Science.gov

Sample records for prep software featuring

  1. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  2. PrEP as a feature in the optimal landscape of combination HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGillen, Jessica B; Anderson, Sarah-Jane; Hallett, Timothy B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The new WHO guidelines recommend offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people who are at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, where PrEP should be prioritised, and for which population groups, remains an open question. The HIV landscape in sub-Saharan Africa features limited prevention resources, multiple options for achieving cost saving, and epidemic heterogeneity. This paper examines what role PrEP should play in optimal prevention in this complex and dynamic landscape. Methods We use a model that was previously developed to capture subnational HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. With this model, we can consider how prevention funds could be distributed across and within countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa to enable optimal HIV prevention (that is, avert the greatest number of infections for the lowest cost). Here, we focus on PrEP to elucidate where, and to whom, it would optimally be offered in portfolios of interventions (alongside voluntary medical male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and behaviour change communication). Over a range of continental expenditure levels, we use our model to explore prevention patterns that incorporate PrEP, exclude PrEP, or implement PrEP according to a fixed incidence threshold. Results At low-to-moderate levels of total prevention expenditure, we find that the optimal intervention portfolios would include PrEP in only a few regions and primarily for female sex workers (FSW). Prioritisation of PrEP would expand with increasing total expenditure, such that the optimal prevention portfolios would offer PrEP in more subnational regions and increasingly for men who have sex with men (MSM) and the lower incidence general population. The marginal benefit of including PrEP among the available interventions increases with overall expenditure by up to 14% (relative to excluding PrEP). The minimum baseline incidence for the optimal offer of PrEP declines for all population groups as expenditure

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Software Features and Performances.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of two-dimensional gel images is a crucial step for the determination of changes in the protein expression, but at present, it still represents one of the bottlenecks in 2-DE studies. Over the years, different commercial and academic software packages have been developed for the analysis of 2-DE images. Each of these shows different advantageous characteristics in terms of quality of analysis. In this chapter, the characteristics of the different commercial software packages are compared in order to evaluate their main features and performances.

  4. MAMA Software Features: Visual Examples of Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-20

    This document shows examples of the results from quantifying objects of certain sizes and types in the software. It is intended to give users a better feel for some of the quantification calculations, and, more importantly, to help users understand the challenges with using a small set of ‘shape’ quantification calculations for objects that can vary widely in shapes and features. We will add more examples to this in the coming year.

  5. MAMA Software Features: Quantification Verification Documentation-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-21

    This document reviews the verification of the basic shape quantification attributes in the MAMA software against hand calculations in order to show that the calculations are implemented mathematically correctly and give the expected quantification results.

  6. The Effect of Software Features on Software Adoption and Training in the Audit Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Although software has been studied with technology adoption and training research, the study of specific software features for professional groups has been limited. To address this gap, I researched the impact of software features of varying complexity on internal audit (IA) professionals. Two studies along with the development of training…

  7. Tech Prep Newsletter, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Jim, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 36 issues of a newsletter issued during 1994. Each issue is devoted to a specific topic pertinent to Tech Prep. Tech Prep is a federally funded effort, including mathematics, sciences, and language arts, that aims to prepare students for a lifetime of learning and career advancement. The Northwest Tech Prep Consortium…

  8. Tech Prep Bridge Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gohdes, William

    1995-01-01

    Although tech prep is still in its infancy in Georgia, increasing numbers of students are entering technical institutes after having completed the secondary-level component of tech prep programs. Georgia's technical institutes must begin the process of developing bridge programs to help adult students with no tech prep experience develop academic…

  9. Early Childhood Educational Software: Specific Features and Issues of Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra

    2007-01-01

    The computer has now become a recognized tool in the education of young children and when used appropriately can reinforce their learning experiences. This paper reviews specific features (relating to pedagogic design, software content and user-interface design) of early childhood educational software and discusses issues in favor of its…

  10. Software for Demonstration of Features of Chain Polymerization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosnowski, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Free software for the demonstration of the features of homo- and copolymerization processes (free radical, controlled radical, and living) is described. The software is based on the Monte Carlo algorithms and offers insight into the kinetics, molecular weight distribution, and microstructure of the macromolecules formed in those processes. It also…

  11. Assessing Tech Prep Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 35 of 52 state tech prep coordinators indicated that 77% had evaluation plans; 68.6% had mechanisms for identifying tech prep students. Most frequent evaluation components were articulation, staff development, curriculum, and marketing. Most used evaluation criteria were job placement, postsecondary enrollment, graduation rate, and…

  12. Counting Tech Prep Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the problems surrounding the counting of tech prep students. Suggests that one problem is the lack of a single definition for the term "tech prep." Suggests that if it is to be evaluated as a program, it needs more resources. (JOW)

  13. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  14. CosmoQuest: A software platform for surface feature mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    While many tools exist for allowing individuals to mark features in images, it has previously been unwieldy to get entire teams collaboratively mapping out surface features, and to statistically compare each team members contributions. Our CSB software was initially developed to facilitate crowd-sourcing projects, including CosmoQuest's "Moon Mappers" project. Statistically study of its results (Robbins et al 2014) has shown that professionals using this software get results that are as good as those they get using other commonly used software packages. This has lead to an expansion of the software to facilitate professional science use of the software. In order to allow the greatest use of CSB, and to facilitate better science collaboration, CosmoQuest now allows teams to create private projects. Basic features include: using their own data sets, allowing multiple team members to annotate the images, performing basic statistics on the resulting data, downloading all results in either .sql or .csv formats. In this presentation, we will overview how best to use CSB to improve your own science collaboration. Current applications include surface science and transient object identification, and published results include both crater maps and the discovery of KBOs.

  15. Open Source Software: Fully Featured vs. "The Devil You Know"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotrum, Michael; Ludwig, Brian; Baggaley, Jon

    2005-01-01

    The "ILIAS" learning management system (LMS) was evaluated, following its favourable rating in an independent evaluation study of open source software (OSS) products. The current review found "ILIAS" to have numerous features of value to distance education (DE) students and teachers, as well as problems for consideration in the system's ongoing…

  16. Illinois Tech Prep Planning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    This tech prep planning handbook is based on the research conducted at the Office of Community College Research and Leadership, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The study involved information gathering procedures at each of the 17 tech prep pilot sites about their planning activities. Seven sections are included: (1) tech prep in…

  17. Tech Prep Ohio Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Tech prep programs integrate academic, occupational, and employability during the last 2 years of high school and the first 2 years of college, combining the best of college-prep academics with the best of vocational and technical education. The Ohio Tech Prep program, jointly administered by the Ohio Board of Regents and the Ohio Department of…

  18. Coal prep 96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The proceedings of the 13th International Coal Preparation Exhibition and Conference-Coal Prep 96 are presented. The conference was held April 30 to May 2, 1996 in Lexington, KY. A separate abstract and indexing was prepared for each of the 22 papers presented at the conference for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Coal prep '90

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains proceedings from the Coal Prep 90 conference in Cincinnati on May 6-10, 1990. Topics covered include coal cleaning, quality control, instrumentation automation and process control, operations and maintenance, and moisture reduction and classification. Individual articles are abstracted separately.

  20. Coal prep '94

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Coal Prep 1994 Conference held May 3-5, 1994 in Lexington, KY presented papers on materials handling, developments in other countries, research and development, dewatering, and coal cleaning. The papers have been abstracted and indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Coal prep `95

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The proceedings of Coal Prep `95 - the 12th International Coal Preparation Exhibition and Conference, held May 2-4, 1995 in Lexington, KY are presented. The Conference covered such topics as chemicals for coal preparation, quality control, coal cleaning, operations, and research and development. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 24 papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Features of free software packages in flow cytometry: a comparison between four non-commercial software sources.

    PubMed

    Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Moore, Jodene K; Khosravani, Pardis; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-08-01

    Flow cytometers designed to analyze large particles are enabling new applications in biology. Data analysis is a critical component of the process FCM. In this article we compare features of four free software packages including WinMDI, Cyflogic, Flowing software, and Cytobank.

  3. Design Features of Pedagogically-Sound Software in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Howard; And Others

    Weaknesses in educational software currently available in the domain of mathematics are discussed. A technique that was used for the design and production of mathematics software aimed at improving problem-solving skills which combines sound pedagogy and innovative programming is presented. To illustrate the design portion of this technique, a…

  4. Leatherwood prep plant upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, R.W.; Jain, S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The Blue Diamond Coal Co. recently implemented major circuit modifications to the Leatherwood coal preparation plant (formerly known as the J.K. Cornett prep plant) in Slemp, KY, USA. The plant was originally built in the late 1980s, and then modified in 1999. The 2006 plant modifications included: two Krebs 33-inch heavy-media cyclones; five 10 x 20 ft single deck Conn-Weld Banana type vibrating screens; two 10 ft x 48 inch Eriez self-leveling magnetic separators; two Derrick Stacksizer high frequency screens; two CMI EBR-48 centrifugal dryers; Warman process pumps; and eight triple start MDL spiral concentrators. 2 figs.

  5. Prep plant population rebounds

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2005-10-01

    Demand and higher prices allows more operators to build and upgrade plants. The 2005 US Prep Plant Census found that the number of coal preparation plants has grown from 212 to 265 in five years - a 53 plant gain or a 20% increase over that reported by Coal Age in 2000. The number of bituminous coal washing facilities grew by 43 to 250. The article discusses the survey and the companies involved and presents a table giving key details of plants arranged by state. 6 tabs.

  6. Pardee prep plant expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, T.; Pinson, K.; Bethell, P.

    2007-01-15

    By adding a heavy-media vessel and improving the fine coal circuit, Cumberland River Coal's Pardee preparation plant (in Wise County, VA) increased raw feed capacity with minimal disruptions. The plan called for the installation of a heavy media vessel to treat 5 x 1/2 inch material with a cyclone circuit processing 1/2 inch x 1 mm, and a deslime column flotation circuit. The article describes the new circuit design and the construction process. In January 2006, the plant's raw feed capacity averaged 765 tph over six days. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal prep 2006 (2-4 May, Lexington, KY (United States)). 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Feature-Identification and Data-Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Eric De; Lorre, Jean

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the continuing development of Windows Interface for Nominal Displacement Selection (WINDS), a computer program for automated analysis of images of the Sun and planets acquired by scientific instruments aboard spacecraft. WINDS is intended to afford capabilities for identification of features, measurement of displacements and velocities, analysis of terrain and of atmospheres, and synthesis of animation sequences of images of terrains and atmospheres from small sets of samples by use of velocity-based interpolation. A major element of WINDS will be a nonlinear correlator capable of tracking small features in complex image sequences. For dynamic image sequences, the correlator will enable compression of data by factors >100. In processing image data, WINDS will take account of such factors as texture in image data, rotation of features during measurement intervals, effects of viewing and solar illumination angles, and vertical structures of atmospheres. WINDS will also take account of positions, aiming directions, and fields of view of cameras to determine three-dimensional feature structures by use of triangulation and stereoscopic analysis techniques.

  8. New stabilized FastPrep-CLEAs for sialic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    García-García, María Inmaculada; Sola-Carvajal, Agustín; Sánchez-Carrón, Guiomar; García-Carmona, Francisco; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid aldolase, a key enzyme in the biotechnological production of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (sialic acid) from N-acetyl-D-mannosamine and pyruvate, was immobilized as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) by precipitation with 90% ammonium sulfate and crosslinking with 1% glutaraldehyde. Because dispersion in a reciprocating disruptor (FastPrep) was only able to recover 40% of the activity, improved CLEAs were then prepared by co-aggregation of the enzyme with 10mg/mL bovine serum albumin followed by a sodium borohydride treatment and final disruption by FastPrep (FastPrep-CLEAs). This produced a twofold increase in activity up to 86%, which is a 30% more than that reported for this aldolase in cross-linked inclusion bodies (CLIBs). In addition, these FastPrep-CLEAs presented remarkable biotechnological features for Neu5Ac synthesis, including, good activity and stability at alkaline pHs, a high K(M) for ManNAc (lower for pyruvate) and good operational stability. These results reinforce the practicability of using FastPrep-CLEAs in biocatalysis, thus reducing production costs and favoring reusability.

  9. Tech Prep and Educational Reform. Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerner, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Tech prep is a new initiative that shows great promise for educational reform. However, "tech prep" is not the new name for vocational education. Tech prep is a new program of articulated education involving 2 years of high school and 2 years of postsecondary preparation that includes a common core of mathematics, science, communications, and…

  10. Deaf Prep Program: Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Paula

    This remedial mathematics curriculum for deaf community college students is organized into 22 lessons grouped into three levels: whole numbers, fractions, and decimals. Preliminary versions of the curriculum have been used in Deaf Prep classrooms and taken through a development and revision process. Each lesson follows the same pattern: topic…

  11. Horticulture. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Wooster. Agricultural Technical Inst.

    This tech prep competency profile (TCP), which was developed by a consortium of Ohio educators and business/industry representatives, lists the competencies that have been identified as necessary for employment in the following occupations: nursery technician; golf course superintendent; landscape designer/manager; lawn care specialist; tree care…

  12. Tech Prep Consortia in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opp, Ronald D.

    The Tech Prep (TP) program is designed to provide a seamless transition for students between the high school, community college, and four-year college levels so that students can make an easier transition from school to work. In Texas, TP has developed differently from the programs of other states. Texas policy makers created a tri-agency…

  13. PREPping Students for Authentic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Erin L.; Lally, David J.; Brooks, Eric; Tax, Frans E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a large-scale research collaboration, the Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP), which has capitalized on publicly available databases that contain massive amounts of biological information; stock centers that house and distribute inexpensive organisms with different genotypes; and the…

  14. A Review of Feature Extraction Software for Microarray Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ching Siang; Ting, Wai Soon; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Chan, Weng Howe; Deris, Safaai; Ali Shah, Zuraini

    2014-01-01

    When gene expression data are too large to be processed, they are transformed into a reduced representation set of genes. Transforming large-scale gene expression data into a set of genes is called feature extraction. If the genes extracted are carefully chosen, this gene set can extract the relevant information from the large-scale gene expression data, allowing further analysis by using this reduced representation instead of the full size data. In this paper, we review numerous software applications that can be used for feature extraction. The software reviewed is mainly for Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Partial Least Squares (PLS), and Local Linear Embedding (LLE). A summary and sources of the software are provided in the last section for each feature extraction method. PMID:25250315

  15. The effect of proposed software products' features on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of potential customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Yusof, Muhammad Mat

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the effect of proposed software products features on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of potential customers of proposed software products. Kano model's functional and dysfunctional technique was used along with Berger et al.'s customer satisfaction coefficients. The result shows that only two features performed the most in influencing the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of would-be customers of the proposed software product. Attractive and one-dimensional features had the highest impact on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of customers. This result will benefit requirements analysts, developers, designers, projects and sales managers in preparing for proposed products. Additional analysis showed that the Kano model's satisfaction and dissatisfaction scores were highly related to the Park et al.'s average satisfaction coefficient (r=96%), implying that these variables can be used interchangeably or in place of one another to elicit customer satisfaction. Furthermore, average satisfaction coefficients and satisfaction and dissatisfaction indexes were all positively and linearly correlated.

  16. Choice: 36 band feature selection software with applications to multispectral pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Feature selection software was developed at the Earth Resources Laboratory that is capable of inputting up to 36 channels and selecting channel subsets according to several criteria based on divergence. One of the criterion used is compatible with the table look-up classifier requirements. The software indicates which channel subset best separates (based on average divergence) each class from all other classes. The software employs an exhaustive search technique, and computer time is not prohibitive. A typical task to select the best 4 of 22 channels for 12 classes takes 9 minutes on a Univac 1108 computer.

  17. Success Is in the Details. No Element of Tech Prep Escapes the Fine-Tuned Planning of Oregon's Design Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Cheryl L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Articles describe elements of Oregon's' tech prep program: "New Software Helps Students Visualize a Career Path" (Buhl); "Bridge Construction Ahead" (Roach); and "To Track Students, Oregon Goes to the Bar" (Dutson). (JOW)

  18. COMPARISON OF PBPK MODELING SOFTWARE FEATURES AND APPROACHES TO MODELING IMPORTNAT PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for 40th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, March 25-29, 2001

    COMPARISON OF PBPK MODELING SOFTWARE FEATURES AND APPROACHES TO MODELING IMPORTANT PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL BEHAVIORS. R S DeWoskin and R W Setzer. USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA.

    ...

  19. New Software Product Feature Identification: An Analysis of E-mail User Characteristics and Functional Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofuoglu, Ecehan; Basoglu, Nuri; Daim, Tugrul

    Improving the product development process is becoming more important as business environment gets more competitive. This study aims at understanding and characterizing potential users of a software product through idea sharing of users. It also targets to create a new product concept through understanding the common features users prefer most. During this product conceptualization stage, the customer ideas are captured through use of a questionnaire. The target users, priority of product functions and features are investigated and the details of the existing e-mail systems as well as of the ideal e-mail systems are identified. Some of the key results included users with demographic differences having different usage and requirements characteristics, expectations of females being higher than those of males and the software functions used and characteristics required being different for those with different job categories or educational backgrounds.

  20. elPrep: High-Performance Preparation of Sequence Alignment/Map Files for Variant Calling.

    PubMed

    Herzeel, Charlotte; Costanza, Pascal; Decap, Dries; Fostier, Jan; Reumers, Joke

    2015-01-01

    elPrep is a high-performance tool for preparing sequence alignment/map files for variant calling in sequencing pipelines. It can be used as a replacement for SAMtools and Picard for preparation steps such as filtering, sorting, marking duplicates, reordering contigs, and so on, while producing identical results. What sets elPrep apart is its software architecture that allows executing preparation pipelines by making only a single pass through the data, no matter how many preparation steps are used in the pipeline. elPrep is designed as a multithreaded application that runs entirely in memory, avoids repeated file I/O, and merges the computation of several preparation steps to significantly speed up the execution time. For example, for a preparation pipeline of five steps on a whole-exome BAM file (NA12878), we reduce the execution time from about 1:40 hours, when using a combination of SAMtools and Picard, to about 15 minutes when using elPrep, while utilising the same server resources, here 48 threads and 23GB of RAM. For the same pipeline on whole-genome data (NA12878), elPrep reduces the runtime from 24 hours to less than 5 hours. As a typical clinical study may contain sequencing data for hundreds of patients, elPrep can remove several hundreds of hours of computing time, and thus substantially reduce analysis time and cost. PMID:26182406

  1. elPrep: High-Performance Preparation of Sequence Alignment/Map Files for Variant Calling.

    PubMed

    Herzeel, Charlotte; Costanza, Pascal; Decap, Dries; Fostier, Jan; Reumers, Joke

    2015-01-01

    elPrep is a high-performance tool for preparing sequence alignment/map files for variant calling in sequencing pipelines. It can be used as a replacement for SAMtools and Picard for preparation steps such as filtering, sorting, marking duplicates, reordering contigs, and so on, while producing identical results. What sets elPrep apart is its software architecture that allows executing preparation pipelines by making only a single pass through the data, no matter how many preparation steps are used in the pipeline. elPrep is designed as a multithreaded application that runs entirely in memory, avoids repeated file I/O, and merges the computation of several preparation steps to significantly speed up the execution time. For example, for a preparation pipeline of five steps on a whole-exome BAM file (NA12878), we reduce the execution time from about 1:40 hours, when using a combination of SAMtools and Picard, to about 15 minutes when using elPrep, while utilising the same server resources, here 48 threads and 23GB of RAM. For the same pipeline on whole-genome data (NA12878), elPrep reduces the runtime from 24 hours to less than 5 hours. As a typical clinical study may contain sequencing data for hundreds of patients, elPrep can remove several hundreds of hours of computing time, and thus substantially reduce analysis time and cost.

  2. elPrep: High-Performance Preparation of Sequence Alignment/Map Files for Variant Calling

    PubMed Central

    Decap, Dries; Fostier, Jan; Reumers, Joke

    2015-01-01

    elPrep is a high-performance tool for preparing sequence alignment/map files for variant calling in sequencing pipelines. It can be used as a replacement for SAMtools and Picard for preparation steps such as filtering, sorting, marking duplicates, reordering contigs, and so on, while producing identical results. What sets elPrep apart is its software architecture that allows executing preparation pipelines by making only a single pass through the data, no matter how many preparation steps are used in the pipeline. elPrep is designed as a multithreaded application that runs entirely in memory, avoids repeated file I/O, and merges the computation of several preparation steps to significantly speed up the execution time. For example, for a preparation pipeline of five steps on a whole-exome BAM file (NA12878), we reduce the execution time from about 1:40 hours, when using a combination of SAMtools and Picard, to about 15 minutes when using elPrep, while utilising the same server resources, here 48 threads and 23GB of RAM. For the same pipeline on whole-genome data (NA12878), elPrep reduces the runtime from 24 hours to less than 5 hours. As a typical clinical study may contain sequencing data for hundreds of patients, elPrep can remove several hundreds of hours of computing time, and thus substantially reduce analysis time and cost. PMID:26182406

  3. A Full-Featured User Friendly CO{sub 2}-EOR and Sequestration Planning Software

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, Bill

    2013-11-30

    A Full-Featured, User Friendly CO{sub 2}-EOR and Sequestration Planning Software This project addressed the development of an integrated software solution that includes a graphical user interface, numerical simulation, visualization tools and optimization processes for reservoir simulation modeling of CO{sub 2}-EOR. The objective was to assist the industry in the development of domestic energy resources by expanding the application of CO{sub 2}-EOR technologies, and ultimately to maximize the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the U.S. The software resulted in a field-ready application for the industry to address the current CO{sub 2}-EOR technologies. The software has been made available to the public without restrictions and with user friendly operating documentation and tutorials. The software (executable only) can be downloaded from NITEC’s website at www.nitecllc.com. This integrated solution enables the design, optimization and operation of CO{sub 2}-EOR processes for small and mid-sized operators, who currently cannot afford the expensive, time intensive solutions that the major oil companies enjoy. Based on one estimate, small oil fields comprise 30% of the of total economic resource potential for the application of CO{sub 2}-EOR processes in the U.S. This corresponds to 21.7 billion barrels of incremental, technically recoverable oil using the current “best practices”, and 31.9 billion barrels using “next-generation” CO{sub 2}-EOR techniques. The project included a Case Study of a prospective CO{sub 2}-EOR candidate field in Wyoming by a small independent, Linc Energy Petroleum Wyoming, Inc. NITEC LLC has an established track record of developing innovative and user friendly software. The Principle Investigator is an experienced manager and engineer with expertise in software development, numerical techniques, and GUI applications. Unique, presently-proprietary NITEC technologies have been integrated into this application to further its ease of

  4. Health Technologies State Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This "tech prep" state competency profile contains all the competencies required and recommended for entry-level employees in occupations in the health technologies cluster. Introductory materials include the following: descriptions of the different types of competencies (essential ones that must be included in all new tech prep programs and…

  5. Tech Prep: A Planning and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to help administrators, teachers, students, parents, and the business community understand and implement tech prep programs in South Carolina. (Tech prep is a major restructuring strategy designed to meet the needs of students who want to function effectively in a technological workplace and to ensure that students are…

  6. Appendix B: Methodology. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. This appendix describes the scope, methodology, timeline, staff, and standards involved in the production of "Teacher Prep Review 2014." Data collection, validation, and analysis for the report are…

  7. [College Discovery: America's First PREP Program].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J., Jr.

    The Predischarge Education Program (PREP) is a federally funded program, approved in 1970, to help educationally disadvantaged servicemen continue their education. Many junior colleges are running or planning PREP projects in cooperation with military installations and the Veterans Administration. This paper describes the first year of one PREP…

  8. The PREP Program at Monterey Peninsula College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialek, Hilton M.

    This paper is an informal account of the establishment and operation of a U.S. Army Predischarge Education Program (PREP) in which Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) aided a junior college in providing high school graduates with significant preparation for college work. PREP is designed for servicemen and women soon to be discharged,…

  9. Main features of the new software control system for the YuMO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilov, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    During the last years the new software instrumental complex Sonix+ has been developed at FLNP JINR to replace the former Sonix control system [1]. This complex has been tested at a number of IBR-2 instruments (REMUR, NERA-PR) and on instruments at other centers - KIA, Moscow (MOND), etc. We plan to install the new complex at the YuMO instrument as well. The Sonix+ is implemented on the PC/Windows XP platform, whereas the Sonix is based on the VME/Os-9 obsolete platform. The Sonix+ [1] has been designed considering the experience of long-term operation of the predecessor and recent trends. The paper is devoted to the main features of the new software and the comparison with the former one.

  10. Features of the Upgraded Imaging for Hypersonic Experimental Aeroheating Testing (IHEAT) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Michelle L.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-01-01

    The Imaging for Hypersonic Experimental Aeroheating Testing (IHEAT) software is used at the NASA Langley Research Center to analyze global aeroheating data on wind tunnel models tested in the Langley Aerothermodynamics Laboratory. One-dimensional, semi-infinite heating data derived from IHEAT are used in the design of thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles that are exposed to severe aeroheating loads, such as reentry vehicles during descent and landing procedures. This software program originally was written in the PV-WAVE(Registered Trademark) programming language to analyze phosphor thermography data from the two-color, relative-intensity system developed at Langley. To increase the efficiency, functionality, and reliability of IHEAT, the program was migrated to MATLAB(Registered Trademark) syntax and compiled as a stand-alone executable file labeled version 4.0. New features of IHEAT 4.0 include the options to perform diagnostic checks of the accuracy of the acquired data during a wind tunnel test, to extract data along a specified multi-segment line following a feature such as a leading edge or a streamline, and to batch process all of the temporal frame data from a wind tunnel run. Results from IHEAT 4.0 were compared on a pixel level to the output images from the legacy software to validate the program. The absolute differences between the heat transfer data output from the two programs were on the order of 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -7). IHEAT 4.0 replaces the PV-WAVE(Registered Trademark) version as the production software for aeroheating experiments conducted in the hypersonic facilities at NASA Langley.

  11. PrEP in Europe – expectations, opportunities and barriers

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Sheena Mary; Noseda, Veronica; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to the global trend showing a decline in new HIV infections, the number reported in the World Health Organization (WHO) region of Europe is increasing. Health systems are disparate, but even countries with free access to screening and treatment observe continuing high rates of new infections in key populations, notably men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is only available in France. This commentary describes the European epidemics and healthcare settings where PrEP could be delivered, how need might be estimated for MSM and the residual barriers to access. Discussion Health systems and government commitment to HIV prevention and care, both financial and political, differ considerably between the countries that make up Europe. A common feature is that funds for prevention are a small fraction of funds for care. Although care is generally good, access is limited in the middle-income countries of Eastern Europe and central Asia, and only 19% of people living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy in 2014. It is challenging to motivate governments or civil society to implement PrEP in the context of this unmet treatment need, which is driven by limited national health budgets and diminishing assistance from foreign aid. The high-income countries of Western Europe have hesitated to embrace PrEP for different reasons, initially due to key gaps in the evidence. Now that PrEP has been shown to be highly effective in European MSM in two randomized controlled trials, it is clear that the major barrier is the cost of the drug which is still on patent, although inadequate health systems and diminishing investment in civil society are also key challenges to overcome. Conclusions The momentum to implement PrEP in European countries is increasing and provides a welcome opportunity to expand and improve clinical services and civil society support focused on HIV and related infections including other sexually transmitted and

  12. Tech Prep: Winning Ideas, Challenging Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a national study that compared tech prep with career and technical education. Looks at promising practices including formal articulation, career pathways, work-based learning, professional evaluation, curriculum integration, and evaluation. (JOW)

  13. Making the Case for Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that the most important result of the establishment of tech prep consortia is the increase in articulation agreements between secondary and postsecondary institutions. Discusses the success of programs on Ohio and Texas. (Author/JOW)

  14. PrEP: controversy, agency and ownership

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Gus P; Race, Kane; Goicochea, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been and continues to be an intervention that causes controversy and debate between stakeholders involved in providing or advocating for it, and within communities in need of it. These controversies extend beyond the intrinsically complex issues of making it available. In this commentary, some of the possible roots of the air of dissent and drama that accompanies PrEP are explored. The similarities between the controversies that dogged the earliest human trials of PrEP and the ones we see today in the era of licensing and implementation are explored. We outline five mediating principles or cultural norms that may influence arguments about PrEP differently. Three areas of specific concern are identified: medical risk versus benefit, distrust and fear of healthcare interventions, and fears for individual responsibility and community cohesion. The fear that PrEP may somehow represent a loss of control over one or more of these domains is suggested as an underlying factor. The development of countervailing measures, to institute greater community “ownership” of PrEP, and concomitant improvements in the sense of individual agency over sexual risk are outlined and recommended. PMID:27760689

  15. Appendix A: Rankings for All Programs in "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review 2014." [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. The rankings of all 2,400 elementary, secondary, and special education programs included in "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review 2014" are listed in this appendix as: (1) a numeric national ranking; (2)…

  16. Cell yield. ThinPrep vs. cytocentrifuge.

    PubMed

    Papillo, J L; Lapen, D

    1994-01-01

    Cell yields on cytologic preparations made in the Cytospin II cytocentrifuge and the ThinPrep Processor were compared. Slides were prepared by each method using calibrated volumes (25 microliters) of cell suspensions from 13 nongynecologic specimens. Cell counts for each slide were calculated by counting cells in predetermined fields using a gridded reticle at 40 x magnification, then extrapolating to the total surface area of the preparation. The cell counts demonstrated that when processing equal amounts of cell suspension, the ThinPrep method retained three times as many cells as the cytocentrifuge method. The ThinPrep method, with a higher rate of cell recovery, may provide a valuable tool toward more accurate cytologic diagnosis, particularly for cytologic samples with small numbers of cells. PMID:8291353

  17. Tech-Prep Competency Profiles within the Engineering Technologies Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 12 competency profiles for tech prep courses within the engineering technologies cluster. The document consists of the following sections: (1) systemic curriculum reform philosophy--Ohio's vision of tech prep and its six critical components; (2) an explanation of the process of developing the tech prep competencies; (3) a…

  18. Planning a Tech Prep Program in Hospitality. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL. Chicago City-Wide Coll.

    A project conducted to establish tech prep articulation training agreements between City Colleges of Chicago and several public secondary schools is described in this report. Project activities were as follows: (1) developed a handbook to define the tech prep experience and guide committee members on how tech prep can be a valuable asset to…

  19. A Delphi Study of Research Priorities in Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Edgar I.

    1998-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 37 tech-prep subject matter experts identified a national research agenda for tech prep. Highest priorities were as follows: institutionalization of tech prep into the higher education system, instruction based on cognitive science research, and nontraditional teaching methods. (SK)

  20. The Effect of Tech Prep on Students' Speed toward Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweat, Jewell; Fenster, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a tech prep program of study better prepared a student for success in Georgia's technical colleges. In this study, three hypotheses, which included high-school preparation, academic performance, and faster graduation of tech prep and non-tech prep students, were analyzed. Therefore, the main focus of…

  1. Tech Prep Decision Making: Evaluation and Improvement Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    The evaluation process provides valuable information so that practitioners may share and benchmark their efforts to improve and enhance the quality of the educational reform initiative called tech prep. Evaluation should be part of every phase of a tech prep initiative, from needs assessment to completion. A tech prep program is typically at one…

  2. Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) - summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Saloio, J.H.; Vannoni, M.G.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear weapons have been produced in the US since the early 1950s by a network of contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities collectively known as the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). Recognizing that the failure of an essential process might stop weapon production for a substantial period of time, the DOE Albuquerque Operations office initiated the Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess quantitatively the potential for serious disruptions in the NWC weapon production process. PREP was conducted from 1984-89. This document is an unclassified summary of the effort.

  3. The Massachusetts TECH PREP WEST Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    The Tech Prep West Project, established in 1991, brought together three Massachusetts community colleges, seven secondary vocational schools, and one comprehensive high school to develop an alternative college preparation pathway for students, leading from the junior year of high school to an associate degree and employment in a specific career…

  4. Effort Determines Success at Roxbury Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A middle school in Boston designs its curriculum and culture--from its nightly homework assignments to its Powerful Speaking Extravaganza--upon a foundation of strengthening students' motivation and ability to do the hard work necessary to accomplish their goals. Roxbury Prep's emphasis on perseverance finds support in a robust body of…

  5. Electronics Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile covers the occupation of electronics technician. Section 1 provides the occupation definition. Section 2 lists development committee members. Section 3 provides the leveling codes--abbreviations for grade level, (by the end of grade 12, by the end of associate degree), academic codes (communications, math, or…

  6. Colorado Agriculture Education Tech Prep Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This guide is intended to provide local agricultural education tech prep programs throughout Colorado with a framework for updating their own curriculum and developing articulation with postsecondary institutions. First, a primer to standards-based education explains the role of the following items in standards-based education in agriculture: (1)…

  7. Model Tech Prep Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Maryland Educational Consortium, La Plata.

    The Southern Maryland Educational Consortium's Tech Prep Model Demonstration project is described in this final report. The consortium members are Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's county school districts and Charles County Community College in southern Maryland. The project is based on a 4 + 2 model in which ninth-grade students develop career…

  8. Tech Prep Model for Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.; King, Binky M.

    A project was conducted to develop two tech prep models for marketing education (ME) in Missouri to provide a sequence of courses for skill-enhanced and time-shortened programs. First, labor market trends, employment growth projections, and business and industry labor needs in Missouri were researched and analyzed. The analysis results were used…

  9. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  10. Morphometric analysis with open source software to explore shallow hydrogeological features in Senegal and Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Di Leo, Margherita; Bonomi, Tullia; Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Hamidou Kane, Cheikh; Faye, Gayane; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Water represents a vital resource for everyone on this Planet, but, for some populations, the access to potable water is not given for granted. Recently, the interest in low cost technical solutions to improve access to ground water in developing countries, especially for people located in remote areas, has increased. Manual drilling (techniques to drill boreholes for water using human or animal power) is well known and practiced for centuries in many countries and represents a valid alternative to increase water access. Lately, this practice has raised the attention of national governments and international organizations. This technique is applicable only where hydrogeological conditions are suitable, namely in presence of thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and a shallow water table Aim of this study is exploring the potential of morphometric analysis to improve the methodology to identify areas with suitable hydrogeological conditions for manual drilling, supporting the implementation of water supply programs that can have great impact on living condition of the population. The characteristics of shallow geological layers are strongly dependent from geomorphological processes and are usually reflected in the morphological characteristics of landforms. Under these hypotheses, we have been investigating the geo-statistical correlation between several morphometric variables and a set of hydrogeological variables used in the estimation of suitability for manual drilling: thickness of unconsolidated sediments, texture, hydraulic conductivity of shallow aquifer, depth of water table. The morphology of two study areas with different landscape characteristics in Guinea and Senegal has been investigated coupling the Free and Open Source Software GRASS GIS and R. Several morphometric parameters have been extracted from ASTER GDEM digital elevation model, and have been compared with a set of hydrogeological characteristics obtained from semi-automatic analysis of

  11. The Texas Tech Prep Consortia: Strategies for Advancing Academic and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Oliver D., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 30 chapters on the tech prep initiative in Texas: "The Identity of Tech Prep in Texas" (Tunstall); "A Snap-Shot of the Impact of the Tech Prep Initiative in the Governor's 24 Planning Regions" (Brown); "The Tech Prep Consortium Directors: The Architects for the Future of Texas" (Hensley et al.); "Tech Prep: Jewel in the Crown"…

  12. Tech Prep: Pathways to Success? The Performance of Tech Prep and Non-Tech Prep Students at a Midwestern Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krile, Donna J.; Parmer, Penelope

    This study looks at all students who participated in a Tech Prep program at Sinclair Community College, Ohio, and who first enrolled in the program between fall 1997 and spring 2001. The comparison group consisted of all non-Tech Prep students who started at Sinclair between fall 1997 and fall 2000, and who had not transferred credits from any…

  13. Creating a Place in History [and] Tech Prep for Business and Marketing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Anita K.; Butler, Tommie L.

    1993-01-01

    "Creating a Place in History" (Decker) discusses the evolution of tech prep and the challenges it offers to secondary and postsecondary schools. "Tech Prep for Business and Marketing Technology" (Butler) describes tech prep in Arkansas. (JOW)

  14. Some features of two commercial softwares for the modeling of bulk crystal growth processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santailler, J. L.; Duffar, T.; Théodore, F.; Boiton, P.; Barat, C.; Angelier, B.; Giacometti, N.; Dusserre, P.; Nabot, J. P.

    1997-10-01

    Two commercial codes, FIDAP and MARC, have been used to model a number of crystal growth processes in collaboration with industrial and research teams. Examples of global and local simulations in the field of heat transfer, hydrodynamics, chemistry and mechanics are given and the results are compared to experimental measurements, with good agreement as a rule. This establishes that such codes can be used to help improve crystal growth processes, while full global transient models still belong to software specifically written in order to model crystal growth. Emphasis is put on the necessity to validate the numerical results by comparison with experiments and to have a clear understanding of the physical laws hidden behind the software.

  15. The Tech Prep Handbook: Essential Documents To Promte Effective Tech Prep Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Oliver D., Ed.; And Others

    Developed during a project to document and analyze the tech prep initiative in Texas, this handbook contains exemplary documents associated with the model programs in the state. This second edition of the handbook organizes documents in sections (sections A, C, D, and G) that correspond to the major impact sectors identified during the research…

  16. Tech Prep Degree: Preparing Tomorrow's Workforce. Design, Development and Implementation of a TECH PREP Core Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quad-City/Tri-County Vocational Regions, East Moline, IL.

    The focus of tech prep at Quad-City/Tri-County Vocational Regions/Black Hawk College was on providing all students with skills for higher education as well as job opportunities. To accomplish this, a comprehensive model applicable to all program areas was implemented to provide sequenced, vocationally and academically integrated, and complementary…

  17. Tech Prep in Illinois: Postsecondary Perspectives on Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegge, Chris A.; Brown, Dan

    1992-01-01

    A concept mapping process conducted with Illinois tech prep practitioners generated cluster themes in four areas: goals, process, clientele, and partnerships/teamwork. The most important clusters of statements included outcomes, business-industry linkages, and articulation. The resulting concept framework will facilitate tech prep program planning…

  18. Planning for Tech Prep: A Guidebook for School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Carol; Lumley, Dan

    This manual was written to help educators with little or no experience to create a tech prep program. The guide presents a step-by-step process for planning, development, and implementation of the program. The manual contains 10 chapters organized in 4 sections. The two chapters of the first section introduce tech prep, provide a rationale for…

  19. Mississippi Tech-Prep Coordinators: Identifying Challenges of the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Jean Alice; Boggs, Brad D.; Stumpf, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Mississippi tech-prep coordinators were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the difficulty of their various job responsibilities as identified in the Mississippi Tech Prep Handbook Pilot Site Implementation Guide 1993-94 (1993). It was hypothesized that their perceptions would be influenced by the number of sites served by individual…

  20. Secondary Business Educators' Perceptions of Tech Prep Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melody W.; Davis, Rodney R.; Underwood, Robert A.; Arp, Larry

    2000-01-01

    A study identified the perceptions of high school business educators (n=260) in relation to tech prep program and articulation issues. Although tech prep was considered academically challenging, achievement improvements have not been documented; opportunities for team teaching have not increased; and business support has not been well developed.…

  1. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... negative and have taken PrEP for up to 5 years, no significant health effects have been seen. Learn more about how to protect yourself and get information tailored to meet your needs from CDC’s HIV Risk Reduction Tool (BETA). Can you start PrEP after you have ...

  2. AVA Guide to Federal Funding for Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brustein, Michael

    This handbook outlines the options and requirements for federal support for tech prep in the Perkins law. It explains what educators must do and not do to assure compliance with all the law's mandates and to avoid audit exceptions. The guide also covers new tech prep provisions that were included in the Higher Education Act of 1992. Discussed in…

  3. Self-reported Recent PrEP Dosing and Drug Detection in an Open Label PrEP Study.

    PubMed

    Amico, K Rivet; Mehrotra, Megha; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; McMahan, Vanessa; Veloso, Valdilea G; Anderson, Peter; Guanira, Juan; Grant, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is part of the recommended package for PrEP prescribing, yet ongoing concerns about how to do so confidently are exacerbated by gross discrepancies in reported and actual use in clinical trials. We evaluated concordance between reports of recent PrEP dosing collected via neutral interviewing and drug quantitation in the iPrEx open-label extension, where participants (n = 1172) had the choice to receive or not receive PrEP. Self-report of recent dosing (at least one PrEP dose in the past 3-day) was the most common report (84 % of participants), and among these 83 % did have quantifiable levels of drug. The vast majority of those reporting no doses in the past 3-day (16 % of the sample) did not have quantifiable levels of drug (82 %). Predictors of over-report of dosing included younger age and lower educational attainment. Monitoring recent PrEP use through neutral interviewing may be a productive approach for clinicians to consider in implementation of real-world PrEP. Strategies to capture longer term or prevention-effective PrEP use, particularly for younger cohorts, are needed.

  4. BEopt(TM) Software for Building Energy Optimization: Features and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Courtney, A.; Spencer, J.

    2006-08-01

    BEopt is a computer program designed to find optimal building designs along the path to ZNE. A user selects from predefined options in various categories to specify options to be considered in the optimization. Energy savings are calculated relative to a reference. The reference can be either a user-defined base-case building or a climate-specific Building America Benchmark building automatically generated by BEopt. The user can also review and modify detailed information on all available options in a linked options library spreadsheet. BEopt calls the DOE2 and TRNSYS simulation engines and uses a sequential search technique to automate the process of identifying optimal building designs along the path to ZNE. BEopt finds these optimal and near-optimal designs based on discrete building options reflecting realistic construction options. BEopt handles special situations with positive or negative interactions between options in different categories. The BEopt software includes a results browser that allows the user to navigate among different design points and retrieve detailed results regarding energy end-use and option costs in different categories. Multiple cases, based on a selected parameter such as climate, can be included in a BEopt project file for comparative purposes.

  5. A Comparison of Selected Outcomes of Secondary Tech Prep Participants and Non-Participants in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carrie H.

    2000-01-01

    A 5-year study of 10th-12th graders in Texas compared participants in tech prep, non-tech prep career-technical education participants, and general education students. Tech prep students had higher attendance and lower dropout rates, slightly higher graduation rates, and increasing completion of college prep. Similar results for ethnic, at-risk,…

  6. Optimizing Content for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Counseling for Men who have Sex with Men: Perspectives of PrEP Users and High-risk PrEP Naïve Men

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S. Wade; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Elsesser, Steven M.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Existing trials of antiretroviral (ARV) medication as chemoprophylaxis against HIV reveal that the degree of protection is primarily dependent on product adherence. However, there is a lack of data on targets for behavioral interventions to improve adherence to ARV as prevention. Information from individuals who have used ARV as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can inform behavioral intervention development. Thirty-nine HIV-uninfected MSM at high risk for HIV acquisition participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Two of the focus groups consisted of MSM who had been prescribed and used PrEP in the context of a clinical trial; the other two consisted of high-risk MSM who had not previously used PrEP. An in-depth, within-case/across-case content analysis resulted in six descriptive themes potentially salient for a PrEP adherence behavioral intervention: (1) motivations to use PrEP, (2) barriers to PrEP use, (3) facilitators to PrEP use, (4) sexual decision-making in the context of PrEP, (5) prospective PrEP education content, and, (6) perceived effective characteristics of PrEP delivery personnel. Addressing these themes in behavioral interventions in the context of prescribing PrEP may result in the optimal “packaging” public health programs that implement PrEP for high-risk MSM. PMID:24077928

  7. PREP--Project on restaurant energy performance

    SciTech Connect

    Claar, C.N.

    1982-06-01

    PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratories) has provided Penn State University with funds to design and perform the PREP (Project on Restaurant Energy Performance) for the DOE. Major goals, and criteria for restaurant selection, are listed. All restaurants were in the Philadelphia-Washington-Williamsburg area to reduce climactic effects. Each piece of heating and cooling equipment was metered. This split energy usage into comfort and process, and also facilitated computer analysis. Every 15 minutes, 24 hours a day, for thirty months, pulses sent to the I/O card are recorded. Each day Penn State called each unit to transmit the data to a Cromemco CS-2 computer installed in a location least susceptible to temperature variation at Penn State. At the end of each month the data was sent to the restaurants, to be used as they saw fit. The question of data analysis has not been finalized as of this report.

  8. Clinician attitudes toward CDC interim pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) guidance and operationalizing PrEP for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Tanya L Kowalczyk; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Kahn, Jessica A

    2015-04-01

    Prior to issuing formal HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) clinical practice guidelines in 2014, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had released interim guidance for oral PrEP use among adults. Because oral PrEP may be used off-label for youth and may soon be indicated for minor adolescents, we examined the potential adoption of the interim guidance among clinicians who care for HIV-infected and at-risk youth. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 US clinicians who were recruited through an adolescent HIV research network. The theory-driven interview guide, consisting primarily of open-ended questions, assessed demographics, familiarity with the guidance, attitudes toward the guidance, and attitudes toward the use of the guidance for adult and adolescent patients. Transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis. Most clinicians (11/15) reported that the guidance was compatible with their practice, although several reported that some aspects, particularly frequency of follow-up visits, needed to be tailored to meet their patients' needs. We found variability in clinician reported characteristics of appropriate PrEP candidates (e.g., youth with substance use and mental health issues were noted to be both suitable and unsuitable PrEP candidates) and PrEP use in serodiscordant couples (e.g., whether PrEP would be recommended to a patient whose HIV-infected partner is virally suppressed). Clinician reported steps for initiation, monitoring, and discontinuing PrEP were largely consistent with the guidance. The observed variability in clinician practice with regard to oral PrEP may be reduced through interventions to educate clinicians about the content and rationale for guideline recommendations.

  9. Feature Selection for Evolutionary Commercial-off-the-Shelf Software: Studies Focusing on Time-to-Market, Innovation and Hedonic-Utilitarian Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakar, Adarsh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Feature selection is one of the most important decisions made by product managers. This three article study investigates the concepts, tools and techniques for making trade-off decisions of introducing new features in evolving Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products. The first article investigates the efficacy of various feature…

  10. Tech-Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains competency profiles for Ohio tech prep courses in the following 12 health technologies occupations: radiographer, respiratory care therapist, occupational therapy assistant, physical therapist assistant, registered nurse (associate degree), pharmacy technologist, medical laboratory technician, histotechnologist, emergency…

  11. PrEP implementation research in Africa: what is new?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Frances M; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Sanders, Eduard J; Mugo, Nelly R; Guedou, Fernand A; Alary, Michel; Behanzin, Luc; Mugurungi, Owen; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Of the two million new HIV infections in adults in 2014, 70% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Several African countries have already approved guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at substantial risk of HIV as part of combination HIV prevention but key questions remain about how to identify and deliver PrEP to those at greatest need. Throughout the continent, individuals in sero-discordant relationships, and members of key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and injection drug users) are likely to benefit from the availability of PrEP. In addition, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are at substantial risk in some parts of the continent. It has been estimated that at least three million individuals in Africa are likely to be eligible for PrEP according to WHO's criteria. Tens of demonstration projects are planned or underway across the continent among a range of countries, populations and delivery settings. Discussion In each of the target populations, there are overarching issues related to (i) creating demand for PrEP, (ii) addressing supply-side issues and (iii) providing appropriate and tailored adherence support. Critical for creating demand for PrEP is the normalization of HIV prevention. Community-level interventions which engage opinion leaders as well as empowerment interventions for those at highest risk will be key. Critical to supply of PrEP is that services are accessible for all, including for stigmatized populations. Establishing accessible integrated services provides the opportunity to address other public health priorities including the unmet need for HIV testing, contraception and sexually transmitted infections treatment. National policies need to include minimum standards for training and quality assurance for PrEP implementation and to address supply chain issues. Adherence support needs to recognize that social and structural factors are likely to have an

  12. AirfoilPrep.py Documentation: Release 0.1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    AirfoilPrep.py provides functionality to preprocess aerodynamic airfoil data. Essentially, the module is an object oriented version of the AirfoilPrep spreadsheet with additional functionality and is written in the Python language. It allows the user to read in two-dimensional aerodynamic airfoil data, apply three-dimensional rotation corrections for wind turbine applications, and extend the datato very large angles of attack. This document discusses installation, usage, and documentation of the module.

  13. Prevention and recovery in early psychosis (PREP(®)): building a public-academic partnership program in Massachusetts, United States.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Brina; Zimmet, Suzanna V; Meyer, Eric C; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Monteleone, Thomas; Jude Leung, Y; Guyer, Margaret E; Rood, Laura Logue; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been increasing emphasis on early intervention (EI) for psychotic disorders. EI programs in public mental health settings have been established in countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada. However, there are relatively few EI programs in the United States (U.S.). Here we describe the conceptual origins and practical development of the PREP program, i.e., Prevention and Recovery in Early Psychosis, as it evolved in a public academic psychiatry setting in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. PREP developed over a decade through a partnership between the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health and academic institutions within the Harvard Department of Psychiatry. We discuss the evolution, programmatic features, funding mechanisms, staffing, and the role of clinical training in PREP. The key principles in developing the PREP Program include the focus on early, evidence based, person-centered and phase-specific, integrated and continuous, comprehensive care. This program has served as a foundation for the emergence of related services at our institution, including a research clinic treating those at clinical high risk or within the putative "prodromal" period preceding frank psychosis. This account offers one possible blueprint for the development of EI programs despite the lack in the U.S. of a national mandate for EI or prevention-based mental health programs. PMID:23466116

  14. Controlling abrasion in coal prep plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, W.

    1996-12-31

    Maintenance departments in many industries are continually battling the daily fires that run costs up and productivity down. Many plants have equipment that must operate under wet sliding conditions which can lead to accelerated wear of the equipment. Electric power generating plants, for example, have ongoing maintenance concerns for piping, chutes, hoppers, heat exchangers, and valves. Pulp and paper plants have heavy maintenance on: plate screens, conical bottoms of blow tanks, chutes, and augers. Coal handling equipment is often subjected to wet sliding conditions. Utility and coal prep plants can have serious flow problems if an improper structural or wear material is selected. Vibrating screens, chutes, surge bin feeders, conical distributors, screw conveyors, and cyclones are some of the components that must resist the ravages of corrosion and wear. This paper will address many of the issues that affect the life of plant components under wet sliding conditions. Environmental effects and material effects will be examined. Since the material of construction is most times the easier to change, the paper will concentrate on this subject. Such factors as: hardness, surface roughness, corrodent, and material of construction will be explored. Both controlled laboratory studies and real world service evaluations will be presented.

  15. Seasonal PrEP for partners of migrant miners in southern Mozambique: a highly focused PrEP intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cremin, Ide; Morales, Fernando; Jewell, Britta L; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Hallett, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To be used most effectively, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be prioritized to those at high risk of acquisition and would ideally be aligned with time periods of increased exposure. Identifying such time periods is not always straightforward, however. Gaza Province in southern Mozambique is characterized by high levels of HIV transmission and circular labour migration to mines in South Africa. A strong seasonal pattern in births is observable, reflecting an increase in conception in December. Given the potential for increased HIV transmission between miners returning in December and their partners in Gaza Province, PrEP use by the latter would be a useful means of HIV prevention, especially for couples who wish to conceive. Methods A mathematical model was used to represent population-level adult heterosexual HIV transmission in Gaza Province. Increased HIV acquisition among partners of miners in December, coinciding with the miners’ return from South Africa, is represented. In addition to a PrEP intervention, the scale-up of treatment and recent scale-up of male circumcision that have occurred in Gaza are represented. Results Providing time-limited PrEP to the partners of migrant miners, as opposed to providing PrEP all year, would improve the cost per infection averted by 7.5-fold. For the cost per infection averted to be below US$3000, at least 85% of PrEP users would need to be good adherers and PrEP would need to be cheaper than US$115 per person per year. Uncertainty regarding incidence of HIV transmission among partners of miners each year in December has a strong influence on estimates of cost per infection averted. Conclusions Providing time-limited PrEP to partners of migrant miners in Gaza Province during periods of increased exposure would be a novel strategy for providing PrEP. This strategy would allow for a better prioritized intervention, with the potential to improve the efficiency of a PrEP intervention considerably, as well

  16. Hypothalamic prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) regulates pancreatic insulin and glucagon secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Dae; Toda, Chitoku; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Zeiss, Caroline J; DiLeone, Ralph J; Elsworth, John D; Kibbey, Richard G; Chan, Owen; Harvey, Brandon K; Richie, Christopher T; Savolainen, Mari; Myöhänen, Timo; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-08-12

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) has been implicated in neuronal functions. Here we report that hypothalamic PREP is predominantly expressed in the ventromedial nucleus (VMH), where it regulates glucose-induced neuronal activation. PREP knockdown mice (Prep(gt/gt)) exhibited glucose intolerance, decreased fasting insulin, increased fasting glucagon levels, and reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion compared with wild-type controls. Consistent with this, central infusion of a specific PREP inhibitor, S17092, impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin levels in wild-type mice. Arguing further for a central mode of action of PREP, isolated pancreatic islets showed no difference in glucose-induced insulin release between Prep(gt/gt) and wild-type mice. Furthermore, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies showed no difference between Prep(gt/gt) and wild-type control mice. Central PREP regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion appears to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system because Prep(gt/gt) mice have elevated sympathetic outflow and norepinephrine levels in the pancreas, and propranolol treatment reversed glucose intolerance in these mice. Finally, re-expression of PREP by bilateral VMH injection of adeno-associated virus-PREP reversed the glucose-intolerant phenotype of the Prep(gt/gt) mice. Taken together, our results unmask a previously unknown player in central regulation of glucose metabolism and pancreatic function.

  17. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  18. 2014 Teacher Prep Review: A Review of the Nation's Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    "Teacher Prep Review 2014" is the second edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) annual assessment of the nation's 2,400 teacher prep programs. The "Review" uncovers early evidence that teacher prep programs are beginning to make changes. It arrives at a time of heightened, unprecedented…

  19. 77 FR 8272 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, PrepCAST.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Review; Comment Request, PrepCAST. AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice...@dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Collection of Information Title: PrepCAST. Type of information... Numbers: None. Abstract: PrepCAST is a collection instrument that will collect preparedness information...

  20. 76 FR 63936 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; PrepCAST

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...; Comment Request; PrepCAST AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Assessment Support Tool (PrepCAST) (formerly known as the National Incident Management System Compliance Assistance Support Tool (NIMSCAST)). PrepCAST is a self-assessment tool for State, territorial, Tribal,...

  1. Selected Outcomes Related to Tech Prep Implementation by Illinois Consortia, 2001-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Kirby, Catherine; Zhu, Rongchun

    2006-01-01

    This report is the summary of key aspects of Tech Prep in Illinois over the five year period of 2001-2005 during which all Tech Prep consortia provided annual data based on federal legislative requirements and state-determined essential elements of successful programs. These annual Tech Prep reports enable local educators to monitor student…

  2. Marketing Tech Prep. Even the Best Concepts Don't Always Sell Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Patty

    1994-01-01

    An excerpt from the book "Tech Prep Marketing Guide" delves into the myriad reasons for aggressively promoting tech prep to parents, employers, students, counselors, and other educators. It includes a discussion of the marketing plan and the benefits of tech prep. (JOW)

  3. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile for computer-integrated manufacturing technology begins with definitions for four occupations: manufacturing technician, quality technician, mechanical engineering technician, and computer-assisted design/drafting (CADD) technician. A chart lists competencies by unit and indicates whether entire or partial unit is…

  4. Curriculum Designs for Tech Prep Clusters. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains descriptions of various Tech Prep programs developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each entry includes general program descriptions, curriculum outlines, and course descriptions. The clusters and their specialty areas described in the booklet are:…

  5. Tech Prep Intergenerational Curriculum Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock.

    A project was conducted at Texas Tech University to develop a competency-based curriculum to support statewide implementation of tech prep intergenerational programs (careers in providing services to well elderly persons and to children). Project activities included the following: (1) revision and expansion of the Intergenerational Target…

  6. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  7. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile covers these occupations: manufacturing technician, computer-assisted design and drafting (CADD) technician, quality technician, and mechanical technician. Section 1 provides occupation definitions. Section 2 lists development committee members. Section 3 provides the leveling codes---abbreviations for grade level…

  8. 29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP AND ST. FRANCIS CHURCH (compare this photograph with AZ-17-15, taken at the same spot in 1937). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Health Science Careers: Tech Prep Consortium for New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; D'Anna, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    A high school health sciences program consists of an interdisciplinary core curriculum, clinical job shadowing, and potential to earn college credit. Interactive television and CD-ROMs enhance teaching. A consortium of high schools offers the tech prep program in collaboration with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. (SK)

  10. Tech Prep Persistence in Comprehensive High Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donna M.; Gray, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Tech Prep is a high school program of study. The student outcome objective is to prepare students to make the transition from high school to postsecondary pre-baccalaureate technical education, complete the postsecondary program without the need to take remedial academic courses, and then transition to commensurate employment. While the concept is…

  11. Tech Prep Associate Degree: A Win/Win Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Dan, Comp.; Parnell, Dale, Comp.

    Designed to serve as a "how to" guide for policymakers, and state, federal, and institutional leaders, as well as public school and higher education practitioners interested in developing a Tech Prep/Associate Degree (TPAD) consortium, this book provides a detailed synthesis of successful TPAD consortia and programs. The first five chapters offer…

  12. Tech Prep Intergenerational Curriculum Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock.

    A project to develop a competency-based curriculum to support implementation of tech prep intergenerational programs throughout Texas was begun in summer 1992. A preliminary career ladder for intergenerational occupations was composed and revised. A task analysis was conducted. A survey to which 285 of the 547 health care professionals, secondary…

  13. Teacher Training in PREP: Toward a More Idiosyncratic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Robert M.; And Others

    PREP (Preparation through Responsive Educational Programs) is a teacher training model that is part of an educational research project presently in its fifth consecutive year of operation in Washington, D.C. area junior high schools. Its primary objective is the development and evaluation of procedures and curricula to assist academically or…

  14. Tech-Prep for the '90s. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John A. Logan Coll., Carterville, IL.

    A project successfully infused tech prep into the vocational-technical programs of 10 of the 11 high schools in the John A. Logan College district in Illinois. All participating schools revised course syllabi for a portion of their academic classes indicating the use of applied materials. The Principles of Technology class was offered successfully…

  15. Theme: Tech Prep--Articulation, Curriculum Change, Implementation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuemmel, William L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Theme issue includes the following: "Tech Prep (TP)--Articulation Check!" (Thuemmel); "Delivering an Education That Works" (Perry); "TP: A Flood of Change" (Mahler, Vold); "Implementation Strategies for TP" (Harris, Birkenholz); and "Making Transitions in Agricultural Education through TP" (Sutphin). (SK)

  16. Chicago Manufacturing Tech Prep. Fiscal Year 1991 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    During its first year of development in 1991, the Chicago Manufacturing Technical Preparation (Tech Prep) Program established a plan for implementing an industry-driven, articulated 4-year manufacturing technology course of study that integrates applied academic courses with technical courses and meets industry hiring standards. The project…

  17. Stepping Stones: Never Waste Your Prep Period Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsley, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Breaks are the best part of working. At some point everyone does look forward to his or her lunch break. For teachers, however, it seems there is never truly a break, for whenever they have extra time, they must use it wisely to prepare for their teaching. Unfortunately, many teachers don't manage their time efficiently during a prep or planning…

  18. Macy BioPrep Project: Preliminary Analysis of Student Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Victoria Anne; And Others

    This paper reports on a study of the Biomedical Sciences Preparation Program (BioPrep), a rural component of the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation's funded projects. The program was intended to give Alabama students (particularly minorities) academic competency in mathematics, science, and oral and written communication relevant to medical professions.…

  19. Appendix D: More on Recommendations. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. This appendix presents next steps for prospective college or graduate students who aspire to enter teaching (and their parents) and for current students who are already enrolled in a teacher preparation program…

  20. Tech Prep & Technology Education: A Positive Focus for Competitive Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colelli, Leonard A.

    Large numbers of graduates from the "general" high school curriculum have not developed the academic or technical competencies required for direct entry into the work force or postsecondary education. Tech prep (TP), which has been proposed as an alternative to the "general" high school curriculum, combines the following components: applied…

  1. Physics and Physical Science Units for Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeld, Marilyn; Daniels, Sadie; Hall, Yolanda; McClendon, Cecil; Schlinger, Gary

    Promoting ACademic Excellence in Mathematics and Science for Workers of the 21st Century (PACE) was a consortium project made up of Indiana University Northwest, the Gary Community Schools, and the Merrillville Community Schools. The focus of this project was to prepare teachers and curricula for Tech Prep mathematics and science courses for the…

  2. SPC-Prep 1. Participant's Manual. Workplace Education. Project ALERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruetz, Nancy

    This companion document to the instructor's guide for a course designed to prepare employees for statistical process control (SPC) training given at their workplace by refreshing math skills and building the concepts and vocabulary necessary to understand SPC in manufacturing environments. SPC-Prep 1 addresses the math skills necessary to perform…

  3. SPC-Prep. Instructor's Guide. Workplace Education. Project ALERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruetz, Nancy

    This instructor's guide contains materials for a course designed to prepare employees for statistical process control (SPC) training given at their workplace by refreshing math skills and building the concepts and vocabulary necessary to understand SPC in manufacturing environments. SPC-Prep 1 addresses the math skills necessary to perform SPC…

  4. From High School to Work: 150 Great Tech Prep Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This book presents information on 150 careers in a wide variety of fields that fall under the broad category of tech prep. Each four- to five-page profile contains the following: definition of the occupation, the nature of the work, requirements for educational and work experiences needed to enter and advance, opportunities for experience and…

  5. Mt. Hood Tech Prep Demonstration Project. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.

    The Mt. Hood Tech Prep Demonstration Project provides technical education to students in grades 9-14 plus opportunities to continue into apprenticeship or four-year college programs. The consortium includes seven Oregon local school districts, Mt. Hood Community College (MHCC), and active business and industry partners. An estimated 1,500 students…

  6. Tech Prep Degree: Preparing Tomorrow's Workforce. Design, Development and Implementation of a TECH PREP Core Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quad-City/Tri-County Vocational Regions, East Moline, IL.

    A four-stage project was undertaken to develop an exemplary tech prep core program to serve students in the Quad-City/Tri-County Vo Tech Regions school districts and Black Hawk Community College (BHCC) in Illinois. A core group planning committee consisting of education and business/industry representatives used the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum)…

  7. Knowledge is Power! Increased Provider Knowledge Scores Regarding Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) are Associated with Higher Rates of PrEP Prescription and Future Intent to Prescribe PrEP.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Jill; Jain, Sonia; Krakower, Douglas; Sun, Xiaoying; Young, Jason; Mayer, Kenneth; Haubrich, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The FDA approval of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 has raised questions about the delivery of PrEP in a real-world setting. iPad-based questionnaires were given to providers at conferences in California and New York to assess knowledge, experience and attitudes regarding PrEP in HIV and non-HIV providers. HIV provider status was defined either by self-identification or by having greater than 5 years of HIV care experience. Knowledge scores were the sum of correct answers from five PrEP knowledge questions. Univariate analyses used t-test to compare knowledge scores and Fisher's exact test for past or future PrEP prescription between HIV and non-HIV providers. Multivariable linear or logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with the outcomes. Of 233 respondents, the mean age was 40 years, 59 % were White, 59 % were physicians and 52 % were HIV providers. In univariate analysis, mean PrEP knowledge scores (max 5) were significantly higher for HIV providers (2.8 versus 2.2; p < 0.001), age > 41 (mean 2.8 versus 2.3; p = 0.004), White race (2.7 versus 2.2; p = 0.026) and participants in the New York region (3.0 versus 2.3; p < 0.001). In a multivariable model of knowledge scores, all but age remained significant. Among 201 potential prescribers, the rate of prior PrEP prescription was higher among HIV providers than non-HIV providers (34 versus 9 %; p < 0.001) and by knowledge score, but the association with provider status was no longer significant in multivariable analysis that controlled for knowledge. Intent to prescribe PrEP in the future was high for all provider types (64 %) and was associated with knowledge scores in multivariable analysis. The most common concerns about PrEP (>40 % of providers) were drug toxicities, development of resistance and patient adherence to follow-up; 32 % identified risk compensation as a concern. HIV providers had significantly greater PrEP knowledge

  8. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  9. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  10. Instructional and Organizational Effectiveness in Selected PREPS-Identified Value Added and PREPS-Identified Value Subtracted Elementary Schools in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jimmy Dale

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals, teachers, and support staff at 3 PREPS-identified value added and three PREPS-identified value subtracted elementary schools in Mississippi to determine if there were "effective schools" practices in the areas of instructional and organizational systems that were unique to either group. The…

  11. Acceptability of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) as an HIV prevention strategy: Barriers and facilitators to PrEP uptake among at-risk Peruvian populations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Salazar, Ximena; Lee, Sung-Jae; Giron, Maziel; Sayles, Jennifer N.; Cáceres, Carlos; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among female sex workers, male-to-female transgendered persons, and men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru. Focus groups explored social issues associated with PrEP acceptability and conjoint analysis assessed preferences among eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios with varying attribute profiles and their relative impact on acceptability. Conjoint analysis revealed that PrEP acceptability ranged from 19.8 to 82.5 out of a possible score of 100 across the eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios. Out-of-pocket cost had the greatest impact on PrEP acceptability (25.2, p <0.001), followed by efficacy (21.4, p <0.001) and potential side effects (14.7, p <0.001). Focus group data supported these findings, and also revealed that potential sexual risk disinhibition, stigma and discrimination associated with PrEP use, and mistrust of health care professionals were also concerns. These issues will require careful attention when planning for PrEP roll-out if proven efficacious in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:21571973

  12. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes. PMID:27760688

  13. MASIC: a software program for fast quantitation and flexible visualization of chromatographic profiles from detected LC-MS(/MS) features

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, Matthew E.; Shaw, Jason L.; Daly, Don S.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of liquid chromatography (LC)- mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data is essential to many proteomics studies. We have developed MASIC to accurately measure peptide abundances and LC elution times in low-resolution LC-MS/MS analyses. This software program uses an efficient processing algorithm to quickly generate mass specific selected ion chromatograms from a dataset and provides an interactive browser that allows users to examine individual chromatograms in a variety of fashions. The improved elution time estimates afforded by MASIC increase the utility of LC-MS/MS data in the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach to proteomics.

  14. Unified Parallel Software

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, Mike

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use of EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.

  15. Unified Parallel Software

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use ofmore » EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.« less

  16. A software tool enabling the analysis of small lateral features without the use of a micro-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, M. J. F.; Torres, M.; Painter, J. D.

    2006-08-01

    A new method is developed that allows samples whose composition varies rapidly across the surface, such as actual microelectronic devices, to be composition depth profiled without the use of a micro-beam or other special equipment. This is achieved by extending the traditional simulation method to an extra dimension where lateral position is also accommodated. The tool is a software shell to SIMNRA [M. Mayer, SIMNRA User's Guide, Report IPP 9/113, Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany, 1997] that allows a multi-dimensional model of the sample to be created, simulated and iterated towards experiment. It is demonstrated on a silicon dioxide coated wafer embedded with narrowly spaced sub-micron wide metal tracks probed with a conventional beam-spot of millimetre proportions, and is supported by electron microscopy studies. The software shell also eases the analysis of laterally homogeneous samples where complementary ion beam analysis techniques must be employed by allowing a single model to control multiple simulations based on different geometries or techniques.

  17. Houston prefreshman enrichment program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 10, 1996--August 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 Houston Pre-freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted on the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 10 to August 1, 1996. Program Participants were recruited from the Greater Houston area. All participants were identified as high achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Crockett, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 197 students starting the program, 170 completed, 142 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups underrepresented in the engineering and science professions, and 121 of the 197 were female. Our First Year group for 1996 composed of 96% minority and women students. Our Second and Third Year students were 100% and 93.75% minority or women respectively. This gave an overall minority and female population of 93.75%. This year, special efforts were again made to recruit students from minority groups, which caused a significant increase in qualified applicants. However, due to space limitations, 140 applicants were rejected. Investigative and discovery learning were key elements of PREP. The academic components of the program included Algebraic Structures, Engineering, Introduction to Computer Science, Introduction to Physics, Logic and Its Application to Mathematics, Probability and Statistics, Problem Solving Seminar using computers and PLATO software, SAT Preparatory Seminars, and Technical Writing.

  18. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology.

  19. Cloudy Solar Software - Enhanced Capabilities for Finding, Pre-processing, and Visualizing Solar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istvan Etesi, Laszlo; Tolbert, K.; Schwartz, R.; Zarro, D.; Dennis, B.; Csillaghy, A.

    2010-05-01

    In our project "Extending the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO)” we have combined some of the features available in Solar Software (SSW) to produce an integrated environment for data analysis, supporting the complete workflow from data location, retrieval, preparation, and analysis to creating publication-quality figures. Our goal is an integrated analysis experience in IDL, easy-to-use but flexible enough to allow more sophisticated procedures such as multi-instrument analysis. To that end, we have made the transition from a locally oriented setting where all the analysis is done on the user's computer, to an extended analysis environment where IDL has access to services available on the Internet. We have implemented a form of Cloud Computing that uses the VSO search and a new data retrieval and pre-processing server (PrepServer) that provides remote execution of instrument-specific data preparation. We have incorporated the interfaces to the VSO search and the PrepServer into an IDL widget (SHOW_SYNOP) that provides user-friendly searching and downloading of raw solar data and optionally sends search results for pre-processing to the PrepServer prior to downloading the data. The raw and pre-processed data can be displayed with our plotting suite, PLOTMAN, which can handle different data types (light curves, images, and spectra) and perform basic data operations such as zooming, image overlays, solar rotation, etc. PLOTMAN is highly configurable and suited for visual data analysis and for creating publishable figures. PLOTMAN and SHOW_SYNOP work hand-in-hand for a convenient working environment. Our environment supports a growing number of solar instruments that currently includes RHESSI, SOHO/EIT, TRACE, SECCHI/EUVI, HINODE/XRT, and HINODE/EIS.

  20. CeleST: computer vision software for quantitative analysis of C. elegans swim behavior reveals novel features of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Restif, Christophe; Ibáñez-Ventoso, Carolina; Vora, Mehul M; Guo, Suzhen; Metaxas, Dimitris; Driscoll, Monica

    2014-07-01

    In the effort to define genes and specific neuronal circuits that control behavior and plasticity, the capacity for high-precision automated analysis of behavior is essential. We report on comprehensive computer vision software for analysis of swimming locomotion of C. elegans, a simple animal model initially developed to facilitate elaboration of genetic influences on behavior. C. elegans swim test software CeleST tracks swimming of multiple animals, measures 10 novel parameters of swim behavior that can fully report dynamic changes in posture and speed, and generates data in several analysis formats, complete with statistics. Our measures of swim locomotion utilize a deformable model approach and a novel mathematical analysis of curvature maps that enable even irregular patterns and dynamic changes to be scored without need for thresholding or dropping outlier swimmers from study. Operation of CeleST is mostly automated and only requires minimal investigator interventions, such as the selection of videotaped swim trials and choice of data output format. Data can be analyzed from the level of the single animal to populations of thousands. We document how the CeleST program reveals unexpected preferences for specific swim "gaits" in wild-type C. elegans, uncovers previously unknown mutant phenotypes, efficiently tracks changes in aging populations, and distinguishes "graceful" from poor aging. The sensitivity, dynamic range, and comprehensive nature of CeleST measures elevate swim locomotion analysis to a new level of ease, economy, and detail that enables behavioral plasticity resulting from genetic, cellular, or experience manipulation to be analyzed in ways not previously possible. PMID:25033081

  1. CeleST: Computer Vision Software for Quantitative Analysis of C. elegans Swim Behavior Reveals Novel Features of Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Mehul M.; Guo, Suzhen; Metaxas, Dimitris; Driscoll, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In the effort to define genes and specific neuronal circuits that control behavior and plasticity, the capacity for high-precision automated analysis of behavior is essential. We report on comprehensive computer vision software for analysis of swimming locomotion of C. elegans, a simple animal model initially developed to facilitate elaboration of genetic influences on behavior. C. elegans swim test software CeleST tracks swimming of multiple animals, measures 10 novel parameters of swim behavior that can fully report dynamic changes in posture and speed, and generates data in several analysis formats, complete with statistics. Our measures of swim locomotion utilize a deformable model approach and a novel mathematical analysis of curvature maps that enable even irregular patterns and dynamic changes to be scored without need for thresholding or dropping outlier swimmers from study. Operation of CeleST is mostly automated and only requires minimal investigator interventions, such as the selection of videotaped swim trials and choice of data output format. Data can be analyzed from the level of the single animal to populations of thousands. We document how the CeleST program reveals unexpected preferences for specific swim “gaits” in wild-type C. elegans, uncovers previously unknown mutant phenotypes, efficiently tracks changes in aging populations, and distinguishes “graceful” from poor aging. The sensitivity, dynamic range, and comprehensive nature of CeleST measures elevate swim locomotion analysis to a new level of ease, economy, and detail that enables behavioral plasticity resulting from genetic, cellular, or experience manipulation to be analyzed in ways not previously possible. PMID:25033081

  2. CeleST: computer vision software for quantitative analysis of C. elegans swim behavior reveals novel features of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Restif, Christophe; Ibáñez-Ventoso, Carolina; Vora, Mehul M; Guo, Suzhen; Metaxas, Dimitris; Driscoll, Monica

    2014-07-01

    In the effort to define genes and specific neuronal circuits that control behavior and plasticity, the capacity for high-precision automated analysis of behavior is essential. We report on comprehensive computer vision software for analysis of swimming locomotion of C. elegans, a simple animal model initially developed to facilitate elaboration of genetic influences on behavior. C. elegans swim test software CeleST tracks swimming of multiple animals, measures 10 novel parameters of swim behavior that can fully report dynamic changes in posture and speed, and generates data in several analysis formats, complete with statistics. Our measures of swim locomotion utilize a deformable model approach and a novel mathematical analysis of curvature maps that enable even irregular patterns and dynamic changes to be scored without need for thresholding or dropping outlier swimmers from study. Operation of CeleST is mostly automated and only requires minimal investigator interventions, such as the selection of videotaped swim trials and choice of data output format. Data can be analyzed from the level of the single animal to populations of thousands. We document how the CeleST program reveals unexpected preferences for specific swim "gaits" in wild-type C. elegans, uncovers previously unknown mutant phenotypes, efficiently tracks changes in aging populations, and distinguishes "graceful" from poor aging. The sensitivity, dynamic range, and comprehensive nature of CeleST measures elevate swim locomotion analysis to a new level of ease, economy, and detail that enables behavioral plasticity resulting from genetic, cellular, or experience manipulation to be analyzed in ways not previously possible.

  3. Software Defined Networking challenges and future direction: A case study of implementing SDN features on OpenStack private cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamugam, Veeramani; Murray, I.; Leong, J. A.; Sidhu, Amandeep S.

    2016-03-01

    Cloud computing provides services on demand instantly, such as access to network infrastructure consisting of computing hardware, operating systems, network storage, database and applications. Network usage and demands are growing at a very fast rate and to meet the current requirements, there is a need for automatic infrastructure scaling. Traditional networks are difficult to automate because of the distributed nature of their decision making process for switching or routing which are collocated on the same device. Managing complex environments using traditional networks is time-consuming and expensive, especially in the case of generating virtual machines, migration and network configuration. To mitigate the challenges, network operations require efficient, flexible, agile and scalable software defined networks (SDN). This paper discuss various issues in SDN and suggests how to mitigate the network management related issues. A private cloud prototype test bed was setup to implement the SDN on the OpenStack platform to test and evaluate the various network performances provided by the various configurations.

  4. Software corrected hot wire thermal lag for the constant voltage anemometer featuring a constant bandwidth at the selected compensation setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Garimella R.; Comte-Bellot, Genevieve; Faure, Thierry M.

    1998-09-01

    Software compensation correction for thermal lag of a hot wire in the application of a constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for turbulence measurements in the boundary layer of a supersonic wind tunnel has been demonstrated. The CVA was used with a fixed compensation setting while measuring the in situ thermal lag (time constant) of the hot wire. Using the measured time constant, corrections are applied to the fixed compensation output of the CVA in postprocessing of the data. To demonstrate the flexibility of the approach it was used for two compensation settings at a test point to obtain the same results from both settings. A unique advantage of this approach is shown to be that for a given compensation setting in the CVA the bandwidth of the measurements for the test remains constant for all of the different test conditions and yields higher productivity. The results of the turbulence levels measured with this method agree with earlier research using other anemometers. Spectral plots of the mass flux and temperature and the measured in situ time constant responses under different conditions of the hot wire have been presented.

  5. Tile-Based Fisher-Ratio Software for Improved Feature Selection Analysis of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Marney, Luke C.; Siegler, William C.; Parsons, Brendon A.; Hoggard, Jamin C.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2013-10-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC – TOFMS) is a highly capable instrumental platform that produces complex and information-rich multi-dimensional chemical data. The complex data can be overwhelming, especially when many samples (of various sample classes) are analyzed with multiple injections for each sample. Thus, the data must be analyzed in such a way to extract the most meaningful information. The pixel-based and peak table-based algorithmic use of Fisher ratios has been used successfully in the past to reduce the multi-dimensional data down to those chemical compounds that are changing between classes relative to those that are not (i.e., chemical feature selection). We report on the initial development of a computationally fast novel tile-based Fisher-ratio software that addresses challenges due to 2D retention time misalignment without explicitly aligning the data, which is a problem for both pixel-based and peak table- based methods. Concurrently, the tile-based Fisher-ratio software maximizes the sensitivity contrast of true positives against a background of potential false positives and noise. To study this software, eight compounds, plus one internal standard, were spiked into diesel at various concentrations. The tile-based F-ratio software was able to discover all spiked analytes, within the complex diesel sample matrix with thousands of potential false positives, in each possible concentration comparison, even at the lowest absolute spiked analyte concentration ratio of 1.06.

  6. Combined coronary lumen and vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging with i-T2prep: influence of nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tarique; Henningsson, Markus; Butzbach, Britta; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Greil, Gerald F; Andia, Marcelo E; Botnar, Rene M

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) improves image quality of coronary lumen magnetic resonance angiography. Our aim was to investigate the influence of NTG on coronary lumen and vessel wall image quality using a combined, single sequence approach (i-T2prep), which is able to image both within the known time frame of action of NTG. Ten healthy volunteers underwent right coronary artery lumen and vessel wall imaging using the i-T2prep sequence before and after administration of NTG. Image quality was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Diameter, length and wall thickness were also measured using dedicated semi-automatic software. NTG induced coronary vasodilatation (lumen diameter increased from 2.16 ± 0.32 to 2.52 ± 0.59 mm; p = 0.036). As a result, visualized lumen length (9.8 ± 2.6 to 11.4 ± 3.3 cm; p = 0.025) and qualitative lumen image quality (median 3 (interquartile range 2-3.25) vs. median 3 (interquartile range 3-4); p = 0.046) both improved. Vessel wall imaging also demonstrated a significant improvement in vessel wall sharpness after NTG (24.8 vs. 27.3 %; p = 0.036). This study demonstrates the benefits of NTG for coronary lumen and vessel wall imaging using a combined sequence, i-T2prep. The methodology described here has great potential for future pathophysiological studies. PMID:25200588

  7. Second Annual Report: Program of Research and Evaluation for Public Schools (PREPS), 1977-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saterfiel, Thomas H.

    This document is the second annual report of the activities of the Program of Research and Evaluation for Public Schools (PREPS). The mission of PREPS, a consortium of public school districts in Mississippi, is to aid member schools in obtaining quality data from which curricular and administrative decisions can be made. Technical assistance…

  8. Making Tech Prep and School To Work Realistic Options in Transition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugerty, John

    Information is provided on tech prep education programs, which are part of a restructuring movement that combines secondary and postsecondary programs to provide technical preparation in a field such as engineering technology, agriculture, health, or business. Information on the following topics is outlined: seven essential elements of tech prep;…

  9. On the Right Track: Southern Maryland Schools Revamp Their Curriculum around Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, Kathy

    1992-01-01

    In St. Mary's County (Maryland) schools' revamped curriculum, tech prep encompasses four clusters: applied business/management, applied engineering/mechanics, applied health/human services, and college prep. Career counselors help eighth graders choose a cluster and monitor their satisfaction with their choice, allowing them to change until junior…

  10. Follow-Up Survey of Participants in Preparing for Profit (PREP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informed Decision Services, Englewood, NJ.

    Established as a pilot project in 1991, Preparing for Profit (PREP) was a four-session entrepreneurial training seminar offered by LaGuardia Community College/City University of New York, the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and Coopers & Lybrand. PREP was designed to enhance opportunities for minority- and women-owned businesses to…

  11. Bowel Prep Quality in Patients of Low Socioeconomic Status Undergoing Screening Colonoscopy with Patient Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sarah Johanna; Itzkowitz, Steven H.; Shah, Brijen; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of colonoscopy is directly affected by the quality of the patient's bowel preparation. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are at increased risk of having suboptimal bowel prep quality. Patient navigators can play a key role in clarifying bowel prep instructions. The aim of the present study was to examine the quality…

  12. Texas Tech Prep Environmental Scan of Partner Opinions: An Assessment of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Sharon Kay; Waller, Lee "Rusty"

    2004-01-01

    Tech Prep is a federal education initiative funded by the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act initially authorized in 1990 then reauthorized in 1998. Texas HB 2401 subsequently established the parameters for the operation of Tech Prep in Texas. Texas has 26 regional consortia that coordinate the delivery of services between…

  13. Evaluating Tech Prep Education Programs: Implications for Reporting Program and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    2003-01-01

    Tech Prep education programs play a vital role in the education of American youth. During the past decade, with funding from the Perkins Act, Tech Prep consortia have consolidated and developed programs for students. The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998 required each state to identify performance levels relevant to…

  14. Counselor Involvement in Professional Development and Preparedness for Roles in Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puckett, Paula A.; Bragg, Debra D.

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 120 secondary and 28 postsecondary counselors in Illinois tech prep consortia indicated little participation in professional development activities such as curriculum planning, study groups, and action research. Discrepancies beteen participation and perceptions of preparedness for tech prep roles may be due to their omission from…

  15. The Effect of Studying Tech Prep in High School and College Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Larry A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the academic performance of Tech Prep students (referred to as participants) in comparison to non-Tech Prep students (referred to as non-participants) entering a two-year community college from sixteen different high schools in Stark County, Ohio. This study provided a quantitative analysis of students' academic experiences to…

  16. Bowel Prep Quality in Patients of Low Socioeconomic Status Undergoing Screening Colonoscopy With Patient Navigation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah Johanna; Itzkowitz, Steven H; Shah, Brijen; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of colonoscopy is directly affected by the quality of the patient's bowel preparation. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are at increased risk of having suboptimal bowel prep quality. Patient navigators can play a key role in clarifying bowel prep instructions. The aim of the present study was to examine the quality of bowel prep and its predictors among individuals of low SES undergoing screening colonoscopy with patient navigation. Participants (N = 607) were individuals of low SES who completed a screening colonoscopy with patient navigation. Demographic information was collected after the participants received a primary care referral for a screening colonoscopy. After the colonoscopy was completed, medical charts were reviewed to document the colonoscopists' bowel prep quality ratings. A total of 6.8% (41/607) of the sample had poor bowel prep, which significantly correlated with having a colonoscopy that did not reach the cecum. If fair preps were included, approximately 19.3% (117/607) of our cohort would be considered to have suboptimal bowel prep. Our suboptimal bowel prep rates were better than those reported from other low SES samples.

  17. Smoothing the Transition to College?: The Effect of Tech-Prep Programs on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellini, Stephanie Riegg

    2006-01-01

    By promoting articulation agreements between high schools and community colleges, Tech-Prep programs aim to smooth the transition to college for the middle majority of US high school students. This paper employs a family fixed effects approach to assess the effectiveness of Tech-Prep programs in increasing educational attainment. Using data from…

  18. The ACCESS Consortium Tech Prep Summer Internship Report, August 1, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Mary Bouligny

    The 1993 Tech Prep Summer Internship Program at Delgado Community College (DCC), in New Orleans, was designed to provide work-related corporate experience to participating tech prep students and faculty. The 6-week program consisted of two components: actual employment with an area corporation 4 days a week and a classroom training program in…

  19. 77 FR 10542 - Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public meeting: After considering public comments and developing a revised... SECURITY Coast Guard Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines... Response Exercise Program (PREP) is designed to facilitate the periodic testing of oil spill response...

  20. 76 FR 51037 - Determination That Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing Two Bisacodyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... applications (ANDAs) for bowel prep kits containing PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and... Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (PEG- 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride...

  1. Tech-Prep Competency Profiles within the Business/Computer Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for educators throughout Ohio who are involved in planning and/or delivering tech prep programs within the business/computer technologies cluster, discusses and presents tech prep competency profiles (TCPs) for 12 business/computer technology occupations. The first part of the document contains the following:…

  2. Charter Schools as Nation Builders: Democracy Prep and Civic Education. Policy Brief 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautzenheiser, Daniel; Kelly, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    This policy brief is the first in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. This paper introduces Democracy Prep, a network of seven public charter schools with a civic mission at its core. Democracy Prep's founder and…

  3. Prep/Tech: Volume 1, No. 1, Youth on homelessness

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.

  4. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  5. Inclusion of Trans Women in Pre-Exposure Phrophylaxis (PrEP): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Daniel J; Kerr, Thomas; Operario, Don; Socías, Maria E; Sued, Omar; Marshall, Brandon DL

    2014-01-01

    Trans women are at high-risk of HIV infection. We conducted a review to determine the extent to which trans women were eligible for inclusion in and enrolled into pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy trials. Out of seven trials analyzing PrEP efficacy, we found that trans women comprised only 1.2% of one trial, and 0.2% of total trial enrollments. Although an additional PrEP trial to determine efficacy among trans women may not be warranted, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of PrEP in this marginalized population, through observational and feasibility studies. These studies should focus on unique barriers that trans women may experience while obtaining access to PrEP, such as gender discrimination, transphobia, and violence. PMID:25430940

  6. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software packages, "Solutions Unlimited" and "BASIC Data Base System." Provides a description, summary, strengths and weaknesses, availability and costs. Includes reviews of three structured BASIC packages: "True BASIC (2.0)"; "Turbo BASIC (1.0)"; and "QuickBASIC (3.0)." Explains significant features such as graphics, costs,…

  7. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teles, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages for Macintosh microcomputers including "Phase Portraits," an exploratory graphics tool for studying first-order planar systems; and "MacMath," a set of programs for exploring differential equations, linear algebra, and other mathematical topics. Features, ease of use, cost, availability, and hardware…

  8. Analysis of nanopore arrangement and structural features of anodic alumina layers formed by two-step anodizing in oxalic acid using the dedicated executable software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Ciepiela, Eryk; Jaskuła, Marian

    2014-02-01

    Anodic porous alumina layers were fabricated by a two-step self-organized anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid under various anodizing potentials ranging from 30 to 60 V at two different temperatures (10 and 17 ∘C). The effect of anodizing conditions on structural features and pore arrangement of AAO was investigated in detail by using the dedicated executable publication combined with ImageJ software. With increasing anodizing potential, a linear increase of the average pore diameter, interpore distance, wall thickness and barrier layer thickness, as well as a decrease of the pore density, were observed. In addition, the higher pore diameter and porosity values were obtained for samples anodized at the elevated temperature, independently of the anodizing potential. A degree of pore order was investigated on the basis of Delaunay triangulations (defect maps) and calculation of pair distribution or angle distribution functions (PDF or ADF), respectively. All methods confirmed that in order to obtain nanoporous alumina with the best, hexagonal pore arrangement, the potential of 40 V should be applied during anodization. It was confirmed that the dedicated executable publication can be used to a fast and complex analysis of nanopore arrangement and structural features of nanoporous oxide layers.

  9. Acceptability of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PREP) Among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in a Canadian Setting.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Daniel J; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Nguyen, Paul; Lurie, Mark N; Sued, Omar; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2015-05-01

    A recent clinical trial provided evidence that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to prevent HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). We examined willingness to use PrEP among HIV-negative PWID in Vancouver, Canada (n = 543) to inform PrEP implementation efforts. One third (35.4 %) expressed willingness to use PrEP, with adjusted models indicating that younger age, no regular employment, requiring help injecting, engaging in sex work, and reporting multiple recent sexual partners were positively associated with willingness to use PrEP. Although willingness to use PrEP was low, PrEP was acceptable to some PWID at heightened risk for HIV infection.

  10. Prevention of wound contamination using DuraPrep solution plus Ioban 2 drapes.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cassie; Osmon, Douglas R; Hanssen, Arlen; Trousdale, Robert T; Pagnano, Mark W; Pyrek, Janine; Berbari, Elie; Naessens, James

    2005-10-01

    The use of the preoperative skin preparation DuraPrep is thought to enhance the adhesion qualities of an incise drape. If there is less drape lift it was hypothesized that there may be a reduction in wound contamination. We did a single-center, randomized trial to determine if a preoperative skin preparation containing DuraPrep solution plus Ioban 2 drapes reduced wound contamination in total joint replacement surgery compared with a povidone iodine scrub and paint plus Ioban 2 drapes. Secondary research questions focused on comparisons of differences in drape lift and cost between the two groups. Of the 176 evaluable patients, the proportion of patients with a contaminated wound was similar in the two groups (DuraPrep 28.0% versus povidone iodine 36.4%). The mean drape lift in the DuraPrep group was less than the povidone iodine group (1.5 cm versus 9.9 cm respectively). The mean cost of prepping was lower for the DuraPrep group compared with the povidone iodine group (dollars 93.36 and dollars 248.91, respectively). A preoperative skin preparation regimen containing DuraPrep solution plus Ioban 2 drapes is equivalent to a povidone iodine scrub and paint and Ioban 2 for the prevention of wound contamination during total joint replacement surgery. Improved drape lift and cost may influence the choice between the two methods.

  11. Expansion of the PREP concept to include hazardous substances response exercises

    SciTech Connect

    Lively-Diebold, B.; DeMarco, G.; Connolly, K.

    1996-12-31

    The National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) was developed by Federal and State agencies and industry to exercise Oil Pollution Act of 1990 required plans to respond to oil discharges. PREP promotes involvement in exercised by Federal, State, and local response personnel as well as industry sponsors and has resulted in an improved understanding of the roles that different parties play during a response. PREP exercises often test the ability of various groups of responders to form a Unified Command, which allows all parties who have jurisdictional or functional responsibility for an incident to develop a common set of response strategies. This paper suggests expanding the PREP concept (from its current focus mainly on oil spill exercises) to address hazardous substances response exercises as a means to promote improved cooperation during responses to incidents involving the releases of hazardous substances. This paper discusses the role/authorities of Federal as well as State and local response personnel during different types of emergencies and coordination among these parties during a response. The paper also outlines the use of a Unified Command within an Incident Command System structure and the advent of the PREP. Finally, the paper discusses the benefits to be gained from applying PREP`s unified national exercise approach to hazardous substances exercises, and suggests next steps for beginning the process.

  12. PrEP as Peri-conception HIV Prevention for Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Heffron, Renee; Pintye, Jillian; Matthews, Lynn T; Weber, Shannon; Mugo, Nelly

    2016-06-01

    Daily oral tenofovir (TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy and recommended for men and women with substantial risk of HIV acquisition. The peri-conception period, the stage prior to pregnancy when condom use is necessarily reduced, has elevated HIV risk that can be mitigated by PrEP use. Data from a randomized trial suggest that peri-conception PrEP use by HIV-seronegative women does not increase the risk of pregnancy loss, birth defects or congenital anomalies, preterm birth, or infant growth faltering. Women considering PrEP use throughout pregnancy must weigh the known increased risk of HIV acquisition with unknown risks of drug effects on infant growth. PrEP has been used safely by HIV-seronegative men with HIV-seropositive female partners who have become pregnant. As an effective user-controlled HIV prevention strategy, PrEP offers autonomy and empowerment for HIV prevention and can be recommended alongside antiretroviral therapy, fertility screening, vaginal self-insemination, intercourse timed to peak fertility, medically assisted reproduction, and other safer conception strategies to provide multiple options. The integration of PrEP into safer conception programs is warranted and will safely reduce HIV transmission to women, men, and children during the peri-conception period.

  13. Mama Software Features: Uncertainty Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-30

    This document reviews how the uncertainty in the calculations is being determined with test image data. The results of this testing give an ‘initial uncertainty’ number than can be used to estimate the ‘back end’ uncertainty in digital image quantification in images. Statisticians are refining these numbers as part of a UQ effort.

  14. PREP inside and out: marriage education for inmates.

    PubMed

    Einhorn, Lindsey; Williams, Tamara; Stanley, Scott; Wunderlin, Nicole; Markman, Howard; Eason, Joanne

    2008-09-01

    Although research has demonstrated that marriage education has positive effects on relationship quality, little is known about how such services impact relationships where one partner is incarcerated. The current study implemented an adapted version of the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP Inside and Out) for inmates in Oklahoma correctional facilities. Inmates, with or without their partners, participated in the 12-hour program. The impact of the program was investigated on a range of relationship variables including satisfaction with relationship, dedication, confidence, communication skills, friendship, and negative interactions as reported by the inmate partner. Participants reported substantial gains in all variables and in overall satisfaction with their relationship after completing the program, regardless of their gender and racial/ethnic background. Implications for future marriage education programs and research in prisons are discussed.

  15. SKILL PREP Program for American Indian Students. Final report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloh, S.; Huebner, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL) precollege college program of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology concluded the 1994 PREP program on July 22, 1994. The program graduated 22 students from the 4-week residential math/science program for American Indian students. Primary academic focus was physics (30 hours); each student was given a bicycle to solve problems on angular momentum and mechanical advantage. Mathematical calculations and problem solving exercises were done in mathematics class (20 hours). Preliminary results in math, physics, and geology show dramatic increases in student achievement over the 4- week period. The program paired every two students with a faculty member or research scientist, and each team completed a research project.

  16. ICPD PrepCom III: the discussions - the results.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    The Third Preparatory Committee (PrepCom III), which took place at the UN in New York April 4-22, 1994, was convened to discuss the Program of Action for the September International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo and ended by approving the draft Program of Action. The third session broadened the concept of family planning, by including it as part of reproductive health care for both men and women. The notion of population in development policy was boosted as was the critical role played by women in reproductive health, population, and development programs. As a result, the chapter on gender equity, equality and empowerment was strengthened. However, there were still some definitions that lacked consensus. A few delegations led by the Holy See did not accept the terms reproductive health, fertility regulation, family planning, or safe motherhood, for they felt that these terms could include abortion on demand. 53 family planning association (FPA) representatives attended PrepCom III, and 26 of them were members of their government delegations. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) submitted a report, Understanding Adolescents, which highlighted the need for greater commitment to the sexual and reproductive health needs of the world's youth. Another report, Planned Parenthood Challenges: Unmet Needs, examines the unmet needs of the marginalized in society and emphasizes quality, acceptability, and accessibility of services. Both documents were well received by the media and delegates, who saw them as important contributions to the ICPD discussions. Throughout the 3-week meeting, IPPF and member FPAs organized a number of workshops designed to share information and exchange ideas. IPPF held workshops on gender and on Reproductive Health and Reproductive Rights and Family Planning in Low Fertility Societies (IPPF-Europe Region). IPPF was also a partner in workshops on communications, post-abortion care, safe abortion

  17. PRESTO-PREP: a data preprocessor for the PRESTO-II code

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.A.; Emerson, C.J.; Fields, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    PRESTO-II is a computer code developed to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes. PRESTO-PREP is a data preprocessor that has been developed to expedite the formation of input data sets for PRESTO-II. PRESTO-PREP utilizes a library of nuclide and risk-specific data. Given an initial waste inventory, the code creates the radionuclide portion of the associated input data set for PRESTO-II. 2 references.

  18. Guide for the preparation of proposals for the Pre-Freshman Engineering Program: PREP, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    Primary purpose of PREP will be to alleviate manpower shortages in engineering by preparing and guiding high school students in the selection of college-preparatory courses in science and mathematics. PREP will provide funds to colleges and universities for projects aimed at seeking out individuals during junior high school and high school years (grades 7-10) and providing them with pre-engineering enrichment experiences. This document is a guide for preparing the proposals.

  19. Subcellular localization of multiple PREP2 isoforms is regulated by actin, tubulin, and nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Haller, Klaus; Rambaldi, Isabel; Daniels, Eugene; Featherstone, Mark

    2004-11-19

    The PREP, MEIS, and PBX families are mammalian members of the TALE (three amino acid loop extension) class of homeodomain-containing transcription factors. These factors have been implicated in cooperative DNA binding with the HOX class of homeoproteins, but PREP and MEIS interact with PBX in apparently non-HOX-dependent cooperative DNA binding as well. PREP, MEIS, and PBX have all been reported to reside in the cytoplasm in one or more tissues of the developing vertebrate embryo. In the case of PBX, cytoplasmic localization is due to the modulation of nuclear localization signals, nuclear export sequences, and interaction with a cytoplasmic anchoring factor, non-muscle myosin heavy chain II B. Here we report that murine PREP2 exists in multiple isoforms distinguished by interaction with affinity-purified antibodies raised to N- and C-terminal epitopes and by nuclear versus cytoplasmic localization. Alternative splicing gives rise to some of these PREP2 isoforms, including a 25-kDa variant lacking the C-terminal half of the protein and homeodomain and having the potential to act as dominant-negative. We further show that cytoplasmic localization is due to the concerted action of nuclear export, as evidenced by sensitivity to leptomycin B, and cytoplasmic retention by the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Cytoplasmic PREP2 colocalizes with both the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and coimmunoprecipitates with actin and tubulin. Importantly, disruption of either cytoskeletal system redirects cytoplasmic PREP2 to the nucleus. We suggest that transcriptional regulation by PREP2 is modulated through the subcellular distribution of multiple isoforms and by interaction with two distinct cytoskeletal systems.

  20. Biochemistry of the tale transcription factors PREP, MEIS, and PBX in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, E; Penkov, D; Mateos, D; De Florian, G; Torres, M; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    TALE (three amino acids loop extension) homeodomain transcription factors are required in various steps of embryo development, in many adult physiological functions, and are involved in important pathologies. This review focuses on the PREP, MEIS, and PBX sub-families of TALE factors and aims at giving information on their biochemical properties, i.e., structure, interactors, and interaction surfaces. Members of the three sets of protein form dimers in which the common partner is PBX but they can also directly interact with other proteins forming higher-order complexes, in particular HOX. Finally, recent advances in determining the genome-wide DNA-binding sites of PREP1, MEIS1, and PBX1, and their partial correspondence with the binding sites of some HOX proteins, are reviewed. These studies have generated a few general rules that can be applied to all members of the three gene families. PREP and MEIS recognize slightly different consensus sequences: PREP prefers to bind to promoters and to have PBX as a DNA-binding partner; MEIS prefers HOX as partner, and both PREP and MEIS drive PBX to their own binding sites. This outlines the clear individuality of the PREP and MEIS proteins, the former mostly devoted to basic cellular functions, the latter more to developmental functions.

  1. Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention: The Primary Care Perspective.

    PubMed

    Conniff, James; Evensen, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Until recently there have been few primary care office-based strategies to reduce the transmission of HIV. In May 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published updated practice guidelines recommending the use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral dosing of tenofovir/emtricitabine to help prevent HIV infection in high-risk individuals (strength of recommendation, A). Knowledge of PrEP among primary care providers is low, however, and this intervention is likely reaching only a small fraction of eligible patients. PrEP is recommended for certain injection drug users, nonmonogamous men who have sex with men, heterosexual women who have sex with men who have sex with men or injection drug users, and those in HIV serodiscordant relationships. Providers should obtain baseline laboratory values and provide initial counseling before prescribing PrEP. Regular office visits are necessary to ensure adherence, provide ongoing counseling, and monitor for side effects, including nausea, abdominal pain, headache, and, less commonly, increased creatinine. Guidelines and toolkits have been developed to assist in incorporating PrEP into primary care practice. PrEP is gaining widespread acceptance and has become a crucial tool in the fight to stop the spread of HIV.

  2. Biochemistry of the tale transcription factors PREP, MEIS, and PBX in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Wellik, Deneen; Torres, Miguel; Ros, Marian

    2014-01-01

    TALE (three amino acids loop extension) homeodomain transcription factors are required in various steps of embryo development, in many adult physiological functions, and are involved in important pathologies. This review focuses on the PREP, MEIS, and PBX sub-families of TALE factors and aims at giving information on their biochemical properties, i.e., structure, interactors, and interaction surfaces. Members of the three sets of protein form dimers in which the common partner is PBX but they can also directly interact with other proteins forming higher-order complexes, in particular HOX. Finally, recent advances in determining the genome-wide DNA-binding sites of PREP1, MEIS1, and PBX1, and their partial correspondence with the binding sites of some HOX proteins, are reviewed. These studies have generated a few general rules that can be applied to all members of the three gene families. PREP and MEIS recognize slightly different consensus sequences: PREP prefers to bind to promoters and to have PBX as a DNA-binding partner; MEIS prefers HOX as partner, and both PREP and MEIS drive PBX to their own binding sites. This outlines the clear individuality of the PREP and MEIS proteins, the former mostly devoted to basic cellular functions, the latter more to developmental functions. Developmental Dynamics 243:59–75, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23873833

  3. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  4. Tile-based Fisher-ratio software for improved feature selection analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Marney, Luke C; Siegler, W Christopher; Parsons, Brendon A; Hoggard, Jamin C; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E

    2013-10-15

    Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) is a highly capable instrumental platform that produces complex and information-rich multi-dimensional chemical data. The data can be initially overwhelming, especially when many samples (of various sample classes) are analyzed with multiple injections for each sample. Thus, the data must be analyzed in such a way as to extract the most meaningful information. The pixel-based and peak table-based Fisher ratio algorithmic approaches have been used successfully in the past to reduce the multi-dimensional data down to those chemical compounds that are changing between the sample classes relative to those that are not changing (i.e., chemical feature selection). We report on the initial development of a computationally fast novel tile-based Fisher-ratio software that addresses the challenges due to 2D retention time misalignment without explicitly aligning the data, which is often a shortcoming for both pixel-based and peak table-based algorithmic approaches. Concurrently, the tile-based Fisher-ratio algorithm significantly improves the sensitivity contrast of true positives against a background of potential false positives and noise. In this study, eight compounds, plus one internal standard, were spiked into diesel at various concentrations. The tile-based F-ratio algorithmic approach was able to "discover" all spiked analytes, within the complex diesel sample matrix with thousands of potential false positives, in each possible concentration comparison, even at the lowest absolute spiked analyte concentration ratio of 1.06, the ratio between the concentrations in the spiked diesel sample to the native concentration in diesel.

  5. Correlates of PrEP Indication in a Multi-Site Cohort of Young HIV-Uninfected Transgender Women.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Gayles, Travis; Shelendich, Michael; Garofalo, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Transgender women are at high risk of HIV infection, with younger transgender women (YTW) particularly vulnerable. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown efficacy in reducing HIV acquisition, but little is known about PrEP indication or initiation among YTW. Baseline data from 180 YTW age 18-29 years enrolled in Project LifeSkills, an on-going HIV prevention intervention for YTW, were analyzed to examine factors associated with PrEP indication. The sample (mean age = 23.4, SD = 3.2) was comprised largely of women of color (69 %) and of low socioeconomic status (71 % unemployed). Overall, 62 % met criteria for PrEP indication, but only 5 % reported ever taking PrEP. Factors associated with increased odds of PrEP indication were: PrEP interest (aOR 3.24; 95 % CI 1.44, 7.33), number of recent anal sex partners (aOR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.46), and lower collective self-esteem scores (aOR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.47, 0.94). Despite high levels of PrEP indication, there remain low levels of PrEP awareness and uptake among YTW.

  6. Correlates of PrEP Indication in a Multi-Site Cohort of Young HIV-Uninfected Transgender Women.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Gayles, Travis; Shelendich, Michael; Garofalo, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Transgender women are at high risk of HIV infection, with younger transgender women (YTW) particularly vulnerable. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown efficacy in reducing HIV acquisition, but little is known about PrEP indication or initiation among YTW. Baseline data from 180 YTW age 18-29 years enrolled in Project LifeSkills, an on-going HIV prevention intervention for YTW, were analyzed to examine factors associated with PrEP indication. The sample (mean age = 23.4, SD = 3.2) was comprised largely of women of color (69 %) and of low socioeconomic status (71 % unemployed). Overall, 62 % met criteria for PrEP indication, but only 5 % reported ever taking PrEP. Factors associated with increased odds of PrEP indication were: PrEP interest (aOR 3.24; 95 % CI 1.44, 7.33), number of recent anal sex partners (aOR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.46), and lower collective self-esteem scores (aOR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.47, 0.94). Despite high levels of PrEP indication, there remain low levels of PrEP awareness and uptake among YTW. PMID:26336946

  7. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Joseph, Shine A; Zapantis, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an "evening before pill". The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing policy

  8. From efficacy to effectiveness: facilitators and barriers to PrEP acceptability and motivations for adherence among MSM and transgender women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Golub, Sarit A; Gamarel, Kristi E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Surace, Anthony; Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina L

    2013-04-01

    This study examined potential facilitators and barriers to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use and their association with PrEP acceptability and motivations for adherence among 184 MSM and transgender women living in New York City. Participants were presented with educational information about PrEP and completed a computerized survey. Overall, 55.4% of participants reported willingness to take PrEP. The most highly endorsed barriers to PrEP use were health concerns, including both long-term impacts and short-term side effects, questions about PrEP's impact on future drug resistance, and concerns that PrEP does not provide complete protection against HIV. The most highly endorsed facilitator was free access to PrEP, followed by access to support services such as regular HIV testing, sexual health care/monitoring, and access to one-on-one counseling. Participants of color rated both barriers and facilitators as more important than their White counterparts. In multivariate models, barrier and facilitator scores significantly predicted not only PrEP acceptability, but also motivation for PrEP adherence among those who were likely to use PrEP. PrEP implementation programs should consider addressing these barriers and facilitators in protocol and policy development. Findings underscore the importance of support services, such as sexual health counseling, to the success of PrEP as a prevention strategy.

  9. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Discussion Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies for delivering oral PrEP

  10. Willingness to Take PrEP and Potential for Risk Compensation Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-12-01

    Once-daily Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) as a method of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the most promising biomedical interventions to eliminate new HIV infections; however, uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men has been slow amidst growing concern in popular/social media that PrEP use will result in reduced condom use (i.e., risk compensation). We investigated demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial differences in willingness to use PrEP as well as the perceived impact of PrEP on participants' condom use in a sample of 206 highly sexually active HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Nearly half (46.1 %) said they would be willing to take PrEP if it were provided at no cost. Although men willing to take PrEP (vs. others) reported similar numbers of recent casual male partners (<6 weeks), they had higher odds of recent receptive condomless anal sex (CAS)-i.e., those already at high risk of contracting HIV were more willing to take PrEP. Neither age, race/ethnicity, nor income were associated with willingness to take PrEP, suggesting equal acceptability among subpopulations that are experiencing disparities in HIV incidence. There was limited evidence to suggest men would risk compensate. Only 10 % of men who had not engaged in recent CAS felt that PrEP would result in them starting to have CAS. Men who had not tested for HIV recently were also significantly more likely than others to indicate willingness to take PrEP. Offering PrEP to men who test infrequently may serve to engage them more in routine HIV/STI testing and create a continued dialogue around sexual health between patient and provider in order to prevent HIV infection.

  11. The first synthesis of chem-prep varistor LAC (lightning arrestor connector) granules

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.; Andrews, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    ZnO variestor granules are the active medis for many lightning arrestor connectors (LACs). The 150 to 200 micron diameter granules provide a controlled electrical breakdown in the 400 micron gap between the electrically conductive pin and web of the connector. Tradiationally, the varistor granules are made from commercially available, reagent grade, mixed oxide powders that range in particle size from 1 to 20 microns. For the first time, we have synthesized varistor granules from chemically prepared powders developed at Sandia. These chem-prep varistor powders are more homogeneous and much finer than the mixed oxide powders; the mean particle size of the chem-prep powders is approximately 0.06 microns. LAC granules were formed from chemically prepared powders by traditional ceramic processing techniques. Although the chem-prep granules were not as spherical as the mixed oxide granules, the chem-prep granules did meet present LAC component requirements for fast-rise breakdown voltage and insulation resistance. The insulation resistance of chem-prep granules for a 200 volt pin-to-web voltage was 100 times less than for mixed oxide granules; however, both types of granules had similar insulation resistance for a 250 volt pin-to-web voltage.

  12. PREP for Strong Bonds: A review of outcomes from a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    To help address the relationship needs of service members, there have been a number of programs offered within active duty and veteran contexts. One program, offered within the Strong Bonds portfolio delivered by Army Chaplains, is PREP for Strong Bonds (PREP = the Prevention and Relationship Education Program). PREP has a number of empirically based and tested variants. This article reviews the disseminated research regarding results from a large randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of PREP for Strong Bonds. From a sample of 662 Army couples drawn from two sites, outcome papers have focused on different subsamples, marital outcomes, follow up time points, and moderators. Reviewing these disseminated outcomes, we conclude that PREP for Strong Bonds has significant divorce reduction effects at one site; these divorce effects were found at both one and two years post intervention, and were moderated by factors such as minority status, economic strain, and cohabitation history of the couple. In terms of marital quality outcomes, some modest overall effects were found pre to post intervention, but there were no overall marital quality outcome effects two years post intervention. However, marital quality outcomes are significantly moderated by infidelity and cohabitation history, with couples reporting these risk factors showing greater positive marital quality outcomes. These results to date are discussed in terms of clinical and research implications as well as directions for future work, such as examining longer term preventative effects. PMID:26366041

  13. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: Clinical evaluation methodology

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jennifer N.; Breland, Alison B.; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evaluating PREPs for SLT users. This report describes two studies examining the toxicant exposure and effects of two PREPs for SLT users. Study 1 (n = 13) consisted of four 4.5-hr laboratory sessions where SLT products (own brand, Stonewall, General snus, and tobacco-free placebo) were used for four 30-min episodes and nicotine exposure and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms were measured. Study 2 (n = 19) consisted of four 5-day ad libitum use periods when participants used own brand, Stonewall, General snus, or no SLT and urinary levels of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and the TSN 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) and abstinence symptoms were measured. Compared with own brand, Stonewall was associated with lower levels of cotinine and NNAL, while General snus was associated with similar levels of cotinine and lower levels of NNAL. Abstinence symptoms generally did not differ across tobacco conditions. These results show that clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression associated with PREPs for SLT users. PMID:19023835

  14. Computer Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature and development of computer software. Programing, programing languages, types of software (including dynamic spreadsheets), and software of the future are among the topics considered. (JN)

  15. 'I am not a man': Trans-specific barriers and facilitators to PrEP acceptability among transgender women.

    PubMed

    Sevelius, Jae M; Keatley, JoAnne; Calma, Nikki; Arnold, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The frequent conflation of transgender ('trans') women with 'men who have sex with men (MSM)' in HIV prevention obscures trans women's unique gender identities, social and behavioural vulnerabilities, and their disproportionately high rates of HIV infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious biomedical HIV prevention approach. However, trans women are underrepresented in PrEP research, and are often aggregated with MSM without consideration for their unique positions within sociocultural contexts. This study examined PrEP acceptability among trans women via three focus groups and nine individual interviews (total N = 30) in San Francisco. While knowledge of PrEP was low, interest was relatively high once participants were informed. Due to past negative healthcare experiences, ability to obtain PrEP from a trans-competent provider was cited as essential to PrEP uptake and adherence. Participants noted that PrEP could address situations in which trans women experience reduced power to negotiate safer sex, including sex work. Trans-specific barriers included lack of trans-inclusive marketing of PrEP, prioritisation of hormone use, and medical mistrust due to transphobia. Findings underscore the importance of disaggregating trans women from MSM in HIV prevention strategies to mitigate disparate risk among this highly vulnerable population.

  16. Does the Number of College Credits Earned in a Tech Prep and Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program Predict College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a Tech Prep Program located in Northwest Ohio and determine the degree to which college credits earned in high school through the Tech Prep and PSEO Programs predict college success and if there were any significant gender/race differences in credits earned and college success as well as high school…

  17. Gendered differences in the perceived risks and benefits of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jennifer J; Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathryn; Mugo, Nelly R; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective for preventing HIV among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Gender roles may influence perceived personal and social risks related to HIV-prevention behaviors and may affect use of PrEP. In this study, interviews and focus groups were conducted with 68 individuals from 34 mutually disclosed serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships in Thika, Kenya. Sociocultural factors that affect adherence to PrEP were explored using grounded analysis. Three factors were identified, which shape perceptions of PrEP: gendered power dynamics and control over decision-making in the household; conflicts between risk-reduction strategies and male sexual desire; culture-bound definitions of women's work. Adherence to PrEP in the Partners PrEP Study was high; however, participants articulated conflicting interests related to PrEP in connection with traditional gender roles. The successful delivery of PrEP will require understanding of key social factors, particularly related to gender and dyadic dynamics around HIV serostatus.

  18. Gendered differences in the perceived risks and benefits of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jennifer J; Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathryn; Mugo, Nelly R; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective for preventing HIV among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Gender roles may influence perceived personal and social risks related to HIV-prevention behaviors and may affect use of PrEP. In this study, interviews and focus groups were conducted with 68 individuals from 34 mutually disclosed serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships in Thika, Kenya. Sociocultural factors that affect adherence to PrEP were explored using grounded analysis. Three factors were identified, which shape perceptions of PrEP: gendered power dynamics and control over decision-making in the household; conflicts between risk-reduction strategies and male sexual desire; culture-bound definitions of women's work. Adherence to PrEP in the Partners PrEP Study was high; however, participants articulated conflicting interests related to PrEP in connection with traditional gender roles. The successful delivery of PrEP will require understanding of key social factors, particularly related to gender and dyadic dynamics around HIV serostatus. PMID:26754017

  19. Applying a PrEP Continuum of Care for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Colleen F; Kahle, Erin; Siegler, Aaron; Sanchez, Travis; Del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2015-11-15

    Reductions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for men who have sex with men (MSM) will require significant coverage of those at risk. We propose a simplified framework, similar to the HIV care continuum, to achieve protection with PrEP as follows: 1. At-risk MSM; 2. Awareness of and willingness to take PrEP; 3. Access to healthcare; 4. Receiving a prescription; and 5. Adhering to effective PrEP. We evaluated the PrEP care continuum on an Atlanta cohort of MSM and projected how many MSM might achieve protection from HIV. Even with optimistic estimates, few Atlanta MSM (15%) are projected to achieve protection from HIV with PrEP given the significant barriers described. Each continuum step represents an important point for intervention that could substantially increase the overall effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, novel strategies for PrEP delivery are needed to achieve the necessary effectiveness for Atlanta MSM at risk of HIV.

  20. 75 FR 13292 - Determination That HalfLytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing 4 Bisacodyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... applications (ANDAs) for bowel prep kits containing PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and... PREP KIT (PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution and...

  1. Communications for Lifelong Success I and II (Tech Prep English I and II). Pilot Test Materials for Pendleton High School, Pendleton, South Carolina. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turlington, Anita; And Others

    These instructional materials include six supplementary units for Tech Prep English I (grade 9) and six assignments for Tech Prep English II (grade 10). The Tech Prep English I units have these components: unit objectives, introduction, and follow-up exercises. Topics include goal setting, problem solving and decision making, listening and reading…

  2. Guide for the preparation of proposals for the Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP), 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) is aimed at increasing the number of underrepresented minority and women students entering all science and mathematics-based professions. This focus reflects the need to broaden the US science and engineering base. The Department of Energy (DOE) is concerned about the availability of science and engineering professionals to perform its mission and is authorized to assure an adequate supply of manpower for the accomplishment of energy research and development programs by sponsoring and assisting education and training activities. The primary purpose of PREP is to help alleviate manpower shortages in science-based careers by preparing students for, and motivating them to take, college-preparatory courses in science and mathematics. The Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) will provide funds to colleges and universities for projects aimed at seeking out populations, typically underrepresented in science-based careers, during junior high school and early high school years (sixth through tenth grades) and providing them with pre-freshman enrichment experiences. These experiences shall consist of activities to identify, motivate and prepare students for science-based careers. Applicants must describe intended outcome for each PREP project and show how these outcomes are to be measured. Established programs should describe previous program outcomes. It is highly desirable that the PREP activities of the proposing institution be correlated with and built upon the broader activities of the national efforts for improving science and mathematics education in the US. This guide for application to PREP includes copies of the required forms.

  3. Potential Interventions to Support Adherence to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Julia L.; Buisker, Timothy; Horvath, Tara; Amico, K. Rivet; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Grant, Robert M.; Liu, Albert Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adherence is critical for maximizing the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection. Strategies for promoting adherence to HIV treatment, and their potential application to PrEP adherence, have received considerable attention. However, adherence promotion strategies for prevention medications have not been well characterized and may be more applicable to PrEP. We aimed to identify adherence support interventions that have been effective in other prevention fields and could be applied in the HIV prevention context to support pill taking among PrEP users. Methods To identify adherence support interventions that could be evaluated and applied in the PrEP context, we conducted a systematic review across the following prevention fields: hypertension, latent tuberculosis infection, hyperlipidemia, oral contraceptives, osteoporosis, malaria prophylaxis, and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy of interventions to improve adherence to daily oral medications prescribed for primary prevention in healthy individuals or for secondary prevention in asymptomatic individuals. Results Our searches identified 585 studies, of which 48 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review; nine evaluated multiple strategies, yielding 64 separately tested interventions. Interventions with the strongest evidence for improving adherence included complex, resource-intensive interventions, which combined multiple adherence support approaches, and low-cost, low-intensity interventions that provided education or telephone calls for adherence support. Conclusions Our review identified adherence interventions with strong evidence of efficacy across prevention fields and provides recommendations for evaluating these interventions in upcoming PrEP studies. PMID:24580813

  4. Commercial Data Mining Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  5. PrEP implementation: moving from trials to policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Carlos F; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Mayer, Kenneth H; Baggaley, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is increasingly clear that the HIV response will not be sustainable if the number of infections is not significantly reduced. Discussion For two decades, research has been ongoing to identify new behavioural and biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. In the past few years, the efficacy of several new strategies has been demonstrated, including oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; i.e. daily use of tenofovir/emtricitabine). Because several social, political and logistic barriers remain, however, optimal PrEP implementation will require a better dissemination of new evidence in a number of areas and additional implementation research from various disciplinary perspectives (i.e. social science, policy and ethics; health systems; and economics, including cost-effectiveness studies). Discussion of new evidence on those topics, as well as case studies of potential PrEP implementation in diverse environments, can improve the understanding of the role that PrEP may play in addressing the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. In light of these needs, the Network for Multidisciplinary Studies in ARV-based HIV Prevention (NEMUS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) were honoured to co-organize a special issue of JIAS aimed at contributing to a scholarly discussion of current conditions surrounding PrEP implementation, potential impact and efficiency, social science concerns and the study of PrEP implementation in specific country cases. The papers included in this monograph identify and cover many of the main aspects of the complex yet promising discussions around PrEP implementation today. Conclusions This is a collection of timely contributions from global leaders in HIV research and policy that addresses geographic diversity, uses a trans-disciplinary approach and covers a variety of the complex issues raised by PrEP. As this publication will become accessible to all, we hope that it will remain a valuable resource for policy makers, programme managers

  6. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP.

  7. The future of PrEP among transgender women: the critical role of gender affirmation in research and clinical practices

    PubMed Central

    Sevelius, Jae M; Deutsch, Madeline B; Grant, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, transgender (“trans”) women are one of the key populations most disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the newest and most promising biomedical HIV prevention intervention to date. This paper reviews relevant literature to describe the current state of the science and describes the potential role of PrEP among trans women, including a discussion of unique considerations for maximizing the impact of PrEP for this vulnerable population. Methods Available information, including but not limited to existing scientific literature, about trans women and PrEP was reviewed and critiqued based on author expertise, including PrEP clinical trials and rollout. Results To date, PrEP demonstration projects and clinical trials have largely excluded trans women, or have not included them in a meaningful way. Data collection strategies that fail to identify trans women in clinical trials and research further limit the ability to draw conclusions about trans women's unique needs and devise strategies to meet them. Gender-affirming providers and clinic environments are essential components of any sexual health programme that aims to serve trans women, as they will largely avoid settings that may result in stigmatizing encounters and threats to their identities. While there is currently no evidence to suggest drug-drug interactions between PrEP and commonly used feminizing hormone regimens, community concerns about potential interactions may limit interest in and uptake of PrEP among trans women. Conclusions In scaling up PrEP for trans women, it is essential to engage trans communities, utilize trans-inclusive research and marketing strategies and identify and/or train healthcare providers to provide gender-affirming healthcare to trans women, including transition-related care such as hormone provision. PrEP implementation guidelines must consider and address trans women's unique barriers and facilitators to uptake and

  8. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  9. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E.; Campbell, Chadwick K.; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City—a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  10. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK – A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Methods Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Results Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18–25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. Conclusion These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health

  11. I Knew I Would Be Safer. Experiences of Kenyan HIV Serodiscordant Couples Soon After Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Initiation.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathyrn; Vusha, Sophie; Ngutu, Mariah; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-02-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-uninfected persons is highly efficacious for HIV prevention. Understanding how people at risk for HIV will use PrEP is important to inform PrEP scale-up and implementation. We used qualitative methods to gather insights into couples' early experiences with PrEP use within the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label implementation study evaluating integrated delivery of PrEP and antiretroviral therapy (ART). PrEP is offered to HIV uninfected partners until the HIV-infected partner initiates and sustains ART use (i.e., PrEP as a "bridge" to ART initiation and viral suppression). From August 2013 to March 2014 we conducted 20 in-depth dyadic interviews (n = 40) with heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples participating at the Thika, Kenya study site, exploring how couples make decisions about using PrEP for HIV prevention. We developed and applied deductive and inductive codes to identify key themes related to experiences of PrEP initiation and use of time-limited PrEP. Couples reported that PrEP offered them an additional strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission, meet their fertility desires, and cope with HIV serodiscordance. Remaining HIV negative at follow-up visits reinforced couples' decisions and motivated continued adherence to PrEP. In addition, confidence in their provider's advice and client-friendly services were critical to their decisions to initiate and continue use of PrEP. Strategies for wide-scale PrEP delivery for HIV serodiscordant couples in low resource settings may include building capacity of health providers to counsel on PrEP adoption while addressing couples' concerns and barriers to adoption and continued use. PMID:26836236

  12. I Knew I Would Be Safer. Experiences of Kenyan HIV Serodiscordant Couples Soon After Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Initiation.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathyrn; Vusha, Sophie; Ngutu, Mariah; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-02-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-uninfected persons is highly efficacious for HIV prevention. Understanding how people at risk for HIV will use PrEP is important to inform PrEP scale-up and implementation. We used qualitative methods to gather insights into couples' early experiences with PrEP use within the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label implementation study evaluating integrated delivery of PrEP and antiretroviral therapy (ART). PrEP is offered to HIV uninfected partners until the HIV-infected partner initiates and sustains ART use (i.e., PrEP as a "bridge" to ART initiation and viral suppression). From August 2013 to March 2014 we conducted 20 in-depth dyadic interviews (n = 40) with heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples participating at the Thika, Kenya study site, exploring how couples make decisions about using PrEP for HIV prevention. We developed and applied deductive and inductive codes to identify key themes related to experiences of PrEP initiation and use of time-limited PrEP. Couples reported that PrEP offered them an additional strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission, meet their fertility desires, and cope with HIV serodiscordance. Remaining HIV negative at follow-up visits reinforced couples' decisions and motivated continued adherence to PrEP. In addition, confidence in their provider's advice and client-friendly services were critical to their decisions to initiate and continue use of PrEP. Strategies for wide-scale PrEP delivery for HIV serodiscordant couples in low resource settings may include building capacity of health providers to counsel on PrEP adoption while addressing couples' concerns and barriers to adoption and continued use.

  13. The Promise and Peril of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Using Social Science to Inform PrEP Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Bazzi, Angela M. Robertson; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular “re-medicalization” of the HIV epidemic to that of a “reintegration” of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV. PMID:26050379

  14. The promise and peril of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): using social science to inform prep interventions among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson Bazzi, Angela M; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-09-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub- Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular "re-medicalization" of the HIV epidemic to that of a "reintegration" of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV.

  15. Mt. Hood Community College National Tech Prep Demonstration Center. Concluding Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount Hood Community Coll., Gresham, OR.

    The Mt. Hood Community College National Tech Prep Demonstration Center program is described in this performance report. The report details the following activities through which the center contributed significantly to educational reform: (1) information dissemination (including distributing information packets to more than 2,770 sites, hosting 63…

  16. Relationship of Tech Prep and Dual Credit to College Readiness and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JoHyun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of tech prep and dual credit to college readiness in reading, writing, and math and retention, measured as total college-level credit hours earned. A sample of 612 high school graduates who enrolled in a community college in two consortia, one in Florida (n = 339) and the other in Oregon…

  17. Moving beyond Test-Prep Pedagogy: Dialoguing with Multicultural Preservice Teachers for a Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Louie F.

    2013-01-01

    In a "post-NCLB era," the schooling experiences of mostly low-income students of color continue to be consumed by a test-prep pedagogy--narrowed curriculum, low expectations, and ignored relationships. In this article the author describes a pedagogical approach using educational dialogues to engage preservice teachers to critically…

  18. Preschool Recreation Enrichment Program (PREP): Manual. Volume II. An Aid for Recreation Leaders and Instructional Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Karen; Leslie, Lin

    Based on the Preschool Recreation Enrichment Program (PREP), the manual--one third of which consists of appendixes--is intended to assist recreation personnel in developing programs addressing the motor and associative learning needs of preschool children who demonstrate delays in motor, language, and/or socialization skills. The manual describes…

  19. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED...

  20. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED...

  1. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED...

  2. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED...

  3. Integrated Curriculum Activities. Integration of Vocational and Academic Learning through Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    The integrated learning activities in this guide were developed by a committee of educators from Osceola District Schools, Orange County Public Schools, and Valencia Community College (Florida) for a tech prep curriculum. Included are 32 communications-related activities, 30 mathematics activities, and 10 science activities. Each activity includes…

  4. Central Services PREP (A Curriculum for Sterilization Technicians in the Workplace). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tri-County Opportunities Industrialization Center, Inc., Harrisburg, PA.

    A workplace literacy curriculum for entry-level hospital workers who sterilize medical equipment for doctors and nurses was developed, tested, and published in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. An assessment was conducted to identify the needs of the hospital's management and the literacy skills needed by its central services prep department, and…

  5. Summer Professional Development in Chemistry for Inservice Teachers Using OWL Quick Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Pamplin, Kim L.; Blake, Robert E.; Mason, Diana S.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary teachers participating in summer professional development chemistry workshops in Texas used an online chemistry tutoring program, OWL Quick Prep (Day et al. in OWL: Online Web-based Learning, Brooks-Cole Cengage Learning, Florence, KY, 1997) as a part of the inservice training. Self-reported demographic data were used to identify factors…

  6. Restructuring Student Experiences Using Tech Prep Mapping To Integrate Vocational and Academic Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirozzoli, Don

    The growing emphasis on accountability and the demand for better prepared students is pressing institutions of higher education to examine restructuring. Student experiences represent an important arena for school restructuring, and a useful approach to changing student experiences is the Tech Prep Mapping (TPM) process. The TPM process requires…

  7. High Schools that Work and Tech Prep: Improving Student Performance in Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Test results for 244 agricultural education students in High Schools that Work (HSTW) sites in North Carolina indicated that, compared to all students at HSTW sites and to college-prep students, they failed to meet HSTW goals in math, reading, and science but were making progress. Their math and science performance was higher than other vocational…

  8. An Evaluation of the Southern Maryland Educational Consortium's Tech Prep Program: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raber, Suzanne M.; Merchlinsky, Suzanne R.

    In the Southern Maryland Educational Consortium's 4 + 2 tech prep program, ninth-grade students develop career plans and follow career pathways in one of three technologies--health and human services, electronics and engineering, or business. The program was evaluated by an independent social science research firm to identify the different…

  9. Guide for the preparation of proposals for the pre-freshman enrichment program, PREP, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document describes preparations for a pre-freshman enrichment program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE). The purpose of the PREP'' program is to encourage women and minorities to enter the engineering profession. Covered in this report are deadlines demography, eligibility, project management, DOE support, publicity, application, various forms, and budget considerations. (FSD)

  10. School Science Prep Room Designs Fail to Deliver--A Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, James; Piggott, Andy

    2010-01-01

    A special report has been published aimed at reducing the number of poorly designed and equipped prep rooms specified by architects who have little or no experience in what is a very specialised area. Produced by school science equipment manufacturer, Gratnells, this report is the first step of its new "Architect Connection" initiative, a…

  11. The Effectiveness of PREP with Lower-Income Racial/Ethnic Minority Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Bergen, Carrie; Inch, Leslie J.; France, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) with lower-income and racial/ethnic minority (African American and Latino/a) couples. Additionally, we tested whether relationship outcomes varied based on the delivery format (i.e., group format vs. couple format). The sample included 321…

  12. Tech-Prep in New York State: Profiles of Four Diverse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenkel, Michael W.; Brodsky, Stanley M.

    These case studies highlight the diversity of four tech programs that responded with a unique set of organizational policies and procedures to a unique set of challenges. The case study on City Tech Tech-Prep Consortium in Brooklyn focuses on three strategies: transition to City Tech program, postsecondary component, and program evaluation. The…

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Prep Course for Chemistry Graduate Teaching Assistants at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Schaefer, Kathryn L.; Kumi, Bryna C.; Friedman, Lee A.; Thompson, Katerina V.; Doyle, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of a prep course for chemistry graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). The course was developed around three major goals: (i) building a community for new GTAs and socializing them into the department; (ii) modeling teaching with well-documented, innovative teaching and learning techniques; and…

  14. A Culture of High Expectations: Teacher Leadership at Pritzker College Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Relying on teachers as culture leaders is a solution embraced by many high-performing charter schools. This profile focuses on the design of the Grade Level Lead roles at Pritzker College Prep, a member of the Noble Network of Schools in Chicago. The successes of this school and network are well-documented: Of non-selective public high schools in…

  15. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  16. Appendix C: Background and Methodology for Alternative Certification Pilot. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. As part of the "Review," this appendix reports on a pilot study of new standards for assessing the quality of alternative certification programs. Background and methodology for alternative…

  17. A Case Study of Interagency Collaboration as Reported by the PREP Advisory Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Cathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore with key members of the Pilot Reintegration Education Program (PREP) Advisory Committee, the characteristics of their interagency process and how they perceived that these factors contributed to accomplishing the common objective of providing a smooth and effective transition for students between release…

  18. The DELTA PREP Initiative" Accelerating Coalition Capacity for Intimate Partner Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The DELTA PREP Project aimed to build the prevention capacity of 19 state domestic violence coalitions by offering eight supports designed to promote prevention integration over a 3-year period: modest grant awards, training events, technical assistance, action planning, coaching hubs, the Coalition Prevention Capacity Assessment, an…

  19. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  20. PREP [Pre-Discharge Education Program], Longview Community College-Richards-Gebaur Air Force Base, Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longview Community Coll., Lee's Summit, MO.

    One of the programs included in "Effective Reading Programs...," the Pre-Discharge Education Program (PREP), annually serving 100 Air Force personnel who want to refresh their skills before entering college or to obtain a state certificate of high school equivalency, offers noncredit preparatory training to service personnel. Begun in 1972, the…

  1. PrEP awareness and perceived barriers among single young men who have sex with men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily; Soler, Jorge H; Harper, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to help reduce new HIV infections among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using a cross-sectional survey of YMSM (N=1,507; ages 18–24; 65% White, 9% Black, 17% Latino, 9% Other race/ethnicity), we gauged YMSM’s PrEP awareness and PrEP-related beliefs regarding side effects, accessibility, and affordability. Overall, 27% of the sample had heard about PrEP; 1% reported ever using PrEP prior to sex. In a multivariate logistic regression, we found that YMSM were more likely to have heard about PrEP if they were older (OR=1.13), more educated (OR=1.19), were residentially unstable in prior 30 days (OR=1.37), had insurance (OR=1.50), or reported having at least one sexually-acquired infection (STI) in their lifetime (OR=1.79). We found no differences by race/ethnicity, history of incarceration, or recent sexual risk behavior. In multivariate linear regression models, Black (b=.57) and Latino (b=.31) YMSM were more likely than Whites to state they would not use PrEP because of side effect concerns. YMSM were more likely to agree that they would not be able to afford PrEP if they did not have insurance (b=.53) or reported a prior STI (b=.33). PrEP rollout may be hindered due to lack of awareness, as well as perceived barriers regarding its use. We propose strategies to maximize equity in PrEP awareness and access if it is to be scaled up among YMSM. PMID:24476355

  2. PrEP Awareness and Attitudes in a National Survey of Primary Care Clinicians in the United States, 2009–2015

    PubMed Central

    Stryker, Jo Ellen; Rose, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As trials were assessing the safety and efficacy of daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection, there was a clear need to understand the evolution of knowledge of, and attitudes toward, PrEP among primary care clinicians. Methods Physicians and nurse practitioners were surveyed in 2009 (n = 1500), 2010 (n = 1504), 2012 (n = 1503), 2013 (n = 1507), 2014 (n = 1508) and 2015 (n = 1501) to assess their awareness of PrEP, willingness to prescribe PrEP, and whether they support use of public funds to pay for PrEP. Pharmacists (n = 251) were surveyed about PrEP in 2012 only. Descriptive statistics were computed for physician demographics and PrEP-related questions. Prevalence ratios for willingness to prescribe PrEP were computed using Poisson regression analysis. Results Awareness of PrEP was low among clinicians (2009: 24%, 2010: 29%) but increased after trials reported effectiveness (2012: 49%, 2013: 51%, 2014: 61%, 2015: 66%). Following a description of PrEP with an estimated effectiveness of 75%, across 6 of the study years 91% of clinicians indicated a willingness to prescribe PrEP to at least one group at high risk of HIV acquisition. A smaller majority of clinicians indicated support for public funding of PrEP in 2009: 59%, 2010: 53%, and 2013: 63%. Conclusions In surveys conducted before and after the release of PrEP trial results, primary care clinicians were largely unaware of PrEP. They indicated high levels of willingness to prescribe it for patients at high risk of HIV acquisition and expressed interest in education about how to deliver this new clinical HIV prevention method. It will be important to continue monitoring clinician knowledge, attitudes, and practices as the use of PrEP increases in the US. PMID:27258374

  3. Towards a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ravasi, Giovanni; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Baruch, Ricardo; Guanira, Juan Vicente; Luque, Ricardo; Cáceres, Carlos F; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment, HIV prevention strategies have not been successful in significantly curbing HIV incidence in Latin America. HIV prevention interventions need to be expanded to target the most affected key populations with a combination approach, including new high impact technologies. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as additional prevention choice for individuals at higher risk of infection and could become a cost-effective prevention tool. We discuss the barriers and solutions for a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention strategies in Latin America. Discussion Although demonstration projects are ongoing or being planned in a number of countries, to date no Latin American country has implemented a public PrEP programme. The knowledge of policymakers about PrEP implementation needs to be strengthened, and programmatic guidance and cost estimate tools need to be developed to support adequate planning. Despite high levels of awareness among health providers, especially if engaged in HIV or key population care, willingness to prescribe PrEP is still low due to the lack of national policies and guidelines. Key populations, especially men who have sex with men, transgender women and sex workers, have been engaged in demonstration projects, and qualitative research shows high awareness and willingness to use PrEP, especially if accessible in the public sector for free or at affordable price. Concerns of safety, adherence, effectiveness and risk compensation need to be addressed through targeted social communication strategies to improve PrEP knowledge and stimulate demand. Alliance among policymakers, civil society and representatives from key populations, healthcare providers and researchers will be critical for the design and successful implementation of PrEP demonstration projects of locally adapted delivery models. The use of mechanisms of joint negotiation and

  4. Selecting Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive computer software selection and evaluation process, including documenting district needs, evaluating software packages, weighing the alternatives, and making the purchase. (PKP)

  5. When and why women might suspend PrEP use according to perceived seasons of risk: implications for PrEP-specific risk-reduction counselling.

    PubMed

    Namey, Emily; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Odhiambo, Jacob; Skhosana, Joseph; Guest, Greg; Corneli, Amy

    2016-09-01

    Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral drug emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) has been shown to dramatically reduce the risk of HIV acquisition for women at higher risk of infection if taken daily. Understanding when and why women would intentionally stop using an efficacious oral PrEP drug within the context of their 'normal' daily lives is essential for delivering effective PrEP risk-reduction counselling. As part of a larger study, we conducted 60 qualitative interviews with women at higher risk of HIV in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Participants charted their sexual contacts over the previous six months, indicated whether they would have taken PrEP if available and discussed whether and why they would have suspended PrEP use. Nearly all participants said they would have used PrEP in the previous six months; half indicated they would have suspended PrEP use at some point. Participants' reasons for an extended break from PrEP were related to partnership dynamics (e.g., perceived low risk of a stable partner) and phases of life (e.g., trying to conceive). Life events (e.g., holidays and travel) could prompt shorter breaks in PrEP use. These circumstances may or may not correspond to actual contexts of lower risk, highlighting the importance of tailored PrEP risk-reduction counselling.

  6. Communications Software Comparison Chart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Joseph J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This chart comparing communications software packages focuses on features important to novice users. Less obvious features covered in the chart are defined, including file transfer, protocols, baud rates, file types, capture methods, file editing, macro, tutorial unattended operation, document reading, and prices. A list of manufacturers of…

  7. Transcription factor PREP1 induces EMT and metastasis by controlling the TGF-β-SMAD3 pathway in non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Risolino, Maurizio; Mandia, Nadia; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Dardaei, Leila; Longobardi, Elena; Fernandez, Serena; Talotta, Francesco; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Harter, Patrick N; Mittelbronn, Michel; Schulte, Dorothea; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blasi, Francesco; Verde, Pasquale

    2014-09-01

    Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (Pbx)-regulating protein-1 (Prep1) is a ubiquitous homeoprotein involved in early development, genomic stability, insulin sensitivity, and hematopoiesis. Previously we have shown that Prep1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that inhibits neoplastic transformation by competing with myeloid ecotropic integration site 1 for binding to the common heterodimeric partner Pbx1. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is controlled by complex networks of proinvasive transcription factors responsive to paracrine factors such as TGF-β. Here we show that, in addition to inhibiting primary tumor growth, PREP1 is a novel EMT inducer and prometastatic transcription factor. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, PREP1 overexpression is sufficient to trigger EMT, whereas PREP1 down-regulation inhibits the induction of EMT in response to TGF-β. PREP1 modulates the cellular sensitivity to TGF-β by inducing the small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) nuclear translocation through mechanisms dependent, at least in part, on PREP1-mediated transactivation of a regulatory element in the SMAD3 first intron. Along with the stabilization and accumulation of PBX1, PREP1 induces the expression of multiple activator protein 1 components including the proinvasive Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) oncoprotein. Both FRA-1 and PBX1 are required for the mesenchymal changes triggered by PREP1 in lung tumor cells. Finally, we show that the PREP1-induced mesenchymal transformation correlates with significantly increased lung colonization by cells overexpressing PREP1. Accordingly, we have detected PREP1 accumulation in a large number of human brain metastases of various solid tumors, including NSCLC. These findings point to a novel role of the PREP1 homeoprotein in the control of the TGF-β pathway, EMT, and metastasis in NSCLC.

  8. Tailored combination prevention packages and PrEP for young key populations

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; Nguyen, Nadia L; Celum, Connie; Cowan, Frances M; Go, Vivian; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Young key populations, defined in this article as men who have sex with men, transgender persons, people who sell sex and people who inject drugs, are at particularly high risk for HIV. Due to the often marginalized and sometimes criminalized status of young people who identify as members of key populations, there is a need for HIV prevention packages that account for the unique and challenging circumstances they face. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is likely to become an important element of combination prevention for many young key populations. Objective In this paper, we discuss important challenges to HIV prevention among young key populations, identify key components of a tailored combination prevention package for this population and examine the role of PrEP in these prevention packages. Methods We conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence to date on prevention strategies, challenges to prevention and combination prevention packages for young key populations. We focused specifically on the role of PrEP in these prevention packages and on young people under the age of 24, and 18 in particular. Results and discussion Combination prevention packages that include effective, acceptable and scalable behavioural, structural and biologic interventions are needed for all key populations to prevent new HIV infections. Interventions in these packages should meaningfully involve beneficiaries in the design and implementation of the intervention, and take into account the context in which the intervention is being delivered to thoughtfully address issues of stigma and discrimination. These interventions will likely be most effective if implemented in conjunction with strategies to facilitate an enabling environment, including increasing access to HIV testing and health services for PrEP and other prevention strategies, decriminalizing key populations’ practices, increasing access to prevention and care, reducing stigma and discrimination, and

  9. Commentary: the value of PrEP for people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Rosalind L; McLean, Susie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection. What does this recommendation mean in terms of the diverse range of HIV prevention needs of key populations, some of whom are so discriminated against that they exist essentially outside formal systems such as national public health services, and for whom a substantial risk of HIV is part of a larger adverse and hostile situation? We discuss this question with reference to people who inject drugs, informed by concerns and comments that emerged from a series of consultations. Discussion HIV prevention is part of a spectrum of injecting drug users’ priorities, and their access and uptake of HIV prevention services is contingent on their wider “risk environment.” The need to address structural barriers to services and human rights violations, and to improve access to comprehensive harm reduction programmes are of prime importance and would have higher value than a mono-focus on HIV prevention. Where existing harm reduction activities are inadequate, fragile or dependent on external donors, shifts in funding priorities, including, for example, towards PrEP, could threaten investment in the broader programmes. For these reasons, it cannot be assumed that PrEP promotion will always be supported by people who inject drugs. The sexual partners of people who inject drugs, non-opioid users who also inject and for whom there is no established substitution treatment, as well as drug users who are unable to negotiate safe sex may value PrEP. As for all key populations, the involvement of

  10. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection in France: a nationwide cross-sectional study (PREVIC study).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E; Piroth, L; Cua, E; Joulié, A; Ravaux, I; Chauveau, M; Lacombe, K; Cotte, L; Bonnard, P; Weiss, L; Longuet, M; Pradier, C; Cacoub, P

    2014-02-01

    Although preliminary studies showed that preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) lowers the HIV transmission in individuals with HIV, confirmative trials are ongoing and PrEP is not routinely recommended. The aim of this study was to assess whether individuals with HIV share antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for PrEP and to describe awareness and discussion on PrEP in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in France in 23 representative departments of infectious diseases and internal medicine. Physicians administered an anonymous standardized questionnaire to all individuals with HIV receiving ARVs and followed between 24 and 31 October 2011. The questionnaire included items regarding PrEP (awareness; discussion with their close circle, physician or patients' association; experience), personal sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors and HIV status of the participants. Five hundred and ninety three participants were recruited: male 74.2% (men who have sex with men 52.4%, heterosexuals 21.6%), member of patient's association 9.8%. Half of them (50.6%) lived with a stable partner and 35.2% with an HIV-negative partner. Almost half (41.8%) were aware and 29.5% had had discussion about PrEP. In logistic regression, awareness and discussion on PrEP were more frequent: (1) among males, in patients' association members (p< 0.001 for both) and in nonheterosexuals (p=0.023 and 0.057, respectively); (2) among women, in those not living with a stable partner (p=0.035 and p=0.03, respectively) or living with an HIV-negative partner (p=0.049 and p=0.083, respectively). One percent of the participants declared having shared ARVs with someone and 8.3% reported PrEP in their close circle. Men reporting PrEP in their close circle shared ARVs more frequently than those who did not (10.3% vs. 0.2%, p < 0.001). Today, individuals with HIV do not seem to widely share personal ARVs for PrEP with seronegative people. A significant number of individuals with HIV are aware of and

  11. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection in France: a nationwide cross-sectional study (PREVIC study).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E; Piroth, L; Cua, E; Joulié, A; Ravaux, I; Chauveau, M; Lacombe, K; Cotte, L; Bonnard, P; Weiss, L; Longuet, M; Pradier, C; Cacoub, P

    2014-02-01

    Although preliminary studies showed that preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) lowers the HIV transmission in individuals with HIV, confirmative trials are ongoing and PrEP is not routinely recommended. The aim of this study was to assess whether individuals with HIV share antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for PrEP and to describe awareness and discussion on PrEP in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in France in 23 representative departments of infectious diseases and internal medicine. Physicians administered an anonymous standardized questionnaire to all individuals with HIV receiving ARVs and followed between 24 and 31 October 2011. The questionnaire included items regarding PrEP (awareness; discussion with their close circle, physician or patients' association; experience), personal sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors and HIV status of the participants. Five hundred and ninety three participants were recruited: male 74.2% (men who have sex with men 52.4%, heterosexuals 21.6%), member of patient's association 9.8%. Half of them (50.6%) lived with a stable partner and 35.2% with an HIV-negative partner. Almost half (41.8%) were aware and 29.5% had had discussion about PrEP. In logistic regression, awareness and discussion on PrEP were more frequent: (1) among males, in patients' association members (p< 0.001 for both) and in nonheterosexuals (p=0.023 and 0.057, respectively); (2) among women, in those not living with a stable partner (p=0.035 and p=0.03, respectively) or living with an HIV-negative partner (p=0.049 and p=0.083, respectively). One percent of the participants declared having shared ARVs with someone and 8.3% reported PrEP in their close circle. Men reporting PrEP in their close circle shared ARVs more frequently than those who did not (10.3% vs. 0.2%, p < 0.001). Today, individuals with HIV do not seem to widely share personal ARVs for PrEP with seronegative people. A significant number of individuals with HIV are aware of and

  12. What's New in Software? Selecting Software for Student Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Nancy J.; Hedley, Carolyn N.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that, in reviewing software, educators should apply the following criteria within the context of their objectives and the students' needs: content; instructional presentation; demands placed on the learner; technical features; and documentation and management features. Concludes that integration of computer software with traditional means…

  13. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF BELAMCANDA BY MPLC, HSCCC AND PREP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Liang, Yong; Peng, Cuilin; Xie, Huichun; Pan, Man; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Combined with medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) and preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for separation and purification of isoflavonoids from the extract of belamcanda. HSCCC separation was performed on a two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether -ethyl acetate - n-butyl alcohol - acetonitrile -0.1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid at a volume radio of 1:2:1:1:5. Semi-purified peak fractions from HSCCC separation were further purified by Prep-HPLC. Nine well-separated fractions were analyzed by HPLC-UV absorption spectrometry to determine their purities and characterized with ESI-MS(n). Except for peaksland VII (unknown) seven compounds were identified as apocynin (peak II), mangiferin (peak III), 7-O-methylmangiferin (peak IV), hispidulin (peak V), 3'-hydroxyltectoridin (peak VI), iristectorin B (peak VII), isoiridin (peak IX).

  14. Black Bear Prep plant replaces high-frequency screens with fine wire sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, C.J.; Nottingham, J.

    2007-12-15

    At the Black Bear prep plant (near Wharncliffe, WV, USA) the clean coal from the spirals traditionally reported to high-frequency screens, which removed high-ash clay fines. Screens have inherent inefficiencies that allow clean coal to report to the screen underflow. The goal of this project was to capture the maximum amount of spiral clean coal while still removing the high-ash clay material found in the spiral product. The reduction of the circulating load and plant downtime for unscheduled maintenance were projected as additional benefits. After the plant upgrade, the maintenance related to the high frequency screens was eliminated and an additional 2.27 tons per hour (tph) of fine coal was recovered, which resulted in a payback period of less than one year. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal Prep 2007 in April 2007, Lexington, KY, USA. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Assistive Software for Disabled Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Baggaley, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports in this series (#32 and 36) have discussed online software features of value to disabled learners in distance education. The current report evaluates four specific assistive software products with useful features for visually and hearing impaired learners: "ATutor", "ACollab", "Natural Voice", and "Just Vanilla". The evaluative…

  16. Chem-Prep PZT 95/5 for Neutron Generator Applications: Powder Fractionation Study of Production-Scale Powders

    SciTech Connect

    MOORE, DIANA L.; VOIGT, JAMES A.; WATSON, CHAD S.; MCKENZIE, BONNIE B.; MOORE, ROGER H.; HUTCHINSON, MICHAEL A.; LOCKWOOD, STEVEN J.; RODMAN-GONZALES, EMILY D.

    2003-06-01

    The Materials Chemistry Department 1846 has developed a lab-scale chem-prep process for the synthesis of PNZT 95/5, referred to as the ''SP'' process (Sandia Process). This process (TSP) has been successfully transferred to and scaled-up by Department 14192 (Ceramics and Glass Department), producing the larger quantities of PZT powder required to meet the future supply needs of Sandia for neutron generator production. The particle size distributions of TSP powders routinely have been found to contain a large particle size fraction that was absent in development (SP) powders. This SAND report documents experimental studies focused on characterizing these particles and assessing their potential impact on material performance. To characterize these larger particles, fractionation of several TSP powders was performed. The ''large particle size fractions'' obtained were characterized by particle size analysis, SEM, and ICP analysis and incorporated into compacts and sintered. Large particles were found to be very similar in structure and composition as the bulk of the powder. Studies showed that the large-size fractions of the powders behave similarly to the non-fractionated powder with respect to the types of microstructural features once sintered. Powders were also compared that were prepared using different post-synthesis processing (i.e. differences in precipitate drying). Results showed that these powders contained different amounts and sizes of porous inclusions when sintered. How this affects the functional performance of the PZT 95/5 material is the subject of future investigations.

  17. Ethics of ARV based prevention: treatment-as-prevention and PrEP.

    PubMed

    Haire, Bridget; Kaldor, John M

    2013-08-01

    Published data show that new HIV prevention strategies including treatment-as-prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using oral antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are highly, but not completely, effective if regimens are taken as directed. Consequently, their implementation may challenge norms around HIV prevention. Specific concerns include the potential for ARV-based prevention to reframe responsibility, erode beneficial sexual norms and waste resources. This paper explores what rights claims uninfected people can make for access to ARVs for prevention, and whether moral claims justify the provision of ARV therapy to those who do not yet clinically require treatment as a way of reducing HIV transmission risk. An ethical analysis was conducted of the two strategies, PrEP and treatment-as-prevention, using a public health stewardship model developed by the Nuffield Bioethics Council to consider and compare the application of PrEP and treatment-as-prevention strategies. We found that treating the person with HIV rather than the uninfected person offers advantages in settings where there are limited opportunities to access care. A treatment-as-prevention strategy that places all the emphasis upon the positive person's adherence however carries a disproportionate burden of responsibility. PrEP remains an important option for receptive partners who face increased biological vulnerability. We conclude that the use of ARV for prevention is ethically justified, despite imperfect global to drugs for those in clinical need. The determination of which ARV-based HIV prevention strategy is ethically preferable is complex and must take into account both public health and interpersonal considerations. PMID:23594312

  18. Swords, Shields, and the Fight for Our Children: Lessons from Urban Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The grim statistics are well known, but bear repeating: in Chicago, close to 60% of Black boys do not graduate from high school, and only one in forty receive a bachelor's degree by age 25. In the fall of 2006, Urban Prep Charter Academy for Young Men-Englewood Campus, the nation's first all-male charter public high school, was opened. In 2010 and…

  19. Experience Using DosimetryCheck software for IMRT and RapidArc Patient Pre-treatment QA and a New Feature for QA during Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Arthur; Hannon, Michael; Kwag, Jae; Renner, Wendel Dean

    2010-11-01

    We have used the DosimetryCheck program with the EPID's on our Varian 2100EX's to perform pre-treatment QA on more than 350 patients, between the last quarter of 2006 and the present. The software uses the EPID measured fluences of the treatment fields to reconstuct the dose distribution in the CT planning model of the patient. Since the dose calculation algorithm, is different from that used by our Eclipse planning system, this provides an independent check of planning accuracy as well as treatment delivery. 2D and 3D dose distributions, point doses, Gamma distributions, DVH statistics and MU calculations can be compared. Absolute differences of Reference Point doses between Dosimetry Check and Eclipse average 1.20%, which is similar to the ionization chamber dose differences of 1.29% for the same patient verification plans. Examples of cases for various treatment sites and delivery modes will be presented. A Special Report in Medical Physics Vol. 37 Number 6 Pg. 2638-2644 from Mans et al at The Netherlands Cancer Institute demonstrated the ability of in vivo EPID dosimetry to detect treatment errors, that escaped other QA checks. A new version of DosimetryCheck awaiting FDA approval, is capable of successfully reconstructing the dose distribution in the patient from the EPID measured exit fluences. This can also be applied to CBCT images providing actual patient dose verification for a treatment session. This should be particularly useful for monitoring hypo-fractionated treatment regimens. Examples of this method will also be presented.

  20. Guide for the preparation of proposals for the pre-freshman engineering program PREP--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    The Pre-Freshman Engineering Program (PREP) will provide funds to colleges and universities for projects aimed at seeking out individuals during junior high school and high school years (7th grade through 10th grade) and providing them with pre-engineering enrichment experiences. These experiences shall consist of activities to identify, motivate and prepare students for engineering studies. Project duration for PREP summer activities should be no less than five weeks and preferably longer. This five-week period is to be committed to the same group of students. Activities may include, but are not limited to, coursework in algebra, physics, chemistry, computer science, problem solving exercises, logic, etc., as well as motivational activities such as field trips and the use of role models. Emphasis is on the individuals identified, regardless of where they may decide to matriculate for undergraduate studies. It is highly desirable that the PREP activities of the proposing institution be correlated with and built upon the broader activities of the national efforts for pre-engineering education. Previous studies have shown that activities in this area should focus on the pre-college years. Therefore, preference will be shown for proposals which promise to positively affect the younger, uncommitted student (in grades 7-10), before firm decisions have been made not to take the appropriate science and mathematics courses.

  1. Propagation of Information About Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Through Twitter.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Margaret L; Hou, Jinghui; Meng, Jingbo; Hu, Chih-Wei; An, Zheng; Park, Mina; Nam, Yujung

    2016-08-01

    Previous literature has suggested that examining Twitter messages can be productive for studying how the public shares and spreads health information on social media. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising approach to HIV prevention, yet there are many issues that may influence its effective implementation. This study examined social representations of PrEP on Twitter. One thousand four hundred and thirty-five Tweets were collected and 774 English Tweets were content-analyzed to explore propagation of various issues around daily oral PrEP, as well as characteristics of the sources of those Tweets. We also examined how Twitter message content influenced information propagation. Our findings revealed that PrEP-related information on Twitter covered a wide range of issues, and individual users constituted the majority of the Tweet creators among all the sources, including news media, nonprofit and academic groups, and commercial entities. Using Poisson regression, we also found that a Tweet's affective tone was a significant predictor of message propagation frequency. Implications for health practitioners are discussed.

  2. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews software packages by providing extensive descriptions and discussions of their strengths and weaknesses. Software reviewed include (1) "VISIFROG: Vertebrate Anatomy" (grade seven-adult); (2) "Fraction Bars Computer Program" (grades three to six) and (3) four telecommunications utilities. (JN)

  3. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) launched that did not have a computer on board that provided vital command and control services. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Led by the NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard (STD-18l9.13B) has recently undergone a significant update in an attempt to provide that consistency. This paper will discuss the key features of the new NASA Software Safety Standard. It will start with a brief history of the use and development of software in safety critical applications at NASA. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Working Group and the approach it took to revise the software engineering process across the Agency.

  4. Software Program: Software Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Software Management Guidebook is twofold. First, this document defines the core products and activities required of NASA software projects. It defines life-cycle models and activity-related methods but acknowledges that no single life-cycle model is appropriate for all NASA software projects. It also acknowledges that the appropriate method for accomplishing a required activity depends on characteristics of the software project. Second, this guidebook provides specific guidance to software project managers and team leaders in selecting appropriate life cycles and methods to develop a tailored plan for a software engineering project.

  5. Proprietary software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marnock, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The protection of intellectual property by a patent, a copyright, or trade secrets is reviewed. The present and future use of computers and software are discussed, along with the governmental uses of software. The popularity of contractual agreements for sale or lease of computer programs and software services is also summarized.

  6. ACCEPTABILITY OF PrEP UPTAKE AMONG RACIALLY/ETHNICALLY DIVERSE YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: THE P18 STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  7. Acceptability of PrEP Uptake Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: The P18 Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C; Eddy, Jessica A; Halkitis, Perry N

    2015-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM.

  8. Minimal Awareness and Stalled Uptake of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among at Risk, HIV-Negative, Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Driffin, Daniel D; Bauermeister, Jose; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    In the United States, rates of HIV infection are highest among black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective form of HIV prevention, but the uptake of this strategy has been slow since FDA approval in 2012, and it is unknown whether information about PrEP is reaching BMSM. Four hundred and thirty-six BMSM in Atlanta, GA were surveyed from January 2012 (6 months prior to PrEP approval) to March 2014 (20 months after approval). Analyses revealed no association between date of survey assessment and awareness of PrEP (20.5% were aware of PrEP before approval and 23.4% were aware after approval; OR=0.99 [0.98-1.02], p=0.952). In a multivariate model, BMSM unaware of PrEP reported lower rates of HIV testing knowledge, fewer experiences with HIV testing, and higher rates of transactional sex than BMSM who were aware of PrEP. Our findings suggest that there is limited understanding of PrEP and that there is considerable groundwork that needs to be achieved in order to reap the full benefits of PrEP. The current findings call attention to the need to both prioritize and better understand how to strengthen the bridge between medical advances and community uptake.

  9. HIV providers' likelihood to prescribe pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention differs by patient type: a short report.

    PubMed

    Adams, Leah M; Balderson, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the antiretroviral treatment regimen for HIV-negative people at high risk of acquiring HIV, has demonstrated efficacy across clinical trials in several patient populations. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have released detailed guidelines to aid providers in prescribing PrEP for their high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men (MSM), high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users (IDUs). Given that much attention in PrEP has focused on MSM patients, the present study used an online survey to assess factors involved in HIV care providers' (n = 363) decisions about prescribing PrEP, along with their willingness to prescribe PrEP to patients from various risk populations (e.g., MSM, heterosexuals, IDUs). The efficacy of PrEP was an important factor in providers' decisions about prescribing PrEP, as were considerations about patients' adherence to the regimen, regular follow-up for care, and medication costs. This survey's findings also suggest that providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP varies by patient group, with providers most willing to initiate the regimen with MSM who have an HIV-positive partner, and least willing to prescribe to high-risk heterosexuals or IDUs. In the context of the current CDC recommendations for PrEP that include MSM, heterosexuals, and IDUs, examining providers' rationales for and barriers against supporting this HIV prevention strategy across patient groups merits further attention.

  10. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts. PMID:26891840

  11. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  12. Intraprocedural bowel cleansing with the JetPrep cleansing system improves adenoma detection

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Arthur; Murthy, Sanjay; Pompetzki, Lena; Rey, Johannes Wilhelm; Goetz, Martin; Tresch, Achim; Galle, Peter Robert; Kiesslich, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of JetPrep cleansing on adenoma detection rates. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, crossover trial, patients were blindly randomized to an intervention arm or a control arm. In accordance with the risk profile for the development of colorectal carcinoma, the study participants were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups. Individuals with just one criterion (age > 70 years, adenoma in medical history, and first-degree relative with colorectal cancer) were regarded as high-risk patients. Bowel preparation was performed in a standardized manner one day before the procedure. Participants in the intervention arm underwent an initial colonoscopy with standard bowel cleansing using a 250-mL syringe followed by a second colonoscopy that included irrigation by the use of the JetPrep cleansing system. The reverse sequence was used in the control arm. The study participants were divided into a high-risk group and a low-risk group according to their respective risk profiles for the development of colorectal carcinoma. RESULTS: A total of 64 patients (34 men and 30 women) were included in the study; 22 were included in the high-risk group. After randomization, 30 patients were assigned to the control group (group A) and 34 to the intervention group (group B). The average Boston Bowel Preparation Scale score was 5.15 ± 2.04. The withdrawal time needed for the first step was significantly longer in group A using the JetPrep system (9.41 ± 3.34 min) compared to group B (7.5 ± 1.92 min). A total of 163 polyps were discovered in 64 study participants who underwent both investigation steps. In group A, 49.4% of the polyps were detected during the step of standard bowel cleansing while the miss rate constituted 50.7%. Group B underwent cleansing with the JetPrep system during the first examination step, and as many as 73.9% of polyps were identified during this step. Thus, the miss rate in group B was a mere 26.1% (P < 0.001). When

  13. Computer software.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, L E

    1986-10-01

    Software is the component in a computer system that permits the hardware to perform the various functions that a computer system is capable of doing. The history of software and its development can be traced to the early nineteenth century. All computer systems are designed to utilize the "stored program concept" as first developed by Charles Babbage in the 1850s. The concept was lost until the mid-1940s, when modern computers made their appearance. Today, because of the complex and myriad tasks that a computer system can perform, there has been a differentiation of types of software. There is software designed to perform specific business applications. There is software that controls the overall operation of a computer system. And there is software that is designed to carry out specialized tasks. Regardless of types, software is the most critical component of any computer system. Without it, all one has is a collection of circuits, transistors, and silicone chips.

  14. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    PubMed

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  15. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial

    PubMed Central

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno; for the ANRS IPERGAY Study Group

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40–98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants’ adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0–M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1–max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9–35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2–18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8–29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2–68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3–79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3–75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4–max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency

  16. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    PubMed

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  17. How Much Do We Know about Drug Resistance Due to PrEP Use? Analysis of Experts’ Opinion and Its Influence on the Projected Public Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Boily, Marie-Claude; Hallett, Timothy B.; Albert, Jan; Boucher, Charles; Mellors, John W.; Pillay, Deenan; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials reported that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir and emtricitabine rarely selects for drug resistance. However, drug resistance due to PrEP is not completely understood. In daily practice, PrEP will not be used under the well-controlled conditions available in the trials, suggesting that widespread use of PrEP can result in increased drug resistance. Methods We surveyed expert virologists with questions about biological assumptions regarding drug resistance due to PrEP use. The influence of these assumptions on the prevalence of drug resistance and the fraction of HIV transmitted resistance was studied with a mathematical model. For comparability, 50% PrEP-coverage of and 90% per-act efficacy of PrEP in preventing HIV acquisition are assumed in all simulations. Results Virologists disagreed on the following: the time until resistance emergence (range: 20–180 days) in infected PrEP users with breakthrough HIV infections; the efficacy of PrEP against drug-resistant HIV (25%-90%); and the likelihood of resistance acquisition upon transmission (10%-75%). These differences translate into projections of 0.6%- 1% and 3.5%—6% infected individuals with detectable resistance 10 years after introducing PrEP, assuming 100% and 50% adherence, respectively. The rate of resistance emergence following breakthrough HIV infection and the rate of resistance reversion after PrEP use is discontinued, were the factors identified as most influential on the expected resistance associated with PrEP. Importantly, 17–23% infected individuals could virologically fail treatment as a result of past PrEP use or transmitted resistance to PrEP with moderate adherence. Conclusions There is no broad consensus on quantification of key biological processes that underpin the emergence of PrEP-associated drug resistance. Despite this, the contribution of PrEP use to the prevalence of the detectable drug resistance is expected to be small. However

  18. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Interventions in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Carson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices) may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada. Methods We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18–24) with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM). Interviews focused on participants’ experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP. Results While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate ‘socially unacceptable’ behaviour (e.g., promiscuity). Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups’ proclivities to take ‘risks’. Conclusion Stigma regarding ‘risky’ behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up. PMID:26756474

  19. Acceptability of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Implementation Challenges Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: A Qualitative Investigation.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Mengle, Shruta; Varghese, Jarvis; Nelson, Ruban; Bharat, Shalini

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study explored the acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM in India, and identified facilitators and barriers to future PrEP uptake. In 2014, we conducted 10 focus groups (n=61) among a purposive sample of diverse MSM recruited through community-based organizations in Chennai and Mumbai, and 10 key informant interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Participants' mean age was 26.1 years (SD 4.8); 62% completed secondary education, and 42% engaged in sex work. No focus group participants had heard of PrEP, but once explained, most reported they would likely use it. PrEP was alternately perceived as a 'back-up plan', a condom substitute, or a burden with concurrent condom use. Facilitators were potential for covert use, sex without condoms, and anxiety-less sex. Potential barriers emerged around stigma associated with PrEP use, fear of disclosures to one's family, wife, or male steady partner, and being labeled as HIV-positive or promiscuous by peers. Preferences emerged for intermittent rather than daily PrEP use, injectable PrEP, and free or subsidized access through community organizations or government hospitals. Key informants expressed additional concerns about risk compensation, non-adherence, and impact on ART availability for treatment. Demonstration projects are needed in India to support PrEP implementation tailored for at-risk MSM. Educational interventions for MSM should address concerns about PrEP effectiveness, side effects, and mitigate risk compensation. Community engagement may facilitate broad acceptability and challenge stigma around PrEP use. Importantly, provision of free or subsidized PrEP is necessary to making implementation feasible among low socioeconomic status MSM in India.

  20. Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn K; Toledo, Lauren; Smith, Donna Jo; Adams, Mary Anne; Rothenberg, Richard

    2012-10-01

    We elicited attitudes about, and service access preferences for, daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) from urban, African-American young men and women, ages 18-24 years, at risk for HIV transmission through their sexual and drug-related behaviors participating in eight mixed-gender and two MSM-only focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants reported substantial interest in PrEP associated with its perceived cost, effectiveness, and ease of accessing services and medication near to their homes or by public transportation. Frequent HIV testing was a perceived benefit. Participants differed about whether risk-reduction behaviors would change, and in which direction; and whether PrEP use would be associated with HIV stigma or would enhance the reputation for PrEP users. This provides the first information about the interests, concerns, and preferences of young adult African Americans that can be used to inform the introduction of PrEP services into HIV prevention efforts for this critical population group. PMID:23016502

  1. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  2. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beezer, Robert A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews for three software packages are given. Those packages are: Linear Algebra Computer Companion; Probability and Statistics Demonstrations and Tutorials; and Math Utilities: CURVES, SURFS, AND DIFFS. (PK)

  3. The Process of Retirement Planning Scale (PRePS): development and validation.

    PubMed

    Noone, Jack H; Stephens, Christine; Alpass, Fiona

    2010-09-01

    Although a substantial proportion of the western population is approaching retirement age, little is known about how they are preparing for the future. Much attention has been paid to the consumption of educational material and retirement wealth in the present literature, but the process of retirement planning has been ignored. S. L. Friedman and E. K. Scholnick's (1997) theoretical model provided the basis for a comprehensive measure of retirement planning. According to their process theory, individuals develop an understanding of the problem, set goals, make a decision to start preparing, and finally undertake the behaviors needed to fulfill their goals. Fifty-two items were developed to assess each stage of the planning process for financial, health, lifestyle, and psychosocial retirement planning. These were tested on a population sample of 1,449 New Zealanders aged 49-60. Confirmatory factor analysis, bivariate correlations, and hierarchical regression provided support for the valid use of the measure. Necessary antecedents, such as the tendency to look to the future, and locus of control were significantly related to the Process of Retirement Planning Scale (PRePS). The PRePS also outperformed retirement planning measures used in the Health and Retirement Study (F. T. Juster & R. Suzman, 1995) after controlling for socioeconomic and psychological variables. This measure will enable social policy makers to determine which stages of retirement planning require support and intervention. The PRePS will also help to determine which domains of retirement planning predict well-being in later life and the factors which differentiate those who are planning from those who are not.

  4. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  5. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course: ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-01-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message…

  6. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    PubMed

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts.

  7. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV in serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the United States: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    McMahon, James M; Myers, Julie E; Kurth, Ann E; Cohen, Stephanie E; Mannheimer, Sharon B; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E

    2014-09-01

    Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP-injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US.

  8. Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV in Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie E.; Kurth, Ann E.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Mannheimer, Sharon B.; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R.; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP—injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. PMID:25045996

  9. An Exploratory Investigation of the Promoting Responsibility through Education and Prevention (PREP) after School Program for African American At-Risk Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sale, Elizabeth; Weil, Virginia; Kryah, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) program is an after school substance abuse and violence prevention program for at-risk fourth and fifth grade youths in St. Louis, Missouri. Staffed by licensed clinical social workers and professional volunteers, PREP offers cultural cooking classes, yoga, and art as well as…

  10. PREP (Army Predischarge Education Program) USA: An Analysis of the Predischarge Education Program of Army Posts in the Continental United States. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alburn, Norman; And Others

    Growth of the Army Pre-discharge Education Program (PREP) has been a slow and cumbersome process since Public Law 91-219 was passed in 1970. The Academy for Educational Development visited 12 major Army installations in the United States and made 22 recommendations for improving the PREP in six major areas: i.e., technology, evaluation and…

  11. Peer-mentored preparedness (PM-Prep): a new disaster preparedness program for adults living independently in the community.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-02-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list control arm. Earthquake safety knowledge and preparedness supplies were assessed prior to the intervention and at 1 month after the intervention (N  =  82). Adults in the experimental arm significantly increased preparedness by 19 percentage points, from 56% to 75% completed (p < .0001), and improved their knowledge by 8 percentage points, from 79% to 87% correct (p  =  .001). This is the first peer-mentored, targeted, and tailored disaster preparedness program tested with this population.

  12. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    requirements. This allows the projects leeway to meet these requirements in many forms that best suit a particular project's needs and safety risk. In other words, it tells the project what to do, not how to do it. This update also incorporated advances in the state of the practice of software safety from academia and private industry. It addresses some of the more common issues now facing software developers in the NASA environment such as the use of Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Software (COTS), Modified OTS (MOTS), Government OTS (GOTS), and reused software. A team from across NASA developed the update and it has had both NASA-wide internal reviews by software engineering, quality, safety, and project management. It has also had expert external review. This presentation and paper will discuss the new NASA Software Safety Standard, its organization, and key features. It will start with a brief discussion of some NASA mission failures and incidents that had software as one of their root causes. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Safety Process. This will include an overview of the key personnel responsibilities and functions that must be performed for safety-critical software.

  13. An automated method for segmentation of epithelial cervical cells in images of ThinPrep.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Negar M; Sadri, Saeed; Moghaddam, Noushin A; Amirfattahi, Rassul

    2010-12-01

    We present an automated method for segmentation of epithelial cells in images taken from ThinPrep scenes by a digital camera in a cytology lab. The method covers both steps of localization of cell objects in low resolution and detection of cytoplasm and nucleus boundary in high resolution. The underlying method makes use of geometric active contours as a powerful tool of segmentation. We also provide the analysis of the connected cells. For this purpose an automatic circular decomposition method is incorporated and adapted to the application by changing its segmentation condition. The results are evaluated numerically and compared with those of previous work in literature. PMID:20703603

  14. Software Bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    I-Bridge is a commercial version of software developed by I-Kinetics under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The software allows users of Windows applications to gain quick, easy access to databases, programs and files on UNIX services. Information goes directly onto spreadsheets and other applications; users need not manually locate, transfer and convert data.

  15. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anne, Ed.; Radziemski, Cathy, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software packages for the Macintosh series. "Course Builder 2.0," a courseware authoring system, allows the user to create programs which stand alone and may be used independently in the classroom. "World Builder," an artificial intelligence software package, allows creative thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making. (YP)

  16. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews three computer software: (1) "Elastic Lines: The Electronic Geoboard" on elementary geometry; (2) "Wildlife Adventures: Whales" on environmental science; and (3) "What Do You Do with a Broken Calculator?" on computation and problem solving. Summarizes the descriptions, strengths and weaknesses, and applications of each software. (YP)

  17. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of six computer software programs for teaching science. Provides the publisher, grade level, cost, and descriptions of software, including: (1) "Recycling Logic"; (2) "Introduction to Biochemistry"; (3) "Food for Thought"; (4) "Watts in a Home"; (5) "Geology in Action"; and (6) "Biomes." All are for Apple series microcomputers.…

  18. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews six software packages for the Apple II family. Programs reviewed include "Science Courseware: Earth Science Series"; "Heat and Light"; "In Search of Space: Introduction to Model Rocketry"; "Drug Education Series: Drugs--Their Effects on You'"; "Uncertainties and Measurement"; and "Software Films: Learning about Science Series," which…

  19. In New York, PrepCom2 drafts ICPD framework. Preparing for the U.N. population summit, Cairo 1994.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In May 1993, a second meeting of the Preparatory Committee (PrepCom 2) for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was held in New York to draft the conceptual framework for the conference. This framework reflects the efforts of women's health activists to focus on reproductive health issues while acknowledging the centrality of the individual. While women were virtually absent from the government delegations at PrepCom 2, they constituted a majority of the representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). This imbalance led to a recommendation by the Women's Caucus for the adoption of measures to increase the participation of women. During PrepCom 2, the US announced that if would lift its ban on funding certain international family planning organizations, and the US delegation chief noted his support of access to safe abortion. Abortion remained a point of contention, however, as did the definition of "family." PrepCom 2 was preceded by a NGO Steering Committee strategy session that resulted in publication of a document outlining a common position on population and development, which denounced Structural Adjustment Programs and demographic goals. During PrepCom 2, it was also announced that 304 NGOs were accredited to speak and contribute resolutions at PrepCom 3 and at the ICPD, and a document drafted by an international alliance of women's health activists (Women's Voices '94) was disseminated. Women's Voices '94 calls for policies that: 1) focus population policies on improving the well-being of individuals, 2) balance population stabilization efforts with efforts to reduce consumption in wealthy countries, 3) guarantee access to high-quality reproductive health services, 4) develop women-controlled technologies to protect against sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancy, 5) and increase the sexual responsibility of men.

  20. Preventing HIV among adolescents with oral PrEP: observations and challenges in the United States and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil; Celum, Connie; Wilson, Craig M; Kapogiannis, Bill; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents and young adults aged <25 are a key population in the HIV epidemic, with very high HIV incidence rates in many geographic settings and a large number who have limited access to prevention services. Thus, any biomedical HIV prevention approach should prepare licensure and implementation strategies for young populations. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the first antiretroviral-based prevention intervention with proven efficacy across many settings and populations, and regulatory and policy approvals at global and national levels are occurring rapidly. We discuss available data from studies in the United States and South Africa on the use of oral PrEP for HIV prevention in adolescent minors, along with some of the implementation challenges. Discussion Ongoing studies in the United States and South Africa among youth under the age of 18 should provide the safety data needed by the end of 2016 to contribute to licensure of Truvada as daily PrEP in adolescents. The challenges of completing these studies as well as foreseeable broader challenges highlighted by this work are presented. Adherence to daily PrEP is a greater challenge for younger populations, and poor adherence was associated with decreased efficacy in all PrEP trials. Individual-level barriers include limited familiarity with antiretroviral-based prevention, stigma, product storage, and social support. Structural challenges include healthcare financing for PrEP, clinician acceptability and comfort with PrEP delivery, and the limited youth-friendly health services available. These challenges are discussed in the context of the work done to date in the United States and South Africa, but will likely be magnified in the setting of limited resources in many other countries that are heavily impacted by HIV. Conclusions Adolescent populations are particularly vulnerable to HIV, and oral PrEP in these populations is likely to have an impact on population-level HIV incidence. The

  1. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Safer Conception Among Serodifferent Couples: Findings from Healthcare Providers Serving Patients with HIV in Seven US Cities.

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Champassak, Sofie; Hoyt, Mary Jo; Short, William; Chakraborty, Rana; Weber, Shannon; Levison, Judy; Phillips, Joanne; Storm, Deborah; Anderson, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce the risk of HIV transmission among serodifferent couples trying to conceive, yet provider knowledge, attitudes, and experience utilizing PrEP for this purpose are largely unexamined. Trained interviewers conducted phone interviews with healthcare providers treating patients with HIV in seven cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Houston, Kansas City, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco, N = 85 total). Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to describe experience, concerns, and perceived barriers to prescribing PrEP for safer conception. Providers (67.1% female, 43 mean years of age, 70.4% white, 10 mean years treating HIV+ patients, 56% in academic vs. community facilities, 62.2% MD) discussed both benefits and concerns of PrEP for safer conception among serodifferent couples. Only 18.8% of providers reported experience prescribing PrEP, 74.2% were willing to prescribe it under ideal circumstances, and 7.0% were not comfortable prescribing PrEP. Benefits included added protection and a greater sense of control for the HIV-negative partner. Concerns were categorized as clinical, system-level, cost, or behavioral. Significant differences in provider characteristics existed across sites, but experience with PrEP for safer conception did not, p = 0.14. Despite limited experience, most providers were open to recommending PrEP for safer conception as long as patients understood the range of concerns and could make informed decisions. Strategies to identify and link serodifferent couples to PrEP services and clinical guidance specific to PrEP for safer conception are needed.

  2. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Safer Conception Among Serodifferent Couples: Findings from Healthcare Providers Serving Patients with HIV in Seven US Cities.

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Champassak, Sofie; Hoyt, Mary Jo; Short, William; Chakraborty, Rana; Weber, Shannon; Levison, Judy; Phillips, Joanne; Storm, Deborah; Anderson, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce the risk of HIV transmission among serodifferent couples trying to conceive, yet provider knowledge, attitudes, and experience utilizing PrEP for this purpose are largely unexamined. Trained interviewers conducted phone interviews with healthcare providers treating patients with HIV in seven cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Houston, Kansas City, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco, N = 85 total). Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to describe experience, concerns, and perceived barriers to prescribing PrEP for safer conception. Providers (67.1% female, 43 mean years of age, 70.4% white, 10 mean years treating HIV+ patients, 56% in academic vs. community facilities, 62.2% MD) discussed both benefits and concerns of PrEP for safer conception among serodifferent couples. Only 18.8% of providers reported experience prescribing PrEP, 74.2% were willing to prescribe it under ideal circumstances, and 7.0% were not comfortable prescribing PrEP. Benefits included added protection and a greater sense of control for the HIV-negative partner. Concerns were categorized as clinical, system-level, cost, or behavioral. Significant differences in provider characteristics existed across sites, but experience with PrEP for safer conception did not, p = 0.14. Despite limited experience, most providers were open to recommending PrEP for safer conception as long as patients understood the range of concerns and could make informed decisions. Strategies to identify and link serodifferent couples to PrEP services and clinical guidance specific to PrEP for safer conception are needed. PMID:26824425

  3. Software Smarts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contract with Johnson Space Center, Knowledge Based Systems Inc. (KBSI) developed an intelligent software environment for modeling and analyzing mission planning activities, simulating behavior, and, using a unique constraint propagation mechanism, updating plans with each change in mission planning activities. KBSI developed this technology into a commercial product, PROJECTLINK, a two-way bridge between PROSIm, KBSI's process modeling and simulation software and leading project management software like Microsoft Project and Primavera's SureTrak Project Manager.

  4. Software testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2016-01-01

    Now more than ever, scientific results are dependent on sophisticated software and analysis. Why should we trust code written by others? How do you ensure your own code produces sensible results? How do you make sure it continues to do so as you update, modify, and add functionality? Software testing is an integral part of code validation and writing tests should be a requirement for any software project. I will talk about Python-based tools that make managing and running tests much easier and explore some statistics for projects hosted on GitHub that contain tests.

  5. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode.

  6. Chromatographic separation of low-molecular-mass recombinant proteins and peptides on Superdex 30 prep grade.

    PubMed

    Joyce, J G; Cook, J C; Przysiecki, C T; Lehman, E D

    1994-12-01

    The chromatographic properties of Superdex 30 prep grade medium have been investigated in non-denaturing and denaturing mobile phases using commercially available proteins and peptides as well as low-molecular-mass (M(r)) recombinant polypeptides. The medium is a macroreticular gel composed of crosslinked agarose beads to which dextran has been covalently bound. The mean particle size is approximately 34 microns. Experimental results show a linear relation between the distribution coefficient (KD) and the log10 M(r) in the fractionation range 24,000-3000. The relationships between resolution and flow-rate or load volume were investigated and shown to be comparable with those of Superdex 75 and 200 prep grade media. Minimal loss of resolution occurred in the flow-range from 30-60 cm/h. Load volumes of up to 5% total column volume could be applied while maintaining baseline resolution of polypeptide mixtures. Non-specific interactions between the matrix and certain samples were characterized. The predominant interactions with the resin appear to be hydrophobic in nature rather than ionic. Hydrogen bonding may also play a role in the retardation of certain small molecules. The applicability of the resin for separating dimeric and oligomeric forms of low-molecular-mass recombinant proteins was shown.

  7. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A.

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode. PMID:26150785

  8. Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 9, 1997--July 25, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The 1997 Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted at the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 9 to July 25, 1997. Program participants were recruited from the Greater Houston Area. All participants were identified as high-achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Clear Creek, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 194 students starting the program, 165 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups under-represented in the engineering and science professions, and 118 of the 194 were women. Our First Year group for 1997 composed of 96% minority and women students. Second and Third Year students combined were 96% minority or women. With financial support from the Center for Computational Sciences and Advanced Distributed Simulation, the Fourth Year Program was added to PREP this year. Twelve students completed the program (83% minority or women).

  9. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, Harry; Hayes, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect of our service is the inclusion of telescope and instrumentation manuals, which prompted us to change the name to the Astronomical Software and Documentation Service. ASDS was originally conceived to serve two purposes: to provide a useful Internet service in an area of expertise of the investigators (astronomical software), and as a research project to investigate various architectures for searching through a set of documents distributed across the Internet. Two of the co-investigators were then installing and maintaining astronomical software as their primary job responsibility. We felt that a service which incorporated our experience in this area would be more useful than a straightforward listing of software packages. The original concept was for a service based on the client/server model, which would function as a directory/referral service rather than as an archive. For performing the searches, we began our investigation with a decision to evaluate the Isite software from the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR). This software was intended as a replacement for Wide-Area Information Service (WAIS), a client/server technology for performing full-text searches through a set of documents. Isite had some additional features that we considered attractive, and we enjoyed the cooperation of the Isite developers, who were happy to have ASDS as a demonstration project. We ended up staying with the software throughout the project, making modifications to take advantage of new features as they came along, as well as

  10. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  11. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two programs: (1) "The Weather Machine" on understanding weather and weather forecasting and (2) "The Mystery of the Hotel Victoria" on problem solving in mathematics. Presents the descriptions, advantages, and weaknesses of the software. (YP)

  12. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six computer software packages including "Lunar Greenhouse,""Dyno-Quest,""How Weather Works,""Animal Trackers,""Personal Science Laboratory," and "The Skeletal and Muscular Systems." Availability, functional, and hardware requirements are discussed. (CW)

  13. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software packages including "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Instant Replay of History,""Weeds to Trees," and "The New Print Shop, School Edition." Discussed are hardware requirements, costs, grade levels, availability, emphasis, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  14. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelly J., Ed.; Knaupp, Jon, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed is computer software on: (1) classification of living things, a tutorial program for grades 5-10; and (2) polynomial practice using tiles, a drill-and-practice program for algebra students. (MNS)

  15. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews seven computer software programs that can be used in science education programs. Describes courseware which deals with muscles and bones, terminology, classifying animals without backbones, molecular structures, drugs, genetics, and shaping the earth's surface. (TW)

  16. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics and Computer Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of six software packages. Includes (1) "Plain Vanilla Statistics"; (2) "MathCAD 2.0"; (3) "GrFx"; (4) "Trigonometry"; (5) "Algebra II"; (6) "Algebra Drill and Practice I, II, and III." (PK)

  17. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Eugene T., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews by classroom teachers of software for teaching science. Includes material on the work of geologists, genetics, earth science, classification of living things, astronomy, endangered species, skeleton, drugs, and heartbeat. Provides information on availability and equipment needed. (RT)

  18. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of four science software programs. Includes topics such as plate tectonics, laboratory experiment simulations, the human body, and light and temperature. Contains information on ordering and reviewers' comments. (ML)

  19. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of six computer software programs designed for use in elementary science education programs. Provides the title, publisher, grade level, and descriptions of courseware on ant farms, drugs, genetics, beachcombing, matter, and test generation. (TW)

  20. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers' Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H; Krakower, Douglas S; Eldahan, Adam I; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers' adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers' firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription-financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)-as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014-2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered a wide

  1. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers' Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H; Krakower, Douglas S; Eldahan, Adam I; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers' adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers' firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription-financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)-as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014-2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered a wide

  2. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers’ Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Krakower, Douglas S.; Eldahan, Adam I.; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Dovidio, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers’ adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers’ firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription—financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)—as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014–2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered

  3. Maintenance simulation: Software issues

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, C.H.; Jette, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    The maintenance of a distributed software system in a production environment involves: (1) maintaining software integrity, (2) maintaining and database integrity, (3) adding new features, and (4) adding new systems. These issues will be discussed in general: what they are and how they are handled. This paper will present our experience with a distributed resource management system that accounts for resources consumed, in real-time, on a network of heterogenous computers. The simulated environments to maintain this system will be presented relate to the four maintenance areas.

  4. Thermal Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A new version of Space Payload Thermal Analyzer (SSPTA) that can be used on a 386 personal computer was developed by Nicholas Teti. SSPTA/386 software package includes the programs that Goddard has traditionally used in thermal design and analysis. The original programs were modified to run on the 386 system and automatic data transfer between programs was improved. SSPTA/386 includes all the features available in Goddard's VAX version of SSPTA. The software package is highly flexible in that it allows the user to run the programs interactively or in batch mode. It provides a menu system that allows the user to select a program or a combination of programs.

  5. 34 CFR 406.31 - How does a State carry out the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a State carry out the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.31 Section 406.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  6. Lower East Side Prep: An Alternative to the Conventional High School Program. First Year of Operation, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Seth F.

    This evaluation report of one alternative high school in New York City analyzes the academic achievement, attendance, testing, academic credit, English language proficiency, and attitudes of the sixty minority students who attended this urban prep school in Chinatown. Three fifths of the students in the program were recent Chinese immigrants. The…

  7. Corporate Etiquette and Human Relations: Building Confidence and Competence for the Workplace...Supplemental Materials for Tech Prep Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elaine S.; Palmer, Harriet S.

    This guide contains six learning modules that together constitute a minicourse in corporate etiquette designed to give tech prep students the social skills and business etiquette skills needed to conduct a successful job search. The following topics are covered in the individual modules: social etiquette (making introductions, use of first names,…

  8. Saying 'No' to PrEP research in Malawi: what constitutes 'failure' in offshored HIV prevention research?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristin; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Chigwedere, Edward; Nthete, Evaristo

    2015-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2005, the first multi-sited clinical trial tested whether an existing, marketed antiretroviral drug, Tenofovir (TDF), could prevent HIV transmission. Referred to as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), most of these trial sites prematurely closed down. Two sites located in Cambodia and Cameroon received international media attention. But little attention was drawn to sites in Malawi and Nigeria, where university ethicists and research scientists extensively debated PrEP. This article focuses on events that took place in Malawi where there was a prolonged dispute over the scientific rationales of PrEP and not trial specific ethics referred to as 'bioethics'. Specifically, the article discusses debates pertaining to three PrEP trial protocols that were refused ethics approval in Malawi between 2004 and 2009. It is argued that HIV science debates in Malawi are embedded in postcolonial politics--geopolitical histories and state and household economic dispossessions that have created the structural possibilities for Malawi to become an offshore destination for HIV clinical research. As such, ethics in this case does not pertain to trial or bioethical 'failures'. Rather, ethics is located at the scale of imperial relations that give rise to multiple, often invisible, research concerns and constraints. PMID:26422196

  9. Saying 'No' to PrEP research in Malawi: what constitutes 'failure' in offshored HIV prevention research?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristin; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Chigwedere, Edward; Nthete, Evaristo

    2015-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2005, the first multi-sited clinical trial tested whether an existing, marketed antiretroviral drug, Tenofovir (TDF), could prevent HIV transmission. Referred to as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), most of these trial sites prematurely closed down. Two sites located in Cambodia and Cameroon received international media attention. But little attention was drawn to sites in Malawi and Nigeria, where university ethicists and research scientists extensively debated PrEP. This article focuses on events that took place in Malawi where there was a prolonged dispute over the scientific rationales of PrEP and not trial specific ethics referred to as 'bioethics'. Specifically, the article discusses debates pertaining to three PrEP trial protocols that were refused ethics approval in Malawi between 2004 and 2009. It is argued that HIV science debates in Malawi are embedded in postcolonial politics--geopolitical histories and state and household economic dispossessions that have created the structural possibilities for Malawi to become an offshore destination for HIV clinical research. As such, ethics in this case does not pertain to trial or bioethical 'failures'. Rather, ethics is located at the scale of imperial relations that give rise to multiple, often invisible, research concerns and constraints.

  10. 2 + 2 Tech Prep Early Childhood Professions Postsecondary Curriculum Guide: An Articulated Program for Secondary and Postsecondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Marilyn Williams

    This curriculum guide is designed for students in Texas' 2 + 2 Tech Prep program, which trains individuals who followed the general track degree program in high school to provide high quality care and education to young children. The guide is for students entering the third phase of the program, in which a set of intermediate postsecondary core…

  11. Connections: A Compendium of Integration Ideas. Illinois Tech Prep Innovators. 1992 Compendium. Integrative Teaching Ideas from Illinois Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This report contains 51 one-page abstracts of innovative Illinois tech prep programs that integrate academic and vocational education. Each abstract includes the following: curriculum areas, grade level, types of students for whom the program is appropriate, materials needed, suggested resources, a contact person with address and telephone number,…

  12. Changing High School Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Eric Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether participation in the Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP), a long-term authentic plant research project, in conjunction with explicit verses implicit instruction can change high school students' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The participants included a total of 134 students comprised…

  13. How Do Idaho Post-Secondary T&I Instructors Feel about Time-Shortened Tech-Prep Articulation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George E.; Wilson, Ruth D.

    A study examined the acceptance of the time-shortened articulation (TSA) approach adopted to implement tech prep programs by Idaho postsecondary trade and industrial instructors. From a sample of 143 instructors, 46 usable responses were received. Hall's (1979) Stages of Concern (SoC) model was used to determine if they had accepted the process,…

  14. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  15. The impact of patient race on clinical decisions related to prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): assumptions about sexual risk compensation and implications for access.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Underhill, Kristen; Hansen, Nathan B; Dovidio, John F

    2014-02-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has received increasing recognition as a viable prescription-based intervention for people at risk for HIV acquisition. However, little is known about racial biases affecting healthcare providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP. This investigation sought to explore medical students' stereotypes about sexual risk compensation among Black versus White men who have sex with men seeking PrEP, and the impact of such stereotypes on willingness to prescribe PrEP. An online survey presented participants (n = 102) with a clinical vignette of a PrEP-seeking, HIV-negative man with an HIV-positive male partner. Patient race was systematically manipulated. Participants reported predictions about patient sexual risk compensation, willingness to prescribe PrEP, and other clinical judgments. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that the Black patient was rated as more likely than the White patient to engage in increased unprotected sex if prescribed PrEP, which, in turn, was associated with reduced willingness to prescribe PrEP to the patient.

  16. Software reengineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. JSC created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the Space Shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to re-engineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. A beta vision of the environment was released in Mar. 1991. The commercial potential for such re-engineering tools is very great. CASE TRENDS magazine reported it to be the primary concern of over four hundred of the top MIS executives.

  17. A Cylindrical, Inner Volume Selecting 2D-T2-Prep Improves GRAPPA-Accelerated Image Quality in MRA of the Right Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Coristine, Andrew J.; Yerly, Jerome; Stuber, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background Two-dimensional (2D) spatially selective radiofrequency (RF) pulses may be used to excite restricted volumes. By incorporating a "pencil beam" 2D pulse into a T2-Prep, one may create a "2D-T2-Prep" that combines T2-weighting with an intrinsic outer volume suppression. This may particularly benefit parallel imaging techniques, where artefacts typically originate from residual foldover signal. By suppressing foldover signal with a 2D-T2-Prep, image quality may therefore improve. We present numerical simulations, phantom and in vivo validations to address this hypothesis. Methods A 2D-T2-Prep and a conventional T2-Prep were used with GRAPPA-accelerated MRI (R = 1.6). The techniques were first compared in numerical phantoms, where per pixel maps of SNR (SNRmulti), noise, and g-factor were predicted for idealized sequences. Physical phantoms, with compartments doped to mimic blood, myocardium, fat, and coronary vasculature, were scanned with both T2-Preparation techniques to determine the actual SNRmulti and vessel sharpness. For in vivo experiments, the right coronary artery (RCA) was imaged in 10 healthy adults, using accelerations of R = 1,3, and 6, and vessel sharpness was measured for each. Results In both simulations and phantom experiments, the 2D-T2-Prep improved SNR relative to the conventional T2-Prep, by an amount that depended on both the acceleration factor and the degree of outer volume suppression. For in vivo images of the RCA, vessel sharpness improved most at higher acceleration factors, demonstrating that the 2D-T2-Prep especially benefits accelerated coronary MRA. Conclusion Suppressing outer volume signal with a 2D-T2-Prep improves image quality particularly well in GRAPPA-accelerated acquisitions in simulations, phantoms, and volunteers, demonstrating that it should be considered when performing accelerated coronary MRA. PMID:27736866

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among US women at risk of acquiring HIV.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Judith D; Kinsky, Suzanne; Brown, Gina; Charles, Vignetta

    2015-02-01

    Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved oral Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for women at risk of HIV infection in the US in July 2012, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for clinicians to provide PrEP to women "at substantial risk of HIV acquisition" in May 2014, there remain no clinical trial data on efficacy among US women, and there is a dearth of research on knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of use of PrEP among them. We conducted a qualitative focus group (FG) study with 144 at-risk women in six US cities between July and September 2013, including locations in the Southern US, where HIV infections among women are most prevalent. FG questions elicited awareness of PrEP, attitudes about administration and uptake, and barriers to and facilitators of use. Women expressed anger at the fact that they had not heard of PrEP prior to the study, but once informed most found it attractive. PrEP was seen as additional, not substitute protection to condoms, and participants suggested several dissemination strategies to meet the diverse needs of women. Key barriers to PrEP uptake included distrust of the medical system, stigma, and cost. Findings suggest that US women view PrEP as an important prevention option, assuming side effects and the cost to the consumer are minimal, the efficacy of the drug is reasonable, and PrEP is delivered by trusted providers in trusted venues.

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Likelihood of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use Among US Women at Risk of Acquiring HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kinsky, Suzanne; Brown, Gina; Charles, Vignetta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved oral Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for women at risk of HIV infection in the US in July 2012, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for clinicians to provide PrEP to women “at substantial risk of HIV acquisition” in May 2014, there remain no clinical trial data on efficacy among US women, and there is a dearth of research on knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of use of PrEP among them. We conducted a qualitative focus group (FG) study with 144 at-risk women in six US cities between July and September 2013, including locations in the Southern US, where HIV infections among women are most prevalent. FG questions elicited awareness of PrEP, attitudes about administration and uptake, and barriers to and facilitators of use. Women expressed anger at the fact that they had not heard of PrEP prior to the study, but once informed most found it attractive. PrEP was seen as additional, not substitute protection to condoms, and participants suggested several dissemination strategies to meet the diverse needs of women. Key barriers to PrEP uptake included distrust of the medical system, stigma, and cost. Findings suggest that US women view PrEP as an important prevention option, assuming side effects and the cost to the consumer are minimal, the efficacy of the drug is reasonable, and PrEP is delivered by trusted providers in trusted venues. PMID:25513954

  20. Antiterrorist Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    In light of the escalation of terrorism, the Department of Defense spearheaded the development of new antiterrorist software for all Government agencies by issuing a Broad Agency Announcement to solicit proposals. This Government-wide competition resulted in a team that includes NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division, who will develop the graphical user interface (GUI) and test it in their usability lab. The team launched a program entitled Joint Sphere of Security (JSOS), crafted a design architecture (see the following figure), and is testing the interface. This software system has a state-ofthe- art, object-oriented architecture, with a main kernel composed of the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) developed by Argonne National Laboratory. DIAS will be used as the software "breadboard" for assembling the components of explosions, such as blast and collapse simulations.

  1. SAR Product Control Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, P. J.; Hounam, D.; Rye, A. J.; Rosich, B.; Börner, T.; Closa, J.; Schättler, B.; Smith, P. J.; Zink, M.

    2003-03-01

    As SAR instruments and their operating modes become more complex, as new applications place more and more demands on image quality and as our understanding of their imperfections becomes more sophisticated, there is increasing recognition that SAR data quality has to be controlled more completely to keep pace. The SAR product CONtrol software (SARCON) is a comprehensive SAR product control software suite tailored to the latest generation of SAR sensors. SARCON profits from the most up-to-date thinking on SAR image performance derived from other spaceborne and airborne SAR projects and is based on the newest applications. This paper gives an overview of the structure and the features of this new software tool, which is a product of a co-operation between teams at BAE SYSTEMS Advanced Technology Centre and DLR under contract to ESA (ESRIN). Work on SARCON began in 1999 and is continuing.

  2. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  3. Flight Software Math Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  4. JSATS Decoder Software Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Flory, Adam E.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2013-05-01

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) Decoder is a software application that converts a digitized acoustic signal (a waveform stored in the .bwm file format) into a list of potential JSATS Acoustic MicroTransmitter (AMT) tagcodes along with other data about the signal including time of arrival and signal to noise ratios (SNR). This software is capable of decoding single files, directories, and viewing raw acoustic waveforms. When coupled with the JSATS Detector, the Decoder is capable of decoding in ‘real-time’ and can also provide statistical information about acoustic beacons placed within receive range of hydrophones within a JSATS array. This document details the features and functionality of the software. The document begins with software installation instructions (section 2), followed in order by instructions for decoder setup (section 3), decoding process initiation (section 4), then monitoring of beacons (section 5) using real-time decoding features. The last section in the manual describes the beacon, beacon statistics, and the results file formats. This document does not consider the raw binary waveform file format.

  5. [Software version and medical device software supervision].

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of software version in the medical device software supervision does not cause enough attention at present. First of all, the effect of software version in the medical device software supervision is discussed, and then the necessity of software version in the medical device software supervision is analyzed based on the discussion of the misunderstanding of software version. Finally the concrete suggestions on software version naming rules, software version supervision for the software in medical devices, and software version supervision scheme are proposed.

  6. The educational value of chemical demonstrations in the college prep chemistry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerman, Katherine E.

    The educational value of chemical demonstrations in a college prep chemistry classroom was tested to determine whether or not demonstrations merit the required time and resources. Students were divided into three test groups, each of which used a different engagement method for the presentation of the demonstrations. One group was given materials specific to the demonstration to help guide them through the process of prediction, discussion and application of observations. The second group was given the same generic worksheet for each demonstration. The third group was not given any supplemental materials. Assessment data for the three groups was collected from pretest, posttest and survey questions. The data set was analyzed and compared to a control group of students who did not see demonstrations. Students who had a higher level of engagement during the demonstration process performed better than the control group.

  7. Esthetic Rehabilitation of the Smile with No-Prep Porcelain Laminates and Partial Veneers.

    PubMed

    Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Gomes, Edna Maria da Cunha Ferreira; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sánchez-Ayala, Alejandro; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with anterior conoid teeth may present a challenge for the clinician, especially when trying to mimic the nature with composite resins. This clinical report exemplifies how a patient with conoid upper lateral incisors was rehabilitated with minimally invasive adhesive restorations. Following diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up, no-prep veneers and ceramic fragments (partial veneers) were constructed with feldspathic porcelain. This restorative material presents excellent reproduction of the optical properties of the dental structure, especially at minimal thicknesses. In this paper, the details about the treatment are described. A very pleasing outcome was achieved, confirming that minimally invasive adhesive restorations are an excellent option for situations in which the dental elements are healthy, and can be modified exclusively by adding material and the patient does not want to suffer any wear on the teeth.

  8. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Blount, Benjamin A; Driessen, Maureen R M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb.

  9. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Blount, Benjamin A; Driessen, Maureen R M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb. PMID:27240644

  10. Esthetic Rehabilitation of the Smile with No-Prep Porcelain Laminates and Partial Veneers.

    PubMed

    Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Gomes, Edna Maria da Cunha Ferreira; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sánchez-Ayala, Alejandro; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with anterior conoid teeth may present a challenge for the clinician, especially when trying to mimic the nature with composite resins. This clinical report exemplifies how a patient with conoid upper lateral incisors was rehabilitated with minimally invasive adhesive restorations. Following diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up, no-prep veneers and ceramic fragments (partial veneers) were constructed with feldspathic porcelain. This restorative material presents excellent reproduction of the optical properties of the dental structure, especially at minimal thicknesses. In this paper, the details about the treatment are described. A very pleasing outcome was achieved, confirming that minimally invasive adhesive restorations are an excellent option for situations in which the dental elements are healthy, and can be modified exclusively by adding material and the patient does not want to suffer any wear on the teeth. PMID:26568893

  11. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Benjamin A.; Driessen, Maureen R. M.; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb. PMID:27240644

  12. Esthetic Rehabilitation of the Smile with No-Prep Porcelain Laminates and Partial Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Gomes, Edna Maria da Cunha Ferreira; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sánchez-Ayala, Alejandro; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with anterior conoid teeth may present a challenge for the clinician, especially when trying to mimic the nature with composite resins. This clinical report exemplifies how a patient with conoid upper lateral incisors was rehabilitated with minimally invasive adhesive restorations. Following diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up, no-prep veneers and ceramic fragments (partial veneers) were constructed with feldspathic porcelain. This restorative material presents excellent reproduction of the optical properties of the dental structure, especially at minimal thicknesses. In this paper, the details about the treatment are described. A very pleasing outcome was achieved, confirming that minimally invasive adhesive restorations are an excellent option for situations in which the dental elements are healthy, and can be modified exclusively by adding material and the patient does not want to suffer any wear on the teeth. PMID:26568893

  13. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six software packages for Apple and/or IBM computers. Included are "Autograph,""The New Game Show,""Science Probe-Earth Science,""Pollution Patrol,""Investigating Plant Growth," and "AIDS: The Investigation." Discussed are the grade level, function, availability, cost, and hardware requirements of each. (CW)

  14. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews of seven software packages are presented including "The Environment I: Habitats and EcoSystems; II Cycles and Interactions"; "Super Sign Maker"; "The Great Knowledge Race: Substance Abuse"; "Exploring Science: Temperature"; "Fast Food Calculator and RD Aide"; "The Human Body: Circulation and Respiration" and "Forces in Liquids and Gases."…

  15. Star Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloza, Brad

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer software programs designed to spark learning enthusiasm at every grade level and across the curriculum. They include Reader Rabbit's Learn to Read, Spelling Power, Mind Twister Math, Community Construction Kit, Breaking the Code, Encarta Africana 2000, Virtual Serengeti, Operation: Frog (Deluxe), and My First…

  16. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews five software packages for use with school age children. Includes "Science Toolkit Module 2: Earthquake Lab"; "Adaptations and Identification"; "Geoworld"; "Body Systems II Series: The Blood System: A Liquid of Life," all for Apple II, and "Science Courseware: Life Science/Biology" for Apple II and IBM. (CW)

  17. Software Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 2000

    2000-01-01

    A chart of 40 alumni-development database systems provides information on vendor/Web site, address, contact/phone, software name, price range, minimum suggested workstation/suggested server, standard reports/reporting tools, minimum/maximum record capacity, and number of installed sites/client type. (DB)

  18. Software Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Software Comparison Package (SCP) compares similar files. Normally, these are 90-character files produced by CDC UPDATE utility from program libraries that contain FORTRAN source code plus identifier. SCP also used to compare load maps, cross-reference outputs, and UPDATE corrections sets. Helps wherever line-by-line comparison of similarly structured files required.

  19. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages: "Super Solvers Midnight Rescue!" a problem-solving program for IBM PCs; and "Interactive Physics," a simulation program for the Macintosh computer. The functions of the package are discussed including strengths and weaknesses and teaching suggestions. (CW)

  20. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Describes three software packages: (1) "MacMendeleev"--database/graphic display for chemistry, grades 10-12, Macintosh; (2) "Geometry One: Foundations"--geometry tutorial, grades 7-12, IBM; (3) "Mathematics Exploration Toolkit"--algebra and calculus tutorial, grades 8-12, IBM. (MVL)

  1. Software reengineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Programs in use today generally have all of the function and information processing capabilities required to do their specified job. However, older programs usually use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other programs, and are difficult to maintain. Reengineering is becoming a prominent discipline as organizations try to move their systems to more modern and maintainable technologies. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Software Technology Branch (STB) is researching and developing a system to support reengineering older FORTRAN programs into more maintainable forms that can also be more readily translated to a modern languages such as FORTRAN 8x, Ada, or C. This activity has led to the development of maintenance strategies for design recovery and reengineering. These strategies include a set of standards, methodologies, and the concepts for a software environment to support design recovery and reengineering. A brief description of the problem being addressed and the approach that is being taken by the STB toward providing an economic solution to the problem is provided. A statement of the maintenance problems, the benefits and drawbacks of three alternative solutions, and a brief history of the STB experience in software reengineering are followed by the STB new FORTRAN standards, methodology, and the concepts for a software environment.

  2. Software Patents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  3. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics and Computer Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presented are reviews of several microcomputer software programs. Included are reviews of: (1) Microstat (Zenith); (2) MathCAD (MathSoft); (3) Discrete Mathematics (True Basic); (4) CALCULUS (True Basic); (5) Linear-Kit (John Wiley); and (6) Geometry Sensei (Broderbund). (RH)

  4. Reviews: Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Norma N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four computer software packages including: "The Physical Science Series: Sound" which demonstrates making waves, speed of sound, doppler effect, and human hearing; "Andromeda" depicting celestial motions in any direction; "Biology Quiz: Humans" covering chemistry, cells, viruses, and human biology; and "MacStronomy" covering information on…

  5. Reviews, Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software programs for Apple series computers. Includes "Orbital Mech," a basic planetary orbital simulation for the Macintosh, and "START: Stimulus and Response Tools for Experiments in Memory, Learning, Cognition, and Perception," a program that demonstrates basic psychological principles and experiments. (CW)

  6. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Six software packages are described in this review. Included are "Molecules and Atoms: Exploring the Essence of Matter"; "Heart Probe"; "GM Sunraycer"; "Six Puzzles"; "Information Laboratory--Life Science"; and "Science Test Builder." Hardware requirements, prices, and a summary of the abilities of each program are presented. (CW)

  7. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presents comments by classroom teachers on software for science teaching including topics on: the size of a molecule, matter, leaves, vitamins and minerals, dinosaurs, and collecting and measuring data. Each is an Apple computer series. Availability and costs are included. (RT)

  8. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software programs: the Astronomer (astronomy program for middle school students and older); Hands-on-Statistics: Explorations with a Microcomputer (statistics program for secondary school students and older); and CATGEN (a genetics program for secondary school students and older). Each review provides information on:…

  9. Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is a computer software package entitled "Audubon Wildlife Adventures: Grizzly Bears" for Apple II and IBM microcomputers. Included are availability, hardware requirements, cost, and a description of the program. The murder-mystery flavor of the program is stressed in this program that focuses on illegal hunting and game management. (CW)

  10. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages for IBM and/or Apple Computers. Included are "Windows on Science: Volume 1--Physical Science"; "Science Probe--Physical Science"; "Wildlife Adventures--Grizzly Bears"; "Science Skills--Development Programs"; "The Clean Machine"; "Rock Doctor"; and "Geology Search." Cost, quality, hardware, and…

  11. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software programs for Apple II computers on weather for upper elementary and middle school grades. "Weather" introduces the major factors (temperature, humidity, wind, and air pressure) affecting weather. "How Weather Works" uses simulation and auto-tutorial formats on sun, wind, fronts, clouds, and storms. (YP)

  12. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three software packages: (1) "The Weather Machine Courseware Kit" for grades 7-12; (2) "Exploring Measurement, Time, and Money--Level I," for primary level mathematics; and (3) "Professor DOS with SmartGuide for DOS" providing an extensive tutorial covering DOS 2.1 to 4.0. Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each package. (YP)

  13. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six computer software packages including "Invisible Bugs,""Chaos Plus...,""The Botanist's Apprentice,""A Baby is Born," Storyboard Plus-Version 2.0," and "Weather." Hardware requirements, functions, performance, and use in the classroom are discussed. (CW)

  14. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews six software packages for use with school age children ranging from grade 3 to grade 12. Includes "The Microcomputer Based Lab Project: Motion, Sound"; "Genetics"; "Geologic History"; "The Microscope Simulator"; and "Wiz Works" all for Apple II and "Reading for Information: Level II" for IBM. (CW)

  15. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Norma N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes computer software for use with various age groups. Topics include activities involving temperature, simulations, earth science, the circulatory system, human body, reading in science, and ecology. Provides information on equipment needed, availability, package contents, and price. Comments of reviews are presented by classroom teachers.…

  16. Lecture to inquiry: The transformation of a tech prep biology teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Deborah Harris

    As teachers implement the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) many have to reform the instructional methods they have used throughout their careers. This case study examines the transformation of Laurie, a 20-year teacher, during her first year of change from a "traditional" textbook/lecture style of teaching to a facilitator of an inquiry-based classroom. Implementing change requires not only pedagogical expertise, but also the belief that the modifications can be made and that the outcomes are significant. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory as a framework, changes in Laurie's self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and motivation are followed throughout the transition. During her first year of change, Laurie used worksheets, small group activities, and guided inquiry activities, all strategies in which she had high self-efficacy and experienced positive student outcomes. She rarely used class forums, authentic assessment, and formative assessment. Factors that influenced her change were experiential professional development opportunities that allowed her to practice inquiry-based techniques, a change in her teaching environment from college prep chemistry to tech prep biology, autonomy regarding classroom decisions, and reflective decision making as she learned through experience. Using a standards-based biology textbook increased her self-efficacy toward using inquiry-based practices. The textbook format of embedding text in activities rather than adding activities to the text resulted in an increase of the number and frequency of activities done. Facilitating the textbook's Guided Inquiries and Extended Inquiries helped Laurie gain experience with inquiry-based methods. She also realized that when building from the students' concrete experiences, her students were able to attain higher-level thinking skills. The study revealed six factors contributing to Laurie's change process: (a) experiential professional development, (b) motivation for change

  17. Assessing Consumer Responses to PREPs: A Review of Tobacco Industry and Independent Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Cummings, K. Michael; O'Connor, Richard J.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Parascandola, Mark; Shields, Peter G.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Internal tobacco industry documents and the mainstream literature are reviewed to identify methods and measures for evaluating tobacco consumer response. The review aims to outline areas in which established methods exist, identify gaps in current methods for assessing CR, and consider how these methods might be applied to evaluate PREPs and new products. Methods Internal industry research reviewed included published papers, manuscript drafts, presentations, protocols, and instruments relating to consumer response measures were identified and analyzed. Peer-reviewed research was identified using PubMed and Scopus. Results Industry research on consumer response focuses on product development and marketing. To develop and refine new products, the tobacco industry has developed notable strategies for assessing consumers' sensory and subjective responses to product design characteristics. Independent research is often conducted to gauge the likelihood of future product adoption by measuring consumers' risk perceptions, responses to product, and product acceptability. Conclusions A model which conceptualizes consumer response as comprising the separate, but interacting domains of product perceptions and response to product is outlined. Industry and independent research supports the dual domain model, and provides a wide range of methods for assessment of the construct components of consumer response. Further research is needed to validate consumer response constructs, determine the relationship between consumer response and tobacco user behavior, and improve reliability of consumer response measures. Scientifically rigorous consumer response assessment methods will provide a needed empirical basis for future regulation of PREPs and new products, to counteract tobacco industry influence on consumers, and enhance the public health. PMID:19959675

  18. Who should be offered HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)?: A secondary analysis of a Phase 3 PrEP efficacy trial in men who have sex with men and transgender women

    PubMed Central

    Buchbinder, Susan P; Glidden, David V.; Liu, Albert Y.; McMahan, Vanessa; Guanira, Juan V.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Goicochea, Pedro; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been proven to reduce HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men and transgender women (MSM/TGW). For maximal impact, PrEP should be targeted to subpopulations accounting for the largest proportion of infections (population attributable fraction, PAF) and for whom the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent infection is lowest. Methods The iPrEx study was a randomized controlled efficacy trial of tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate/emtricitabine PrEP in 2499 MSM/TGW on 4 continents. We calculated the association between demographic and risk behavior during screening with subsequent seroconversion among placebo recipients using a Poisson model, and the PAF and NNT for risk behavior subgroups. Findings Of 1248 placebo participants enrolled, 83 became HIV infected in follow-up. Participants reporting non-condom receptive anal intercourse (ncRAI) seroconverted significantly more often than MSM/TGW reporting no condomless anal sex (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 5·11, 95% CI 1·55-16·79). The overall PAF for MSM/TGW reporting ncRAI was 64% (prevalence=60%). Most of this risk came from ncRAI with unknown serostatus partners (PAF 53%, prevalence=54%, AHR 4·76); in contrast, the PAF for ncRAI with an HIV positive partner, an uncommon practice, was only 1% (prevalence 1%, AHR=7·11). The overall NNT per year for the cohort was 62 (95% CI 44-147). NNTs were lower for MSM/TGW self-reporting ncRAI, cocaine use, or a sexually transmitted infection (NNT= 36, 12, and 41 respectively). Having a single partner or non-condom insertive anal sex had the highest NNTs. Interpretation PrEP may be most effective at a population level if targeted toward MSM/TGW reporting ncRAI, even with partners perceived to be HIV negative. Substance use history and testing for STIs may also inform individual decisions to start PrEP. Considering PAF and NNT can aid in discussing the benefits and risks of PrEP with MSM/TGW. Funding Funded by the National

  19. Hospital cost accounting: finding the software solution.

    PubMed

    Burik, D; Duvall, T J

    1985-04-01

    If hospital managers can clearly define the functions, features, and techniques required of a software package, carefully evaluate the capabilities of the various packages available, and use an organized approach for selecting a software package, they can more effectively choose cost accounting software that best fits the hospital's individual needs.

  20. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  1. Software management at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Harris

    1998-10-01

    We describe the structure and performance of a software management system in wide use at Fermilab. The system provides software version control with Con- current Versions System (CVS) con gured in a client-server mode. Management and building of software is provided by Software Release Tools (SoftRelTools) originally developed by the BaBar collaboration. Support for SoftRelTools, the heart of the system, is organized by the Fermilab computing division in close communication with the end users: CDF, D0, BTeV and CMS. Unix Product Support (UPS) is used to initialize environmental variables for multiple versions of software on multiple platforms. Distribution of frozen releases is currently handled by internally developed scripts, but will soon be performed by Unix Product Distribution (UPD). At CDF the development version of the software is also distributed daily and built in place on 18 di erent machines, with new machines added weekly. Although primarily intended for UNIX platforms, in- cluding Linux, the system is also supported for Windows NT by D0. This system handles the version control, management, building, and distri- bution of code written in Fortran, C, and C++. A single executable can call routines written in all three languages. A distinguishing feature of the system is its ability to allow rapid asynchronous development of package versions, which can be easily integrated into complete consistent releases of the entire o ine software. Daily rebuilds of all the software, along with automatic mailings of build errors to developers, test robustness and allow speedy integration. This system has been used since January 1997 by CDF, D0 and BTeV for the development and release of software for the next run of the Tevatron Collider. At CDF it has been used by roughly 30 developers to make over a dozen frozen releases of a million lines of software. D0's use is similar to CDF, and the system is just beginning to be used by CMS. The cooperative maintenance and

  2. Familiarity with and Preferences for Oral and Long-Acting Injectable HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in a National Sample of Gay and Bisexual Men in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Rendina, H Jonathon; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Grov, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine preferences for oral versus long-acting injectable (LAI) PrEP among gay and bisexual men (GBM). We surveyed a national U.S. sample of 1071 GBM about forms of PrEP. LAI PrEP was found to be acceptable among 43.2 % of men when injected monthly compared with 53.6 % of men when injected every 3 months. When asked to choose between forms of PrEP, 46.0 % preferred LAI, 14.3 % oral, 21.7 % whichever was most effective, 10.1 % had no preference, and 7.8 % would not take PrEP. There were no differences in PrEP preferences by race/ethnicity, income, region of residence, or relationship status. Those unwilling to take PrEP were significantly older than those who preferred LAI PrEP and those who would take either. Those who preferred the most effective form were younger, had less education, and reported more recent club drug use. Those who reported condomless anal sex and those who thought they were good PrEP candidates were more willing to take PrEP. Long-term health and side effects were of the greatest concern for both LAI and oral PrEP. The availability of LAI PrEP has the potential to increase uptake among GBM. The results of ongoing clinical trials of LAI PrEP will need to demonstrate similar or greater efficacy as daily Truvada for uptake to be maximized.

  3. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. Discussion In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. Conclusions The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those who can most benefit

  4. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Mitchell, Kate M; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use-one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed 'pimps') was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used.

  5. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  6. Computing and software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Gary C.; Hines, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    functions together to generate estimates. The idea is interesting, and maybe some bright young statistician can work out the specifics to implement the procedure.Choquet et al. (2004) describe MSURGE, a software package that implements the multistate capture–recapture models. The unique feature of MSURGE is that the design matrix is constructed with an interpreted language called GEMACO. Because MSURGE is limited to just multistate models, the special requirements of these likelihoods can be provided.The software and methods presented in these papers gives biologists and wildlife managers an expanding range of possibilities for data analysis. Although ease–of–use is generally getting better, it does not replace the need for understanding of the requirements and structure of the models being computed. The internet provides access to many free software packages as well as user–discussion groups to share knowledge and ideas. (A starting point for wildlife–related applications is (http://www.phidot.org).

  7. I Am Men's Health: Generating Adherence to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Daughtridge, Giffin W; Conyngham, S Caitlin; Ramirez, Noel; Koenig, Helen C

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Truvada as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for adults at risk of HIV. PrEP is highly effective at preventing HIV when taken daily, but no gold standard exists for consistently administering PrEP to populations at highest risk. The "I Am Men's Health" program used an innovative methodology to generate adherence to PrEP in 23 mostly young men who have sex with men of color (yMSMc), during a 28-week period from February to September 2013. Adherence was measured using weekly medication pickup rates. The average age of the participants was 21 years, and the majority were black and lived below the poverty line. Time on PrEP ranged from 1 to 28 weeks (2723 person-days), and the weighted average adherence was 73%. The methodology used in this study was preliminarily effective at generating adherence to PrEP among high-risk yMSMc in a community setting and may help inform large-scale future HIV prevention interventions.

  8. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. Methods The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Results Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Conclusions Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention. PMID:25124457

  9. Partial-prep bonded restorations in the anterior dentition: Long-term gingival health and predictability. A case report.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ivan Contreras; Molina, Gil Contreras; Stanley, Kyle; Lago, Carlo; Xavier, Clessius Ferreira; Volpato, Claudia Angela Maziero

    2016-01-01

    Bonded porcelain restorations are a predictable and durable treatment option that can restore not only the strength and function of the teeth but also the esthetic appearance. One important issue in adhesive dentistry is the preservation of sound enamel. Following biomimetic principles, employing minimally invasive applications and adhesive technologies is of paramount importance for successful restorations. While it is widely accepted that minimally invasive restorative techniques should be favored, there is still some controversy over the noninvasive approaches. The purpose of this article is to question the complete "no-prep veneer" concept due to the possible negative effects on periodontal health caused by excessive contour and overhangs of the ceramic restoration, and to propose a new method to assess the quality and longevity of veneers with a partial-prep concept. PMID:26417617

  10. Programming software for usability evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.L.; Allen, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the work completed for a portion of the User Interface Testbed for Technology Packaging (UseIT) project. The authors present software methods for programming systems to record and view interactions with a graphical user interface. A brief description of the human factors design process is presented. The software methods exploit features available in the X Window System and the operating system for Windows{trademark} 95 and Windows{trademark} NT{reg_sign}.

  11. Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    General Purpose Boundary Element Solution Technology (GPBEST) software employs the boundary element method of mechanical engineering analysis, as opposed to finite element. It is, according to one of its developers, 10 times faster in data preparation and more accurate than other methods. Its use results in less expensive products because the time between design and manufacturing is shortened. A commercial derivative of a NASA-developed computer code, it is marketed by Best Corporation to solve problems in stress analysis, heat transfer, fluid analysis and yielding and cracking of solids. Other applications include designing tractor and auto parts, household appliances and acoustic analysis.

  12. Scheduling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Scheduling Environment is a software product designed and marketed by AVYX, Inc. to provide scheduling solutions for complex manufacturing environments. It can be adapted to specific scheduling and manufacturing processes and has led to substantial cost savings. The system was originally developed for NASA use in scheduling Space Shuttle flights and satellite activities. AVYX, Inc. is an offshoot of a company formed to provide computer-related services to NASA. TREES-plus, the company's initial product became the programming language for the advanced scheduling environment system.

  13. Space Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Xontech, Inc.'s software package, XonVu, simulates the missions of Voyager 1 at Jupiter and Saturn, Voyager 2 at Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and Giotto in close encounter with Comet Halley. With the program, the user can generate scenes of the planets, moons, stars or Halley's nucleus and tail as seen by Giotto, all graphically reproduced with high accuracy in wireframe representation. Program can be used on a wide range of computers, including PCs. User friendly and interactive, with many options, XonVu can be used by a space novice or a professional astronomer. With a companion user's manual, it sells for $79.

  14. Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Various NASA Small Business Innovation Research grants from Marshall Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center were used to develop the 'kernel' of COMCO's modeling and simulation software, the PHLEX finite element code. NASA needed it to model designs of flight vehicles; one of many customized commercial applications is UNISIM, a PHLEX-based code for analyzing underground flows in oil reservoirs for Texaco, Inc. COMCO's products simulate a computational mechanics problem, estimate the solution's error and produce the optimal hp-adapted mesh for the accuracy the user chooses. The system is also used as a research or training tool in universities and in mechanical design in industrial corporations.

  15. Seminar Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Society for Computer Simulation International is a professional technical society that distributes information on methodology techniques and uses of computer simulation. The society uses NETS, a NASA-developed program, to assist seminar participants in learning to use neural networks for computer simulation. NETS is a software system modeled after the human brain; it is designed to help scientists exploring artificial intelligence to solve pattern matching problems. Examples from NETS are presented to seminar participants, who can then manipulate, alter or enhance them for their own applications.

  16. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nadery, S; Geerlings, S E

    2013-01-01

    The global incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased by 15% over the past years, but is still too high. Despite current programs to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, further approaches are needed to limit this epidemic. Oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is currently one of the most discussed possible prevention methods. This literature study demonstrates whether orally antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis in HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour reduces the transmission of HIV. We used the PICO method and conducted a search to identify relevant studies. Subjects of the study were HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour. Intervention was oral PrEP with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone or plus emtricitabine (FTC) versus placebo. The primary outcome was the HIV incidence among this high-risk group. Secondary outcomes were adherence to PrEP, frequency and type of adverse effects. We identified ten studies from which five randomised control trials (RCTs) were included after screening. The results from three out of five trials showed a reduction, but two trials showed no protection in acquiring HIV infection. There were no significant differences in adverse events. The adherence was different among different groups and affected the outcome of the studies. In conclusion, this prophylaxis might offer protection when used in combination with intense monitoring and guidance in uninfected individuals with a high risk of HIV acquisition. However, there are still many unresolved questions. Drug adherence seems to be a crucial factor in the effectiveness of PrEP. Therefore, individual risk behaviour remains an important determinant for success in the prevention of HIV transmission. PMID:23956310

  17. Guide for the preparation of proposals for the Pre-Freshman Engineering Program: PREP-1981, (for minorities and women)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Pre-Freshman Engineering Program (PREP) for minorities and women (formerly PREFACE) will provide funds to colleges and universities for projects aimed at seeking out minority group individuals and women during junior high school and high school years (7th grade through the summer preceding matriculation in college) and providing them with enrichment experiences. Preparation and submission of proposals, evaluation and selection of proposals for support, and preparation of the final report are described.

  18. Transitioning to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) from Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (nPEP) in a Comprehensive HIV Prevention Clinic: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Siemieniuk, Reed A C; Sivachandran, Nirojini; Murphy, Pauline; Sharp, Andrea; Walach, Christine; Placido, Tania; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2015-08-01

    The uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention remains low. We hypothesized that a high proportion of patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) would be candidates for PrEP based on current CDC guidelines. Outcomes from a comprehensive HIV Prevention Clinic are described. We evaluated all patients who attended the HIV Prevention Clinic for nPEP between January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014. Each patient was evaluated for PrEP candidacy based on current CDC-guidelines and subjectively based on physician opinion. Patients were then evaluated for initiation of PrEP if they met guideline suggestions. Demographic, social, and behavioral factors were then analyzed with logistic regression for associations with PrEP candidacy and initiation. 99 individuals who attended the nPEP clinic were evaluated for PrEP. The average age was 32 years (range, 18-62), 83 (84%) were male, of whom 46 (55%) men who had have sex with men (MSM). 31 (31%) met CDC guidelines for PrEP initiation, which had very good agreement with physician recommendation (kappa=0.88, 0.78-0.98). Factors associated with PrEP candidacy included sexual exposure to HIV, prior nPEP use, and lack of drug insurance (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Combining nPEP and PrEP services in a dedicated clinic can lead to identification of PrEP candidates and may facilitate PrEP uptake. Strategies to ensure equitable access of PrEP should be explored such that those without drug coverage may also benefit from this effective HIV prevention modality.

  19. Software system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  20. Software engineering and the role of Ada: Executive seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to introduce the basic terminology and concepts of software engineering and Ada. The life cycle model is reviewed. The application of the goals and principles of software engineering is applied. An introductory understanding of the features of the Ada language is gained. Topics addressed include: the software crises; the mandate of the Space Station Program; software life cycle model; software engineering; and Ada under the software engineering umbrella.

  1. Application of Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment: A Review of Operational Vignettes.

    PubMed

    Caci, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    Medical intelligence is an underused or sometimes misapplied tool in the protection of our Soldiers and the execution of nonkinetic operations. The somewhat improved infrastructure of the operational environment in Iraq and Afghanistan led to an inevitable sense of complacency in regard to the threat of disease nonbattle injury (DNBI). The picture changed somewhat in 2010 with the advent of the village stability program and the establishment of SOF camps in austere locations with degraded living situations rife with exposure risks. In addition, the increasing deployments to unstable locations around the globe, reminiscent of typical Special Operations Forces (SOF) missions before the Global War on Terrorism, indicate a need for better preparation for deployment from the standpoint of disease risk and force health protection. A knowledge gap has developed because we simply did not need to apply as stringent an evaluation of DNBI risk in environments where improved life support mitigated the risk for us. The tools necessary to decrease or even eliminate the impact of DNBI exist but they must be shared and implemented. This article will present four vignettes from current and former SOF Force Health Protection personnel starting with a simple method of executing Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment (MIPOE) and highlighting situations in which it either was or could have been implemented to mitigate risk and decrease the impact on mission accomplishment and individual operators. A follow-on article will present vignettes of the successful application of MIPOE to nonkinetic operations.

  2. A retrospective comparison of smart prep and test bolus multi-detector CT pulmonary angiography protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Suckling, Tara; Smith, Tony; Reed, Warren

    2013-06-15

    Optimal arterial opacification is crucial in imaging the pulmonary arteries using computed tomography (CT). This poses the challenge of precisely timing data acquisition to coincide with the transit of the contrast bolus through the pulmonary vasculature. The aim of this quality assurance exercise was to investigate if a change in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scanning protocol resulted in improved opacification of the pulmonary arteries. Comparison was made between the smart prep protocol (SPP) and the test bolus protocol (TBP) for opacification in the pulmonary trunk. A total of 160 CTPA examinations (80 using each protocol) performed between January 2010 and February 2011 were assessed retrospectively. CT attenuation coefficients were measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) using regions of interest at the level of the pulmonary trunk. The average pixel value, standard deviation (SD), maximum, and minimum were recorded. For each of these variables a mean value was then calculated and compared for these two CTPA protocols. Minimum opacification of 200 HU was achieved in 98% of the TBP sample but only 90% of the SPP sample. The average CT attenuation over the pulmonary trunk for the SPP was 329 (SD = ±21) HU, whereas for the TBP it was 396 (SD = ±22) HU (P = 0.0017). The TBP also recorded higher maximum (P = 0.0024) and minimum (P = 0.0039) levels of opacification. This study has found that a TBP resulted in significantly better opacification of the pulmonary trunk than the SPP.

  3. Application of Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment: A Review of Operational Vignettes.

    PubMed

    Caci, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    Medical intelligence is an underused or sometimes misapplied tool in the protection of our Soldiers and the execution of nonkinetic operations. The somewhat improved infrastructure of the operational environment in Iraq and Afghanistan led to an inevitable sense of complacency in regard to the threat of disease nonbattle injury (DNBI). The picture changed somewhat in 2010 with the advent of the village stability program and the establishment of SOF camps in austere locations with degraded living situations rife with exposure risks. In addition, the increasing deployments to unstable locations around the globe, reminiscent of typical Special Operations Forces (SOF) missions before the Global War on Terrorism, indicate a need for better preparation for deployment from the standpoint of disease risk and force health protection. A knowledge gap has developed because we simply did not need to apply as stringent an evaluation of DNBI risk in environments where improved life support mitigated the risk for us. The tools necessary to decrease or even eliminate the impact of DNBI exist but they must be shared and implemented. This article will present four vignettes from current and former SOF Force Health Protection personnel starting with a simple method of executing Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment (MIPOE) and highlighting situations in which it either was or could have been implemented to mitigate risk and decrease the impact on mission accomplishment and individual operators. A follow-on article will present vignettes of the successful application of MIPOE to nonkinetic operations. PMID:26630107

  4. Web Prep: How to Prepare NAS Reports For Publication on the Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela; Balakrishnan, Prithika; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Felchle, Gail; Brickell, Cristy

    1996-01-01

    This document contains specific advice and requirements for NASA Ames Code IN authors of NAS reports. Much of the information may be of interest to other authors writing for the Web. WebPrep has a graphic Table of Contents in the form of a WebToon, which simulates a discussion between a scientist and a Web publishing consultant. In the WebToon, Frequently Asked Questions about preparing reports for the Web are linked to relevant text in the body of this document. We also provide a text-only Table of Contents. The text for this document is divided into chapters: each chapter corresponds to one frame of the WebToons. The chapter topics are: converting text to HTML, converting 2D graphic images to gif, creating imagemaps and tables, converting movie and audio files to Web formats, supplying 3D interactive data, and (briefly) JAVA capabilities. The last chapter is specifically for NAS staff authors. The Glossary-Index lists web related words and links to topics covered in the main text.

  5. Comparison of ThinPrep preparations with conventional cervicovaginal smears. Practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Bur, M; Knowles, K; Pekow, P; Corral, O; Donovan, J

    1995-01-01

    This study compared cytologic quality, diagnostic accuracy, detection of endocervical and endometrial cells and yeast, screening times and costs for 128 ThinPrep preparations (TP) to the corresponding conventional cervicovaginal cytologic smears (CCVS). Final diagnoses agreed in 114 (89%) cases. There were four discrepancies between atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The number of abnormal cells was lower in TP than in CCVS. Endocervical and endometrial cells were detected less frequently in TP than in CCVS. Yeast forms were seen rarely but were identified in both CCVS and TP. Inflammation and blood were less prominent on TP. While some CCVS showed artifacts related to fixation, cell preservation was optimal in all TP. Screening times were significantly shorter for TP than for CCVS. The combined cost of reagents, preparation and screening for an average TP was $1.78 higher than for a CCVS. We conclude that the use of TP for cervicovaginal smears reduces screening time and produces better cytologic preparations. However, cost-benefit analyses, readjustments in criteria for diagnosis of dysplasia and improvements in the recovery of glandular cells may be necessary before this method is used instead of CCVS.

  6. BLTC control system software

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.B., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-10

    This is a direct revision to Rev. 0 of the BLTC Control System Software. The entire document is being revised and released as HNF-SD-FF-CSWD-025, Rev 1. The changes incorporated by this revision include addition of a feature to automate the sodium drain when removing assemblies from sodium wetted facilities. Other changes eliminate locked in alarms during cold operation and improve the function of the Oxygen Analyzer. See FCN-620498 for further details regarding these changes. Note the change in the document number prefix, in accordance with HNF-MD-003.

  7. Master Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2003-01-01

    A basic function of a computational grid such as the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG) is to allow users to execute applications on remote computer systems. The Globus Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM) provides this functionality in the IPG and many other grids at this time. While the functionality provided by GRAM clients is adequate, GRAM does not support useful features such as staging several sets of files, running more than one executable in a single job submission, and maintaining historical information about execution operations. This specification is intended to provide the environmental and software functional requirements for the IPG Job Manager V2.0 being developed by AMTI for NASA.

  8. Evaluation of Agricultural Accounting Software. Improved Decision Making. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Ashley C., Comp.

    Following a discussion of the evaluation criteria for choosing accounting software, this guide contains reviews of 27 accounting software programs that could be used by farm or ranch business managers. The information in the reviews was provided by the software vendors and covers the following points for each software package: general features,…

  9. Choosing Software for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mima

    This Digest points out characteristics of quality computer software for children, describes different kinds of software, and suggests ways to get software for preview. The need to consider the purpose for which the software is to be used and the degree to which the software meets its stated goals is noted. Desirable software characteristics and…

  10. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  11. The ALMA software architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Farris, Allen; Sommer, Heiko

    2004-09-01

    The software for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is being developed by many institutes on two continents. The software itself will function in a distributed environment, from the 0.5-14 kmbaselines that separate antennas to the larger distances that separate the array site at the Llano de Chajnantor in Chile from the operations and user support facilities in Chile, North America and Europe. Distributed development demands 1) interfaces that allow separated groups to work with minimal dependence on their counterparts at other locations; and 2) a common architecture to minimize duplication and ensure that developers can always perform similar tasks in a similar way. The Container/Component model provides a blueprint for the separation of functional from technical concerns: application developers concentrate on implementing functionality in Components, which depend on Containers to provide them with services such as access to remote resources, transparent serialization of entity objects to XML, logging, error handling and security. Early system integrations have verified that this architecture is sound and that developers can successfully exploit its features. The Containers and their services are provided by a system-orienteddevelopment team as part of the ALMA Common Software (ACS), middleware that is based on CORBA.

  12. Balloon Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger

    2007-01-01

    PlanetaryBalloon Version 5.0 is a software package for the design of meridionally lobed planetary balloons. It operates in a Windows environment, and programming was done in Visual Basic 6. By including the effects of circular lobes with load tapes, skin mass, hoop and meridional stress, and elasticity in the structural elements, a more accurate balloon shape of practical construction can be determined as well as the room-temperature cut pattern for the gore shapes. The computer algorithm is formulated for sizing meridionally lobed balloons for any generalized atmosphere or planet. This also covers zero-pressure, over-pressure, and super-pressure balloons. Low circumferential loads with meridionally reinforced load tapes will produce shapes close to what are known as the "natural shape." The software allows for the design of constant angle, constant radius, or constant hoop stress balloons. It uses the desired payload capacity for given atmospheric conditions and determines the required volume, allowing users to design exactly to their requirements. The formulations are generalized to use any lift gas (or mixture of gases), any atmosphere, or any planet as described by the local acceleration of gravity. PlanetaryBalloon software has a comprehensive user manual that covers features ranging from, but not limited to, buoyancy and super-pressure, convenient design equations, shape formulation, and orthotropic stress/strain.

  13. PREP (Fault Tree Pre-processor): A computer program to facilitate use of the SETS computer program for the Savannah River Reactor PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.H.

    1988-05-17

    As part of the contract to provide technical support to the PRA for the Savannah River Reactors, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has developed a computer program to facilitate the use of the SETS computer program in the solution of Fault Trees and Event Trees for the PRA. The PREP (Fault Tree Pre-processor) program is used to simplify user input for the SETS fault tree evaluation program. This includes a simple fault tree input format, linking of data and flag settings, error detection to assure that the SETS job will not abort due to incorrect input, and linking of many fault trees into many event tree sequences. The program is designed to run on a VAX computer operating with VMS. The created SETS input file can be transmitted to CRAY computer (currently at LANL) to run SETS. With simple modification, PREP can be adapted to run directly on a CRAY. It is anticipated that use of the PREP program by the Risk Analysis Group will identify the need for additional improvements. These improvements will be implemented as they are identified. In partial fulfillment of contract scope of work requirements, SAIC has submitted a manual for use of PREP and the program listing for PREP. These are included as attachments A and B respectively. Attachment B is included in selected copies only.

  14. Increased neuronal PreP activity reduces Aβ accumulation, attenuates neuroinflammation and improves mitochondrial and synaptic function in Alzheimer disease's mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fang, Du; Wang, Yongfu; Zhang, Zhihua; Du, Heng; Yan, Shiqiang; Sun, Qinru; Zhong, Changjia; Wu, Long; Vangavaragu, Jhansi Rani; Yan, Shijun; Hu, Gang; Guo, Lan; Rabinowitz, Molly; Glaser, Elzbieta; Arancio, Ottavio; Sosunov, Alexander A; McKhann, Guy M; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2015-09-15

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in synaptic mitochondria is associated with mitochondrial and synaptic injury. The underlying mechanisms and strategies to eliminate Aβ and rescue mitochondrial and synaptic defects remain elusive. Presequence protease (PreP), a mitochondrial peptidasome, is a novel mitochondrial Aβ degrading enzyme. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that increased expression of active human PreP in cortical neurons attenuates Alzheimer disease's (AD)-like mitochondrial amyloid pathology and synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppresses mitochondrial oxidative stress. Notably, PreP-overexpressed AD mice show significant reduction in the production of proinflammatory mediators. Accordingly, increased neuronal PreP expression improves learning and memory and synaptic function in vivo AD mice, and alleviates Aβ-mediated reduction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Our results provide in vivo evidence that PreP may play an important role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function by clearance and degradation of mitochondrial Aβ along with the improvement in synaptic and behavioral function in AD mouse model. Thus, enhancing PreP activity/expression may be a new therapeutic avenue for treatment of AD.

  15. Journal of Chemical Education: Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Described are two reviews of a computer software package: "The Periodic Table Stack," a Hypercard stack that operates on a database of information about the properties and reactions of the elements and designed to help users of Macintosh computers access data found on "KC? Discoverer." Discussed are features of the program and hardware…

  16. CD-ROM & Computer Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mews, Alison

    1997-01-01

    Reviews six CD-ROMs and computer software packages that can serve as resource materials for education. In addition to costs, hardware requirements, and thematic links, includes features such as interface and screen design, ease of access, installation, educational uses, animation and sound, educational challenges and benefits, and student…

  17. Modern Tools for Modern Software

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Epperly, T

    2001-10-31

    This is a proposal for a new software configure/build tool for building, maintaining, deploying, and installing software. At its completion, this new tool will replace current standard tool suites such as ''autoconf'', ''automake'', ''libtool'', and the de facto standard build tool, ''make''. This ambitious project is born out of the realization that as scientific software has grown in size and complexity over the years, the difficulty of configuring and building software has increased as well. For high performance scientific software, additional complexities often arises from the need for portability to multiple platforms (including many one-of-a-kind platforms), multilanguage implementations, use of third party libraries, and a need to adapt algorithms to the specific features of the hardware. Development of scientific software is being hampered by the quality of configuration and build tools commonly available. Inordinate amounts of time and expertise are required to develop and maintain the configure and build system for a moderately complex project. Better build and configure tools will increase developer productivity. This proposal is a first step in a process of shoring up the foundation upon which DOE software is created and used.

  18. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  19. Programming Makes Software; Support Makes Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batcheller, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Skilled software engineers may build fantastic software for climate modeling, yet fail to achieve their project’s objectives. Software support and related activities are just as critical as writing software. This study followed three different software projects in the climate sciences, using interviews, observation, and document analysis to examine the value added by support work. Supporting the project and interacting with users was a key task for software developers, who often spent 50% of their time on it. Such support work most often involved replying to questions on an email list, but also included talking to users on teleconference calls and in person. Software support increased adoption by building the software’s reputation and showing individuals how the software can meet their needs. In the process of providing support, developers often learned new of requirements as users reported features they desire and bugs they found. As software matures and gains widespread use, support work often increases. In fact, such increases can be one signal that the software has achieved broad acceptance. Maturing projects also find demand for instructional classes, online tutorials and detailed examples of how to use the software. The importance of support highlights the fact that building software systems involves both social and technical aspects. Yes, we need to build the software, but we also need to “build” the users and practices that can take advantage of it.

  20. Software Model Of Software-Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Synott, Debra J.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1990-01-01

    Collection of computer programs constitutes software tool for simulation of medium- to large-scale software-development projects. Necessary to include easily identifiable and more-readily quantifiable characteristics like costs, times, and numbers of errors. Mathematical model incorporating these and other factors of dynamics of software-development process implemented in the Software Life Cycle Simulator (SLICS) computer program. Simulates dynamics of software-development process. In combination with input and output expert software systems and knowledge-based management software system, develops information for use in managing large software-development project. Intended to aid managers in planning, managing, and controlling software-development processes by reducing uncertainties in budgets, required personnel, and schedules.

  1. The effects of a prenatal course including PREP for effective family living on self-esteem and parenting attitudes of adolescents: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Emmons, R D; Nystul, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nine adolescent females were enrolled in a prenatal course that included the PREP for Effective Family Living Program (the treatment group). Two comparison groups were utilized in this study; one attended the prenatal group without the PREP program, and the second did not attend either the prenatal course or the PREP program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (a parental attitude scale) was administered to all participants. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of self-concept. A significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than did the two comparison groups.

  2. Chem-Prep PZT 95/5 for neutron generator applications : development of laboratory-scale powder processing operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Ted V.; Moore, Roger Howard; Spindle, Thomas Lewis Jr.

    2003-12-01

    Chemical synthesis methods are being developed as a future source of PZT 95/5 powder for neutron generator voltage bar applications. Laboratory-scale powder processes were established to produce PZT billets from these powders. The interactions between calcining temperature, sintering temperature, and pore former content were studied to identify the conditions necessary to produce PZT billets of the desired density and grain size. Several binder systems and pressing aids were evaluated for producing uniform sintered billets with low open porosity. The development of these processes supported the powder synthesis efforts and enabled comparisons between different chem-prep routes.

  3. An Example of Teacher-Made Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshay, John D.

    This paper describes the rationale and development of a teacher-made software program, instructional design features of the program, and student reaction to the program. The software was created for one student with moderate mental retardation to enable him to practice reading, writing, and reciting personal information. The program, "Your…

  4. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  5. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  6. FMML: A Feature Model Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabdel, Leili; Karataş, Ahmet Serkan; Oǧuztüzün, Halit; Doǧru, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Feature modeling is a common way of representing commonality and variability in Software Product Line Engineering. Alternative notations are available to represent feature models. Compared with graphical notations, text-based notations can be more amenable to automated processing and tool interoperability. In this paper, we propose an XML-based feature modeling language to represent extended feature models with complex relationships.

  7. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  8. Global Software Engineering: A Software Process Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Ita; Casey, Valentine; Burton, John; McCaffery, Fergal

    Our research has shown that many companies are struggling with the successful implementation of global software engineering, due to temporal, cultural and geographical distance, which causes a range of factors to come into play. For example, cultural, project managementproject management and communication difficulties continually cause problems for software engineers and project managers. While the implementation of efficient software processes can be used to improve the quality of the software product, published software process models do not cater explicitly for the recent growth in global software engineering. Our thesis is that global software engineering factors should be included in software process models to ensure their continued usefulness in global organisations. Based on extensive global software engineering research, we have developed a software process, Global Teaming, which includes specific practices and sub-practices. The purpose is to ensure that requirements for successful global software engineering are stipulated so that organisations can ensure successful implementation of global software engineering.

  9. Navigation/Prop Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruchmiller, Tomas; Tran, Sanh; Lee, Mathew; Bucker, Scott; Bupane, Catherine; Bennett, Charles; Cantu, Sergio; Kwong, Ping; Propst, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (Nav)/Prop software is used to support shuttle mission analysis, production, and some operations tasks. The Nav/Prop suite containing configuration items (CIs) resides on IPS/Linux workstations. It features lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle navigation and propellant analysis for all flight segments. This suite also includes trajectory server, archive server, and RAT software residing on MCC/Linux workstations. Navigation/Prop represents tool versions established during or after IPS Equipment Rehost-3 or after the MCC Rehost.

  10. Report: Scientific Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of scientific software, including evaluation and selection of commercial software products; program exchanges, catalogs, and other information sources; major data analysis packages; statistics and chemometrics software; and artificial intelligence. (JN)

  11. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  12. Experimental research control software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  13. Software Engineering Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  14. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Polepeddi, Sriram S.

    2004-12-07

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to

  15. Software For Development Of Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark L.; Atkinson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Modular software system helps create efficient artificial-intelligence computer programs. STAR*TOOL system: Set of high-level software tools; assists programmers in creation of efficient knowledge-based software systems. Provides language and capabilities for compilation of application programs written in Common LISP. Features modularity enabling elimination of unnecessary capabilities from final application program and achieves greater computing performance. Runs on any computer that supports Common LISP and has sufficient memory. Provides programmer with necessary software tools to build wide variety of reasoning and inference engines for such applications as planning, diagnosis and analysis, and simulation.

  16. Programming Language Software For Graphics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    New approach reduces repetitive development of features common to different applications. High-level programming language and interactive environment with access to graphical hardware and software created by adding graphical commands and other constructs to standardized, general-purpose programming language, "Scheme". Designed for use in developing other software incorporating interactive computer-graphics capabilities into application programs. Provides alternative to programming entire applications in C or FORTRAN, specifically ameliorating design and implementation of complex control and data structures typifying applications with interactive graphics. Enables experimental programming and rapid development of prototype software, and yields high-level programs serving as executable versions of software-design documentation.

  17. Software Configuration Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The growth in cost and importance of software to NASA has caused NASA to address the improvement of software development across the agency. One of the products of this program is a series of guidebooks that define a NASA concept of the assurance processes which are used in software development. The Software Assurance Guidebook, SMAP-GB-A201, issued in September, 1989, provides an overall picture of the concepts and practices of NASA in software assurance. Lower level guidebooks focus on specific activities that fall within the software assurance discipline, and provide more detailed information for the manager and/or practitioner. This is the Software Configuration Management Guidebook which describes software configuration management in a way that is compatible with practices in industry and at NASA Centers. Software configuration management is a key software development process, and is essential for doing software assurance.

  18. Access to Basic HIV-Related Services and PrEP Acceptability among Men Who Have sex with Men Worldwide: Barriers, Facilitators, and Implications for Combination Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Makofane, Keletso; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Beck, Jack; Do, Tri D.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Pyun, Thomas; Arreola, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV globally. Easily accessible combination HIV prevention strategies, tailored to the needs of MSM, are needed to effectively address the AIDS pandemic. Methods and Materials. We conducted a cross-sectional study among MSM (n = 3748) from 145 countries from April to August 2012. Using multivariable random effects models, we examined factors associated with acceptability of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and access to condoms, lubricants, HIV testing, and HIV treatment. Results. Condoms and lubricants were accessible to 35% and 22% of all respondents, respectively. HIV testing was accessible to 35% of HIV-negative respondents. Forty-three percent of all HIV-positive respondents reported that antiretroviral therapy was easily accessible. Homophobia, outness, and service provider stigma were significantly associated with reduced access to services. Conversely, community engagement, connection to gay community, and comfort with service providers were associated with increased access. PrEP acceptability was associated with lower PrEP-related stigma, less knowledge about PrEP, less outness, higher service provider stigma, and having experienced violence for being MSM. Conclusions. Ensuring HIV service access among MSM will be critical in maximizing the potential effectiveness of combination approaches, especially given the interdependence of both basic and newer interventions like PrEP. Barriers and facilitators of HIV service access for MSM should be better understood and addressed. PMID:26316968

  19. Computer Aided Drafting and Design, Industrial Manufacturing Technician, and Mechanical Engineering Technician and Machine Tool, Die and Moldmaking Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-East Ohio Tech Prep Consortium, Zanesville.

    This document contains competency profiles in four areas: computer-aided drafting and design; industrial manufacturing technician; mechanical engineering technician; and machine tool, die, and moldmaking technology occupations. The profiles are intended for use in articulating tech prep programs from high school through associate degrees in Ohio.…

  20. The Influence and Outcomes of High School to College Transition Policy (Tech Prep) for Career and Technical Education Students in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the role of career and technical education has shifted from one preparing students directly for employment, to one that offers vocational training as well as college preparatory academics. To support this effort, the federal government enacted the "Tech Prep Act" Title II under the larger "1990 Carl D.…

  1. A Time for Questions: The Future of Integration and Tech Prep. A Report of a Three-Day Summit (Washington, D.C., June 27-29, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol; Flaxman, Erwin

    A 3-day summit of researchers, policymakers, administrators, practitioners, and other concerned individuals examined the organizational, instructional, and political problems in implementing integration and tech prep (I/TP) programs. The following propositions emerged from the discussions: (1) I/TP face numerous structural and professional…

  2. Benchmarks & Milestones. A Statistical Summary of Regional 2+2 Tech Prep Activities. Mt. Hood Regional Cooperative Consortium. 1992 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount Hood Community Coll., Gresham, OR.

    This document contains seven tables and graphs that show the extent of tech prep agreements and activities for 1992, the seventh year of the Mt. Hood Regional Cooperative Consortium. The report shows that a strong cooperative relationship has been established between and among the district high schools, the education service district, and the…

  3. "Get a Blue and You Will See Your Money Back Again": Staffing and Marketing the English Prep School, 1890-1912

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, John

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which English prep schools were staffed and marketed in the years before the First World War. Its aim more specifically is to employ a biographical approach to consider the emphasis that the schools placed upon sport, and in particular the extent to which they recruited Oxford and Cambridge Blues as teachers…

  4. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  5. Software distribution using xnetlib

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. |; Rowan, T.H.; Wade, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    Xnetlib is a new tool for software distribution. Whereas its predecessor netlib uses e-mail as the user interface to its large collection of public-domain mathematical software, xnetlib uses an X Window interface and socket-based communication. Xnetlib makes it easy to search through a large distributed collection of software and to retrieve requested software in seconds.

  6. Agile Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  7. Age, baseline kidney function, and medication exposure are associated with declines in creatinine clearance on PrEP: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Glidden, David; Mayer, Kenneth; Schechter, Mauro; Buchbinder, Susan; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosek, Sybil; Casapia, Martin; Guanira, Juan; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Louie, Alexander; Horng, Howard; Benet, Leslie Z.; Liu, Albert; Grant, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for the prevention of HIV infection enters a phase of global roll-out, strategies to maintain effectiveness, but minimize adverse effects, merit close consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate rates and predictors of renal toxicity in a large open-label study of PrEP to help provide guidance on safety monitoring with this important prevention strategy. Methods The iPrEx open-label-extension (OLE) study (NCT00458393) enrolled HIV-negative MSM/transgender participants from three previous PrEP trials from Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the U.S into an open-label PrEP study. There were no restrictions on current renal function for enrollment into iPrEx OLE.. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) on PrEP was estimated every 12 weeks and in a subset, hair samples were collected for measuring tenofovir (TFV)/FTC concentrations via liquid-chromatography/tandem-mass-spectrometry. Change in CrCl from baseline was calculated and predictors identified. Findings Baseline characteristics of participants in iPrEx-OLE (n=1224; 7475 person-visits) and its hair substudy (n=220; 1114 person-visits) were similar. Over 72 weeks (median), the average decline in CrCl was −2·9% (p<0.0001), but declines were significantly greater for those starting PrEP at older ages (−4·2% (95% CI −2·8%, −5·5%), baseline age 40–50 years; −4·9% (−3·1%, −6·8%), age ≥50). Besides age, baseline CrCl of <90ml/min in multivariate models predicted renal decline. There was a monotonic relationship between percent decrease in CrCl and number of doses of TDF/FTC taken per week as estimated by hair levels (p 0.008). Interpretation With the global roll-out of PrEP, our analysis suggests that the frequency of safety monitoring may differ by age group and that pharmacologic measures of adherence can additionally monitor for toxicities. Funding NIH PMID:27658870

  8. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  9. Responsbility for unreliable software

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    Unreliable software exposes software developers and distributors to legal risks. Under certain circumstances, the developer and distributor of unreliable software can be sued. To avoid lawsuits, software developers should do the following: determine what the risks am, understand the extent of the risks, and identify ways of avoiding the risks and lessening the consequences of the risks. Liability issues associated with unreliable software are explored in this article.

  10. Purification of patulin from Penicillium expansum culture: high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) versus preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC).

    PubMed

    He, J; Tsao, R; Yang, R; Zhou, T

    2009-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by species of Penicillium and Aspergillus and is toxic to a wide range of organisms, including humans and livestock. To produce large amount of pure patulin for research purposes, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) were applied to the purification of patulin. Apple juice was inoculated with P. expansum and containing 0.5 mg patulin per ml was used as a starting material for separation. For HSCCC, a biphasic solvent system consisted of ethyl acetate-hexane-pH 4 acetic acid (7.5:2.5:10, v/v/v) was used. For prep-HPLC, the separation was carried out in a C18 reversed-phase preparative column with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-pH 4 acetic acid (5:95, v/v). Fractions containing patulin were collected and analysed by analytical HPLC and identified by congruent retention time and ultraviolet/visible (UV-VIS) spectrum of the standard. The structure of the purified patulin was confirmed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. HSCCC produced 21.9 mg of patulin from 50 ml apple juice culture whereas the prep-HPLC yielded 18.1 mg. HSCCC also produced purer patulin than the prep-HPLC (98.6 versus 96.3%) and higher recovery (86.2 versus 71.3%). In addition, the HSCCC method is advantageous for its lower cost and a simpler procedure compared with the prep-HPLC. This one-step HSCCC method can potentially provide a simple, effective and environmentally friendly tool for obtaining gram-level pure patulin for toxicology, detoxification and many other patulin-related studies.

  11. Patterns and Correlates of PrEP Drug Detection among MSM and Transgender Women in the Global iPrEx Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Glidden, David V.; Anderson, Peter L.; Amico, K.R.; McMahan, Vanessa; Mehrotra, Megha; Lama, Javier R.; MacRae, John; Hinojosa, Juan Carlos; Montoya, Orlando; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Schechter, Mauro; Kallas, Esper G.; Chariyalerstak, Suwat; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mayer, Kenneth; Buchbinder, Susan; Grant, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is critical for efficacy. Antiretroviral concentrations are an objective measure of PrEP use and correlate with efficacy. Understanding patterns and correlates of drug detection can identify populations at risk for non-adherence and inform design of PrEP adherence interventions. Methods Blood antiretroviral concentrations were assessed among active-arm participants in iPrEx, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of emtricitabine/tenofovir in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in 6 countries. We evaluated rates and correlates of drug detection among a random sample of 470 participants at week 8 and a longitudinal cohort of 303 participants through 72 weeks of follow-up. Results Overall, 55% (95% CI 49–60%) of participants tested at week 8 had drug detected. Drug detection was associated with older age and varied by study site. In longitudinal analysis, 31% never had drug detected, 30% always had drug detected, and 39% had an inconsistent pattern. Overall detection rates declined over time. Drug detection at some or all visits was associated with older age; indices of sexual risk, including condomless receptive anal sex; and responding "don't know" to a question about belief of PrEP efficacy (0–10 scale). Conclusions Distinct patterns of study-product use were identified, with a significant proportion demonstrating no drug detection at any visit. Research literacy may explain greater drug detection among populations having greater research experience, such as older MSM in the US. Greater drug detection among those reporting highest-risk sexual practices is expected to increase the impact and cost-effectiveness of PrEP. PMID:25230290

  12. Evaluation of the Illumina(®) Beta Version ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit for use in genetic profiling.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Jennifer D; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    While capillary electrophoresis-based technologies have been the mainstay for human identity typing applications, there are limitations with this methodology's resolution, scalability, and throughput. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers the capability to multiplex multiple types of forensically-relevant markers and multiple samples together in one run all at an overall lower cost per nucleotide than traditional capillary electrophoresis-based methods; thus, addressing some of these limitations. MPS also is poised to expand forensic typing capabilities by providing new strategies for mixture deconvolution with the identification of intra-STR allele sequence variants and the potential to generate new types of investigative leads with an increase in the overall number and types of genetic markers being analyzed. The beta version of the Illumina ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit is a MPS library preparation method with a streamlined workflow that allows for targeted amplification and sequencing of 63 STRs and 95 identity SNPs, with the option to include an additional 56 ancestry SNPs and 22 phenotypic SNPs depending on the primer mix chosen for amplification, on the MiSeq desktop sequencer (Illumina). This study was divided into a series of experiments that evaluated reliability, sensitivity of detection, mixture analysis, concordance, and the ability to analyze challenged samples. Genotype accuracy, depth of coverage, and allele balance were used as informative metrics for the quality of the data produced. The ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit produced reliable, reproducible results and obtained full profiles with DNA input amounts of 1ng. Data were found to be concordant with current capillary electrophoresis methods, and mixtures at a 1:19 ratio were resolved accurately. Data from the challenged samples showed concordant results with current DNA typing methods with markers in common and minimal allele drop out from the large number of markers typed on these

  13. An Investigation of an Open-Source Software Development Environment in a Software Engineering Graduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xun; Huang, Kun; Dong, Yifei

    2010-01-01

    A semester-long ethnography study was carried out to investigate project-based learning in a graduate software engineering course through the implementation of an Open-Source Software Development (OSSD) learning environment, which featured authentic projects, learning community, cognitive apprenticeship, and technology affordances. The study…

  14. Proceedings, Conference on the Computing Environment for Mathematical Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Recent advances in software and hardware technology which make it economical to create computing environments appropriate for specialized applications are addressed. Topics included software tools, FORTRAN standards activity, and features of languages, operating systems, and hardware that are important for the development, testing, and maintenance of mathematical software.

  15. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  16. Software Design Improvements. Part 2; Software Quality and the Design and Inspection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.; Ziemianski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    The application of assurance engineering techniques improves the duration of failure-free performance of software. The totality of features and characteristics of a software product are what determine its ability to satisfy customer needs. Software in safety-critical systems is very important to NASA. We follow the System Safety Working Groups definition for system safety software as: 'The optimization of system safety in the design, development, use and maintenance of software and its integration with safety-critical systems in an operational environment. 'If it is not safe, say so' has become our motto. This paper goes over methods that have been used by NASA to make software design improvements by focusing on software quality and the design and inspection process.

  17. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  18. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  19. Software Defined Radio with Parallelized Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This software implements software-defined radio procession over multicore, multi-CPU systems in a way that maximizes the use of CPU resources in the system. The software treats each processing step in either a communications or navigation modulator or demodulator system as an independent, threaded block. Each threaded block is defined with a programmable number of input or output buffers; these buffers are implemented using POSIX pipes. In addition, each threaded block is assigned a unique thread upon block installation. A modulator or demodulator system is built by assembly of the threaded blocks into a flow graph, which assembles the processing blocks to accomplish the desired signal processing. This software architecture allows the software to scale effortlessly between single CPU/single-core computers or multi-CPU/multi-core computers without recompilation. NASA spaceflight and ground communications systems currently rely exclusively on ASICs or FPGAs. This software allows low- and medium-bandwidth (100 bps to approx.50 Mbps) software defined radios to be designed and implemented solely in C/C++ software, while lowering development costs and facilitating reuse and extensibility.

  20. Software Defined Radio with Parallelized Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This software implements software-defined radio procession over multi-core, multi-CPU systems in a way that maximizes the use of CPU resources in the system. The software treats each processing step in either a communications or navigation modulator or demodulator system as an independent, threaded block. Each threaded block is defined with a programmable number of input or output buffers; these buffers are implemented using POSIX pipes. In addition, each threaded block is assigned a unique thread upon block installation. A modulator or demodulator system is built by assembly of the threaded blocks into a flow graph, which assembles the processing blocks to accomplish the desired signal processing. This software architecture allows the software to scale effortlessly between single CPU/single-core computers or multi-CPU/multi-core computers without recompilation. NASA spaceflight and ground communications systems currently rely exclusively on ASICs or FPGAs. This software allows low- and medium-bandwidth (100 bps to .50 Mbps) software defined radios to be designed and implemented solely in C/C++ software, while lowering development costs and facilitating reuse and extensibility.

  1. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  2. Guide for the preparation of proposals for the Pre-Freshman Engineering Program: PREP - 1984 (for minorities and women)

    SciTech Connect

    1983-08-01

    The Pre-Freshman Engineering Program (PREP) for minorities and women (formerly PREFACE) will provide funds to colleges and universities for projects aimed at seeking out minority group individuals and women during junior high school and high school years (7th grade through 12th grade) and providing them with enrichment experiences. These experiences shall consist of activities to identify, motivate and prepare students for engineering studies. Emphasis is on the individuals identified, regardless of where they may decide to matriculate for undergraduate studies. Work experience is believed to contribute to the success of these projects because it exposes students to the real world of work of the professional engineer. However, no DOE funds may be used directly to support such work experiences. Eligible organizations, limitations of funding, preparation and submission of proposals, evaluation and selection of proposals, and the final report are discussed.

  3. Consensus builds on population policy as ICPD PrepCom meetings conclude. Vatican objections firm and vocal.

    PubMed

    1994-04-29

    In April, 1994, at UN headquarters in New York, delegates from almost 200 countries and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) negotiated a Programme of Action to be ratified following more debate at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September. A sizable consensus emerged for this Preparatory Committee III (PrepCom) meeting. It has an expanded view of population policy that centers more on meeting individual needs and less on achieving strict demographic goals. Thus, it focuses on the unmet need for reproductive health services (family planning, basic women's health care, and services linked to sexually transmitted diseases). It considers women's status and female education as being important themselves as well as key determinants of fertility rates. Disagreement over access to abortion services and reproductive health services for adolescents remain. Unlike earlier world conferences, most of the world is working towards a consensus, while the Vatican and just a few small countries (Benin, Malta, Honduras, and Nicaragua) object to these services. Some topics that US National Conference of Catholic Bishops did not want in the Programme of Action were references to reducing the incidence of unsafe abortion, promoting condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS, and even safe motherhood. The US and Japan have committed sizable increases in population assistance. Some European countries are concerned about how their contributions would be allocated. US Undersecretary for Global Affairs and a mostly female 23-member US delegation attended PrepCom III. Most of the US delegates were from NGOs. Many country delegates were women. Many countries accepted recommendations of the women's caucus. The US's priorities are promotion of universal access to the full range of high quality family planning and reproductive health services; increasing women's status; child survival promotion; serving adolescent needs; augmenting the role and responsibility of men in

  4. Interactive Visualization of Assessment Data: The Software Package Mondrian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Ali; Sargin, Anatol

    2009-01-01

    Mondrian is state-of-the-art statistical data visualization software featuring modern interactive visualization techniques for a wide range of data types. This article reviews the capabilities, functionality, and interactive properties of this software package. Key features of Mondrian are illustrated with data from the Programme for International…

  5. Evolvable Neural Software System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  6. Software engineering and automatic continuous verification of scientific software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piggott, M. D.; Hill, J.; Farrell, P. E.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.; Ham, D.; Gorman, G. J.; Bond, T.

    2011-12-01

    Software engineering of scientific code is challenging for a number of reasons including pressure to publish and a lack of awareness of the pitfalls of software engineering by scientists. The Applied Modelling and Computation Group at Imperial College is a diverse group of researchers that employ best practice software engineering methods whilst developing open source scientific software. Our main code is Fluidity - a multi-purpose computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code that can be used for a wide range of scientific applications from earth-scale mantle convection, through basin-scale ocean dynamics, to laboratory-scale classic CFD problems, and is coupled to a number of other codes including nuclear radiation and solid modelling. Our software development infrastructure consists of a number of free tools that could be employed by any group that develops scientific code and has been developed over a number of years with many lessons learnt. A single code base is developed by over 30 people for which we use bazaar for revision control, making good use of the strong branching and merging capabilities. Using features of Canonical's Launchpad platform, such as code review, blueprints for designing features and bug reporting gives the group, partners and other Fluidity uers an easy-to-use platform to collaborate and allows the induction of new members of the group into an environment where software development forms a central part of their work. The code repositoriy are coupled to an automated test and verification system which performs over 20,000 tests, including unit tests, short regression tests, code verification and large parallel tests. Included in these tests are build tests on HPC systems, including local and UK National HPC services. The testing of code in this manner leads to a continuous verification process; not a discrete event performed once development has ceased. Much of the code verification is done via the "gold standard" of comparisons to analytical

  7. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  8. Guidelines for software inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Quality control inspections are software problem finding procedures which provide defect removal as well as improvements in software functionality, maintenance, quality, and development and testing methodology is discussed. The many side benefits include education, documentation, training, and scheduling.

  9. Software assurance standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the software assurance program for the provider of software. It also delineates the assurance activities for the provider and the assurance data that are to be furnished by the provider to the acquirer. In any software development effort, the provider is the entity or individual that actually designs, develops, and implements the software product, while the acquirer is the entity or individual who specifies the requirements and accepts the resulting products. This standard specifies at a high level an overall software assurance program for software developed for and by NASA. Assurance includes the disciplines of quality assurance, quality engineering, verification and validation, nonconformance reporting and corrective action, safety assurance, and security assurance. The application of these disciplines during a software development life cycle is called software assurance. Subsequent lower-level standards will specify the specific processes within these disciplines.

  10. The Problem of Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Wilma Jean

    1982-01-01

    Explains how schools can purchase computer software. Lists are presented of (1) sources of published evaluations of selected software, (2) publications which contain names and sources of programs, and (3) magazines providing program listings appropriate for classroom use. (CT)

  11. Design software for reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracz, Will

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the designing of software for reuse. Topics include terminology, software reuse maxims, the science of programming, an interface design example, a modularization example, and reuse and implementation guidelines.

  12. DSS command software update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinnett, W. G.

    1980-01-01

    The modifications, additions, and testing results for a version of the Deep Space Station command software, generated for support of the Voyager Saturn encounter, are discussed. The software update requirements included efforts to: (1) recode portions of the software to permit recovery of approximately 2000 words of memory; (2) correct five Voyager Ground data System liens; (3) provide capability to automatically turn off the command processor assembly local printer during periods of low activity; and (4) correct anomalies existing in the software.

  13. Software verification and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    General procedures for software verification and validation are provided as a guide for managers, programmers, and analysts involved in software development. The verification and validation procedures described are based primarily on testing techniques. Testing refers to the execution of all or part of a software system for the purpose of detecting errors. Planning, execution, and analysis of tests are outlined in this document. Code reading and static analysis techniques for software verification are also described.

  14. FCLib: The Feature Characterization Library.

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Ann C.; Doyle, Wendy S. K.; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip,; Ulmer, Craig D.

    2008-11-01

    The Feature Characterization Library (FCLib) is a software library that simplifies the process of interrogating, analyzing, and understanding complex data sets generated by finite element applications. This document provides an overview of the library, a description of both the design philosophy and implementation of the library, and examples of how the library can be utilized to extract understanding from raw datasets.

  15. Barriers to uptake and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among communities most affected by HIV in the UK: findings from a qualitative study in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among gay, bisexual and men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrant African communities in Scotland, UK. Design Consecutive mixed qualitative methods consisting of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) explored PrEP acceptability. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically to identify anticipated and emerging themes. Setting Participants were recruited through community sexual health and outreach support services, and from non-sexual health settings across Scotland. Participants Inclusion criteria included identification as either MSM and/or from migrant African communities; 18 years and older; living in Scotland at the time of participation. 7 FGs were conducted (n=33): 5 with MSM (n=22) and 2 mixed-sex groups with African participants (n=11, women=8), aged 18–75 years. 34 IDIs were conducted with MSM (n=20) and African participants (n=14, women=10), aged 19–60 years. The sample included participants who were HIV-positive and HIV-negative or untested (HIV-positive FG participants, n=22; HIV-positive IDI participants, n=17). Results Understandings of PrEP effectiveness and concerns about maintaining regular adherence were identified as barriers to potential PrEP uptake and use. Low perception of HIV risk due to existing risk management strategies meant few participants saw themselves as PrEP candidates. Participants identified risk of other sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy as a concern which PrEP did not address for either themselves or their sexual partners. PrEP emerged as a contentious issue because of the potentially negative implications it had for HIV prevention. Many participants viewed PrEP as problematic because they perceived that others would stop using condoms if PrEP was to become available. Conclusions PrEP implementation needs to identify appropriate communication methods in the context of diverse HIV literacy

  16. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the development of the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS), a distributable, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URL's indexed for full-text searching.

  17. Software Shopper. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sandra Hart, Comp.

    This annotated index describes and illustrates a wide selection of public domain instructional software that may be useful in the education of deaf students and provides educators with a way to order the listed programs. The software programs are designed for use on Apple computers and their compatibles. The software descriptions are presented in…

  18. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  19. Experience with a software engineering environment framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, R.; Reedy, A.; Yodis, E.

    1985-01-01

    Experience with a software engineering environment framework tool called the Automated Product Control Environment (APCE) is described. The goals of the framework design, an overview of the major functions and features of the framework, and implementation and use of the framework are presented. Aspects of the framework discussed include automation and control; portability, distributability, and interoperability; cost/benefit analysis; and productivity. Results of using the framework are discussed and the framework approach is briefly compared to other software development environment approaches.

  20. Microcomputers for Libraries: Features, Descriptions, Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, William H.; Warden, Bette M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses major features of microcomputers (word length, memory, size, disk size and capacity, central processing unit speed, peripherals, software) and provides descriptions of 19 models. Comparative analysis on basis of cost, software support, machine capacity, storage capacity, and types of peripherals is presented. A 173-item bibliography is…

  1. Software suite for finite difference method models.

    PubMed

    Arola, T; Hannula, M; Narra, N; Malmivuo, J; Hyttinen, J

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a software suite for finite difference method (FDM) model construction, visualization and quasi-static simulation to be used in bioelectric field modeling. The aim of the software is to provide a full path from medical image data to simulation of bioelectric phenomena and results visualization. It is written in Java and can be run on various platforms while still supporting all features included. The software can be distributed across a network utilizing dedicated servers for calculation intensive tasks. Supported visualization modes are both two- and three-dimensional modes. PMID:17946057

  2. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  3. Bioinformatics software resources.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Don

    2004-09-01

    This review looks at internet archives, repositories and lists for obtaining popular and useful biology and bioinformatics software. Resources include collections of free software, services for the collaborative development of new programs, software news media and catalogues of links to bioinformatics software and web tools. Problems with such resources arise from needs for continued curator effort to collect and update these, combined with less than optimal community support, funding and collaboration. Despite some problems, the available software repositories provide needed public access to many tools that are a foundation for analyses in bioscience research efforts.

  4. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  5. Payload software technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A software analysis was performed of known STS sortie payload elements and their associated experiments. This provided basic data for STS payload software characteristics and sizes. A set of technology drivers was identified based on a survey of future technology needs and an assessment of current software technology. The results will be used to evolve a planned approach to software technology development. The purpose of this plan is to ensure that software technology is advanced at a pace and a depth sufficient to fulfill the identified future needs.

  6. Seasons of Risk: Anticipated Behavior on Vacation and Interest in Episodic Antiretroviral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among a Large National Sample of U.S. Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Elsesser, Steven A; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Biello, Katie B; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A; Egan, James E; Novak, David S; Krakower, Douglas S; Stall, Ron; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    The current analysis evaluates interest in and acceptability of daily PrEP during short episodes of anticipated increased risk (i.e. Epi-PrEP). In 2013, U.S. members of an internet-based MSM sexual networking site were invited to complete a survey about HIV prevention practices in the context of vacationing. 7305 MSM responded to the survey. Of respondents who had vacationed in the past year, 25.6 % reported condomless anal sex (CAS) with new male sex partners while vacationing. Most (92.6 %) respondents agreed that having to use PrEP every day was a barrier to PrEP use and 74.3 % indicated they would take PrEP if they knew it would be helpful for short periods of anticipated increased risk. MSM who reported increased CAS while on vacation in the past year were more likely to indicate that they would take PrEP if it were helpful when used for short periods than respondents who did not (aOR = 2.02, 95 % CI 1.59-2.56, p < 0.001). Studies designed to evaluate uptake, adherence, and protective benefit of short PrEP courses are warranted.

  7. Correlates of Awareness of and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Applications in New York City.

    PubMed

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-07-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications are commonly used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications residing in New York City. Recruitment utilizing broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM yielded a sample of 152 HIV-uninfected MSM. Multivariable models were used to assess demographic and behavioral correlates of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Most participants (85.5 %) had heard about PrEP but few (9.2 %) reported current use. Unwillingness to use PrEP was associated with concerns about side effects (PR = 0.303; 95 % CI 0.130, 0.708; p = 0.006). Given that more than half (57.6 %) of participants were willing to use PrEP, future research is needed to elucidate both individual and structural barriers to PrEP use among MSM. PMID:26966013

  8. Correlates of Awareness of and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Applications in New York City.

    PubMed

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-07-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications are commonly used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications residing in New York City. Recruitment utilizing broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM yielded a sample of 152 HIV-uninfected MSM. Multivariable models were used to assess demographic and behavioral correlates of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Most participants (85.5 %) had heard about PrEP but few (9.2 %) reported current use. Unwillingness to use PrEP was associated with concerns about side effects (PR = 0.303; 95 % CI 0.130, 0.708; p = 0.006). Given that more than half (57.6 %) of participants were willing to use PrEP, future research is needed to elucidate both individual and structural barriers to PrEP use among MSM.

  9. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features that includes associated information about the detected features.

  10. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features thatmore » includes associated information about the detected features.« less

  11. Healthcare Software Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jason G.; Pauley, Keith A.

    2006-01-01

    Software assurance is a rigorous, lifecycle phase-independent set of activities which ensure completeness, safety, and reliability of software processes and products. This is accomplished by guaranteeing conformance to all requirements, standards, procedures, and regulations. These assurance processes are even more important when coupled with healthcare software systems, embedded software in medical instrumentation, and other healthcare-oriented life-critical systems. The current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory requirements and guidance documentation do not address certain aspects of complete software assurance activities. In addition, the FDA’s software oversight processes require enhancement to include increasingly complex healthcare systems such as Hospital Information Systems (HIS). The importance of complete software assurance is introduced, current regulatory requirements and guidance discussed, and the necessity for enhancements to the current processes shall be highlighted. PMID:17238324

  12. Remotely Monitored Sealing Array Software

    2012-09-12

    The Remotely Monitored Sealing Array (RMSA) utilizes the Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) framework to establish the fundamental operating capabilities for communication, security, power management, and cryptography. In addition to the SSP framework the RMSA software has unique capabilities to support monitoring a fiber optic seal. Fiber monitoring includes open and closed as well as parametric monitoring to detect tampering attacks. The fiber monitoring techniques, using the SSP power management processes, allow the seals to lastmore » for years while maintaining the security requirements of the monitoring application. The seal is enclosed in a tamper resistant housing with software to support active tamper monitoring. New features include LED notification of fiber closure, the ability to retrieve the entire fiber optic history via translator command, separate memory storage for fiber optic events, and a more robust method for tracking and resending failed messages.« less

  13. Remotely Monitored Sealing Array Software

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The Remotely Monitored Sealing Array (RMSA) utilizes the Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) framework to establish the fundamental operating capabilities for communication, security, power management, and cryptography. In addition to the SSP framework the RMSA software has unique capabilities to support monitoring a fiber optic seal. Fiber monitoring includes open and closed as well as parametric monitoring to detect tampering attacks. The fiber monitoring techniques, using the SSP power management processes, allow the seals to last for years while maintaining the security requirements of the monitoring application. The seal is enclosed in a tamper resistant housing with software to support active tamper monitoring. New features include LED notification of fiber closure, the ability to retrieve the entire fiber optic history via translator command, separate memory storage for fiber optic events, and a more robust method for tracking and resending failed messages.

  14. SutraPrep, a pre-processor for SUTRA, a model for ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, Alden M.

    2002-01-01

    SutraPrep facilitates the creation of three-dimensional (3D) input datasets for the USGS ground-water flow and transport model SUTRA Version 2D3D.1. It is most useful for applications in which the geometry of the 3D model domain and the spatial distribution of physical properties and boundary conditions is relatively simple. SutraPrep can be used to create a SUTRA main input (?.inp?) file, an initial conditions (?.ics?) file, and a 3D plot of the finite-element mesh in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format. Input and output are text-based. The code can be run on any platform that has a standard FORTRAN-90 compiler. Executable code is available for Microsoft Windows.

  15. The Safety of Tenofovir–Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Individuals With Active Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Mauro; Liu, Albert Y.; McManhan, Vanessa M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Hance, Robert J.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Grant, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents HIV infection. The safety and feasibility of HIV PrEP in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were evaluated. Methods: The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición study randomized 2499 HIV-negative men and transgender women who have sex with men to once-daily oral FTC/TDF versus placebo. Hepatitis serologies and transaminases were obtained at screening and at the time PrEP was discontinued. HBV DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and drug resistance was assessed by population sequencing. Vaccination was offered to individuals susceptible to HBV infection. Results: Of the 2499 participants, 12 (0.5%; including 6 randomized to FTC/TDF) had chronic HBV infection. After stopping FTC/TDF, 5 of the 6 participants in the active arm had liver function tests performed at follow-up. Liver function tests remained within normal limits at post-stop visits except for a grade 1 elevation in 1 participant at post-stop week 12 (alanine aminotransferase = 90, aspartate aminotransferase = 61). There was no evidence of hepatic flares. Polymerase chain reaction of stored samples showed that 2 participants in the active arm had evidence of acute HBV infection at enrollment. Both had evidence of grade 4 transaminase elevations with subsequent resolution. Overall, there was no evidence of TDF or FTC resistance among tested genotypes. Of 1633 eligible for vaccination, 1587 (97.2%) received at least 1 vaccine; 1383 (84.7%) completed the series. Conclusions: PrEP can be safely provided to individuals with HBV infection if there is no evidence of cirrhosis or substantial transaminase elevation. HBV vaccination rates at screening were low globally, despite recommendations for its use, yet uptake and efficacy were high when offered. PMID:26413853

  16. SHMTools: a general-purpose software tool for SHM applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Dustin; Farrar, Charles; Taylor, Stuart; Park, Gyuhae; Flynn, Eric B; Kpotufe, Samory; Dondi, Denis; Mollov, Todor; Todd, Michael D; Rosin, Tajana S; Figueiredo, Eloi

    2010-11-30

    This paper describes a new software package for various structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The software is a set of standardized MATLAB routines covering three main stages of SHM: data acquisition, feature extraction, and feature classification for damage identification. A subset of the software in SHMTools is embeddable, which consists of Matlab functions that can be cross-compiled into generic 'C' programs to be run on a target hardware. The software is also designed to accommodate multiple sensing modalities, including piezoelectric active-sensing, which has been widely used in SHM practice. The software package, including standardized datasets, are publicly available for use by the SHM community. The details of this embeddable software will be discussed, along with several example processes that can be used for guidelines for future use of the software.

  17. NASA software documentation standard software engineering program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. This Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. This basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  18. HIV Risk Behaviors, Perceptions, and Testing and Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Awareness/Use in Grindr-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Hickson, DeMarc A; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-01-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications such as Grindr can help men who have sex with men (MSM) meet sexual partners. Given the high incidence of HIV in the Deep South, the purpose of our study was to assess HIV risk and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and use in a sample of HIV-uninfected, Grindr-using MSM residing in Atlanta, Georgia (n = 84). Most (n = 71; 84.6%) reported being somewhat or very concerned about becoming HIV infected. Most (n = 74; 88.1%) had been tested for HIV in their lifetimes. About three fourths (n = 65; 77.4%) were aware of PrEP, but only 11.9% currently used the medication. HIV continues to disproportionately impact MSM and represents a significant source of concern. As the number of new infections continues to rise, it is important to decrease risks associated with acquisition and transmission of HIV by increasing rates of HIV testing and the use of biobehavioral interventions such as PrEP. PMID:26708834

  19. HIV Risk Behaviors, Perceptions, and Testing and Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Awareness/Use in Grindr-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Hickson, DeMarc A; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-01-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications such as Grindr can help men who have sex with men (MSM) meet sexual partners. Given the high incidence of HIV in the Deep South, the purpose of our study was to assess HIV risk and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and use in a sample of HIV-uninfected, Grindr-using MSM residing in Atlanta, Georgia (n = 84). Most (n = 71; 84.6%) reported being somewhat or very concerned about becoming HIV infected. Most (n = 74; 88.1%) had been tested for HIV in their lifetimes. About three fourths (n = 65; 77.4%) were aware of PrEP, but only 11.9% currently used the medication. HIV continues to disproportionately impact MSM and represents a significant source of concern. As the number of new infections continues to rise, it is important to decrease risks associated with acquisition and transmission of HIV by increasing rates of HIV testing and the use of biobehavioral interventions such as PrEP.

  20. Publishing Platform for Scientific Software - Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Fritzsch, Bernadette; Reusser, Dominik; Brembs, Björn; Deinzer, Gernot; Loewe, Peter; Fenner, Martin; van Edig, Xenia; Bertelmann, Roland; Pampel, Heinz; Klump, Jens; Wächter, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    the life sciences. Based on the developed blueprints a scientific software publishing platform will be iteratively implemented, tested, and evaluated. Thus the platform should be developed continuously on the basis of gained experiences and results. The platform services will be extended one by one corresponding to the requirements of the communities. Thus the implemented platform for the publication of scientific software can be improved and stabilized incrementally as a tool with software, science, publishing, and user oriented features.