correlate the preoperative plan with the intraoperative surgical scene, an intensity-based perspective 3D-2D registration was employed for camera pose estimation. The 2D photographic image was then texture-mapped onto the 3D preoperative model using the solved camera pose. In the proposed method, we employ direct volume rendering to obtain a perspective view of the brain image using GPU-accelerated ray-casting. This is advantageous compared to the point-based or other feature-based registration since no intermediate processing is required. To validate our registration algorithm, we used a point-based 3D-2D registration, that was validated using ground truth from simulated data, and then the intensity-based 3D-2D registration method was validated using the point-based registration result as the gold standard. The registration error of the intensity-based 3D- 2D method was around 3mm when the initial pose is close to the gold standard. Application of the proposed method for correlating fMRI maps with intraoperative cortical stimulation is shown for surgical planning in an epilepsy patient.

  19. Preoperative cystoscopy is beneficial in selection of patients for laparoscopic repair of intraperitoneal bladder rupture.

    PubMed

    Yee, David S; Kalisvaart, Jonathan F; Borin, James F

    2007-10-01

    Intraperitoneal bladder rupture usually is caused by blunt external trauma to a distended bladder. Although such injuries generally necessitate a formal laparotomy, advances in minimally invasive surgery have allowed successful laparoscopic repair. We describe our preoperative evaluation and laparoscopic technique in a case of isolated intraperitoneal bladder rupture secondary to trauma.

  20. Preoperative Nutritional Therapy Reduces the Risk of Anastomotic Leakage in Patients with Crohn's Disease Requiring Resections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhen; Guo, Dong; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Zuo, Lugen; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Background. The rate of anastomotic leakage is high in surgeries for Crohn's disease, and therefore a temporary diverting stoma is often needed. We conducted this study to investigate whether preoperative nutritional therapy could reduce the risk of anastomotic leakage while decreasing the frequency of temporary stoma formation. Methods. This was a retrospective study. Patients requiring bowel resections due to Crohn's disease were reviewed. The rate of anastomotic leakage and temporary diverting stoma was compared between patients who received preoperative nutritional therapy and those on a normal diet before surgery. Possible predictive factors for anastomotic leakage were also analyzed. Results. One hundred and fourteen patients undergoing 123 surgeries were included. Patients in nutritional therapy (NT) group had a significantly lower level of C-reactive protein on the day before surgery. Patients in NT group suffered less anastomotic leakage (2.3% versus 17.9%, P = 0.023) and less temporary diverting stoma (22.8% versus 40.9%, P = 0.036). Serum albumin of the day before surgery ≤35 g/L and preoperative nutritional therapy were identified as factors which independently affected the rate of anastomotic leakage. Conclusion. Preoperative nutritional therapy reduced the risk of anastomotic leakage and the frequency of temporary diverting stoma formation in patients with Crohn's disease requiring resections. PMID:26858749

  1. Preoperative Predictors for Noncopers to Pass Return to Sports Criteria After ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zeni, Joseph; Di Stasi, Stephanie; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Less than 50% of athletes pass criteria to return to sports (RTS) 6 months after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Using data on 38 noncopers, we hypothesized that preoperative age, quadriceps strength index (QI), and knee flexion moments (KFM) during gait would predict the ability to pass/fail RTS criteria and that preoperative quadriceps strength gains would be predictive of passing RTS criteria. Gait analysis and strength data were collected before and after a preoperative intervention and 6 months after ACLR. Age, QI, and KFM each contributed to the predictability to pass or fail RTS criteria 6 months after ACLR. Collectively, the variables predict 69% who would pass and 82% who would fail RTS criteria 6 months after ACLR. Younger athletes who have symmetrical quadriceps strength and greater KFM were more likely to pass RTS criteria. Further, 63% of those who increased preoperative quadriceps strength passed RTS criteria, whereas 73% who did not failed. Increasing quadriceps strength in noncopers before ACLR seems warranted. PMID:22983930

  2. Matched case-control analysis comparing oncologic outcomes between preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Chul; Park, In Ja; Kim, Chan Wook; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate patterns of recurrence and oncologic outcomes after recurrence between preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods Records of patients with stage II or III locally advanced rectal cancer seen between January 2000 and December 2010 were analyzed. The outcomes for patients undergoing preoperative CRT followed by radical resection (n = 466) were compared with outcomes of patients matched for sex, age, and stage who had surgery and then postoperative CRT (n = 466). Recurrence rates and sites, treatment of recurrence, and oncologic outcomes after recurrence were investigated. The rate of sphincter preservation and permanent stoma formation were also evaluated. Results Recurrence occurred in 124 and 140 patients in the pre- and postoperative CRT groups, respectively. The local and systemic recurrence rates were 3.6% and 20.8%, respectively, in the preoperative CRT group and 3.0% and 25.3%, respectively, in the postoperative CRT group (P = 0.245). Time to recurrence was longer in the postoperative CRT group (19 months vs. 24.2 months, P = 0.029). The overall rates of sphincter preservation (sphincter preservation operation and postoperative permanent stoma formation) did not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.381). The 5-year overall survival rate after recurrence did not differ between the two groups (25.6% vs. 18.6%, P = 0.051). Conclusion Preoperative and postoperative CRT are both safe and suitable treatment methods for rectal cancer, so the choice can be tailored to the patient's situation. PMID:28382292

  3. Chromosomal copy number changes of locally advanced rectal cancers treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Grade, Marian; Gaedcke, Jochen; Wangsa, Danny; Varma, Sudhir; Beckmann, Jaje; Liersch, Torsten; Hess, Clemens; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ried, Thomas; Ghadimi, B. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Standard treatment of rectal cancer patients comprises preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by radical surgery. However, clinicians are faced with the problem that response rates vary from one individual to another. Predictive biomarkers would therefore be helpful. Materials and Methods In order to identify genomic imbalances that might assist in stratifying tumors into responsive or non-responsive, we used metaphase comparative genomic hybridization to prospectively analyze pre-therapeutic biopsies from 42 patients with locally advanced rectal cancers. These patients were subsequently treated with 5-FU based preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Results Based on downsizing of the T-category, 21 rectal cancers were later classified as responsive, while 21 were non-responsive. Comparing these two groups, we could show that gains of chromosomal regions 7q32-q36 and 7q11-q31, and amplifications of 20q11-q13 were significantly associated with responsiveness to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (P<0.05). However, the probability to detect these copy number changes by chance is high (P=0.21). Conclusion Our primary results suggest that pre-therapeutic evaluation of chromosomal copy number changes may be of value for response prediction of rectal cancers to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. This will require validation in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:19602460

  4. Investigation of the Effects of Preoperative Hydration on the Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, M. Selçuk; Kazancı, Dilek; Turan, Sema; Aydınlı, Bahar; Selçuk, Gökçe; Özgök, Ayşegül; Coşar, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations still continue to be a serious problem. Intravenous fluid administration has been shown to reduce PONV. Some patients have higher risk for PONV described by APFEL score. In this study, our aim was to determine the effects of preoperative intravenous hydration on postoperative nausea and vomiting in high Apfel scored patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. Patients and Methods. This study is performed with 50 female patients who had APFEL score 3-4 after ethics committee approval and informed consent was taken from patients. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (P1): propofol + preoperative hydration and group 2 (P2): propofol + no preoperative hydration. Results. When the total nausea VAS scores of groups P1 and P2 to which hydration was given or not given were compared, a statistically significant difference was detected at 8th and 12th hours (P = 0.001 and P = 0.041). It was observed that in group P1, which was given hydration, the nausea VAS score was lower. When the total number of patients who had nausea and vomiting in P1 and P2, more patients suffered nausea in P2 group. Discussion. Preoperative hydration may be effective in high Apfel scored patients to prevent postoperative nausea. PMID:24563861

  5. Role of preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction in depressed skull fractures treated with craniectomy: a case report of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Viel, Guido; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Manara, Renzo; Cecchetto, Attilio; Montisci, Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Patients affected by cranial trauma with depressed skull fractures and increased intracranial pressure generally undergo neurosurgical intervention. Because craniotomy and craniectomy remove skull fragments and generate new fracture lines, they complicate forensic examination and sometimes prevent a clear identification of skull fracture etiology. A 3-dimensional reconstruction based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, giving a picture of the injuries before surgical intervention, can help the forensic examiner in identifying skull fracture origin and the means of production.We report the case of a 41-year-old-man presenting at the emergency department with a depressed skull fracture at the vertex and bilateral subdural hemorrhage. The patient underwent 2 neurosurgical interventions (craniotomy and craniectomy) but died after 40 days of hospitalization in an intensive care unit. At autopsy, the absence of various bone fragments did not allow us to establish if the skull had been stricken by a blunt object or had hit the ground with high kinetic energy. To analyze bone injuries before craniectomy, a 3-dimensional CT reconstruction based on preoperative scans was performed. A comparative analysis between autoptic and radiological data allowed us to differentiate surgical from traumatic injuries. Moreover, based on the shape and size of the depressed skull fracture (measured from the CT reformations), we inferred that the man had been stricken by a cylindric blunt object with a diameter of about 3 cm.

  6. Preoperative Diagnostic Angiogram and Endovascular Aortic Stent Placement for Appleby Resection Candidates: A Novel Surgical Technique in the Management of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trabulsi, N.; Pelletier, J. S.; Abraham, C.; Vanounou, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the body and tail usually presents late and is typically unresectable. The modified Appleby procedure allows resection of pancreatic body carcinoma with celiac axis (CA) invasion. Given that the feasibility of this technique is based on the presence of collateral circulation, it is crucial to confirm the presence of an anatomical and functional collateral system. Methods. We here describe a novel technique used in two patients who were candidates for Appleby resection. We present their clinical scenario, imaging, operative findings, and postoperative course. Results. Both patients had a preoperative angiogram for assessment of anatomical circulation and placement of an endovascular stent to cover the CA. We hypothesize that this new technique allows enhancement of collateral circulation and helps minimize intraoperative blood loss when transecting the CA at its takeoff. Moreover, extra length on the CA margin may be gained, as the artery can be transected at its origin without the need for vascular clamp placement. Conclusion. We propose this novel technique in the preoperative management of patients who are undergoing a modified Appleby procedure. While further experience with this technique is required, we believe that it confers significant advantages to the current standard of care. PMID:26491217

  7. Chewing gum in the preoperative fasting period: an analysis of de-identified incidents reported to webAIRS.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, S; Goulding, G; Gibbs, N M; Taraporewalla, K; Culwick, M

    2016-03-01

    The role of preoperative fasting is well established in current anaesthetic practice with different guidelines for clear fluids and food. However, chewing gum may not be categorised as either food or drink by some patients, and may not always be specified in instructions given to patients about preoperative fasting. The aim of this paper was to review anaesthesia incidents involving gum chewing reported to webAIRS to obtain information on the risks, if any, of gum chewing during the preoperative fasting period. There were nine incidents involving chewing gum reported between late 2009 and early 2015. There were no adverse outcomes from the nine incidents other than postponement of surgery in three cases and cancellation in one. In particular, there were no reports of aspiration or airway obstruction. Nevertheless, there were five cases in which the gum was not detected preoperatively and was found in the patient's mouth either intraoperatively or postoperatively. These cases of undetected gum occurred despite patient and staff compliance with their current preoperative checklists. While the risk of increased gastric secretions related to chewing gum preoperatively are not known, the potential for airway obstruction if the gum is not detected and removed preoperatively is very real. We recommend that patients should be specifically advised to avoid gum chewing once fasting from clear fluids is commenced, and that a specific question regarding the presence of chewing gum should be added to all preoperative checklists.

  8. Preoperative Preparation for Cardiac Surgery Facilitates Recovery, Reduces Psychological Distress, and Reduces the Incidence of Acute Postoperative Hypertension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erling A.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiac surgery patients were assigned to information-only, information-plus-coping, or control preoperative preparation groups. Preoperatively, both experimental groups were significantly less anxious than were controls. Both experimental groups increased patients' belief in control over recovery. Postoperatively, experimental patients were less…

  9. Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg; He, Jiwei; Guzzo, Thomas; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” if a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (≥T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the bladder

  10. Preoperative Endogenous Ouabain Predicts Acute Kidney Injury in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bignami, Elena; Casamassima, Nunzia; Frati, Elena; Lanzani, Chiara; Corno, Laura; Alferi, Ottavio; Gottlieb, Stephen; Simonini, Marco; Shah, Keyur B.; Mizzi, Anna; Messaggio, Elisabetta; Zangrillo, Alberto; Ferrandi, Mara; Ferrari, Patrizia; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Hamlyn, John M.; Manunta, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery and increases morbidity and mortality. As preoperative biomarkers predicting the development of acute kidney injury are not available, we have tested the hypothesis that preoperative plasma levels of endogenous ouabain may function as this type of biomarker. Rationale and Design Endogenous ouabain is an adrenal stress hormone associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Its involvement in acute kidney injury is unknown. With studies in patients and animal settings, including isolated podocytes, we tested the above mentioned hypothesis. Patients Preoperative endogenous ouabain was measured in 407 patients admitted for elective cardiac surgery and in a validation population of 219 other patients. We also studied the effect of prolonged elevations of circulating exogenous ouabain on renal parameters in rats and the influence of ouabain on podocyte proteins both “in vivo” and “in vitro.” Main Results In the first group of patients, acute kidney injury (2.8%, 8.3%, 20.3%, p < 0.001) and ICU stay (1.4 ± 0.38, 1.7 ± 0.41, 2.4 ± 0.59 days, p = 0.014) increased with each incremental preoperative endogenous ouabain tertile. In a linear regression analysis, the circulating endogenous ouabain value before surgery was the strongest predictor of acute kidney injury. In the validation cohort, acute kidney injury (0%, 5.9%, 8.2%, p < 0.0001) and ICU stay (1.2 ± 0.09, 1.4 ± 0.23, 2.2 ± 0.77 days, p = 0.003) increased with the preoperative endogenous ouabain tertile. Values for preoperative endogenous ouabain significantly improved (area under curve: 0.85) risk prediction over the clinical score alone as measured by integrate discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement. Finally, in the rat model, elevated circulating ouabain reduced creatinine clearance (–18%, p < 0.05), increased urinary protein excretion (+ 54%, p < 0.05), and reduced expression of podocyte nephrin

  11. Observational study of patient and surgeon preoperative preparation in ten companion animal clinics in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a recognized risk of any surgical procedure in veterinary medicine. One of the keys to prevention of SSIs is reducing exposure of the surgical site to endogenous and exogenous microbes, beginning in the preoperative period. While guidelines are available for preoperative preparation procedures, there has been no objective investigation of compliance with these recommendations in veterinary practices. The objectives of this pilot study were to describe preoperative patient and surgeon preparation practices in a sample of non-equine companion animal veterinary clinics, and to determine if there were any areas that consistently did not meet current guidelines. Results Observation of preparation practices was performed in 10 clinics over 9–14 days each using up to 3 small wireless surveillance cameras. Data were coded for 148 surgical patients, and 31 surgeons performing 190 preoperative preparations. When patient hair removal was observed, it was most commonly done using clippers (117/133, 88%), and in only one case was it performed prior to anesthetic induction. Patient contact time with soap ranged from 10-462 s (average of clinic means 75 s, average of clinic medians 67 s), and with alcohol from 3-220 s (average of clinic means 44 s, average of clinic medians 37 s). Alcohol-based hand rub (AHR) was used preoperatively in 2/10 facilities, but soap-and-water hand scrub was most commonly used at all clinics. Proximal-to-distal scrubbing was noted in 95/142 (67%) of soap-and-water scrubs. Contact time during surgeon hand preparation ranged from 7-529 s (average mean 121 s, average median 122 s) for soap-and-water and from 4-123 s (average mean 25 s, average median 19 s) for AHR. No significant changes in practices were identified over time during the observation period. Practices that did not conform to guidelines available in major companion animal surgical textbooks were commonly observed. Conclusions Some

  12. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  13. Preoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer. An Independent Prognostic Factor Still Reliable

    PubMed Central

    Li Destri, Giovanni; Rubino, Antonio Salvatore; Latino, Rosalia; Giannone, Fabio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Scilletta, Beniamino; Di Cataldo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether, in a sample of patients radically treated for colorectal carcinoma, the preoperative determination of the carcinoembryonic antigen (p-CEA) may have a prognostic value and constitute an independent risk factor in relation to disease-free survival. The preoperative CEA seems to be related both to the staging of colorectal neoplasia and to the patient's prognosis, although this—to date—has not been conclusively demonstrated and is still a matter of intense debate in the scientific community. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. A total of 395 patients were radically treated for colorectal carcinoma. The preoperative CEA was statistically compared with the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging, the T and N parameters, and grading. All parameters recorded in our database were tested for an association with disease-free survival (DFS). Only factors significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the DFS were used to build multivariate stepwise forward logistic regression models to establish their independent predictors. A statistically significant relationship was found between p-CEA and tumor staging (P < 0.001), T (P < 0.001) and N parameters (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis, the independent prognostic factors found were: p-CEA, stages N1 and N2 according to AJCC, and G3 grading (grade). A statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) was evident between the DFS of patients with normal and high p-CEA levels. Preoperative CEA makes a pre-operative selection possible of those patients for whom it is likely to be able to predict a more advanced staging. PMID:25875542

  14. PRE-OPERATIVE HEALTH STATUS AND OUTCOMES FOLLOWING CONTINUOUS-FLOW LEFT VENTRICULAR ASSIST DEVICE IMPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Kelsey M.; Matlock, Daniel D.; Sundareswaran, Kartik; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Spertus, John A.; Farrar, David J.; Allen, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health status predicts adverse outcomes in heart failure and cardiac surgery patients, but its prognostic value in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement is unknown. Methods We examined the association of pre-operative health status, as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), with survival and hospitalization after LVAD using KCCQ as a continuous variable and stratified by KCCQ score quartile plus missing KCCQ in 1125 clinical trial participants receiving the HeartMate II as either destination therapy (n=635) or bridge to transplantation (n=490). Results Mean pre-operative KCCQ score was 29.4±18.7 among survivors (n=719), and 27.1±18.3 (n=406) in those who died. In time-to-event analysis for all available follow up using health status as a continuous variable, pre-operative KCCQ score did not correlate with overall mortality after LVAD implantation (p=0.178). Small absolute differences were seen between pre-operative KCCQ quartile and 30-day survival (Q4 95% vs. Q1 89% vs. missing 87%; p=0.0009 for trend), 180-day survival (Q4 83% vs. Q1 76% vs. missing 79%; p=0.060 for trend), and days hospitalized at 180 days (Q4 29.8±25.6 vs. Q1 34.1±27.1 vs. missing 36.5±29.9; p=0.009 for trend). Conclusion Our findings suggest that pre-operative health status has limited association with outcomes after LVAD implantation. Although these data require further study in a diverse population, mechanical circulatory support may represent a relatively unique clinical situation, distinct from heart failure and other cardiac surgeries, in which heart failure-specific health status measures may be largely reversed. PMID:24119729

  15. 012. Impact of smoking status on preoperative profile and on postoperative outcome in cardiac surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Ampatzidou, Fotini; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Kechagioglou, George; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Sileli, Maria; Vlachou, Athanasia; Ignatiadis, Agisilaos; Drossos, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aim of our retrospective study is to investigate the impact of smoking status on preoperative profile and on postoperative outcome. Methods A total of 964 patients underwent cardiac surgery procedures from May 2012 to September 2014. Patients were divided in three categories based on their preoperative smoking status: nonsmokers (Group A, n=282), current smokers (Group B, n=15) and ex-smokers (Group C, n=667). The following preoperative patients’ characteristics were recorded: age, body mass index (BMI), obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Euroscore II (predictive score), diabetes mellitus and ejection fraction (EF). Postoperative adverse events and mortality were also recorded: use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), low cardiac output syndrome, atrial fibrillation, acute kidney injury, re-intubation, acute respiratory failure managed by noninvasive ventilation, pneumonia, prolonged mechanical ventilation (>48 hours), stroke and death. Statistical analysis based on one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) method while differences between groups were analyzed by the post hoc test. COPD and non-COPD percentages were analyzed by the χ2 test. Results No statistical significant correlation in postoperative adverse events and mortality was found between the groups. The only exception was the use of IABP which was more common in patients with a history of smoking (P<0.05). Statistical significant correlation was revealed in the following preoperative patients’ profile characteristics: age (P<0.01), COPD (P=0.011) and EF (P=0.011). Conclusions According to our findings, preoperative smoking status has no impact on postoperative outcome in cardiac surgery patients. Patients with a history of smoking who underwent cardiac surgery procedures are younger, have lower ejection fraction and COPD is more common.

  16. Positive Surgical Margins in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treated With Preoperative Radiation: Is a Postoperative Boost Necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yami, Ali; Griffin, Anthony M.; Ferguson, Peter C.; Catton, Charles N.; Chung, Peter W.M.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: For patients with an extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) treated with preoperative radiotherapy and surgically excised with positive margins, we retrospectively reviewed whether a postoperative radiation boost reduced the risk of local recurrence (LR). Methods and Materials: A total of 216 patients with positive margins after resection of an extremity STS treated between 1986 and 2003 were identified from our institution's prospectively collected database. Patient demographics, radiation therapy parameters including timing and dose, classification of positive margin status, reasons for not administering a postoperative boost, and oncologic outcome were collected and evaluated. Results: Of the 216 patients with a positive surgical margin, 52 patients were treated with preoperative radiation therapy alone (50 Gy), whereas 41 received preoperative radiation therapy plus a postoperative boost (80% received 16 Gy postoperatively for a total of 66 Gy). There was no difference in baseline tumor characteristics between the two groups. Six of 52 patients in the group receiving preoperative radiation alone developed a LR compared with 9 of 41 in the boost group. Five-year estimated LR-free survivals were 90.4% and 73.8%, respectively (p = 0.13). Conclusions: We found that including the postoperative radiation boost after preoperative radiation and a margin-positive excision did not provide an advantage in preventing LR for patients treated with external beam radiotherapy. Given that higher radiation doses placed patients at greater risk for late complications such as fracture, fibrosis, edema, and joint stiffness, judicious avoidance of the postoperative boost while maintaining an equivalent rate of local control can reduce the risk of these difficult-to-treat morbidities.

  17. Texture Analysis of Preoperative CT Images for Prediction of Postoperative Hepatic Insufficiency: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Amber L; Adams, Lauryn B; Allen, Peter J; D’Angelica, Michael I; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Fong, Yuman; Kingham, T Peter; Leung, Universe; Miga, Michael I; Parada, E Patricia; Jarnagin, William R; Do, Richard K G

    2015-01-01

    Background Texture analysis is a promising method of analyzing imaging data to potentially enhance diagnostic capability. This approach involves automated measurement of pixel intensity variation that may offer further insight into disease progression than standard imaging techniques alone. We postulate that postoperative liver insufficiency, a major source of morbidity and mortality, correlates with preoperative heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement that can be quantified with texture analysis of cross-sectional imaging. Study Design A retrospective case-matched study (waiver of informed consent and HIPAA authorization, approved by the institutional review board) was performed comparing patients who underwent major hepatic resection and developed liver insufficiency (n=12) to a matched group of patients with no postoperative liver insufficiency (n=24) by procedure, remnant volume, and year of procedure. Texture analysis (with gray-level co-occurrence matrices) was used to quantify the heterogeneity of liver parenchyma on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans. Statistical significance was evaluated using Wilcoxon’s signed rank and Pearson’s chi-squared tests. Results No statistically significant differences were found between study groups for preoperative patient demographics and clinical characteristics, with the exception of gender (p<0.05). Two texture features differed significantly between the groups: correlation (linear dependency of gray levels on neighboring pixels) and entropy (randomness of brightness variation) (p<0.05). Conclusions In this preliminary study, the texture of liver parenchyma on preoperative CT, was significantly more varied, less symmetric, and less homogeneous in patients with postoperative liver insufficiency; thus texture analysis has the potential to provide an additional means of preoperative risk stratification. PMID:25537305

  18. The clinical significance of preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Park, Ga-Young; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jeehun; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Although central nervous system abnormalities are incidentally detected in preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates, the clinical significance of the abnormalities remains unclear. We aimed to assess post-implantation auditory and speech performance in patients with brain lesions seen on MRI. Pediatric CI recipients (n = 177) who underwent preoperative MRI scans of the brain between January 2002 and June 2009 were included in this study. Patients with brain lesions on MRI were reviewed and categorized into the following groups: brain parenchymal lesions (focal vs. diffuse), ventriculomegaly, and extra-axial lesion. The main communication mode as well as progress in auditory perception and speech production were evaluated preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Performance in patients with brain lesions was compared with the age- and sex-matched control group. Various brain lesions were found in 27 out of 177 patients. Children with brain lesions who received CIs showed gradual progress in auditory and speech outcomes for 2 years, though performance was reduced compared with the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in the main communication mode between the two groups at 2 years following cochlear implantation. This difference was especially significant in patients with diffuse brain parenchymal lesions after further stratification of the brain lesion group. Preoperative brain MRI may have a role in improving the prediction of adverse outcomes in pediatric CI recipients. In particular, children with diffuse brain parenchymal lesions should be counseled regarding the poor prognosis preoperatively, and followed up with special attention.

  19. Impact of preoperative imaging on surgical approach for primary hyperparathyroidism: Data from single institution in India

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Parjeet; Gattani, Raghav; Singhal, Alka Ashmita; Sarin, Deepak; Arora, Sowrabh Kumar; Mithal, Ambrish

    2016-01-01

    Context: Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma is essential in deciding the surgical approach of parathyroidectomy. Aim: To describe clinical and biochemical profile, evaluate preoperative imaging modalities and surgical approach in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Methodology: This was a retrospective study conducted at the single institution. All patients who underwent evaluation and surgery for PHPT from 2011 to 2015 were included in the study. Results: A total of 100 patients underwent surgery for PHPT. Mean (standard deviation) age was 51.6 (15.9) years with female to male ratio of 1.7:1. Forty patients had severe symptoms, and sixty had mild to moderate symptoms. The sensitivity of technetium-99m hexakis (2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) (MIBI) scan and ultrasonography (USG) neck in identifying abnormal parathyroid gland was 93% (93/100) and 98% (98/100), respectively. The MIBI scan results of 90/93 (96.7%) patients corresponded with their surgical findings whereas preoperative USG findings of 96/98 patients (98%) showed correlation with operative findings. Intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels at 10 min postexcision were measured in forty patients (minimally invasive parathyroidectomy = 38, bilateral neck exploration = 1, and unilateral neck exploration = 1). All patients except two had <50% fall in IOPTH. Adenoma weight was positively correlated with preoperative intact PTH. Conclusion: We found that USG has higher sensitivity (98%) than MIBI scan (93%) in localizing abnormal parathyroid gland. Moreover, USG had a higher preoperative localization accuracy (93%) than MIBI scan (90%), allowing to choose an appropriate surgical approach. A higher proportion of patients (60%) had mild/asymptomatic form of PHPT. PMID:27730071

  20. Preoperative therapy restores ventilatory parameters and reduces length of stay in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira Sobrinho, Moises; Guirado, Gabriel Negretti; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The frequency of surgical procedures has increased steadily in recent decades, including the myocardial revascularization. Objectives To demonstrate the importance of physiotherapy in the preoperative period of cardiac surgery in relation to the reduction of hospital stay, changes in lung volumes and respiratory muscle strength. Methods We conducted a prospective study with patients undergoing myocardial revascularization, the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)/Botucatu - SP. We evaluated 70 patients of both genders, aged between 40 and 75 years, subdivided into two groups: group I - 35 patients of both genders, who received a written protocol guidance, breathing exercises and respiratory muscle training in the preoperative period and group II - 35 patients of both genders, who received only orientation of the ward on the day of surgery. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of UNESP / Botucatu - SP. Results Maximal inspiratory pressure in third postoperative day and fifth postoperative day and significant difference between groups, being better for the intervention group. Expiratory pressure was significant in fifth postoperative day in the intervention group compared to controls. The difference of length of hospital stay in the postoperative was found between the groups with shorter hospital stay in the group receiving preoperative therapy. Conclusion Physical therapy plays an important role in the preoperative period, so that individuals in the intervention group more readily restored the parameters evaluated before surgery, in addition, there was a decrease in the time of the postoperative hospital stay. Thus, it is thought the cost-effectiveness of a program of preoperative physiotherapy. PMID:25140472

  1. Preoperative physiotherapy and short-term functional outcomes of primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Mohd Shukry Mat Eil @; Sharifudin, Mohd Ariff; Shokri, Amran Ahmed; Rahman, Shaifuzain Ab

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Physiotherapy is an important part of rehabilitation following arthroplasty, but the impact of preoperative physiotherapy on functional outcomes is still being studied. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effect of preoperative physiotherapy on the short-term functional outcomes of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS 50 patients with primary knee osteoarthritis who underwent unilateral primary TKA were randomised into two groups: the physiotherapy group (n = 24), whose patients performed physical exercises for six weeks immediately prior to surgery, and the nonphysiotherapy group (n = 26). All patients went through a similar physiotherapy regime in the postoperative rehabilitation period. Functional outcome assessment using the algofunctional Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) scale and range of motion (ROM) evaluation was performed preoperatively, and postoperatively at six weeks and three months. RESULTS Both groups showed a significant difference in all algofunctional KOOS subscales (p < 0.001). The mean score difference at six weeks and three months was not significant in the sports and recreational activities subscale for both groups (p > 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the time-versus-treatment analysis between groups for the symptoms (p = 0.003) and activities of daily living (p = 0.025) subscales. No significant difference in ROM was found when comparing preoperative measurements and those at three months following surgery, as well as in time-versus-treatment analysis (p = 0.928). CONCLUSION Six-week preoperative physiotherapy showed no significant impact on short-term functional outcomes (KOOS subscales) and ROM of the knee following primary TKA. PMID:26996450

  2. Low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis: preoperative versus postoperative initiation in patients undergoing elective hip surgery.

    PubMed

    Hull, R D; Pineo, G F; MacIsaac, S

    2001-01-01

    Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in elective hip implant patients commonly begins 12 h preoperatively in European practices to optimize effectiveness, and 12 to 24 h postoperatively in North American practices to optimize safety. A meta-analysis comparing these two treatment regimes revealed that preoperative initiation demonstrated greater efficacy and superior safety for patients (10.0% rate of total deep-vein thrombosis vs. 15.3%, P = .023). In addition to the pre/postsurgical debate, proximity of initiation of low-molecular-weight heparin in relation to surgery is an issue of critical importance. Recent studies revealed that beginning therapy immediately within 2 h preoperatively or 6 h postoperatively dramatically decreased the risk of venous thrombosis. An investigation of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis initiated 2 h before elective hip surgery or approximately 6 h after surgery compared with warfarin sodium revealed that total and proximal deep-vein thrombosis rates were reduced in patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin compared with warfarin. The frequencies of deep-vein thrombosis for patients receiving preoperative and postoperative dalteparin vs. warfarin for all deep-vein thrombosis were 36 of 337 (10.7%, P < .001) and 44 of 336 (13.1%, P < .001) vs. 81 of 338 (24.0%); and for proximal deep-vein thrombosis were 3 of 354 (0.8%, P = .035) and 3 of 358 (0.8%, P = .033) vs. 11 of 363 (3.0%). Relative risk reductions for the dalteparin groups vs. warfarin ranged from 45% to 72%. In this case, low-molecular-weight heparin administered in close proximity to surgery provided superior efficacy over warfarin. Major bleeding was significantly increased with the preoperative regimen but not the postoperative regimen.

  3. Preoperative navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with motor eloquent lesions with emphasis on metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Philipp; Senger, Sebastian; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Simgen, Andreas; Schwerdtfeger, Karsten; Oertel, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a frequently used, non-invasive method to map the motor cortex. It is of great value in the preoperative workup of patients that suffer from motor eloquent brain lesions. Here, we present a single-center experience using preoperative nTMS in cortical motor eloquent lesions with emphasis on metastasis. All patients that underwent preoperative nTMS between June 2013 and January 2016 were evaluated. A total of 61 patients underwent nTMS before undergoing surgery for a motor eloquent brain lesion. Patients suffered from cerebral metastasis (23), glioblastoma (16), high grade glioma WHO III (4), low grade glioma WHO II (4), lymphoma (2), meningioma (8), cavernous hemangioma (3), or arteriovenous malformation (1). Thirty patients (49.2%) presented with a preoperative motor deficit. One week after surgery, paresis had resolved or improved in 56.7% of the patients. Out of the patients with postoperative paresis, 89.5% experienced an improvement of motor status at follow-up. All metastatic lesions were completely resected compared to 78.9% of non-metastatic lesions (P = 0.02). Only 4.3% of patients with a metastatic lesion, but 26.3% of patients with a non-metastatic lesion experienced deterioration of motor function after surgery (P = 0.04). Preoperative nTMS is suitable for mapping of a variety of motor eloquent brain lesions resulting in favorable neurological outcome. Particularly in metastatic motor eloquent lesion, motor function appears to be preserved after surgery. Clin. Anat. 29:925-931, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Preoperative platelet count and postoperative blood loss in patients undergoing hip surgery: an inverse correlation.

    PubMed

    Monreal, M; Lafoz, E; Llamazares, J; Roncales, J; Roca, J; Granero, X

    1996-01-01

    In a previous study we tried to assess the clinical usefulness of platelet count (PlC) to confirm whether postoperative pulmonary embolism could be suspected early. Unexpectedly, the 19 patients who subsequently developed pulmonary embolism had significantly lower mean PlC levels even before surgery. In an attempt to discover whether the preoperative PlC levels were associated with a different incidence of postoperative blood loss, we decided to retrospectively study the relationship between preoperative PlC levels and the consequences of blood loss. There were 459 consecutive patients undergoing hip surgery. After excluding 5 patients who died during the first 3 postoperative days, and 16 patients who bled from a definitive anatomic site, there were 438 patients. Blood loss was considered to be excessive when two or more of the following conditions were present: (1) total transfusion requirements exceeding 1,000 ml whole blood or 2 units of packed red cells; (2) a drop in hemoglobin level of 5 g/dl or more, and (3) a hemoglobin level below 8 g/dl at any moment during the first 8 postoperative days. Blood loss was considered to be excessive in 91 patients. Preoperative PlC levels were significantly lower in these patients as compared to patients without the condition (204 +/- 52 vs. 236 +/- 79 x 10(9) liter-1; p = 0.0002). When patients were classified according to the quartiles of preoperative PlC, the odds ratio of developing excessive blood loss was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.38-1.26) in patients in the second quartile; 0.57 (95% CI: 0.30-1.06) in the third quartile, and 0.27 (95% CI: 0.13-0.57) in patients in the highest quartile. After adjusting for age, sex, type of surgery and type of prophylaxis, the preoperative PlC levels maintained a statistically significant inverse correlation with postoperative blood loss.

  5. Preoperative Embolization of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations with Silk Suture and Particles: Technical Considerations and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Jordan R.; Raper, Daniel M.; Starke, Robert M.; Durst, Christopher R.; Liu, Kenneth C.; Jensen, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is commonly performed prior to surgical resection in order to reduce intraoperative bleeding and improve the safety of resection. Although most modern embolization procedures utilize permanent embolic agents, silk suture and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles may offer unique advantages for preoperative devascularization. The aims of this retrospective cohort study are to describe the technical considerations and determine the outcomes for preoperative silk suture and PVA particle embolization (SPE) of AVMs. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of our AVM embolization database. AVM patients who underwent preoperative SPE and subsequent surgical resection were included for analysis. Baseline patient demographics, AVM characteristics, embolization and operative records, and post-treatment outcomes were reviewed. Results A total of 11 patients who underwent 12 preoperative SPE procedures were included for analysis. Five AVMs were ruptured (45%), and the median nidus volume was 3.0 cm3 (range: 1.3-42.9 cm3). The Spetzler-Martin grade was I-II in seven patients (64%) and III-IV in four patients (36%). The degree of nidal obliteration was less than 25% in two procedures (17%), 25-50% in one procedure (8%), 50-75% in eight procedures (67%), and greater than 75% in one procedure (8%). The rates of post-embolization AVM hemorrhage and mortality were 8% and 0%, respectively. The postoperative angiographic obliteration rate was 100%, and the modified Rankin Scale score improved or stable in 91% of patients (median follow-up duration 2 months). Conclusion Preoperative AVM SPE affords a reasonable risk to benefit profile for appropriately selected patients. PMID:27790398

  6. Preoperative Fasting Protects against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Aged and Overweight Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jongbloed, Franny; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Payán-Gómez, César; van den Engel, Sandra; van Oostrom, Conny T.; de Bruin, Alain; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; van Steeg, Harry; IJzermans, Jan N. M.; Dollé, Martijn E. T.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is inevitable during kidney transplantation leading to oxidative stress and inflammation. We previously reported that preoperative fasting in young-lean male mice protects against IRI. Since patients are generally of older age with morbidities possibly leading to a different response to fasting, we investigated the effects of preoperative fasting on renal IRI in aged-overweight male and female mice. Male and female F1-FVB/C57BL6-hybrid mice, average age 73 weeks weighing 47.2 grams, were randomized to preoperative ad libitum feeding or 3 days fasting, followed by renal IRI. Body weight, kidney function and survival of the animals were monitored until day 28 postoperatively. Kidney histopathology was scored for all animals and gene expression profiles after fasting were analyzed in kidneys of young and aged male mice. Preoperative fasting significantly improved survival after renal IRI in both sexes compared with normal fed mice. Fasted groups had a better kidney function shown by lower serum urea levels after renal IRI. Histopathology showed less acute tubular necrosis and more regeneration in kidneys from fasted mice. A mRNA analysis indicated the involvement of metabolic processes including fatty acid oxidation and retinol metabolism, and the NRF2-mediated stress response. Similar to young-lean, healthy male mice, preoperative fasting protects against renal IRI in aged-overweight mice of both genders. These findings suggest a general protective response of fasting against renal IRI regardless of age, gender, body weight and genetic background. Therefore, fasting could be a non-invasive intervention inducing increased oxidative stress resistance in older and overweight patients as well. PMID:24959849

  7. Implementation of a Breast/Reconstruction Surgery Coordinator to Reduce Preoperative Delays for Patients Undergoing Mastectomy With Immediate Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Losk, Katya; Mallory, Melissa A.; Camuso, Kristen; Cutone, Linda; Caterson, Stephanie; Bunnell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction (MIR) requires coordination between breast and reconstructive surgical teams, leading to increased preoperative delays that may adversely impact patient outcomes and satisfaction. Our cancer center established a target of 28 days from initial consultation with the breast surgeon to MIR. We sought to determine if a centralized breast/reconstructive surgical coordinator (BRC) could reduce care delays. Methods: A 60-day pilot to evaluate the impact of a BRC on timeliness of care was initiated at our cancer center. All reconstructive surgery candidates were referred to the BRC, who had access to surgical clinic and operating room schedules. The BRC worked with both surgical services to identify the earliest surgery dates and facilitated operative bookings. The median time to MIR and the proportion of MIR cases that met the time-to-treatment goal was determined. These results were compared with a baseline cohort of patients undergoing MIR during the same time period (January to March) in 2013 and 2014. Results: A total of 99 patients were referred to the BRC (62% cancer, 21% neoadjuvant, 17% prophylactic) during the pilot period. Focusing exclusively on patients with a cancer diagnosis, an 18.5% increase in the percentage of cases meeting the target (P = .04) and a 7-day reduction to MIR (P = .02) were observed. Conclusion: A significant reduction in time to MIR was achieved through the implementation of the BRC. Further research is warranted to validate these findings and assess the impact the BRC has on operational efficiency and workflows. PMID:26883406

  8. Effects of Clown Doctors on Child and Caregiver Anxiety at the Entrance to the Surgery Care Unit and Separation from Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaga, Patrícia; Pacheco, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years) were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care).…

  9. Caring Reflexivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rallis, Sharon F.; Rossman, Gretchen B.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief summary of the seven articles in this special issue through the lens of the concept of "caring reflexivity". In joining "caring" and "reflexivity", we deepen the conversation about what constitutes reflexivity, encouraging an explicit focus on the relational. Revisiting the first article,…

  10. Preoperative Three-Dimensional Valve Analysis Predicts Recurrent Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation after Mitral Annuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bouma, Wobbe; Lai, Eric K.; Levack, Melissa M.; Shang, Eric K.; Pouch, Alison M.; Eperjesi, Thomas J.; Plappert, Theodore J.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Gleason, Thomas G.; Mahmood, Feroze; Acker, Michael A.; Woo, Y. Joseph; Cheung, Albert T.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) with undersized annuloplasty rings is characterized by high IMR recurrence rates. Patient-specific preoperative imaging-based risk stratification for recurrent IMR would optimize results. We sought to determine if pre-repair three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography combined with a novel valve modeling algorithm would be predictive of IMR recurrence 6 months after repair. Methods Intraoperative transesophageal real-time 3D echocardiography was performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized ring annuloplasty for IMR (and in 21 patients with normal mitral valves). A customized image analysis protocol was used to assess 3D annular geometry and regional leaflet tethering. IMR recurrence (≥grade 2) was assessed with two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography 6 months after repair. Results Preoperative annular geometry was similar in all IMR patients; and preoperative leaflet tethering was significantly higher in patients with recurrent IMR (n=13) as compared with patients in whom IMR did not recur IMR (n=37) (tethering index 3.91±1.01 vs. 2.90±1.17, P=0.008; tethering angles of A3 (23.5±8.9° vs. 14.4± 11.4°, P=0.012), P2 (44.4±8.8° vs. 28.2±17.0°, P=0.002), and P3 (35.2±6.0° vs. 18.6±12.7°, P<0.001)). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed preoperative P3 tethering angle as an independent predictor of IMR recurrence with an optimal cut-off value of 29.9° (AUC 0.92, 95%CI 0.84–1.00, P<0.001). Conclusions 3D echocardiography combined with valve modeling is predictive of recurrent IMR. Preoperative regional leaflet tethering of segment P3 is a strong independent predictor of IMR recurrence after undersized ring annuloplasty. In patients with a preoperative P3 tethering angle ≥29.9° chordal-sparing valve replacement rather than valve repair should be strongly considered. PMID:26688087

  11. The Effects of Pre-Operative Enteral Nutrition from Nasal Feeding Tubes on Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Su-Yong; Dai, Qi-Bao; Hua, Jin; Chen, Shao-Qin

    2017-04-10

    We examined gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) patients who received two weeks of strengthening pre-operative enteral nutrition therapy (pre-EN) through a nasal-jejenal feeding tube placed under a gastroscope to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of pre-EN compared to parenteral nutrition (PN). In this study, 68 patients confirmed to have GOO with upper-gastrointestinal contrast and who accepted the operation were randomized into an EN group and a PN group. The differences in nutritional status, immune function, post-operative complications, weight of patients, first bowel sound and first flatus time, pull tube time, length of hospital stay (LOH), and cost of hospitalization between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi square test and t-test; statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. The success rate of the placement was 91.18% (three out of 31 cases). After pre-EN, the levels of weight, albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and transferrin (TNF) in the EN group were significantly increased by pre-operation day compared to admission day, but were not significantly increased in the PN group; the weights in the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group by pre-operation day and day of discharge; total protein (TP), ALB, PA, and TNF of the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group on pre-operation and post-operative days one and three. The levels of CD3+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA, and IgM in the EN group were higher than those of the PN group at pre-operation and post-operation; the EN group had a significantly lower incidence of poor wound healing, peritoneal cavity infection, pneumonia, and a shorter first bowel sound time, first flatus time, and post-operation hospital stay than the PN group. Pre-EN through a nasal-jejunum feeding tube and placed under a gastroscope in GOO patients was safe, feasible, and beneficial to the nutrition status, immune function

  12. Postoperative Sore Throat Prevention in Ambulatory Surgery: A Comparison between Preoperative Aspirin and Magnesium Sulfate Gargle – A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Das, Anjan; Nandy, Sabyasachi; RoyBasunia, Sandip; Mitra, Tapobrata; Halder, Partha Sarathi; Chhaule, Subinay; Mandal, Subrata Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Postoperative sore throat (POST) frequently hampers the positive feedback of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many measures. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative magnesium sulfate and aspirin gargle in preventing POST after ambulatory surgery. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective, randomized, and double-blinded study. Fifty-six adult patients of either sex, aged 25–50, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated to Group A ([n = 28] receiving aspirin gargle [325 mg tablet]) and Group M ([n = 28] receiving magnesium sulfate [20 mg/kg] gargle). In both groups, the medications were made into 20 mL of (5% dextrose) solution. Patients were asked to gargle with this mixture for 30 s, 15 min before induction of anesthesia. Episodes of POST were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 16 h postoperatively with a four-point scale. Results: Both groups had a similar demographic profile with comparable oxygen saturation, hemodynamics, and consciousness status at immediate postoperative period. Number of patients with sore throat was significantly lower in magnesium group compared to aspirin group at 0 h (P = 0.0376), 2 h (P = 0.0429), 4 h (P = 0.0394) after the operation. POST pain score (visual analog scale) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in magnesium group compared to aspirin group after the operation at 0, 2, 4 h after operation. Conclusion: It is evident that preoperative magnesium sulfate gargle significantly attenuated the incidence and severity of POST, especially in the early postoperative period, with no adverse effects in patients undergoing day care surgery under general anesthesia. PMID:28298764

  13. Influence of preoperative velar closing ratio and lateral wall movement on outcomes of Furlow palatoplasty for velopharyngeal incompetence

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Arshad R; Rice, Gale; Hubbard, Bradley; Killion, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no consensus regarding how to determine the optimal surgical procedure for a patient with velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) post-primary palate repair. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of preoperative velar closing ratio (VCR) and lateral wall movement (LWM) on nasal emission and hypernasality after Furlow double-opposing Z-plasty. A retrospective analysis involving patients with VPI post-primary palatoplasty whose VPI was treated with double-opposing Z-plasty by a single surgeon was performed. Ten consecutive patients with VPI postpalatoplasty were reviewed. Videonasendoscopy, videofluoroscopy and perceptual speech examinations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. VCR improved from an mean of 0.5 preoperatively (range 0.1 to 0.95) to 0.9 postoperatively (range 0.55 to 1.0). Postoperative mean LWM was 0.5 (range 0.3 to 0.9), unchanged from preoperative ratings. A trend toward an inverse relationship between preoperative VCR and improvement in hypernasality and resolution of nasal emission was observed. No relationship was noted between the degree of preoperative LWM and mean improvement in hypernasality. However, patients with worse preoperative LWM experienced better resolution of nasal emission postoperatively. PMID:25535457

  14. Preoperative functional MRI localization of language areas in Chinese patients with brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hechun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Liang; Ma, Hui; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xuexin; Sun, Shengyu; Jia, Xiaoxiong

    2012-01-01

    Ten Chinese patients with brain tumors involving language regions were selected. Preoperative functional MRI was performed to locate Broca's or Wernicke's area, and the cortex that was essential for language function was determined by electrocortical mapping. A site-by-site comparison between functional MRI and electrocortical mapping was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation device. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative functional MRI were 80.0% and 85.0% in Broca's area and 66.6% and 85.2% in Wernicke's area, respectively. These experimental findings indicate that functional MRI is an accurate, reliable technique with which to identify the location of Wernicke's area or Broca's area in patients with brain tumors. PMID:25657694

  15. Preoperative factors and outcome after lunate decompression for Kienböck's disease.

    PubMed

    Condit, D P; Idler, R S; Fischer, T J; Hastings, H

    1993-07-01

    Preoperative factors and outcome were studied after lunate decompression for Kienböck's disease. Twenty-three patients treated with radial shortening or scaphoid-trapezium-trapezoid fusion were evaluated. The mean follow-up was 59 months. Neither good nor excellent outcomes were found with either lunate-preserving procedure when the preoperative radioscaphoid angle was greater than 60 degrees. Outcomes in the radial shortening osteotomy group were superior to those in the group treated with scaphoid-trapezium-trapezoid fusion. Lunate collapse was not prevented by either treatment method. Lunate index, carpal height, and staging did not correlate with outcome. Measurement of radioscaphoid angle provides predictive information regarding the outcome of stage III (Decoulx/Lichtman) Kienböck's disease treated with radial shortening or scaphoid-trapezium-trapezoid fusion.

  16. Preoperative respiratory physiotherapy for a patient with severe respiratory dysfunction and annuloaortic ectasia.

    PubMed

    Sogawa, Masakazu; Ohzeki, Hajime; Namura, Osamu; Hayashi, Jun-ichi

    2003-08-01

    A 23-year-old man with Marfan syndrome, who had undergone surgery for pectus excavatum and scoliosis and who had severe respiratory dysfunction, was referred for surgical repair of annuloaortic ectasia. The preoperative pulmonary function test revealed severe obstructive and restrictive respiratory dysfunction, with forced expiratory volume in one second of 650 ml and vital capacity of 1,220 ml. These parameters improved after 4 months respiratory physiotherapy. A modified Bentall's procedure was performed after respiratory physiotherapy. A tracheostomy made on the 7th postoperative day (POD) appeared to improve respiratory condition and he was weaned off mechanical ventilation on the 14th POD. The lower limits of pulmonary function for open heart surgery have not been established clearly; however, our case will help elucidate these limits of respiratory function for open heart surgery. Preoperative respiratory physiotherapy improved parameters of pulmonary function test and may decrease the morbidity of postoperative pulmonary complications in a patient with severe respiratory dysfunction.

  17. Framework for 2D-3D image fusion of infrared thermography with preoperative MRI.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Nico; Weidner, Florian; Urban, Peter; Meyer, Tobias; Schnabel, Christian; Radev, Yordan; Schackert, Gabriele; Petersohn, Uwe; Koch, Edmund; Gumhold, Stefan; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2017-01-23

    Multimodal medical image fusion combines information of one or more images in order to improve the diagnostic value. While previous applications mainly focus on merging images from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonic and single-photon emission computed tomography, we propose a novel approach for the registration and fusion of preoperative 3D MRI with intraoperative 2D infrared thermography. Image-guided neurosurgeries are based on neuronavigation systems, which further allow us track the position and orientation of arbitrary cameras. Hereby, we are able to relate the 2D coordinate system of the infrared camera with the 3D MRI coordinate system. The registered image data are now combined by calibration-based image fusion in order to map our intraoperative 2D thermographic images onto the respective brain surface recovered from preoperative MRI. In extensive accuracy measurements, we found that the proposed framework achieves a mean accuracy of 2.46 mm.

  18. Giving anesthesiologists what they want: how to write a useful preoperative consult.

    PubMed

    Lubarsky, David; Candiotti, Keith

    2009-11-01

    Anesthesiologists are the primary users of preoperative medical consultations (consults), but the information in consults is often of limited usefulness to anesthesiologists and the rest of the surgical and perioperative team. The purpose of a consult is not to "clear" a patient for surgery but rather to optimize a patient's underlying disease states before they are compounded by the insult of surgery. Too often consults provide advice on subjects that are in the realm of expertise of the anesthesiologist--such as the type of anesthesia to administer or what intraoperative monitoring to use--and thus risk being ignored. Consults should instead provide specific data about the patient that are pertinent to the surgery, as well as guidance on preoperative and postoperative disease management.

  19. Pre-operative Identification and Surgical Management of the Appendiceal Mucocele: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kevin; Cho, Sung; Andres, Robert; Knight, Jennifer; Con, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    An appendiceal mucocele (AM) is an uncommon differential in the patient being evaluated for acute appendicitis. Although often asymptomatic, AMs can clinically mimic acute appendicitis, and preoperative distinction between these processes facilitates optimal management. We report the case of a 60-year-old male with an AM presenting with nausea and periumbilical pain radiating to the right lower quadrant. Literature relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of AMs is reviewed, with emphasis on diagnosis through radiographic imaging and surgical management. Abdominal CT scan or ultrasound are useful in identifying AMs preoperatively. A decision to perform a right hemicolectomy should be influenced by the criteria reported by Gonzalez-Moreno. The safety of the laparoscopic resection relative to an open appendectomy is debated.

  20. Preoperative Testosterone Therapy Prior to Surgical Correction of Hypospadias: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chagani, Sean; Rohl, Austin J

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the male urethra that causes significant morbidity in the pediatric male population. The mainstay of treatment is hypospadias repair surgery. However, given the common co-occurrence of microphallus in these patients, surgery remains difficult without adequate tissue for proper reconstruction of the urethra. The use of preoperative testosterone therapy, parenterally or topically, has been a topic of study for several years in urologic literature. This literature review aims to summarize the different studies that have been conducted to address whether preoperative testosterone therapy is beneficial, inconsequential, or detrimental to the surgical and cosmetic outcomes of hypospadias repair as well as to address the differences in routes of administration. PMID:27551655

  1. [Laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for advanced carcinoma associated with anal fistula].

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Takashi; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Sumi, Yasuo; Kanemitsu, Kiyonori; Yamamoto, Masashi; Kanaji, Shingo; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2014-11-01

    The patient was a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with anal fistula 50 years previously. He complained of mucous and bloody stools. He was diagnosed with a carcinoma associated with anal fistula after biopsy. Image examination showed that the tumor was filled with mucinous substances and that it had invaded the levator ani muscle, with left external iliac and left inguinal lymph node metastases. Therefore, preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cancer was administered. After chemoradiotherapy, the tumor and metastatic lymph nodes reduced in size. We performed laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection. Histopathologically, the tumor was revealed as a mucinous adenocarcinoma, but no cancer cells were present on the surgical margin. This case suggested that preoperative chemoradiotherapy could be effective for locally advanced carcinoma associated with anal fistula.

  2. The influence of preoperative psychological factors on weight loss after bariatric surgery: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lai, Carlo; Aceto, Paola; Petrucci, Ilaria; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Callari, Cosimo; Giustacchini, Piero; Sollazzi, Liliana; Mingrone, Geltrude; Bellantone, Rocco; Raffaelli, Marco

    2016-11-15

    Aim of this study was to investigate relationship between preoperative psychological factors and % total weight loss after gastric bypass. 76 adult patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were preoperatively asked to complete anxiety and depression Hamilton scales and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. At 3- and 6-month follow-up, body weight was assessed. At 6-month follow-up, alexithymic patients showed a poorer % total weight loss compared with non-alexithymic patients (p = .017), and moderately depressed patients showed a lower % total weight loss compared with non-depressed patients (p = .011). Focused pre- and postoperative psychological support could be useful in bariatric patients in order to improve surgical outcome.

  3. Preoperative irradiation in carcinoma of the pancreas. [/sup 60/Co or 46 MeV photons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Miller, H.H.

    1980-11-01

    Seventeen patients with carcinoma confined to the pancreas and the peripancreatic area received preoperative radiation therapy in an attempt to increase the resectability rate and to reduce the incidence of recurrence. The tumors were considered either unresectable or of borderline resectability. The radiation dose ranged between 4000 to 5000 rads, the majority of patients (75%) receiving 4400 to 4600 rads in 4 1/2 to 5 weeks. After a period averaging six weeks the patients were reevaluated for surgery. Eleven patients were explored and six underwent radical resection. Two patients remained disease free after five years. Pancreatic resection is feasible following a course of preoperative radiotherpy to a moderately high dose. It is suggested that the response of the primary tumor to radiotherapy be used as a criterion for selecting patients for reexploration and resection.

  4. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing for Preoperative Planning in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768

  5. Preoperative Ambulatory Inspiratory Muscle Training in Patients Undergoing Esophagectomy. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Agrelli, Taciana Freitas; de Carvalho Ramos, Marisa; Guglielminetti, Rachel; Silva, Alex Augusto; Crema, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A major decline in pulmonary function is observed on the first day after upper abdominal surgery. This decline can reduce vital and inspiratory capacity and can culminate in restrictive lung diseases that cause atelectasis, reduced diaphragm movement, and respiratory insufficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative ambulatory respiratory muscle training in patients undergoing esophagectomy. The sample consisted of 20 adult patients (14 men [70%] and 6 women [30%]) with a diagnosis of advanced chagasic megaesophagus. A significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure was observed after inspiratory muscle training when compared with baseline values (from −55.059 ± 18.359 to −76.286 ± 16.786). Preoperative ambulatory inspiratory muscle training was effective in increasing respiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing esophagectomy and contributed to the prevention of postoperative complications. PMID:23113846

  6. Prevention of health care-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vincent

    2014-09-15

    Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.

  7. Preoperative diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma presenting with melena using wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Yu; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Nosaka, Takuto; Saito, Yasushi; Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Kazuto; Naito, Tatsushi; Ofuji, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Masahiro; Nemoto, Tomoyuki; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akio; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Primary neoplasms of the small intestine are relatively rare in all age groups, accounting for about 5 % of all gastrointestinal tumors 1. Cavernous hemangiomas of the small intestine are also rare, can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, and are extremely difficult to diagnose preoperatively 2. We present a patient who presented with melena and iron deficiency anemia, for whom wireless capsule endoscopy and single-balloon enteroscopy facilitated the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:27004239

  8. Actual preoperative fasting time in Brazilian hospitals: the BIGFAST multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E; de Almeida Dias, Ana L; Dock-Nascimento, Diana B; Correia, Maria Isabel TD; Campos, Antonio CL; Portari-Filho, Pedro Eder; Oliveira, Sergio S

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged fasting increases organic response to trauma. This multicenter study investigated the gap between the prescribed and the actual preoperative fasting times in Brazilian hospitals and factors associated with this gap. Methods Patients (18–90-years-old) who underwent elective operations between August 2011 and September 2012 were included in the study. The actual and prescribed times for fasting were collected and correlated with sex, age, surgical disease (malignancies or benign disease), operation type, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, type of hospital (public or private), and nutritional status. Results A total of 3,715 patients (58.1% females) with a median age of 49 (18–94) years from 16 Brazilian hospitals entered the study. The median (range) preoperative fasting time was 12 (2–216) hours, and fasting time was longer (P<0.001) in hospitals using a traditional fasting protocol (13 [6–216] hours) than in others that had adopted new guidelines (8 [2–48] hours). Almost 80% (n=2,962) of the patients were operated on after 8 or more hours of fasting and 46.2% (n=1,718) after more than 12 hours. Prolonged fasting was not associated with physical score, age, sex, type of surgery, or type of hospital. Patients operated on due to a benign disease had an extended duration of preoperative fasting. Conclusion Actual preoperative fasting time is significantly longer than prescribed fasting time in Brazilian hospitals. Most of these hospitals still adopt traditional rather than modern fasting guidelines. All patients are at risk of long periods of fasting, especially those in hospitals that follow traditional practices. PMID:24627636

  9. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Localized Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, Twisha; Crane, Christopher H.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Briere, Tina M.; Beddar, A. Sam; Mok, Henry; Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Das, Prajnan

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate dosimetric parameters, acute toxicity, pathologic response, and local control in patients treated with preoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between November 2007 and April 2010, 25 patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by preoperative IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy and, finally, surgical resection. The median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in 18 patients, capecitabine in 3, and other regimens in 4. Subsequently, resection was performed with total gastrectomy in 13 patients, subtotal gastrectomy in 7, and other surgeries in 5. Results: Target coverage, expressed as the ratio of the minimum dose received by 99% of the planning target volume to the prescribed dose, was a median of 0.97 (range, 0.92-1.01). The median V{sub 30} (percentage of volume receiving at least 30 Gy) for the liver was 26%; the median V{sub 20} (percentage of volume receiving at least 20 Gy) for the right and left kidneys was 14% and 24%, respectively; and the median V{sub 40} (percentage of volume receiving at least 40 Gy) for the heart was 18%. Grade 3 acute toxicity developed in 14 patients (56%), including dehydration in 10, nausea in 8, and anorexia in 5. Grade 4 acute toxicity did not develop in any patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of acute toxicity, hospitalization, or feeding tube use in comparison to those in a group of 50 patients treated with preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 20 patients (80%), and pathologic complete response occurred in 5 (20%). Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT for gastric adenocarcinoma was well tolerated, accomplished excellent target coverage and normal structure sparing, and led to appropriate

  10. Preoperative Laboratory Testing in Patients Undergoing Elective, Low-Risk Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Benarroch-Gampel, Jaime; Sheffield, Kristin M.; Duncan, Casey B.; Brown, Kimberly M.; Han, Yimei; Townsend, Courtney M.; Riall, Taylor S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Routine preoperative laboratory testing for ambulatory surgery is not recommended. Methods Patients who underwent elective hernia repair (N = 73,596) were identified from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database (2005–2010). Patterns of preoperative testing were examined. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with testing and postoperative complications. Results A total of 46,977 (63.8%) patients underwent testing, with at least one abnormal test recorded in 61.6% of patients. In patients with no NSQIP comorbidities (N = 25,149) and no clear indication for testing, 54% received at least one test. In addition, 15.3% of tested patients underwent laboratory testing the day of the operation. In this group, surgery was done despite abnormal results in 61.6% of same day tests. In multivariate analyses, testing was associated with older age, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) class >1, hypertension, ascites, bleeding disorders, systemic steroids, and laparoscopic procedures. Major complications (reintubation, pulmonary embolus, stroke, renal failure, coma, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, septic shock, bleeding, or death) occurred in 0.3% of patients. After adjusting for patient and procedure characteristics, neither testing nor abnormal results were associated with postoperative complications. Conclusions Preoperative testing is overused in patients undergoing low-risk, ambulatory surgery. Neither testing nor abnormal results were associated with postoperative outcomes. On the basis of high rates of testing in healthy patients, physician and/or facility preference and not only patient condition currently dictate use. Involvement from surgical societies is necessary to establish guidelines for preoperative testing. PMID:22868362

  11. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Min Ju

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: In total, 430 primary LARC (cT3-4) patients who were treated with preoperative CRT and curative radical surgery between May 2002 and March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest MR volumetry. Tumor volume reduction rate was determined using the equation TVRR (%) = (pre-CRT tumor volume - post-CRT tumor volume) Multiplication-Sign 100/pre-CRT tumor volume. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 27-99 months) for survivors. Endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The median TVRR was 70.2% (mean, 64.7% {+-} 22.6%; range, 0-100%). Downstaging (ypT0-2N0M0) occurred in 183 patients (42.6%). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 77.7% and 86.3%, respectively. In the analysis that included pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes and TVRR as continuous variables, only TVRR was an independent prognostic factor. Tumor volume reduction rate was categorized according to a cutoff value of 45% and included with clinicopathologic factors in the multivariate analysis; ypN status, circumferential resection margin, and TVRR were significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Tumor volume reduction rate was a significant prognostic factor in LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT. Tumor volume reduction rate data may be useful for tailoring surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy after preoperative CRT.

  12. Preoperative Thromboelastometry as a Predictor of Transfusion Requirements during Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fayed, Nirmeen; Mourad, Wessam; Yassen, Khaled; Görlinger, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to predict transfusion requirements may improve perioperative bleeding management as an integral part of a patient blood management program. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate preoperative thromboelastometry as a predictor of transfusion requirements for adult living donor liver transplant recipients. Methods The correlation between preoperative thromboelastometry variables in 100 adult living donor liver transplant recipients and intraoperative blood transfusion requirements was examined by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Thresholds of thromboelastometric parameters for prediction of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets, and cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements were determined with receiver operating characteristics analysis. The attending anesthetists were blinded to the preoperative thromboelastometric analysis. However, a thromboelastometry-guided transfusion algorithm with predefined trigger values was used intraoperatively. The transfusion triggers in this algorithm did not change during the study period. Results Univariate analysis confirmed significant correlations between PRBCs, FFP, platelets or cryoprecipitate transfusion requirements and most thromboelastometric variables. Backward stepwise logistic regression indicated that EXTEM coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) and INTEM CT, clot formation time (CFT) and MCF are independent predictors for PRBC transfusion. EXTEM CT, CFT and FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for FFP transfusion. Only EXTEM and INTEM MCF were independent predictors of platelet transfusion. EXTEM CFT and MCF, INTEM CT, CFT and MCF as well as FIBTEM MCF are independent predictors for cryoprecipitate transfusion. Thromboelastometry-based regression equation accounted for 63% of PRBC, 83% of FFP, 61% of cryoprecipitate, and 44% of platelet transfusion requirements. Conclusion Preoperative thromboelastometric analysis is

  13. The Chiari Severity Index: A Preoperative Grading System for Chiari Malformation Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jacob K; Yarbrough, Chester K; Radmanesh, Alireza; Godzik, Jakub; Yu, Megan; Jeffe, Donna B; Smyth, Matthew D; Park, Tae Sung; Piccirillo, Jay F; Limbrick, David D

    2014-01-01

    Background To develop evidence-based treatment guidelines for Chiari Malformation Type 1 (CM-1), preoperative prognostic indices capable of stratifying patients for comparative trials are needed. Objective To develop a preoperative Chiari Severity Index (CSI) integrating the clinical and neuroimaging features most predictive of long-term patient-defined improvement in quality of life (QOL) after CM-1 surgery. Methods We recorded preoperative clinical (e.g. headaches, myelopathic symptoms) and neuroimaging (e.g. syrinx size, tonsillar descent) characteristics. Brief follow-up surveys were administered to assess overall patient-defined improvement in QOL. We used sequential sequestration to develop clinical and neuroimaging grading systems and conjunctive consolidation to integrate these indices to form the CSI. We evaluated statistical significance using the Cochran-Armitage test and discrimination using the c-statistic. Results Our sample included 158 patients. Sequential sequestration identified headache characteristics and myelopathic symptoms as the most impactful clinical parameters, producing a clinical grading system with improvement rates ranging from 81% (grade 1) to 58% (grade 3) (p=0.01). Based on sequential sequestration, the neuroimaging grading system included only the presence (55% improvement) or absence (74% improvement) of a syrinx ≥ 6 mm (p=0.049). Integrating the clinical and neuroimaging indices, improvement rates for the CSI ranged from 83% (grade 1) to 45% (grade 3) (p=0.002). The combined CSI had moderately better discrimination (c=0.66) than the clinical (c=0.62) or neuroimaging (c=0.58) systems alone. Conclusion Integrating clinical and neuroimaging characteristics, the CSI is a novel tool that predicts patient-defined improvement following CM-1 surgery. The CSI may aid preoperative counseling and stratify patients in comparative effectiveness trials. PMID:25584956

  14. PUREX environmental radiological surveillance - preoperational and operational support program conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Price, K.R.

    1983-10-01

    This report describes the radiological environmental sampling program that is being conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in support of resumed operation of the PUREX fuel processing plant. The report also summarizes preoperational radiological environmental data collected to date. The activities described herein are part of the ongoing Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program, operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE.

  15. Gray-scale ultrasound: utility preoperatively and postoperatively in a patient with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S H; Hayt, D B; Reynolds, B; Patel, H

    1977-09-01

    We present a case of obstructing calculi of the common bile duct diagnosed by ultrasonography. Postoperatively, a sterile abscess due to bile leakage at the distal common bile duct developed, and was also diagnosed by ultrasound Ultrasonography was useful in following the course of clearing of the bile collection. Preoperative ultrasound evaluation of the jaundiced patient should be followed by postoperative sonography, especially if complications occur.

  16. Preoperative and surveillance MR imaging of patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MR imaging provides considerable advantages for imaging patients with peritoneal tumor. Its inherently superior contrast resolution compared to CT allows MRI to more accurately depict small peritoneal tumors that are often missed on other imaging tests. Combining different contrast mechanisms including diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and gadolinium-enhanced MRI provides a powerful tool for preoperative and surveillance imaging in patients being considered for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). PMID:26941984

  17. Prediction of Response to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer by Multiplex Kinase Activity Profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Folkvord, Sigurd; Flatmark, Kjersti; Dueland, Svein

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Tumor response of rectal cancer to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) varies considerably. In experimental tumor models and clinical radiotherapy, activity of particular subsets of kinase signaling pathways seems to predict radiation response. This study aimed to determine whether tumor kinase activity profiles might predict tumor response to preoperative CRT in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: Sixty-seven LARC patients were treated with a CRT regimen consisting of radiotherapy, fluorouracil, and, where possible, oxaliplatin. Pretreatment tumor biopsy specimens were analyzed using microarrays with kinase substrates, and the resulting substrate phosphorylation patterns were correlated with tumor response to preoperative treatment as assessed by histomorphologic tumor regression grade (TRG). A predictive model for TRG scores from phosphosubstrate signatures was obtained by partial-least-squares discriminant analysis. Prediction performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation and use of an independent test set. Results: In the patient population, 73% and 15% were scored as good responders (TRG 1-2) or intermediate responders (TRG 3), whereas 12% were assessed as poor responders (TRG 4-5). In a subset of 7 poor responders and 12 good responders, treatment outcome was correctly predicted for 95%. Application of the prediction model on the remaining patient samples resulted in correct prediction for 85%. Phosphosubstrate signatures generated by poor-responding tumors indicated high kinase activity, which was inhibited by the kinase inhibitor sunitinib, and several discriminating phosphosubstrates represented proteins derived from signaling pathways implicated in radioresistance. Conclusions: Multiplex kinase activity profiling may identify functional biomarkers predictive of tumor response to preoperative CRT in LARC.

  18. Risk factors for aerobic bacterial conjunctival flora in preoperative cataract patients.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, S; Hashida, M; Urabe, K

    2016-11-01

    PurposeTo investigate the relationship between the background of preoperative cataract patients and bacterial conjunctival flora.MethodsA total of 990 cataract patients who had completed preoperative examinations in 2007 and 2008 were included. Patients using topical antibiotics at the preoperative examination or having a history of intraocular surgery were excluded. Conjunctival cultures had been preoperatively obtained. Patient characteristics were investigated via medical records. Risk factors for conjunctival flora of seven typical bacteria were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses.ResultsThe detection rate of alpha-hemolytic streptococci and Enterococcus faecalis increased with age (P=0.044 and P=0.002, respectively). The detection rate of Gram-negative bacilli was higher among patients with oral steroid use or lacrimal duct obstruction (P=0.038 and P=0.002, respectively). The detection rate of Corynebacterium species was higher among older patients and men, and lower among patients with glaucoma eye drop use (P<0.001, P=0.012 and P=0.001, respectively). The detection rate of methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative Staphylococci was higher among men and lower among patients with a surgical history in other departments (P=0.003 and P=0.046, respectively). The detection rate of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MR-CNS) was higher among patients with oral steroid use, a visit history to ophthalmic facilities, or a surgical history in other departments (P=0.002, P=0.037 and P<0.001, respectively).ConclusionsElderly patients, men, patients with lacrimal duct obstruction or immunosuppressed patients are more likely to be colonized by pathogens that cause postoperative endophthalmitis. Moreover, MR-CNS colonization was associated with healthcare-associated infection.

  19. A Pre-operative Risk Model for Post-operative Pneumonia following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Raymond J.; Liang, Qixing; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoting; Rogers, Mary A. M.; Theurer, Patricia F.; Fishstrom, Astrid B.; Harrington, Steven D.; DeLucia, Alphonse; Paone, Gaetano; Patel, Himanshu J.; Prager, Richard L.; Likosky, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-operative pneumonia is the most prevalent of all hospital-acquired infections following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CAB). Accurate prediction of a patient’s risk of this morbid complication is hindered by its low relative incidence. In an effort to support clinical decision-making and quality improvement, we developed a pre-operative prediction model for post-operative pneumonia following CAB. Methods We undertook an observational study of 16,084 patients undergoing CAB between Q3 2011 – Q2 2014 across 33 institutions participating in the Michigan Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons – Quality Collaborative. Variables related to patient demographics, medical history, admission status, comorbid disease, cardiac anatomy and the institution performing the procedure were investigated. Logistic regression via forwards stepwise selection (p < 0.05 threshold) was utilized to develop a risk prediction model for estimating the occurrence of pneumonia. Traditional methods were employed to assess the model’s performance. Results Post-operative pneumonia occurred in 3.30% of patients. Multivariable analysis identified 17 pre-operative factors, including: demographics, laboratory values, comorbid disease, pulmonary and cardiac function, and operative status. The final model significantly predicted the occurrence of pneumonia, and performed well (C-statistic: 0.74). These findings were confirmed via sensitivity analyses by center and clinically important sub-groups. Conclusions We identified 17 readily obtainable pre-operative variables associated with post-operative pneumonia. This model may be used to provide individualized risk estimation and to identify opportunities to reduce a patient’s pre-operative risk of pneumonia through pre-habilitation. PMID:27261082

  20. Comparison of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin and capecitabine in preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae Yong; Jung, Kyung Hae . E-mail: khjung@ncc.re.kr; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Duck-Woo; Chang, Hee Jin; Jeong, Jun Yong; Kim, Young Hoon; Son, Seok-Hyun; Yun, Tak; Hong, Chang Won; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Jae-Gahb

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To describe our experience with a bolus injection of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (FL) vs. capecitabine in terms of radiologic and pathologic findings in preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: The study enrolled 278 patients scheduled for preoperative CRT using two protocols with different chemotherapeutic regimens. Pelvic radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) was delivered concurrently with FL (n = 145) or capecitabine (n = 133). Surgery was performed 6 weeks after CRT completion. Tumor responses to CRT were measured using both radiologic and pathologic examination. Magnetic resonance volumetry was performed at the initial workup and just before surgery after completion of preoperative CRT. Post-CRT pathology tests were used to determine tumor stage and regression. Results: Radiologic examination showed that tumor volume decreased by 68.2% {+-} 20.5% in the FL group and 68.3% {+-} 22.3% in the capecitabine group (p = 0.970). Postoperative pathologic T stage determination showed that downstaging occurred in 44.3% of FL and 49.9% of capecitabine patients (p = 0.571). The tumor regression grades after CRT were Grade 1 (minimal response) in 22.6% and 21.0%, Grade 2 (moderate response) in 53.2% and 50.0%, Grade 3 (near-complete response) in 12.9% and 12.9%, and Grade 4 (complete response) in 11.3% and 16.1% of the FL and capecitabine groups, respectively (p = 0.758). Conclusion: In the present study, the radiologic and pathologic findings did not reveal significant differences in short-term tumor responses between preoperative FL and capecitabine CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer. Long-term results and a prospective randomized trial are needed.

  1. Impact of the number of resected lymph nodes on survival after preoperative radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Yu; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Huan-Xin; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Lin, Hui; Li, Qun

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of the number of resected lymph nodes (RLNs) for survival in esophageal cancer (EC) patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy and cancer-directed surgery. The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was queried to identify EC patients treated from 1988 to 2012 who had complete data on the number of positive lymph nodes and number of RLNs. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox regression proportional hazard methods were used to determine factors that significantly impact cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). There were a total of 3,159 patients who received preoperative radiotherapy and cancer-directed surgery. The median number of RLNs was 10 in both patients who received and did not receive preoperative radiotherapy (P = 0.332). Cox regression univariate and multivariate analysis showed that RLN count was a significant prognostic factor for CSS and OS. Patients with 11–71 RLNs had better CSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.694, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.603–0.799, P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.724, 95% CI: 0.636–0.824, P < 0.001) than patients with 1–10 RLNs. The 5-year CSS rates were 39.1% and 44.8% in patients with 1–10 RLNs and 11–71 RLNs, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year OS rates were 33.7% and 39.9% in patients with 1–10 RLNs and 11–71 RLNs, respectively (P < 0.001). A higher number of RLNs was associated with better survival by tumor stage and nodal stage (all P < 0.05). RLN count is an independent prognostic factor in EC patients who undergo preoperative radiotherapy and cancer-directed surgery. PMID:26992210

  2. The importance of thorough preoperative diagnostics of maxillary ameloblastoma: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Marko; Leović, Dinko; Popić, Bruno; Zubcić, Vedran; Kopić, Vlatko; Prlić, Ante; Siber, Stjepan; Dinjar, Kristijan

    2010-12-01

    Ameloblastoma, especially maxillary, is a rare benign neoplasm of odontogenic origin. Diagnosis of significant number of lesions is usually established postoperatively, because ameloblastoma, especially the unicystic form, mimics wide range of more frequent jaw lesions. From January 1993 to December 2005, three cases of the maxillary ameloblastoma were surgically treated at our Department. The authors present clinical, radiological and pathohistological features of the ameloblastomas in this rare localization with special attention to need of accurate preoperative diagnostics.

  3. Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Wei, Chang-Kao; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Juang, Shiun-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-09-01

    The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients.

  4. NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS IN A MULTIDISCIPLINARY TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR SEVERE OBESITY AND PREOPERATIVE BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    MAGNO, Fernanda Cristina Carvalho Mattos; da SILVA, Monique Silveira; COHEN, Larissa; SARMENTO, Luciana d'Abreu; ROSADO, Eliane Lopes; CARNEIRO, João Régis Ivar

    2014-01-01

    Background Along with the augmentation in obesity rates in recent years, the demand for bariatric surgery has startlingly increased. Nutritional counseling in the preoperative period is very important because it contributes to higher success rate in the post-operative period. Aim To assess the nutritional status of patients in a multidisciplinary program for the treatment of severe obesity and pre-operatively for bariatric surgery, characterizing the consumption of healthy nutrients. Methods A retrospective analysis of 30 patients was conducted. Personal information, anthropometric data and dietary assessment by 24-hour food record were collected. The analysis of energy intake was performed in Dietpro 5.1 Professional® program. The statistical treatment of the caloric intake was performed by an ANOVA test with Bonferroni's post hoc and for anthropometric data the paired t test was used. Results From the total, 73% of the patients were women and 27% male, mean age was 48.4+12.9 and 49.8+8.1, respectively. A lower weight in the 5th appointment was observed when compared with the 1st one. There was a reduction in caloric intake in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th appointments when compared with the 1st. It was observed that in the 5th appointment more than 50% of the patients underwent six meals a day. There was an increase in the consumption of fruit along the appointments and 72.2% of patients consumed 1-2 servings of fruit a day. Vegetables intake was high in all appointments in the pre-operative period and, although low, the whole grain products consumption has increased during the pre-operative period achieving 30% of the study population. Conclusion There was a decrease in body weight, a trend in the decrease of the body mass index and waist circumference and quantitative and qualitative improvement of food consumption. PMID:25409962

  5. Congenital hip disease in adults: terminology, classification, pre-operative planning and management.

    PubMed

    Karachalios, T; Hartofilakidis, G

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge relating to the management of adult patients with congenital hip disease. Orthopaedic surgeons who treat these patients with a total hip replacement should be familiar with the arguments concerning its terminology, be able to recognise the different anatomical abnormalities and to undertake thorough pre-operative planning in order to replace the hip using an appropriate surgical technique and the correct implants and be able to anticipate the clinical outcome and the complications.

  6. Pre-operative axillary staging: should core biopsy be preferred to fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed Central

    Vidya, Raghavan; Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Bickley, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and core needle biopsy (CNB) of axillary lymph nodes pre-operatively in newly diagnosed operable primary breast cancer. Methods An observational study for all patients who underwent pre-operative FNA cytology or CNB during September 2013–August 2014 was conducted at our institution (County Hospital, Stafford, UK). The accuracy of pre-operative axillary staging was compared to the post-operative histology. For this sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. Results A total of 81 consecutive patients were evaluated by axillary ultrasound. Patients identified with potentially abnormal axillary lymph nodes underwent definitive surgery. Seven patients had positive cytology/histology who did not undergo definitive surgery and were excluded (N = 74) from the study. CNB had a sensitivity of 100% versus 72% (p = 0.006) for FNA cytology. Both had 100% specificity and PPV. The NPV of CNB was 100% versus 72% for FNA cytology. Among 35% of patients that underwent FNA cytology required repeat procedure versus 2.6% of patients who underwent CNB. 0/38 patients that had CNB required a second operation while 7/43 patients with negative FNA cytology had positive lymph nodes identified at sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) requiring surgical re-intervention with axillary node clearance. Conclusion CNB was superior to FNA cytology when interrogating the axilla. We recommend CNB to be adopted routinely in pre-operative axillary staging to reduce surgical re-intervention. PMID:28386294

  7. Professional oral health care reduces the duration of hospital stay in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, HIDEO; RAHMAN, MOHAMMAD ZESHAAN; OHTA, KOUJI; ONO, SHIGEHIRO; SUGIYAMA, MASARU; TAKECHI, MASAAKI

    2016-01-01

    The present study reviewed the records of 58 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery [sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO), Le Fort I osteotomy, genioplasty, anterior maxillary alveolar osteotomy] between 2010 and 2015. To investigate the influence of preoperative oral health care on postoperative inflammation, infection and length of hospital stay in those patients, white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared between patients who received and did not receive preoperative oral care. The mean CRP level throughout the postoperative term was lower in the oral care group as compared to the non-oral care group. By contrast, the oral care group had a lower occurrence of postoperative infectious complications (surgical site infection, anastomotic leak) (13.6 vs. 20.8%) and a shorter average length of hospital stay (16.2±3.8 vs. 21.2±7.4 days). These results suggest that preoperative professional oral health care decreases the duration of hospital stay following orthognathic surgery by inhibiting inflammation and infectious complications during the postoperative stage. PMID:26870334

  8. Increased preoperative collection of autologous blood with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in tertiary care hospitals of Jammu

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kumkum; Sharma, Sumit B.; Pukhta, Imran A.; Sharma, Amit B.; Salaria, Abdul Q.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To study whether the administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases the amount of autologous blood that can be collected before orthopaedic surgery. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of recombinant human erythropoietin in 68 adults scheduled for elective orthopedic procedures. The patients received either erythropoietin 600 units/kg of body weight or placebo intravenously every 5th day prior to each phlebotomy for 21 days during which time up to 5 units of blood was collected. Patients were excluded from donation when their hematocrit values were less than 33%. All patients received iron sulphate 325mg orally 3 times daily. The mean number of units collected per patient was 4.33 ± 0.4 for erythropoietin group and 3.05± 0.71 for the placebo group. Results: The mean packed red cell volume donated by patients who received erythropoietin was 32% greater than that donated by patients who received placebo (196.3 vs. 169.4 ml, p<0.05). 68% in the placebo group and 9% of patients treated with erythropoietin were unable to donate ≥4 units. No adverse effects were attributed to erythropoietin. While participating in the study, complications developed in 2 patients one in each group necessitating their removal from the study. Conclusion: We conclude that recombinant human erythropoietin increases the ability of the patients about to undergo elective surgery to donate autologous blood units. PMID:23559764

  9. Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Circulating Monocyte Count in Patients With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiahuai; Ye, Feng; Huang, Xiaojia; Li, Shuaijie; Yang, Lu; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Growing evidence showed that inflammation response plays an important role in cancer development and progression, and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) have been used as parameters of systemic inflammation in several tumors. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative ALC, AMC and LMR in breast cancer and 2000 patients between January 2002 and December 2008 at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center were enrolled. Patients were grouped by the cut-off value according to the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with elevated AMC levels (>0.48 × 109/L) had shorter overall survival (OS, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, preoperative AMC was identified as an independent prognostic parameter for OS in breast cancer patients (hazard ratio = 1.374, 95% confidence interval: 1.045–1.807). Subgroup analyses revealed that AMC was an unfavorable prognostic factor in stage II–III breast cancer patients and Luminal B, human epithelial growth factor receptor-2 overexpressing subtype, and triple-negative breast cancer (all P < 0.05). Additionally, the prognostic value of ALC and LMR could not be proven in the current study. Preoperative AMC may serve as an easily available and low-priced parameter to predict the outcomes of breast cancer. PMID:26656374

  10. Systematic Review: Audiovisual Interventions for Reducing Preoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Dobson, Kathleen G.; Buckley, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of Audiovisual (AV) interventions at reducing preoperative anxiety and its associated outcomes in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies where the primary outcome was children’s preoperative anxiety was conducted. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain, behavioral changes, recovery, induction compliance, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. The risk of bias of each study was assessed. Results In all, 18 studies were identified. A meta-analytic approach and narrative synthesis of findings were used to summarize the results of the studies. Conclusions This systematic review suggests that AV interventions can be effective in reducing children’s preoperative anxiety. Videos, multi-faceted programs, and interactive games appear to be most effective, whereas music therapy and Internet programs are less effective. While AV interventions appear potentially useful, adequately powered RCTs are required to conclusively pinpoint the components and mechanisms of the most effective AV interventions and guide practice. PMID:26476281

  11. Computed tomography for preoperative planning in total hip arthroplasty: what radiologists need to know.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Alexander; Radmer, Sebastian; Wagner, Moritz; Roessler, Torsten; Hamm, Bernd; Sparmann, Martin

    2014-08-01

    The number of total hip arthroplasties is continuously rising. Although less invasive surgical techniques, sophisticated component design, and intraoperative navigation techniques have been introduced, the rate of peri- and postoperative complications, including dislocations, fractures, nerve palsies, and infections, is still a major clinical problem. Better patient outcome, faster recovery and rehabilitation, and shorter operation times therefore remain to be accomplished. A promising strategy is to use minimally invasive techniques in conjunction with modular implants, aimed at independently reconstructing femoral offset and leg length on the basis of highly accurate preoperative planning. Plain radiographs have clear limitations for the correct estimation of hip joint geometry and bone quality. Three-dimensional assessment based on computed tomography (CT) allows optimizing the choice and positions of implants and anticipating difficulties to be encountered during surgery. Postoperative CT is used to monitor operative translation and plays a role in arthroplastic quality management. Radiologists should be familiar with the needs of orthopedic surgeons in terms of CT acquisition, post-processing, and data transfer. The CT protocol should be optimized to enhance image quality and reduce radiation exposure. When dedicated orthopedic CT protocols and state-of-the-art scanner hardware are used, radiation exposure can be decreased to a level just marginally higher than that of conventional preoperative radiography. Surgeons and radiologists should use similar terminology to avoid misunderstanding and inaccuracies in the transfer of preoperative planning.

  12. [Low-intensity laser radiation in preoperative preparation of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Neĭmark, A I; Muzalevskaia, N I

    2000-01-01

    Low-intensity laser therapy administered in the form of intravenous blood irradiation, transrectal and transurethral prostatic irradiation and their combination as preoperative preparation and correction of immunity disturbances in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were studied. The response to the treatment was evaluated by positive changes in the immune status and bacterial contamination of the urine and prostatic tissue. Conventional preoperative preparation (uroantiseptics, antibiotics and phytotherapy) fails to correct signs of T-cell immunodeficiency, depression of phagocytic activity of neutrophils, significantly reduce bacteriurea. Laser therapy as intravenous laser blood radiation acts immunomodulatorily on cellular immunity and normalized the proportion of T-helpers of the first and second order (T-suppressors) and neutrophil phagocytosis. The antibacterial effect of this technique on urinary microflora and prostatic tissue is not very high. Local laser therapy is a potent immunostimulator of T- and B-lymphocytes, increased the index of immunoregulatory cells' proportion, activated phagocytosis of neutrophils. It has pronounced antibacterial effect against gram-negative urinary microflora and tissue of the prostate. Combined laser therapy produced the highest immunomodulating action on T-lymphocytes and immunostimulating one on B-lymphocytes, potentiated phagocytic ability of neutrophils, elevated index of the immunoregulatory cells, but was unable to correct their imbalance completely. Antibacterial effects of combined laser therapy were the highest, including the bacterial group Proteus-Providencia. Preoperative low-intensity laser therapy of BPH reduced the number of postoperative pyoinflammatory complications, hospital stay, severity of postoperative period.

  13. Does pre-operative physiotherapy improve outcomes from lower limb joint replacement surgery? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Bennell, Kim L

    2004-01-01

    A systematic review of randomised controlled trials was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of pre-operative physiotherapy programmes on outcome following lower limb joint replacement surgery. A search of relevant key terms was used to find suitable trials, with five papers meeting the inclusion criteria for the review. The methodological quality of the trials was rated using the PEDro scale. Estimates of the size of treatment effects were calculated for each outcome in each trial, with 95% confidence intervals calculated where sufficient data were provided. Of the three trials pertaining to total knee replacement, only very small mean differences were found between control and intervention groups for all of the outcome measures. Where confidence intervals could be calculated, these showed no clinically important differences between the groups. Two papers (one study) pertaining to total hip replacements found significant improvements in WOMAC scores, hip strength and range of movement, walking distance, cadence, and gait velocity for the intervention group, compared to a control group. Estimates of treatment effect sizes for these outcomes were larger than for the total knee replacement studies, with confidence intervals showing potentially clinically important differences between group means. However, as the intervention group also received an additional intensive post-operative physiotherapy program, these results cannot be attributed solely to the pre-operative program. This systematic review shows that pre-operative physiotherapy programmes are not effective in improving outcome after total knee replacement but their effect on outcome from total hip replacement cannot be adequately determined.

  14. Computer assisted 3D pre-operative planning tool for femur fracture orthopedic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, Pavan; Xie, Sheng Quan; Delmas, Patrice; Xu, Wei Liang

    2010-02-01

    Femur shaft fractures are caused by high impact injuries and can affect gait functionality if not treated correctly. Until recently, the pre-operative planning for femur fractures has relied on two-dimensional (2D) radiographs, light boxes, tracing paper, and transparent bone templates. The recent availability of digital radiographic equipment has to some extent improved the workflow for preoperative planning. Nevertheless, imaging is still in 2D X-rays and planning/simulation tools to support fragment manipulation and implant selection are still not available. Direct three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT) are also still restricted to a minority of complex orthopedic procedures. This paper proposes a software tool which allows orthopedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose, plan and simulate femur shaft fracture reduction procedures in 3D. The tool utilizes frontal and lateral 2D radiographs to model the fracture surface, separate a generic bone into the two fractured fragments, identify the pose of each fragment, and automatically customize the shape of the bone. The use of 3D imaging allows full spatial inspection of the fracture providing different views through the manipulation of the interactively reconstructed 3D model, and ultimately better pre-operative planning.

  15. Efficacy of preoperative biliary tract decompression in patients with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Gundry, S R; Strodel, W E; Knol, J A; Eckhauser, F E; Thompson, N W

    1984-06-01

    Fifty consecutive matched patients with benign or malignant biliary tract obstruction were compared to determine the efficacy of preoperative percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD). Twenty-five patients underwent PBD for an average of nine days before operation; 25 patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography ( PTHC ) followed immediately by operation. Serum bilirubin levels before PTHC were 16.5 +/- 7.6 mg/dL and 14.9 +/- 7.6 mg/dL in PBD and non-PBD groups, respectively. Serum bilirubin levels decreased to 6.5 +/- 6.2 mg/dL preoperatively in patients having PBD. One week after operation, bilirubin levels were 4.2 +/- 4.3 mg/dL and 9.0 +/- 5.2 mg/dL in the PBD and non-PBD groups, respectively. Major morbidity (sepsis, abscess, renal failure, or bleeding) occurred in two patients (8%) having PBD and in 13 patients (52%) without PBD. One patient (4%) with PBD, and five patients (20%) without PBD, died. The mean hospital stay was shorter for the PBD group. Preoperative PBD reduces operative mortality and morbidity and results in a more rapid resolution of hyperbilirubinemia during the postoperative period.

  16. Development of a preoperative neuroscience educational program for patients with lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Butler, David S; Diener, Ina; Puentedura, Emilio J

    2013-05-01

    Postoperative rehabilitation for lumbar radiculopathy has shown little effect on reducing pain and disability. Current preoperative education programs with a focus on a biomedical approach feature procedural and anatomical information, and these too have shown little effect on postoperative outcomes. This report describes the development of an evidence-based educational program and booklet for patients undergoing lumbar surgery for radiculopathy using a recently conducted systematic review of neuroscience education for musculoskeletal pain. The previous systematic review produced evidence for neuroscience education as well as best-evidence synthesis of the content and delivery methods for neuroscience education for musculoskeletal pain. These evidence statements were extracted and developed into patient-centered messages and a booklet, which was then evaluated by peer and patient review. The neuroscience educational booklet and preoperative program convey key messages from the previous systematic review aimed at reducing fear and anxiety before surgery and assist in developing realistic expectations regarding pain after surgery. Key topics include the decision to undergo surgery, pain processing, peripheral nerve sensitization, effect of anxiety and stress on pain, surgery and the nervous system, and decreasing nerve sensitization. Feedback from the evaluations of the booklet and preoperative program was favorable from all review groups, suggesting that this proposed evidence-based neuroscience educational program may be ready for clinical application.

  17. Preoperative Computed Tomography Findings for Patients with Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction or Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Chan; Lee, Saem; Choi, Hye Sun; Jang, Jae Woo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify and analyze the role of preoperative computed tomography (CT) in patients with tearing symptoms with nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and CT results on 218 patients who complained of tearing symptoms with NLDO between January 2014 and December 2014. All patients were recruited from Kim's Eye Hospital's outpatient clinic and assessed by clinical history, examination, and CT to evaluate periocular pathology and nasolacrimal drainage system. Patients with abnormal findings assessed by preoperative CT were further reviewed. Results CT was performed on 218 patients (average age, 58.2 ± 11.9 years). Of these, 196 (89.9%) had endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy, 14 (6.4%) declined surgery, and 8 (3.7%) were inoperable due to abnormal CT findings. Soft tissue opacity was the most common finding which 243 cases (85.9%) of 283 obstructed nasolacrimal duct and 89 cases (81.7%) of 109 non-obstructed nasolacrimal duct showed it. Thirty-nine (17.8%) of 218 patients showed either maxillary sinusitis or ethmoidal sinusitis and 32 (14.7%) of 218 patients presented with periocular inflammation. Other abnormal CT findings included septal deviations, previous fractures, masses, and structural abnormalities of nasal cavity. Conclusions Preoperative CT imaging is useful in the assessment of both nasolacrimal drainage and nearby anatomical structures. This information will be helpful in planning surgical interventions and management of NLDO. PMID:27478350

  18. Preoperative color Doppler ultrasound assessment of the lateral thoracic artery perforator flap and its branching pattern.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Kensuke; Harima, Mitsunobu; Mito, Daisuke; Shibata, Takashi; Furuya, Megumi; Kato, Motoi; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yamashita, Shuji; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2015-06-01

    The anatomy of the lateral thoracic artery perforator flap remains controversial, but this region is extremely useful as a reconstructive donor site. In this report, we describe the usefulness of the preoperative color Doppler ultrasound evaluation for the harvesting of the lateral thoracic artery perforator flap, and we clarify its branching pattern. Twenty-seven patients underwent the preoperative color Doppler ultrasound assessment before perforator flaps were harvested. We evaluated the branching pattern and the diameter of the flaps by direct observation. All flaps were successfully transferred, and it was found that the branching pattern of the lateral thoracic perforator is divided into three groups: the superficial branch, the medial branch, and the deep branch. Their appearance ratios were 48.1% (13/27), 14.8% (4/27), and 81.5% (22/27), respectively. The lateral thoracic artery perforator flap has a great deal of anatomical variation, and vessels with relatively small diameters compared to those of other flaps. This is why flaps from this region are not currently popular. This study revealed the superiority of the color Doppler ultrasound for preoperative planning of the lateral thoracic artery perforator flap elevation. Furthermore, the branching pattern and the diameters of the different branches were specified.

  19. Pre-operatively misdiagnosed undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver: analysis of 16 cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanzhuo; Cai, Quanyu; Jia, Ningyang; Chen, Dong; Lu, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the clinical features of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) to improve its preoperative diagnostic accuracy. Methods The clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings of 16 UESL patients whose disease was pathologically confirmed but preoperatively misdiagnosed were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among these 16 patients, 9 were clinically misdiagnosed as primary liver cancer, 3 as hepatoblastoma, and 4 as malignant hepatic mass. In 12 patients who were presented due to abdominal discomfort, ultrasound showed that predominantly solid lesions, whereas computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated predominantly cystic masses within irregular soft tissue. Contrast-enhanced imaging showed enhancement intralesional foci, multiple internal septations, and edges. The postoperative pathology showed the cutting surface of tumors was variegated, with solid and cystic gelatinous areas, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Intracytoplasmic hyaline globules were commonly present among cancer cells. Conclusions UESL is a rare clinical condition without specific clinical manifestations. The inconsistencies between ultrasound and CT/MRI findings may be helpful to improve the preoperative diagnosis accuracy. PMID:26807408

  20. Preoperative high-intensity training in frail old patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Cennamo, Antonio; Perrotta, Fabio; Saverio Cerqua, Francesco; Montesano, Raffaele; Curcio, Carlo; Lassandro, Francesco; Stefanelli, Francesco; Grella, Edoardo; Tafuri, Domenico; Mazzarella, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thoracic surgery remains the better therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer patients that are diagnosed in early stage disease. Preoperative lung function assessment includes respiratory function tests (RFT) and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Vo2 peak, FEV1 and DLCO as well as recognition of performance status, presence of co-morbidities, frailty indexes, and age predict the potential impact of surgical resection on patient health status and survival risk. In this study we have retrospectively assessed the benefit of a high-intensity preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) in 14 patients with underlying lung function impairment prior to surgery. Amongst these, three patients candidate to surgical resection exhibited severe functional impairment associated with high score of frailty according CHS and SOF index, resulting in a substantial mortality risk. Our observations indicate that PRP appear to reduce the mortality and morbidity risk in frail patients with concurrent lung function impairment undergoing thoracic surgery. PRP produced improvement of VO2 peak degree and pulmonary function resulting in reduced postoperative complications in high-risk patients from our cases. Our results indicate that a preoperative training program may improve postoperative clinical outcomes in fraillung cancer patients with impaired lung function prior to surgical resection.

  1. Preoperative high-intensity training in frail old patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Rosario; Meoli, Ilernando; Cennamo, Antonio; Perrotta, Fabio; Saverio Cerqua, Francesco; Montesano, Raffaele; Curcio, Carlo; Lassandro, Francesco; Stefanelli, Francesco; Grella, Edoardo; Tafuri, Domenico; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgery remains the better therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer patients that are diagnosed in early stage disease. Preoperative lung function assessment includes respiratory function tests (RFT) and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Vo2 peak, FEV1 and DLCO as well as recognition of performance status, presence of co-morbidities, frailty indexes, and age predict the potential impact of surgical resection on patient health status and survival risk. In this study we have retrospectively assessed the benefit of a high-intensity preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) in 14 patients with underlying lung function impairment prior to surgery. Amongst these, three patients candidate to surgical resection exhibited severe functional impairment associated with high score of frailty according CHS and SOF index, resulting in a substantial mortality risk. Our observations indicate that PRP appear to reduce the mortality and morbidity risk in frail patients with concurrent lung function impairment undergoing thoracic surgery. PRP produced improvement of VO2 peak degree and pulmonary function resulting in reduced postoperative complications in high-risk patients from our cases. Our results indicate that a preoperative training program may improve postoperative clinical outcomes in fraillung cancer patients with impaired lung function prior to surgical resection.

  2. Preoperative anxiety and propofol requirement in conscious sedation for ovum retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Yeon; Kang, Inn Soo; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Jo; Jee, Young Suck; Park, Jeong Wook; Park, Mi Hyun

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation among the trial number of in vitro fertilization (IVF), preoperative anxiety, and propofol requirement for conscious sedation. One hundred and twenty six Korean women undergoing oocyte retrieval were enrolled. The target-controlled infusion by the anesthesiologist was conducted with initial target propofol concentration of 2.5 microg/mL, which was manipulated until the sedation score 3 and desired clinical end point were achieved. A weak correlation was observed between visual analogue scale (VAS) anxiety and the dose of propofol required for the induction of conscious sedation (r=0.22, p=0.0192). A weak correlation was also found between VAS anxiety and the sedation time needed to reach the proper conscious sedation level for the procedure (r=0.181, p=0.0484). Multiple regression analysis showed that VAS anxiety, preoperative baseline prolactin level, and cortisol level had statistically significant effects on the propofol induction dose for target controlled conscious sedation. We concluded that the induction dose and time requirements for propofol in anesthesiologist-controlled conscious sedation be modified based on the preoperative anxiety level and the baseline blood concentration of stress hormone, cortisol and prolactin. PMID:14676445

  3. Preoperative measurement of serum thyroglobulin to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, P; Treglia, G; Giovanella, L

    2015-04-01

    Several articles have assessed the role of preoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) as predictor of malignancy of thyroid nodules, with particular focus on nodules with indeterminate cytology. However, the role of serum Tg as diagnostic marker remains unclear. The aim of the study was to perform a systematic review to add more evidence-based data on this topic. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to find relevant published articles on this topic. MeSH terms were: "thyroglobulin" and "predict*". In order to include only recent serum Tg assay methods, we analyzed the timeframe between 2001 and July 31(st), 2014. To expand our search, references of the retrieved articles were also screened. Thirteen studies, including 3,580 patients, were analyzed. Nine out of these studies reported data on thyroid nodules with prior indeterminate cytology. Preoperative serum Tg levels demonstrated suboptimal accuracy in discriminating malignant from benign nodules due to a significant overlap of values between these groups. However, most articles demonstrated a statistically significant difference in mean or median serum Tg between patients with cancer and benign lesions correlated to final histology. Furthermore, most studies reported Tg as independent predictor of malignancy. According to the most recent literature, the preoperative measurement of Tg alone fails to discriminate thyroid cancers from benign lesions. However, our data show that Tg is an independent predictor of malignancy; as a consequence, the presurgical determination of Tg should be considered in patients with thyroid nodules, especially when cytology is indeterminate.

  4. TAK1-regulated expression of BIRC3 predicts resistance to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Piro, G; Giacopuzzi, S; Bencivenga, M; Carbone, C; Verlato, G; Frizziero, M; Zanotto, M; Mina, M M; Merz, V; Santoro, R; Zanoni, A; De Manzoni, G; Tortora, G; Melisi, D

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 20% of resectable oesophageal carcinoma is resistant to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Here we hypothesised that the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing (BIRC)3 induced by the transforming growth factor β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) might be responsible for the resistance to the proapoptotic effect of chemoradiotherapy in oesophageal carcinoma. Methods: TAK1 kinase activity was inhibited in FLO-1 and KYAE-1 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells using (5Z)-7-oxozeaenol. The BIRC3 mRNA expression was measured by qRT–PCR in 65 pretreatment frozen biopsies from patients receiving preoperatively docetaxel, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and concurrent radiotherapy. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the performance of BIRC3 expression levels in distinguishing patients with sensitive or resistant carcinoma. Results: In vitro, (5Z)-7-oxozeaenol significantly reduced BIRC3 expression in FLO-1 and KYAE-1 cells. Exposure to chemotherapeutic agents or radiotherapy plus (5Z)-7-oxozeaenol resulted in a strong synergistic antiapoptotic effect. In patients, median expression of BIRC3 was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in adenocarcinoma than in the more sensitive squamous cell carcinoma subtype. The BIRC3 expression significantly discriminated patients with sensitive or resistant adenocarcinoma (AUC-ROC=0.7773 and 0.8074 by size-based pathological response or Mandard's tumour regression grade classifications, respectively). Conclusions: The BIRC3 expression might be a valid biomarker for predicting patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma that could most likely benefit from preoperative chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26291056

  5. Preoperative anxiety and propofol requirement in conscious sedation for ovum retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeong-Yeon; Kang, Inn Soo; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Jo; Jee, Young Suck; Park, Jeong Wook; Park, Mi Hyun

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation among the trial number of in vitro fertilization (IVF), preoperative anxiety, and propofol requirement for conscious sedation. One hundred and twenty six Korean women undergoing oocyte retrieval were enrolled. The target-controlled infusion by the anesthesiologist was conducted with initial target propofol concentration of 2.5 microg/mL, which was manipulated until the sedation score 3 and desired clinical end point were achieved. A weak correlation was observed between visual analogue scale (VAS) anxiety and the dose of propofol required for the induction of conscious sedation (r=0.22, p=0.0192). A weak correlation was also found between VAS anxiety and the sedation time needed to reach the proper conscious sedation level for the procedure (r=0.181, p=0.0484). Multiple regression analysis showed that VAS anxiety, preoperative baseline prolactin level, and cortisol level had statistically significant effects on the propofol induction dose for target controlled conscious sedation. We concluded that the induction dose and time requirements for propofol in anesthesiologist-controlled conscious sedation be modified based on the preoperative anxiety level and the baseline blood concentration of stress hormone, cortisol and prolactin.

  6. Clinical Parameters Predicting Pathologic Tumor Response After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Dae Yong Kim, Tae Hyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Chang, Hee Jin; Koom, Woong Sub; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Jae-Gahb

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To identify pretreatment clinical parameters that could predict pathologic tumor response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study involved 351 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery between October 2001 and July 2006. Tumor responses to preoperative CRT were assessed in terms of tumor downstaging and tumor regression. Statistical analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with pathologic tumor response. Results: Tumor downstaging (defined as ypT2 or less) was observed in 167 patients (47.6%), whereas tumor regression (defined as Dworak's Regression Grades 3 or 4) was observed in 103 patients (29.3%) and complete regression in 51 patients (14.5%). Multivariate analysis found that predictors of downstaging were pretreatment hemoglobin level (p = 0.045), cN0 classification (p < 0.001), and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (p < 0.001), that predictors of tumor regression were cN0 classification (p = 0.044) and CEA level (p < 0.001), and that the predictor of complete regression was CEA level (p = 0.004). Conclusions: The data suggest that pretreatment CEA level is the most important clinical predictor of pathologic tumor response. It may be of benefit in the selection of treatment options as well as the assessment of individual prognosis.

  7. Systematic review of pre-operative exercise in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Boereboom, C; Doleman, B; Lund, J N; Williams, J P

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for exercise interventions prior to surgery for colorectal cancer resection. The evidence for use of exercise to improve physical fitness and surgical outcomes is as yet unknown. A systematic search was performed of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and BNI databases for studies involving pre-operative exercise in colorectal cancer patients. Eight studies were included in the review. There is evidence that pre-operative exercise improves functional fitness, and to a lesser extent objectively measurable cardio-respiratory fitness prior to colorectal cancer resection. There is no clear evidence at present that this improvement in fitness translates into reduced peri-operative risk or improved post-operative outcomes. Current studies are limited by risk of bias. This review highlights the common difficulty in transferring promising results in a research setting, into significant improvements in the clinical arena. Future research should focus on which type of exercise is most likely to maximise patient adherence and improvements in cardio-respiratory fitness. Ultimately, adequately powered, randomised controlled trials are needed to investigate whether pre-operative exercise improves post-operative morbidity and mortality.

  8. Accuracy and Reliability of Preoperative On-screen Templating Using Digital Radiographs for Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong Ki; Son, Seung Min; Kim, Tae Woo; Shin, Won Chul; Lee, Jung Sub

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Preoperative on-screen templating is a method of using acetate templates on digital images. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy, intra- and interobserver reliabilities of preoperative on-screen templating using digital radiographs for total hip arthroplasty (THA). Materials and Methods Two hundred patients with hip disease who were treated with primary cementless THA were retrospectively evaluated. The accuracy of on-screen templating was assessed by comparing the predicted prosthesis sizes with the actual sizes used operatively. The inter- and intraobserver reliabilities of the templating results were also evaluated. Results The prosthesis prediction accuracy within ±one size was 96.6% for the cup size and 97.8% for the stem size. The inter- and intraobserver reliabilities for the implant size were substantial (kappa>0.70). The intra- and interobserver reliabilities for the leg length discrepancy and femoral offset difference using the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.89 to 0.97. Conclusion Preoperative on-screen templating using digital radiographs showed substantial accuracy and reliability for implant prediction. It is an effective method for predicting the size of implant, correcting the leg length discrepancy and restoring the femoral offset. PMID:28097109

  9. Preoperative Acute Inflammatory Markers as Predictors for Postoperative Complications in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Gustavo; Sumarriva, Gonzalo; Ochsner, J. Lockwood; Chimento, George; Schmucker, Dana; Dasa, Vinod; Meyer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) has been suggested as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular pathology in the nonsurgical setting. While postoperative CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) have an established role in aiding the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections, some authors suggest a link between preoperative CRP and postoperative complications in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 351 patients who underwent unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty by a single surgeon during a 28-month period (January 2013 through April 2015). Patient medical records were reviewed for the following complications occurring within 90 days postoperatively: myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism, wound infection, acute renal failure, and reoperation. Results: We found no statistically significant link between postoperative complications and preoperative CRP levels (P=0.5005) or ESR levels (P=0.1610). Conclusion: The results of this study do not support the routine inclusion of CRP and ESR analysis as part of the preoperative evaluation for elective total knee arthroplasty. PMID:27999506

  10. The Incidence of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Complications in Macular Surgery After Prophylactic Preoperative Laser Retinopexy

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Gian Marco; Esposti, Pierluigi; Romeo, Napoleone; Marigliani, Davide; Cevenini, Gabriele; Massimo, Patrizio; Nuti, Elisabetta; Esposti, Giulia; Ripandelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of intraoperative retinal breaks (RBs) and postoperative retinal detachment (RRD) in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular disorders, who were treated preoperatively with prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy. This observational cohort study comprised of 254 patients who underwent macular surgery and were preoperatively subjected to prophylactic laser retinopexy anterior to the equator. The main outcome measures were the incidence and characteristics of intraoperative RBs and postoperative RRD. Intraoperative RBs occurred in 14 patients (5.5%). Ten patients presented a sclerotomy-related RB (3.9%) and 4 patients a nonsclerotomy-related RB (1.6%). Two patients showed postoperative RRD (0.7%). Neither of the 2 patients with postoperative RRD was macula-off at presentation: one of them was successfully operated on with scleral buckling and the other was managed by observation alone. A significantly increased risk for the intraoperative development of sclerotomy-related RB was found in 20-gauge PPV compared with 23/25-gauge PPV. Preoperative prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy does not guarantee the prevention of intraopertaive RBs or postoperative RRD. However, it might prevent the involvement of the macula when RRD occurs postoperatively. PMID:27057893

  11. Does preoperative cross-sectional imaging accurately predict main duct involvement in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Barron, M R; Roch, A M; Waters, J A; Parikh, J A; DeWitt, J M; Al-Haddad, M A; Ceppa, E P; House, M G; Zyromski, N J; Nakeeb, A; Pitt, H A; Schmidt, C Max

    2014-03-01

    Main pancreatic duct (MPD) involvement is a well-demonstrated risk factor for malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Preoperative radiographic determination of IPMN type is heavily relied upon in oncologic risk stratification. We hypothesized that radiographic assessment of MPD involvement in IPMN is an accurate predictor of pathological MPD involvement. Data regarding all patients undergoing resection for IPMN at a single academic institution between 1992 and 2012 were gathered prospectively. Retrospective analysis of imaging and pathologic data was undertaken. Preoperative classification of IPMN type was based on cross-sectional imaging (MRI/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and/or CT). Three hundred sixty-two patients underwent resection for IPMN. Of these, 334 had complete data for analysis. Of 164 suspected branch duct (BD) IPMN, 34 (20.7%) demonstrated MPD involvement on final pathology. Of 170 patients with suspicion of MPD involvement, 50 (29.4%) demonstrated no MPD involvement. Of 34 patients with suspected BD-IPMN who were found to have MPD involvement on pathology, 10 (29.4%) had invasive carcinoma. Alternatively, 2/50 (4%) of the patients with suspected MPD involvement who ultimately had isolated BD-IPMN demonstrated invasive carcinoma. Preoperative radiographic IPMN type did not correlate with final pathology in 25% of the patients. In addition, risk of invasive carcinoma correlates with pathologic presence of MPD involvement.

  12. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated. PMID:26807297

  13. Preoperative Gabapentin Decreases Anxiety and Improves Early Functional Recovery From Knee Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ménigaux, Christophe; Adam, Frédéric; Guignard, Bruno; Sessler, Daniel I.; Chauvin, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Gabapentin has antihyperalgesic and anxiolytic properties. We thus tested the hypothesis that premedication with gabapentin would decrease preoperative anxiety and improve postoperative analgesia and early postoperative knee mobilization in patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair under general anesthesia. Forty patients were randomly assigned to receive 1200 mg oral gabapentin or placebo 1-2 h before surgery; anesthesia was standardized. Patients received morphine, 0.1 mg/kg, 30 min before the end of surgery and postoperatively via a patient-controlled pump. Pain scores and morphine consumption were recorded over 48 hours. Degrees of active and passive knee flexion and extension were recorded during physiotherapy on days 1 and 2. Preoperative anxiety scores were less in the Gabapentin than Control group (visual analog [VAS] score of 28 ± 16 mm versus 66 ± 15 mm; P < 0.001). The Gabapentin group required less morphine than the Control group (29 ± 22 mg versus 69 ± 40 mg; P < 0.001). VAS pain scores at rest and after mobilization were significantly reduced in the Gabapentin group. First and maximal passive and active knee flexions at 24 and 48 hours were significantly more extensive in the Gabapentin than in the Control group. In conclusion, premedication with 1200 mg gabapentin improved preoperative anxiolysis, postoperative analgesia, and early knee mobilization after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair. PMID:15845693

  14. Elevated preoperative HMGB1 as predictor of myocardial injury post-percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Peng; Zhou, Qi; Song, Shujiang; Xu, Jinpeng; Zhang, Minli; Zhu, Ming; Kang, Meili; Shi, Xiangming; Shi, Junting; Lu, Di; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we evaluated the impact of preoperative high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) on myocardial injury post-percutaneous coronary intervention. We evaluated 302 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. They were divided into equal tertiles based on their preoperative HMGB1 levels. Creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were measured at baseline, 8- and 24-hours after the procedure, while clinical outcomes were followed up for 1 year. The occurrence of post-procedural myocardial injury was significantly higher in the tertile comprising of patients with elevated HMGB1 levels. Moreover, these patients showed significantly higher post-procedural peak values of creatine kinase-MB and troponin I in comparison to patients with lower HMGB1 levels. Event-free survival was significantly associated with HMGB1 levels, with worst event-free survival in patients with elevated HMGB1 levels. Elevated preoperative HMGB1 was a predictor of myocardial injury after percutaneous coronary intervention, and was associated with the worst clinical outcomes during 1-year follow up. PMID:27861339

  15. Preoperative CT-Angiography Predicts Ex Vivo Vein Length for Right Kidneys After Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Özdemir-van Brunschot, Denise M D; Rottier, Simone J; den Ouden, Judith E; van der Jagt, Michel F; d'Ancona, Frank C; Kloke, Heinrich; van der Vliet, Daan J A; Schultze Kool, Leo J; Warlé, Michiel C

    2015-09-10

    BACKGROUND Implantation of a kidney with a short renal vein is technically more challenging and therefore prone for technique-related complications. It remains unclear whether pre-operative computed tomography angiography (CTA), to assess vascular anatomy of the donor kidney, can be used to predict renal vein length. MATERIAL AND METHODS Right and left renal vein lengths of 100 consecutive kidney donors were measured in an oblique-coronal plane multiplanar reconstruction image of 100 consecutive kidney donors in whom ex vivo vein length was measured after recovery. In a second retrospective cohort of 100 consecutive kidney donors donating a right kidney, preoperative CTA vein length measurements were correlated to anastomosis time and early graft outcome. RESULTS Left and right renal vein lengths, measured on CTA, were 43.2 mm and 30.0 mm, respectively. No correlation was found between CTA and ex vivo measurements for the left renal vein (p=.610), whereas a significant correlation was found for the right renal vein (p=.021). In the retrospective cohort, right renal vein length was significantly correlated with the anastomosis time but not with early graft outcome. CONCLUSIONS The length of the right, but not the left, renal vein can be predicted by preoperative CTA, but this does not hold true for the left renal vein.

  16. Calcaneal osteotomy preoperative planning system with 3D full-sized computer-assisted technology.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yi-Jiun; Sun, Shuh-Ping; Liu, Hsin-Hua

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we developed a CT-based computer-assisted pre-operative planning and simulating system for the calcaneal osteotomy by integrating different software's function. This system uses the full-scaled 3D reverse engineering technique in designing and developing preoperative planning modules for the calcaneal osteotomy surgery. The planning system presents a real-sized three-dimensional image of the calcaneus, and provides detailed interior measurements of the calcaneus from various cutting planes. This study applied computer-assisted technology to integrate different software's function to a surgical planning system. These functions include 3-D image model capturing, cutting, moving, rotating and measurement for relevant foot anatomy, and can be integrated as the user's function. Furthermore, the system is computer-based and computer-assisted technology. Surgeons can utilize it as part of preoperative planning to develop efficient operative procedures. This system also has a database that can be updated and extended and will provide the clinical cases to different users for experienced based learning.

  17. Clinical and microarray analysis of breast cancers of all subtypes from two prospective preoperative chemotherapy studies

    PubMed Central

    Okuma, H S; Koizumi, F; Hirakawa, A; Nakatochi, M; Komori, O; Hashimoto, J; Kodaira, M; Yunokawa, M; Yamamoto, H; Yonemori, K; Shimizu, C; Fujiwara, Y; Tamura, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to analyse clinical and gene expression profiles to predict pathologic complete response and disease-free survival using two consecutive, prospective, preoperative chemotherapy trial cohorts. Methods: Clinicopathological and gene expression data were evaluated in a cohort from two consecutive phase II preoperative studies that included patients with stage IIA–IIIC breast cancer of all subtypes. Analysed specimens were obtained before preoperative chemotherapy, and cDNA microarray analyses were performed using the Affymetrix Gene Chip U133 plus 2.0. Results: Between December 2005 and December 2010, 122 patients were analysed. The pathologic complete response rate was significantly higher in HER2+ and HR−/HER2− cancers. Age, pathologic complete response, HR−/HER2− status, and lymph node positivity (⩾4) were significant poor prognostic factors for disease-free survival. For the cDNA microarray analyses, sufficient tumour samples were available from 78 of the 107 patients (73%). An 8-gene signature predictive of pathologic complete response and a 17-gene signature predictive of prognosis were identified. Patients were categorised into low-risk (n=45) and high-risk groups (n=33) (HR 70.0, P=0.004). Conclusions: This study yielded preliminary data on the expression of specific genes predicting pathologic complete response and disease-free survival in a cohort of chemonaïve breast cancer patients. Further validation may distinguish those who would benefit most from perioperative chemotherapy as well as those needing further intervention. PMID:27415010

  18. Outcome of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in patients with disordered preoperative peristalsis.

    PubMed Central

    Baigrie, R J; Watson, D I; Myers, J C; Jamieson, G G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A 360 degrees or Nissen fundoplication remains controversial in patients with disordered peristalsis, some surgeons preferring a partial wrap to minimise postoperative dysphagia. AIM: To evaluate symptoms and manometric outcome in patients with disordered peristalsis after Nissen fundoplication. PATIENTS: In an initial series of 345 patients studied prospectively, 31 patients who had undergone a Nissen fundoplication had disordered peristalsis. Using preoperative manometry, patients were classified as: equivocal primary peristalsis (eight patients); abnormal primary peristalsis (four patients); abnormal maximal contraction pressure (13 patients); abnormal primary peristalsis and maximal contraction pressure (six patients). METHODS: Postoperatively, patients underwent a barium meal, oesophageal manometry and standardised clinical review by a blinded scientific officer. RESULTS: Twenty eight (90%) patients had satisfaction scores of at least 8 out of a maximum of 10 and all would undergo surgery again. Whereas 15 (48%) patients had dysphagia scores greater than 4/10 preoperatively, only two (6%) had these scores at one year. Improved peristalsis was seen in 78% of postoperative manometric studies, and mean preoperative lower oesophageal sphincter pressure increased from 6.6 (range 0-21) mm Hg to 19 (4-50) mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: These results are similar to the overall group of 345 patients and suggest that disordered peristalsis, and possibly even absent peristalsis, is not a contraindication to Nissen fundoplication as performed in these patients. PMID:9135529

  19. Respite Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... local church group or area agency on aging (AAA) will even run a formal “Friendly Visitor Program” ... of the cost of respite care. Your local AAA will have more information on whether financial assistance ...

  20. Pregnancy care

    MedlinePlus

    ... with you about how to manage common pregnancy complaints such as: Morning sickness Backaches, leg pain, and ... getting prenatal care You cannot manage common pregnancy complaints without medicines You might have been exposed to ...

  1. Hospice Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the familyHelp with practical matters associated with terminal illnessSpeech, occupational and physical therapies (when these services ... palliative care, patient education, patient information, support group, terminal, terminally ill End-of-Life Issues, Healthcare Management, ...

  2. CARES Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... today and CARES will receive 5% of your purchase! THEIR HISTORY: In 2001, Lauren’s Hope introduced the ... Go to the staff directory Find Us on Facebook Recent Tweets In case you missed it! http:// ...

  3. Caring Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Alyson

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism may seem to not care about things or have the same range of emotions as those of us who see them and care for them. But they do have empathy and they can be taught how to communicate it, says the author, a teacher of children with autism. We simply need to listen to them, watch them, and be with them in their moment.

  4. Preoperative Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... together. Related Stories Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 Did my six-month glutathione deficiency cause my cataracts? May 01, 2016 Are penicillin and clindamycin used in the antibiotic eye drops ...

  5. Post cardiac surgery vasoplegia is associated with high preoperative copeptin plasma concentration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Post cardiac surgery vasodilatation (PCSV) is possibly related to a vasopressin deficiency that could relate to chronic stimulation of adeno-hypophysis. To assess vasopressin system activation, a perioperative course of copeptin and vasopressin plasma concentrations were studied in consecutive patients operated on for cardiac surgery. Methods Sixty-four consecutive patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Hemodynamic, laboratory and clinical data were recorded before and during cardiopulmonary bypass, and at the eighth postoperative hour (H8). At the same time, blood was withdrawn to determine plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP, radioimmunoassay) and copeptin (immunoluminometric assay). PCSV was defined as mean arterial blood pressure < 60 mmHg with cardiac index ≥ 2.2 l/min/m2, and was treated with norepinephrine to restore mean blood pressure > 60 mmHg. Patients with PCSV were compared with the other patients (controls). Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, or nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon) were used when appropriate. Correlation between AVP and copeptin was evaluated and receiver-operator characteristic analysis assessed the utility of preoperative copeptin to distinguish between controls and PCSV patients. Results Patients who experienced PCSV had significantly higher copeptin plasma concentration before cardiopulmonary bypass (P < 0.001) but lower AVP concentrations at H8 (P < 0.01) than controls. PCSV patients had preoperative hyponatremia and decreased left ventricle ejection fraction, and experienced more complex surgery (redo). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of preoperative copeptin concentration was 0.86 ± 0.04 (95% confidence interval = 0.78 to 0.94; P < 0.001). The best predictive value for preoperative copeptin plasma concentration was 9.43 pmol/l with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 77%. Conclusions High preoperative

  6. Preoperative automated fibre quantification predicts postoperative seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, G. Russell; Weber, Bernd; Kreilkamp, Barbara A. K.; Jensen, Jens H.; Helpern, Joseph A.; Wagner, Jan; Barker, Gareth J.; Richardson, Mark P.; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Approximately one in every two patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy will not be rendered completely seizure-free after temporal lobe surgery. The reasons for this are unknown and are likely to be multifactorial. Quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging techniques have provided limited insight into the causes of persistent postoperative seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The relationship between postoperative outcome and preoperative pathology of white matter tracts, which constitute crucial components of epileptogenic networks, is unknown. We investigated regional tissue characteristics of preoperative temporal lobe white matter tracts known to be important in the generation and propagation of temporal lobe seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy, using diffusion tensor imaging and automated fibre quantification. We studied 43 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis and 44 healthy controls. Patients underwent preoperative imaging, amygdalohippocampectomy and postoperative assessment using the International League Against Epilepsy seizure outcome scale. From preoperative imaging, the fimbria-fornix, parahippocampal white matter bundle and uncinate fasciculus were reconstructed, and scalar diffusion metrics were calculated along the length of each tract. Altogether, 51.2% of patients were rendered completely seizure-free and 48.8% continued to experience postoperative seizure symptoms. Relative to controls, both patient groups exhibited strong and significant diffusion abnormalities along the length of the uncinate bilaterally, the ipsilateral parahippocampal white matter bundle, and the ipsilateral fimbria-fornix in regions located within the medial temporal lobe. However, only patients with persistent postoperative seizures showed evidence of significant pathology of tract sections located in the ipsilateral dorsal fornix and in the contralateral parahippocampal white matter bundle

  7. Planned preoperative cisplatin and radiation therapy for locally advanced bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Herr, H W; Yagoda, A; Batata, M; Sogani, P C; Whitmore, W F

    1983-12-15

    Cisplatin (DDP) is an active agent in the treatment of disseminated bladder cancer. In addition to its direct tumor cytotoxicity, recent animal and clinical data suggest synergism with radiation therapy (RT). Since improved survival with preoperative RT is largely restricted to bladder cancer patients in whom radiation-induced downstaging (P less than T) may be recognized, the authors administered DDP + RT preoperatively to patients with locally advanced (T3, T4) bladder tumors selected for cystectomy. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of such a combination in relation to surgical and hematologic complications, the immediate effect on tumor downstaging, disease progression, and survival. Two thousand rad (400 rad X 5 days) was delivered to the whole pelvis, followed by cystectomy in 2 days. DDP (70 mg/m2) was given intravenously on day 2 of the RT. Twenty-four patients received preoperative DDP + RT and underwent attempted cystectomy; however, six patients were nonresectable owing to extensive pelvic disease, and an additional five patients had resectable pelvic lymph node metastases. Pelvic complications developed in 3 of 24 (12%) patients, but none required reoperation. No patient had a wound dehiscence. Transient myelosuppression was similar to that induced by 2000 rad preoperative RT alone. Tumor downstaging (P less than T) was seen in 9 of 24 (38%) patients, and in 5 (21%) patients, no tumor was found in the surgical specimen (P0). Distant metastases alone have been detected in 4 of 18 (22%) patients who had a cystectomy (all 4 had nodal metastases). Disease-free survival at a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 12-34 months) is 60% (14/24) for all patients (89% for P less than T and 40% for P greater than or equal to T patients) and 78% (14/18) for the resected patients. Combined preoperative DDP + RT proved to be a safe and feasible regimen which resulted in a possibly greater recognition of radioresponsive bladder tumors, and after cystectomy, an

  8. Preoperative Body Mass Index, Blood Albumin and Triglycerides Predict Survival for Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin Zheng; Tao, Lin; Chen, Yun Zhao; Li, Xu Zhe; Dong, Yu Ling; Ma, Ya Jing; Li, Shu Gang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is common and its prognosis is often poor due to difficulties in early diagnosis and optimal treatment strategies. TNM staging system is useful in predicting prognosis but only possible after surgery. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate prognostic factors/markers that may predict prognosis before surgery by which helps appropriate management decisions preoperatively. Methods A total of 320 GC patients were consecutively recruited from 2004 to 2013 and followed up for 127 months (10.6 years) after surgery. These patients’ were examined for body mass index (BMI) and blood levels of albumin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test were used to analyze long-term survival using the above potential risk markers. We first employed medians of these variables to reveal maximal potentials of the above prognostic predictors. Results Three major findings were obtained: (1) Preoperative BMI was positively correlated with albumin (r = 0.144, P<0.05) and triglyceride (r = 0.365, P<0.01), but negatively correlated with TNM staging (r = -0.265, P<0.05). Preoperative albumin levels were positively correlated with triglyceride (r = 0.173, P<0.05) but again, negatively correlated with TNM staging (r = -0.137, P<0.05); (2) Poor survival was observed in GC patients with lower levels of BMI (P = 0.028), albumin (P = 0.004), and triglyceride (P = 0.043), respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses suggested BMI, albumin and triglyceride to have survival-predictor powers similar to TNM system; and (3) Cox multi-factorial analyses demonstrated that age (P = 0.049), BMI (P = 0.016), cell differentiation (P = 0.001), and TNM staging (P = 0.011) were independent overall survival-predictors for GC patients. Conclusions Preoperative BMI, albumin, and triglyceride levels are capable of predicting survival for

  9. Preoperative characteristics predicting intraoperative hypotension and hypertension among hypertensives and diabetics undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, M E; MacKenzie, C R; Gold, J P; Ales, K L; Topkins, M; Shires, G T

    1990-01-01

    We prospectively studied patients with hypertension and diabetes undergoing elective noncardiac surgery with general anesthesia to test the hypothesis that patients at high risk for prognostically significant intraoperative hemodynamic instability could be identified by their preoperative characteristics. Specifically we hypothesized that patients with a low functional capacity, decreased plasma volume, or significant cardiac comorbidity would be at high risk for intraoperative hypotension and those with a history of severe hypertension would be at risk for intraoperative hypertension. Patients who had a preoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) greater than or equal to 110, a walking distance of less than 400 m, or a plasma volume less than 3000 cc were at increased risk of intraoperative hypotension (i.e., more than 1 hour of greater than or equal to 20 mmHg decreases in the MAP). Hypotension was also more common among patients having intra-abdominal or vascular surgery, and among those who had operations longer than 2 hours. Patients older than 70 years or with a decreased plasma volume were at increased risk of having more than 15 minutes of intraoperative elevations of greater than or equal to 20 mmHg over the preoperative MAP in combination with intraoperative hypotension; this was also more common when surgery lasted more than 2 hours. Patients who had intraoperative hypotension tended to have an immediate decrease in MAP at the onset of anesthesia and were often purposefully maintained at MAPs less than their usual level during surgery with fentanyl and neuromuscular blocking agents. Patients who had intraoperative hyper/hypotension tended to have repeated elevations in MAP above their preoperative levels during the course of surgery, and such elevations precipitated interventions with neuromuscular blocking agents and/or fentanyl. Neither pattern was more common among patients who developed net intraoperative negative fluid balances. Both hypotension and

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey for the immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) project W-465

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1998-09-28

    This document provides a detailed description of the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Preoperational Survey to be conducted at the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Project Site in the 200 East Area.

  11. A comparison between patient recall and concurrent measurement of preoperative quality of life outcome in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jonathan; Xu, Min; Duncan, Clive P; Masri, Bassam A; Garbuz, Donald S

    2008-09-01

    The objective is to evaluate the reliability of patients' recall of preoperative pain and function during the immediate postoperation period after total hip arthroplasty. A prospective cohort of 104 patients completed a survey about their quality of life before operation, and recalled preoperative status at 3 days, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after operation. Quality of life was measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index, the Oxford-12 hip score, and the 12-item Short-Form score. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to compare preoperative quality of life scores to the scores recalled. The reliability of recall remained high up to 3 months postoperation. Patients are able to accurately recall their preoperative function for up to 3 months after total hip arthroplasty.

  12. Comparison of aesthetic breast reconstruction after skin-sparing or conventional mastectomy in patients receiving preoperative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric I; Ly, Daphne P; Wey, Philip D

    2007-07-01

    Many options exist for the surgical treatment of breast cancer in terms of tumor extirpation and reconstruction. Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate reconstruction offers patients a superior result, but this can be jeopardized by preoperative radiotherapy. We compared the outcomes of reconstruction after SSM or conventional mastectomy (CM) in the previously irradiated breast. We evaluated 41 patients over an 8-year period, who were divided into 3 categories: preoperative radiotherapy prior to SSM (n = 8), CM after preoperative radiation therapy (n = 9), and no chest wall irradiation prior to SSM (n = 20). The first group demonstrated significantly higher frequency of native flap compromise and capsular contracture formation than the other 2 groups.SSM with TRAM or latissimus with implant reconstruction is an esthetically optimal option for the treatment of patients without previous radiotherapy. However, for patients with preoperative chest wall radiation, TRAM flap reconstruction was superior to latissimus flap with implant after SSM.

  13. The Impact of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Surgical Treatment and Outcomes for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Kaoru; Lessing, Juan; Sakata, Theadora; Heinzerling, Amy; Vriens, Eline; Wisner, Dorota; Alvarado, Michael; Esserman, Laura; Ewing, Cheryl; Hylton, Nola; Hwang, E. Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Background Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful imaging modality for invasive cancer, its role in preoperative surgical planning for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has not been established. We sought to determine whether preoperative MRI affects surgical treatment and outcomes in women with pure DCIS. Patients and Methods We reviewed consecutive records of women diagnosed with pure DCIS on core biopsy between 2000 and 2007. Patient characteristics, surgical planning, and outcomes were compared between patients with and without preoperative MRI. Multivariable regression was performed to determine which covariates were independently associated with mastectomy or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Results Of 149 women diagnosed with DCIS, 38 underwent preoperative MRI. On univariate analysis, patients undergoing MRI were younger (50 years vs. 59 years; P < .001) and had larger DCIS size on final pathology (1.6 cm vs. 1.0 cm; P = .007) than those without MRI. Mastectomy and SLNB rates were significantly higher in the preoperative MRI group (45% vs. 14%, P < .001; and 47% vs. 23%, P = .004, respectively). However, there were no differences in number of re-excisions, margin status, and margin size between the two groups. On multivariate analysis, preoperative MRI and age were independently associated with mastectomy (OR, 3.16, P = .018; OR, 0.95, P = .031, respectively), while multifocality, size, and family history were not significant predictors. Conclusion We found a strong association between preoperative MRI and mastectomy in women undergoing treatment for DCIS. Additional studies are needed to examine the increased rates of mastectomy as a possible consequence of preoperative MRI for DCIS. PMID:21421520

  14. Pre-operative DTI and probabilisitic tractography in four patients with deep brain stimulation for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Owen, S L F; Heath, J; Kringelbach, M; Green, A L; Pereira, E A C; Jenkinson, N; Jegan, T; Stein, J F; Aziz, T Z

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to examine, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), differences in electrode placement in four patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for chronic neuropathic pain of varying aetiology. A pre-operative DTI was obtained for each patient, who was then implanted with deep brain stimulation electrodes in the periventricular/periaqueductal grey area with good pain relief. Using seeds from the postoperative MRI scan, probabilistic tractography was performed from the pre-operative DTI.

  15. Elevated Preoperative Serum Hs-CRP Level as a Prognostic Factor in Patients Who Underwent Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Bin; Ying, Jie; Kuang, Su-Juan; Jin, Hao-Sheng; Yin, Zi; Chang, Liang; Yang, Hui; Ou, Ying-Liang; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Li, Chuan-Sheng; Jian, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of preoperative highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) in serum on the prognostic outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.From January 2004 to December 2008, a total of 624 consecutive HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection were incorporated. Serum levels of Hs-CRP were tested at preoperation via a collection of venous blood samples. Survival analyses adopted the univariate and multivariate analyses.In our study, among the 624 screened HCC patients, 516 patients were eventually incorporated and completed follow-up. Positive correlations were found regarding preoperative serum Hs-CRP level and tumor size, Child-Pugh class, or tumor stage (all P < 0.0001). Patients with recurrence outcomes and nonsurvivors had increased Hs-CRP levels at preoperation (both P < 0.0001). When compared to the Hs-CRP-normal group, the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival rates were evidently decreased in the Hs-CRP-elevated group. Further, preoperative serum Hs-CRP level might be having possible prediction effect regarding survival and recurrence of HCC patients after hepatic section in the multivariate analysis.Preoperative increased serum Hs-CRP level was an independent prognostic indicator in patients with HCC following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.

  16. Significance of preoperative calculation of uterine weight as an indicator for preserving the uterus in pelvic reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qingsong; Ma, Ning; Huang, Huijuan; Xu, Bo; He, Chunni; Song, Yanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, increasing evidence has shown that uterus preservation is beneficial for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) patients, both physiologically and psychologically. However, the preoperative indicators for uterus preservation have rarely been examined. The current study was designed to determine the relationship between the preoperative evaluated uterus weight and the operation selection (preserving the uterus or not) in pelvic reconstructive surgery (PRS) using vaginal meshes. First, in a series of 96 patients undergoing hysterectomy, the uterine weight was calculated by preoperative ultrasound measurements, and was then compared with the postoperative actual weight of the uterus. Subsequently, in a series of 65 patients undergone PRS using vaginal meshes and preserving the uterus, the uterine weight was calculated by preoperative ultrasound measurements. Lastly, in a series of 43 patients with a uterine weight > 56.12 g who had undergone PRS using vaginal meshes, the operation success rate in patients with a preserved uterus was compared to patients for whom the uterus was not preserved. The results showed that uterus weight can be evaluated by ultrasound and used as a preoperative indicator for whether the uterus should be preserved or not in PRS when using vaginal meshes. It was indicated that preoperative evaluation of uterine weight is beneficial for surgical planning and guidance.

  17. Undergoing enucleation of the eye. Part 2: postoperative care.

    PubMed

    Cooper, John

    In this, the second of a 2-part article, the author discusses the postoperative care of patients who undergo enucleation of the eye. Part one explored aspects of preoperative care of enucleated patients. In the immediate period following surgery, patients require support and advice regarding pain, nausea and simple care of the eye socket. Apart from the intrinsic postoperative demands of the surgery, there are also the difficulties and challenges associated with providing psychological support and helping patients cope with the loss of an eye. Ultimately, the patient can overcome any initial problems and eventually be able to wear a custom-made prosthesis, which will hopefully allow the patient to move on with their lives. As in the first part, the author will use both referenced material and anecdotal references (upon personal reflection) to analyze the ongoing postoperative care and support of these patients.

  18. Wound Care.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ingrid M; Culp, William T N

    2015-09-01

    Wound care requires an understanding of normal wound healing, causes of delays of wound healing, and the management of wounds. Every wound must be treated as an individual with regard to cause, chronicity, location, and level of microbial contamination, as well as patient factors that affect wound healing. Knowledge of wound care products available and when negative pressure wound therapy and drain placement is appropriate can improve outcomes with wound healing. Inappropriate product use can cause delays in healing. As a wound healing progresses, management of a wound and the bandage material used must evolve.

  19. Children in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews statistics on children in foster care. Examines the definition of foster care, the reasons children are placed in foster care, the various living arrangements that constitute foster care, and the rapid growth of the foster care population. (MDM)

  20. Prevalence of preoperative anaemia in patients having first-time cardiac surgery and its impact on clinical outcome. A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Kim, C J; Connell, H; McGeorge, A D; Hu, R

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of anaemia is increasing globally. It has a close association with perioperative blood transfusion which, in turn, results in an increased risk of postoperative complications. Undesirable effects are not only limited to short-term, but also have long-term implications. Despite this, many patients undergo cardiac surgery with undiagnosed and untreated anaemia. We designed a retrospective, observational study to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in patients having cardiac surgery in Auckland District Health Board, blood transfusion rates and associated clinical outcome. Two hundred of seven hundred and twelve (28.1%) patients were anaemic. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rates were significantly higher in the anaemic group compared to the non-anaemic group (160 (80%) vs. 192 (38%), p-value <0.0001, RR (CI 95%) 2.133 (1.870-2.433)). Transfusion rates for fresh frozen plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitate and platelets were also higher in the anaemic group. Anaemia was significantly associated with the development of new infection (14 (7%) vs. 15 (2.9%), p-value 0.0193, RR (CI 95%) 2.389 (1.175-4.859)), prolonged ventilation time (47.01 hours vs. 23.59 hours, p-value 0.0076) and prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay (80.23 hours vs. 50.27, p-value 0.0011). Preoperative anaemia is highly prevalent and showed a clear link with significantly higher transfusion rates and postoperative morbidity. It is vital that a preoperative management plan for the correction of anaemia should be sought to improve patient safety and outcome.

  1. Planned preoperative radiation therapy for advanced laryngeal carcinoma. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Kazem, I.; van den Broek, P.; Huygen, P.L.M.

    1982-09-01

    One hundred ten patients with predominantly advanced laryngeal carcinoma were treated in the period 1969-1978 with planned preoperative radiation therapy followed by surgery. Site distribution was: 63 supraglottic, 26 glottic, 15 transglottic and 6 subglottic. There were 4 Stage II patients, 66 Stage III and 40 Stage IV. Preoperative radiation therapy consisted of Telecobalt irradiation to a total dose of 25 Gy given to a target volume encompassing the larynx and regional neck nodes, given in 5 equal daily fractions of 5 Gy in 5 consecutive days. Surgery was performed 2 days later. Total laryngectomy was performed on 48 patients, total laryngectomy with neck dissection on 55 patients, supraglottic laryngectomy on 5 and supraglottic laryngectomy with neck dissection on 2 patients. Crude actuarial 5 and 10 year survival probability for the whole group is 71 and 61%, respectively. The corrected 5 and 10 year survival is 75%. For patients with T/sub 3/-T/sub 4/-N/sub 0/ tumors 5 and 10 year survival probability is: crude 65 and 58%, and corrected 70% respectively. For T/sub 3/-T/sub 4/-N/sub +/ crude: 75 and 60% and corrected: 78%. Of 110 patients, one died postoperative, three died of intercurrent disease, five died as a result of second malignancy, and 23 died of their larynx carcinoma: 12/23 because of locoregional failure, and 11/23 because of distant metastasis. We concluded that short intensive preoperative radiation therapy and surgery offer a high cure rate in the treatment of advanced resectable laryngeal carcinoma. The merits of this technique are outlined in the text.

  2. Preoperative TRAM free flap volume estimation for breast reconstruction in lean patients.

    PubMed

    Minn, Kyung Won; Hong, Ki Yong; Lee, Sang Woo

    2010-04-01

    To obtain pleasing symmetry in breast reconstruction with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) free flap, a large amount of abdominal flap is elevated and remnant tissue is trimmed in most cases. However, elevation of abundant abdominal flap can cause excessive tension in donor site closure and increase the possibility of hypertrophic scarring especially in lean patients. The TRAM flap was divided into 4 zones in routine manner; the depth and dimension of the 4 zones were obtained using ultrasound and AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA), respectively. The acquired numbers were then multiplied to obtain an estimate of volume of each zone and the each zone volume was added. To confirm the relation between the estimated volume and the actual volume, authors compared intraoperative actual TRAM flap volumes with preoperative estimated volumes in 30 consecutive TRAM free flap breast reconstructions. The estimated volumes and the actual elevated volumes of flap were found to be correlated by regression analysis (r = 0.9258, P < 0.01). According to this result, we could confirm the reliability of the preoperative volume estimation using our method. Afterward, the authors applied this method to 7 lean patients by estimation and revision of the design and obtained symmetric results with minimal donor site morbidity. Preoperative estimation of TRAM flap volume with ultrasound and AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc.) allow the authors to attain the precise volume desired for elevation. This method provides advantages in terms of minimal flap trimming, easier closure of donor sites, reduced scar widening and symmetry, especially in lean patients.

  3. Phacoemulsification without preoperative mydriasis in patients with age-related cataract associated with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Aim To study the effect of intracameral injection of preservative-free lignocaine to induce pupil dilatation, without using any preoperative dilating eyedrops or intraoperative mydriatics in patients with age-related cataract associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design This was a prospective, observational, and interventional case series conducted at a tertiary eyecare center in rural India. Materials and methods A total of 32 patients underwent phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia for visually significant cataract. Preoperative pupillary diameter was measured 3 days prior to surgical procedure under mydriatics (tropicamide 0.8%, phenylephrine hydrochloride 5%). Intraoperative pupillary dilatation was achieved by 1% intracameral lignocaine solution alone. Effective phacoemulsification time (EPT), total surgical time, and final pupillary diameter were recorded at the conclusion of surgery. Results The average duration of diabetes was 11.2 (range 5–25) years. There was no difference in dilatation by preoperative pupil-dilating drops (5.2±0.5 mm, range 3–8.3 mm) and intracameral 1% lignocaine during the surgical procedure (P=0.63). There was a negative correlation (r=−0.92) between diabetes duration and dilatation of pupils with dilating drops and intracameral lignocaine. The duration of the surgery, EPT, and phacoemulsification chop had statistically insignificant effects on mydriasis, while the grade of the nucleus had a statistically significant effect on mydriasis. Intracameral lignocaine had no significant effect on blood pressure or pulse. There were no surgical complications that could have compromised the visual outcome. None of the patients developed macular edema in a follow-up period of 3 months; 28 patients (87.5%) had best-corrected visual acuity from 20/30 to 20/20. Conclusion Intracameral lignocaine 1% provides sufficient mydriasis for the safe phacoemulsification of cataract in patients with type 2 diabetes of variable duration

  4. Pre-operative function, motivation and duration of symptoms predict sporting participation after total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, M; Frey, S; Parratte, S; Flecher, X; Argenson, J N

    2014-08-01

    There is little in the literature on the level of participation in sports which patients undertake after total hip replacement (THR). Our aims in this study were to determine first, the level of sporting activity, second, the predictive factors for returning to sporting activity, and third, the correlation between participation in sports and satisfaction after THR. We retrospectively identified 815 patients who had undergone THR between 1995 and 2005. All were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding their sporting activity. A total of 571 patients (71%) met the inclusion criteria and completed the evaluation. At a mean follow-up of 9.8 years (sd 2.9), 366 patients (64%) returned to sporting activity as defined by a University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score of > 5. The main reasons that patients had for refraining from sports were fear of dislocation (65; 31.6%), avoiding wear (52; 25.4%), and the recommendation of the surgeon (34; 16.6%). There was a significant relationship between higher post-operative participation in sport in those patients with a higher pre-operative Harris hip score (HHS) (p = 0.0074), motivation to participate in sporting activities (p = 0.00022) and a shorter duration of symptoms (p = 0.0034). Finally, there was a correlation between age (p = 0.00013), UCLA score (p = 0.012) and pre-operative HHS (p = 0.00091) and satisfaction. In conclusion, we found that most patients participate in sporting activity after THR, regardless of the advice of their surgeon, and that there is a correlation between the level of participation and pre-operative function, motivation, duration of symptoms and post-operative satisfaction.

  5. Preoperative parameters predicting the postoperative course of endoventricular circular patch plasty.

    PubMed

    Kondo K, Keiichiro; Sawada Y, Yoshihide; Sasaki S, Shinjiro

    2002-12-01

    It is necessary that preoperative factors predicting the postoperative course be easily and precisely documented. We investigated the preoperative predictors and defined the indications of endoventricular circular patch plasty (EVCPP) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Between October 1997 and May 2001, 22 patients (19 males and 3 females; mean age 63.4 years, range 50 to 75 years) with ICM underwent EVCPP. Only one patient underwent EVCPP alone. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) associated with EVCPP was performed in 18 patients (82%). Twenty-two patients were divided into two groups according to the outcome after surgery. Group A consists of three patients who died after surgery and two who showed no clinical improvement after surgery. Group B comprises 17 patients who showed clinical improvement in terms of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, freedom from angina or congestive heart failure. The left ventricular systolic dimensions (LVDs) in group A was significantly longer compared with that in group B (p=0.02, 5.8 versus 4.8 cm). They were not statistically different in other variables between the two groups. We analyzed 10 preoperative variables which are categorized as crucial predictors of postoperative course. We found statistically significant differences in LVDs greater than or equal to 5.5 cm and fractional shortening (FS) less than or equal to 15% (p=0.0393, p=0.0207) as well as an increased odds ratio (13, 18.6667, respectively) between A and B groups. In the present study, LVDs and FS demonstrated the dimensional alteration of the cardiac basal segment, and identify the degree of contraction in the nonaneurysmal portion of the ventricle which will remain after surgery. Therefore, LVDs and FS indicating the functional reserve of the basal segment of the ventricle after EVCPP may be the most important parameters predicting the postoperative course.

  6. Preoperative Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Capecitabine, Bevacizumab, and Erlotinib for Rectal Cancer: A Phase 1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Prajnan; Eng, Cathy; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Chang, George J.; Skibber, John M.; You, Y. Nancy; Maru, Dipen M.; Munsell, Mark F.; Clemons, Marilyn V.; Kopetz, Scott E.; Garrett, Christopher R.; Shureiqi, Imad; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The goal of this phase 1 trial was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of concurrent capecitabine, bevacizumab, and erlotinib with preoperative radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with clinical stage II to III rectal adenocarcinoma, within 12 cm from the anal verge, were treated in 4 escalating dose levels, using the continual reassessment method. Patients received preoperative radiation therapy with concurrent bevacizumab (5 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks), erlotinib, and capecitabine. Capecitabine dose was increased from 650 mg/m{sup 2} to 825 mg/m{sup 2} orally twice daily on the days of radiation therapy; erlotinib dose was increased from 50 mg orally daily in weeks 1 to 3, to 50 mg daily in weeks 1 to 6, to 100 mg daily in weeks 1 to 6. Patients underwent surgery at least 9 weeks after the last dose of bevacizumab. Results: A total of 19 patients were enrolled, and 18 patients were considered evaluable. No patient had grade 4 acute toxicity, and 1 patient had grade 3 acute toxicity (hypertension). The MTD was not reached. All 18 evaluable patients underwent surgery, with low anterior resection in 7 (39%), proctectomy with coloanal anastomosis in 4 patients (22%), posterior pelvic exenteration in 1 (6%), and abdominoperineal resection in 6 (33%). Of the 18 patients, 8 (44%) had pathologic complete response, and 1 had complete response of the primary tumor with positive nodes. Three patients (17%) had grade 3 postoperative complications (ileus, small bowel obstruction, and infection). With a median follow-up of 34 months, 1 patient developed distant metastasis, and no patient had local recurrence or died. The 3-year disease-free survival was 94%. Conclusions: The combination of preoperative radiation therapy with concurrent capecitabine, bevacizumab, and erlotinib was well tolerated. The pathologic complete response rate appears promising and may warrant further investigation.

  7. Perioperative complications following preoperative cessation of antithrombotic agents for total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin-Young; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Chong-Soo; Chang, Jee-Eun; Min, Seong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The number of elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has steadily increased. Elderly patients undergoing TKA usually have underlying diseases, and some of them take antithrombotic agents for the prevention or treatment of these co-morbidities, including cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or thromboembolic diseases. When these patients are scheduled to undergo TKA, preoperative cessation of antithrombotic agents is considered on the basis of its risks and benefits. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of discontinuing antithrombotic agents for primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on perioperative complications. Patients who underwent primary TKA between 2008 and 2012 were identified, and classified into two groups: group A, in whom antithrombotic agents were ceased preoperatively, and group B, in which patients did not receive antithrombotic therapy. Patient characteristics, history of antithrombotic therapy, intraoperative blood loss, perioperative blood transfusion, postoperative 30-day complications, and postoperative hospital stay were recorded. Of 885 patients undergoing primary TKA, 218 (24.6%) patients were included in group A, and 667 (75.4%) in group B. Group A received transfusion more frequently than group B (P < 0.001). However, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of intraoperative blood loss, postoperative 30-day complications, and postoperative hospital stay. Patients who discontinued antithrombotic drugs before primary TKA do not have a higher incidence of postoperative 30-day complications, including cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or thromboembolic events. Moreover, the estimated intraoperative blood loss was not different compared with patients not receiving antithrombotic agents preoperatively. Larger prospective studies of this issue are required. PMID:27902607

  8. Preoperative irradiation for the prevention of heterotopic ossification induces local inflammation in humans.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paula; Rakow, Anastasia; Gaber, Timo; Hahne, Martin; Sentürk, Ufuk; Strehl, Cindy; Fangradt, Monique; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Huscher, Dörte; Winkler, Tobias; Matziolis, Dörte; Matziolis, Georg; Badakhshi, Harun; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Duda, Georg N; Perka, Carsten; Buttgereit, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Radiation of the hip is an established method to prevent heterotopic ossification (HO) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) but the precise mechanism is unclear. As inflammatory processes are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of HO, we hypothesized that the preoperative irradiation impacts local immune components. Therefore, we quantified immune cell populations and cytokines in hematomas resulting from the transection of the femur in two groups of patients receiving THA: patients irradiated preoperatively (THA-X-hematoma: THA-X-H group) in the hip region (7 Gy) in order to prevent HO and patients who were not irradiated (THA-H group) but were postoperatively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Radiation resulted in significantly increased frequencies of T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NKT cells and CD25+CD127- Treg cells, whereas the number of naive CD45RA-expressing cytotoxic T cells was reduced. These results indicate differential immune cell activation, corroborated by our findings of significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IFNγ) and chemokines (e.g., MCP-1, RANTES) in the THA-X-H group as compared to THA-H group. In contrast, the concentration of the angiogenic VEGF was significantly suppressed in the THA-X-H group. We conclude that preoperative irradiation results in significant changes in immune cell composition and cytokine secretion in THA-hematomas, establishing a specific - rather proinflammatory - milieu. This increase of inflammatory activity together with the observed suppression in VEGF secretion may contribute to the prevention of HO.

  9. Signs and symptoms of pediatric brain tumors and diagnostic value of preoperative EEG.

    PubMed

    Preuß, Matthias; Preiss, Sophia; Syrbe, Steffen; Nestler, Ulf; Fischer, Lars; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Bertsche, Astrid; Christiansen, Holger; Bernhard, Matthias K

    2015-11-01

    In pediatric patients, brain tumors have been estimated to be the cause for seizures in only 0.2-0.3% of cases, whereas seizures occurred in about 13% of pediatric brain tumor patients at presentation. This survey was conducted to analyze EEG findings in pediatric tumor patients over the past 14 years to evaluate the diagnostic value of preoperative EEG for diagnosis of brain tumors. Surface EEG was obtained in awake patients using the international 10- to 20-electrode placement in all pediatric patients with intracranial neoplasms between 2000 and 2013 at the University Hospital of Leipzig except for those who needed emergency operative treatment. One hundred forty-two pediatric patients with 80 infratentorial and 62 supratentorial tumors (WHO grades I-II: 91 patients; WHO grades III-IV: 46 patients). Symptomatic hydrocephalus was found in 37. Sensitivity and specificity of ophthalmologic examination for predicting hydrocephalus was 0.39 and 0.72. Preoperative EEG has been conducted in 116 patients, showing normal activity in 54 patients (47%). Out of 62 pathologic EEGs, 40 indicated correctly to the site of the lesion, 15 were pathologic despite of infratentorial location of the tumor. Nineteen patients had a history of seizures of which six had normal EEGs. Sensitivity for and specificity of EEG examination for symptomatic epilepsy was 0.68 and 0.7. Conclusion Preoperative routine EEG provides no additional value in the diagnostic algorithm of pediatric train tumors. The low specificity and sensitivity of EEG (even in patients with clinical seizures as primary symptom of a brain tumor) underline that EEG does not contribute to diagnosis and a normal EEG might even delay correct diagnosis.

  10. Preoperative nutritional status of patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Flancbaum, Louis; Belsley, Scott; Drake, Victoria; Colarusso, Toni; Tayler, Ezekiel

    2006-01-01

    Few data exist concerning preoperative nutritional status in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative values of serum albumin, calcium, 25-OH vitamin D, iron, ferritin, hemoglobin, vitamin B12, and thiamine in 379 consecutive patients (320 women and 59 men; mean body mass index 51.8 +/- 10.6 kg/m2; 25.8% white, 28.4% African American, 45.8% Hispanic) undergoing bariatric surgery between 2002 and 2004. Preoperative deficiencies were noted for iron (43.9%), ferritin (8.4%), hemoglobin (22%; women 19.1%, men 40.7%), thiamine (29%), and 25-OH vitamin D (68.1%). Low ferritin levels were more prevalent in females (9.9% vs. 0%; P = 0.01); however, anemia was more prevalent in males (19.1% vs. 40.7%; P < 0.005). Patients younger than 25 years were more likely to be anemic than patients over 60 years (46% vs. 15%; P < 0.005). This correlated with iron deficiency, which was more prevalent in younger patients (79.2% vs. 41.7%; P < 0.005). Whites (78.8%) and African Americans (70.4%) had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than Hispanics (56.4%), P = 0.01. Whites were the least likely group to be thiamine deficient (6.8% vs 31.0% African Americans and 47.2% Hispanics; P < 0.005). Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and these deficiencies should be detected and corrected early to avoid postoperative complications.

  11. Virtual endoscopy is a useful device for training and preoperative planning of transsphenoidal endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, S; Forster, M-T; Donat, M; Neubauer, A; Bühler, K; Wegenkittl, R; Czech, T; Hainfellner, J A; Knosp, E

    2004-08-01

    Virtual endoscopy (vE) allows simulated three-dimensional (3-D) visualisation of anatomical structures by computerised reconstruction of radiological images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of vE and its potential benefits for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. vE was realised using a commercially available ray-casting software plugin of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS). For this study, the vE system was enhanced with volume segmentation, transparency and cutting tools. The data for vE were derived from high resolution computed tomography (CT) scans of 22 patients with pituitary pathology (20 pituitary adenomas, 2 Rathke's cleft cysts) preoperatively. Anatomic structures were identified on vE images and compared with the intraoperative endoscopic views. The simulated 3-D vE images were found to be comparable to the intraoperative endoscopic anatomy in terms of distortion and angle of view. vE was found to be particularly useful for the preoperative depiction of 1) the nasal anatomy and its variations for choosing the side of the approach, 2) the sphenoid sinus septae and chambers for improved intraoperative orientation, 3) the transparent 3-D simulated visualisation of the pituitary gland, tumour and adjacent anatomic structures in relation to the sphenoid sinus landmarks for planning the opening of the sellar floor. We conclude that vE harbours the potential to become a valuable tool in endoscopic pituitary surgery for training purposes and preoperative planning. Furthermore, vE may add to the safety of interventions in case of anatomic variations.

  12. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Maria Eugenia; Noriega, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to determine the efficacy of observers' prediction for the need of bone grafting and presence of perioperative complications on the basis of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographic (PAN) planning as compared to the surgical outcome. Materials and Methods One hundred and eight partially edentulous patients with a need for implant rehabilitation were referred for preoperative imaging. Imaging consisted of PAN and CBCT images. Four observers carried out implant planning using PAN image datasets, and at least one month later, using CBCT image datasets. Based on their own planning, the observers assessed the need for bone graft augmentation as well as complication prediction. The implant length and diameter, the need for bone graft augmentation, and the occurrence of anatomical complications during planning and implant placement were statistically compared. Results In the 108 patients, 365 implants were installed. Receiver operating characteristic analyses of both PAN and CBCT preoperative planning showed that CBCT performed better than PAN-based planning with respect to the need for bone graft augmentation and perioperative complications. The sensitivity and the specificity of CBCT for implant complications were 96.5% and 90.5%, respectively, and for bone graft augmentation, they were 95.2% and 96.3%, respectively. Significant differences were found between PAN-based planning and the surgery of posterior implant lengths. Conclusion Our findings indicated that CBCT-based preoperative implant planning enabled treatment planning with a higher degree of prediction and agreement as compared to the surgical standard. In PAN-based surgery, the prediction of implant length was poor. PMID:25279342

  13. Utility of Electrocardiography (ECG)-Gated Computed Tomography (CT) for Preoperative Evaluations of Thymic Epithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Masaki; Nakagawa, Motoo; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Preoperative evaluation of invasion to the adjacent organs is important for the thymic epithelial tumors on CT. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of electrocardiography (ECG)-gated CT for assessing thymic epithelial tumors with regard to the motion artifacts produced and the preoperative diagnostic accuracy of the technique. Material/Methods Forty thymic epithelial tumors (36 thymomas and 4 thymic carcinomas) were examined with ECG-gated contrast-enhanced CT using a dual source scanner. The scan delay after the contrast media injection was 30 s for the non-ECG-gated CT and 100 s for the ECG-gated CT. Two radiologists blindly evaluated both the non-ECG-gated and ECG-gated CT images for motion artifacts and determined whether the tumors had invaded adjacent structures (mediastinal fat, superior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, aorta, pulmonary artery, pericardium, or lungs) on each image. Motion artifacts were evaluated using a 3-grade scale. Surgical and pathological findings were used as a reference standard for tumor invasion. Results Motion artifacts were significantly reduced for all structures by ECG gating (p=0.0089 for the lungs and p<0.0001 for the other structures). Non-ECG-gated CT and ECG-gated CT demonstrated 79% and 95% accuracy, respectively, during assessments of pericardial invasion (p=0.03). Conclusions ECG-gated CT reduced the severity of motion artifacts and might be useful for preoperative assessment whether thymic epithelial tumors have invaded adjacent structures. PMID:27920842

  14. A Preoperative Personalized Risk Assessment Calculator for Elderly Ovarian Cancer Patients undergoing Primary Cytoreductive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Emma L; Rutstein, Sarah; Miller, William C; Gehrig, Paola A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer has higher rates of postoperative complication than neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery. If patients at high risk of postoperative complication were identified preoperatively, primary therapy could be tailored. Our objective was to develop a predictive model to estimate the risk of major postoperative complication after primary cytoreductive surgery among elderly ovarian cancer patients. Methods Patients who underwent primary surgery for ovarian cancer between 2005-2013 were identified from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project. Patients were selected using primary procedure CPT codes. Major complications were defined as grade 3 or higher complications on the validated Claviden-Dindo scale. Using logistic regression, we identified demographic and clinical characteristics predictive of postoperative complication. Results We identified 2,101 ovarian cancer patients of whom 35.9% were older than 65. Among women older than 65, the rate of major postoperative complication was 16.4%. Complications were directly associated with preoperative laboratory values (serum creatinine, platelets, white blood cell count, hematocrit), ascites, white race, and smoking status, and indirectly associated with albumin. Our predictive model had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.725. In order to not deny patients necessary surgery, we chose a 50% population rate of postoperative complication which produced model sensitivity of 9.8% and specificity of 98%. Discussion Our predictive model uses easily and routinely obtained objective preoperative factors to estimate the risk of postoperative complication among elderly ovarian cancer patients. This information can be used to assess risk, manage postoperative expectations, and make decisions regarding initial treatment. PMID:26432038

  15. The Impact of Pre-Operative Breast MRI on Surgical Waiting Time

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Michelle; Sun, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of pre-operative breast MRI on surgical waiting time, and to identify factors contributing to the delay. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study involving 1274 patients was conducted after obtaining institutional ethics review. Surgical candidates for newly diagnosed breast cancer from 2007 to 2013 at a tertiary center were divided into 2 groups: those who had pre-operative MRI and those who did not. Linear regression using matched populations was used to compare the surgical waiting times, defined as time from the date of the first positive biopsy to the date of surgery. Potential influences on surgical waiting time and subgroup analysis were obtained using median regression analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Mean surgical waiting time was 57.9 days (95% CI: 55.6–60.1) for MRI patients, compared to 46.8 days (95% CI: 45.1–48.9) for the control group, after matching for potential confounding factors (p<0.0001). Increased surgical waiting time was associated with more favorable pathology, later year of diagnosis, older patient age, surgeon and summer time. Second-look ultrasound and subsequent biopsies were associated with increased waiting time (p = 0.001). Conclusions Pre-operative breast MRI increased surgical waiting time by 11 days using a conventional average of differences, and by 12 days after using a full matching statistical method (p<0.0001), with the main contributor being additional post-MRI procedures and imaging. PMID:28068382

  16. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid: Is preoperative cytological diagnosis possible?

    PubMed

    Oza, Nikita; Sanghvi, Kintan; Shet, Tanuja; Patil, Asawari; Menon, Santosh; Ramadwar, Mukta; Kane, Shubhada

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently recognized tumor of salivary gland with characteristic t(12;15)(q13;q25) that results in ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product. Distinguishing mammary analogue secretory carcinoma from other salivary gland tumors is important. Present study highlights cytologic findings in three cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid which facilitate preoperative diagnosis with the aid of ancillary diagnostic techniques. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parotid was performed on three cases after clinical examination. Immunocytochemistry for mammoglobin and S100 were performed. Parotidectomy was done in all cases. The corresponding hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and blocks of all cases were studied. Molecular analysis was done in one of the cases. Cases 1 and 3 revealed uniform atypical epithelial cells arranged in branching papillary pattern with few cells in microcystic pattern. Case 2 showed atypical cells arranged mainly in loose clusters and few singly dissociated. Individual cells revealed round nuclei, vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli and abundant finely vacuolated cytoplasm with metachromasia prominent in May-Grunwald-Giemsa smear (case 3). Characteristic hob-nail cells covering papillae were observed in cases 1 and 3. Immunocytochemistry showed strong positivity for mammoglobin and S100 thereby confirming the diagnosis of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma preoperatively. The diagnosis was in concordance with surgical specimen. Also, characteristic ETV6-NTRK3 translocation was confirmed in case 1. Increased awareness and high index of suspicion is necessary for the upfront diagnosis, more so for the papillary variant of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry aids in confirming this preoperative diagnosis, based on which treatment can be planned. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:519-525. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prognostic Value of MicroRNAs in Preoperative Treated Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azizian, Azadeh; Epping, Ingo; Kramer, Frank; Jo, Peter; Bernhardt, Markus; Kitz, Julia; Salinas, Gabriela; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Grade, Marian; Beißbarth, Tim; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Gaedcke, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer are treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection. Despite similar clinical parameters (uT2-3, uN+) and standard therapy, patients’ prognoses differ widely. A possible prediction of prognosis through microRNAs as biomarkers out of treatment-naïve biopsies would allow individualized therapy options. Methods: Microarray analysis of 45 microdissected preoperative biopsies from patients with rectal cancer was performed to identify potential microRNAs to predict overall survival, disease-free survival, cancer-specific survival, distant-metastasis-free survival, tumor regression grade, or nodal stage. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed on an independent set of 147 rectal cancer patients to validate relevant miRNAs. Results: In the microarray screen, 14 microRNAs were significantly correlated to overall survival. Five microRNAs were included from previous work. Finally, 19 miRNAs were evaluated by qPCR. miR-515-5p, miR-573, miR-579 and miR-802 demonstrated significant correlation with overall survival and cancer-specific survival (p < 0.05). miR-573 was also significantly correlated with the tumor regression grade after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. miR-133b showed a significant correlation with distant-metastasis-free survival. miR-146b expression levels showed a significant correlation with nodal stage. Conclusion: Specific microRNAs can be used as biomarkers to predict prognosis of patients with rectal cancer and possibly stratify patients’ therapy if validated in a prospective study. PMID:27092493

  18. Sacral Insufficiency Fractures After Preoperative Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Course

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, Michael P.; Kopetz, Scott; Bhosale, Priya R.; Eng, Cathy; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Feig, Barry W.; Chang, George J.; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.; Das, Prajnan

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Sacral insufficiency (SI) fractures can occur as a late side effect of pelvic radiation therapy. Our goal was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical course of SI fractures in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: Between 1989 and 2004, 562 patients with non-metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma were treated with preoperative chemoradiation followed by mesorectal excision. The median radiotherapy dose was 45 Gy. The hospital records and radiology reports of these patients were reviewed to identify those with pelvic fractures. Radiology images of patients with pelvic fractures were then reviewed to identify those with SI fractures. Results: Among the 562 patients, 15 had SI fractures. The 3-year actuarial rate of SI fractures was 3.1%. The median time to SI fractures was 17 months (range, 2-34 months). The risk of SI fractures was significantly higher in women compared to men (5.8% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.014), and in whites compared with non-whites (4% vs. 0%, p = 0.037). On multivariate analysis, gender independently predicted for the risk of SI fractures (hazard ratio, 3.25; p = 0.031). Documentation about the presence or absence of pain was available for 13 patients; of these 7 (54%) had symptoms requiring pain medications. The median duration of pain was 22 months. No patient required hospitalization or invasive intervention for pain control. Conclusions: SI fractures were uncommon in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancer. The risk of SI fractures was significantly higher in women. Most cases of SI fractures can be managed conservatively with pain medications.

  19. Trisacryl Gelatin Microspheres Versus Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles in the Preoperative Embolization of Bone Neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Rand, Thomas; Lomoschitz, Fritz; Toma, Cyril; Lupattelli, Tommaso; Kettenbach, Joachim; Lammer, Johannes

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of trisacryl gelatin microspheres versus polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA) in the preoperative embolization of bone neoplasms, on the basis of intraoperative blood loss quantified by the differences in preoperative and postoperative hematic levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocytes count. From January 1997 to December 2002, preoperative embolization of bone tumors (either primary or secondary) was carried out in 49 patients (age range 12/78), 20 of whom were treated with trysacril gelatin microspheres (group A) and 29 with PVA particles (group B). The delay between embolization and surgery ranged from 1 to 13 days in group A and 1 to 4 days in group B. As used in international protocols, we considered hematic levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocytes count for the measurement of intraoperative blood loss then the differences in pre- and postoperative levels were used as statistical comparative parameters. We compared the values of patients treated with embospheres (n = 10) and PVA (n = 18) alone, and patients treated with (group A = 10; group B = 11) versus patients treated without other additional embolic materials in each group (group A = 10; group B = 18). According to the Student's t-test (p < 0.05), the difference of hematic parameters between patients treated by embospheres and PVA alone were significant; otherwise there was no significant difference between patients treated with only one embolic material (embospheres and PVA) versus those treated with other additional embolic agents in each group. The patients treated with microspheres had a minor quantification of intraoperative blood loss compared to those who received PVA particles. Furthermore, they had a minor increase of bleeding related to the delay time between embolization and surgery. The use of additional embolic material did not improve the efficacy of the procedure in either group of patients.

  20. Relation of Preoperative Thrombocytosis between Tumor Stage and Grade in Patients with Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaloglu, Songul; Guraslan, Hakan; Tekirdag, Ali Ismet; Dagdeviren, Hediye; Kaya, Cihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of preoperative thrombocytosis for postoperative tumor stage and tumor grade in patients with endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out in our gynecologic oncology department between January 2000 and December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of 190 patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma and underwent complete staging procedure. The clinicopathologic characteristics of the patients such as; age, gravidity, parity, menopausal status, body mass index, co-morbidities (diabetes, hypertension etc.), stage, grade, histological subtype, depth of myometrial invasion, peritoneal washing cytology and preoperative platelet count were recorded. Endometrioid adenocarcinomas were graded according to the FIGO classification. Blood samples for the measurement of platelet count were obtained 3 days prior to the surgery. Thrombocytosis was defined as a platelet count of 300×109/L. P values less than 0.05 derived from two-tailed tests were considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the study population was 55.4 (range 33–80) years. The mean gravidity was 3.8 (range 0–12) and the mean parity was 3.32 (range 0–11). 108 (56,8%) patients were with body mass index of >30 kg/m2. The mean platelet count among women was 288, 6±90.7×109/L (range 105–772×109/L). The majority of the patients were with early stage diseases during the surgeries. 170 (89.5%) of the patients had stage I to II disease, and 20 (10.5%) of them had stage III to IV disease. There were no statistical significance between thrombocytosis and age, gravidity, parity, BMI, cancer grade and stage, histological subtype of the tumor, depth of invasion, cervical involvement, intrauterine tumor volume and peritoneal washing cytology. Conclusion: We found that preoperative platelet count was not correlated with the stage or grade of endometrial cancer. PMID:25610319

  1. Short-term Preoperative Dietary Restriction Is Neuroprotective in a Rat Focal Stroke Model

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Jenni; Vose, Sarah; Planken, Anu; Saarma, Mart; Mitchell, James R.; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a major complication of cardiovascular surgery, resulting in over 100,000 deaths and over a million postoperative encephalopathies annually in the US and Europe. While mitigating damage from stroke after it occurs has proven elusive, opportunities to reduce the incidence and/or severity of stroke prior to surgery in at-risk individuals remain largely unexplored. We tested the potential of short-term preoperative dietary restriction to provide neuroprotection in rat models of focal stroke. Rats were preconditioned with either three days of water-only fasting or six days of a protein free diet prior to induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion using two different methods, resulting in either a severe focal stroke to forebrain and midbrain, or a mild focal stroke localized to cortex only. Infarct volume, functional recovery and molecular markers of damage and protection were assessed up to two weeks after reperfusion. Preoperative fasting for 3 days reduced infarct volume after severe focal stroke. Neuroprotection was associated with modulation of innate immunity, including elevation of circulating neutrophil chemoattractant C-X-C motif ligand 1 prior to ischemia and suppression of striatal pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor α, its receptor and downstream effector intercellular adhesion molecule-1 after reperfusion. Similarly, preoperative dietary protein restriction for 6 days reduced ischemic injury and improved functional recovery in a milder cortical infarction model. Our results suggest that short-term dietary restriction regimens may provide simple and translatable approaches to reduce perioperative stroke severity in high-risk elective vascular surgery. PMID:24705386

  2. The effects of Pycnogenol(®) on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation.

    PubMed

    Değer, K Cumhur; Şeker, Ahmet; Özer, Ilter; Bostancı, E Birol; Dalgıç, Tahsin; Akmansu, Müge; Ekinci, Özgür; Erçin, Uğur; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Akoğlu, Musa

    2013-01-01

    Pycnogenol(®) has excellent radical scavenging properties and enhances the production of antioxidative enzymes which contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract. Irradiation delivered to the abdominal region, typically results in severe damage to the intestinal mucosa. The effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by the formation of free radicals through radiolysis. Irradiation has local effects on tissues. These local effects of irradiation on the bowel are believed to involve a two-stage process which includes both short and long term components. In our study we aimed to investigate the short term effects of Pycnogenol(®) on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Sixty male Wistar-Albino rats were used in this study. There were three groups: Group I, control group (n = 20); group II which received preoperative irradiation (n = 20); group III which received per oral Pycnogenol(®) before irradiation (n = 20). Only segmeter colonic resection and anastomosis was performed to the control group (Group I). The other groups (Group II, III) underwent surgery on the 5th day after pelvic irradiation. On postoperative days 3 and 7, half of the rats in each group were sacrificed and then relaparotomy was performed. There was no statistical difference between groups with respect to biochemical parameters. Bursting pressure was significantly higher in the Control and Group III compared with the Group II. In conclusion, the present study