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Sample records for prepared bi-mo-ti mixed

  1. Studies on preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry.

    PubMed

    Chavan, U D; Pawar, U B; Pawar, G H

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry pulp and to study the changes in chemical composition and sensory properties of toffee during storage at ambient temperature as well as refrigerated condition. Preliminary experiments were conducted to find out optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. The toffees prepared were wrapped in metallic coated polythene wrapper, packed in 200 gauge polythene bags and stored at ambient (27 ± 2 oC) as well as refrigerated (5 ± 2 oC) condition for 90 days. The stored samples were drawn periodically at 30 days interval for organoleptic and chemical analysis. Preliminary studies were carried out to standardize the optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. Among various combinations of guava and strawberry pulp, 70 : 30 w/w (guava : strawberry) ratios toffee was found better than other combinations in respect to organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The yield of fresh toffee was higher (868 g/kg of pulp) in toffee prepared from 100 % guava (control). The chemical composition indicated that the fresh toffees contained on an average moisture 8.73 %, TSS 83.21 oBrix, titrable acidity 0.3 %, total sugars 73.1 % and ascorbic acid 64.1 mg/100 g. The mean score of fresh toffees for colour and appearance was 8.29, texture 8.02, flavour 8.22, taste 8.32 and overall acceptability 8.16 on 9 point Hedonic scale. The cost of fresh toffee was Rs. 282/kg which was prepared from 70 : 30 guava and strawberry pulp level. The storage studies indicated that the TSS and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture content, ascorbic acid and acidity decreased. The rates of increase or decrease were relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. The sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 90 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated

  2. Studies on preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry.

    PubMed

    Chavan, U D; Pawar, U B; Pawar, G H

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry pulp and to study the changes in chemical composition and sensory properties of toffee during storage at ambient temperature as well as refrigerated condition. Preliminary experiments were conducted to find out optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. The toffees prepared were wrapped in metallic coated polythene wrapper, packed in 200 gauge polythene bags and stored at ambient (27 ± 2 oC) as well as refrigerated (5 ± 2 oC) condition for 90 days. The stored samples were drawn periodically at 30 days interval for organoleptic and chemical analysis. Preliminary studies were carried out to standardize the optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. Among various combinations of guava and strawberry pulp, 70 : 30 w/w (guava : strawberry) ratios toffee was found better than other combinations in respect to organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The yield of fresh toffee was higher (868 g/kg of pulp) in toffee prepared from 100 % guava (control). The chemical composition indicated that the fresh toffees contained on an average moisture 8.73 %, TSS 83.21 oBrix, titrable acidity 0.3 %, total sugars 73.1 % and ascorbic acid 64.1 mg/100 g. The mean score of fresh toffees for colour and appearance was 8.29, texture 8.02, flavour 8.22, taste 8.32 and overall acceptability 8.16 on 9 point Hedonic scale. The cost of fresh toffee was Rs. 282/kg which was prepared from 70 : 30 guava and strawberry pulp level. The storage studies indicated that the TSS and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture content, ascorbic acid and acidity decreased. The rates of increase or decrease were relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. The sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 90 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated

  3. Eutectic self-mixing method for the preparation of LiMn 2O 4 without any artificial mixing procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Koo; Ahn, Wook; Lee, Seung-Goo; Han, Kyoo-Seung; Song, Jun-Ho; Kwon, Oh-Heon; Kang, Eun-Young

    Spinel LiMn 2O 4 as a cathode material for lithium rechargeable batteries is economically prepared by a novel eutectic self-mixing method without any artificial mixing procedures of reactants. The phase transitions of lithium manganese oxide are found three times on the preparation. Thus, those process controls are discussed and emphasized. The prepared LiMn 2O 4 exhibits the initial discharge capacity of 124.8 mAh g -1 and the discharge capacity retention of 98.2% after 20 cycles.

  4. Ion-beam mixing of ceramic alloys: preparation and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.B.; McHargue, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques used to produce unique states of pure metals mixed into ceramic materials are presented. The samples were prepared by irradiating a 1-MeV Fe/sup +/ beam on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ crystal surfaces over which a thin chromium or zirconium film had been evaporated. The limitations of using noble gas ion beams are noted. Micro Knoop hardness tests performed near the surfaces of the samples indicated a significant increase in the hardness of most samples prepared by ion beam mixing.

  5. Variations of temperature of acrylic bone cements prepared by hand and vacuum mixing during their polymerization.

    PubMed

    Liptáková, Tatiana; Lelovics, Henrietta; Necas, Libor

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate variations of temperature in acrylic bone cement SmartSet HV during its polymerization as the function of mixing technique (hand mixing and vacuum mixing) and sample thickness. The temperature of 25-mm diameter samples differing in their thickness was monitored using a parallel plate measuring system of the compact rheometer preheated to the body temperature. The curves representing the temperature measured and average values of times needed to obtain the peak temperatures of the test samples prepared by different techniques of mixing are presented and discussed. It was found that the maximum temperature and also the times of peak temperatures rose with sample thickness but at different rate for each technique of mixing.

  6. MAPLE preparation and characterization of mixed arylenevinylene based oligomers:C60 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Socol, G.; Vacareanu, L.; Socol, M.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Girtan, M.; Stanculescu, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents some studies about the preparation by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of mixed layers based on two arylenevinylene oligomers, 1,4-bis [4-(N,N‧-diphenylamino)phenylvinyl] benzene (L78) and 3,3‧-bis(N-hexylcarbazole)vinylbenzene (L13) as donor and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as acceptor, blended in three different weight ratios: 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. The optical, morphological, structural and electrical properties of these mixed layers have been investigated emphasizing the effect of the layer composition and of the significant degree of disorder. I-V characteristics have revealed typically solar cell behaviour for the heterostructures prepared with mixed layers containing L78 (L13) and fullerene blended in a weight ratio of 1:2. The solar cell structure glass/ITO/L13:C60/Al has shown the best parameters.

  7. Preparation of mixed metal thin films by a PVD method using several kinds of powder targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Makiko; Plasma process; application Team

    2015-09-01

    Bismuth iron garnet (Bi3Fe5O12) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared by a physical vapor deposition method using mixed metal powder targets. The X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results suggest that crystalline thin films can be prepared using powder targets with quality similar to that of the films prepared using bulk targets. Bi3Fe5O12 films prepared using the pulsed laser deposition method were Bi rich, which may be due to the lower melting temperature of Bi (544 K) compared with that of Fe (1811 K). The mean transparency and resistivity of the AZO films prepared by the sputtering method were approximately 79%-84% and 0.5 - 1.4 ohm/cm, respectively.

  8. Flow properties of ice cream mix prepared from palm oil: anhydrous milk fat blends.

    PubMed

    Rosnani, A I Wan; Aini, I Nor; Yazid, A M M; Dzulkifly, M H

    2007-05-15

    Ice cream mixes containing 33.4% total solids including 10% fat, 11.1% milk solid-non fat (MSNF), 12% sugar, 0.35% commercial blend of emulsifier/ stabiliser and water were produced. The blending of PO with AMF were conducted at three different ratios 30: 70, 50: 50 and 70: 30, respectively. The experimental ice cream mixes were compared with a control ice cream mix prepared from AMF. The flow properties were measured after ageing at 0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 24 h and determined using a controlled stress rheometer (Haake RS 100). The Power Law and Casson equation was employed to estimate the yield stress of an ice cream mixes. The regression coefficients (r) was represented well by the Casson model (r > 0.99) for all the samples, indicating goodness of fit. The profiles of the consistency coefficients (K(c)) were quite similar for all experimental samples, which could be attributed to the fact that all the samples exhibited similar viscoelastic behaviour. The flow behaviour index (n) of an ice cream mix prepared from PO and their blends with AMF were less then 1.0 (range 0.04-0.08) indicating that they were psuedoplastic fluid. The eta(o) at shear rate 20(-1) indicated higher degree of viscosity in AMF.

  9. Highly efficient inelastic four-wave mixing using dual induced transparency and coherently prepared states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, M. G.; Jiang, Kaijun; Deng, L.

    2006-09-01

    We investigate a life time broadened and coherently prepared five-state system for multi-wave mixing processes. We show that very efficient wave mixing occurs, producing an unconventional mixing wave that has the characteristics of both conventional four-wave mixing (FWM) and stimulated hyper-Raman (SHR) emission. In addition, we show interesting multiple simultaneous multi-photon interference effects at large propagation distances and demonstrate more than 10 orders of magnitude suppression of populations of the probe wave terminal state and the near three-photon resonance mixing wave generating state. These new type of multi-photon interference based induced transparency effects, which are critically dependent on two distinctive relaxation processes involving both an external supplied and an internally generated fields, are fundamentally different from the conventional three-state electromagnetically induced transparency effect which does not depend on propagation. As a consequence, both the probe and the wave-mixing field to propagate nearly free of absorption and distortions in a highly dispersive medium.

  10. Preparation of mixed bismuth and iron thin films by pulsed laser deposition using powder targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yuki; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth iron garnet (Bi3Fe5O12) thin films, for use in magnetic optics, were prepared by a pulsed laser deposition method using Bi and Fe mixed powder targets in oxygen gas. The deposition rate of the film strongly depended on the target mixture. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results suggest that the prepared films were not Bi3Fe5O12 but Bi-rich films, because of the lower melting temperature of Bi (544 K) compared with that of Fe (1811 K).

  11. Nanocasting of Periodic Mesoporous Materials as an Effective Strategy to Prepare Mixed Phases of Titania.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Luther; Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny; Wu, Chia-Ming; Koodali, Ranjit T

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous titanium dioxide materials were prepared using a nanocasting technique involving silica SBA-15 as the hard-template. At an optimal loading of titanium precursor, the hexagonal periodic array of pores in SBA-15 was retained. The phases of titanium dioxide could be easily varied by the number of impregnation cycles and the nature of titanium alkoxide employed. Low number of impregnation cycles produced mixed phases of anatase and TiO₂(B). The mesoporous TiO₂ materials were tested for solar hydrogen production, and the material consisting of 98% anatase and 2% TiO₂(B) exhibited the highest yield of hydrogen from the photocatalytic splitting of water. The periodicity of the pores was an important factor that influenced the photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that mixed phases of titania containing ordered array of pores can be prepared by using the nanocasting strategy. PMID:26670222

  12. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  13. [Preparation of mixed crystal TiO2 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants].

    PubMed

    Deng, An-Ping; Yang, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Huang, Ying-Ping; Yang, Yong

    2010-12-01

    Mixed crystal TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared from a precursor of TiO2 by hydrothermal-steam method. The effects of the reaction temperature and the reaction time on the photocatalytic activity of the brookite TiO2 were studied. The TiO2 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Photocatalytic degradation of organic dye sulforhodamine B (SRB) under UV light (lambda < or = 387 nm) was used as probe reaction to evaluate the properties of the TiO2. The result showed that TiO2 prepared under 150 degrees C for 24 h had high photocatalytic activity. The size of the mixed crystal TiO2 was 14.20 nm. Brookite and anatase phase of the mixed crystal TiO2 were 63.6% and 36.4%, respectively. The dye discoloration and degradation rates were tracked, and the intermediate products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrogen radicals (*OH) were determined during the photocatalytic experiments. The results indicated that photocatalytic degradation of brookite TiO2 mainly referred to the *OH radical mechanism. After 5 h, the mineralization and oxidation rates of SRB and 2,4-DCP mineralization were 89% and 78%, respectively. The catalyst showed good stability with no significant changes in catalytic properties after 5 cycles of SRB photocatalytic degradation experiments.

  14. Mixed chimerism and permanent specific transplantation tolerance induced by a nonlethal preparative regimen

    SciTech Connect

    Sharabi, Y.; Sachs, D.H.

    1989-02-01

    The use of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as a means of inducing donor-specific tolerance across MHC barriers could provide an immunologically specific conditioning regimen for organ transplantation. However, a major limitation to this approach is the toxicity of whole body irradiation as currently used to abrogate host resistance and permit marrow engraftment. The present study describes methodology for abrogating host resistance and permitting marrow engraftment without lethal irradiation. Our preparative protocol involves administration of anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAbs in vivo, 300-rad WBI, 700-rad thymic irradiation, and unmanipulated fully MHC-disparate bone marrow. B10 mice prepared by this regimen developed stable mixed lymphohematopoetic chimerism without any clinical evidence of graft-vs.-host disease. Engraftment was accompanied by induction of specific tolerance to donor skin grafts (B10.D2), while third-party skin grafts (B10.BR) were promptly rejected. Mice treated with the complete regimen without bone marrow transplantation appeared healthy and enjoyed long-term survival. This study therefore demonstrates that stable mixed chimerism with donor-specific tolerance can be induced across an MHC barrier after a nonlethal preparative regimen, without clinical GVHD and without the risk of aplasia.

  15. Preparation and Mixed Conductivity of Mn-DOPED Bi-Sr-Fe-BASED Perovskite Type Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Doohyun; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Bi0.7Sr0.3FeO3-δ (BSF) with perovskite structure and Mn-doped BSFs were prepared by solid-state reaction and their mixed conductivities were discussed based on results of electrical conductivity and oxygen permeation measurement through membranes of those compounds. BSF showed only 2 S/cm at 800 °C suggesting that its charge unbalance is likely to be compensated by generation of oxygen vacancies. However, Mn-doping caused the increase of electrical conductivity and the decrease of oxygen permeation rate, that is, the extent of charge compensation by electron holes increased through Mn-doping.

  16. Studies on preparation of mixed fruit toffee from Fig and Guava fruits.

    PubMed

    Kohinkar, S N; Chavan, U D; Pawar, V D; Amarowicz, R

    2014-09-01

    Studies were carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed fruit toffee from fig and guava fruit pulp and to evaluate the changes in quality of prepared toffees during storage under ambient as well as refrigerated conditions for 180 days. Among the various combinations of fig and guava fruit pulp, toffee prepared from75:25 w/w (fig: guava) ratios was found better than other combinations in respect to yield, organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The cost of toffee prepared from higher level of fig pulp i.e. 75:25 (fig:guava) ratio was higher (Rs. 71.84/kg). The storage studies of toffees packed in 200 gauge polyethylene bags indicated that the TSS, reducing and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture and acidity content decreased. The rate of reactions was relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. Though the sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 180 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated condition yet the toffees were found to be acceptable even after 180 days at both the conditions.

  17. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane; Akundi N. Murty

    2004-02-23

    formation of carbides is higher for iron compared to cobalt. In the Fe/Co mixed catalyst, it is observed that the presence of iron enhances the cobalt oxide reduction. Catalyst with mixed metal Fe/Co compositions at 12% nitrate solutions (prepared by sol-gel/oil-drop) showed the best conversion rates for the syngas (CO+H{sub 2}). Nano-particle catalysts on sol-gel prepared mesoporous {gamma}-alumina (particularly the nano-particle metal oxide co-entrapped-sol-gel) showed higher conversion rates compared to conventional catalysts prepared by coprecipitation methods.

  18. Characterization of mixed Ti/Al oxide thin films prepared by ion-beam-induced CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitán, M. J.; Stabel, A.; Sánchez-López, J. C.; Justo, A.; González-Elipe, A. R.; Lefebvre, S.; Fernández, A.

    2000-07-01

    The ion-beam-induced chemical vapor deposition (IBICVD) method has been used for the preparation of TiO 2, Al 2O 3 and mixed oxide Al nTi mO x amorphous films on silica substrates. Also, a double-layer Al 2O 3/TiO 2 film has been prepared. The reflectivity (low angle X-ray diffraction) technique, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, have been used to get information about thickness, roughness and electronic density of the films. It has been found that the films are homogeneous and flat being the Al 2O 3 layers less dense than the TiO 2 layers. In particular, Al nTi mO x films can be prepared with variable composition and refraction index. The values obtained for electronic density by X-ray reflectivity have been correlated with the compaction degree of the films as stated from TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy studies.

  19. Preparation of extrusions of bulk mixed oxide compounds with high macroporosity and mechanical strength

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Jothimurugesan, Kandaswami

    1990-01-01

    A simple and effective method for producing bulk single and mixed oxide absorbents and catalysts is disclosed. The method yields bulk single oxide and mixed oxide absorbent and catalyst materials which combine a high macroporosity with relatively high surface area and good mechanical strength. The materials are prepared in a pellet form using as starting compounds, calcined powders of the desired composition and physical properties these powders are crushed to broad particle size distribution, and, optionally may be combined with an inorganic clay binder. The necessary amount of water is added to form a paste which is extruded, dried and heat treated to yield and desired extrudate strength. The physical properties of the extruded materials (density, macroporosity and surface area) are substantially the same as the constituent powder is the temperature of the heat treatment of the extrudates is approximately the same as the calcination temperature of the powder. If the former is substantially higher than the latter, the surface area decreases, but the macroporosity of the extrusions remains essentially constant.

  20. Self-assembled hybrid metal oxide base catalysts prepared by simply mixing with organic modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Masazumi; Kishi, Ryota; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Multidentate materials formed by simply mixing heterogeneous and homogeneous components are promising for construction of versatile active sites on the surface of heterogeneous compounds, however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on such materials. Self-assembly of hetero-hybrid catalytic materials occurs when heterogeneous catalysts having adjacent Lewis acid-Lewis base sites are mixed with an organic modifier that contains at least two Lewis base functional groups. Here we demonstrate the strategy by combining cerium oxide and 2-cyanopyridine that self-assembles to form a charge-transfer complex in methanol that exhibits a 2,000-fold increase in reaction rate for hydromethoxylation of acrylonitrile with high selectivity compared with cerium oxide or 2-cyanopyridine alone. The catalytic system is applied to the transesterification and Knoevenagel condensation affording 14-fold and 11-fold higher activity, respectively, than cerium oxide alone. These results demonstrate the potential versatility of the catalytic system and the generality of the catalyst preparation strategy. PMID:26436638

  1. Preparation, optimization, characterization and cytotoxicity in vitro of Baicalin-loaded mixed micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiqun; Zhao, Lili; Chu, Lianjun; Han, Xu; Zhai, Guangxi

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a Baicalin (BC)-loaded mixed micelle delivery system (BC-ST-P123-MMs) with sodium taurocholate (ST) and pluronic P123 block copolymer (P123) as carrier materials to improve the solubility of BC, a poorly soluble drug. In this study, the mixed micelle system was prepared using the method of thin-film dispersion and then optimized by the homogeneous design-response surface methodology with the entrapment efficiency and drug loading as indexes. The average size and the zeta potential of the BC-ST-P123-MMs were 15.60 nm and -5.26 mV, respectively. Drug loading (DL, 16.94%) and entrapment efficiency (EE, 90.67%) contributed to high solubility (10.20 mg/mL) of BC in water. The optimized BC-ST-P123-MMs appeared spherical with obvious core-shell structure and well dispersed without aggregation and adhesion under TEM. In addition, DSC result indicated that BC had been wrapped in BC-ST-P123-MMs and crystalline state of BC was changed. The release result in vitro showed that BC-ST-P123-MMs presented sustained release behavior compared to control group. The IC50 value of BC-ST-P123-MMs (46.18 μg/mL) was lower than that of BC solution (67.14 μg/mL) on Hep G2 cell lines. Cellular uptake tests illustrated that the ST-P123-MMs system as carrier could significantly enhance the uptake of drugs by tumor cells. The results demonstrated that the BC-loaded mixed micelles could improve solubility of BC and exhibited great potential for delivering drug into cancer cells.

  2. Effectiveness of various drug carriers in controlled release formulations of raloxifene HCl prepared by melt mixing.

    PubMed

    Bikiaris, Dimitrios; Karavelidis, Vassilios; Karavas, Evangelos

    2009-10-01

    In the present study solid dispersions of Raloxifene HCl were prepared by melt mixing. As drug carriers, biodegradable/biocompatible aliphatic polyesters were used. These formulations were compared to those based on extensively used drug carriers such as PEG and Gelucire 50/13. The used aliphatic polyesters namely poly(propylene succinate) (PPSu) and poly(propylene adipate) (PPAd) were prepared by melt polycondensation. The polyesters have melting points close to human body temperature and were used for first time as drug carries. Polymer cytocompatibility based on HUVEC cells viability in the presence of increasing concentrations of polymer was investigated and it was found that PPSu and PPAd exhibit comparable cytocompatibility with poly(dl-lactide). The physical state of solid dispersions was evaluated by FTIR, SEM and XRD techniques. In all cases the interactions between drug and carriers are limited and thus the dispersed drug was mainly in the crystalline state. SEM revealed that the particles size of the dispersed drug increases with increasing the drug amount. The release behavior of the drug is affected from both the drug amount and the kind of the used carrier. The drug is released almost immediately from PEG formulations while Gelucire results in sustained release. In formulations that polyesters were used as drug carriers the release is slower. PMID:19751201

  3. Preparing students to practice evidence-based dentistry: a mixed methods conceptual framework for curriculum enhancement.

    PubMed

    Palcanis, Kent G; Geiger, Brian F; O'Neal, Marcia R; Ivankova, Nataliya V; Evans, Retta R; Kennedy, Lasonja B; Carera, Karen W

    2012-12-01

    This article describes a mixed methods conceptual framework for evidence-based dentistry to enhance the curriculum at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Dentistry. A focus of recent curriculum reform has been to prepare students to integrate evidence-based dentistry into clinical practice. The authors developed a framework consisting of four conceptual phases to introduce curriculum innovation: 1) exploration of the phenomenon; 2) development of two new instruments; 3) data collection, analysis, outcomes, and evaluation; and 4) application to curricular reform. Eight sequential procedural steps (literature review; focus group discussions; development of themes; survey design; internal review; data collection, analysis, and evaluation; development of recommendations with external review; and implementation of recommendations for curricular enhancement) guided the curricular enhancement. Faculty members supported the concept of teaching evidence-based dentistry to facilitate major curriculum reform, and course directors incorporated evidence-based teaching to prepare scientist-practitioners who meet dental performance standards. The new curriculum implemented following completion of the study is in its third year. Much of its structure is based on evidence-based teaching methodologies, and approximately one-third of the content consists of small groups researching clinical problems with applied science and discussing the findings. The framework described in this article proved useful to guide revision of predoctoral clinical education at one dental school and may be useful in other settings.

  4. Bile salt/phospholipid mixed micelle precursor pellets prepared by fluid-bed coating

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fuxia; Xie, Yunchang; Qi, Jianping; Hu, Fuqiang; Lu, Yi; Li, Sanming; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Bile salt/phospholipid mixed micelles (MMs) are potent carriers used for oral absorption of drugs that are poorly soluble in water; however, there are many limitations associated with liquid formulations. In the current study, the feasibility of preparing bile salt/phospholipid MM precursor (preMM) pellets with high oral bioavailability, using fluid-bed coating technology, was examined. In this study, fenofibrate (FB) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) were used as the model drug and the bile salt, respectively. To prepare the MMs and to serve as the micellular carrier, a weight ratio of 4:6 was selected for the sodium deoxycholate/phospholipids based on the ternary phase diagram. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 was selected as the dispersion matrix for precipitation of the MMs onto pellets, since it can enhance the solubilizing ability of the MMs. Coating of the MMs onto the pellets using the fluid-bed coating technology was efficient and the pellets were spherical and intact. MMs could be easily reconstituted from preMM pellets in water. Although they existed in a crystalline state in the preMM pellets, FB could be encapsulated into the reconstituted MMs, and the MMs were redispersed better than solid dispersion pellets (FB:PEG = 1:3) and Lipanthyl®. The redispersibility of the preMM pellets increased with the increase of the FB/PEG/micellar carrier. PreMM pellets with a FB:PEG:micellar carrier ratio of 1:1.5:1.5 showed 284% and 145% bioavailability relative to Lipanthyl® and solid dispersion pellets (FB:PEG = 1:3), respectively. Fluid-bed coating technology has considerable potential for use in preparing sodium deoxycholate/phospholipid preMM pellets, with enhanced oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:23641154

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the phase separation in mixed preparations of moisturizing cream and steroid ointment after centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Funatani, Chiaki; Yokawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Toshiro; Koide, Tatsuo; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    A mixed preparation consisting of a water-in-oil emulsion-type moisturizing cream and a steroid ointment is frequently prescribed for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. We have investigated the compatibility of moisturizing creams and ointments because there are concerns regarding the physical stability of these mixed preparations. The key technology used in this study was magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A commercial moisturizing cream and white petrolatum or clobetasone butyrate (CLB) ointment samples were mixed in a weight ratio of 1 : 1. A centrifugation test protocol (20000×g for 3 min) was implemented to accelerate the destabilization processes in the samples. After centrifugation, the mixed preparations separated into three distinct layers (upper, middle, and lower), while no phase separation was observed using moisturizing cream alone. The phase separation was monitored using chemical shift selective images of water and oil and quantitative T2 maps. In addition, MR and near-infrared spectroscopy were employed for component analysis of each phase-separated layer. Collectively, it was confirmed that the lower layer contained water, oils, and organic solvent, while the upper and middle layers were composed solely of oils. Furthermore, this study investigated the distribution of CLB in the phase-separated samples and showed that a heterogeneous distribution existed. From our results, it was confirmed that the mixed preparation became unstable because of the incompatibility of the moisturizing cream and ointment. PMID:25948331

  6. Self-Efficacy and Preparation of Scholarly Writing: Online Doctoral Coursework to Comprehensive Examination--a Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is seldom explicitly taught, most specifically, in academic and scholarly writing. Therefore, this mixed methods correlational phenomenology research study explored the correlation between self-efficacy perception and course room preparation for the comprehensive examination, APA standards in the course room, APA standards evaluation for…

  7. Preparation of glass-ceramics from molten steel slag using liquid-liquid mixing method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Jianwen; Liu, Wanchao; Yang, Jiakuan

    2011-10-01

    A novel approach to prepare glass-ceramics from molten steel slag (MSS) was proposed. In laboratory, the water-quenched steel slag was melted at 1350 °C to simulate the MSS. A mixture of additive powders in wt.% (55 quartz powder, 5 Na2O, 16 emery powder, 15 CaO, 8 MgO, 1 TiO2) were melted into liquid at 1350 °C separately. Then the MSS and the molten additives were mixed homogeneously in order to obtain parent glass melt. The proportion of MSS in the melt was 50 wt.%. The melt was subsequently cast, annealed, heat-treated and transformed into glass-ceramics. Their microstructure and crystallization behavior were analyzed. The samples exhibited excellent properties and displayed bulk crystallization. The major crystallized phase was diopside ((Fe0.35Al0.20Mg0.44)Ca0.96(Fe0.08Si0.70Al0.20)2O6.12), which was uniformly distributed in the microstructure. The novel approach may help iron and steel industry achieve zero disposal of steel slag with utilization of the heat energy of the MSS.

  8. A new and improved method for the preparation of drug nanosuspension formulations using acoustic mixing technology.

    PubMed

    Leung, Dennis H; Lamberto, David J; Liu, Lina; Kwong, Elizabeth; Nelson, Todd; Rhodes, Timothy; Bak, Annette

    2014-10-01

    Drug discovery and development is a challenging area. During the drug optimization process, available drug compounds often have poor physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, making the proper in vivo evaluation of these compounds difficult. To address these challenges, drug nanoparticles of poorly soluble compounds have emerged as a promising formulation approach. Herein, we report on a new drug sparing technology utilizing low shear acoustic mixing to rapidly identify optimized nanosuspension formulations for a wide range of compounds with dramatically improved material and time efficiencies. This approach has several key advantages over typical methods of preparing nanoparticles, including miniaturization of the milling process, the ability to evaluate multiple formulation conditions in a high throughput manner, and direct translation to optimized formulation scale-up for in vivo studies. Furthermore, there are additional benefits obtained with this new approach resulting in nanosuspension formulations with significant stability and physical property enhancements over those obtained using traditional media milling techniques. These advantages make this approach highly suitable for the rapid evaluation of potential drug candidates in the discovery and development space.

  9. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-01-14

    We have developed effective nanoparticle incorporated heterogeneous F-T catalysts starting with the synthesis of Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles using Fe(acac){sub 3}, Co(acac){sub 2}, and Cu(acac){sub 2} precursors and incorporating the nanoparticles into alumina sol-gel to yield higher alkanes production. SEM/EDX, XRD, BET, VSM and SQUID experimental techniques were used to characterize the catalysts, and GC/MS were used for catalytic product analysis. The nanoparticle oxide method gave the highest metal loading. In case of mixed metals it seems that Co or Cu interferes and reduces Fe metal loading. The XRD pattern for nanoparticle mixed metal oxides show alloy formation between cobalt and iron, and between copper and iron in sol-gel prepared alumina granules. The alloy formation is also supported by DTA and VMS data. The magnetization studies were used to estimate the catalyst activity in pre- and post-catalysts. A lower limit of {approx}40% for the reduction efficiency was obtained due to hydrogenation at 450 C for 4 hrs. About 85% of the catalyst has become inactive after 25 hrs of catalytic reaction, probably by forming carbides of Fe and Co. The low temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) SQUID magnetometer results indicate a superparamagnetic character of metal nanoparticles with a wide size distribution of < 20 nm nanoparticles. We have developed an efficient and economical procedure for analyzing the F-T products using low cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Two GC columns DC 200/500 and Supelco Carboxen-1000 column were tested for the separation of higher alkanes and the non-condensable gases. The Co/Fe on alumina sol-gel catalyst showed the highest yield for methane among Fe, Co, Cu, Co/Fe, Cu/Co, Fe/Cu. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina mesoporous catalyst.

  10. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-05-24

    We have developed and streamlined the experimental systems: (a) Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) photosynthesis, ball-milling, and chemical synthesis of Fe, Co, and Cu nanoparticle catalysts; (b) Sol-gel method for mesoporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, hybrid alumina/silica granular supports; (c) Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods to incorporate metal nanoparticles into mesoporous 1 mm granular supports; (d) Low-cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as carrier gas for the determination of wide spectrum of alkanes produced during the F-T reactions; and (e) Gas-flow reactor and microchannel reactor for fast screening of catalysts. The LISD method could produce Co, Cu, and Fe (5 nm) nanoparticles, but in milligram quantities. We could produce nanoparticles in gram quantities using high-energy ball milling and chemical synthesis methods. Ball milling gave wide particle size distribution compared to the chemical synthesis method that gave almost uniform size ({approx}5 nm) particles. Metal nanoparticles Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe were loaded (2-12 wt%) uniformly into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, or alumina/silica hybrid supports by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, prior to syngas FT reaction studies. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). The effect of solgel supports alumina, silica, and alumina/silica hybrid were examined on catalytic properties. Metal loading efficiencies for pure metal catalysts increased in the order Co, Cu and Fe in agreement with solubility of metal hydroxides. In case of mixed metals, Co and Cu seams to interfere and reduce Fe metal loading when metal nitrate solutions are used. The solubility differences of metal hydroxides would not allow precise control of metal loading. We have overcome this problem by

  11. Preparation of N-doped graphene by reduction of graphene oxide with mixed microbial system and its haemocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Mengmeng; Zhu, Chunlin; Feng, Zhang-Qi; Yang, Jiazhi; Liu, Lin; Sun, Dongping

    2014-04-01

    A steady, effective and environment friendly method of introducing nitrogen into graphene is by microbial reduction of graphene oxide with mixed microorganisms from the anode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFC). Using this method, N-doped graphene is easily obtained under mild conditions and by simple treatment processes, with the N/C ratio reaching 8.14%. Various characterizations demonstrate that the as-prepared N-doped graphene has excellent properties and is comparable with, and in some aspects, even better than, pristine graphene (containing only elemental C) prepared by chemical methods. The N-doped graphene (mainly substitution of C in the plane of the graphene sheet) with uniform distribution of N was haemocompatible, nontoxic, and water-dispersible, all of which are desirable properties for biomaterials and attributable to a synergetic metabolic effect of mixed microorganisms.A steady, effective and environment friendly method of introducing nitrogen into graphene is by microbial reduction of graphene oxide with mixed microorganisms from the anode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFC). Using this method, N-doped graphene is easily obtained under mild conditions and by simple treatment processes, with the N/C ratio reaching 8.14%. Various characterizations demonstrate that the as-prepared N-doped graphene has excellent properties and is comparable with, and in some aspects, even better than, pristine graphene (containing only elemental C) prepared by chemical methods. The N-doped graphene (mainly substitution of C in the plane of the graphene sheet) with uniform distribution of N was haemocompatible, nontoxic, and water-dispersible, all of which are desirable properties for biomaterials and attributable to a synergetic metabolic effect of mixed microorganisms. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Image of microbial fuel cells, ID/IG ratio, simulation of the reaction equation, antibacterial experiment of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus

  12. Nanoporous composites prepared by a combination of SBA-15 with Mg–Al mixed oxides. Water vapor sorption properties

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Verdejo, Amaury; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ruiz-Reyes, Mayra; Santamaría, Juana-Deisy; Fetter, Geolar

    2014-01-01

    Summary This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg–Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg–Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method). The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg–Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method), Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials. PMID:25161858

  13. Nanoporous composites prepared by a combination of SBA-15 with Mg-Al mixed oxides. Water vapor sorption properties.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Verdejo, Amaury; Sampieri, Alvaro; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ruiz-Reyes, Mayra; Santamaría, Juana-Deisy; Fetter, Geolar

    2014-01-01

    This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg-Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method). The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg-Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method), Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of novel mixed micelles as nanocarriers for intravenous delivery of propofol.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinru; Zhang, Yanhui; Fan, Yating; Zhou, Yanxia; Wang, Xiaoning; Fan, Chao; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Novel mixed polymeric micelles formed from biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) and polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS15), were fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilizing poorly soluble anesthetic drug propofol. The solubilization of propofol by the mixed micelles was more efficient than those made of mPEG-PLA alone. Micelles with the optimized composition of mPEG-PLA/Solutol HS15/propofol = 10/1/5 by weight had particle size of about 101 nm with narrow distribution (polydispersity index of about 0.12). Stability analysis of the mixed micelles in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the diblock copolymer mPEG efficiently protected the BSA adsorption on the mixed micelles because the hydrophobic groups of the copolymer were efficiently screened by mPEG, and propofol-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage for at least 6 months. The content of free propofol in the aqueous phase for mixed micelles was lower by 74% than that for the commercial lipid emulsion. No significant differences in times to unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex were observed between mixed micelles and commercial lipid formulation. The pharmacological effect may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers with improved solubilization capacity for poorly soluble drugs. PMID:21711808

  15. Preparation and evaluation of novel mixed micelles as nanocarriers for intravenous delivery of propofol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinru; Zhang, Yanhui; Fan, Yating; Zhou, Yanxia; Wang, Xiaoning; Fan, Chao; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-12-01

    Novel mixed polymeric micelles formed from biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) and polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS15), were fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilizing poorly soluble anesthetic drug propofol. The solubilization of propofol by the mixed micelles was more efficient than those made of mPEG-PLA alone. Micelles with the optimized composition of mPEG-PLA/Solutol HS15/propofol = 10/1/5 by weight had particle size of about 101 nm with narrow distribution (polydispersity index of about 0.12). Stability analysis of the mixed micelles in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the diblock copolymer mPEG efficiently protected the BSA adsorption on the mixed micelles because the hydrophobic groups of the copolymer were efficiently screened by mPEG, and propofol-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage for at least 6 months. The content of free propofol in the aqueous phase for mixed micelles was lower by 74% than that for the commercial lipid emulsion. No significant differences in times to unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex were observed between mixed micelles and commercial lipid formulation. The pharmacological effect may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers with improved solubilization capacity for poorly soluble drugs.

  16. PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE SILICONE RUBBER MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANES FOR ETHANOL-WATER PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and zeolite incorporated mixed matrix materials are gaining importance in a variety of applications including membrane separation. PDMS based membranes are used in pervaporation (PV), a membrane technology, for the selective removal of organics such ...

  17. Plant growth response in experimental soilless mixes prepared from coal combustion products and organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardhan, S.; Watson, M.; Dick, W.A.

    2008-07-15

    Large quantities of organic materials such as animal manures, yard trimmings, and biosolids are produced each year. Beneficial use options for them are often limited, and composting has been proposed as a way to better manage these organic materials. Similarly, burning of coal created 125 million tons of coal combustion products (CCP) in the United States in 2006. An estimated 53 million tons of CCP were reused, whereas the remainder was deposited in landfills. By combining CCP and composted organic materials (COM), we were able to create soilless plant growth mixes with physicochemical conditions that can support excellent plant growth. An additional benefit is the conservation of natural raw materials, such as peat, which is generally used for making soilless mixes. Experimental mixes were formulated by combining CCP and COM at ratios ranging from 2:8 to 8:2 (vol/vol), respectively. Water content at saturation for the created mixes was 63% to 72%, whereas for the commercial control, it was 77%. pH values for the best performing mixes ranged between 5.9 and 6.8. Electrical conductivity and concentrations of required plant nutrient were also within plant growth recommendations for container media. Significantly (P < 0.0001) higher plant biomass growth (7%-130%) was observed in the experimental mixes compared with a commercial mix. No additional fertilizers were provided during the experiment, and reduced fertilization costs can thus accrue as an added benefit to the grower. In summary, combining CCP and COM, derived from source materials often viewed as wastes, can create highly productive plant growth mixes.

  18. Preparative isolation of polymerase chain reaction products using mixed-mode chromatography.

    PubMed

    Matos, T; Silva, G; Queiroz, J A; Bülow, L

    2015-11-15

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become one of the most useful techniques in molecular biology laboratories around the world. The purification of the target DNA product is often challenging, however, and most users are restricted to employing available commercial kits. The recent developments in mixed-mode chromatography have shown higher selectivity for a variety of nucleic acid-containing samples. Capto Adhere is a mixed-mode chromatography resin that offers a high-selectivity ligand and is here applied for the purification of amplified DNAs from PCR mixtures in a 10-min single step, with yields above 95%, high linearity, and high precision for different concentrations.

  19. Preparation of Rodent Primary Cultures for Neuron–Glia, Mixed Glia, Enriched Microglia, and Reconstituted Cultures with Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Heng; Oyarzabal, Esteban A.; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Microglia, neurons, and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) are the major cell types in the central nervous system. In the past decades, primary microglia-enriched cultures have been widely used to study the biological functions of microglia in vitro. In order to study the interactions between microglia and other brain cells, neuron–glia, neuron–microglia, and mixed glia cultures were developed. The aim of this chapter is to provide basic and adaptable protocols for the preparation of these microglia-containing primary cultures from rodent. Meanwhile, we also want to provide a collection of tips from our collective experiences doing primary brain cell cultures. PMID:23813383

  20. Facile preparation of highly-dispersed cobalt-silicon mixed oxide nanosphere and its catalytic application in cyclohexane selective oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Highly dispersed cobalt-silicon mixed oxide [Co-SiO2] nanosphere was successfully prepared with a modified reverse-phase microemulsion method. This material was characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray absorption spectroscopy near-edge structure, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. High valence state cobalt could be easily obtained without calcination, which is fascinating for the catalytic application for its strong oxidation ability. In the selective oxidation of cyclohexane, Co-SiO2 acted as an efficient catalyst, and good activity could be obtained under mild conditions. PMID:22067075

  1. A Simplified Direct Lipid Mixing Lipoplex Preparation: Comparison of Liposomal-, Dimethylsulfoxide-, and Ethanol-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Joseph W.; Gokel, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Established transfection methodology often uses commercial reagents, which must be formed into liposomes in a sequence of about half a dozen steps. The simplified method reported here is a direct lipid mixing approach that requires fewer steps, less manipulation, and is less time-consuming. Results are comparable to those obtained with more commonly used methods, as judged by a variety of analytical techniques and by comparisons of transfection results. The method reported here may be applied to non-liposome-forming compounds, thereby greatly expanding the range of structures that can be tested for transfection ability. PMID:27323668

  2. A Simplified Direct Lipid Mixing Lipoplex Preparation: Comparison of Liposomal-, Dimethylsulfoxide-, and Ethanol-Based Methods.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Joseph W; Gokel, George W

    2016-01-01

    Established transfection methodology often uses commercial reagents, which must be formed into liposomes in a sequence of about half a dozen steps. The simplified method reported here is a direct lipid mixing approach that requires fewer steps, less manipulation, and is less time-consuming. Results are comparable to those obtained with more commonly used methods, as judged by a variety of analytical techniques and by comparisons of transfection results. The method reported here may be applied to non-liposome-forming compounds, thereby greatly expanding the range of structures that can be tested for transfection ability. PMID:27323668

  3. Dexamethasone-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)/silica nanoparticles composites prepared by supercritical CO2 foaming/mixing and deposition.

    PubMed

    de Matos, M B C; Piedade, A P; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Braga, M E M; de Sousa, H C

    2013-11-18

    A supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)-assisted foaming/mixing method (SFM) was implemented for preparing dexamethasone (DXMT)-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)/silica nanoparticles (PCL/SNPs) composite materials suitable for bone regeneration. The composites were prepared from PCL and mesoporous SNPs (MCM-41/SBA-15) by means of scCO2-assisted SFM at several operational pressures, processing times and depressurization conditions. DXMT was loaded into SNPs (applying a scCO2 solvent impregnation/deposition method - SSID) and into PCL/SNPs composites (using the SFM method). The effects of the employed operational and compositional variables on the physicochemical and morphological features as well as in the in vitro release profiles of DXMT were analyzed in detail. This work demonstrates that the above-referred scCO2-based methods can be very useful for the preparation of DXMT-loaded PCL/SNPs composites with tunable physicochemical, thermomechanical, morphological and drug release properties and suitable for hard-tissue regeneration applications.

  4. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. PMID:24211815

  5. Preparation and reactivity of mixed-ligand iron(II) hydride complexes with phosphites and polypyridyls.

    PubMed

    Albertin, Gabriele; Antoniutti, Stefano; Bortoluzzi, Marco

    2004-02-23

    Hydride complexes [FeH(N-N)P3]BPh4 (1, 2) [N-N = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen); P = P(OEt)4, PPh(OEt)2, and PPh2OEt] were prepared by allowing FeCl2(N-N) to react with phosphite in the presence of NaBH4. The hydrides [FeH(bpy)2P]BPh4 (3) [P = P(OEt)3 and PPh(OEt)2] were prepared by reacting the tris(2,2'-bipyridine) [Fe(bpy)3]Cl2.5H2O complex with the appropriate phosphite in the presence of NaBH4. The protonation reaction of 1 and 2 with acid was studied and led to thermally unstable (above -20 degrees C) dihydrogen [Fe(eta2-H2)(N-N)P3]2+ (4, 5) derivatives. The presence of the H2 ligand is indicated by short T(1 min) values (3.1-3.6 ms) and by J(HD) measurements (31.2-32.5 Hz) of the partially deuterated derivatives. Carbonyl [Fe(CO)(bpy)[P(OEt)3]3](BPh4)2 (6) and nitrile [Fe(CH3CN)(N-N)P3](BPh4)2 (7, 8) [N-N = bpy, phen; P = P(OEt)3 and PPh(OEt)2] complexes were prepared by substituting the H2 ligand in the eta2-H2 4, 5 derivatives. Aryldiazene complexes [Fe(ArN=NH)(N-N)P3](BPh4)2 (9, 10, 11) (Ar = C6H5, 4-CH3C6H4) were also obtained by allowing hydride [FeH(N-N)P3]BPh4 derivatives to react with aryldiazonium cations in CH2Cl2 at low temperature.

  6. Preparation and reactivity of mixed-ligand ruthenium(II) hydride complexes with phosphites and polypyridyls.

    PubMed

    Albertin, Gabriele; Antoniutti, Stefano; Bacchi, Alessia; D'Este, Claudia; Pelizzi, Giancarlo

    2004-02-23

    Chloro complexes [RuCl(N-N)P3]BPh4 (1-3) [N-N = 2,2'-bipyridine, bpy; 1,10-phenanthroline, phen; 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, 5,5'-Me2bpy; P = P(OEt)3, PPh(OEt)2 and PPh2OEt] were prepared by allowing the [RuCl4(N-N)].H2O compounds to react with an excess of phosphite in ethanol. The bis(bipyridine) [RuCl(bpy)2[P(OEt)3

  7. Preparation of durable hydrophobic cellulose fabric from water glass and mixed organosilanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Song-Min; Li, Zhengxiong; Xing, Yanjun; Xin, John H.; Tao, Xiao-Ming

    2010-12-01

    Durable superhydrophobic cellulose fabric was prepared from water glass and n-octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES) with 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as crosslinker by sol-gel method. The result showed that the addition of GPTMS could result in a better fixation of silica coating from water glass on cellulose fabric. The silanization of hydrolyzed ODTES at different temperatures and times was studied and optimized. The results showed that silanization time was more important than temperature in forming durable hydrophobic surface. The durability of superhydrophobicity treatment was analyzed by XPS. As a result, the superhydrophobic cotton treated under the optimal condition still remained hydrophobic properties after 50 washing cycles.

  8. Preparation and characterization of RF sputtered Ce-V mixed oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Malini, D. Rachel; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2012-06-05

    Cerium-Vanadium mixed oxide thin films were deposited at room temperature by varying RF power in RF magnetron sputtering. The morphology and structural features were studied by taking FESEM and XRD and optical properties were analyzed by taking transmittance and absorption spectra. The crystalline film shows orthorhombic CeVO{sub 3} phase and the observed grain size varies from 89.4nm to 208.7nm. The transmission increases and the absorption edge at 330nm is blue shifted with increase in RF power. The optical band gap is found to increase from 1.59 to 1.94eV. The PL spectra shows blue shift in the emission peak centered at a wavelength of 495nm with increase in RF power.

  9. Pillared-clay catalysts containing mixed-metal complexes I. Preparation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.; Tatarchuk, B.J. ); Raythatha, R.H. )

    1989-01-01

    High-surface-area pillared clays were prepared from naturally occurring montmorillonites by exchanging interlayer ions with polyoxocations containing (i) iron, (ii) aluminum, (iii) discrete mixtures of (i) and (ii), or (iv) iron and aluminum located within the same complex. The valence state, solid-state properties, and stability of these pillars were determined following reduction and oxidation using Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and BET surface area measurements. Controlled atmosphere electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were also used to follow the nucleation and sintering behavior of the pillars during reduction. Moessbauer data suggested interlayer formation of metallic iron domains following reduction of types (i) and (iii) pillared systems. The magnetic properties and the oxidation behavior deduced from Moessbauer analysis and the complementary insights provided by XRD strongly indicated that these crystallites were in the form of thin-film/pancake-shape islands most likely conforming to the geometry of the interlayer region. The expanded structures of types (ii) and (iii) pillared systems were found to be relatively stable following reduction up to 723 K due to the irreducible nature of discrete aluminum pillars under these conditions. Intercalation of clays with mixtures of chemically distinct pillars appears to provide a unique method for preparing highly dispersed metallic or even bimetallic catalysts possessing two-dimensional sieve-like behavior with high overall surface areas and high loadings of the active metal.

  10. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Setala V. Naidu

    2003-01-01

    We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

  11. The preparation of calcium carbonate crystals regulated by mixed cationic/cationic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yingyuan; Li, Shuxia; Yu, Li; Liu, Yonghui; Wang, Xiaoqing; Jiao, Jingjing

    2011-06-01

    Cationic surfactants, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 12mim]Br) and DDAB/[C 12mim]Br mixture were used to induce the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) crystals at ambient temperature. The obtained CaCO 3 particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphologies of CaCO 3 crystals changed from laminated cube to sphericity and string shape with the increase of DDAB and [C 12mim]Br concentration, respectively. Flower-shaped CaCO 3 crystals were synthesized in the mixed DDAB/[C 12mim]Br system. More importantly, it was found that the complete conversion from calcite to vaterite was achieved at room temperature only through changing DDAB concentration. The regulations of DDAB and [C 12mim]Br to CaCO 3 crystals have been compared with that of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) in our previous work and possible mechanisms have been proposed. It is shown that the cationic surfactants can control the crystallization of CaCO 3 and the number of hydrophobic alkyl chains of cationic surfactants might be more effective in modulating the crystallization of vaterite than the head groups.

  12. Solid dispersion of acetaminophen and poly(ethylene oxide) prepared by hot-melt mixing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Wang, Peng; Huang, Chien-Yueh; Ku, M Sherry; Liu, Huiju; Gogos, Costas

    2010-08-16

    In this study, a model drug, acetaminophen (APAP), was melt mixed with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) using a Brabender mixer. APAP was found to recrystallize upon cooling to room temperature for all the drug loadings investigated. Higher drug loading leads to faster recrystallization rate. However, the morphology of the recrystallized drug crystals is identical in samples with different drug loadings and does not change with the storage time. To adjust the drug's dissolution rate, nanoclay Cloisite 15A and 30B were added into the binary mixture. The presence of either of the nanoclay dramatically accelerates the drug's recrystallization rate and slows down the drug's releasing rate. The drop of the releasing rate is mainly due to the decrease of wettability, as supported by the contact angle data. Data analysis of the dissolution results suggests that the addition of nanoclays changes the drug's release mechanism from erosion dominant to diffusion dominant. This study suggests that nanoclays may be utilized to tailor the drug's releasing rate and to improve the dosage form's stability by dramatically shortening the lengthy recrystallization process. PMID:20435110

  13. Solid dispersion of acetaminophen and poly(ethylene oxide) prepared by hot-melt mixing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Wang, Peng; Huang, Chien-Yueh; Ku, M Sherry; Liu, Huiju; Gogos, Costas

    2010-08-16

    In this study, a model drug, acetaminophen (APAP), was melt mixed with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) using a Brabender mixer. APAP was found to recrystallize upon cooling to room temperature for all the drug loadings investigated. Higher drug loading leads to faster recrystallization rate. However, the morphology of the recrystallized drug crystals is identical in samples with different drug loadings and does not change with the storage time. To adjust the drug's dissolution rate, nanoclay Cloisite 15A and 30B were added into the binary mixture. The presence of either of the nanoclay dramatically accelerates the drug's recrystallization rate and slows down the drug's releasing rate. The drop of the releasing rate is mainly due to the decrease of wettability, as supported by the contact angle data. Data analysis of the dissolution results suggests that the addition of nanoclays changes the drug's release mechanism from erosion dominant to diffusion dominant. This study suggests that nanoclays may be utilized to tailor the drug's releasing rate and to improve the dosage form's stability by dramatically shortening the lengthy recrystallization process.

  14. Enhanced strength in reduced graphene oxide/nickel composites prepared by molecular-level mixing for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chao

    2015-02-01

    An effective molecular-level mixing approach was used to prepare reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Ni powders, which were directly consolidated into rGO/Ni composites by spark plasma sintering. The rGO/Ni composites were found to exhibit a homogeneous dispersion of rGO and a strong interfacial bonding between the rGO and the Ni matrix. The enhanced interfacial bonding was attributed to the oxygen-mediated bonding generated from the interactions between the residue functional groups of rGO and the Ni atoms. Tensile test revealed that 1.5 wt% rGO/Ni composites demonstrated a 95.2 % increase in tensile strength and a 327.6 % increase in yield strength, while simultaneously retained a 12.1 % of elongation. This study thus proposed an effective way to fabricate rGO/Ni composites with enhanced tensile properties.

  15. Preparation and characterization of ceramic products by thermal treatment of sewage sludge ashes mixed with different additives.

    PubMed

    Merino, Ignacio; Arévalo, Luis F; Romero, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The study of the ceramic characteristics of sludge ashes, alone or mixed with additives (kaolin, montmorillonite, illitic clay, powdered flat glass) includes characterization of additives, preparation of probes (dry or wet mixed), thermal treatment (up to 1200 degrees C, except melting or deformation) and control (densities, compressive strengths and water absorption). Thermal treatment increases the density and compressive strength of probes (both parameters go through maxima, with later decreases) and decreases the absorption of water. The densification is also revealed by the evolution of the ratio of decrease of volume/loss of mass. The maximum values of compressive strengths were obtained for 25% of illitic clay, montmorillonite and glass powder. Densification concerning probes with sludge ashes alone does not occur with kaolin. Experimental data were adjusted to exponential relationships between compressive strengths and densities for every composition, and also to a general equation for all probes. The apparent density obtained was adjusted to a non-linear dependence with temperature, leading to a maximum in density and permitting calculating the temperature of occurrence of this maximum. The adjustment was not possible for probes containing kaolin, requiring presumably higher temperatures to densify. Water absorption has low values for ashes or kaolin probes, intermediate values for illite and powdered flat glass probes and high values for montmorillonite probes. Excepting with kaolin, ceramic materials with better characteristics than sludge ashes without additives were obtained at lower treatment temperatures. PMID:17150348

  16. Preparation of silica-encapsulated ZnSe nanocrystals by mixed surfactant microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Ma, Sung Jin; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Hyung Wook; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Joon

    2013-11-01

    Silica-encapsulated ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) have been prepared by employing sodium (2-ethylhexyl)sulfonate (AOT)/water/cyclohexane microemulsions containing ZnSe quantum dots with polyoxyethylenenonylphenylether (NP5)/water/cyclohexane microemulsions containing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). Size tunable silica nanoparticles were achieved by using various water-to-surfactant ratios, W ([H2O]/[surfactant]). In order to characterize as-synthesized nanocrystals, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed. Cubic zinc blende quantum dots (QDs) (2.5 nm in diameter) were successfully encapsulated by silica nanoparticles (14.3-28.9 nm in diameter). The enhanced photoluminescence efficiency about 10% has been observed when compared with the results from the similar work using AOT microemulsions. The entire size of the silica-encapsulated nanocrystals increased with increasing W, then decreased slightly when free water exists in the core of the NP5/AOT microemulsion. On the other hand, the ZnSe NCs in the silica did not change their size during the synthesis. In addition, the possible mechanisms for growth of silica particles and the kinetics of silica particles formation were discussed. PMID:24245247

  17. Preparation of trimers and tetramers of mixed sequence oligodeoxynucleoside methylphosphonates and assignment of configurations at the chiral phosphorus.

    PubMed Central

    Vyazovkina, E V; Rife, J P; Lebedev, A V; Wickstrom, E

    1993-01-01

    Synthesis of stereoregular DNA methylphosphonates has been accomplished for homo-oligomers, but remains a formidable problem for oligomers of a defined antisense target sequence. In this work, four trimer and tetramer deoxynucleoside methylphosphonates of mixed sequence (dACA, dCCAA, dAGGG, and dGCAT) were prepared by block coupling of diastereomerically pure dimers with either monomers or other diastereomerically pure dimers. These oligomers were separated chromatographically into individual diastereomers, and the configurations of the chiral methylphosphonate linkages were assigned. Three types of methods were used to assign configuration of a new methylphosphonate linkage: preparation of the same diastereomer through multiple synthetic pathways, base hydrolysis, and acid hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of the diastereomerically pure oligomers into component dimers and monomers was followed by chromatographic comparison with control dimers of known configuration. In all cases studied, oligomers with R configurations displayed faster elution from silica gel than did oligomers with the respective S configuration. NMR spectra of individual diastereomers of dACA were studied, revealing characteristic differences in chemical shifts which may prove useful in configurational assignments of longer oligomers. Thus, these data provide a methodological basis for synthesis and configurational assignment of longer methylphosphonate oligomers to use as antisense probes. PMID:8290358

  18. Investigation of soy protein blends prepared by simultaneous plasticization and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng

    In this research, plasticization and mixing of soy protein concentrate (SPC) with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) were carried out simultaneously in a single-step compounding process. The effects of water content in SPC prior to compounding and SPC loading level on the plastic behavior of SPC were investigated. Compatibilizer was found to be indispensible to achieve high performance blends and displayed great influence on SPC phase morphology in blends. The influences of these three factors on the phase structure of PBAT/SPC blends and the structure-property relationship were investigated in detail. Critical water content in pre-compounding SPC and SPC loading level for the formation of percolated SPC structure were revealed. In the compatibilized blend system, the plastic deformation of SPC was determined by the deformability which was controlled by plasticization of SP and shear stress exerted on SP which was controlled by SPC loading level in this study. One of the important advantages of processing SPC as plastic is that the SPC particles can be turned into elongated filaments which require smaller maximum packing density for the formation of percolated structure. The blends with SPC percolated structure displayed overall superior mechanical and physical properties compared with the blends consisting of ordinary particulate SPC filler. At a given concentration, the interconnectivity of the SPC domains was directly determined by the aspect ratio of the SPC particles. The formation of full percolated structure depended on both SPC aspect ratio and SPC loading level. Quantitative analysis of the filler aspect ratio was also performed in this research. Detailed phase morphology of the blends was revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Study of dynamic rheology also confirmed the percolated network structure. Interestingly, a correlation between SPC loading level and

  19. Looking back and moving forward: A mixed methods study of elementary science teacher preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulings, Melissa

    This study sought to understand how science learning experiences, and their potential influence, had on preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy and perceptions of science teaching and learning at the beginning of their science methods course. Following an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, this study first involved the collection of quantitative data and then the collection of more in-depth qualitative data. In the first phase, the quantitative data included the Draw-a-Science-Teacher-Test Checklist (DASTT-C) and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) of preservice elementary teachers (n = 69). Findings from this phase indicated preservice elementary teachers had a higher level of belief in their abilities to teach science (PSTE subscale) than to affect student outcomes in science (STOE subscale). However, the STOE was not found to be a reliable measure for this group of preservice elementary teachers and was not included in any further analysis. Findings from the DASTT-C images indicated the majority of these drawings could not be classified as student-centered. In the second phase of this study, the researcher explored selected science autobiographies written by these same preservice elementary teachers (n = 19), based on extremely high or low scores on the PSTE subscale and DASTT-C. Analysis of the science autobiographies revealed commonalities and differences. Commonalities included (a) the difficulty in remembering science from elementary school; (b) a mixture of positive and negative experiences in secondary school and college science classes; (c) the descriptions of good science days and good science teachers; and (d) the descriptions of bad science days and bad science teachers. Differences included (a) the people who influenced their attitudes toward science; (b) the types of experiences, when remembered, from elementary school; and (c) visions of their future classrooms. Based on these findings, these preservice

  20. Foaming of amorphous drug delivery systems prepared by hot melt mixing and extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terife, Graciela

    Currently there is considerable interest from both academe and pharmaceutical industry in exploring foaming processes and their products in drug delivery applications. However, there is still little knowledge of the impact of the morphology of the foamed structures on the performance of drug products in spite of some publications in this area. Therefore, the main objective of this dissertation is to gain a fundamental understanding of the correlation between foam morphology and performance of amorphous drug delivery systems, which are comprised of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and Polymer excipient. The Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) process is used to compound the following API / polymer binary systems: Indomethacin (INM) with SoluplusRTM (PVCap-PVAc-PEG); Carbamazepine (CBZ) with PVCap-PVAc-PEG; and INM with EudragitRTM EPO. Comprehensive characterization of these binary systems carried out by combining Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Scanning Electron Microscopy, shows that in all HME-prepared and foamed samples the APIs are amorphous and dissolved in the polymer excipients. The most important contributions of this dissertation can be grouped into three areas: (a) an understanding of the mechanisms by which foamed dosage forms can lead to faster API release, as well as the key morphological aspects of the cellular structures to achieve this, (b) an understanding of the correlation between the mechanism controlling the release of an API from an amorphous dosage and the enhancement in its release rate upon foaming, and (c) an understanding of the impact of the morphology of the cellular structures in the milling efficiency of HME products and the dissolution performance of the particles produced. In the first area, foamed amorphous solid solutions with three different morphologies are produced through the batch foaming process. A strong correlation between foam morphology and the enhancement

  1. Preparation of LiMn 2O 4 at the low temperature of 250 °C using eutectic self-mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Ji-Woo; Kwon, Ja-Young; Han, Kyoo-Seung

    Spinel LiMn 2O 4 as a cathode material for lithium rechargeable batteries is prepared at the low temperature of 250 °C without any artificial mixing procedures of reactants. The phase transitions of lithium manganese oxide are found three times on heating at 250 °C. The prepared material exhibits the initial discharge capacity of 85.5 mAh g -1 and the discharge capacity retention of 91.5% after 50 cycles.

  2. Instruction via Web-Based Modules in Early Childhood Personnel Preparation: A Mixed-Methods Study of Effectiveness and Learner Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Heidi L.; Lim, Chih-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Effective personnel preparation is critical to the development of a high quality early childhood workforce that provides optimal care and education for young children. This mixed-methods study examined the effectiveness of, and learner perspectives on, instruction via web-based modules within face-to-face early childhood personnel preparation…

  3. The bioavailability of a mixed micellar preparation of vitamin K1, and its procoagulant effect in anticoagulated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Winn, M J; White, P M; Scott, A K; Pratt, S K; Park, B K

    1989-04-01

    We have investigated the pharmacokinetics and procoagulant activity of a new, mixed-micellar preparation of vitamin K1 (MM-K) in male New Zealand White rabbits. Oral administration of MM-K alone caused a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in the plasma concentrations of vitamin K1 as measured by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Maximum plasma concentrations of vitamin K1 (450 ng mL-1, range 133-824 ng mL-1) were recorded at 3.3 h (range 3-5 h), and were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater than those seen after administration of an existing polyethoxylated castor oil preparation (PE-K; Konakion), which were 260 ng mL-1, range 198-390 ng mL-1 (tmax 0.8 h, range 0.4-1.2 h). AUC after MM-K (4.6 micrograms mL-1 h-1, range 2.1-6.3 micrograms ML-1 h-1) was also significantly (P less than 0.05) greater than after PE-K (1.6 micrograms mL-1 h-1, range 1.0-2.1 micrograms ML-1 h-1). However, the bioavailability of vitamin K1 after administration of MM-K was poor (9.4%), and there was considerable intra-individual variability between the concentrations of vitamin K1 recorded in the plasma samples. Both preparations of vitamin K1 stimulated clotting factor synthesis in rabbits anticoagulated with the potent and long-acting coumarin, brodifacoum. Maximum stimulation of clotting factor synthesis by vitamin K1 after MM-K was 87%, range 44-124% (%PCA). The maximum was seen later (tmax 12 h) than after PE-K (PCA 82%, range 47-125%; tmax 5 h). However, there was considerable intra-individual variability in response to both MM-K and PE-K.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2568466

  4. Promotion effects in methanol synthesis over MgO-supported Fe-Ir catalysts prepared from mixed-metal clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Marengo, S.; Psaro, R.; Dossi, C.; Calmotti, S.; Della Pergola, R.

    1996-12-31

    Methanol synthesis over bimetallic FeIr/MgO, catalysts prepared from mixed-metal carbonyl clusters, was studied with the aim of clarifying the role of the Fe/Ir ratio in the precursor and the influence of process parameters. Upon impregnation, the molecular precursors are physisorbed on the magnesia surface. Active catalysts are obtained by H{sub 2} treatment of these systems at 623 K. The presence of iron in the precursor favors the formation of surface sites exhibiting marked bifunctional character, as shown by effective production of both methanol and methane in the CO hydrogenation. This promotion is strongly influenced by reaction conditions, as a consequence of the dependence of kinetic parameters on the Fe loading. Upon raising the reaction pressure, the overall CO conversion rate increases dramatically and product distribution also changes to a significant extent, methanol being the most favored product. With Fe:Ir ratio of 1:1, high methanol productivity (above 100 mol MeOH/mol{sub Ir} {center_dot}h) was obtained at 6.1 MPa and 523 K, with 91% oxygenates selectivity.

  5. Effects of Processing Parameters on Internal Stress of BN Films Prepared by Ion Mixing and Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hanaki, Satoshi; Leng, Bo; Uchida, Hitoshi

    2010-10-13

    Boron nitride (BN) films have been attractive due to their excellent properties such as high hardness, thermal conductivity and chemical stability. In this study, BN films were prepared by depositing B vapor under simultaneous irradiation of N ions, that is ion mixing and vapor deposition (IVD) technique. The effects of processing parameters such as, acceleration voltage of N ions, transport ratio B/N and substrate temperature, on the internal stress of BN films were investigated. As a result, compressive internal stress increases at low acceleration voltage and high transport ratio B/N, which corresponded to the condition for formation of cBN phase. The hardness also becomes high at this condition and there is a strong correlation between internal stress and hardness of BN film. In addition to that, relaxation of internal stress by inserting inner layer between substrate and cBN layer has been carried out. It is confirmed that internal stress can be decreased by inner layer. Especially, relaxation of internal stress without degradation of high hardness can be achieved when the crystal structure of inner layer is hBN.

  6. Outcomes of donor lymphocyte infusion for treatment of mixed donor chimerism after a reduced-intensity preparative regimen for pediatric patients with nonmalignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Haines, Hilary L; Bleesing, Jack J; Davies, Stella M; Hornung, Lindsey; Jordan, Michael B; Marsh, Rebecca A; Filipovich, Alexandra H

    2015-02-01

    Mixed donor chimerism is increasingly common in the pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) setting because of the increased use of reduced-intensity preparative regimens for nonmalignant diseases. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is potentially useful in the treatment of mixed donor chimerism, but little are data available on the use of DLI in this setting. We conducted a retrospective review of 27 pediatric patients who received DLI for mixed donor chimerism between January 2006 and December 2010 after receiving a preparative regimen of alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Twenty-one patients (78%) were alive at a median of 35 months post-transplant. Seven patients (26%) sustained full donor chimerism after DLI only at a median of 35 months post-HSCT. Nine patients (33%) continued with mixed donor chimerism (median, 38% [range, 18% to 70%]) at a median of 37 months after DLI only. Five patients underwent unconditioned stem cell boosts or second conditioned transplants after no improvement in donor chimerism was seen following DLI. Donor source appeared to contribute to outcomes after DLI; patients with mismatched unrelated donors had earlier first decline in chimerism and timing of first DLI, a higher response rate to DLI, and an increased rate of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). There was no response to DLI in patients with matched sibling donors. Ten patients, all with improvement in chimerism after DLI, developed acute GVHD after DLI, with 3 having grade III GVHD. Three patients developed chronic GVHD after DLI. These data illustrate the potential efficacy of DLI in the treatment of mixed donor chimerism after a reduced-intensity preparative regimen.

  7. Outcomes of donor lymphocyte infusion for treatment of mixed donor chimerism after a reduced-intensity preparative regimen for pediatric patients with nonmalignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Haines, Hilary L; Bleesing, Jack J; Davies, Stella M; Hornung, Lindsey; Jordan, Michael B; Marsh, Rebecca A; Filipovich, Alexandra H

    2015-02-01

    Mixed donor chimerism is increasingly common in the pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) setting because of the increased use of reduced-intensity preparative regimens for nonmalignant diseases. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is potentially useful in the treatment of mixed donor chimerism, but little are data available on the use of DLI in this setting. We conducted a retrospective review of 27 pediatric patients who received DLI for mixed donor chimerism between January 2006 and December 2010 after receiving a preparative regimen of alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Twenty-one patients (78%) were alive at a median of 35 months post-transplant. Seven patients (26%) sustained full donor chimerism after DLI only at a median of 35 months post-HSCT. Nine patients (33%) continued with mixed donor chimerism (median, 38% [range, 18% to 70%]) at a median of 37 months after DLI only. Five patients underwent unconditioned stem cell boosts or second conditioned transplants after no improvement in donor chimerism was seen following DLI. Donor source appeared to contribute to outcomes after DLI; patients with mismatched unrelated donors had earlier first decline in chimerism and timing of first DLI, a higher response rate to DLI, and an increased rate of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). There was no response to DLI in patients with matched sibling donors. Ten patients, all with improvement in chimerism after DLI, developed acute GVHD after DLI, with 3 having grade III GVHD. Three patients developed chronic GVHD after DLI. These data illustrate the potential efficacy of DLI in the treatment of mixed donor chimerism after a reduced-intensity preparative regimen. PMID:25464116

  8. Structural and spectroscopic properties of high temperature prepared ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gionco, Chiara; Battiato, Alfio; Vittone, Ettore; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Giamello, Elio

    2013-05-01

    ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxides of various composition, with the molar fraction of TiO2 ranging from 0.1% to 15%, have been prepared via sol-gel synthesis and then calcined at 1273 K to check both their thermal stability and physicochemical properties. These solids are usually employed in photocatalytic processes and as active phase supports in heterogeneous catalysis. As indicated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, solid solutions based on Ti ions diluted in the ZrO2 matrix are formed in the whole range of Ti molar fraction examined. Materials with low Ti loading (0.1%-1%) are basically constituted by the monoclinic phase of ZrO2 while the tetragonal phase becomes prevalent at 15% of TiO2 molar fraction. The presence of Ti ions modify the electronic structure of the solid as revealed by investigation of the optical properties. The typical band gap transition of ZrO2 undergoes, in fact, a red shift roughly proportional to the Ti loading which reach the remarkable value of 1.6 eV for the sample with 10% of molar Ti concentration. Comparing chemical analysis of the solids with XPS data it has been put into evidence that the titanium ions distribution into the solid is not uniform and the concentration of Ti4+ tend to be higher in subsurface layers than in the crystal bulk. The introduction of titanium ions in the structure increases the reducibility of the solid. Annealing under vacuum at various temperatures causes oxygen depletion with consequent reduction of the solid which shows up mainly in terms of formation of Ti3+ reduced centres which are characterized by a typical EPR signal. Ti3+ defects forms, as also forecast by theoretical modelling of the solid, as their energy is lower than that of other possible reduced defective centers. The reduced solids are able to transfer electrons to adsorbed oxygen molecules in mild condition resulting in the formation of surface superoxide anions (O2•-) which are stabilized on surface Zr4+ or, alternatively, on Ti4+ ions

  9. Mechanisms of isoniazid release from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) matrices prepared by dry-mixing and low density polymeric foam methods.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y Y; Gresser, J D; Stewart, R R; Trantolo, D J; Lyons, C M; Simons, G A; Gangadharam, P R; Wise, D L

    1996-07-01

    The release mechanisms of a small molecular drug from biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) cylindrical matrices were investigated. Isoniazid (INH), one of the most effective drugs against tuberculosis (TB), was selected as the model drug. Controlled-release matrices consisting of the drug and polymer were fabricated by two methods. The first of these, the dry-mixing method, involved the extrusion of a mixture of micronized drug and polymer particles as rods. In the second technique, the low density polymeric foam method, drug particles were enclosed in the cells of porous polymeric foams prior to extrusion. In vitro, the dry-mixed matrices released INH more rapidly than the polymeric foam matrices. The Roseman-Higuchi diffusion model, which had previously been found to be effective in analyzing the release kinetics of INH from the dry-mixed matrices, also fit the kinetics of INH released from matrices prepared from polymeric foams. This indicated that the release was still diffusion-controlled rather than degradation-controlled. The release mechanisms were further investigated, and two diffusion mechanisms, pore diffusion and lattice diffusion, were proposed for the INH controlled-release matrices according to the way in which they were prepared. Matrices prepared by the dry-mixing method appear to segregate drug particles along polymer grain boundaries and thus have a pore diffusion mechanism, while matrices prepared by the foam method entrap drug within the porous structure of foams and thus display a lattice diffusion mechanism. Theoretically, these two diffusion mechanisms can be identified by their activation energies for diffusion. With varying in vitro temperature, the activation energies were calculated from plots of ln (DIT) vs T-1 and in D vs T-1, where D is the diffusivity and T is the in vitro temperature in K. According to the results, we concluded that the INH from the dry-mixed matrices diffused through the drug channels filled with

  10. Preparation of platinum nanoparticles on carbon black with mixed binary surfactants: Characterization and evaluation as anode catalyst for low-temperature fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dong-Ha; Lee, Weon-Doo; Choi, Dong-Hyeok; Park, Dal-Ryung; Lee, Ho-In

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on Vulcan XC-72R prepared by a surfactant-stabilized colloidal method exhibit excellent properties as an anode catalyst for a low-temperature fuel cell. A Pt/C catalyst prepared with a 10-fold critical micelle concentration of mixed non-ionic surfactants [polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether + polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Brij 35 + Tween 20)] shows the highest catalytic activity and the greatest electrochemical surface-active area among those prepared. The maximum current density of this catalyst is much higher than that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst (E-TEK). Moreover, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that Pt/C prepared with Brij 35 + Tween 20 has an average particle size of 2.4 nm with quite a narrow distribution between 2 and 3 nm, which is the smallest among all the catalysts prepared. This is attributed to the formation of more compact micelles. Mixtures of non-ionic and anionic surfactants result in less compact micelles.

  11. New low-temperature preparations of some simple and mixed co and ni dispersed sulfides and their chemical behavior in reducing atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Bezverkhyy, I; Danot, M; Afanasiev, P

    2003-03-10

    A series of simple (CoS(2), Co(9)S(8), NiS(2), NiS, Ni(3)S(2)) and mixed sulfides (NiCo(2)S(4), Ni(0.33)Co(0.67)S(2), Ni(3)Co(6)S(8), CuCo(2)S(4), Cu(0.33)Co(0.67)S(2)) was prepared using low-temperature procedures. To obtain the mixed sulfides, the mixtures of the solutions of the corresponding salts were precipitated by Na(2)S and then heated in a sulfiding atmosphere at 300 degrees C. It has been found that the product phase composition depends on the sulfiding atmosphere. Using a H(2)S/Ar mixture leads to pyrite type sulfides, whereas treatment in H(2)S/H(2) flow allowed the preparation of Ni-Co and Cu-Co thiospinels. The as prepared highly dispersed single-phase materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), elemental analysis, and BET surface area measurements.

  12. Luminescence properties of M2Si5N8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) mixed nitrides prepared by metal hydrides as starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Daiki; Kim, Hyo Sung; Horikawa, Takashi; Itoh, Masahiro; Machida, Ken-ichi

    2012-08-01

    Mixed metal nitrides, M2Si5N8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba), were synthesized from M2-yCeySi5 or an appropriate mixture of MSiHx, Si3N4 and CeF3, by a direct nitriding process in N2 gas: 2 MSiHx + Si3N4 + CeF3 → M2Si5N8:Ce3+. Also, charge-compensated materials, M2AlzSi5-zN8:Ce3+ were prepared (from an appropriate mixture of MSiHx, MAlSiHx, Si3N4 and CeF3) and the luminescence properties were characterized. The resultant phosphors showed green emission suitable for LED illumination by optimizing the mixing ratio of metal elements.

  13. Teacher Education Preparation and Implementation for Multicultural and Diverse School Environments in the 21st Century: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed methods study investigated 24 college and university syllabi for content consisting of multicultural education that used the framework for multicultural education devised by James A. Banks (2006). This framework was used to analyze data collected using descriptive statistics for quantitative phase one. The four…

  14. Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite prepared via a precursor route and enhanced catalytic property

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Guoli; Wang Hui; Xiang Xu; Li Feng

    2013-01-15

    The present work reported the synthesis of Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes (CoAl-MMO/CNT) nanocomposite from Co-Al layered double hydroxide/CNTs composite precursor (CoAl-LDH/CNT). The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results revealed that in CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite, the nanoparticles of cobalt oxide (CoO) and Co-containing spinel-type complex metal oxides could be well-dispersed on the surface of CNTs, thus forming the heterostructure of CoAl-MMO and CNTs. Furthermore, as-synthesized CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite was utilized as additives for catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). Compared to those for pure AP and CoAl-MMO, the peak temperature of AP decomposition for CoAl-MMO/CNT was significantly decreased, which is attributed to the novel heterostructure and synergistic effect of multi-component metal oxides of nanocomposite. - Graphical abstract: Hybrid Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite showed the enhanced catalytic activity in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate, as compared to carbon nanotubes and pure Co-Al mixed metal oxides. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-Al mixed metal oxides consisted of cobalt oxide and Co-containing spinels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the decomposition of AP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior catalytic property is related to novel heterostructure and composition.

  15. Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides from Ce-containing layered double hydroxide precursors: Controllable preparation and catalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zheng; Zhao, Na; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Feng; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue; Forano, Claude; de Roy, Marie

    2011-12-01

    Cu/Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors have been synthesized using an anion exchange method with anionic Ce complexes containing the dipicolinate (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) ligand. Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides were obtained by calcination of the Ce-containing LDHs. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, elemental analysis, and low temperature N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements. The results reveal that the inclusion of Ce has a significant effect on the specific surface area, pore structure, and chemical state of Cu in the resulting Cu-Ce-O mixed metal oxides. The resulting changes in composition and structure, particularly the interactions between Cu and Ce centers, significantly enhance the activity of the Ce-containing materials as catalysts for the oxidation of phenol by hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Preparation and characterization of vanadia-titania mixed oxide for immobilization of Serratia rubidaea CCT 5732 and Klebsiella marcescens bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Saragiotto Colpini, Leda Maria Correia Goncalves, Regina A.; Goncalves, Jose Eduardo; Maieru Macedo Costa, Creusa

    2008-08-04

    Vanadia-titania mixed oxide was synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by several techniques. Texturally, it is formed by mesopores and presents high-specific surface area and controlled porosity. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that vanadium is homogeneously distributed in the material. Structurally, it was possible to identify characteristic V=O stretching bands by IR. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed that the material, particularly vanadium, is highly dispersed. Application experiments were carried out through the immobilization of Serratia rubidae CCT 5732 and Klebsiella marcescens bacteria by adsorption on the surface of mixed oxide. The micrographies revealed that the bacteria were adsorbed on the entire support, with average surface densities of 8.55 x 10{sup 11} cells/m{sup 2} (Serratia rubidae CCT 5732) and 3.40 x 10{sup 11} cells/m{sup 2} (K. marcescens)

  17. Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides from Ce-containing layered double hydroxide precursors: Controllable preparation and catalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Zheng; Zhao Na; Liu Junfeng; Li Feng; Evans, David G.; Duan Xue; Forano, Claude; Roy, Marie de

    2011-12-15

    Cu/Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors have been synthesized using an anion exchange method with anionic Ce complexes containing the dipicolinate (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate) ligand. Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides were obtained by calcination of the Ce-containing LDHs. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, elemental analysis, and low temperature N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements. The results reveal that the inclusion of Ce has a significant effect on the specific surface area, pore structure, and chemical state of Cu in the resulting Cu-Ce-O mixed metal oxides. The resulting changes in composition and structure, particularly the interactions between Cu and Ce centers, significantly enhance the activity of the Ce-containing materials as catalysts for the oxidation of phenol by hydrogen peroxide. - Graphical Abstract: Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides calcined from [Ce(dipic){sub 3}]{sup 3-}- intercalated Cu/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides were synthesized and displayed good catalytic performances in phenol oxidation due to the Cu-Ce interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Ce(dipic){sub 3}]{sup 3-}-intercalated Cu/Zn/Al layered double hydroxides were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu-Ce-O mixed oxides derivated from the LDHs were characterized as catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of Ce influenced physicochemical property and catalytic performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu-Ce interaction was largely responsible for enhanced catalytic ability.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of TiO{sub 2}--MgO mixed oxides prepared by the sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, T.; Hernandez, J.; Gomez, R.; Bokhimi, X.; Boldu, J.L.; Munoz, E.; Novaro, O.; Garcia-Ruiz, A.

    1999-08-31

    Titania-magnesia mixed oxides, with magnesia concentrations between 10 and 90 wt%, were prepared by using to sol-gel method with titanium n-butoxide and magnesium ethoxide as precursors. The mixed oxides were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, BET nitrogen adsorption isotherms, electron spin resonance (ESR), and by testing their catalytic activity for 2-propanol and 2-butanol dehydration. Samples contained periclase, anatase, karooite (MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}), geikielite (MgTiO{sub 3}), and qandilite (Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}). The BET specific surface area varied with magnesia concentration; the samples with 50 wt% MgO had the highest area, 211 m{sup 2}/g. Samples had paramagnetic centers that produced complex ESR spectra when many crystalline phases coexisted. For 2-propanol and 2-butanol decomposition, the activity and selectivity patterns of the mixed oxides were substantially different to those observed in pure TiO{sub 2} and pure MgO. This singular behavior should be a result of the structural defects created by the substitution of Mg{sup 2+} ions by Ti{sup 4+} cations in titania lattice, as well as by the interfaces created when several crystalline phases coexisted.

  19. Preparation, characterization and application of a reversed phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction chromatography mixed-mode C18-DTT stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Long, Yao; Yao, Lin; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Lanying

    2016-01-01

    A mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase, C18-DTT (dithiothreitol) silica (SiO2) was prepared through "thiol-ene" click chemistry. The obtained material was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscope, nitrogen adsorption analysis and contact angle analysis. Chromatographic performance of the C18-DTT was systemically evaluated by studying the effect of acetonitrile content, pH, buffer concentration of the mobile phase and column temperature. It was demonstrated that the novel stationary phase possessed reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mixed-mode property. The stop-flow test revealed that C18-DTT exhibited excellent compatibility with 100% aqueous mobile phase. Additionally, the stability and column-to-column reproducibility of the C18-DTT material were satisfactory, with relative standard deviations of retention factor of the tested analytes (verapamil, fenbufen, guanine, tetrandrine and nicotinic acid) in the range of 1.82-3.72% and 0.85-1.93%, respectively. Finally, the application of C18-DTT column was demonstrated in the separation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aromatic carboxylic acids, alkaloids, nucleo-analytes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It had great resolving power in the analysis of various compounds in HILIC and RPLC chromatographic conditions and was a promising RPLC/HILIC mixed-mode stationary phase. PMID:26695288

  20. Preparation, characterization and application of a reversed phase liquid chromatography/hydrophilic interaction chromatography mixed-mode C18-DTT stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Long, Yao; Yao, Lin; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Lanying

    2016-01-01

    A mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase, C18-DTT (dithiothreitol) silica (SiO2) was prepared through "thiol-ene" click chemistry. The obtained material was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscope, nitrogen adsorption analysis and contact angle analysis. Chromatographic performance of the C18-DTT was systemically evaluated by studying the effect of acetonitrile content, pH, buffer concentration of the mobile phase and column temperature. It was demonstrated that the novel stationary phase possessed reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mixed-mode property. The stop-flow test revealed that C18-DTT exhibited excellent compatibility with 100% aqueous mobile phase. Additionally, the stability and column-to-column reproducibility of the C18-DTT material were satisfactory, with relative standard deviations of retention factor of the tested analytes (verapamil, fenbufen, guanine, tetrandrine and nicotinic acid) in the range of 1.82-3.72% and 0.85-1.93%, respectively. Finally, the application of C18-DTT column was demonstrated in the separation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aromatic carboxylic acids, alkaloids, nucleo-analytes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It had great resolving power in the analysis of various compounds in HILIC and RPLC chromatographic conditions and was a promising RPLC/HILIC mixed-mode stationary phase.

  1. Preparation of silica-magnetite nanoparticle mixed hemimicelle sorbents for extraction of several typical phenolic compounds from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Shi, Yali; Wang, Thanh; Cai, Yaqi; Jiang, Guibin

    2008-04-25

    A novel type of superparamagnetic silica-coated (Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell) magnetite nanoparticle modified by surfactants has been successfully synthesized and was applied as an effective sorbent material for the pre-concentration of several typical phenolic compounds (bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP)) from environmental water samples. Compared with pure magnetic particles, a thin and dense silica layer would protect the iron oxide core from leaching out in acidic conditions. In order to enhance their adsorptive tendency towards organic compounds, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were added, which adsorbed on the surface of the Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs) and formed mixed hemimicelles. Main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analytes were optimized and comparative study on the use of CPC and CTAB-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs mixed hemimicelles-based SPE was also carried out. CPC-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs system was selected due to lower elution volume required and more effective adsorption of the target compounds. Under selected conditions, concentration factor of 1600 was achieved by using this method to extract 800 mL of different environmental water samples. The detection limits obtained for BPA, 4-OP and 4-NP with HPLC-FLD were 7, 14, and 20 ng/L, respectively.

  2. Antiosteoporosis Activity of New Oriental Medicine Preparation (Kyungokgo Mixed with Water Extract of Hovenia dulcis) on the Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Lee, Sung-Ju; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Son, Young-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Protective effect of new oriental medicine (Kyungokgo mixed with water extract of Hovenia dulcis, KOGHD) was assessed on the bone loss induced mice by ovariectomy. In the in vivo experiments, antiosteoporosis effect of KOGHD was investigated using ovariectomized osteoporosis mice model. After 6 weeks of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the effect of Kyungokgo (KOG) and KOGHD on body weight, spleen weigh, thymus weight, uterine weight, serum biochemical indicators, bone weight and length, immune cell population, bone morphometric parameters, and histological stains was observed. Our results showed that KOGHD prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture caused by ovariectomy, which were accompanied by the lower levels of bone turnover markers and immune cell population as evidenced by the inhibition of RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation without cytotoxic effect on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs). Therefore, these results suggest that the Hovenia dulcis (HD) supplementation in the KOG may also prevent and treat bone loss. PMID:25737735

  3. Specific tolerance induction across a xenogeneic barrier: Production of mixed rat/mouse lymphohematopoietic chimeras using a nonlethal preparative regimen

    SciTech Connect

    Sharabi, Y.; Aksentijevich, I.; Sundt, T.M. 3d.; Sachs, D.H.; Sykes, M. )

    1990-07-01

    The development of safe methods for inducing donor-specific tolerance across xenogeneic barriers could potentially relieve the critical shortage of allograft donors that currently limits the applicability of organ transplantation. We report here that such tolerance can be induced in a xenogeneic combination (rat----mouse) using a nonmyeloablative and nonlethal preparative regimen. Successful induction of chimerism and donor-specific transplantation tolerance required pretreatment of recipients with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against NK1.1, Thy-1.2, CD4 and CD8, followed by administration of 3 Gy whole body radiation (WBI), 7 Gy thymic irradiation, and infusion of T cell-depleted rat bone marrow cells (BMC). Rat cells appeared among peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of such recipients by 2-3 wk, and rat T cells by 2-5 wk following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Donor-type rat skin grafts placed 4 mo after BMT were accepted, while simultaneously placed non-donor-type rat skin grafts were promptly rejected. In addition to its clinical potential, the ability to induce donor-specific tolerance across xenogeneic barriers using such a nonlethal preparative regimen provides a valuable model for the study of mechanisms of xenogeneic transplantation tolerance.

  4. Acid and redox properties of mixed oxides prepared by calcination of chromate-containing layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Arco, M. del; Carriazo, D.; Martin, C.; Perez-Grueso, A.M.; Rives, V. . E-mail: vrives@usal.es

    2005-11-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with Mg and Al in the layers and carbonate, nitrate or chloride in the interlayer, or with Zn and Al in the layers and chloride in the interlayer, have been prepared by coprecipitation, and have been used as precursors to prepare chromate-containing LDHs. All these systems, as well as those obtained upon their calcination up to 800 deg. C, have been characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and vis-UV spectroscopies, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), nitrogen adsorption at -196 deg. C for surface texture and porosity assessment, and FT-IR monitoring of pyridine adsorption for surface acidity determination. The results obtained show that the crystallinity of the chromate-containing LDH depends on the precursor used. The layered structure of the Mg, Al systems is stabilised up to 400 deg. C upon incorporation of chromate; however, the Zn,Al-chromate samples collapse between 200 and 300 deg. C, with simultaneous formation of ZnO. Calcination of the samples above 400 deg. C gives rise to a reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), as concluded from vis-UV spectroscopic studies. The TPR profiles show that chromate in ZnAl hydrotalcite is more easily reduced than that incorporated in the magnesium ones. Moderately strong surface Lewis acid sites exist in all samples calcined below 500 deg. C.

  5. Cytotoxics compounded sterile preparation control by HPLC during a 16-month assessment in a French university hospital: importance of the mixing bags step.

    PubMed

    Castagne, Vincent; Habert, Hélène; Abbara, Chadi; Rudant, Eric; Bonhomme-Faivre, Laurence

    2011-09-01

    The Centralized Chemotherapy Reconstitution Unit (CCRU) of Paul Brousse Hospital Pharmacy Department assessed the reliability of its Cytotoxics Compounded Sterile Products (CCSP) preparation method in order to improve its CCSP quality assurance system. Five cytotoxic drugs - gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, docetaxel, paclitaxel, and oxaliplatin - were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine CCSP concentration. During the observation period, 23,892 CCSP were prepared. Overall, 12,964 preparations contained one of the five analyzed drugs; 7382 (56.9%) out of 12,964 CCSP were analyzed by HPLC; 646 (8.8%) out of 7382 concentrations were outside ± 20% of the prescribed dose; 544 (84.2%) out of 646 were post-administration results and could not be verified. Out of 102 (15.8%) pre-administration results that were re-tested after re-shaking, 94 (92.2%) were found to be acceptable upon re-testing, and 8 (7.8%) were confirmed to be unacceptable and needed to be re-compounded. The 8.8% of tested CCSP were outside ± 20% of the prescribed dose, but extrapolating the results on re-tested CCSP, we can say that our CCSP preparation is reliable with an estimation of only 0.7% of 7382 CCSP analyzed, confirmed as being ± 20% outside the prescribed dose. Nevertheless, this ± 20% magnitude of error should be reduced. Based on pre-administration results, the primary cause of concentration errors appeared to be insufficient mixing of the finished product. Most CCSP dosages occurred after it had been administered, the organization should, therefore, be improved to include testing all CCSP prior to administration. Pharmaceutical companies should endeavor to manufacture compounded injectible drugs in a 'ready to use' form and provide vehicles in accurate volumes in order to improve compounding precision.

  6. Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite prepared via a precursor route and enhanced catalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Guoli; Wang, Hui; Xiang, Xu; Li, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The present work reported the synthesis of Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes (CoAl-MMO/CNT) nanocomposite from Co-Al layered double hydroxide/CNTs composite precursor (CoAl-LDH/CNT). The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results revealed that in CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite, the nanoparticles of cobalt oxide (CoO) and Co-containing spinel-type complex metal oxides could be well-dispersed on the surface of CNTs, thus forming the heterostructure of CoAl-MMO and CNTs. Furthermore, as-synthesized CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite was utilized as additives for catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). Compared to those for pure AP and CoAl-MMO, the peak temperature of AP decomposition for CoAl-MMO/CNT was significantly decreased, which is attributed to the novel heterostructure and synergistic effect of multi-component metal oxides of nanocomposite.

  7. Preparation of conversion coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy in mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride through chemical modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lanlan; He, Jian; Yang, Xu

    2016-05-01

    Conversion coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy was prepared through chemical modification in phytic acid and ammonium fluoride mixed solution. The influences of pH, time and the composition of solution on the microstructure of alloy surface were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure. The chemical composition of alloy surface before and after modification was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that a conversion coating could be formed on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a mixed solution of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride, the growth and microstructure of the conversion coatings were critically dependent on the pH, time and concentration of phytic acid and ammonium fluoride. In 100 mg/ml phytic acid containing 125 mg/ml ammonium fluoride solution with a pH of 6, a compact conversion coating with the thickness of about 4.7 μm formed after 30 min immersion on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface. The preliminary evaluation of bioactivity of conversion coating was performed by in vitro cell experiments. The results showed that this chemical modification method is a promising surface modification technique for Ti-6Al-4V alloy inplants.

  8. [Changes in the content of plasma lipoproteins in persons subjected to diets prepared with sunflower oil alone or mixed with palm olein].

    PubMed

    Giacopini de Z, María Isabel; Alonso, Hilda V; Sánchez, Josefina; García, Ninoska; Veliz, Lilia; Golfetto, Iván; Bosch, Virgilio

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed in 31 subjects, regular guests of the University food service of the Central University of Venezuela (UCVFS), in Caracas, the effects of replacing sunflower oil, commonly used in the preparation of meals, by a mix of sunflower oil and palm olein 70/30 (v/v) respectively. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low and very low density lipoproteins were not changed after 40 days of the substitution. On the contrary, concentrations of high density lipoprotein and total triglycerides increased. The resistance to the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins increased considerably (p < 0.01). Today this resistance is considered as a protective factor of great importance in the prevention of the initiation of the atherogenic process. Taking into account the favorable modifications of HDL cholesterol and the clear increased resistance to the oxidation of LDL, we think that palm olein, mixed with other oils with a high ratio linoleic/palmitic (sunflower, corn, soya an the likes), can be used as a healthy alternative in human nutrition.

  9. [Changes in the content of plasma lipoproteins in persons subjected to diets prepared with sunflower oil alone or mixed with palm olein].

    PubMed

    Giacopini de Z, María Isabel; Alonso, Hilda V; Sánchez, Josefina; García, Ninoska; Veliz, Lilia; Golfetto, Iván; Bosch, Virgilio

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed in 31 subjects, regular guests of the University food service of the Central University of Venezuela (UCVFS), in Caracas, the effects of replacing sunflower oil, commonly used in the preparation of meals, by a mix of sunflower oil and palm olein 70/30 (v/v) respectively. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low and very low density lipoproteins were not changed after 40 days of the substitution. On the contrary, concentrations of high density lipoprotein and total triglycerides increased. The resistance to the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins increased considerably (p < 0.01). Today this resistance is considered as a protective factor of great importance in the prevention of the initiation of the atherogenic process. Taking into account the favorable modifications of HDL cholesterol and the clear increased resistance to the oxidation of LDL, we think that palm olein, mixed with other oils with a high ratio linoleic/palmitic (sunflower, corn, soya an the likes), can be used as a healthy alternative in human nutrition. PMID:23947006

  10. One-pot preparation of a mixed-mode organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column and its application in determination of endogenous gibberellins in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Hao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Jun; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-10-16

    A newly improved one-pot method, based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry and sol-gel approach in microemulsion system, was developed for the preparation of C8/PO(OH)2-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column. The prepared monolith possesses large specific surface area, narrow mesopore size distribution and high column efficiency. The monolithic column was demonstrated to have cation exchange/reversed-phase (CX/RP) mixed-mode retention for analytes on nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). On the basis of the developed nano-LC system with MS detector coupled to pipette tip solid phase extraction (PT-SPE) and derivatization process, we then realized simultaneous determination of 10 gibberellins (GAs) with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.003-0.025 ng/mL). Furthermore, 6 endogenous GAs in only 5mg rice leaves (fresh weight) were successfully detected and quantified. The developed PT-SPE-nano-LC-MS strategy may offer promising applications in the determination of low abundant bioactive molecules from complex matrix.

  11. Preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity studies of some transition metal complexes with ofloxacin and 1,10-phenanthroline mixed ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, S. A.; El-Hamid, S. M. Abd

    2016-10-01

    [Zn(Ofl)(Phen)(H2O)2](CH3COO)·2H2O (1), [ZrO(Ofl)(Phen)(H2O)]NO3·2H2O (2) and [UO2(Ofl)(Phen)(H2O)](CH3COO)·H2O (3) complexes of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent ofloxacin (HOfl), containing a nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand, 1,10-phenathroline monohydrate (Phen), were prepared and their structures were established with the help of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic properties, thermal studies and different spectroscopic studies like IR, UV-Vis., 1H NMR and Mass. The IR data of HOfl and Phen ligands suggested the existing of a bidentate binding involving carboxylate O and pyridone O for HOfl ligand and two pyridine N atoms for Phen ligand. The coordination geometries and electronic structures are determined from electronic absorption spectra and magnetic moment measurements. From molar conductance studies reveals that metal complexes are electrolytes and of 1:1 type. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(Udbnd O), in the uranyl complex are 1.751 Å and 641.04 Nm-1. The thermal properties of the complexes were investigated by thermogravimetry (TGA) technique. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was evaluated against some bacteria and fungi species. The activity data show that most metal complexes have antibacterial activity than that of the parent HOfl drug. The in vitro cytotoxicities of ligands and their complexes were also evaluated against human breast and colon carcinoma cells.

  12. Sensory evaluation of and acceptability trials on biscuits prepared from raw and malted wheat (Triticum aestivum)-Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) mixes with or without a green leafy vegetable.

    PubMed

    Goyle, A; Gujral, S

    1992-10-01

    Biscuits were prepared by varying the amounts of the basic ingredients to arrive at the most acceptable recipe. The final recipe contained 40 g of mix, 40 g of jaggery and 20 g of ghee. Sensory evaluation of biscuits containing 5 or 10% colocasia leaf powder by composite scoring test and hedonic scale showed that the former type of biscuit was preferred over the latter. The acceptability trial conducted on 42, 3 to 6 year old children showed that biscuits from either malted mix with or without 7.5% colocasia leaf powder and raw mix were equally acceptable as shown by the analysis of variance.

  13. One-pot preparation of glutathione-silica hybrid monolith for mixed-mode capillary liquid chromatography based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Yu, Ruifang; Lin, Jiashi; Yin, Xiaofei; Zhang, Lan; Yang, Huanghao

    2014-08-15

    A novel glutathione (GSH)-silica hybrid monolithic column synthesized via a combination of thiol-ene click reaction and one-pot process was described, where thiol-end GSH organic monomer and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) were mixed with hydrolyzed tetramethyloxysilane (TMOS) and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MAPS) and then introduced into a fused-silica capillary for simultaneous polycondensation and "thiol-ene" click reaction to form the GSH-silica hybrid monolith. The effects of the molar ratio of TMOS/γ-MAPS, the amount of GSH, and the volume of porogen on the morphology, permeability and pore properties of the prepared GSH-silica hybrid monoliths were studied in detail. A uniform monolithic network with high porosity was obtained. A series of test compounds including alkylbenzenes, amides, and anilines were used to evaluate the retention behaviors of the GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column. The results demonstrated that the prepared GSH-silica hybrid monolith exhibited multiple interactions including hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, as well as cation exchange interaction. The run-to-run, column-to-column and batch-to-batch reproducibilities of the GSH-silica hybrid monolith for phenols' retention were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 1.3% (n=5), 2.6% (n=3) and 3.2% (n=3), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. In addition, the GSH-silica hybrid monolith was applied to the separation of nucleotides, peptides and protein tryptic digests, respectively. The successful applications suggested the potential of the GSH-silica hybrid monolith in complex sample analysis.

  14. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  15. A novel preparation of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous M/Ti (M=Zr or Ta) mixed oxide nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhua; Geng, Aifang; Guo, Yihang; Jiang, Shujuan; Qu, Xuesong; Li, Li

    2006-09-01

    Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3 DOM) M/Ti (M=Zr or Ta) mixed oxides were prepared by cohydrolysis of a mixture of Zr(n-OC(4)H(9))(4)/TTIP or TaCl(5)/TTIP (TTIP=titanium isopropoxide) combined with a polystyrene (PS) latex sphere templating technique. The resulting products exhibited homogeneous wall compositions, namely, Zr or Ta was uniformly dispersed into the TiO(2) framework with the loading levels of 5, 10, and 20 mol% for Zr and 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mol% for Ta, respectively. The estimated macropore diameter, wall thickness, and particle size of the products ranged from 280 to 290 nm, from 30 to 50 nm, and from 10 to 12 nm, respectively. The products showed only anatase phase structure although their starting solitary metal oxides exhibited suitable crystalline structures under the same preparation conditions. Raman scattering spectroscopy showed that the crystal structure of titania had a slight interference due to the incorporation of Zr or Ta, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) showed the narrower band gap of the products compared with that of pure anatase TiO(2). The products exhibited mesoporous wall structures, and their BET surface areas were higher than those of the corresponding pure 3 DOM metal oxides. The UV-light photocatalytic activity of the products was assessed by monitoring the photodegradation of two organic molecules including 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and rhodamine B (RB). Both the photocatalytic reactions confirmed that the presence of the second metal oxide in the titania framework resulted in enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the pure titania framework. PMID:16777130

  16. Preparation of alumina-coated magnetite nanoparticle for extraction of trimethoprim from environmental water samples based on mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chuanzhou; Chen, Ligang; Liu, Jun; Jin, Haiyan; Xu, Haoyan; Ding, Lan

    2009-04-13

    In this study, a new type of alumina-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)/Al(2)O(3) NPs) modified by the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully synthesized and applied for extraction of trimethoprim (TMP) from environmental water samples based on mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE). The coating of alumina on Fe(3)O(4) NPs not only avoids the dissolving of Fe(3)O(4) NPs in acidic solution, but also extends their application without sacrificing their unique magnetization characteristics. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory concentration factor and extraction recoveries can be produced with only 0.1g Fe(3)O(4)/Al(2)O(3) NPs. Main factors affecting the adsolubilization of TMP such as the amount of SDS, pH value, standing time, desorption solvent and maximal extraction volume were optimized. Under the selected conditions, TMP could be quantitatively extracted. The recoveries of TMP by analyzing the four spiked water samples were between 67 and 86%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 2 to 6%. Detection and quantification limits of the proposed method were 0.09 and 0.24 microg L(-1), respectively. Concentration factor of 1000 was achieved using this method to extract 500 mL of different environmental water samples. Compared with conventional SPE methods, the advantages of this new Fe(3)O(4)/Al(2)O(3) NPs MHSPE method still include easy preparation and regeneration of sorbents, short times of sample pretreatment, high extraction yields, and high breakthrough volumes. It shows great analytical potential in preconcentration of organic compounds from large volume water samples.

  17. A Mixed Methods Study of Special Education Teachers' Knowledge of Reading Instruction and Perceptions Concerning Their Preparation to Teach Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakeslee, Cynthia Darden

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes in requirements for reading instruction and special education teacher preparation have occurred in recent years due to provisions found in the No Child Left Behind legislation of 2001 and the 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study examined the preparation for reading instruction that…

  18. Orientation control of (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics using platelike NaNbO3 templates prepared by single-step molten salt synthesis with mixed salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Keisuke; Tashiro, Shinjiro

    2016-10-01

    In order to shorten the firing time for sintering textured (K,Na)NbO3 system ceramics, the fabrication method of the single-step molten salt synthesis for preparing platelike NaNbO3 single-crystal particles was improved. An uneven shape was formed on the surfaces of platelike NaNbO3 single-crystal particles obtained by single-step molten salt synthesis in the mixed salts of KCl and NaCl. Using these single-crystal particles as the templates, textured (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics were fabricated. The sinterability of the textured ceramics and their piezoelectricity were compared between two kinds of templates synthesized in the mixed salt and in the conventional NaCl salt. The diffusivity of K atoms into these templates from the matrix powder of (K,Na)NbO3 during firing was also compared.

  19. Preparation of a weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation using click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kailou; Yang, Fan; Xia, Hongjun; Wang, Fei; Song, Qingguo; Bai, Quan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 3-diethylamino-1-propyne was covalently bonded to the azide-silica by a click reaction to obtain a novel dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation with a ligand containing tertiary amine and two ethyl groups capable of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction functionalities, which can display hydrophobic interaction chromatography character in a high-salt-concentration mobile phase and weak anion exchange character in a low-salt-concentration mobile phase employed for protein separation. As a result, it can be employed to separate proteins with weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction modes, respectively. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange modes with standard proteins, respectively, which can be comparable to that of conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns. Therefore, the synthesized weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column can be used to replace two corresponding conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns to separate proteins. Based on this mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase, a new off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology using only a single dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column was developed. Nine kinds of tested proteins can be separated completely using the developed method within 2.0 h.

  20. Effect of the conditions of preparing mixed oxide catalyst of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O composition on its activity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finashina, E. D.; Kucherov, A. V.; Kustov, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that catalytic activity of mixed oxide catalyst of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O composition in oxidative dehydrogenation (OD) of ethane is determined to a substantial degree by the Nb-to-(C2O4)2- ratio in niobium-containing precursors. A pH value of 2.8 to 3.0 for a mixture is optimal when conducting the hydrothermal synthesis of a mixed oxide catalyst; this is achieved by using oxaloniobic acid as a niobium-containing precursor. It is determined that substituting antimony for tellurium results in a loss of catalyst activity during the OD of ethane. The optimum Te content in a catalyst is 0.17 mol %.

  1. Preparation and characterization of a novel hybrid magnetic semiconductor containing rare, one-dimensional mixed-iodide/chloride anion of lead(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Leqing Wu Jihuai Huang Yunfang

    2007-12-15

    A new hybrid inorganic-organic magnetic semiconductor [Ni(bipy){sub 3}Pb{sub 2}I{sub 4.84}Cl{sub 1.16}.DMF]{sub n} (bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) containing novel one-dimensional mixed-halide anion of lead(II) was synthesized by reactions of PbI{sub 2}, NaI, NiCl{sub 2} and bipy in DMF solution, and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the space group C2/c with a=29.260(8) A, b=15.602(4) A, c=23.695(6) A, {beta}=126.815({sup o}), Z=8, V=8660(4) A{sup 3} and consists of a magnetic cation [Ni(bipy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} in addition to one-dimensional mixed-halide anion, which is built up of face-sharing [PbX{sub 6}] octahedra. Of the seven crystallographically independent halide sites in this anion, one and five are occupied by Cl and I, respectively, the remaining one has mixed-iodide and -chloride occupancy. The title yellow compound has an optical bandgap of 2.59 eV, and the variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates paramagnetic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Based upon magnetic metal-organic complex as template, a novel one-dimensional haloplumbate containing mixed-halide anion has been successfully synthesized. Its structural characteristics, optical bandgap, magnetic and thermal properties are reported.

  2. Single column comprehensive analysis of pharmaceutical preparations using dual-injection mixed-mode (ion-exchange and reversed-phase) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Taylor, Mark R; Haddad, Paul R; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2013-12-01

    The comprehensive separation and detection of hydrophobic and hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), their counter-ions (organic, inorganic) and excipients, using a single mixed-mode chromatographic column, and a dual injection approach is presented. Using a mixed-mode Thermo Fisher Acclaim Trinity P1 column, APIs, their counter-ions and possible degradants were first separated using a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and hydrophobic interactions, using a mobile phase consisting of a dual organic modifier/salt concentration gradient. A complementary method was also developed using the same column for the separation of hydrophilic bulk excipients, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) under high organic solvent mobile phase conditions. These two methods were then combined within a single gradient run using dual sample injection, with the first injection at the start of the applied gradient (mixed-mode retention of solutes), followed by a second sample injection at the end of the gradient (HILIC retention of solutes). Detection using both ultraviolet absorbance and refractive index enabled the sensitive detection of APIs and UV-absorbing counter-ions, together with quantitative determination of bulk excipients. The developed approach was applied successfully to the analysis of a dry powder inhalers (Flixotide(®), Spiriva(®)), enabling comprehensive quantification of all APIs and excipients in the sample.

  3. Web-Based Evidence Based Practice Educational Intervention to Improve EBP Competence among BSN-Prepared Pediatric Bedside Nurses: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laibhen-Parkes, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    For pediatric nurses, their competence in EBP is critical for providing high-quality care and maximizing patient outcomes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess and refine a Web-based EBP educational intervention focused on improving EBP beliefs and competence in BSN-prepared pediatric bedside nurses, and to examine the feasibility,…

  4. Impact tests of the tungsten coated stainless steels prepared by using magnetron sputtering with ion beam mixing or electron beam alloying treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yu; Zhan, Chang-Yong; Yang, Bin; Wu, Jian-Chun

    2013-05-01

    Tungsten films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) with ion beam mixing (IBM) or electron beam alloying (EBA) treatment. The ductile-brittle transition behaviors of the specimens were investigated by means of instrumented Charpy impact test at a series of temperature, and SEM was used to observe the morphology of the cross section. Impact tests show that different treatment methods with W films do not have much influence on crack initiation, while EBA treatment with W films can more effectively prevent crack propagation, namely improve the impact toughness of SS than using IBM treatment. The reason that caused this difference was discussed.

  5. Effect of physical state and particle size distribution on dissolution enhancement of nimodipine/PEG solid dispersions prepared by melt mixing and solvent evaporation.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, George Z; Bikiaris, Dimitrios; Karavas, Evagelos; Politis, Stavros; Docoslis, Aristides; Park, Yong; Stergiou, Anagnostis; Georgarakis, Emmanouel

    2006-10-06

    The physical structure and polymorphism of nimodipine were studied by means of micro-Raman, WAXD, DSC, and SEM for cases of the pure drug and its solid dispersions in PEG 4000, prepared by both the hot-melt and solvent evaporation methods. The dissolution rates of nimodipine/PEG 4000 solid dispersions were also measured and discussed in terms of their physicochemical characteristics. Micro-Raman and WAXD revealed a significant amorphous portion of the drug in the samples prepared by the hot-melt method, and that saturation resulted in local crystallization of nimodipine forming, almost exclusively, modification I crystals (racemic compound). On the other hand, mainly modification II crystals (conglomerate) were observed in the solid dispersions prepared by the solvent evaporation method. However, in general, both drug forms may appear in the solid dispersions. SEM and HSM microscopy studies indicated that the drug particle size increased with drug content. The dissolution rates were substantially improved for nimodipine from its solid dispersions compared with the pure drug or physical mixtures. Among solid dispersions, those resulting from solvent coevaporation exhibited a little faster drug release at drug concentrations lower than 20 wt%. Drug amorphization is the main reason for this behavior. At higher drug content the dissolution rates became lower compared with the samples from melt, due to the drug crystallization in modification II, which results in higher crystallinity and increased particle size. Overall, the best results were found for low drug content, for which lower drug crystallinity and smaller particle size were observed.

  6. High-mix insulins

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Farooqi, Mohammad Hamed; El-Houni, Ali E.

    2015-01-01

    Premix insulins are commonly used insulin preparations, which are available in varying ratios of different molecules. These drugs contain one short- or rapid-acting, and one intermediate- or long-acting insulin. High-mix insulins are mixtures of insulins that contain 50% or more than 50% of short-acting insulin. This review describes the clinical pharmacology of high-mix insulins, including data from randomized controlled trials. It suggests various ways, in which high-mix insulin can be used, including once daily, twice daily, thrice daily, hetero-mix, and reverse regimes. The authors provide a rational framework to help diabetes care professionals, identify indications for pragmatic high-mix use. PMID:26425485

  7. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2009-04-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Controlled Thermoresponsive Hydrogels by Stereocomplexed PLA-PEG-PLA Prepared via Hybrid Micelles of Pre-Mixed Copolymers with Different PEG Lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Abebe, Daniel G.; Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2012-09-05

    The stereocomplexed hydrogels derived from the micelle mixture of two enantiomeric triblock copolymers, PLLA-PEG-PLLA and PDLA-PEG-PDLA, reported in 2001 exhibited sol-to-gel transition at approximately body temperature upon heating. However, the showed poor storage modulus (ca. 1000 Pa) determined their insufficiency as injectable implant biomaterials for many applications. In this study, the mechanical property of these hydrogels was significantly improved by the modifications of molecular weights and micelle structure. Co-micelles composed of block copolymers with two sizes of PEG block length were shown to possess unique and dissimilar properties from the micelles composed of single-sized block copolymers. The stereomixture of PLA-PEG-PLA comicelles showed a controllable sol-to-gel transition at a wide temperature range of 4 and 80 C. The sol-gel phase diagram displays a linear relationship of temperature versus copolymer composition; hence, a transition at body temperature can be readily achieved by adjusting the mixed copolymer ratio. The resulting thermoresponsive hydrogels exhibit a storage modulus notably higher (ca. 6000 Pa) than that of previously reported hydrogels. As a physical network solely governed by self-reorganization of micelles, followed by stereocomplexation, this unique system offers practical, safe, and simple implantable biomaterials.

  9. Controlled thermoresponsive hydrogels by stereocomplexed PLA-PEG-PLA prepared via hybrid micelles of pre-mixed copolymers with different PEG lengths.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Daniel G; Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2012-06-11

    The stereocomplexed hydrogels derived from the micelle mixture of two enantiomeric triblock copolymers, PLLA-PEG-PLLA and PDLA-PEG-PDLA, reported in 2001 exhibited sol-to-gel transition at approximately body temperature upon heating. However, the showed poor storage modulus (ca. 1000 Pa) determined their insufficiency as injectable implant biomaterials for many applications. In this study, the mechanical property of these hydrogels was significantly improved by the modifications of molecular weights and micelle structure. Co-micelles composed of block copolymers with two sizes of PEG block length were shown to possess unique and dissimilar properties from the micelles composed of single-sized block copolymers. The stereomixture of PLA-PEG-PLA comicelles showed a controllable sol-to-gel transition at a wide temperature range of 4 and 80 °C. The sol-gel phase diagram displays a linear relationship of temperature versus copolymer composition; hence, a transition at body temperature can be readily achieved by adjusting the mixed copolymer ratio. The resulting thermoresponsive hydrogels exhibit a storage modulus notably higher (ca. 6000 Pa) than that of previously reported hydrogels. As a physical network solely governed by self-reorganization of micelles, followed by stereocomplexation, this unique system offers practical, safe, and simple implantable biomaterials. PMID:22537225

  10. Preparation and formation mechanism of BiOCl0.75I0.25 nanospheres by precipitation method in alcohol-water mixed solvents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoning; Chen, Hongche; Li, Hongjing; Mailhot, Gilles; Dong, Wenbo

    2016-09-15

    BiOCl0.75I0.25 crystals with irregular three-dimensional (3D) flower-like and hierarchical nanosphere-like structures were successfully synthesized in different alcohol-water mixed solvents by precipitation method. The primary formation mechanism of BiOCl0.75I0.25 nanospheres was investigated by taking water, monohydric alcohols (ethanol and isopropanol), and polyhydric alcohols (ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and glycerol) as solvents in the synthesis process. The obtained BiOCl0.75I0.25 samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption. Results showed that the alcohol solvents with different physical and chemical properties used in the synthesis process performed significant functions in directing the morphology and surface pore structure of BiOCl0.75I0.25 crystals. Meanwhile, BiOCl0.75I0.25 synthesized in various solvents exhibited morphology-dependent adsorption and photocatalytic degradation abilities in removing p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (p-HPA), which was used as a model pollutant, in aqueous solutions under simulated solar light (λ⩾290nm). In addition, the fabrication process of the crystal products was proposed through a series of time-dependent experiments. PMID:27280534

  11. Preparation and formation mechanism of BiOCl0.75I0.25 nanospheres by precipitation method in alcohol-water mixed solvents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoning; Chen, Hongche; Li, Hongjing; Mailhot, Gilles; Dong, Wenbo

    2016-09-15

    BiOCl0.75I0.25 crystals with irregular three-dimensional (3D) flower-like and hierarchical nanosphere-like structures were successfully synthesized in different alcohol-water mixed solvents by precipitation method. The primary formation mechanism of BiOCl0.75I0.25 nanospheres was investigated by taking water, monohydric alcohols (ethanol and isopropanol), and polyhydric alcohols (ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and glycerol) as solvents in the synthesis process. The obtained BiOCl0.75I0.25 samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption. Results showed that the alcohol solvents with different physical and chemical properties used in the synthesis process performed significant functions in directing the morphology and surface pore structure of BiOCl0.75I0.25 crystals. Meanwhile, BiOCl0.75I0.25 synthesized in various solvents exhibited morphology-dependent adsorption and photocatalytic degradation abilities in removing p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (p-HPA), which was used as a model pollutant, in aqueous solutions under simulated solar light (λ⩾290nm). In addition, the fabrication process of the crystal products was proposed through a series of time-dependent experiments.

  12. Generation of T memory cells in one-way mixed lymphocyte culture. IV. Primary and secondary responses to soluble and insoluble membrane preparations and to ultraviolet-light-inactivated stimulator cells.

    PubMed

    Häyry, P; Anderson, L C

    1976-01-01

    Neither normal CBA (H-2k) nor purified spleen T cells respond in vitro to soluble or insoluble membrane preparations or to ultraviolet-light-inactivated stimulator cells of the allogeneic DBA/2 (H-2d) strain. However, CBA spleen cells deprived of phagocytic cells show a slight proliferative response under these conditions. After being primed against mitomycin-blocked DBA/2 cells in one-way mixed lymphocyte culture, the secondary blast-derived T 'memory' cells display a good secondary blast (proliferative) response to both membrane antigens and to ultraviolet-light-inactivated stimulator cells. In addition to this, the secondary T lymphocytes--in contrast to nonprimed T cells--respond by cytotoxicity when ultraviolet-light-inactivated cells are used as the second stimulant.

  13. Electro-Catalytic Activity of RuO2-IrO2-Ta2O5 Mixed Metal Oxide Prepared by Spray Thermal Decomposition for Alkaline Water Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyein; Lim, Dongwook; Kim, Taewoo; Lee, Duwon; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2016-05-01

    Oxygen evolution reaction for alkaline water electrolysis was studied using various mixed metal oxide catalysts. Mixed metal oxide electrodes consisting of RuO2, IrO2, and Ta2O5 with various ratios on a titanium substrate were prepared by spray thermal decomposition. The crystallinity of the synthesized catalyst was investigated via X-ray diffraction, and the oxidation state of each component was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and the roughness factor was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1 M H2SO4. Electo-catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1 M KOH at room temperature, and it was found to be strongly dependent.on composition of catalyst. Among all electrodes tested, catalyst with a composition of Ru:Ir:Ta = 1:2:2.5 exhibited the highest current density of 100 mA cm(-2) at 1.67 V, corresponding to an overpotential of 0.44 V. PMID:27483764

  14. Temperature influence on deuterium retention for Be-W mixed thin films prepared by Thermionic Vacuum Arc method exposed to PISCES B plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepu, I.; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C. P.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium-tungsten thin films with well controlled elemental composition were prepared using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) technique and subsequently exposed to steady state, high ion flux (5.5 - 9.8 × 1022 ions m-2 s-1) deuterium (D) plasma in the PISCES-B facility to consistent fluences of 2.3 × 1026 m-2. Six types of layers were studied, ranging from pure Be, composite Be-W, having the atomic ratios of 9:1; 7:3; 1:1; 3:7; to pure W with a total deposited layer thickness of 2 μm. The sample exposure temperatures, namely 300 K, 473 K, 573 K and 773 K, respectively, were measured in situ with a thermocouple placed on the back of the sample. Morphological and structural examinations were undertaken before and after plasma exposure. Results show an influence of temperature on the subsequent morphology of the surface. Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS) spectra showed a change in the D release behavior for different Be-W ratio for a certain exposure temperature.

  15. Antioxidant activities of cereal-legume mixed batters as influenced by process parameters during preparation of dhokla and idli, traditional steamed pancakes.

    PubMed

    Moktan, Bijoy; Roy, Arindam; Sarkar, Prabir K

    2011-06-01

    Dhokla and idli are popular breakfast foods in India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate their antioxidative properties during different stages of preparation. The effects of fermentation on the enhancement of antioxidative activities were reflected by a higher total phenol content (TPC) in the fermented batters, which also displayed better antioxidative activities than their unfermented batters and steam-cooked products. Fermentation enhanced>2.5-fold TPC and>125% reducing activity. The fermented batters were better free-radical scavengers, which increased in a time and dose-dependent manner, than either the unfermented batters or their steamed products. There was significant enhancement of metal-chelating and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities during fermentation. The TPCs of both dhokla and idli extracts were positively correlated with the respective values of other parameters, suggesting a possible role of phenolics in the extracts as the antioxidant. The data also revealed a strong correlation between any two of these five parameters tested. PMID:21142877

  16. Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries from Spent Mixed Alkaline Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Xi, Guoxi

    2016-01-01

    LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries were successfully re-synthesized using mixed spent alkaline zinc-manganese batteries and spent lithium-ion batteries as the raw materials. These materials were synthesized by using a combination of dissolution, co-precipitation, calcination, battery preparation, and battery charge-discharge processes. The phase composition, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the products were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, infrared spectra, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and charge-discharge measurements. The results showed that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials could be successfully re-synthesized at optimal preparation conditions of: co-precipitation, pH value of 8, calcination temperature of 850°C, and calcination time of 10 h. Furthermore, the electrochemical results showed that the re-synthesized sample could deliver an initial discharge capacity of up to 160.2 mAh g-1 and Coulomb efficiency of 99.8%.

  17. Sustained release characteristics of tablets prepared with mixed matrix of sodium carrageenan and chitosan: effect of polymer weight ratio, dissolution medium, and drug type.

    PubMed

    Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Al-Ghazawi, Mutasim

    2005-03-01

    The interpolymeric complexation of carrageenan and chitosan was investigated for its effect on drug release from polymeric matrices in comparison to single polymers. For this purpose, matrices with carrageenan: chitosan (CG:CS) ratios of 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% were prepared at 1:1 drug to polymer ratio. The effect of dissolution medium and drug type on drug release from the formulations was addressed. Two model drugs were utilized: diltiazem HCl (DZ) as a salt of a basic drug and diclofenac Na (DS) as a salt of an acidic drug. Three dissolution media were used: water, simulated gastric fluid (SGF), and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Some combinations of the two polymers showed remarkable sustained release effect on DZ in comparison to the single polymers in water and SGF. However, no apparent effect for the combination on DZ release was shown in SIF. The medium effect was explained by the necessity of chitosan ionization, which could be attained by the acidic SGF or microacidic environment created by the used acidic salt of DZ in water, but not in SIF. An interaction between the medium type and CG:CS ratio was also found. With DS, the polymer combinations had similar dissolution profiles to those of the single polymers in water and SIF, which was explained by the lack of chitosan ionization by the medium or the drug basic salt. The dissolution profiles could not be obtained in SGF, which was attributed to the conversion of DS into diclofenac free acid. The importance of chitosan ionization for its interaction with CG to have an effect on the release of DS was demonstrated by performing dissolution of SGF presoaked tablets of DS in SIF, which showed an effect of combining the two polymers on sustaining the drug release.

  18. Effect of extrusion on the antioxidant capacity and color attributes of expanded extrudates prepared from purple potato and yellow pea flour mixes.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Berrios, Jose De J; Powers, Joseph R; Tang, Juming

    2011-08-01

    Foods with antioxidant capacity provide protection against cardio-vascular, certain forms of cancers, and Alzheimer's diseases caused by oxidative damages and contribute health benefits. The effect of extrusion cooking on the antioxidant capacity and color attributes of extruded products prepared from 3 selected formulations of purple potato and yellow pea flours using a co-rotating twin screw extruder were studied. Expansion ratios of the extruded products varied from 3.93 to 4.75. The total antioxidant capacities (TAC) of the extruded products, using DPPH assay, were 3769 to 4116 μg trolox equivalent/g dry weight sample and not significantly different (P > 0.05) from their respective raw formulations. The total phenolic contents (TP) of the extruded products varied from 2088 to 3766 μg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight sample and retained 73% to 83% of the TP from the raw formulations after extrusion. The total anthocyanins contents (TA) in the extrudates were 0.116 to 0.228 mg of malvidin-3-glucosides/g dry weight sample. Compared with their raw formulations, significant losses (60% to 70%) of the TA in the extruded products occurred due to extrusion cooking. Browning indices and color attributes such as brightness, chroma, and hue angle agreed with degradation of anthocyanins in the extruded products. However, extrusion cooking retained antioxidant capacities of the raw formulations in the extruded products either in their natural forms or degraded products with radical scavenging activity. This study demonstrated the potential for the production of puffed extruded food products with the improved antioxidant content from colored potatoes and pulse formulations.

  19. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Dimenna, R; Tamburello, D

    2011-02-14

    height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide feed of a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (e.g. typically {approx}13 wt% at SRS) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination?

  20. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    schedule savings. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria associated with the waste processing at SRS and to quantify the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed briefly, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide the DWPF a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (typically {approx}13 wt%) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying to DWPF, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition for DWPF? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination? Grenville and Tilton (1996) investigated the mixing process by giving a pulse of tracer (electrolyte) through the submersible jet nozzle and by monitoring the conductivity at three locations within the cylindrical tank. They proposed that the mixing process was controlled by the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the region far away from the jet entrance. They took the energy dissipation rates in the regions remote from the nozzle to be proportional to jet velocity and jet diameter at that location. The reduction in the jet velocity was taken to be proportional to the nozzle velocity and distance from the nozzle. Based on their analysis, a correlation was proposed. The proposed correlation was shown to be valid over a wide range of Reynolds numbers

  1. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  2. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bodies , What Is Alzheimer's? NIA-Funded Memory & Aging Project Reveals Mixed Dementia Common Data from the first ... disease. For example, in the Memory and Aging Project study involving long-term cognitive assessments followed by ...

  3. Polymeric Micelles for Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs: Preparation and Anticancer Activity In Vitro of Paclitaxel Incorporated into Mixed Micelles Based on Poly(ethylene Glycol)-Lipid Conjugate and Positively Charged Lipids

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JUNPING; MONGAYT, DIMITRY; TORCHILIN, VLADIMIR P.

    2006-01-01

    Paclitaxel-loaded mixed polymeric micelles consisting of poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphoethanolamine conjugates (PEG-PE), solid triglycerides (ST), and cationic Lipofectin® lipids (LL) have been prepared. Micelles with the optimized composition (PEG-PE/ST/LL/paclitaxel = 12/12/2/1 by weight) had an average micelle size of about 100 nm, and zeta-potential of about 26 mV. Micelles were stable and did not release paclitaxel when stored at 4°C in the darkness (just 2.9% of paclitaxel have been lost after 4 months with the particle size remaining unchanged). The release of paclitaxel from such micelles at room temperature was also insignificant. However, at 37°C, approx. 16% of paclitaxel was released from PEG-PE/ST/LL/paclitaxel micelles in 72 h, probably, because of phase transition in the ST-containing micelle core. In vitro anticancer effects of PEG-PE/ST/LL/paclitaxel and control micelles were evaluated using human mammary adenocarcinoma (BT-20) and human ovarian carcinoma (A2780) cell lines. Paclitaxel in PEG-PE/ST/LL micelles demonstrated the maximum anti-cancer activity. Cellular uptake of fluorescently-labeled paclitaxel-containing micelles by BT-20 cells was investigated using a fluorescence microscopy. It seems that PEG-PE/ST/LL micelles, unlike micelles without the LL component, could escape from endosomes and enter the cytoplasm of BT-20 cancer cells thus increasing the anticancer efficiency of the micellar paclitaxel. PMID:15848957

  4. [Mixed cryoglobulinemia].

    PubMed

    Roque, R; Ramiro, S; Vinagre, F; Cordeiro, A; Godinho, F; Santos, Maria José; Gonçalves, P; Canas da Silva, J

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe two clinical cases of cryoglobulinemia. A 70 years old woman, having skin ulcers on lower limbs, arthralgias, paresthesias and constitutional symptoms, for about 10 months. Exams revealed mild anemia, elevation of the biological parameters of inflammation and aminotransferases, positive cryoglobulin and rheumatoid factor in serum, and a severe reduction in C4 complement fraction. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology was negative. Idiopathic mixed cryoglobulinemia was diagnosed and corticosteroid therapy started. Given the lack of response, cyclophosphamide and plasmapheresis were added. Two weeks later the patient died in septic shock. The second case refers to a 41 years old female, with untreated hepatitis C who developed over a 6 month period petechiae and livedoid lesions on the lower limbs, peripheral neuropathy, and constitutional symptoms and was admitted with intestinal necrosis. Exams were consistent with the diagnosis of mixed cryoglobulinemia associated, with HCV. She started therapy with ribavirin and pegylated interferon-alpha, with improvement. PMID:22113605

  5. PREPARATION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1959-10-01

    A process is described for preparing uranium hexafluoride from carbonate- leach uranium ore concentrate. The briquetted, crushed, and screened concentrate is reacted with hydrogen fluoride in a fluidized bed, and the uranium tetrafluoride formed is mixed with a solid diluent, such as calcium fluoride. This mixture is fluorinated with fluorine and an inert diluent gas, also in a fluidized bed, and the uranium hexafluoride obtained is finally purified by fractional distillation.

  6. Iodine-Catalyzed Synthesis of Mixed Cellulose Esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel method for the preparation of cellulose mixed acetate is described herein, involving the concurrent use of iodine and mixed anhydride. The method is simple, rapid, efficient, and solvent-less. With this method, cellulose mixed esters has been synthesized. ...

  7. Housing Mix, School Mix: Barriers to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camina, M. M.; Iannone, P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent UK policy has emphasised both the development of socially mixed communities and the creation of balanced school intakes. In this paper, we use a case study of an area of mixed tenure in eastern England to explore policy in practice and the extent to which mechanisms of segregation impact on both the creation of socially mixed neighbourhoods…

  8. Mixing and Transport.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; Chapman, Tom; Siverts-Wong, Elena; Wei, Li; Mei, Ying

    2016-10-01

    This section covers research published during the calendar year 2015 on mixing and transport processes. The review covers mixing of anaerobic digesters, mixing of heat transfer, and environmental fate and transport. PMID:27620101

  9. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  10. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  11. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  12. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  13. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  14. Microemulsion formation with mixed chlorinated hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, J.R. Jr.; Pope, G.A.; Wade, W.H.; Weerasooriya, V.; Yapa, A. )

    1994-11-01

    Mixing rules for water/chlorocarbon/anionic surfactant systems have been studied. It was found that the behavior of chlorocarbons parallels the ideal mixing rules for hydrocarbons. The polarity of some chlorocarbons prevented a direct determination of electrolyte concentration and solubilization parameter for optimum formulations. These values were obtained by extrapolation and have been tabulated. Various complex mixtures containing chlorocarbons and hydrocarbons were prepared and their experimental optimum salinities were compared to calculated values.

  15. Preparation of nano-sized mixed crystal TiO2-coated Er3+:YAlO3 by sol-gel method for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Jia; Liu, Bin; Xie, Yingpeng; Han, Guangxi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Liqun; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an upconversion luminescence agent, crystallized Er(3 + ):YAlO(3), was synthesized and then coated by the nano-sized TiO(2) film through sol-gel technique. A novel TiO(2) photocatalyst, Er(3 + ):YAlO(3)/TiO(2), with high activity in visible light was subsequently prepared. The Er(3 + ):YAlO(3) and Er(3 + ):YAlO(3)/TiO(2) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of Er(3 + ):YAlO(3)/TiO(2) photocatalyst was tested by the degradation of acid red B in aqueous solution as the primary model compound under visible light irradiation. The experimental results proved that the prepared TiO(2)-coated crystallized Er(3 + ):YAlO(3) was able to decompose the acid red B efficiently, and it is promising to use the idea to develop new TiO(2) photocatalyst with high activity for photocatalytic degradation under visible light.

  16. Preparing for the Learning Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salner, Marcia

    1999-01-01

    A seminar to prepare students for learning organizations was based on Perry's theory of intellectual and ethical development. Developmental assignments were designed to assist cognitive growth and self-awareness. Challenges arose from differences in group composition (younger or mixed-age students) and the ethics of attempting to alter students'…

  17. PROCESS OF PREPARING ZIRCONIUM OXYCHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Andrews, M.L.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for preparing zirconyl chloride by mixing solid zirconyl chloride octahydrate and solid zirconium tetrachloride at room temperature whereby both chlorides are converted to zirconyl chloride trinydrate and hydrogen chloride is formed and volatilized by the reaction heat.

  18. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  19. Method to prepare Semtex

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A; Dougan, A

    2006-11-26

    This procedure requires the binder and uncoated RDX be prepared in separate steps, see Figure 1: (1) The binder and dye are mixed by agitation with a water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g., toluene), I; (2) The RDX/PETN is agitated thoroughly with water, II; (3) The binder solution I is added to the RDX/water mixture at II with thorough mixing to form a slurry III; (4) In the next step the solvent is distilled off at IV leaving resulting granules; (5) The next step is followed by filtration at V, which may be done by vacuum; (6) The composition is then dried at VI to a dough-like consistency.

  20. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  1. Mixing in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2011-01-07

    Turbulent mixing plays a vital role in many fields in astronomy. Here I review a few of these sites, discuss the importance of this turbulent mixing and the techniques used by astrophysicists to solve these problems.

  2. Mixed Stationary Liquid Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory technique for use in an undergraduate instrumental analysis course that, using the interpretation of window diagrams, prepares a mixed liquid phase column for gas-liquid chromatography. A detailed procedure is provided. (BT)

  3. Foundations of chaotic mixing.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Stephen; Ottino, Julio M

    2004-05-15

    The simplest mixing problem corresponds to the mixing of a fluid with itself; this case provides a foundation on which the subject rests. The objective here is to study mixing independently of the mechanisms used to create the motion and review elements of theory focusing mostly on mathematical foundations and minimal models. The flows under consideration will be of two types: two-dimensional (2D) 'blinking flows', or three-dimensional (3D) duct flows. Given that mixing in continuous 3D duct flows depends critically on cross-sectional mixing, and that many microfluidic applications involve continuous flows, we focus on the essential aspects of mixing in 2D flows, as they provide a foundation from which to base our understanding of more complex cases. The baker's transformation is taken as the centrepiece for describing the dynamical systems framework. In particular, a hierarchy of characterizations of mixing exist, Bernoulli --> mixing --> ergodic, ordered according to the quality of mixing (the strongest first). Most importantly for the design process, we show how the so-called linked twist maps function as a minimal picture of mixing, provide a mathematical structure for understanding the type of 2D flows that arise in many micromixers already built, and give conditions guaranteeing the best quality mixing. Extensions of these concepts lead to first-principle-based designs without resorting to lengthy computations.

  4. Mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Yetkin

    According to Superpave mixture design, gyratory specimens are mixed and compacted at equiviscous binder temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 0.17 and 0.28 Pa.s. respectively. These were the values previously used in the Marshal mix design method to determine optimal mixing and compaction temperatures. In order to estimate the appropriate mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixture design, a temperature-viscosity relationship for the binder needs to be developed (ASTM D 2493, Calculation of Mixing and Compaction Temperatures). The current approach is simple and provides reasonable temperatures for unmodified binders. However, some modified binders have exhibited unreasonably high temperatures for mixing and compaction using this technique. These high temperatures can result in construction problems, damage of asphalt, and production of fumes. Heating asphalt binder to very high temperatures during construction oxidizes the binder and separates the polymer from asphalt binder. It is known that polymer modified asphalt binders have many benefits to the roads, such as; increasing rutting resistance, enhancing low temperature cracking resistance, improving traction, better adhesion and cohesion, elevating tensile strength which are directly related to the service life of the pavement. Therefore, oxidation and separation of the polymer from the asphalt binder results in reduction of the service life. ASTM D 2493 was established for unmodified asphalt binders which are Newtonian fluids at high temperatures. For these materials, viscosity does not depend on shear rate. However, most of the modified asphalt binders exhibit a phenomenon known as pseudoplasticity, where viscosity does depend on shear rate. Thus, at the high shear rates occurring during mixing and compaction, it is not necessary to go to very high temperatures. This research was undertaken to determine the shear rate during compaction such that the effect of this parameter could be

  5. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  6. Preparation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Chrys; Mellor, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    In "Orange Juice or Orange Drink?," the authors provided evidence that many students are receiving credit for courses with little indication that they have learned the content implied by the course titles (Dougherty, Mellor, & Jian, 2006). Yet in pursuit of the goal of preparing all students for college and careers, many policymakers…

  7. Mixed matrix membrane development.

    PubMed

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    2003-03-01

    Two types of mixed matrix membranes were developed by UOP in the late 1980s. The first type includes adsorbent polymers, such as silicalite-cellulose acetate (CA), NaX-CA, and AgX-CA mixed matrix membranes. The silicalite-CA has a CO(2)/H(2) selectivity of 5.15 +/- 2.2. In contrast, the CA membrane has a CO(2)/H(2) selectivity of 0.77 +/- 0.06. The second type of mixed matrix membrane is PEG-silicone rubber. The PEG-silicone rubber mixed matrix membrane has high selectivity for polar gases, such as SO(2), NH(3), and H(2)S.

  8. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  9. To Mix or Not to Mix?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuttlewood, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the teaching strategy of the mixed independent school where she works, in which they split the students into four or five ability sets. The sets are decided primarily either by pupil achievement in the entrance examinations prior to Y9 or by pupil performance in the prep school. The author also presents the…

  10. Preparation Of Energy Storage Materials

    DOEpatents

    Li, Lin Song; Jia, Quanxi

    2003-12-02

    A process is provided for the preparation of a metallic oxide composite including mixing an aqueous solution of a water-soluble metal compound and colloidal silica, depositing the mixture upon a substrate, heating the mixture-coated substrates at temperatures from about 150.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. for time sufficient to form a metallic oxide film, and, removing the silica from the metallic oxide film whereby a porous metal oxide structure is formed.

  11. Mixed Ability Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov, Poul

    1986-01-01

    As a basis for taking a position on the future school structure in grades 8-10 in Denmark, an extensive study was carried out on mixed ability teaching (teaching in heterogeneous classes) on these grade levels. Results showed that mixed ability teaching gave at least as good results as teaching in differentiated classes. (Author/LMO)

  12. Recurrent mixed tumor.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G

    1986-01-01

    Recurrence of benign neoplasms can usually be attributed to incomplete excision. Such is the case with benign mixed tumors of salivary glands. Certain histopathologic features of mixed tumors, however, appear to facilitate recurrences. These are: a predominantly myxoid composition, and transcapsular extension by the tumor. Multicentric origin is possible, but it must be regarded as a much lower order of probability.

  13. Microfluidic Mixing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Chin-Lung; Wang, Yao-Nan; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of microfluidic mixing is to achieve a thorough and rapid mixing of multiple samples in microscale devices. In such devices, sample mixing is essentially achieved by enhancing the diffusion effect between the different species flows. Broadly speaking, microfluidic mixing schemes can be categorized as either “active”, where an external energy force is applied to perturb the sample species, or “passive”, where the contact area and contact time of the species samples are increased through specially-designed microchannel configurations. Many mixers have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 10 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the field of microfluidic mixing devices before describing some of the more significant proposals for active and passive mixers. PMID:21686184

  14. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to - π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  15. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to ‑ π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  16. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    PubMed

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  17. Preparation, Characterization, and Selectivity Study of Mixed-Valence Sulfites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Luciana A.; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    2010-01-01

    A project involving the synthesis of an isomorphic double sulfite series and characterization by classical inorganic chemical analyses is described. The project is performed by upper-level undergraduate students in the laboratory. This compound series is suitable for examining several chemical concepts and analytical techniques in inorganic…

  18. Nearly discontinuous chaotic mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, David Howland; Lim, Hyun K; Yu, Yan; Glimm, James G

    2009-01-01

    A new scientific approach is presented for a broad class of chaotic problems involving a high degree of mixing over rapid time scales. Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows are typical of such problems. Microscopic mixing properties such as chemical reaction rates for turbulent mixtures can be obtained with feasible grid resolution. The essential dependence of (some) fluid mixing observables on transport phenomena is observed. This dependence includes numerical as well as physical transport and it includes laminar as well as turbulent transport. A new approach to the mathematical theory for the underlying equations is suggested.

  19. Meeting Report: Hackathon-Workshop on Darwin Core and MIxS Standards Alignment (February 2012).

    PubMed

    Tuama, Eamonn Ó; Deck, John; Dröge, Gabriel; Döring, Markus; Field, Dawn; Kottmann, Renzo; Ma, Juncai; Mori, Hiroshi; Morrison, Norman; Sterk, Peter; Sugawara, Hideaki; Wieczorek, John; Wu, Linhuan; Yilmaz, Pelin

    2012-10-10

    The Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the Genomic Standards Consortium convened a joint workshop at the University of Oxford, 27-29 February 2012, with a small group of experts from Europe, USA, China and Japan, to continue the alignment of the Darwin Core with the MIxS and related genomics standards. Several reference mappings were produced as well as test expressions of MIxS in RDF. The use and management of controlled vocabulary terms was considered in relation to both GBIF and the GSC, and tools for working with terms were reviewed. Extensions for publishing genomic biodiversity data to the GBIF network via a Darwin Core Archive were prototyped and work begun on preparing translations of the Darwin Core to Japanese and Chinese. Five genomic repositories were identified for engagement to begin the process of testing the publishing of genomic data to the GBIF network commencing with the SILVA rRNA database.

  20. Effective mixing strategies with microbubble streaming flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Guo, Lin; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2013-11-01

    Homogeneous mixing of chemical/biological samples and reagents is one of the essential preparation steps for lab-on-a-chip systems. As effective Stokes flows driven by fast time scale oscillatory flows, microbubble streaming flows are a tool uniquely positioned between passive and active mixing approaches. Guided by thorough theoretical understanding of the flows and of micromixing itself, we investigate various designs of microbubble mixers, employing two key strategies: (a) introducing controlled unsteadiness in the acoustic driving pattern, e.g. by duty-cycling and driving frequency modulation, and (b) optimizing the arrangement of multiple bubbles, such as the number, position, and orientation of the microbubbles, particularly to generate 3D chaotic flow patterns. Both of these approaches significantly improve mixing over that of previous steady 2D bubble micro-mixers, and the strategies can be combined for greater effect. Current address: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology

  1. 21 CFR 184.1027 - Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1027 Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product. (a) Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product is an enzyme preparation that includes carbohydrase and protease...

  2. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  3. Idealized mixing impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    1999-12-08

    The dispersion of tetraphenylborate in continuous stirred tank reactors plays a significant role in the utility achieved from the tetraphenylborate. Investigating idealized mixing of the materials can illuminate how this dispersion occurs.

  4. Mixed-Media Owls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  5. Asymmetric antiproton debuncher: No bad mixing, more good mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1994-07-01

    An asymmetric lattice for the Fermilab Antiproton Debuncher is designed. The lattice has zero mixing between the pickups and the kickers (bad mixing) while the mixing in the rest of the machine (good mixing) can be varied (even during the operation of the machine) in order to optimize the stochastic cooling. As an example, a lattice with zero bad mixing and twice the good mixing is presented. The betatron cooling rate in this lattice is twice its present value.

  6. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  7. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  8. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  9. Microreactor and method for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate

    DOEpatents

    Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Wheeler, Tobias D; Desai, Amit V; Zeng, Dexing; Onal, Birce C

    2015-03-17

    A microreactor for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate comprises a microchannel for fluid flow, where the microchannel comprises a mixing portion comprising one or more passive mixing elements, and a reservoir for incubating a mixed fluid. The reservoir is in fluid communication with the microchannel and is disposed downstream of the mixing portion. A method of preparing a radiolabeled complex includes flowing a radiometal solution comprising a metallic radionuclide through a downstream mixing portion of a microchannel, where the downstream mixing portion includes one or more passive mixing elements, and flowing a ligand solution comprising a bifunctional chelator through the downstream mixing portion. The ligand solution and the radiometal solution are passively mixed while in the downstream mixing portion to initiate a chelation reaction between the metallic radionuclide and the bifunctional chelator. The chelation reaction is completed to form a radiolabeled complex.

  10. Dilution jet mixing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E.; Johnson, K.

    1984-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted to quantify the mixing of opposed rows of jets (two-sided injection) in a confined cross flow. Results show that jet penetrations for two sided injections are less than that for single-sided injections, but the jet spreading rates are faster for a given momentum ratio and orifice plate. Flow area convergence generally enhances mixing. Mixing characteristics with asymmetric and symmetric convergence are similar. For constant momentum ratio, the optimum S/H(0) with in-line injections is one half the optimum value for single sided injections. For staggered injections, the optimum S/H(0) is twice the optimum value for single-sided injection. The correlations developed predicted the temperature distributions within first order accuracy and provide a useful tool for predicting jet trajectory and temperature profiles in the dilution zone with two-sided injections.

  11. Natural convective mixing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; de La Cruz, Luis; del Castillo, Luis

    1998-11-01

    Natural convective mixing flows. Eduardo Ramos and Luis M. de La Cruz, National University of Mexico and Luis Del Castillo San Luis Potosi University. The possibility of mixing a fluid with a natural convective flow is analysed by solving numerically the mass, momentum and energy equations in a cubic container. Two opposite vertical walls of the container are assumed to have temperatures that oscillate as functions of time. The phase of the oscillations is chosen in such a way that alternating corrotating vortices are formed in the cavity. The mixing efficiency of this kind of flow is examined with a Lagrangian tracking technique. This work was partially financed by CONACyT-Mexico project number GE0044

  12. Atomization and mixing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Jaqua, V. W.

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art in atomization and mixing for triplet, pentad, and coaxial injectors is described. Injectors that are applicable for LOX/hydrocarbon propellants and main chamber and fuel rich preburner/gas generator mixture ratios are of special interest. Various applicable correlating equations and parameters as well as test data found in the literature are presented. The validity, utility, and important aspects of these data and correlations are discussed and the measurement techniques used are evaluated. Propellant mixing tests performed are described and summarized, results are reported, and tentative conclusions are included.

  13. Turbulence and Interfacial Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, James; Li, Xiaolin

    2005-03-15

    The authors study mix from analytical and numerical points of view. These investigations are linked. The analytical studies (in addition to laboratory experiments) provide bench marks for the direct simulation of mix. However, direct simulation is too detailed to be useful and to expensive to be practical. They also consider averaged equations. Here the major issue is the validation of the closure assumptions. They appeal to the direct simulation methods for this step. They have collaborated with several NNSA teams; moreover, Stony Brook alumni (former students, faculty and research collaborators) presently hold staff positions in NNSA laboratories.

  14. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  15. Mixed waste characterization strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C.E.; Stakebake, J.; Peters, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive mixed wastes containing a radioactive component subject to the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and hazardous waste subject to resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are generated, treated, and stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and are subject to federal and state statutory and regulatory requirements. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) are the two primary regulatory agencies which enforce these requirements. This paper describes the mechanism by which RFP will characterize mixed wastes within the LDR provisions of RCRA and the LDR FFCA as well as for meeting the waste acceptance criteria for disposal.

  16. Mixed waste characterization strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C.E.; Stakebake, J.; Peters, M.

    1992-08-01

    Radioactive mixed wastes containing a radioactive component subject to the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and hazardous waste subject to resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are generated, treated, and stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and are subject to federal and state statutory and regulatory requirements. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) are the two primary regulatory agencies which enforce these requirements. This paper describes the mechanism by which RFP will characterize mixed wastes within the LDR provisions of RCRA and the LDR FFCA as well as for meeting the waste acceptance criteria for disposal.

  17. MixDown

    2010-01-01

    MixDown is a meta-build tool that orchestrates and manages the building of multiple 3rd party libraries. It can manage the downloading, uncompressing, unpacking, patching, configuration, build, and installation of 3rd party libraries using a variety of configuration and build tools. As a meta-build tool, it relies on 3rd party tools such as GNU Autotools, make, Cmake, scons, etc. to actually confugure and build libraries. MixDown includes an extensive database of settings to be used formore » general machines and specific leadership class computing resources.« less

  18. Atomization and Mixing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrenberg, A.; Hunt, K.; Duesberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective was the obtainment of atomization and mixing performance data for a variety of typical liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon injector element designs. Such data are required to establish injector design criteria and to provide critical inputs to liquid rocket engine combustor performance and stability analysis, and computational codes and methods. Deficiencies and problems with the atomization test equipment were identified, and action initiated to resolve them. Test results of the gas/liquid mixing tests indicated that an assessment of test methods was required. A series of 71 liquid/liquid tests were performed.

  19. Student Readiness: Preparing Children for Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Daphonnie R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined if children who participated in prekindergarten education programs were better prepared for the kindergarten classroom. Children enter the kindergarten setting at various levels of readiness. A mixed method concurrent transformative study design was employed. Data were collected that provided clarity on how preschool…

  20. Preparing Urban School Leaders: What Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tiedan; Beachum, Floyd D.; White, George P.; Kaimal, Girija; FitzGerald, Anne Marie; Reed, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extant research, though limited in quantity, increasingly demonstrates the critical connection between quality preparation experience, candidates' leadership capacity, and their subsequent instructional and transformation leadership practices. Using mixed methods, this study builds on the current knowledge base and aims to further verify the link…

  1. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, Mollie; Welch, Cynthia F.; Goodwin, Lynne Alese; Keller, Jennie

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  2. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  3. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.

    2002-04-01

    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  4. Mixing and Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditmars, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of longitudinal dispersion, mixing and transport in streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and oceans. This review covers also: (1) fluid-solid mixtures and (2) oil spill behavior. A list of 189 references published in 1976 and 1977 is presented. (HM)

  5. Progress in mix modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, A.K.

    1997-03-14

    We have identified the Cranfill multifluid turbulence model (Cranfill, 1992) as a starting point for development of subgrid models of instability, turbulent and mixing processes. We have differenced the closed system of equations in conservation form, and coded them in the object-oriented hydrodynamics code FLAG, which is to be used as a testbed for such models.

  6. Stabilizer for mixed fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, M.; Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.

    1984-03-13

    A stabilizer for mixed fuels containing a reaction product obtained by reacting (1) a polyol having at least 3 hydroxyl groups in the molecule and a molecular weight of 400-10,000 with (2) an epihalohydrin, as the principal component.

  7. Mixed valent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riseborough, P. S.; Lawrence, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We review the theory of mixed-valent metals and make comparison with experiments. A single-impurity description of the mixed-valent state is discussed alongside the description of the nearly-integer valent or Kondo limit. The degeneracy N of the f-shell plays an important role in the description of the low-temperature Fermi-liquid state. In particular, for large N, there is a rapid cross-over between the mixed-valent and the Kondo limit when the number of f electrons is changed. We discuss the limitations on the application of the single-impurity description to concentrated compounds such as those caused by the saturation of the Kondo effect and those due to the presence of magnetic interactions between the impurities. This discussion is followed by a description of a periodic lattice of mixed-valent ions, including the role of the degeneracy N. The article concludes with a comparison of theory and experiment. Topics covered include the single-impurity Anderson model, Luttinger’s theorem, the Friedel sum rule, the Schrieffer–Wolff transformation, the single-impurity Kondo model, Kondo screening, the Wilson ratio, local Fermi-liquids, Fermi-liquid sum rules, the Noziéres exhaustion principle, Doniach’s diagram, the Anderson lattice model, the Slave-Boson method, etc.

  8. Mixed valent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riseborough, P. S.; Lawrence, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We review the theory of mixed-valent metals and make comparison with experiments. A single-impurity description of the mixed-valent state is discussed alongside the description of the nearly-integer valent or Kondo limit. The degeneracy N of the f-shell plays an important role in the description of the low-temperature Fermi-liquid state. In particular, for large N, there is a rapid cross-over between the mixed-valent and the Kondo limit when the number of f electrons is changed. We discuss the limitations on the application of the single-impurity description to concentrated compounds such as those caused by the saturation of the Kondo effect and those due to the presence of magnetic interactions between the impurities. This discussion is followed by a description of a periodic lattice of mixed-valent ions, including the role of the degeneracy N. The article concludes with a comparison of theory and experiment. Topics covered include the single-impurity Anderson model, Luttinger’s theorem, the Friedel sum rule, the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, the single-impurity Kondo model, Kondo screening, the Wilson ratio, local Fermi-liquids, Fermi-liquid sum rules, the Noziéres exhaustion principle, Doniach’s diagram, the Anderson lattice model, the Slave-Boson method, etc.

  9. Enhanced solubilization of curcumin in mixed surfactant vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kansal, S K; Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Mehta, S K

    2016-05-15

    Self-assemblies of equimolar double and single chain mixed ionic surfactants, with increasing numbers of carbon atoms of double chain surfactant, were analyzed on the basis of fluorescence and conductivity results. Attempts were also made to enhance the solubilization of curcumin in aqueous equimolar mixed surfactant systems. Mixed surfactant assembly was successful in retarding the degradation of curcumin in alkaline media (only 25-28 40% degraded in 10h at pH 13). Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching methods were employed to predict the binding position and mechanism of curcumin with self-assemblies. Results indicate that the interactions take place according to both dynamic and static quenching mechanisms and curcumin was distributed in a palisade layer of mixed aggregates. Antioxidant activity (using DPPH radical) and biocompatibility (using calf-thymus DNA) of curcumin-loaded mixed surfactant formulations were also evaluated. The prepared systems improved the stability, solubility and antioxidant activity of curcumin and additionally are biocompatible.

  10. Enhanced solubilization of curcumin in mixed surfactant vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kansal, S K; Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Mehta, S K

    2016-05-15

    Self-assemblies of equimolar double and single chain mixed ionic surfactants, with increasing numbers of carbon atoms of double chain surfactant, were analyzed on the basis of fluorescence and conductivity results. Attempts were also made to enhance the solubilization of curcumin in aqueous equimolar mixed surfactant systems. Mixed surfactant assembly was successful in retarding the degradation of curcumin in alkaline media (only 25-28 40% degraded in 10h at pH 13). Fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching methods were employed to predict the binding position and mechanism of curcumin with self-assemblies. Results indicate that the interactions take place according to both dynamic and static quenching mechanisms and curcumin was distributed in a palisade layer of mixed aggregates. Antioxidant activity (using DPPH radical) and biocompatibility (using calf-thymus DNA) of curcumin-loaded mixed surfactant formulations were also evaluated. The prepared systems improved the stability, solubility and antioxidant activity of curcumin and additionally are biocompatible. PMID:26776022

  11. The Mixed Waste Management Facility monthly report August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    The project is concerned with the design of a mixed waste facility to prepare solid and liquid wastes for processing by electrochemical oxidation, molten salt oxidation, wet oxidation, or UV photolysis. The facility will have a receiving and shipping unit, preparation and processing units, off-gas scrubbing, analytical services, water treatment, and transport and storage facilities. This monthly report give task summaries for 25 tasks which are part of the overall design effort.

  12. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  13. Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-07-01

    When the neutrino mass eigenstate {nu}{sub 2} is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

  14. Experiments in mixed reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  15. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  16. Organic aerosol mixing observed by single-particle mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ellis Shipley; Saleh, Rawad; Donahue, Neil M

    2013-12-27

    We present direct measurements of mixing between separately prepared organic aerosol populations in a smog chamber using single-particle mass spectra from the high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Docosane and docosane-d46 (22 carbon linear solid alkane) did not show any signs of mixing, but squalane and squalane-d62 (30 carbon branched liquid alkane) mixed on the time scale expected from a condensational-mixing model. Docosane and docosane-d46 were driven to mix when the chamber temperature was elevated above the melting point for docosane. Docosane vapors were shown to mix into squalane-d62, but not the other way around. These results are consistent with low diffusivity in the solid phase of docosane particles. We performed mixing experiments on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) surrogate systems finding that SOA derived from toluene-d8 (a surrogate for anthropogenic SOA (aSOA)) does not mix into squalane (a surrogate for hydrophobic primary organic aerosol (POA)) but does mix into SOA derived from α-pinene (biogenic SOA (bSOA) surrogate). For the aSOA/POA, the volatility of either aerosol does not limit gas-phase diffusion, indicating that the two particle populations do not mix simply because they are immiscible. In the aSOA/bSOA system, the presence of toluene-d8-derived SOA molecules in the α-pinene-derived SOA provides evidence that the diffusion coefficient in α-pinene-derived SOA is high enough for mixing on the time scale of 1 min. The observations from all of these mixing experiments are generally invisible to bulk aerosol composition measurements but are made possible with single-particle composition data.

  17. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, Clark W.; Landrum, D. Brian; Spetman, David

    1997-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ambient air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane. The modeling basis was centered on using convective Mach Number as the similarity parameter to establish correlation between subscale, cold flow tests and full scale, hot firing modes. This parameter has been used successfully to correlate supersonic shear layer growth rates. The experiment design includes hot (600 R) air as the rocket exhaust simulant and hot (760 R) carbon dioxide as the turbine exhaust gas simulant. The combination of gases and their elevated temperatures was required to achieve a convective Mach Number which matched the fall scale item design conditions. The carbon dioxide is seeded with Acetone to permit tracing of the mixing processes through Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. The experiment and its design will be discussed in detail. Both the rocket and turbine exhaust duct nozzles are of unique (square and rectangular) shape and the turbine exhaust e)dt intersects the rocket nozzle wall upstream of the exit. Cold flow testing with the individual nozzles has been conducted to ascertain their behavior in comparison to conventional flow theory. These data are presented.

  18. Mixing, entropy and competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. Y.

    2012-06-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices.

  19. Mixing of carbonate waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Plummer, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    When mineral solutions of different compositions are mixed, the molalities and activities of individual ions in the mixture are often non-linear functions of their end-member values. This non-linearity is particularly significant in determining mineral saturation levels. Mixtures of saturated solutions may be either undersaturated or supersaturated depending on the end-member compositions and the physical conditions in which end-members and their mixtures exist. In carbonate solutions important non-linear effects occur due to redistribution of carbonate species. In extreme cases this causes mixture pH to be below both the end-member pH values. A simple but precise computer program (WATMIX) has been developed for calculating mixture composition for closed and open system mixing of arbitrary end-members. A number of mixing examples are considered which allow one to isolate three important processes leading to non-linear behaviour: the algebraic effect, the ??PCO2 effect, and the ionic strength effect. ?? 1976.

  20. MixSIAR: advanced stable isotope mixing models in R

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The development of stable isotope mixing models has coincided with modeling products (e.g. IsoSource, MixSIR, SIAR), where methodological advances are published in parity with software packages. However, while mixing model theory has recently been ex...

  1. Effect of mixing time and speed on experimental baking and dough testing with a 200g pin-mixer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under mixing or over mixing the dough results in varied experimental loaf volumes. Bread preparation requires a trained baker to evaluate dough development and determine stop points of mixer. Instrumentation and electronic control of the dough mixer would allow for automatic mixing. This study us...

  2. Maximally entangled mixed-state generation via local operations

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, A.; Puentes, G.; Voigt, D.; Woerdman, J. P.

    2007-06-15

    We present a general theoretical method to generate maximally entangled mixed states of a pair of photons initially prepared in the singlet polarization state. This method requires only local operations upon a single photon of the pair and exploits spatial degrees of freedom to induce decoherence. We report also experimental confirmation of these theoretical results.

  3. The Mixed Waste Management Facility monthly report, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1995-04-01

    This document presents details of the monthly activities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in regards to the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: quality assurance; regulations; program support; public participation; conceptual design; plant start-up; project management; feed preparation; molten salt, electrochemical, and wet oxidation; process transport and storage; and final waste forms.

  4. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  6. Mix/Cast Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallentine, M.

    2005-01-01

    Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

  7. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  8. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  9. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  10. Mixing order of glidant and lubricant--influence on powder and tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Kalyana; Mendez, Rafael; Lewis, Daniel; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Cuitino, Alberto; Muzzio, Fernando

    2011-05-16

    The main objective of the present work was to study the effect of mixing order of Cab-O-Sil (CS) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) and microlayers during mixing on blend and tablet properties. A first set of pharmaceutical blend containing Avicel PH200, Pharmatose and micronized acetaminophen was prepared with three mixing orders (mixing order-1: CS added first; mixing order-2: MgSt added first; mixing order-3: CS and MgSt added together). All the blends were subjected to a shear rate of 80 rpm and strain of 40, 160 and 640 revolutions in a controlled shear environment resulting in nine different blends. A second set of nine blends was prepared by replacing Avicel PH200 with Avicel PH102. A total of eighteen blends thus prepared were tested for powder hydrophobicity, powder flow, tablet weight, tablet hardness and tablet dissolution. Results indicated that powder hydrophobicity increased significantly for mixing order-1. Intermediate hydrophobic behavior was found for mixing order-3. Additionally, mixing order 1 resulted in improved powder flow properties, low weight variability, higher average tablet weight and slow drug release rates. Dissolution profiles obtained were found to be strongly dependent not only on the mixing order of flowing agents, but also on the strain and the resulting hydrophobicity.

  11. Effect of mixing techniques on bacterial attachment and disinfection time of polyether impression material

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Umut; Budak, Yasemin; Ruh, Emrah; Ocal, Yesim; Canay, Senay; Akyon, Yakut

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was 2-fold. The first aim was to evaluate the effects of mixing technique (hand-mixing or auto-mixing) on bacterial attachment to polyether impression materials. The second aim was to determine whether bacterial attachment to these materials was affected by length of exposure to disinfection solutions. Materials and Methods: Polyether impression material samples (n = 144) were prepared by hand-mixing or auto-mixing. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used in testing. After incubation, the bacterial colonies were counted and then disinfectant solution was applied. The effect of disinfection solution was evaluated just after the polymerization of impression material and 30 min after polymerization. Differences in adherence of bacteria to the samples prepared by hand-mixing and to those prepared by auto-mixing were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. For evaluating the efficiency of the disinfectant, Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test was used. Results: E. coli counts were higher in hand-mixed materials (P < 0.05); no other statistically significant differences were found between hand- and auto-mixed materials. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test, significant differences were found between the disinfection procedures (Z > 2.394). Conclusion: The methods used for mixing polyether impression material did not affect bacterial attachment to impression surfaces. In contrast, the disinfection procedure greatly affects decontamination of the impression surface. PMID:24966729

  12. Mixing order of glidant and lubricant – Influence on powder and tablet properties

    PubMed Central

    Pingali, Kalyana; Mendez, Rafael; Lewis, Daniel; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Cuitino, Alberto; Muzzio, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study the effect of mixing order of Cab-O-Sil (CS) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) and microlayers during mixing on blend and tablet properties. A first set of pharmaceutical blend containing Avicel PH200, Pharmatose and micronized acetaminophen was prepared with three mixing orders (mixing order-1: CS added first; mixing order-2: MgSt added first; mixing order-3: CS and MgSt added together). All the blends were subjected to a shear rate of 80 rpm and strain of 40, 160 and 640 revolutions in a controlled shear environment resulting in nine different blends. A second set of nine blends was prepared by replacing Avicel PH200 with Avicel PH102. A total of eighteen blends thus prepared were tested for powder hydrophobicity, powder flow, tablet weight, tablet hardness and tablet dissolution. Results indicated that powder hydrophobicity increased significantly for mixing order-1. Intermediate hydrophobic behavior was found for mixing order-3. Additionally, mixing order 1 resulted in improved powder flow properties, low weight variability, higher average tablet weight and slow drug release rates. Dissolution profiles obtained were found to be strongly dependent not only on the mixing order of flowing agents, but also on the strain and the resulting hydrophobicity. PMID:21356286

  13. The mixed chemistry problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Millar, T. J.; Woods, P. M.; Chuimin, R. N.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) represent the last stage of evolution of intermediate mass stars (0.8 to 8M⊙) and, hence, by their very nature are fundamental to galactic evolution. The massive envelopes ejected during their earlier evolution (AGB phase) are an important source of recycled material in the form of dust and molecular gas into the interstellar medium. A small fraction of PNe show both O- and C-rich features and are therefore classified as mixed-chemistry objects. The origin of their mixed-chemistry is still uncertain. Our chemical models show that the PAHs may form in irradiated dense tori, and HST images confirm the presence of such tori in some of the objects. Using the VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the precise location of the PAHs. We find a dense dusty structures in all of the objects observed. The ionised [SIV] material is located inside the dusty tori, while the PAHs are present at the outer edges of these tori. This confirms that the PAHs formation is due to the photodissociation of CO. In the Galactic Disk, very few PNe have shown to harbour these mixed-chemistry phenomenon. We propose to observe the tori of a sample of bipolar PNe from the Galactic Disk that harbour a close binary system inside them. The chemical models show that the formation of long C-chain molecules is possible to occur in O-rich environments, but the formation of these C-rich molecules require a very dense region (Av˜4). To test this theory we propose to observe the very dense tori of these Galactic Disk PNe and compare these sample with the already observed sample of PNe in the Galactic Bulge (Guzman-Ramirez, et al., 2011;Guzman-Ramirez, et al., 2013, submitted).

  14. B Lifetimes and Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Harold G.; /Indiana U.

    2009-05-01

    The Tevatron experiments, CDF and D0, have produced a wealth of new B-physics results since the start of Run II in 2001. We've observed new B-hadrons, seen new effects, and increased many-fold the precision with which we know the properties of b-quark systems. In these proceedings, we will discuss two of the most fruitful areas in the Tevatron B-physics program: lifetimes and mixing. We'll examine the experimental issues driving these analyses, present a summary of the latest results, and discuss prospects for the future.

  15. Mixed Matrix Silicone and Fluorosilicone/Zeolite 4A Membranes for Ethanol Dehydration by Pervaporation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of homogeneous and mixed matrix membranes prepared using standard silicone rubber, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), and fluorosilicone rubber, poly(trifluoropropylmethylsiloxane) (PTFPMS), to dehydrate ethanol by pervaporation was evaluated. Although PDMS is generally c...

  16. Single crystal particles of a mesoporous mixed transition metal oxide with a wormhole structure.

    PubMed

    Lee, B; Lu, D; Kondo, J N; Domen, K

    2001-10-21

    A new type of mesoporous mixed transition metal oxide of Nb and Ta (NbTa-TIT-1) has been prepared through a two-step calcination, which consists of single crystal particles with wormhole mesoporous structure.

  17. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  18. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr/sup +3/:LaF/sub 3/ verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the /sup 3/H/sub 4/, /sup 3/H/sub 6/, and /sup 3/P/sub 0/ levels of the praseodymium ions.

  19. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

  20. Faithful Transfer Arbitrary Pure States with Mixed Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Lin; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we show that some special mixed quantum resource experience the same property of pure entanglement such as Bell state for quantum teleportation. It is shown that one mixed state and three bits of classical communication cost can be used to teleport one unknown qubit compared with two bits via pure resources. The schemes are easily implement with model physical techniques. Moreover, these resources are also optimal and typical for faithfully remotely prepare an arbitrary qubit, two-qubit and three-qubit states with mixed quantum resources. Our schemes are completed as same as those with pure quantum entanglement resources except only 1 bit additional classical communication cost required. The success probability is independent of the form of the mixed resources.

  1. Mixed-bed affinity chromatography: principles and methods.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-bed chromatography is far from being a well-established technology within the panoply of bioseparation tools. Composed of an assembly of distinct sorbents that are mixed in a single bed, they have been mostly developed in the last decade for the reduction of dynamic concentration range where they allowed discovering many low-copy proteins within very complex proteomes. Other interesting preparative applications of mixed-bed chromatography have since been developed. In this chapter the basic concepts first and then detailed application recipes are described for (1) the reduction of protein dynamic concentration range, (2) the removal of impurity traces at the last stage of a biopurification process, and (3) the selection and use of sorbents as mixed bed in protein purification. PMID:25749952

  2. 21 CFR 184.1027 - Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product... enzyme product. (a) Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product is an enzyme preparation that includes... current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as an enzyme, as...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1027 - Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product... enzyme product. (a) Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product is an enzyme preparation that includes... current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as an enzyme, as...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1027 - Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product. 184... enzyme product. (a) Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product is an enzyme preparation that includes... current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as an enzyme, as...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1027 - Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product... enzyme product. (a) Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product is an enzyme preparation that includes... current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as an enzyme, as...

  6. Chromium silicide formation by ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreter, U.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of CrSi2 by ion mixing was studied as a function of temperature, silicide thickness and irradiated interface. Samples were prepared by annealing evaporated couples of Cr on Si and Si on Cr at 450 C for short times to form Si/CrSi2/Cr sandwiches. Xenon beams with energies up to 300 keV and fluences up to 8 x 10 to the 15th per sq cm were used for mixing at temperatures between 20 and 300 C. Penetrating only the Cr/CrSi2 interface at temperatures above 150 C induces further growth of the silicide as a uniform stoichiometric layer. The growth rate does not depend on the thickness of the initially formed silicide at least up to a thickness of 150 nm. The amount of growth depends linearly on the density of energy deposited at the interface. The growth is temperature dependent with an apparent activation energy of 0.2 eV. Irradiating only through the Si/CrSi2 interface does not induce silicide growth. It is concluded that the formation of CrSi2 by ion beam mixing is an interface-limited process and that the limiting reaction occurs at the Cr/CrSi2 interface.

  7. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  8. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste.

  9. Insights of Mixing on the Assembly of DNA Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Manda S.

    Size is a crucial parameter in the delivery of nanoparticle therapeutics, affecting mechanisms such as tissue delivery, clearance, and cellular uptake. The morphology of nanoparticles is dependent both upon chemistry and the physical process of assembly. Polyplexes, a major class of non-viral gene delivery vectors, are conventionally prepared by vortex mixing, resulting in non-uniform nanoparticles and poor reproducibility. Better understanding and control of the physical process of assembly, and mixing in particular, will produce polyplexes of a more uniform and reliable size, optimizing their efficiency for laboratory and clinical use. "Mixing" is the reduction of length scale of a system to accelerate diffusion until a uniform concentration is achieved. Vortex mixing is poorly characterized and sensitive to protocols. Microfluidic systems are notable for predictable fluid behavior, and are ideal for analyzing and controlling the physical interaction of reagents on the microscale, realm where mixing occurs. Several microdevices for the preparation of DNA polyplexes are explored here. Firstly, the staggered herringbone mixer, a chaotic advection micromixer, is used to observe the effects of mixing time on nanoparticle size. Next, a novel device to surround the reagent flows with a sheath of buffer, preventing interaction with the walls and confining the complexation to a zone of lower, less variable shear and residence time, is used to demonstrate the role of shear in nanoparticle assembly. Lastly, uneven diffusion between ion pairs produces a small separation of charge at fluid interfaces; this short-lived electric field has a significant impact on the transport of DNA over the time scales of mixing and complexation. The effects of common buffers on the transport of DNA are examined for possible applications to mixing and complexation. These three investigations demonstrate the importance of the physical process in polyplex assembly, and indicate several

  10. Improved mixing and sampling systems for vitrification melter feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods used and results obtained during the progress of the study of waste slurry mixing and sampling systems during fiscal year 1977 (FY97) at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The objective of this work is to determine optimal mixing configurations and operating conditions as well as improved sampling technology for defense waste processing facility (DWPF) waste melter feeds at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Most of the research on this project was performed experimentally by using a tank mixing configuration with different rotating impellers. The slurry simulants for the experiments were prepared in-house based on the properties of the DOE sites` typical waste slurries. A sampling system was designed to withdraw slurry from the mixing tank. To obtain insight into the waste mixing process, the slurry flow in the mixing tank was also simulated numerically by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The major parameters investigated in both the experimental and numerical studies included power consumption of mixer, mixing time to reach slurry uniformity, slurry type, solids concentration, impeller type, impeller size, impeller rotating speed, sampling tube size, and sampling velocities. Application of the results to the DWPF melter feed preparation process will enhance and modify the technical base for designing slurry transportation equipment and pipeline systems. These results will also serve as an important reference for improving waste slurry mixing performance and melter operating conditions. These factors will contribute to an increase in the capability of the vitrification process and the quality of the waste glass.

  11. Biogenic inputs to ocean mixing.

    PubMed

    Katija, Kakani

    2012-03-15

    Recent studies have evoked heated debate about whether biologically generated (or biogenic) fluid disturbances affect mixing in the ocean. Estimates of biogenic inputs have shown that their contribution to ocean mixing is of the same order as winds and tides. Although these estimates are intriguing, further study using theoretical, numerical and experimental techniques is required to obtain conclusive evidence of biogenic mixing in the ocean. Biogenic ocean mixing is a complex problem that requires detailed understanding of: (1) marine organism behavior and characteristics (i.e. swimming dynamics, abundance and migratory behavior), (2) mechanisms utilized by swimming animals that have the ability to mix stratified fluids (i.e. turbulence and fluid drift) and (3) knowledge of the physical environment to isolate contributions of marine organisms from other sources of mixing. In addition to summarizing prior work addressing the points above, observations on the effect of animal swimming mode and body morphology on biogenic fluid transport will also be presented. It is argued that to inform the debate on whether biogenic mixing can contribute to ocean mixing, our studies should focus on diel vertical migrators that traverse stratified waters of the upper pycnocline. Based on our understanding of mixing mechanisms, body morphologies, swimming modes and body orientation, combined with our knowledge of vertically migrating populations of animals, it is likely that copepods, krill and some species of gelatinous zooplankton and fish have the potential to be strong sources of biogenic mixing. PMID:22357597

  12. Fluid mixing in stratified gravity currents: the Prandtl mixing length.

    PubMed

    Odier, P; Chen, J; Rivera, M K; Ecke, R E

    2009-04-01

    Shear-induced vertical mixing in a stratified flow is a key ingredient of thermohaline circulation. We experimentally determine the vertical flux of momentum and density of a forced gravity current using high-resolution velocity and density measurements. A constant eddy-viscosity model provides a poor description of the physics of mixing, but a Prandtl mixing length model relating momentum and density fluxes to mean velocity and density gradients works well. For the average gradient Richardson number Ri(g) approximately 0.08 and a Taylor Reynolds number Re(lambda) approximately 100, the mixing lengths are fairly constant, about the same magnitude, comparable to the turbulent shear length.

  13. Honoring Voices from Beginning Special Educators for Making Changes in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Johnston-Rodriguez, Sarah; Hartman, Paula; Walker, David

    2013-01-01

    Through a mixed-methods study, teacher educators investigated recent graduates' perceptions of their preparation program. Beginning special education teachers completed surveys and indicated (a) their level of preparation and confidence associated with 25 core competencies, (b) the most beneficial components of their preparation program, (c)…

  14. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  15. Mixing entropy in Dean flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Petru; Vyhnalek, Brian; Kaufman, Miron

    2013-03-01

    We investigate mixing in Dean flows by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equation for a circular channel. Tracers of two chemical species are carried by the fluid. The centrifugal forces, experienced as the fluid travels along a curved trajectory, coupled with the fluid incompressibility induce cross-sectional rotating flows (Dean vortices). These transversal flows promote the mixing of the chemical species. We generate images for different cross sections along the trajectory. The mixing efficiency is evaluated using the Shannon entropy. Previously we have found, P. S. Fodor and M. Kaufman, Modern Physics Letters B 25, 1111 (2011), this measure to be useful in understanding mixing in the staggered herringbone mixer. The mixing entropy is determined as function of the Reynolds number, the angle of the cross section and the observation scale (number of bins). Quantitative comparison of the mixing in the Dean micromixer and in the staggered herringbone mixer is attempted.

  16. Lepton mixing and discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, D.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2012-09-01

    The pattern of lepton mixing can emerge from breaking a flavor symmetry in different ways in the neutrino and charged lepton Yukawa sectors. In this framework, we derive the model-independent conditions imposed on the mixing matrix by the structure of discrete groups of the von Dyck type which include A4, S4, and A5. We show that, in general, these conditions lead to at least two equations for the mixing parameters (angles and CP phase δ). These constraints, which correspond to unbroken residual symmetries, are consistent with nonzero 13 mixing and deviations from maximal 2-3 mixing. For the simplest case, which leads to an S4 model and reproduces the allowed values of the mixing angles, we predict δ=(90°-120°).

  17. Smoothing of mixed complementarity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.A.; More, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The authors introduce a smoothing approach to the mixed complementarity problem, and study the limiting behavior of a path defined by approximate minimizers of a nonlinear least squares problem. The main result guarantees that, under a mild regularity condition, limit points of the iterates are solutions to the mixed complementarity problem. The analysis is applicable to a wide variety of algorithms suitable for large-scale mixed complementarity problems.

  18. Optimal broadcasting of mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Guifang; Fan Heng

    2007-08-15

    The N to M (M{>=}N) universal quantum broadcasting of mixed states {rho}{sup xN} is proposed for a qubit system. The broadcasting of mixed states is universal and optimal in the sense that the shrinking factor is independent of the input state and achieves the upper bound. The quantum broadcasting of mixed qubits is a generalization of the universal quantum cloning machine for identical pure input states. A pure state decomposition of the identical mixed qubits {rho}{sup xN} is obtained.

  19. Research Preparation in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses research preparation for graduate students. A major assumption is that preparation needs to be differentiated based on a student's goals. Since this is a personal proposal for research preparation, based on experience and the literature, I begin the article providing my perspective since that frames what follows. The next…

  20. Mixed additive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Francisco; Covas, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    We consider mixed models y =∑i =0 w Xiβi with V (y )=∑i =1 w θiMi Where Mi=XiXi⊤ , i = 1, . . ., w, and µ = X0β0. For these we will estimate the variance components θ1, . . ., θw, aswell estimable vectors through the decomposition of the initial model into sub-models y(h), h ∈ Γ, with V (y (h ))=γ (h )Ig (h )h ∈Γ . Moreover we will consider L extensions of these models, i.e., y˚=Ly+ɛ, where L=D (1n1, . . ., 1nw) and ɛ, independent of y, has null mean vector and variance covariance matrix θw+1Iw, where w =∑i =1 n wi .

  1. Mixed oxide fuel development

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.D.; Omberg, R.P.

    1987-05-08

    This paper describes the success of the ongoing mixed-oxide fuel development program in the United States aimed at qualifying an economical fuel system for liquid metal cooled reactors. This development has been the cornerstone of the US program for the past 20 years and has proceeded in a deliberate and highly disciplined fashion with high emphasis on fuel reliability and operational safety as major features of an economical fuel system. The program progresses from feature testing in EBR-II to qualifying full size components in FFTF under fully prototypic conditions to establish a basis for extending allowable lifetimes. The development program started with the one year (300 EFPD) core, which is the FFTF driver fuel, continued with the demonstration of a two year (600 EFPD) core and is presently evaluating a three year (900 EFPD) fuel system. All three of these systems, consistent with other LMR fuel programs around the world, use fuel pellets gas bonded to a cladding tube that is assembled into a bundle and fitted into a wrapper tube or duct for ease of insertion into a core. The materials of construction progressed from austenitic CW 316 SS to lower swelling austenitic D9 to non swelling ferritic/martensitic HT9. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Mixed waste analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.J.; Turner, C.A.

    1993-12-31

    Improved superpower relations followed by the Soviet Union`s collapse acted as catalysts for changing the mission at Rocky Flats. Now, environmental concerns command as much attention as production capability. As a result, laboratory instruments once dedicated to plutonium production have a new purpose - the analysis of mixed wastes. Waste drums destined for WIPP require headspace analysis by GS/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC). Flame AA analysis provides information on inorganic constituents. EPA guidelines for waste analysis (SW-846) overlook the obstacles of glove box manipulations. Sometimes, SW-846 guidelines conflict with the Rocky Flats waste minimization effort. However, the EPA encourages SW-846 adaptations if experimental data confirms the results. For water and soil samples, AA analysis of laboratory control samples show method capability inside a glove box. Non-radioactive drum headspace samples use a revised version of USEPA compendium method TO-14. Radioactive drum headspace samples require new instrumentation and change to SW-846 methods.

  3. Optical and electrical studies of cerium mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Sherly, T. R.; Raveendran, R.

    2014-10-15

    The fast development in nanotechnology makes enthusiastic interest in developing nanomaterials having tailor made properties. Cerium mixed oxide materials have received great attention due to their UV absorption property, high reactivity, stability at high temperature, good electrical property etc and these materials find wide applications in solid oxide fuel cells, solar control films, cosmetics, display units, gas sensors etc. In this study cerium mixed oxide compounds were prepared by co-precipitation method. All the samples were doped with Zn (II) and Fe (II). Preliminary characterizations such as XRD, SEM / EDS, TEM were done. UV - Vis, Diffuse reflectance, PL, FT-IR, Raman and ac conductivity studies of the samples were performed.

  4. Mixing in polymeric microfluidic devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Davis, Robert H.; Brotherton, Christopher M. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)

    2006-04-01

    This SAND report describes progress made during a Sandia National Laboratories sponsored graduate fellowship. The fellowship was funded through an LDRD proposal. The goal of this project is development and characterization of mixing strategies for polymeric microfluidic devices. The mixing strategies under investigation include electroosmotic flow focusing, hydrodynamic focusing, physical constrictions and porous polymer monoliths. For electroosmotic flow focusing, simulations were performed to determine the effect of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with heterogeneous surface potential. The heterogeneous surface potential caused recirculations to form within the microchannel. These recirculations could then be used to restrict two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the mixing region surface potential to the average channel surface potential was made large in magnitude and negative in sign, and when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Based on these results, experiments were performed to evaluate the manipulation of surface potential using living-radical photopolymerization. The material chosen to manipulate typically exhibits a negative surface potential. Using living-radical surface grafting, a positive surface potential was produced using 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and a neutral surface was produced using a poly(ethylene glycol) surface graft. Simulations investigating hydrodynamic focusing were also performed. For this technique, mixing is enhanced by using a tertiary fluid stream to constrict the two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the tertiary flow stream flow-rate to the mixing streams flow-rate was maximized. Also, like the electroosmotic focusing mixer, mixing was also maximized when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the

  5. Anomalous Sediment Mixing by Bioturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, K. R.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Xie, M.; Packman, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Bioturbation, the reworking of sediments by animals and plants, is the dominant mode of sediment mixing in low-energy environments, and plays an important role in sedimentary biogeochemical processes. Mixing resulting from bioturbation has historically been modeled as a diffusive process. However, diffusion models often do not provide a sufficient description of sediment mixing due to bioturbation. Stochastic models, such as the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, provide more general descriptions of mixing behavior that are applicable even when regular diffusion assumptions are not met. Here we present results from an experimental investigation of anomalous sediment mixing by bioturbation in freshwater sediments. Clean and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments were collected from Lake DePue, a backwater lake of the Illinois River. The burrowing worm species Lumbriculus variegatus was introduced to homogenized Lake DePue sediments in aerated aquaria. We then introduced inert fine fluorescent particles to the sediment-water interface. Using time-lapse photography, we observed the mixing of the fluorescent particles into the sediment bed over a two-week period. We developed image analysis software to characterize the concentration distribution of the fluorescent particles as a function of sediment depth, and applied this to the time-series of images to evaluate sediment mixing. We fit a one-dimensional CTRW model to the depth profiles to evaluate the underlying statistical properties of the mixing behavior. This analysis suggests that the sediment mixing caused by L. variegatus burrowing is subdiffusive in time and superdiffusive in space. We also found that heavy metal contamination significantly reduces L. variegatus burrowing, causing increasingly anomalous sediment mixing. This result implies that there can be important feedbacks between sediment chemistry, organism behavior, and sediment mixing that are not considered in current environmental models.

  6. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  7. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  8. Mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ragnar; Hetlevik, Siri Opsahl; Lilleby, Vibke; Molberg, Øyvind

    2016-02-01

    The concept of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) as a separate connective tissue disease (CTD) has persisted for more than four decades. High titers of antibodies targeting the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) in peripheral blood are a sine qua non for the diagnosis of MCTD, in addition to distinct clinical features including Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), "puffy hands," arthritis, myositis, pleuritis, pericarditis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recently, population-based epidemiology data from Norway estimated the point prevalence of adult-onset MCTD to be 3.8 per 100,000 and the mean annual incidence to be 2.1 per million per year, supporting the notion that MCTD is the least common CTD. Little is known about the etiology of MCTD, but recent genetic studies have confirmed that MCTD is a strongly HLA (​human leukocyte antigen)-linked disease, as the HLA profiles of MCTD differ distinctly from the corresponding profiles of ethnically matched healthy controls and other CTDs. In the first section of this review, we provide an update on the clinical, immunological, and genetic features of MCTD and discuss the relationship between MCTD and the other CTDs. Then we proceed to discuss the recent advances in therapy and our current understanding of prognosis and prognostic factors, especially those that are associated with the more serious pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of the disease. In the final section, we discuss some of the key, unresolved questions related to anti-RNP-associated diseases and indicate how these questions may be approached in future studies. PMID:27421219

  9. Biomass conversion to mixed alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzapple, M.T.; Loescher, M.; Ross, M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the MixAlco Process which converts a wide variety of biomass materials (e.g. municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, agricultural residues) to mixed alcohols. First, the biomass is treated with lime to enhance its digestibility. Then, a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms converts the lime-treated biomass to volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. To maintain fermentor pH, a neutralizing agent (e.g. calcium carbonate or lime) is added, so the fermentation actually produces VFA salts such as calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The VFA salts are recovered and thermally converted to ketones (e.g. acetone, methylethyl ketone, diethyl ketone) which are subsequently hydrogenated to mixed alcohols (e.g. isopropanol, isobutanol, isopentanol). Processing costs are estimated at $0.72/gallon of mixed alcohols making it potentially attractive for transportation fuels.

  10. Active Mixing in a Microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chun-Hai; Tan, Jun-Jie; Ren, Deng-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Hua

    2010-11-01

    We investigate a minute magneto hydro-dynamic mixer with relatively rapid mixing enhancement experimentally and analytically. The mixer is fabricated with brass and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layers. A secondary flow is generated by using the Lorentz force in the fluids. The efficiency of mixing is greatly improved due to the large increase of the contact area between two mixing fluids. The micro particle image velocimetry technique is employed to measure the fluid flow characteristics in the micro-channel. Numerical simulation is performed based on the theoretical model of the computational fluid dynamics and the electromagnetic field theory. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results, which indicates that the mixing area is enlarged by the driving of Lorentz force and the mixing can be enhanced.

  11. CHARACTERIZING PULSATING MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the physical properties for defining the operation of a pulse jet mixing system. Pulse jet mixing operates with no moving parts located in the vessel to be mixed. Pulse tubes submerged in the vessel provide a pulsating flow due to a controlled combination of applied pressure to expel the fluid from the pulse tube nozzle followed by suction to refill the pulse tube through the same nozzle. For mixing slurries nondimensional parameters to define mixing operation include slurry properties, geometric properties and operational parameters. Primary parameters include jet Reynolds number and Froude number; alternate parameters may include particle Galileo number, particle Reynolds number, settling velocity ratio, and hindered settling velocity ratio. Rating metrics for system performance include just suspended velocity, concentration distribution as a function of elevation, and blend time.

  12. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  13. Powder dispensing robot for sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Fermier, Adam M; Troisi, John; Heritage, Erin C; Drexel, Melissa A; Gallea, Pablo; Swinney, Kelly A

    2003-06-01

    An automated powder dispensing station capable of transferring milligram quantities (1-100 mg) of powder for sample preparation was developed and integrated into a commercial robotic workstation (Zymark Prelude). The system's performance was optimized with respect to vacuum flow rate and powder transfer tube cross sectional area, and shown to possess excellent powder dispensing accuracy (RSD = < or = 0.1% for target weights < or = 15 mg) and precision (RSD = 3.43%) for a vanillin sample. Using the commercial features of the Zymark Prelude workstation (liquid handling, weighing, and vortexing/mixing) and the custom powder dispensing station, multiple sets of analytical calibration standards were prepared and subsequently analyzed by FIA in order to assess the system's robustness for sample preparation.

  14. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  15. Preparation of conducting silver paste with Ag nanoparticles prepared by e-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Jong Hwa; Pham, Long Quoc; Kang, Hyun Suk; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kang, Young Soo

    2010-11-01

    Conducting silver paste was prepared by using Ag nanoparticles which were synthesized by e-beam irradiation method (from KAERI); its conductivity was comparatively determined with Ag nanoparticles which were prepared by thermolysis method (commercial). The silver nanoparticles with the diameter of approximately 150 nm size prepared by e-beam irradiation were mixed with glass frit and sintered for 1 h at 500 °C. It is presumably concluded that the wt% of silver nanoparticle, size distribution and homogenous dispersibility of Ag nanoparticles in the pastes are the critical factors for the high conductivity of the paste. Among the various wt% of silver nanoparticle in the conducting silver pastes, silver paste with 90 wt% of silver nanoparticle has the highest conductivity as 1.6×10 4 S cm -1. This conductivity value is 1.6 times higher than the Ag pastes which were prepared with silver nanoparticles obtained by thermolysis method.

  16. Electrochemical slurry compositions and methods for preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Tristan; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Butros, Asli; Duduta, Mihai; Cross, III, James C.

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to semi-solid suspensions, and more particularly to systems and methods for preparing semi-solid suspensions for use as electrodes in electrochemical devices such as, for example batteries. In some embodiments, a method for preparing a semi-solid electrode includes combining a quantity of an active material with a quantity of an electrolyte to form an intermediate material. The intermediate material is then combined with a conductive additive to form an electrode material. The electrode material is mixed to form a suspension having a mixing index of at least about 0.80 and is then formed into a semi-solid electrode.

  17. Preparation and characterization of low-temperature expandable graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Zongrong Lin Xuemei; Qi Yu; Luo Jie

    2008-10-02

    The low-temperature expandable graphite was successfully prepared with perchloric acid, phosphoric acid and KMnO{sub 4} by chemical process. The optimum weight ratio of perchloric acid to phosphoric acid in mixed acid was 1:0.2, and the weight ratio of the mixed acid, KMnO{sub 4} and natural flake graphite was preferably 1.5:0.1:1. The expanded volume can reach 260 mL/g at a relatively low temperature of 300 deg. C. Meanwhile, the prepared samples were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction.

  18. Mixing In a Compounding Pharmacy in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Standridge, Rob

    2015-01-01

    When it comes to combining ingredients for topical preparations, compounding pharmacists utilize either the manual methods such as a spatula and pill tile or a mortar and pestle, typically an electronic mortar and pestle. If a topical preparation must be pre-ground or requires trituration, or any level of particle-size reduction, historically the manual method of combining ingredients in such a preparation would include the initial use of a mortar and pestle; however with micronized substances this is not as much a concern today as in the past. There is, of course, the concern of a lack of reproducibility, knowing that each compounder might utilize the equipment differently, would mix for varying times, and would also mix with varying amounts of physical pressure applied to the pestle. If the discipline of uniform usage is great enough in the lab, this method could probably produce consistent results, but, because of the preparation and cleanup time and the fact that newer technology is available, this method is not recommended as the common compounding method in a compounding pharmacy that does more than a handful of compounded topical preparations per week. This article is not meant to say these methods are not appropriate, but, rather, to point out that newer technology is available and might be preferable in order to provide a cleaner, more efficient, and more reproducible lab environment.

  19. Potential of fire extinguisher powder as a filler in bituminous mixes.

    PubMed

    Praticò, Filippo Giammaria; Moro, Antonino; Ammendola, Rachele

    2010-01-15

    Fire extinguishers must be maintained at regular intervals and many problems arise when fire-resistant dry powders need replacement. We analyze the potential of fire extinguisher powder (termed REP) as a filler in bituminous mixes. REP and REP-admixed bituminous mixes were subjected to chemical analysis, and the mechanical properties and environmental performances of the mixes were tested. Mixes with different REP contents were prepared. Mechanical performance was adequate and environmental compatibility was achieved. Practical applications and perspectives in rehabilitation, maintenance, and research are outlined.

  20. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  1. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  2. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59,.191-204. 1998. [5] J.M. Redondo. Turbulent mixing in the Atmosphere and Ocean. Fluid Physics. 584-597. World Scientific. New York. 1994

  3. Determination of Stability from Multicomponent Pesticide Mixes.

    PubMed

    Dorweiler, Kelly J; Gurav, Jagdish N; Walbridge, James S; Ghatge, Vishwas S; Savant, Rahul H

    2016-08-10

    A study was conducted to evaluate the stability of 528 pesticides, metabolites, and contaminants prepared in large multicomponent mixes to enhance laboratory efficiency by allowing maximum use of the useful shelf life of the mixtures. Accelerated aging at 50 °C simulated 6 month, 1 year, and 2 year storage periods at -20 °C. Initial mixture composition was based on the instrument of analysis. After preliminary stability data had been obtained, mixtures were reformulated and re-evaluated. In all, 344 compounds showed satisfactory stability across all treatment groups, 100 compounds showed statistically significant changes between the control and the 6 month simulated storage period (27 with losses >20%), and the remainder showed borderline stability or were tested in one protocol. Stability behavior for organophosphates agreed with the proposed reaction mechanism responsible for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. A small number of compounds increased in response over time, suggesting the occurrence of degradation of precursor pesticides into these respective compounds.

  4. Fluid mixing in stratified gravity currents: the Prandtl mixing length.

    PubMed

    Odier, P; Chen, J; Rivera, M K; Ecke, R E

    2009-04-01

    Shear-induced vertical mixing in a stratified flow is a key ingredient of thermohaline circulation. We experimentally determine the vertical flux of momentum and density of a forced gravity current using high-resolution velocity and density measurements. A constant eddy-viscosity model provides a poor description of the physics of mixing, but a Prandtl mixing length model relating momentum and density fluxes to mean velocity and density gradients works well. For the average gradient Richardson number Ri(g) approximately 0.08 and a Taylor Reynolds number Re(lambda) approximately 100, the mixing lengths are fairly constant, about the same magnitude, comparable to the turbulent shear length. PMID:19392360

  5. Mapping the Mixed Methods–Mixed Research Synthesis Terrain

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods–mixed research synthesis is a form of systematic review in which the findings of qualitative and quantitative studies are integrated via qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Although methodological advances have been made, efforts to differentiate research synthesis methods have been too focused on methods and not focused enough on the defining logics of research synthesis—each of which may be operationalized in different ways—or on the research findings themselves that are targeted for synthesis. The conduct of mixed methods–mixed research synthesis studies may more usefully be understood in terms of the logics of aggregation and configuration. Neither logic is preferable to the other nor tied exclusively to any one method or to any one side of the qualitative/quantitative binary. PMID:23066379

  6. [Marketing mix in health service].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing).

  7. Nanofluidic mixing via hybrid surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ziran; Li, Shunbo; Zhou, Bingpu; Hui, Yu Sanna; Shen, Rong; Wen, Weijia

    2014-10-20

    We report the design and fabrication of the nanofluidic mixer comprising hybrid hydrophobic/hydrophilic micro-patterns on the top and bottom walls of the nanochannel. The unique feature of such mixer is that, without any geometric structure inside the nanochannel, the mixing can be realized solely by the hybrid surfaces. Besides, the mixing length in nanomixer has been significantly shortened comparing to micromixer. We attribute the mixing achievement to be caused by the convection and chaotic flows of two fluids along the hybrid surface due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of the nanochannel.

  8. [Marketing mix in health service].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The marketing mix is the combination of the marketing variables that a firm employs with the purpose to achieve the expected volume of business within its market. In the sale of goods, four variables compose the marketing mix (4 Ps): Product, Price, Point of sale and Promotion. In the case of providing services, three further elements play a role: Personnel, Physical Evidence and Processes (7 Ps). The marketing mix must be addressed to the consumers as well as to the employees of the providing firm. Furthermore, it must be interpreted as employees ability to satisfy customers (interactive marketing). PMID:26093140

  9. Characterization of radioactive mixed wastes: The scientific perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stokely, J.R. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the physical and chemical characterization of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW): what should be determined and how; the applications and limitations of current analytical methodologies, promising new technologies, and areas where further methodology research is needed. Constituents to be determined, sample collection, preparation, and analysis are considered. The scope concerns mainly low level and very low level RMW whose activities allow contact handling and analysis by Nuclear Regulatory Commission- or Agreement State-licensed commercial laboratories.

  10. Characterization of radioactive mixed wastes: The scientific perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stokely, J.R. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the physical and chemical characterization of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW): what should be determined and how; the applications and limitations of current analytical methodologies, promising new technologies, and areas where further methodology research is needed. Constituents to be determined, sample collection, preparation, and analysis are considered. The scope concerns mainly low level and very low level RMW whose activities allow contact handling and analysis by Nuclear Regulatory Commission- or Agreement State-licensed commercial laboratories.

  11. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  12. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  13. Mixed ionic and electronic conducting ceramic membranes for hydrocarbon processing

    DOEpatents

    Van Calcar, Pamela; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to mixed phase materials for the preparation of catalytic membranes which exhibit ionic and electronic conduction and which exhibit improved mechanical strength compared to single phase ionic and electronic conducting materials. The mixed phase materials are useful for forming gas impermeable membranes either as dense ceramic membranes or as dense thin films coated onto porous substrates. The membranes and materials of this invention are useful in catalytic membrane reactors in a variety of applications including synthesis gas production. One or more crystalline second phases are present in the mixed phase material at a level sufficient to enhance the mechanical strength of the mixture to provide membranes for practical application in CMRs.

  14. Preparing injectable medicines safely.

    PubMed

    Beaney, Alison M; Black, Anne

    Risks to patients are greater when injectable medicines are prepared in clinical areas (wards, theatres, clinics or even patients' homes), rather than provided in ready-to-use form. This article describes the risks involved in preparing injectable medicines in such areas and outlines key principles to ensure they are prepared safely. It also suggests that high-risk injectable medicines be provided in ready-to-use form, either in house, by pharmacy or by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:22359855

  15. Optimization and comparison of three vacuum mixing systems for porosity reduction of Simplex P cement.

    PubMed

    Davies, J P; Harris, W H

    1990-05-01

    Simplex P bone cement was prepared in three commercially available vacuum mixing systems, the Enhancement Mixer, the Mixevac II High Vacuum System, and the Mitab Vacuum System, to determine the improvement in fatigue strength associated with porosity reduction of the cement in all three systems. The results of the fatigue tests of vacuum-mixed Simplex P were also compared to the fatigue strength of Simplex P prepared by centrifugation of the cement immediately after mixing. Vacuum mixing one pack of Simplex P per syringe in all three systems was not effective in complete removal of all the large voids from the cement. Fatigue failure occurred very early in those specimens containing the large voids. There was no significant difference in fatigue life between one pack of cement per syringe mixed under vacuum in the three systems and the control cement (no vacuum, uncentrifuged). Vacuum mixing two packs of cement per syringe was more effective than one pack per syringe, and all three systems significantly increased the cycles to failure of Simplex P over the control cement. However, the Enhancement and Mitab vacuum mixing systems still produced some very weak specimens in fatigue. Two packs of cement per syringe prepared in the Mixevac II vacuum mixing system were significantly stronger in fatigue than two packs mixed in either the Enhancement or Mitab vacuum system. The Mixevac II vacuum mixing system was the most effective technique of the three vacuum mixing systems tested. Centrifugation of one or two packs of Simplex P per syringe produced a more uniform cement that was free of large voids and thus eliminated the very weak specimens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2323141

  16. Preparing for bundled payments.

    PubMed

    Ambres, Cynthia; Jamilkowski, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Providers that are preparing for bundled payments should focus on five areas: Data analytics and benchmarks. Technological components. Care delivery guidelines. Care system redesign. Contractual considerations.

  17. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  18. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  19. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1998-03-03

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

  20. Crossflow Mixing of Noncircular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liscinsky, D. S.; True, B.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted of the isothermal mixing of a turbulent jet injected perpendicular to a uniform crossflow through several different types of sharp-edged orifices. Jet penetration and mixing was studied using planar Mie scattering to measure time-averaged mixture fraction distributions of circular, square, elliptical, and rectangular orifices of equal geometric area injected into a constant velocity crossflow. Hot-wire anemometry was also used to measure streamwise turbulence intensity distributions at several downstream planes. Mixing effectiveness was determined using (1) a spatial unmixedness parameter based on the variance of the mean jet concentration distributions and (2) by direct comparison of the planar distributions of concentration and of turbulence intensity. No significant difference in mixing performance was observed for the six configurations based on comparison of the mean properties.

  1. Modeling Mix in ICF Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C. R.; Clark, D. S.; Chang, B.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Peterson, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2014-10-01

    The observation of ablator material mixing into the hot spot of ICF implosions correlates with reduced yield in National Ignition Campaign (NIC) experiments. Higher Z ablator material radiatively cools the central hot spot, inhibiting thermonuclear burn. This talk focuses on modeling a ``high-mix'' implosion from the NIC, where greater than 1000 ng of ablator material was inferred to have mixed into the hot spot. Standard post-shot modeling of this implosion does not predict the large amounts of ablator mix necessary to explain the data. Other issues are explored in this talk and sensitivity to the method of radiation transport is found. Compared with radiation diffusion, Sn transport can increase ablation front growth and alter the blow-off dynamics of capsule dust. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  3. Perspectives on dilution jet mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    A microcomputer code which displays 3-D oblique and 2-D plots of the temperature distribution downstream of jets mixing with a confined crossflow has been used to investigate the effects of varying the several independent flow and geometric parameters on the mixing. Temperature profiles calculated with this empirical model are presented to show the effects of orifice size and spacing, momentum flux ratio, density ratio, variable temperature mainstream, flow area convergence, orifice aspect ratio, and opposed and axially staged rows of jets.

  4. Incorporation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes into High Temperature Resin Using Dry Mixing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Connell, John W.

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop multifunctional advanced composites, blends of PETI330 and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared and characterized. Dry mixing techniques were employed and the maximum loading level of the MWNT chosen was based primarily on its effect on melt viscosity. The PETI330/ MWNT mixtures were prepared at concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 wt %. The resulting powders were characterized for homogeneity, thermal and rheological properties and extrudability as continuous fibers. Based on the characterization results, samples containing 10, 15 and 20 wt % MWNTs were chosen for more comprehensive evaluation. Samples were also prepared using in situ polymerization and solution mixing techniques and their properties were compared with the ball-mill prepared samples. The preparation and characterization of PETI330/ MWNT nanocomposites are discussed herein.

  5. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations—such as shear banding or wall slip—creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems.

  6. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media.

    PubMed

    Smith, L D; Rudman, M; Lester, D R; Metcalfe, G

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations-such as shear banding or wall slip-creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems. PMID:26931594

  7. Mixing Effect in Internal Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

    2009-12-01

    Detonation product gases are usually assumed to be completely mixed with an existing atmosphere by the time a peak quasi-static pressure (Pqs) is reached within an enclosed internal blast environment. With incomplete mixing, however, comes a loss in pressure from unburned fuel as well as a previously unrecognized source of error: heat capacity of the gas increases substantially with temperature, providing an energy sink in regions of unmixed hot gas. Our objective was to look at the extent of mixing by measuring gas temperature at several locations within a blast chamber at the time of peak Pqs. We recorded ranges of up to 400° C depending on charge location within the chamber, which is presumed to affect turbulence and mixing. Losses in peak Pqs of up to 13% may be attributed to this mixing effect for 1-kg Pentolite charges in a 62-m3 chamber in the simple geometries tested. A reasonably accurate Pqs may be extracted from blast wave reverberations in a chamber, allowing a closer look at effects such as gas mixing and consistency among multiple gages. These results point to an explanation for missing energy and a better understanding of heat flow in internal blast.

  8. Development of banana-based weaning food mixes for infants and its nutritional quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chitra, Pothiraj

    2015-01-01

    Banana-based weaning food mixes were developed from the Nendran variety to study the nutritional quality of the mixes and feasibility of marketing on a commercial scale. Chemical composition viz., moisture, acid, pH, reducing and total sugars, protein and β-carotene of the developed banana-based weaning mixes were analysed. The trypsin inhibitor activity reduced during cooking, and the flatus compound could not be measured due to its very meagre gas production. The α-amylase activity and in vitro protein and carbohydrate digestibilities were also analysed. A feeding trial of the developed mixes was conducted in infants as a supplement to study the nutritional quality of the developed banana-based weaning food mixes. Results showed an increase in all the anthropometric measurements during the feeding period, and the developed mixes can be prepared on a commercial scale to prevent malnutrition and undernutrition during the rapid growing period of infants.

  9. Vocational Education Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Patrick W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes Hawaii Community College's vocational preparation (Voc Prep) program, which focuses on basic communication, literacy, and mathematics skills to prepare students to enter vocational programs. Compares the Voc Prep learning community model, which includes vocational and basic skills instruction, personal development, and counseling, with…

  10. Study Blasts Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    A far-reaching study offers a damning assessment of the programs that prepare most of the nation's principals and superintendents. Led by Arthur E. Levine, the president of Teachers College, Columbia University, the report says most university-based preparation programs for administrators range in quality from "inadequate to appalling." The…

  11. Job Search Preparations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Adam

    Job search preparations are designed to teach and motivate people to systematically analyze potential or acquired skills and to relate and apply these skills realistically to present day and future labor market needs and openings. These preparations teach people how to systematically seek out job sources and prospects and to consistently and…

  12. Preparation of zinc orthotitanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Gilligan, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Use of decomposable precursors to enhance zinc oxide-titanium dioxide reaction and rapid fixing results in rapid preparation of zinc orthotitanate powder pigment. Preparation process allows production under less stringent conditions. Elimination of powder grinding results in purer that is less susceptible to color degradation.

  13. Synthetic process for preparation of high surface area electroactive compounds for battery applications

    DOEpatents

    Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard

    2013-07-23

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of electroactive cathode compounds useful in lithium-ion batteries, comprising exothermic mixing of low-cost precursors and calcination under appropriate conditions. The exothermic step may be a spontaneous flameless combustion reaction. The disclosed process can be used to prepare any lithium metal phosphate or lithium mixed metal phosphate as a high surface area single phase compound.

  14. Investigation of melt process for preparation of alumina nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongsik

    Polymer nanocomposites offer potential for a wide variety of applications due to the large improvements in properties at low filler loadings. These new materials can potentially be used for unlimited commercial applications and have received considerable attention in recent years. Developments in this field have been primarily carried out with nanoclays. Although structure-property relationships have been investigated thoroughly, commercialization is inhibited by difficulties related to obtaining homogeneous materials via standard mixing processes. Consequently, understanding of the proper mixing process for these particles, as well as the development of characterization methods to assure the quality of mixing is critical. Due to the small size of the particles, it is difficult to measure the degree of mixing in terms of both dispersion and distribution. The high magnifications required to observe dispersion of small particles limits the viewing window, such that observation of distribution is challenging. Quantification approaches for the degree of mixing are required for properly assessing the relationship between the degree of mixing and properties. The objectives of this research are to select the proper direct method to measure the degree of mixing quantitatively for nanocomposites, to evaluate the effects of melt processing parameters on the mixing and properties, and to explain and predict theoretically the characteristics of melt compounding process for polymer nanocomposites. In this work, part I is a general introduction on nanocomposites. This part summarizes the prior art for preparation and properties of nanocomposites, primarily for clays. In addition recent work on melt processing is included. Part II of this dissertation describes a characterization method for the degree of mixing in nanocomposites and demonstrates the validity of the method. In order to avoid complexities from orientation effects of the filler, spherical nanoalumina was used in

  15. Application of mix-salts composed of lithium borate and lithium aluminate in PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ruoyuan; Fujinami, Tatsuo

    Mix-salts were prepared by mixing lithium borate (salt A or salt B) with lithium aluminate (salt C). Polymer electrolytes were prepared by dissolving lithium salt in PEO. Mix-salt polymer electrolytes exhibited higher ionic conductivities than pure-salt polymer electrolytes. The optimum-mixing ratio was investigated. Conductivity as high as 1 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at 40 °C was obtained for the optimized electrolyte system. A potential window of 4.3 V was determined for the mix-salt electrolyte. Good charge-discharge performance was observed for the mix-salt electrolyte composed cell, LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2//salt A(3)/salt C(11.8) 2/1-PEO 22//Li.

  16. Preparing Language Teachers for Blended Teaching of Summary Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Research on preparing language teachers for blended teaching of summary writing, a mix of on-site and online instruction for college students to grasp the gist of the texts, is scarce in higher education. This study examined the problems encountered and solutions proposed by six language teachers, who altogether instructed 214 college students on…

  17. Preparing to Teach Online as Transformative Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuiggan, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    An action research study was conducted at a campus college of a large Research I institution of higher education to explore transformative learning among higher education faculty as a result of participating in a blended program to prepare them to teach online. The purposeful sample included six full-time and one adjunct faculty, teaching a mix of…

  18. Preparation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides

    DOEpatents

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Tustin, G.C.

    1998-01-20

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising mixed oxides of vanadium, phosphorus and, optionally, a third component selected from titanium, aluminum or, preferably silicon.

  19. Preparation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides

    DOEpatents

    Spivey, James Jerry; Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Tustin, Gerald Charles

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising mixed oxides of vanadium, phosphorus and, optionally, a third component selected from titanium, aluminum or, preferably silicon.

  20. Compositional changes in red and violet smoke mixes after combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, M.V.; Rubin, I.B.; Moneyhun, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Anthraquinone-derived dyes are commonly used in colored dye mixes prepared for signal smoke grenades. Biological studies have shown, however, that a number of these dyes exhibit bacterial mutagenicity. In addition, these dyes are similar in structure to several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are well-known carcinogens. The grenades contain not only anthraquinone-derived dyes, but also a pyrotechnic fuel and cooling and starting mixes consisting primarily of potassium chlorate and nitrate, sodium bicarbonate, and sulfur. These dyes are volatilized at temperatures up to 550/sup 0/C during the detonation of the grenade, which could subject the dyes to oxidative and pyrolytic reactions that could result in a variety of reaction by-products. As part of a program to investigate possible environmental and occupational risks of the colored smoke dyes and in signal grenades, two colored smoke mixes, red and violet, have been studied both before and after detonation to evaluate any differences in composition due to the combustion process. This report focuses primarily on the separation and identification of the components of the original and combusted red and violet smoke mixes. The conditions for the detonation of the smoke grenades and sampling of the combusted smoke mixes are also discussed.

  1. Relating quark mixing neutrino mixing and {delta}{sub lep}

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S. M.; Chen Hengyu

    2013-05-23

    It is proposed that all flavor mixing is caused by the mixing of the three quark and lepton families with vectorlike fermions in 5+5-bar multiplets of SU(5). The entire 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 complex mass matrix of the neutrinos M{sub {nu}} is then found to have a simple expression in terms of two complex parameters and an overall scale. Thus, all the presently unknown neutrino parameters are predicted. The best fits are for {theta}{sub atm} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 40 Degree-Sign The leptonic Dirac CP phase is found to be somewhat greater than {pi}.

  2. Helium Microbeam Mixing of Bilayers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, John Baran

    This study is an experimental and theoretical investigation of room-temperature mixing of bilayers by micron-width He^+ ion beams. Bilayer targets, including Cu/Al, Cu/Si and Sb/Si, were irradiated at room temperature in the University at Albany's Dynamitron particle accelerator with 2-MeV He^+ ion beams ranging from 2 to 6 μm in width. At doses on the order of 10^ {19}/cm^2, RBS spectra revealed evidence of interface mixing in all targets to depths of several thousand A within the cylinder irradiated by the beam. Both RBS spectra and isometric RBS contour maps of the target also showed that mixing of the interface extends laterally well beyond the irradiated area. The interface mixing reaches a maximum in an annular region several times larger in diameter than the ion-beam. Standard theories of primary-recoil, secondary -cascade and thermal-spike mixing predicted interface widths two orders of magnitude smaller than observed for Cu/Al bilayers. Furthermore, He^+ irradiation of Cu/Al targets at liquid-nitrogen temperature did not produce interface mixing, further indicating that ballistic interpretations of the mixing are inadequate. Defect concentrations as a function of position and time were calculated by numerical solution of coupled rate equations for vacancies and interstitials in aluminum. The results of these calculations show that room-temperature He^+ mixing of Cu/Al results almost exclusively from interstitial migration. The numerically calculated concentration of interstitials within the damage cylinder was used to derive an approximate expression for interface width as a function of dose. Comparisons of these predicted values with the experimentally determined interface width as a function of dose agree, within uncertainties. In addition, the annular region observed on RBS maps is explained by the continued presence of a non-equilibrium concentration of interstitials after the ion beam is shut off. Interface mixing in Cu/Si targets, although

  3. Mixing in massive stellar mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaburov, E.; Lombardi, J. C.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2008-01-01

    The early evolution of dense star clusters is possibly dominated by close interactions between stars, and physical collisions between stars may occur quite frequently. Simulating a stellar collision event can be an intensive numerical task, as detailed calculations of this process require hydrodynamic simulations in three dimensions. We present a computationally inexpensive method in which we approximate the merger process, including shock heating, hydrodynamic mixing and mass loss, with a simple algorithm based on conservation laws and a basic qualitative understanding of the hydrodynamics of stellar mergers. The algorithm relies on Archimedes' principle to dictate the distribution of the fluid in the stable equilibrium situation. We calibrate and apply the method to mergers of massive stars, as these are expected to occur in young and dense star clusters. We find that without the effects of microscopic mixing, the temperature and chemical composition profiles in a collision product can become double-valued functions of enclosed mass. Such an unphysical situation is mended by simulating microscopic mixing as a post-collision effect. In this way we find that head-on collisions between stars of the same spectral type result in substantial mixing, while mergers between stars of different spectral type, such as type B and O stars (~10 and ~40Msolar respectively), are subject to relatively little hydrodynamic mixing. Our algorithm has been implemented in an easy-to-use software package, which we have made publicly available for download.1

  4. Studies of the B-Z transition of DNA: The temperature dependence of the free-energy difference, the composition of the counterion sheath in mixed salt, and the preparation of a sample of the 5'-d[T-(m(5) C-G)12 -T] duplex in pure B-DNA or Z-DNA form.

    PubMed

    Guéron, Maurice; Plateau, Pierre; Filoche, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    It is often envisioned that cations might coordinate at specific sites of nucleic acids and play an important structural role, for instance in the transition between B-DNA and Z-DNA. However, nucleic acid models explicitly devoid of specific sites may also exhibit features previously considered as evidence for specific binding. Such is the case of the "composite cylinder" (or CC) model which spreads out localized features of DNA structure and charge by cylindrical averaging, while sustaining the main difference between the B and Z structures, namely the better immersion of the B-DNA phosphodiester charges in the solution. Here, we analyze the non-electrostatic component of the free-energy difference between B-DNA and Z-DNA. We also compute the composition of the counterion sheath in a wide range of mixed-salt solutions and of temperatures: in contrast with the large difference of composition between the B-DNA and Z-DNA forms, the temperature dependence of sheath composition, previously unknown, is very weak. In order to validate the model, the mixed-salt predictions should be compared to experiment. We design a procedure for future measurements of the sheath composition based on Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and complemented by (31) P NMR. With due consideration for the kinetics of the B-Z transition and for the capacity of generating at will the B or Z form in a single sample, the 5'-d[T-(m(5) C-G)12 -T] 26-mer emerges as a most suitable oligonucleotide for this study. Finally, the application of the finite element method to the resolution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation is described in detail. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 369-384, 2016. PMID:26900058

  5. Cellulose carboxylate/tosylate mixed esters: Synthesis, properties and shaping into microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daniela C; Bastos, Gustavo S; Pfeifer, Annett; Heinze, Thomas; El Seoud, Omar A

    2016-11-01

    Cellulose carboxylate/tosylate mixed esters (Cel-Carboxy/Ts) were synthesized with constant degree of tosylation, DSTs=0.98 and variable degree of acylation, DSCarboxy; acetate, butanoate, and hexanoate. The tosylate (Cel-Ts) was prepared by reacting cellulose with tosyl chloride in presence of trimethylamine. The mixed esters were obtained by reacting Cel-Ts with carboxylic acid anhydride. The dependence of the following on DSCarboxy was investigated: IR data, including νCO, νSO and peak area (CO); empirical polarity of the films, determined by an adsorbed perichromic dye. We employed these parameters to determine DSCarboxy. Relative to ester saponification, these spectroscopic methods are convenient, expedient, and require much less sample. Mixed esters prepared physically from cellulose tosylate and tosylate/acetate behave only qualitatively similar to (Cel-Carboxy/Ts). The mixed esters were dissolved in acetone and regenerated in water as homogeneous microspheres. PMID:27516252

  6. Isospin Mixing in MAGNESIUM-24.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Charles David

    The (beta)-(gamma) circular polarization correlation asymmetry was measured for the pure Gamow-Teller decay of ('28)Al, for the pure Fermi decay of ('14)O and for the mixed decay of the ('24)Al 4('+) ground state to the 8.437 MeV, 4('+) state in ('24)Mg. The expected results were obtained for the pure Gamow-Teller and Fermi decays. From the results of the ('24)Al decay the isospin mixing of the 8.437 MeV, 4('+) state and the 9.515 MeV, 4('+) analog state in ('24)Mg was determined. The charge dependent matrix element mixing these two states was determined to be -95 (+OR-) 36 keV. This is the largest charge dependent matrix element observed in (beta) decay to date. This large value has not been completely explained and suggests the existence of a (DELTA)T = 1 nuclear force.

  7. Turbulent mix experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimonte, G.; Schneider, M.; Frerking, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities produce material mixing that can significantly degrade weapons performance. We investigate the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in the turbulent regime in two experimental venues. RM experiments are conducted on the Nova laser with strong radiatively driven shocks (Mach > 20) in planar, two fluid targets. Interfacial perturbations are imposed with single sinusoidal modes to test linear theory and with three dimensional (3D) random modes to produce turbulent mix. RT experiments are conducted on a new facility, the Linear Electric Motor (LEM), in which macroscopic fluids are accelerated with arbitrary temporal profiles. This allows detailed diagnosis of the turbulence over a wide range of conditions. The Nova experiments study the high compression regime whereas the LEM experiments are incompressible. The results are compared to hydrodynamic simulations with the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian code (CALE). The goal is to develop and test engineering models of mix.

  8. Stabilized zirconias prepared by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, D.; Faudot, F.; Gaffet, E.; Mazerolles, L. )

    1993-11-01

    Cubic zirconias stabilized by various additive oxides have been obtained by mechanical alloying using high-energy ball-milling. Starting materials are powders of monoclinic zirconia mixed with magnesia, calcia, or yttria. Solid-state reaction is induced by ball-milling and, under given experimental conditions, a single phase consisting of cubic-zirconia nanocrystals is prepared from constituent oxides. Energy dispersive analyses in electron microscopy on ball-milled powders confirm that cubic zirconias have the composition corresponding to that of starting powders.

  9. Preparation of Clay Brick Using Coal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jung W.; Jung, Jin H.; Kim, Jae M.; Lee, Sung M.; Kim, Hyung T.

    2004-03-31

    A great deal of coal waste produced during the development of a mine was accumulated around the mine, which caused many problems such as traffic, acid mine drainage and damage of forest and scenery. Carbon in the coal waste helps calcination of the brick even at low temperature. Considering the reuse of natural waste and energy saving, clay brick was prepared using coal waste under various conditions, including particle size, amount of coal waste mixed, calcination temperature and pressing pressure. The specimens were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA and interpreted in terms of water absorption and compressive strength.

  10. METHOD OF PREPARING A CERAMIC FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Ross, W.T.; Bloomster, C.H.; Bardsley, R.E.

    1963-09-01

    A method is described for preparing a fuel element from -325 mesh PuO/ sub 2/ and -20 mesh UO/sub 2/, and the steps of screening --325 mesh UO/sub 2/ from the -20 mesh UO/sub 2/, mixing PuO/sub 2/ with the --325 mesh UO/sub 2/, blending this mixture with sufficient --20 mesh UO/sub 2/ to obtain the desired composition, introducing the blend into a metal tube, repeating the procedure until the tube is full, and vibrating the tube to compact the powder are included. (AEC)

  11. Method for preparing a thick film conductor

    DOEpatents

    Nagesh, Voddarahalli K.; Fulrath, deceased, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    A method for preparing a thick film conductor which comprises providing surface active glass particles, mixing the surface active glass particles with a thermally decomposable organometallic compound, for example, a silver resinate, and then decomposing the organometallic compound by heating, thereby chemically depositing metal on the glass particles. The glass particle mixture is applied to a suitable substrate either before or after the organometallic compound is thermally decomposed. The resulting system is then fired in an oxidizing atmosphere, providing a microstructure of glass particles substantially uniformly coated with metal.

  12. Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

  13. Nonideal Rayleigh–Taylor mixing

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunkyung; Iwerks, Justin; Glimm, James; Sharp, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Rayleigh–Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical), which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale invariant formulation, and nonideal (i.e., experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We interpret mathematical theories of existence and nonuniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations; in other words, indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as nonunique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, in the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to play a role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing in different proportions in these two different contexts. PMID:20615983

  14. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, David Howland; Lin, Hyun K; Iwerks, Justin G; Gliman, James G

    2009-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic Instability, which occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical) which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale Invariant formulation, and non Ideal (i.e. experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We Interpret mathematical theories of existence and non-uniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations, in other words indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as non unique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, In the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and PrandtJ numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength Initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to playa role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing In different proportions In these two different contexts.

  15. Further evidence for mixed emotions.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeff T; McGraw, A Peter

    2011-06-01

    Emotion theorists have long debated whether valence, which ranges from pleasant to unpleasant states, is an irreducible aspect of the experience of emotion or whether positivity and negativity are separable in experience. If valence is irreducible, it follows that people cannot feel happy and sad at the same time. Conversely, if positivity and negativity are separable, people may be able to experience such mixed emotions. The authors tested several alternative interpretations for prior evidence that happiness and sadness can co-occur in bittersweet situations (i.e., those containing both pleasant and unpleasant aspects). One possibility is that subjects who reported mixed emotions merely vacillated between happiness and sadness. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 1-3 by asking subjects to complete online continuous measures of happiness and sadness. Subjects reported more simultaneously mixed emotions during a bittersweet film clip than during a control clip. Another possibility is that subjects in earlier studies reported mixed emotions only because they were explicitly asked whether they felt happy and sad. The authors tested this hypothesis in Studies 4-6 with open-ended measures of emotion. Subjects were more likely to report mixed emotions after the bittersweet clip than the control clip. Both patterns occurred even when subjects were told that they were not expected to report mixed emotions (Studies 2 and 5) and among subjects who did not previously believe that people could simultaneously feel happy and sad (Studies 3 and 6). These results provide further evidence that positivity and negativity are separable in experience.

  16. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.; Glimm, J.; Iwerks, J.; Sharp, D.H.

    2010-08-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical), which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale invariant formulation, and nonideal (i.e., experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We interpret mathematical theories of existence and nonuniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations; in other words, indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as nonunique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, in the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to play a role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing in different proportions in these two different contexts.

  17. Mixe de Tlahuitoltepec, Oaxaca (Mixe of Tlahuitoltepec, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Mixe, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in Tlahuitoltepec, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the…

  18. Use and abuse of mixing models (MixSIAR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/MethodsCharacterizing trophic links in food webs is a fundamental ecological question. In our efforts to quantify energy flow through food webs, ecologists have increasingly used mixing models to analyze biological tracer data, often from stable isotopes. Whil...

  19. Bs Mixing at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-04-01

    The Tevatron collider at Fermilab provides a very rich environment for the study of B{sub s} mesons. B{sub s} Mixing is the most important analysis within the B Physics program of both experiments. In this paper they summarize the most recent results on this topic from both D0 and CDF experiments. There were very important updates in both experiments after his last talk, hence the organizers warmly recommended me to include the latest available results on B{sub s} mixing, instead of what he presents there.

  20. Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavliev, Rashid

    The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.

  1. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wen S.; Stewart, John M.

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  2. The Preparation of Lucigenin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiet, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines and discusses procedures for the preparation of lucigenin, a powerfully chemiluminescent compound. Major techniques (requiring three 4-hour sessions) involving nucleophilic and electrophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic aliphatic substitution, reductive coupling, and oxidation reactions include steam distillation, decolorization…

  3. Preparing for Extremes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1998-01-01

    Describes some basic maintenance and proper preparations for changing weather that can help keep school bus operations moving. Provides advice on diesel engine usage that can lengthen engine life and maintain all weather performance is provided. (GR)

  4. Objectives and Preparing Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

  5. Thyroid preparation overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person takes too much of the medicine: Levothyroxine Liothyronine Liotrix Other thyroid medicine Other thyroid preparations ... found in these medicines with these brand names: Levothyroxine ... Liothyronine (Cytomel) Liotrix (Thyrolar, Euthyroid) Other ...

  6. Preparing spherical lignin from rice husk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxi; Zhao, Xu; Ding, Xuefeng; Lei, Hong; Wang, Zichen

    2013-08-01

    Lignin is one of the important branched amorphous polymers, which generally has the irregular and fractal morphology. The preparation of regular sphere of lignin needs long steps and special conditions. In this study, the regular sphere of lignin can be simply prepared from rice husk (RH) under certain conditions. Namely, RH is mixed with 35% ethanol aqueous solution in the proportion of 1:10 (g:mL), non-isothermally heated to 493 K and kept for 5 h. After filtration and air-drying at room temperature, the regular lignin sphere with the diameter of 100-400 nm is obtained. The regular sphere of lignin has the potential utilization in fields such as reactive functional materials, photo sensing materials and surface active materials in cosmetics. The mechanism of formation of the regular spherical lignin is proposed and discussed in this paper.

  7. Microfluidic Tools for Biological Sample Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S R; Ness, K; Dzenitis, J; Benett, B; Bettencourt, K; Hamilton, J; Fisher, K; Krulevitch, P

    2002-04-10

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are developing means to collect and identify fluid-based biological pathogens in the forms of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. To support detection instruments, we are developing a flexible fluidic sample preparation unit. The overall goal of this Microfluidic Module is to input a fluid sample, containing background particulates and potentially target compounds, and deliver a processed sample for detection. We are developing techniques for sample purification, mixing, and filtration that would be useful to many applications including immunologic and nucleic acid assays. Sample preparation functions are accomplished with acoustic radiation pressure, dielectrophoresis, and solid phase extraction. We are integrating these technologies into packaged systems with pumps and valves to control fluid flow and investigating small-scale detection methods.

  8. On the quantification of mixing in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Ali; Xu, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Methods for quantifying mixing in microfluidics have varied largely in the past, and various indices have been employed to represent the extent of mixing. Mixing between two or more colored liquids is usually quantified using simple mathematical functions operated over a sequence of images. The function, usually termed mixing indices, involves a measure of standard deviation. Here, we first review some mixing indices and then experimentally verify the index most representative of a mixing event. It is observed that the relative mixing index is not affected by the lighting conditions, unlike other known mixing indices. Based on this finding, the use of a relative mixing index is advocated for further use in the lab-on-a-chip community for quantifying mixing events.

  9. A Literature Review of the Strengths and Limitations of Premarital Preparation: Implications for a Canadian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Amy R.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of marital dissolution and dissatisfaction point to a need for interventions, such as premarital preparation, to improve marital quality. Although several studies support the potential for premarital preparation to improve couples' marital satisfaction and interpersonal skills, results from other studies are mixed.…

  10. Paving the Pathway: Exploring Student Perceptions of Professional Development Preparation in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflinger, Craig Anne; Doykos, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    The breadth of doctoral education has expanded to include professional development activities in order to prepare students for academic and nonacademic careers. This mixed methods study focused on students' perceptions of professional development opportunities at a Research One university. The findings suggest that most students feel prepared in…

  11. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  12. Process for preparing energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2011-12-13

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  13. Preparing cytotoxic agents in an isolator.

    PubMed

    Favier, M; Hansel, S; Bressolle, F

    1993-11-01

    The design of an isolator and its use by an oncology satellite pharmacy for preparing cytotoxic drugs are described. The isolator (Iso Concept, Boulogne, France) is a totally enclosed ventilated biological-safety cabinet of class III polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with positive air pressure, a half-suit with a rotating seal, and attached neoprene gloves. There are three work-stations, one for the half-suit and two along one side of the isolator. The ventilation and air filtration system consists of one entry pipe with a full ventilation-filtration box fitted with one prefilter, one blower, one ball valve, one high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, one airtight nipple connected to an automatic sterilizer, alarms, and one exhaust pipe protected by a HEPA filter. The air lock consists of a rigid, transparent Plexiglas pass-through. The chamber is sterilized with heated compressed air mixed with 3.5% peracetic acid. Maintenance includes regular changing of gloves and HEPA filters; checking of the integrity of the PVC, half-suit, and gloves; and washing and decontamination procedures. Preparation of cytotoxics is planned in advance with prescription data and manufacturing sheets. In the half-suit, a pharmacy technician reads the label, supervises preparation of the sterile admixture, and writes a label. The operators on the side of the unit read the manufacturing sheet and prepare the dose identified by the label.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we review recent advances in Stable Isotope Mixing Models (SIMMs) and place them into an over-arching Bayesian statistical framework which allows for several useful extensions. SIMMs are used to quantify the proportional contributions of various sources to a mixtur...

  15. The Mystery of Neutrino Mixings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, Guido

    2013-07-01

    In the last years we have learnt a lot about neutrino masses and mixings. Neutrinos are not all massless but their masses are very small. Probably masses are small because neutrinos are Majorana particles with masses inversely proportional to the large scale M of lepton number (L) violation, which turns out to be compatible with the GUT scale. We have understood that there is no contradiction between large neutrino mixings and small quark mixings, even in the context of GUTs and that neutrino masses fit well in the SUSY GUT picture. Out of equilibrium decays with CP and L violation of heavy RH neutrinos can produce a B-L asymmetry, then converted near the weak scale by instantons into an amount of B asymmetry compatible with observations (baryogenesis via leptogenesis). It appears that active neutrinos are not a significant component of Dark Matter in the Universe. A long list of models have been formulated over the years to understand neutrino masses and mixings. With the continuous improvement of the data most of the models have been discarded by experiment. The surviving models still span a wide range going from a maximum of symmetry, with discrete non-abelian flavour groups, to the opposite extreme of anarchy.

  16. Mixing and transport. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.J.W.

    1982-06-01

    The mixing and transport of water pollution is the subject of this literature review with 110 references. The environmental transport of pollutants is examined in streams, rivers, reservoirs, ponds, estuaries, salt marshes and coastal waters. The dynamics of fluid flow, and the physical properties of jets, plumes, and stratified fluids are discussed. (KRM)

  17. Tribimaximal mixing from small groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parattu, Krishna Mohan; Wingerter, Akın

    2011-07-01

    Current experimental data on the neutrino parameters are in good agreement with tribimaximal mixing and may indicate the presence of an underlying family symmetry. For 76 flavor groups, we perform a systematic scan for models: The particle content is that of the standard model plus up to three flavon fields, and the effective Lagrangian contains all terms of mass dimension ≤6. We find that 44 groups can accommodate models that are consistent with experiment at 3σ, and 38 groups can have models that are tribimaximal. For A4×Z3, T7, and T13 we look at correlations between the mixing angles and make a prediction for θ13 that will be testable in the near future. We present the details of a model with θ12=33.9°, θ23=40.9°, θ13=5.1° to show that the recent tentative hints of a nonzero θ13 can easily be accommodated. The smallest group for which we find tribimaximal mixing is T7. We argue that T7 and T13 are as suited to produce tribimaximal mixing as A4 and should therefore be considered on equal footing. In the appendixes, we present some new mathematical methods and results that may prove useful for future model building efforts.

  18. Simple rheology of mixed proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixing different proteins to form strong gel networks for food applications may create synergistic increases in viscoelasticity that cannot be achieved with a single protein. In this study, small amplitude oscillatory shear analyses were used to investigate the rheology of calcium caseinate (CC), e...

  19. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  20. VLSI mixed signal processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.

    1993-01-01

    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  1. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  2. Racially Mixed People in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive look at the social and psychological adjustment of multiracial people, models for identity development, contemporary immigration and marriage patterns, and methodological issues involved in conducting research with mixed-race people, all in the context of America's multiracial past and present. The following 26…

  3. Mixing It Up with Acrylics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity for fifth-grade students in which they learn about basic shapes and what happens when shapes overlap, draw seven overlapping geometric shapes, review the use of acrylic paint and mixing colors, and finally paint with primary colors. (CMK)

  4. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their distress. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...

  5. A mixed relaxed clock model.

    PubMed

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Phillips, Matthew J; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-07-19

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  6. A mixed relaxed clock model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years, several alternative relaxed clock models have been proposed in the context of Bayesian dating. These models fall in two distinct categories: uncorrelated and autocorrelated across branches. The choice between these two classes of relaxed clocks is still an open question. More fundamentally, the true process of rate variation may have both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations, suggesting that more sophisticated clock models unfolding over multiple time scales should ultimately be developed. Here, a mixed relaxed clock model is introduced, which can be mechanistically interpreted as a rate variation process undergoing short-term fluctuations on the top of Brownian long-term trends. Statistically, this mixed clock represents an alternative solution to the problem of choosing between autocorrelated and uncorrelated relaxed clocks, by proposing instead to combine their respective merits. Fitting this model on a dataset of 105 placental mammals, using both node-dating and tip-dating approaches, suggests that the two pure clocks, Brownian and white noise, are rejected in favour of a mixed model with approximately equal contributions for its uncorrelated and autocorrelated components. The tip-dating analysis is particularly sensitive to the choice of the relaxed clock model. In this context, the classical pure Brownian relaxed clock appears to be overly rigid, leading to biases in divergence time estimation. By contrast, the use of a mixed clock leads to more recent and more reasonable estimates for the crown ages of placental orders and superorders. Altogether, the mixed clock introduced here represents a first step towards empirically more adequate models of the patterns of rate variation across phylogenetic trees. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325829

  7. Collinear four-wave mixing of two-component matter waves.

    PubMed

    Pertot, Daniel; Gadway, Bryce; Schneble, Dominik

    2010-05-21

    We demonstrate atomic four-wave mixing of two-component matter waves in a collinear geometry. Starting from a single-species Bose-Einstein condensate, seed and pump modes are prepared through microwave state transfer and state-selective Kapitza-Dirac diffraction. Four-wave mixing then populates the initially empty output modes. Simulations based on a coupled-mode expansion of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are in very good agreement with the experimental data. We show that four-wave mixing can play an important role in studies of bosonic mixtures in optical lattices. Moreover, our system should be of interest in the context of quantum atom optics.

  8. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account... Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary). (a) In general. A taxpayer may elect (in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section) to establish one or more mixed straddle accounts (as defined...

  9. Improvement in SOFC anode performance by finely-structured Ni/YSZ cermet prepared via heterocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Yoji; Yamamoto, Katsutoshi; Muramatsu, Atsushi

    2006-03-30

    A novel preparation technique for a nanostructured anode for a solid oxide fuel cell is investigated. By mixing nanometer-sized NiO and YSZ powders in a pH-controlled aqueous media, a fine mixture of nanoparticles is successfully obtained through heterocoagulation. The anode prepared from thus prepared mixture has a large triple phase boundary and shows a great improvement in the anode performance by increasing the electric conductivity and effective surface area.

  10. GUV Preparation and Imaging: Minimizing artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Penningston, Nelson F.; Wu, Jing; Farkas, Elaine R.; Goh, Shih Lin; Konyakhina, Tatyana M.; Zheng, Judy Y.; Webb, Watt W.; Feigenson, Gerald W.

    2010-01-01

    The components of biological membranes are present in a physical mixture. The nonrandom ways that the molecules of lipids and proteins mix together can strongly influence the association of proteins with each other, and the chemical reactions that occur in the membrane, or that are mediated by the membrane. A particular type of nonrandom mixing is the separation of compositionally distinct phases. Any such phase separation would result in preferential partition of some proteins and lipids between the coexisting phases, and thus would influence which proteins could be in contact, and whether a protein could find its target. Phase separation in a plasma membrane would also influence the binding of molecules from outside the cell to the membrane, including recognition proteins on viruses, bacteria, and other cells. The concept of these and other events associated with membrane phase separation are sometimes grouped together as the “raft model” of biological membranes. Several types of experiments are aimed at detecting and characterizing membrane phase separation. Visualizing phase separation has special value, both because the immiscibility is so decisively determined, and also because the type of phase can often be identified. The fluorescence microscope has proven uniquely useful for yielding images of separated phases, both in certain cell preparations, and especially in models of cell membranes. Here we discuss ways to prepare useful model membranes for image studies, and how to avoid some of the artifacts that can plague these studies. PMID:20302841

  11. Access cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  12. The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.E.; Williams, R.E.

    1997-08-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA`s mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997.

  13. Cellulase from Ruminococcus albus and mixed rumen microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Leatherwood, J M

    1965-09-01

    Cellulase in the cultural filtrates of Ruminococcus albus and cellulase extracted from mixed rumen microorganisms were investigated with acid-swollen cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose as substrates. Maximal activity occurred at approximately pH 5.8 and 47 C. Apparent Michaelis constants (K(m)) varied between 0.53 and 0.02% carboxymethylcellulose, depending on the level of activity and the method of assay. R. albus cellulase has a lower K(m) value than the enzyme extracted from mixed rumen microorganisms. Antisera from rabbits immunized with a cellulase preparation from R. albus inhibited the cellulolytic activity of both systems. Based on the relative degree of inhibition, approximately 20% of the cellulase of the mixed rumen microorganisms was immunologically similar to R. albus cellulase. Ratios of activity in different assay techniques showed the two sources of activity to be similar in the mechanisms of degradation. However, glucose is the main product of cellulose degradation by mixed rumen microorganisms, and cellobiose is the product of degradation by R. albus.

  14. Coherent-state transfer via highly mixed quantum spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellaro, Paola; Viola, Lorenza; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2011-03-15

    Spin chains have been proposed as quantum wires in many quantum-information processing architectures. Coherent transmission of quantum information in spin chains over short distances is enabled by their internal dynamics, which drives the transport of single-spin excitations in perfectly polarized chains. Given the practical challenge of preparing the chain in a pure state, we propose to use a chain that is initially in the maximally mixed state. We compare the transport properties of pure and mixed-state chains and find similarities that enable the experimental study of pure-state transfer via mixed-state chains. We also demonstrate protocols for the perfect transfer of quantum information in these chains. Remarkably, mixed-state chains allow the use of Hamiltonians that do not preserve the total number of single-spin excitations and are more readily obtainable from the naturally occurring magnetic dipolar interaction. We discuss experimental implementations using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and defect centers in diamond.

  15. Evidence for enhanced mercury reactivity in response to estuarine mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfhus, Kristofer R.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Fitzgerald, William F.; Balcom, Prentiss H.

    2003-11-01

    Bioaccumulation of methylmercury in coastal U.S. fisheries has led to the issuance of numerous fish consumption advisories, and yet little is known about the processes that make Hg species chemically labile in coastal and estuarine systems. This study examined the role of estuarine mixing in formation of labile Hg complexes (reactive Hg) from relatively refractory Hg-organic associations in river water and characterized the behavior and distribution of Hg species in the Connecticut River estuary during three distinct collection periods. Results indicate that while total Hg partitioning and concentrations remained fairly constant with increasing salinity, the fraction present as reactive Hg concentrations increased, primarily in the particulate phase. Mixing experiments using both natural and prepared waters indicate that riverine organic ligands rapidly scavenge reactive Hg from natural waters on timescales of minutes to hours, while samples free of riverine influence remained much more "reactive." Modeling of the estuarine system suggests that elevated concentrations of chloride and dilution of the dominant organic ligand associated with estuarine mixing enhance reactive Hg and predict a bulk log formation constant for the binding ligand of approximately 21. Analysis of Hg0 production from Hg(II)-spiked, incubated estuarine samples supports the speciation data as higher reactive Hg concentrations and Hg0 production rates were observed in the more saline samples. These results suggest that estuarine mixing may exacerbate Hg methylation, evasion, and bioaccumulation in some systems by promoting the formation of Hg species that are readily labile.

  16. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  17. Preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.

    1984-05-17

    Method for the preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate. Ethylenediamine dinitrate, a useful explosive, may readily be prepared by solvent extraction of nitrate ion from an acidic aqueous solution thereof using a high-molecular-weight, water-insoluble amine dissolved in an organic solvent, and reacting the resulting oraganic solution with ethylenediamine. The process of the instant invention avoids the use of concentrated nitric acid, as is currently practiced, resulting in a synthesis which is far less hazardous, especially for large quantities of the explosive, and more efficient.

  18. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  19. Preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-yin

    1985-01-01

    Method for the preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate. Ethylenediamine dinitrate, a useful explosive, may readily be prepared by solvent extraction of nitrate ion from an acidic aqueous solution thereof using a high-molecular-weight, water-insoluble amine dissolved in an organic solvent, and reacting the resulting organic solution with ethylenediamine. The process of the instant invention avoids the use of concentrated nitric acid, as is currently practiced, resulting in a synthesis which is far less hazardous especially for large quantities of the explosive, and more efficient.

  20. Optimization on preparation condition of polyunsaturated fatty acids nanoliposome prepared by Mozafari method.

    PubMed

    Rasti, B; Jinap, S; Mozafari, M R; Abd-Manap, M Y

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the application of the response surface methodology (design) to develop an optimal preparation condition (independent variables) namely shear rate (600-1000 rpm), mixing time (30-60 min), and sonication time (10-20 min) for polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) nanoliposomes. Fifteen lipid mixtures were generated by the Box-Behnken design and nanoliposomes were prepared by the Mozafari (direct hydration and without using organic solvents) method. Nanoliposomes were characterized with respect to entrapment efficiency (EE) and vesicle size as Y1 and Y2 dependent variables, respectively. The results were then applied to estimate the coefficients of response surface model and to find the optimal preparation conditions with maximum EE and minimum vesicle size. The response surface analysis exhibited that the significant (p < 0.05) second-order polynomial regression equations were successfully fitted for all dependent variables with no significant (p > 0.05) lack of fit for the reduced models. The response optimization of experiments was the shear rate: 795 rpm; mixing time: 60 min; and sonication time: 10 min. The optimal nanoliposome had an average diameter of 81.4 nm and EE of 100%. The experimental results of optimal nanoliposomes characterization confirmed an accurate fitness of the predicted values by reduced response surface models. PMID:24099144

  1. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the

  2. Diagnosing and controlling mix in NIF implosion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, B. A.; Scott, H. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, M. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Suter, L. J.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.; Peterson, K.

    2011-10-01

    High mode number instability growth of ``isolated defects'' on the surfaces of NIF capsules can be large enough for the perturbation to penetrate the imploding shell and produce a jet of ablator material that enters the hot-spot. Since internal regions of the CH ablator are doped with Ge, mixing of this material into the hot-spot results in a clear signature of Ge K-shell emission. Evidence of jets entering the hot-spot has been recorded in x-ray images and spectra, consistent with simulation predictions. Ignition targets have been designed to minimize instability growth, and capsule fabrication improvements are underway to reduce ``isolated defects.'' An experimental strategy has been developed where the final requirements for ignition targets can be adjusted through direct measurements of mix and experimental tuning. B. A. Hammel, et al, High Energy Density Physics - 6 (- 2) (2010). Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Collectibility for mixed quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Puchała, Zbigniew; Horodecki, Paweł; Życzkowski, Karol

    2012-12-01

    Bounds analogous to entropic uncertainty relations allow one to design practical tests to detect quantum entanglement by a collective measurement performed on several copies of the state analyzed. This approach, initially worked out for pure states only [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.150502 107, 150502 (2011)], is extended here for mixed quantum states. We define collectibility for any mixed states of a multipartite system. Deriving bounds for collectibility for positive partially transposed states of given purity provides insight into the structure of entangled quantum states. In the case of two qubits the application of complementary measurements and coincidence based detections leads to a test of entanglement of pseudopure states.

  4. HETEROGENEOUS REBURNING BY MIXED FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Yin Chen; Benson B. Gathitu

    2005-01-14

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  5. Mixing enhancement using axial flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papamoschou, Dimitri (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for enhancing fluid mixing. The method comprises the following: (a) configuring a duct to have an effective outer wall, an effective inner wall, a cross-sectional shape, a first cross-sectional area and an exit area, the first cross-sectional area and the exit area being different in size; (b) generating a first flow at the first cross-sectional area, the first flow having a total pressure and a speed equal to or greater than a local speed of sound; and (c) generating a positive streamwise pressure gradient in a second flow in proximity of the exit area. The second flow results from the first flow. Fluid mixing is enhanced downstream from the duct exit area.

  6. Quark Mixing and Preon Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senju, H.

    1991-07-01

    Inspired by unique features of the preon-subpreon model, we propose a new scheme for quark mixing. In our scheme, the mass relations m_{d} << m_{s} << m_{b} and m_{u} << m_{c} << m_{t} are naturally understood. The resultant CKM matrix has very nice properties. The fact that |V_{us}| and |V_{cd}| are remarkably large compared with other off-diagonal elements is naturally understood. |V_{cb}| =~ |V_{ts}| is predicted and their small values are explained. |V_{ub}| and |V_{td}| are predicted to be much smaller than |V_{cb}|. The parametrization invariant measure of CP violation, J, is predicted to be |V_{ud}| |V_{ub}| |V_{td}| sin phi. The mass relations and mixings of q', q'', l_{s} and leptons are also discussed.

  7. Heterogeneous Reburning By Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson Hall

    2009-03-31

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  8. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2010-06-01

    I give a theoretical overview of some basic properties of massive neutrinos in these lectures. Particular attention is paid to the origin of neutrino masses, the pattern of lepton flavor mixing, the feature of leptonic CP violation and the electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos. I highlight the TeV seesaw mechanisms as a possible bridge between neutrino physics and collider physics in the era characterized by the Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers.

  10. Ion mixing and phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, S. S.; Liu, B. X.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-05-01

    Interactions induced by ion irradiation are generally considered to be non-equilibrium processes, whereas phase diagrams are determined by phase equilibria. These two entities are seemingly unrelated. However, if one assumes that quasi-equilibrium conditions prevail after the prompt events, subsequent reactions are driven toward equilibrium by thermodynamical forces. Under this assumption, ion-induced reactions are related to equilibrium and therefore to phase diagrams. This relationship can be seen in the similarity that exists in thin films between reactions induced by ion irradiation and reactions induced by thermal annealing. In the latter case, phase diagrams have been used to predict the phase sequence of stable compound formation, notably so in cases of silicide formation. Ion-induced mixing not only can lead to stable compound formation, but also to metastable alloy formation. In some metal-metal systems, terminal solubilities can be greatly extended by ion mixing. In other cases, where the two constituents of the system have different crystal structures, extension of terminal solubility from both sides of the phase diagram eventually becomes structurally incompatible and a glassy (amorphous) mixture can form. The composition range where this bifurcation is likely to occur is in the two-phase regions of the phase diagram. These concepts are potentially useful guides in selecting metal pairs that from metallic glasses by ion mixing. In this report, phenomenological correlation between stable (and metastable) phase formation and phase diagram is discussed in terms of recent experimental data.

  11. Experiments in dilution jet mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.; Berenfeld, A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are given on the mixing of a single row of jets with an isothermal mainstream in a straight duct, to include flow and geometric variations typical of combustion chambers in gas turbine engines. The principal conclusions reached from these experiments were: at constant momentum ratio, variations in density ratio have only a second-order effect on the profiles; a first-order approximation to the mixing of jets with a variable temperature mainstream can be obtained by superimposing the jets-in-an isothermal-crossflow and mainstream profiles; flow area convergence, especially injection-wall convergence, significantly improves the mixing; for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines in-line, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is one half of the optimum value for single side injection at the same momentum ratio; and for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines staggered, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is twice the optimum value for single side injection at the same momentum ratio.

  12. Solubility enhancement studies on lurasidone hydrochloride using mixed hydrotropy

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Jyotsana R.; Pawar, Kiran T.; Dua, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Low aqueous solubility is a major problem faced during formulation development of new drug molecules. Lurasidone HCl (LRD) is an antipsychotic agent specially used in the treatments of schizophrenia and is a good example of the problems associated with low aqueous solubility. Lurasidone is practically insoluble in water, has poor bioavailability and slow onset of action and therefore cannot be given in emergency clinical situations like schizophrenia. Hence, purpose of this research was to provide a fast dissolving oral dosage form of Lurasidone. This dosage form can provide quick onset of action by using the concept of mixed hydrotropy. Initially, solubility of LRD was determined individually in nicotinamide, sodium citrate, urea and sodium benzoate at concentration of 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/v solutions using purified water as a solvent. Highest solubility was obtained in 40% sodium benzoate solution. In order to decrease the individual hydrotrope concentration mixed hydrotropic agents were used. Highest solubility was obtained in 15:20:5 ratio of Nicotinamide + sodium benzoate + sodium citrate. This optimized combination was utilized in the preparation of solid dispersions by using distilled water as a solvent. Solid dispersions were evaluated for X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared to show no drug-hydrotropes interaction has occurred. This solid dispersion was compressed to form fast dissolving tablets. Dissolution studies of prepared tablets were done using USP Type II apparatus. The batch L3 tablets show 88% cumulative drug release within 14 min and in vitro dispersion time was 32 min. It was concluded that the concept of mixed hydrotropic solid dispersion is novel, safe and cost-effective technique for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. The miraculous enhancement in solubility and bioavailability of Lurasidone is clear indication of the potential of mixed hydrotropy to be used in future

  13. URBAN TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A "NEW BREED" OF TEACHER IS NEEDED TO MEET URBAN SCHOOL REQUIREMENTS DEVELOPING AS A RESULT OF THE INCREASED NUMBERS OF CULTURALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. ONE PROGRAM INSTITUTED TO TRAIN TEACHERS FOR THIS ROLE IS DESCRIBED. THE PROGRAM IS OPEN TO GRADUATES OF LIBERAL ARTS AND TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAMS WHO FEEL THEY HAVE THE…

  14. Preparing Global Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Welch, Lucas; Al-Khanji, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Global citizens are those who are aware of, demonstrate respect for, and are comfortable engaging across cultural boundaries. This article explores why preparing global citizens is important and how positive psychology can inform our understanding of those who engage comfortably in today's complicated world. Soliya's Connect program is described…

  15. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  16. Preparing Youth for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John

    A four-year study examined the nature and policy implications of school and employer practices to help youth prepare for employment. Data for the study were compiled from a telephone survey of 3,500 employers; a mail survey of 750 employers from across the country; 493 employers, 71 teachers, and 1,565 students from 5 major U.S. cities who…

  17. Preparing Protein Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Cindy Barnes of University Space Research Association (USRA) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center pipettes a protein solution in preparation to grow crystals as part of NASA's structural biology program. Research on Earth helps scientists define conditions and specimens they will use in space experiments.

  18. The Preparation of Ferrocene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, F. R.; Temple-Nidd, G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the preparation of a compound that is of particular interest because of its sandwich structure in which the metal atom is sandwiched between two planar C5H5-rings. Sublimation results in the formation of long thin plate-like crystals. (GS)

  19. Ideas: Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfield, Emalou

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on student organization, preparation, and presentation of simple foods (beverage, brownies, sloppy-joe sandwiches) as a way to apply various mathematical concepts, with problem-solving techniques being central to almost all the activities. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  20. Preparing for disaster.

    PubMed

    Rohrbacher, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Natural disasters and armed conflicts affect the health of hundreds of millions of people around the world, not only directly through violence and trauma, but also through damage to social and economic infrastructures. Disaster preparedness, however, can help ensure that health systems and communities are better prepared to cope with emergencies.

  1. Method for preparing superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Dahlgren, Shelley D.

    1976-01-01

    A superconductor having an equiaxed fine grain beta-tungsten crystalline structure found to have improved high field critical current densities is prepared by sputter-depositing superconductive material onto a substrate cooled to below 200.degree. C. and heat-treating the deposited material.

  2. Innovation in Administrator Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Don

    An innovative administrator preparation program based on guidelines established by national boards and commissions is described in this paper. The California State University, Fresno, administrator education curriculum was reorganized by faculty and an advisory committee of 11 superintendents to meet the needs of local school districts. The…

  3. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Morton; Winchell, Harry S.

    1977-01-04

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical.

  4. Aircraft Wing Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    A LMAL carpenter prepares full scale wings for flight research, 1920. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 36), by James Schultz. Published in Engineer in Charge, NASA SP- 4305 (p. 82), by James R. Hansen.

  5. Preparation of uranium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Ralph A.; Tennery, Victor J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for preparing actinide-nitrides from massive actinide metal which is suitable for sintering into low density fuel shapes by partially hydriding the massive metal and simultaneously dehydriding and nitriding the dehydrided portion. The process is repeated until all of the massive metal is converted to a nitride.

  6. Preparing for Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray, and an electrocardiogram. An electrocardiogram is a test of heart function with an instrument that prints out the results as a graph. What preparation may be necessary before surgery? Depending on the type of surgery, your health care provider may want you to use a laxative ...

  7. Project PREPARE. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butte Vocational-Technical Center, Montana.

    The guide was developed as part of Project Prepare, a demonstration program designed to teach disadvantaged parents adult basic education skills and to show these parents how and what to teach their preschool children. It contains activities, advice, and resources for parents. All materials pertain to creative play for preschoolers that develop…

  8. Preparation of graphitic articles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Nemer, Martin; Weigle, John C.

    2010-05-11

    Graphitic structures have been prepared by exposing templates (metal, metal-coated ceramic, graphite, for example) to a gaseous mixture that includes hydrocarbons and oxygen. When the template is metal, subsequent acid treatment removes the metal to yield monoliths, hollow graphitic structures, and other products. The shapes of the coated and hollow graphitic structures mimic the shapes of the templates.

  9. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  10. Preparation of 2-Bromopentane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, B. A.; Kohrman, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the preparation of 2-bromopentane from 2-pentanol might represent an instructive addition to a published description of pheromone synthesis in that it is economical, extends the synthetic nature of the problem, and amplifies the mechanistic vagaries of the substitution reaction. Theory, procedures used, and safety considerations are…

  11. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Plumbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for plumbing to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training program…

  12. Preparing for Landing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    There were a few raised eyebrows when the Association of Colleges (AoC) appointed Martin Doel, an Air Commodore with almost 30 year's service in the Royal Air Force (RAF) but little direct experience of college culture, as its new Chief Executive. As he prepares to take the helm next month, Doel, while acknowledging the challenges ahead, is…

  13. Rapid estimation of lives of deficient superpave mixes and laboratory-based accelerated mix testing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, Chandra Bahadur

    The engineers from the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) often have to decide whether or not to accept non-conforming Superpave mixtures during construction. The first part of this study focused on estimating lives of deficient Superpave pavements incorporating nonconforming Superpave mixtures. These criteria were based on the Hamburg Wheel-Tracking Device (HWTD) test results and analysis. The second part of this study focused on developing accelerated mix testing models to considerably reduce test duration. To accomplish the first objective, nine fine-graded Superpave mixes of 12.5-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) with asphalt grade PG 64-22 from six administrative districts of KDOT were selected. Specimens were prepared at three different target air void levels Ndesign gyrations and four target simulated in-place density levels with the Superpave gyratory compactor. Average number of wheel passes to 20-mm rut depth, creep slope, stripping slope, and stripping inflection point in HWTD tests were recorded and then used in the statistical analysis. Results showed that, in general, higher simulated in-place density up to a certain limit of 91% to 93%, results in a higher number of wheel passes until 20-mm rut depth in HWTD tests. A Superpave mixture with very low air voids Ndesign (2%) level performed very poorly in the HWTD test. HWTD tests were also performed on six 12.5-mm NMAS mixtures with air voids Ndesign of 4% for six projects, simulated in-place density of 93%, two temperature levels and five load levels with binder grades of PG 64-22, PG 64-28, and PG 70-22. Field cores of 150-mm in diameter from three projects in three KDOT districts with 12.5-mm NMAS and asphalt grade of PG 64-22 were also obtained and tested in HWTD for model evaluation. HWTD test results indicated as expected. Statistical analysis was performed and accelerated mix testing models were developed to determine the effect of increased temperature and load on the duration of

  14. Mixed metal phospho-sulfates for acid catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, S.G.; Jackson, N.B.; Nenoff, T.M.; Maxwell, R.S.

    1997-12-01

    Mixed metal phospho-sulfates have been prepared and evaluated for use as acid catalysts via 2-methyl-2-pentene isomerization and o-xylene isomerization. Particular members of this class of materials exhibit greater levels of activity than sulfated zirconia as well as lower rates and magnitudes of deactivation. {sup 31}P MAS NMR has been used to examine the role of phosphorus in contributing to the activity and deactivation behavior of these materials, while powder x-ray diffraction, BET surface area, IR, and elemental analysis were used to characterize the bulk catalysts.

  15. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  16. Mixed or immune complex cryoglobulinaemia and neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Cream, J. J.; Hern, J. E. C.; Hughes, R. A. C.; Mackenzie, I. C. K.

    1974-01-01

    Three patients with peripheral neuropathy and mixed or immune complex cryoglobulinaemia are reported. The significance of mixed cryoglobulinaemia and the pathogenesis of the peripheral neuropathy are discussed. Images PMID:4360402

  17. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.576 Mixed blanch. Mixed blanch consists of green and fairly...

  18. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  19. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.576 Mixed blanch. Mixed blanch consists of green and fairly well blanched stalks of celery in the same container....

  20. 7 CFR 51.576 - Mixed blanch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.576 Mixed blanch. Mixed blanch consists of green and fairly well blanched stalks of celery in the same container....

  1. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst

  2. Microwave synthesis and electrochemical characterization of Mn/Ni mixed oxide for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect

    Prasankumar, T.; Jose, Sujin P.; Ilangovan, R.; Venkatesh, K. S.

    2015-06-24

    Nanostructured Mn/Ni mixed metal oxide was synthesized at ambient temperature by facile microwave irradiation technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of Mn/Ni mixed oxide in rhombohedral phase and the grain size calculated was found to be 87 nm. The irregular spherical morphology of the prepared sample was exhibited by the SEM images. The characteristic peaks of FTIR at about 630 cm{sup −1} and 749 cm{sup −1} were attributed to the Mn-O and Ni-O stretching vibrations respectively. The presence of both Mn and Ni in the prepared sample was validated by the EDS spectra which in turn confirmed the formation of mixed oxide. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic chargedischarge measurements were employed to investigate the electrochemical performance of the mixed oxide. The cyclic voltammetry curves demonstrated good capacitive performance of the sample in the potential window −0.2V to 0.9V. The charge discharge study revealed the suitability of the prepared mixed oxide for the fabrication of supercapacitor electrode.

  3. Macroscopic lateral heterogeneity observed in a laterally mobile immiscible mixed polyelectrolyte-neutral polymer brush

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-07-11

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: when the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air–water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO–PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA–PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO–PnBA–PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113–PnBA89–PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched with those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200–PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure–area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100 combination (i.e., mixed brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation

  4. Idea Sharing: How to Maximize Participation in a Mixed-Level English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching a class of mixed EFL/ESL levels can be problematic for both instructors and students. The disparate levels of ability often mean that some students are not challenged enough while others struggle to keep pace. Drawing on experience in the university classroom in Japan, this practice promotes good preparation, self-reliance, inclusiveness,…

  5. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  6. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  7. 49 CFR 173.334 - Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas. 173...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.334 Organic..., tetraethyl pyrophosphate, or other Division 6.1 organic phosphates (including a compound or mixture), may...

  8. 49 CFR 173.334 - Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas. 173...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.334 Organic..., tetraethyl pyrophosphate, or other Division 6.1 organic phosphates (including a compound or mixture), may...

  9. 49 CFR 173.334 - Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas. 173...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.334 Organic..., tetraethyl pyrophosphate, or other Division 6.1 organic phosphates (including a compound or mixture), may...

  10. 49 CFR 173.334 - Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas. 173...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.334 Organic..., tetraethyl pyrophosphate, or other Division 6.1 organic phosphates (including a compound or mixture), may...

  11. 49 CFR 173.334 - Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Organic phosphates mixed with compressed gas. 173...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.334 Organic..., tetraethyl pyrophosphate, or other Division 6.1 organic phosphates (including a compound or mixture), may...

  12. A Mixed Method Study on Freshman Students' Writing Performance as Addressed by Postsecondary Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that difficulty in general education classes significantly contributes to attrition among college freshmen. Accordingly, this mixed-method study sought to address the related problem of high school students' preparation for freshman composition or English classes. The purpose of the sequential explanatory study was to identify…

  13. Bounding CKM Mixing with a Fourth Family

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2009-04-22

    CKM mixing between third family quarks and a possible fourth family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z {yields} {bar b}b used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of FCNC processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.

  14. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  15. Foam-Mixing-And-Dispensing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, Keith Y.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Jackson, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Time-and-money-saving machine produces consistent, homogeneously mixed foam, enhancing production efficiency. Automatically mixes and dispenses polyurethane foam in quantities specified by weight. Consists of cart-mounted, air-driven proportioning unit; air-activated mechanical mixing gun; programmable timer/counter, and controller.

  16. Pragmatism, Evidence, and Mixed Methods Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods evaluation has a long-standing history of enhancing the credibility of evaluation findings. However, using mixed methods in a utilitarian way implicitly emphasizes convenience over engaging with its philosophical underpinnings (Denscombe, 2008). Because of this, some mixed methods evaluators and social science researchers have been…

  17. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  18. Code Mixing and Modernization across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    A review of recent studies addressed the functional uses of code mixing across cultures. Expressions of code mixing (CM) are not random; in fact, a number of functions of code mixing can easily be delineated, for example, the concept of "modernization.""Modernization" is viewed with respect to how bilingual code mixers perceive themselves, how…

  19. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sheller Run, U.S. Standard Sheller Run, U.S. No. 1 Whole and Broken may be designated as: “U.S. No. 1 Mixed;” “U.S. Select Sheller Run Mixed;” “U.S. Standard Sheller Run Mixed;” “U.S. No. 1 Whole and...

  20. 27 CFR 31.204 - Mixed cocktails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed cocktails. 31.204 Section 31.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Mixed cocktails. A retail liquor dealer who mixes cocktails or compounds any alcoholic liquors...

  1. Challenges to Teaching Mixed Research Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Rebecca K.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Across the United States, many faculty members are developing new mixed re-search courses. However, before embarking on teaching these courses, it would be helpful for instructors to be aware of the challenges faced by instructors and students in mixed research courses. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative-dominant mixed research study was to…

  2. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced that…

  3. One-pot synthesis of thermoplastic mixed paramylon esters using trifluoroacetic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Shibakami, Motonari; Tsubouchi, Gen; Sohma, Mitsugu; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2015-03-30

    Mixed paramylon esters prepared from paramylon (a storage polysaccharide of Euglena), acetic acid, and a long-chain fatty acid by one-pot synthesis using trifluoroacetic anhydride as a promoter and solvent were shown to have thermoplasticity. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that the mixed paramylon esters had a weight average molecular weight of approximately 4.9-6.7×10(5). Thermal analysis showed that these esters were stable in terms of the glass transition temperature (>90°C) and 5% weight loss temperature (>320°C). The degree of substitution of the long alkyl chain group, a dominant factor determining thermoplasticity, was controlled by tuning the feed molar ratio of acetic acid and long-chain fatty acid to paramylon. These results implied that the one-pot synthesis is useful for preparing structurally-well defined thermoplastic mixed paramylon esters with high molecular weight.

  4. One-pot synthesis of thermoplastic mixed paramylon esters using trifluoroacetic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Shibakami, Motonari; Tsubouchi, Gen; Sohma, Mitsugu; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2015-03-30

    Mixed paramylon esters prepared from paramylon (a storage polysaccharide of Euglena), acetic acid, and a long-chain fatty acid by one-pot synthesis using trifluoroacetic anhydride as a promoter and solvent were shown to have thermoplasticity. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that the mixed paramylon esters had a weight average molecular weight of approximately 4.9-6.7×10(5). Thermal analysis showed that these esters were stable in terms of the glass transition temperature (>90°C) and 5% weight loss temperature (>320°C). The degree of substitution of the long alkyl chain group, a dominant factor determining thermoplasticity, was controlled by tuning the feed molar ratio of acetic acid and long-chain fatty acid to paramylon. These results implied that the one-pot synthesis is useful for preparing structurally-well defined thermoplastic mixed paramylon esters with high molecular weight. PMID:25563938

  5. Optical limiting device and method of preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Xu, Su; McBranch, Duncan W.

    2003-01-01

    Optical limiting device and method of preparation thereof. The optical limiting device includes a transparent substrate and at least one homogeneous layer of an RSA material in polyvinylbutyral attached to the substrate. The device may be produced by preparing a solution of an RSA material, preferably a metallophthalocyanine complex, and a solution of polyvinylbutyral, and then mixing the two solutions together to remove air bubbles. The resulting solution is layered onto the substrate and the solvent is evaporated. The method can be used to produce a dual tandem optical limiting device.

  6. Preparation for Physics Redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelson, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The textbook for our preparation for physics course has been rewritten ab initio. Like its predecessor, it adapts a spiral approach to dealing with preconceptions, but this version encourages work at higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy and makes students sensitive to how p-prims affect their understanding. As its title: "All in Proportion: Preparation for Physics" indicates, it emphasizes how far proportional reasoning will take the student. Classwork is mainly group work, and various techniques are used to encourage students to complete the learning cycle on material that has not been mastered. Both the FCI and the Lawson "Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning" have been given to gauge student progress. Preliminary results will be reported and sample materials will be shown.

  7. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, Richard M.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  8. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOEpatents

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  9. [Microflora of spiruline preparations].

    PubMed

    Jacquet, J

    1975-01-01

    A study, by direct microscopic examination and cultures, shows that the microflore which accompanies the spirulines preparations, varies as the origin and the technologie treatment quality. The main species are bacillacees; then, come faecal streptococcus which are the best contaminations indicators; enterobacteries, yeasts, moulds spores, are exceptional. Dry products as getting old, entail a great decrease of all the species, the anaerobies being more resistant.

  10. TORIS Data Preparation Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, H.; Remson, D.

    1999-03-11

    The objective of this manual is to present guidelines and procedures for the preparation of new data for the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) data base. TORIS is an analytical system currently maintained by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Bartlesville Project Office. It uses an extensive field- and reservoir-level data base to evaluate the technical and economic recovery potential of specific crude oil reservoirs.

  11. Preparing for evil.

    PubMed

    Mitroff, Ian I; Alpaslan, Murat C

    2003-04-01

    How can you plan for every crisis that might occur, even for ones you can't imagine? The task seems so daunting and so limitless that many firms don't even start. In fact, as the authors' 20 years of research shows, three out of four Fortune 500 companies are prepared to handle only the types of calamities they've already suffered, and not even all of those. That's unfortunate because the research also shows that crisis-prepared companies fare better financially, have stronger reputations, and ultimately stay in business longer than their crisis prone counterparts. Crisis-prepared companies use a systematic approach to focus their efforts. In addition to planning for natural disasters, they divide man-made calamities into two sorts--accidental or "normal" ones, like the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and deliberate or "abnormal" ones, like product tampering. Then they take steps to broaden their thinking about such potential crises. They consider threats that would be common in other industries, for instance. And they seek input from outsiders such as investigative journalists and even reformed criminals. But if these companies think broadly about possible threats, they think narrowly about implementation. Each year, smart companies focus their resources and attention on a few facilities picked at random, just as airlines conduct detailed security checks on just a few passengers for each flight. That reduces the probability of an attack on the entire organization even as it allows the business to migrate steadily to a higher level of crisis readiness. Crisis-prepared companies know that disasters cannot be managed through cost-benefit analyses. It is precisely because the effects of a disaster cannot be predicted or controlled that smart companies focus their efforts on preventing crises rather than containing them after the fact.

  12. Preparing for evil.

    PubMed

    Mitroff, Ian I; Alpaslan, Murat C

    2003-04-01

    How can you plan for every crisis that might occur, even for ones you can't imagine? The task seems so daunting and so limitless that many firms don't even start. In fact, as the authors' 20 years of research shows, three out of four Fortune 500 companies are prepared to handle only the types of calamities they've already suffered, and not even all of those. That's unfortunate because the research also shows that crisis-prepared companies fare better financially, have stronger reputations, and ultimately stay in business longer than their crisis prone counterparts. Crisis-prepared companies use a systematic approach to focus their efforts. In addition to planning for natural disasters, they divide man-made calamities into two sorts--accidental or "normal" ones, like the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and deliberate or "abnormal" ones, like product tampering. Then they take steps to broaden their thinking about such potential crises. They consider threats that would be common in other industries, for instance. And they seek input from outsiders such as investigative journalists and even reformed criminals. But if these companies think broadly about possible threats, they think narrowly about implementation. Each year, smart companies focus their resources and attention on a few facilities picked at random, just as airlines conduct detailed security checks on just a few passengers for each flight. That reduces the probability of an attack on the entire organization even as it allows the business to migrate steadily to a higher level of crisis readiness. Crisis-prepared companies know that disasters cannot be managed through cost-benefit analyses. It is precisely because the effects of a disaster cannot be predicted or controlled that smart companies focus their efforts on preventing crises rather than containing them after the fact. PMID:12687925

  13. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  14. Probing the Evaporation Dynamics of Mixed SOA/Squalane Particles Using Size-Resolved Composition and Single-Particle Measurements.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ellis Shipley; Saleh, Rawad; Donahue, Neil M

    2015-08-18

    An analysis of the formation and evaporation of mixed-particles containing squalane (a surrogate for hydrophobic primary organic aerosol, POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is presented. In these experiments, one material (D62-squalane or SOA from α-pinene + O3) was prepared first to serve as surface area for condensation of the other, forming the mixed-particles. The mixed-particles were then subjected to a heating-ramp from 22 to 44 °C. We were able to determine that (1) almost all of the SOA mass is comprised of material less volatile than D62-squalane; (2) AMS collection efficiency in these mixed-particle systems can be parametrized as a function of the relative mass fraction of the components; and (3) the vast majority of D62-squalane is able to evaporate from the mixed particles, and does so on the same time scale regardless of the order of preparation. We also performed two-population mixing experiments to directly test whether D62-squalane and SOA from α-pinene + O3 form a single solution or two separate phases. We find that these two OA types are immiscible, which informs our inference of the morphology of the mixed-particles. If the morphology is core-shell and dictated by the order of preparation, these data indicate that squalane is able to diffuse relatively quickly through the SOA shell, implying that there are no major diffusion limitations.

  15. Ergodicity and mixing in quantum dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Quan, H. T.; Wu, Biao

    2016-08-01

    After a brief historical review of ergodicity and mixing in dynamics, particularly in quantum dynamics, we introduce definitions of quantum ergodicity and mixing using the structure of the system's energy levels and spacings. Our definitions are consistent with the usual understanding of ergodicity and mixing. Two parameters concerning the degeneracy in energy levels and spacings are introduced. They are computed for right triangular billiards and the results indicate a very close relation between quantum ergodicity (mixing) and quantum chaos. At the end, we argue that, besides ergodicity and mixing, there may exist a third class of quantum dynamics which is characterized by a maximized entropy.

  16. Ergodicity and mixing in quantum dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongliang; Quan, H T; Wu, Biao

    2016-08-01

    After a brief historical review of ergodicity and mixing in dynamics, particularly in quantum dynamics, we introduce definitions of quantum ergodicity and mixing using the structure of the system's energy levels and spacings. Our definitions are consistent with the usual understanding of ergodicity and mixing. Two parameters concerning the degeneracy in energy levels and spacings are introduced. They are computed for right triangular billiards and the results indicate a very close relation between quantum ergodicity (mixing) and quantum chaos. At the end, we argue that, besides ergodicity and mixing, there may exist a third class of quantum dynamics which is characterized by a maximized entropy. PMID:27627289

  17. Mixed Strategies in cyclic competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intoy, Ben; Pleimling, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Physicists have been using evolutionary game theory to model and simulate cyclically competing species, with applications to lizard mating strategies and competing bacterial strains. However these models assume that each agent plays the same strategy, which is called a pure strategy in game theory, until they are beaten by a better strategy which they immediately adopt. We relax this constraint of an agent playing a single strategy by instead letting the agent pick its strategy randomly from a probability distribution, which is called a mixed strategy in game theory. This scheme is very similar to multiple occupancy models seen in the literature, the major difference being that interactions happen between sites rather than within them. Choosing strategies out of a distribution also has applications to economic/social systems such as the public goods game. We simulate a model of mixed strategy and cylic competition on a one-dimensional lattice with three and four strategies and find interesting spatial and stability properties depending on how discretized the choice of strategy is for the agents. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR-1205309.

  18. Can whales mix the ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavery, T. J.; Roudnew, B.; Seuront, L.; Mitchell, J. G.; Middleton, J.

    2012-07-01

    Ocean mixing influences global climate and enhances primary productivity by transporting nutrient rich water into the euphotic zone. The contribution of the swimming biosphere to diapycnal mixing in the ocean has been hypothesised to occur on scales similar to that of tides or winds, however, the extent to which this contributes to nutrient transport and stimulates primary productivity has not been explored. Here, we introduce a novel method to estimate the diapycnal diffusivity that occurs as a result of a sperm whale swimming through a pycnocline. Nutrient profiles from the Hawaiian Ocean are used to further estimate the amount of nitrogen transported into the euphotic zone and the primary productivity stimulated as a result. We estimate that the 80 sperm whales that travel through an area of 104 km2 surrounding Hawaii increase diapycnal diffusivity by 10-6 m2 s-1 which results in the flux of 105 kg of nitrogen into the euphotic zone each year. This nitrogen input subsequently stimulates 6 × 105 kg of carbon per year. The nutrient input of swimming sperm whales is modest compared to dominant modes of nutrient transport such as nitrogen fixation but occurs more consistently and thus may provide the nutrients necessary to enable phytoplankton growth and survival in the absence of other seasonal and daily nutrient inputs.

  19. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-03-07

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ({sup 1}H and {sup 2}H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  20. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  1. Mixed interactions in random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Toma; Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2002-03-01

    The description of thermodynamic properties of copolymers in terms of simple lattice models requires a value for the mixed interaction strength (ɛ_12) between unlike chain segments, in addition to parameters that can be derived from the properties of the corresponding homopolymers. If the monomers are chemically similar, Berthelot's geometric-mean combining rule provides a good first approximation for ɛ_12. In earlier work on blends of polyolefins [1], we found that the small-scale architecture of the chains leads to corrections to the geometric-mean approximation that are important for the prediction of phase diagrams. In this work, we focus on the additional effects due to sequencing of the monomeric units. In order to estimate the mixed interaction ɛ_12 for random copolymers, the small-scale simulation approach developed in [1] is extended to allow for random sequencing of the monomeric units. The approach is applied here to random copolymers of ethylene and 1-butene. [1] J. Luettmer-Strathmann and J.E.G. Lipson. Phys. Rev. E 59, 2039 (1999) and Macromolecules 32, 1093 (1999).

  2. [Mixed states: evolution of classifications].

    PubMed

    Pringuey, D; Cherikh, F; Giordana, B; Fakra, E; Dassa, D; Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Maurel, M; Azorin, J-M

    2013-12-01

    The nosological position of mixed states has followed the course of classifying methods in psychiatry, the steps of the invention of the clinic, progress in the organization of care, including the discoveries of psychopharmacology. The clinical observation of a mixture of symptoms emerging from usually opposite clinical conditions is classical. In the 70s, a syndromic specification fixed the main symptom combinations but that incongruous assortment failed to stabilize the nosological concept. Then stricter criteriology was proposed. To be too restrictive, a consensus operates a dimensional opening that attempts to meet the pragmatic requirements of nosology validating the usefulness of the class system. This alternation between rigor of categorization and return to a more flexible criteriological option reflects the search for the right balance between nosology and diagnosis. The definition of mixed states is best determined by their clinical and prognostic severity, related to the risk of suicide, their lower therapeutic response, the importance of their psychiatric comorbidities, anxiety, emotional lability, alcohol abuse. Trying to compensate for the lack of categorical definitions and better reflecting the clinical field problems, new definitions complement criteriology with dimensional aspects, particularly taking into account temperaments. PMID:24359850

  3. Mixing stops at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find thatmore » they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.« less

  4. Mixing stops at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find that they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.

  5. Mixed tumour of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, M; Endo, Y; Ishikawa, E; Ushigome, S

    1996-05-01

    A 33-year-old Japanese woman presented with a polypoid 2.5 x 2.5 x 1.9 cm mass located in the posterior wall of the lower vagina. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of benign epithelial and stromal-type elements. Predominant epithelial elements were mucinous glands with squamous metaplasia and islands of mature squamous epithelium. The stromal-type cells showed reticular or short fascicular patterns with a transition to the epithelial elements. There was no dual epithelial-myoepithelial combination in the glands as seen in so-called mixed tumours (pleomorphic adenomas) of the salivary gland. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial elements were strongly positive for cytokeratin, PKK1 and epithelial membrane antigen, while the stromal-type cells co-expressed PKK1 and vimentin. Staining for S-100 protein, muscle actin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and CD34 was uniformly negative in the tumour cells. The DNA pattern was diploid. The patient is alive and well without recurrence for 50 months after excision. These results indicate that an epithelial cell proliferation, probably of the remnant vestibular gland, plays a major role in the development of mixed tumours of the vagina.

  6. Mixed Layers and Satellite Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, R.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the process to determine whether it is possible to retrieve boundary layer structure with the current sounding techniques, temperature retievals were performed for radiosonde profiles that showed temperature inversions. It was found that when temperature inversions exceed 8 to 10 C a retrieval will indeed show a temperature increase with height over a limited vertical distance. For weaker inversions retrieved temperatures are generally smoothly decreasing with height. It is, however, impossible to determine the actual mixed layer height from the retrievals. Whether the water vapor channels could be used in observing mixed layer structure was investigated. Temperature inversions are accompanied by significant drops in relative humidity. While this effect is very pronounced in parts of the trade wind regimes with relative humidity drops of up to 60%, it is widespread in other areas of the ocean as well. A simulation experiment was performed in which brightness temperatures were computed for smooth temperature and humidity profiles and compared with those computed from inversion profiles.

  7. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage

    DOEpatents

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Galvin, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  8. Crosslinked polyimides prepared from N-(3-ethynylphenyl)maleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Margaret K. (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The compound N-(3-ethynylphenyl)maleimide (NEPMI) was used to prepare thermally stable, glassy polyimides which did not exhibit glass transition temperatures below 500 C. NEPMI was blended with the maleimide of methylene dianiline (BMI) and heated to form the polyimide. NEPMI was also mixed with Thermid 600 R, a commercially available bisethynyl oligomeric material, and heated to form a thermally stable, glassy polyimide. Lastly, NEPMI was blended with both BMI and Thermid 600 R to form thermally stable, glassy polyimides.

  9. Diffusion in mixed solvents. II - The heat of mixing parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carapellucci, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Correlation of second-order rate constants for many reactions involving electron transfer between organic molecules, solvated electron reactions, iodine diffusion coefficients, and triplet state electron transfer reactions has been made with the heat of mixing parameter (HMP) for the aqueous binary solvent systems. The aqueous binary solvents studied are those containing methanol or ethanol (type I solvent); 1-propanol or tert-butyl alcohol (type II solvent); or sucrose or glycerol (type III solvent). A plot of the HMP vs. the diffusion parameter for each reaction yields superimposable curves for these reactions in a particular solvent mixture over the entire solvent mixture range, irrespective of the value of the reaction's rate constant or diffusion coefficient in water.

  10. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the

  11. Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Arthur L.; Krawza, Kenneth I.

    1997-01-01

    In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

  12. A Darwinian mechanism for biogenic ocean mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katija, Kakani; Dabiri, John

    2009-11-01

    Recent observations of biogenic turbulence in the ocean have led to conflicting ideas regarding the contribution of animal swimming to ocean mixing. Previous measurements indicate elevated turbulent dissipation in the vicinity of large populations of planktonic animals swimming in concert. However, elevated turbulent dissipation is by itself insufficient proof of substantial biogenic mixing. We conducted field measurements of mixing efficiency by individual Mastigias sp. (a Palauan jellyfish) using a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus. These measurements revealed another mechanism that contributes to animal mixing besides wake turbulence. This mechanism was first described by Sir Charles Galton Darwin and is in fact the dominant mechanism of mixing by swimming animals. The efficiency of Darwin's mechanism (or drift) is dependent on animal shape rather than fluid length scale and, unlike turbulent wake mixing, is enhanced by the fluid viscosity. Therefore, it provides a means of biogenic mixing that can be equally effective in small plankton and large mammals.

  13. An ignored variable: solution preparation temperature in protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui-Qing; Lu, Qin-Qin; Cheng, Qing-Di; Ao, Liang-Bo; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Hou, Hai; Liu, Yong-Ming; Li, Da-Wei; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2015-01-19

    Protein crystallization is affected by many parameters, among which certain parameters have not been well controlled. The temperature at which the protein and precipitant solutions are mixed (i.e., the ambient temperature during mixing) is such a parameter that is typically not well controlled and is often ignored. In this paper, we show that this temperature can influence protein crystallization. The experimental results showed that both higher and lower mixing temperatures can enhance the success of crystallization, which follows a parabolic curve with an increasing ambient temperature. This work illustrates that the crystallization solution preparation temperature is also an important parameter for protein crystallization. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled room temperature may yield poor reproducibility in protein crystallization.

  14. Method for low temperature preparation of a noble metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Even, Jr., William R.

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing fine, essentially contamination free, noble metal alloys is disclosed. The alloys comprise particles in a size range of 5 to 500 nm. The method comprises 1. A method for preparing a noble metal alloy at low temperature, the method comprising the steps of forming solution of organometallic compounds by dissolving the compounds into a quantity of a compatible solvent medium capable of solvating the organometallic, mixing a portion of each solution to provide a desired molarity ratio of ions in the mixed solution, adding a support material, rapidly quenching droplets of the mixed solution to initiate a solute-solvent phase separation as the solvent freezes, removing said liquid cryogen, collecting and freezing drying the frozen droplets to produce a dry powder, and finally reducing the powder to a metal by flowing dry hydrogen over the powder while warming the powder to a temperature of about 150.degree. C.

  15. Microgravity acoustic mixing for particle cloud combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic; Rubinstein, Robert I.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of acoustic mixing procedures designed to uniformly distribute fuel particles in a combustion tube for application in the proposed Particle Cloud Combustion Experiment (PCCE) are described. Two acoustic mixing methods are investigated: mixing in a cylindrical tube using high frequency spinning modes generated by suitably phased, or quadrature speakers, and acoustic premixing in a sphere. Quadrature mixing leads to rapid circumferential circulation of the powder around the tube. Good mixing is observed in the circulating regions. However, because axial inhomogeneities are necessarily present in the acoustic field, this circulation does not extend throughout the tube. Simultaneous operation of the quadrature-speaker set and the axial-speaker was observed to produce considerably enhanced mixing compared to operation of the quadrature-speaker set alone. Mixing experiments using both types of speakers were free of the longitudinal powder drift observed using axial-speakers alone. Vigorous powder mixing was obtained in the sphere for many normal modes: however, in no case was the powder observed to fill the sphere entirely. Theoretical analysis indicated that mixing under steady conditions cannot fill more than a hemisphere except under very unusual conditions. Premixing in a hemisphere may be satisfactory; otherwise, complete mixing in microgravity might be possible by operating the speaker in short bursts. A general conclusion is that acoustic transients are more likely to produce good mixing than steady state conditions. The reason is that in steady conditions, flow structures like nodal planes are possible and often even unavoidable. These tend to separate the mixing region into cells across which powder cannot be transferred. In contrast, transients not only are free of such structures, they also have the characteristics, desirable for mixing, of randomness and disorder. This conclusion is corroborated by mixing

  16. [Magistral prepared lidocaine-gel for topical aplication on skin].

    PubMed

    Sklenár, Zbynĕk; Horácková, Katerína; Bakhouche, Hana; Slanar, Ondrej

    2012-08-01

    Due to a limited availability of industrially manufactured products containing local anesthetics for skin application and an increased demand for lidocaine-containing gel applicable prior to a product containing capsaicin for neuropathic pain treatment, it is necessary to prepare a topical semi-solid preparation containing the local anesthetic in pharmacies. Our aim was to create a mixed system of a hydrophilic gel with the emulsified drug, using excipients to decrease the lidocaine melting point, thereby creating a eutectic mixture with a high concentration of lidocaine in the oil phase. Based on bibliographic data, thymol creating a binary eutectic system containing lidocaine has been chosen. After addition of other excipients, an emulsion system was prepared and the drug was stabilized in the oil phase by a mixed nonionic emulsifier and carbomera. For the optimal anesthetic effects, the pH value should be adjusted; trometamol has been chosen as a suitable basic reacting excipient. Based on the addition of different amounts of trometamol, pH values of individual emulgels have been measured and the final composition of lidocaine emulgel has been created. A recipe for a 5 % lidocaine emulgel with the pH value of 9.1 has been created, based on the gel-forming substance carbomera with an emulsion of the oil phase containing a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and thymol, with an addition of ethanol and propylenglycol, stabilized by a mixed nonionic emulsifier. The advantage is the absence of other local anesthetics. PMID:23251958

  17. Novel technology to prepare oral formulations for preclinical safety studies.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2008-02-28

    A novel method to prepare oral formulations, normally suspended dosage form, for preclinical safety studies in animals has been developed using a rotation/revolution mixer. Small hard balls made of zirconia were added to the mixing process to evaluate effectiveness in making a high quality suspension. The driving with balls loaded in the cylindrical container (vessel) of the mixer was quite efficient in dispersing and milling the particles of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in an aqueous medium. The API powder and a small amount of oral aqueous medium (vehicle) were successfully mixed by the spinning motion of the balls in the vessel as though the paste-like suspension was kneaded with a mortar and pestle. It was found that the milled suspension with the mean size of 10-20microm could be prepared, in addition finer milling of less than 10microm could be achieved by selecting the material of vessel. Optimum driving conditions including mixing time, size and quantity of balls, and the standard operational procedure was established using compounds varying in physicochemical properties. The particle size and quantitative analysis by HPLC showed that the resultant suspension was well-milled and highly homogeneous with the nearly intended concentration of API. The proposed method established by this experiment could be applied to the actual safety studies in the real preparation scale of oral suspension. PMID:17942253

  18. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients. PMID:26345000

  19. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-06-08

    Waste Processing Technology personnel routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  20. Mixed-valence compound-based biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lin, M S; Wu, Y C; Jan, B I

    1999-01-01

    A cobalt(II)hexacyanoferrate-based biosensor has been prepared simply by codeposition of an enzyme, together with the electrochemical formation of a cobalt (II)hexacyanoferrate compound electrochemically. The compound can be generated at a constant potential of -0.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This compound possesses the catalytic property of reducing hydrogen peroxide to water at the operating potential of 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The mixed-valence compound-based biosensor possesses an unique interference-independent feature, which is important for biomedical application; this feature is attributed to the low overvoltage characteristic of cobalt (II)hexacyanoferrate. The electrochemical glucose biosensor responds to a series of glucose injections with linearity up to 5 mM (with correlation coefficient R = 0.9999) and the sensitivity of the linear portion is 733 nA/(cm2 x mM). The detection limit is 2 x 10(-6)M (S/N = 3). Both the potential-dependent electron transfer rate constant and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant were studied in rotating disk experiments. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, Km' calculated from the slope of the "Lineweaver-Burke" type reciprocal plot is 28 mM. A fast-response characteristic is observed in the rotating disk experiment and the 95% response time is 14.5 sec. No response was observed from the addition of either 2 x 10(-4)M galactose, acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, uric acid, cysteine, tyrosine, dopamine, or 1,4-dihydroxyquinone in the absence and/or in the presence of 5 x 10(-4)M glucose. PMID:10099513

  1. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L.

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  2. Evidence for plasmid DNA exchange after polyplex mixing.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, L; Gonçalves, C; Pichon, C; Midoux, P

    2016-08-17

    The self-assembly of a plasmid DNA (pDNA) with cationic polymers or cationic liposomes forms nanosized supramolecular structures called lipoplexes, polyplexes and lipopolyplexes. Here, we report that when two polyplex preparations made using the same polymer and the same pDNA but labelled with two different fluorophores are mixed together, pDNA molecules are exchanged. Indeed, when Flu-pDNA complexed with histidinylated lPEI (Flu-pDNA/His-lPEI) polyplexes are mixed with Cy5-pDNA complexed with histidinylated lPEI (Cy5-pDNA/His-lPEI) polyplexes, a high quantity of polyplexes emitting dual fluorescence is observed and FRET indicates that one single polyplex contains two kinds of fluorescent pDNA molecules. This phenomenon depends on the polymer-type and the strength of the pDNA/polymer interaction. No exchange is observed with polylysine polyplexes, caged His-lPEI polyplexes, lipoplexes, lipopolyplexes or when His-lPEI polyplexes are mixed with lipoplexes. Our results suggest that aggregation or collapse of polyplexes occurs after their interaction leading to their unpackaging followed by the formation of new polyplexes with the exchange of pDNA. PMID:27459887

  3. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-12

    The AMWTP Final EIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. The alternatives analyzed were: the No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The Proposed Action is the Preferred Alternative. Under the Proposed Action/Preferred Alternative, the AMWTP facility would treat transuranic waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and low-level mixed waste in preparation for disposal. After treatment, transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approved disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socioeconomics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment.

  4. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  5. MIXING MODELING ANALYSIS FOR SRS SALT WASTE DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2011-01-18

    Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended

  6. Preparing EBS messages

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  7. PREPARATION OF URANIUM TRIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Buckingham, J.S.

    1959-09-01

    The production of uranium trioxide from aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate is discussed. The uranium trioxide is produced by adding sulfur or a sulfur-containing compound, such as thiourea, sulfamic acid, sulfuric acid, and ammonium sulfate, to the uranyl solution in an amount of about 0.5% by weight of the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate, evaporating the solution to dryness, and calcining the dry residue. The trioxide obtained by this method furnished a dioxide with a considerably higher reactivity with hydrogen fluoride than a trioxide prepared without the sulfur additive.

  8. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    DOEpatents

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  9. Preparation System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for preparing a sample for further analysis are provided. The system can include an enclosure. A membrane can be disposed within the enclosure. First and second reservoirs can be disposed within the enclosure, and at least one of the first and second reservoirs can be adapted to have a reagent disposed therein. A valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first or second reservoirs or both. The valve can also be in fluid communication with the membrane. The valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagent from the first reservoir, through the membrane, and into the second reservoir.

  10. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    PubMed

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  11. Shapes of Mixed Phospholipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Maldonado, Amir

    2006-01-01

    We studied the shape of phospholipid vesicles prepared by hydration of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine (SOPC) and phosphatidylserine (SOPS) in different proportions. The aim of the work is to obtain some insight into the influence of the chemical composition of a biomembrane on its shape. The optical microscopy results show that the shape of the vesicles depend on the SOPC:SOPS composition. For low SOPS contents, coiled cylindrical vesicles are observed. The results suggest that specific compositions of the SOPC:SOPS vesicles produce some spontaneous curvature on the membrane and then a coiling instability. PMID:19669461

  12. Vitrification development for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.; Whittington, K.; Peters, R.

    1995-02-01

    Vitrification is a promising approach to waste-form immobilization. It destroys hazardous organic compounds and produces a durable and highly stable glass. Vitrification tests were performed on three surrogate wastes during fiscal year 1994; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste from Hanford, bottom ash from the Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator, and saltcrete from Rocky Flats. Preliminary glass development involved melting trials followed by visual homogeneity examination, short-duration leach tests on glass specimens, and long-term leach tests on selected glasses. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements were taken for the most durable glass formulations. Results for the saltcrete are presented in this paper and demonstrate the applicability of vitrification technology to this mixed waste.

  13. Mixing and Transition Control Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Considerable progress in understanding nonlinear phenomena in both unbounded and wallbounded shear flow transition has been made through the use of a combination of high- Reynolds-number asymptotic and numerical methods. The objective of this continuing work is to fully understand the nonlinear dynamics so that ultimately (1) an effective means of mixing and transition control can be developed and (2) the source terms in the aeroacoustic noise problem can be modeled more accurately. Two important aspects of the work are that (1) the disturbances evolve from strictly linear instability waves on weakly nonparallel mean flows so that the proper upstream conditions are applied in the nonlinear or wave-interaction streamwise region and (2) the asymptotic formulations lead to parabolic problems so that the question of proper out-flow boundary conditions--still a research issue for direct numerical simulations of convectively unstable shear flows--does not arise. Composite expansion techniques are used to obtain solutions that account for both mean-flow-evolution and nonlinear effects. A previously derived theory for the amplitude evolution of a two-dimensional instability wave in an incompressible mixing layer (which is in quantitative agreement with available experimental data for the first nonlinear saturation stage for a plane-jet shear layer, a circular-jet shear layer, and a mixing layer behind a splitter plate) have been extended to include a wave-interaction stage with a three-dimensional subharmonic. The ultimate wave interaction effects can either give rise to explosive growth or an equilibrium solution, both of which are intimately associated with the nonlinear self-interaction of the three dimensional component. The extended theory is being evaluated numerically. In contrast to the mixing-layer situation, earlier comparisons of theoretical predictions based on asymptotic methods and experiments in wall-bounded shear-flow transition have been somewhat lacking

  14. Why Specialized Preparation is Critical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwin, C. Kenneth; Dickinson, Thomas S.; Smith, Tracy W.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that mandating specific teacher preparation programs may be necessary to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared for the unique challenges and rewards of teaching young adolescents, discussing: the desirability of teacher young adolescents, important elements of teacher preparation, the need for tighter licensure requirements, and the…

  15. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  16. Perceptions of State-Funded, School District-Based Principal Preparation Programs in Virginia 2004-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Kathryn Gordy

    2010-01-01

    The mixed methods case study described and analyzed the 2004-2006 district-based principal preparation programs in Virginia. This dissertation explored goals stated in proposals for funding as well as program director and program completer perceptions of goals, content, processes, and outcomes for the 10 principal preparation programs that stemmed…

  17. Investigation on flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer induced by forced vibration of cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Tan, Jianguo; Lv, Liang

    2015-12-01

    The mixing process has been an important issue for the design of supersonic combustion ramjet engine, and the mixing efficiency plays a crucial role in the improvement of the combustion efficiency. In the present study, nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and large eddy simulation (LES) are employed to investigate the flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer under different forced vibration conditions. The indexes of fractal dimension, mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are applied to describe the mixing process. Results show that different from the development and evolution of supersonic mixing layer without vibration, the flow under forced vibration is more likely to present the characteristics of three-dimensionality. The laminar flow region of mixing layer under forced vibration is greatly shortened and the scales of rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices become larger, which promote the mixing process remarkably. The fractal dimension distribution reveals that comparing with the flow without vibration, the turbulent fluctuation of supersonic mixing layer under forced vibration is more intense. Besides, the distribution of mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are strongly influenced by forced vibration. Especially, when the forcing frequency is 4000 Hz, the mixing layer thickness and momentum thickness are 0.0391 m and 0.0222 m at the far field of 0.16 m, 83% and 131% higher than that without vibration at the same position, respectively.

  18. Extrusion-mixing compared with hand-mixing of polyether impression materials?

    PubMed

    McMahon, Caroline; Kinsella, Daniel; Fleming, Garry J P

    2010-12-01

    The hypotheses tested were two-fold (a) whether altering the base:catalyst ratio influences working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression properties of a hand-mixed polyether impression material and (b) whether an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material would have a significant advantage over a hand-mixed polyether impression material mixed to the optimum base:catalyst ratio. The polyether was hand-mixed at the optimum (manufacturers recommended) base:catalyst ratios (7:1) and further groups were made by increasing or decreasing the catalyst length by 25%. Additionally specimens were also made from an extrusion-mixed polyether impression material and compared with the optimum hand-mixed base:catalyst ratio. A penetrometer assembly was used to measure the working time (n=5). Five cylindrical specimens for each hand-mixed and extrusion mixed group investigated were employed for elastic recovery and strain in compression testing. Hand-mixing polyether impression materials with 25% more catalyst than that recommended significantly decreased the working time while hand-mixing with 25% less catalyst than that recommended significantly increased the strain in compression. The extrusion-mixed polyether impression material provided similar working time, elastic recovery and strain in compression to the hand-mixed polyether mixed at the optimum base:catalyst ratio.

  19. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  20. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Alduncin, Gonzalo

    2013-12-15

    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  1. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods testedmore » are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  2. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-01

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR), a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  3. Ultrasonic Mixing of Epoxy Curing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    New ultrasonic mixing technique used to mix several curing agents/epoxy combinations. Major component of commercially available base epoxy resin used in tetraglycidylmethylenedianiline (TGMDA). In ultrasonic mixing system cup holds resin and curing agent during acoustic excitation. Samples placed in cup with top to ultrasonic horn forming bottom of cup. Ultrasonically treated until amber colored and transparent. Because ultrasonic agitation drives out entrapped air, degassing not necessary before cure.

  4. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the

  5. EVALUATION OF MIXING IN THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR AND MELTER FEED TANK

    SciTech Connect

    MARINIK, ANDREW

    2004-08-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) vitrifies High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HLW currently being processed is a waste sludge composed primarily of metal hydroxides and oxides in caustic slurry. These slurries are typically characterized as Bingham Plastic fluids. The HLW undergoes a pretreatment process in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) at DWPF. The processed HLW sludge is then transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) where it is acidified with nitric and formic acid then evaporated to concentrate the solids. Reflux boiling is used to strip mercury from the waste and then the waste is transferred to the Slurry Mix Evaporator tank (SME). Glass formers are added as a frit slurry to the SME to prepare the waste for vitrification. This mixture is evaporated in the SME to the final concentration target. The frit slurry mixture is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) to be fed to the melter.

  6. Preparation of Cell Wall Antigens of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, J. J.; Tipper, Donald J.; Berman, David T.

    1970-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from Staphylococcus aureus strains Copenhagen and 263 by high-speed mixing in the presence of glass beads followed by differential centrifugation. Insoluble peptidoglycan complexes were derived from cell walls by extraction of teichoic acid with 10% trichloroacetic acid. Intact teichoic acid was prepared from each strain by digestion of cell walls with lysostaphin and isolated by column chromatography. Soluble glycopeptide (peptidoglycan in which only the glycan has been fragmented) and the stable complex of teichoic acid with glycopeptide were prepared by digestion of cell walls with Chalaropsis B endo-N-acetylmuramidase and were separated by column chromatography. Amino acid and amino sugar contents of walls and subunits of walls were comparable to those reported by others. Images PMID:16557799

  7. Preparation of many-body states for quantum simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Nicholas J.; Kassal, Ivan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2009-05-01

    While quantum computers are capable of simulating many quantum systems efficiently, the simulation algorithms must begin with the preparation of an appropriate initial state. We present a method for generating physically relevant quantum states on a lattice in real space. In particular, the present algorithm is able to prepare general pure and mixed many-particle states of any number of particles. It relies on a procedure for converting from a second-quantized state to its first-quantized counterpart. The algorithm is efficient in that it operates in time that is polynomial in all the essential descriptors of the system, the number of particles, the resolution of the lattice, and the inverse of the maximum final error. This scaling holds under the assumption that the wave function to be prepared is bounded or its indefinite integral is known and that the Fock operator of the system is efficiently simulatable.

  8. Assessing the use of food coloring as an appropriate visual guide for homogenously mixed capsule powders in extemporaneous compounding.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Brittany; Carlson, Christie; Rao, Deepa A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the use of food colors as a visual aid to determine homogeneous mixing in the extemporaneous preparation of capsules. Six different batches of progesterone slow-release 200-mg capsules were prepared by different mixing methods until visually determined as homogeneous based on yellow food coloring distribution in the preparation by the Central Iowa Compounding Pharmacy, Des Moines, Iowa. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to extract and evaluate yellow food coloring content in each of these batches and compared to an in-house, small-batch geometric dilution preparation of progesterone slow- release 200-mg capsules. Of the 6 batches tested, only one, which followed the principles of additive dilution and an appropriate mixing time, was both visually and quantitatively homogeneous in the detection of yellow food coloring. The use of food coloring alone is not a valid quality-assurance tool in determining homogeneous mixing. Principles of geometric and/or additive dilution and appropriate mixing times along with the food color can serve as a quality-assurance tool.

  9. Preparation and Evaluation of Stomatitis Film Using Xyloglucan Containing Loperamide.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yayoi; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Mizutani, Ayako; Hirose, Kaoru; Hanawa, Takehisa; Onishi, Hiraku

    2016-06-01

    Stomatitis induced by radiation therapy or cancer chemotherapy is a factor in sleep disorders and/or eating disorders, markedly decreasing patient quality of life. In recent years, disintegrating oral films that are easy to handle have been developed; therefore, we focused on the formulation of these films. We prepared an adhesive film for the oral cavity using xyloglucan (Xylo), which is a water-soluble macromolecule. We used loperamide, which has been reported to relieve pain caused by stomatitis effectively, as a model drug in this study. Films were prepared from Xylo solutions (3% (w/w)) and hypromellose (HPMC) solutions (1% (w/w)). Xylo and HPMC solutions were mixed at ratios of 1 : 1, 2 : 1, or 3 : 1 for each film, and films 2×2 cm weighing 3 g were prepared and dried at 37°C for 24 h. Physicochemical properties such as strength, adhesiveness, disintegration behavior, and dissolution of loperamide from films were evaluated. Films prepared from Xylo solution alone had sufficient strength and mucosal adhesion. On the other hand, films prepared from a mixture of Xylo and HPMC were inferior to those made from Xylo, but showed sufficient strength and mucosal adhesion and were flexible and easy to handle. The films prepared in this study are useful as adhesion films in the oral cavity. PMID:26960400

  10. Triminimal parametrization of quark mixing matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Li, Shi-Wen; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Starting from a new zeroth order basis for quark mixing (CKM) matrix based on the quark-lepton complementarity and the tribimaximal pattern of lepton mixing, we derive a triminimal parametrization of a CKM matrix with three small angles and a CP-violating phase as its parameters. This new triminimal parametrization has the merits of fast convergence and simplicity in application. With the quark-lepton complementary relations, we derive relations between the two unified triminimal parametrizations for quark mixing obtained in this work and for lepton mixing obtained by Pakvasa-Rodejohann-Weiler. Parametrization deviating from quark-lepton complementarity is also discussed.

  11. TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-25

    The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

  12. Passive Microfluidic device for Sub Millisecond Mixing

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Jay; Mohamed, Hisham; Barnard, David; Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Mannella, Carmen A.; Wagenknecht, Terence; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We report the investigation of a novel microfluidic mixing device to achieve submillisecond mixing. The micromixer combines two fluid streams of several microliters per second into a mixing compartment integrated with two T- type premixers and 4 butterfly-shaped in-channel mixing elements. We have employed three dimensional fluidic simulations to evaluate the mixing efficiency, and have constructed physical devices utilizing conventional microfabrication techniques. The simulation indicated thorough mixing at flow rate as low as 6 µL/s. The corresponding mean residence time is 0.44 ms for 90% of the particles simulated, or 0.49 ms for 95% of the particles simulated, respectively. The mixing efficiency of the physical device was also evaluated using fluorescein dye solutions and FluoSphere-red nanoparticles suspensions. The constructed micromixers achieved thorough mixing at the same flow rate of 6 µL/s, with the mixing indices of 96% ± 1%, and 98% ± 1% for the dye and the nanoparticle, respectively. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation data. The device demonstrated promising capabilities for time resolved studies for macromolecular dynamics of biological macromolecules. PMID:20161619

  13. Ocean Mixing due to MJO wind bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiana, K.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements in the equatorial Indian Ocean, including 2 months from ship at 0, 80E and a year from moorings at 0,80E and 0,90E with chipods to measure mixing, documented the oceanic responses to several MJO events during fall 2011-spring 2012. The MJO attributed westerly wind bursts generated the Yoshida-Wyrtki Jet and intense surface-forced mixing. The jet persisted long after the MJO passage and enhanced subsurface mixing at the Jet's base. The impact of MJO-initialized mixing on continued sea surface temperature modification is discussed.

  14. Neutrino mass, mixing and discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexei Y.

    2013-07-01

    Status of the discrete symmetry approach to explanation of the lepton masses and mixing is summarized in view of recent experimental results, in particular, establishing relatively large 1-3 mixing. The lepton mixing can originate from breaking of discrete flavor symmetry Gf to different residual symmetries Gl and Gv in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors. In this framework the symmetry group condition has been derived which allows to get relations between the lepton mixing elements immediately without explicit model building. The condition has been applied to different residual neutrino symmetries Gv. For generic (mass independent) Gv = Z2 the condition leads to two relations between the mixing parameters and fixes one column of the mixing matrix. In the case of Gv = Z2 × Z2 the condition fixes the mixing matrix completely. The non-generic (mass spectrum dependent) Gv lead to relations which include mixing angles, neutrino masses and Majorana phases. The symmetries Gl, Gv, Gf are identified which lead to the experimentally observed values of the mixing angles and allow to predict the CP phase.

  15. Malignant mixed tumor of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M E; LiVolsi, V A; McMahon, R T

    1979-10-01

    This paper reports a case of carcinoma arising in a benign mixed tumor of lacrimal gland following multiple recurrences. The patient had eight recurrences of the benign lesion and after 32 years developed an adenocarcinoma associated with recurrent nodules of still recognizable benign mixed tumor. The literature on malignant mixed tumors of the lacrimal gland is reviewed noting the confusion in diagnostic terminology in early reports. Our patient illustrates the resemblance between malignant mixed tumor (carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma) of lacrimal and salivary gland both clinically and pathologically.

  16. Laser Prepared Cutting Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Wegener; Claus, Dold; Marcel, Henerichs; Christian, Walter

    Laser pulses with a pulsewidth of a few picoseconds have recently received a lot of attention, solving the problem of manufacturing tools for new materials of superior mechanical properties. Processing thermally sensitive material, such as diamond and CBN structures, can be done without major material deterioration effects. The breakthrough of this new technology becomes possible, if the accuracy and life time requirements of those tools are met. The paper shows in three applications the potential of laser manufacturing of cutting tools. Manufacturing of cutting edges for CFRP cutting needs sharp and stable cutting edges, which are prepared in PCD tools by laser sources in the picosecond pulsewidth regime. Profiling of hybrid bond grinding wheels yields geometric flexibility, which is impossible by mechanical treatment so far. Touch dressing of grinding wheels substantially reduces cutting forces.

  17. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  18. Exam preparation learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat

    This thesis investigates student learning through practice exams. A series of experiments were conducted using a web-based platform that provided students with an organized structure to study past exam problems. We establish the learning obtained from doing these practice exams (Chapter 1) and then manipulate the feedback mechanisms (Chapter 2 and 4) and duration of the treatment (Chapter 3). The results show that all students benefit from practice exams and worked out solution feedback. However, investing more resources in this learning tool might not result in better learning gains. A comparison between experiments suggests that, beyond the quality of the practice exams and solution feedback, motivation and learning goals may be crucial to enhancing student learning during exam preparation.

  19. Ultem®/ZIF-8 mixed matrix membranes for gas separation: Transport and physical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Eiras, Daniel; Labreche, Ying; Pessan, Luiz Antonio

    2016-02-19

    Mixed matrix membranes are promising options for improving gas separation processes. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have a porous structure similar to conventional zeolites, being capable in principle of separating gases based on their differences in kinetic diameter while offering the advantage of having a partial organic character. This partial organic nature improves the compatibility between the sieve and the polymer, and a combination of the mentioned characteristics makes these hybrid materials interesting for the preparation of mixed matrix gas separation membranes. In this context the present work reports the preparation of Ultem®/ZIF-8 mixed matrix membranes and their permeabilities to puremore » CO2, N2 and CH4 gases. A significant increase in permeability with increase in CO2/N2 selectivity was observed for the mixed matrix systems as compared to the properties of the neat Ultem®. Sorption results allowed to speculate that the ZIF-8 framework is not completely stable dimensionally, what influences the separation process by allowing gases with higher kinetic diameter than its nominal aperture to be sorbed and to diffuse through the crystal. Lastly, sorption and diffusion selectivities indicate that the higher separation performance of the mixed matrix membranes is governed by the diffusion process associated with the influence of gas molecule´s geometry.« less

  20. Experience making mixed oxide fuel with plutonium from dismantled weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, H.T.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    Mixed depleted UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} (MOX) pellets prototypic of fuel proposed for use in commercial power reactors were made with plutonium recovered from dismantled weapons. We characterized plutonium dioxide powders that were produced at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LANL and LLNL) using various methods to recover the plutonium from weapons parts and to convert It to oxide. The gallium content of the PUO{sub 2} prepared at LANL was the same as in the weapon alloy while the content of that prepared at LLNL was less. The MOX was prepared with a five weight percent plutonium content. We tested various MOX powders milling methods to improve homogeneity and found vibratory milling superior to ball milling. The sintering behavior of pellets made with the PuO{sub 2} from the two laboratories was similar. We evaluated the effects of gallium and of erbium and gadolinium, that are added to the MOX fuel as deplorable neutron absorbers, on the pellet fabrication process and an the sintered pellets. The gallium content of the sintered pellets was <10 ppm, suggesting that the gallium will not be an issue in the reactor, but that it will be an Issue in the operation of the fuel fabrication processing equipment unless it is removed from the PuO{sub 2} before it is blended with the UO{sub 2}.