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Sample records for prepubertal obese children

  1. Feeding Frequency and appetite in Lean and Obese Prepubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Rinku; Tsalikian, Eva; Chenard, Catherine A.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Sivitz, William I.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of feeding frequency on appetite in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) prepubertal children, we carried out a prospective, randomized interventional study of 18 NW and 17 OB children ages 6–10. Children received three or five feedings in random order on separate days. Total calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition on each day were equal. Two hours following the last feeding, children were offered ice cream ad lib. The major outcome variable was kilocalories ice cream consumed. A visual analog scale to assess fullness was also administered before consumption of ice cream. We observed that OB children consumed 73.0 ± 37.4 kcal more after five feedings than after three feedings whereas the NW children consumed 47.1 ± 27.8 kcal less. There was significant interaction between meal pattern and weight group indicating that this change in ice cream consumption differed significantly between groups (P = 0.014 by two-factor analysis). Ice cream intake/kg was less in OB compared to NW subjects (P = 0.012). Fullness ratings before ice cream did not differ by meal pattern or weight group. However, pre-ice cream fullness predicted ice cream intake in NW but not OB children. In summary, OB and NW children differed in appetite response to meal frequency. Our data suggest that: (i) satiety in OB children is related more to proximity of calories (larger supper) than to antecedent distribution of calories and; (ii) NW children may be more prone to restrict intake based on subjective fullness. PMID:20847731

  2. Feeding frequency and appetite in lean and obese prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rinku; Tsalikian, Eva; Chenard, Catherine A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Sivitz, William I

    2011-03-01

    To determine the effect of feeding frequency on appetite in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) prepubertal children, we carried out a prospective, randomized interventional study of 18 NW and 17 OB children ages 6-10. Children received three or five feedings in random order on separate days. Total calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition on each day were equal. Two hours following the last feeding, children were offered ice cream ad lib. The major outcome variable was kilocalories ice cream consumed. A visual analog scale to assess fullness was also administered before consumption of ice cream. We observed that OB children consumed 73.0 ± 37.4 kcal more after five feedings than after three feedings whereas the NW children consumed 47.1 ± 27.8 kcal less. There was significant interaction between meal pattern and weight group indicating that this change in ice cream consumption differed significantly between groups (P = 0.014 by two-factor analysis). Ice cream intake/kg was less in OB compared to NW subjects (P = 0.012). Fullness ratings before ice cream did not differ by meal pattern or weight group. However, pre-ice cream fullness predicted ice cream intake in NW but not OB children. In summary, OB and NW children differed in appetite response to meal frequency. Our data suggest that: (i) satiety in OB children is related more to proximity of calories (larger supper) than to antecedent distribution of calories and; (ii) NW children may be more prone to restrict intake based on subjective fullness.

  3. Implications of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathogenesis of obesity in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Bascietto, Cinzia; Giannini, Cosimo; D'Adamo, Ebe; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    There is a worsening high prevalence of global obesity. Special attention has been paid to the gut-endocrine system, represented by the regulators of appetite. In particular, it has been suggested that ghrelin ("hunger" peptide), and obestatin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) ("satiety" peptides) could play important roles in the pathogenesis of obesity. The aims of this study were to compare fasting plasma ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1 levels between obese and nonobese prepubertal children, and to assess their relations with fatness indexes and insulin resistance (IR). Fifty-two prepubertal obese children and 22 controls were enrolled. Fasting levels of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1), glucose, and insulin were evaluated. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index. Analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlation. Obese prepubertal children and normal-weight controls had similar age distribution. Obese children were more insulin resistant when compared to controls (HOMA-IR: p < 0.01 ). GLP-1 levels were significantly lower in obese children than in controls (p < 0.01). Obestatin was significantly higher in obese than normal-weight children (p < 0.01), while ghrelin was not different. There was a negative correlation between GLP-1 and standard deviation score-body mass index (r = -0.36, p = 0.009) and between GLP-1 and waist circumference (r = -0.45, p = 0.001), while no association was observed with HOMA-IR. GLP-1 levels have been shown to be correlated with adiposity indexes, but not with HOMA-IR, suggesting that this hormone could play an important role in the early development of obesity.

  4. Genome-Wide Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Obese Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Concepción M.; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Tofe, Inés; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Cañete, Ramón; Gil, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT) is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT) between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples). Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05), 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2), oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1), adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1) and inflammation (ANXA1); by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity. PMID:25856673

  5. Metformin for Obesity in Prepubertal and Pubertal Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Villaescusa, Belén; Cañete, M Dolores; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Hoyos, Raúl; Latorre, Miriam; Vázquez-Cobela, Rocío; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Maldonado, José; Bueno, Gloria; Leis, Rosaura; Gil, Ángel; Cañete, Ramón; Aguilera, Concepción M

    2017-07-01

    Metformin has shown its effectiveness in treating obesity in adults. However, little research has been conducted in children, with a lack of attention on pubertal status. The objectives were to determine whether oral metformin treatment reduces BMI z score, cardiovascular risk, and inflammation biomarkers in children who are obese depending on pubertal stage and sex. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, stratified according to pubertal stage and sex, conducted at 4 Spanish clinical hospitals. Eighty prepubertal and 80 pubertal nondiabetic children who were obese aged 7 to 14 years with a BMI >95th percentiles were recruited. The intervention included 1 g/d of metformin versus placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was a reduction in BMI z score. Secondary outcomes comprised insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk, and inflammation biomarkers. A total of 140 children completed the study (72 boys). Metformin decreased the BMI z score versus placebo in the prepubertal group (-0.8 and -0.6, respectively; difference, 0.2; P = .04). Significant increments were observed in prepubertal children treated with metformin versus placebo recipients in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (0.010 and -0.007; difference, 0.017; P = .01) and the adiponectin-leptin ratio (0.96 and 0.15; difference, 0.81; P = .01) and declines in interferon-γ (-5.6 and 0; difference, 5.6; P = .02) and total plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (-1.7 and 2.4; difference, 4.1; P = .04). No serious adverse effects were reported. Metformin decreased the BMI z score and improved inflammatory and cardiovascular-related obesity parameters in prepubertal children but not in pubertal children. Hence, the differential response according to puberty might be related to the dose of metformin per kilogram of weight. Further investigations are necessary. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (p<0.001) than either 63.3% using %FM (95% CI: 50.6-74.8) or 70.0% (95% CI: 57.5-80.1) using FMI. The median time to detect the outcome was 71 days using FMI, shorter than 88 days using %FM, and similar to 70 days using BMI. The agreement between the outcome detected by FMI and by %FM was high (kappa 0.701), but very low between the success detected by BMI and either FMI (kappa 0.231) or %FM (kappa 0.125). FMI achieved the best combination of ability and swiftness to identify reduction of adiposity during monitoring of weight management in prepubertal obese children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin resistance in prepubertal obese children correlates with sex-dependent early onset metabolomic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, A; Martos-Moreno, G Á; García, A; Barrios, V; Rupérez, F J; Chowen, J A; Barbas, C; Argente, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is usually the first metabolic alteration diagnosed in obese children and the key risk factor for development of comorbidities. The factors determining whether or not IR develops as a result of excess body mass index (BMI) are still not completely understood. Objectives: This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the predisposition toward hyperinsulinemia-related complications in obese children by using a metabolomic strategy that allows a profound interpretation of metabolic profiles potentially affected by IR. Methods: Serum from 60 prepubertal obese children (30 girls/30 boys, 50% IR and 50% non-IR in each group, but with similar BMIs) were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry following an untargeted metabolomics approach. Validation was then performed on a group of 100 additional children with the same characteristics. Results: When obese children with and without IR were compared, 47 metabolites out of 818 compounds (P<0.05) obtained after data pre-processing were found to be significantly different. Bile acids exhibit the greatest changes (that is, approximately a 90% increase in IR). The majority of metabolites differing between groups were lysophospholipids (15) and amino acids (17), indicating inflammation and central carbon metabolism as the most altered processes in impaired insulin signaling. Multivariate analysis (OPLS-DA models) showed subtle differences between groups that were magnified when females were analyzed alone. Conclusions: Inflammation and central carbon metabolism, together with the contribution of the gut microbiota, are the most altered processes in obese children with impaired insulin signaling in a sex-specific fashion despite their prepubertal status. PMID:27163744

  8. Otolaryngologic findings in prepubertal obese children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Caixêta, Juliana Alves; Saramago, Alex Martins; Moreira, Gustavo Antonio; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate otolaryngologic findings in obese prepubertal children with sleep-disordered breathing. We prospectively evaluated 29 obese children referred by pediatric endocrinologist, complaining of snoring and without a history of nasal surgery or removal of the palatine tonsils and/or adenoids. Patients underwent ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, endoscopy, measurements of weight, height, calculation of body mass index (BMI), assessment of BMI z-score and polysomnography, from which were divided into two groups: those with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (nine children) and those with primary snoring (20 children). Then we proceeded to the statistical analysis of the data collected. The groups did not differ in age, gender, weight, height, BMI and BMI z-score. Among the findings of the ENT examination, the adenoid size was the only one that differed between the groups (p = 0.01). The evaluation of the adenoid size is an important in obese children with symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing and is related to the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  10. FTO gene is related to obesity in Chilean Amerindian children and impairs HOMA-IR in prepubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Riffo, Benilde; Asenjo, Sylvia; Sáez, Katia; Aguayo, Claudio; Muñoz, Isabel; Bustos, Paulina; Celis-Morales, Ca; Lagos, Jenny; Sapunar, Jorge; Ulloa, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the allelic frequency of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene (rs9939609) and its influences on obesity and metabolic risk biomarkers in a cohort of normal weight and obese Chilean children determining its ethnicity. A total of 136 normal weight children and 238 obese children (between 6 and 11 yr old) from an urban setting were recruited for this case-control study. The children were classified as normal weight [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 5th and < 85th percentiles] or obese (BMI >95th percentile), according to the international age- and gender-specific percentiles defined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The analysis of serum markers was carried out using commercial kits. The FTO polymorphism was determined through a high-resolution melting enabled real time polymerase chain reaction. Ethnicity was determined by analyzing mitochondrial DNA by the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. As much as 85% of the cohort was Amerindian. The minor A allele of rs9939609 was associated with obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.422 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.068-1.868] p = 0.015), calculated using an additive model. In sex-stratified analysis we found that the risk variant (A) of rs9939609 was associated with a higher homeostasis model of assessment for insulin (HOMA-IR) in prepubertal obese girls. In male carriers of the A allele, HOMA-IR showed no further deterioration than that already associated with obesity. In summary, we confirm the association of the FTO gene single-nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 with obesity in Chilean Amerindian children. Furthermore we show an association between the risk allele (A) and insulin resistance-related markers in prepubertal obese girls. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. The effects of resistance exercise training on body composition and strength in obese prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Farnesi, Biagina-Carla; Lafleche, Angele; Legault, Laurent; Komorowski, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of resistance exercise training on body composition and muscular strength in obese prepubertal children. Study participants, who were between the ages of 8 and 12 years, met Tanner I (stage) criteria, had a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex, were randomized to either high-repetition, moderate-intensity resistance training (n = 12) or to the non-intervention control group (n = 7) for 12 weeks. Exercise training was performed twice a week for 75 minutes per session. Body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and muscular strength was evaluated using a 1-repetition-maximum test. Exercise-group participants attended 98% of the 24 total sessions and showed a significant increase in body weight (57.6± 13.5 vs 59.6± 14.1 kg), height (144.9± 9 vs 146.6± 10.4 cm), lean body mass (32.6± 6.8 vs 34.0± 7.0 kg), lean body mass index (lean body mass in kg/height2; 15.3± 1.6 vs 15.6± 1.5 kg/m2), arm strength (28.4± 5.8 vs 31.2± 6.0 kg), and leg strength (89.4± 31.7 vs 113.4± 34 2 kg) from baseline measures (P < 0.05). Control group participants also showed significant increases in weight, height, and lean body mass from baseline measures (P < 0.05) but not in arm or leg strength. When the changes in participant body composition and muscular strength were compared between the exercise and control groups, significant differences were found in leg lean mass and leg strength (P < 0.05). There were no changes in percent body fat and fat mass index [FM/height2(kg/m2)] in either group. Resistance training increases leg lean mass and leg strength in obese prepubertal youth and may have a positive effect on overall physical activity and health.

  12. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  13. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  14. The influence of a six-week, high-intensity games intervention on the pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in prepubertal obese and normal-weight children.

    PubMed

    McNarry, Melitta A; Lambrick, Danielle; Westrupp, Nicole; Faulkner, James

    2015-10-01

    The pulmonary oxygen uptake response is deleteriously influenced by obesity in prepubertal children, as evidenced by a slower phase II response. To date, no studies have investigated the ability of an exercise intervention to ameliorate this. The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a 6-week, high-intensity, games-orientated intervention on the oxygen uptake kinetic response of prepubertal obese and normal-weight children during heavy-intensity exercise. Thirteen normal-weight and 15 obese children participated in a twice-weekly exercise intervention involving repeated bouts of 6-min high-intensity, games-orientated exercises followed by 2 min of recovery. Sixteen normal-weight and 11 obese children served as a control group. At baseline and post-intervention, each participant completed a graded-exercise test to volitional exhaustion and constant work-rate, heavy-intensity exercise. Post-intervention, obese children demonstrated a reduced phase II τ (pre-intervention: 30 ± 8 cf. post-intervention: 24 ± 7 s), mean response time (pre-intervention: 50 ± 10 cf. post-intervention: 38 ± 9 s) and phase II amplitude (pre-intervention: 1.51 ± 0.30 cf. post-intervention: 1.34 ± 0.27 L·min(-1)). No changes were evident in the normal-weight children. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that a 6-week, high-intensity intervention can have a significant positive impact on the dynamic oxygen uptake response of obese prepubertal children.

  15. Excessive refined carbohydrates and scarce micronutrients intakes increase inflammatory mediators and insulin resistance in prepubertal and pubertal obese children independently of obesity.

    PubMed

    López-Alarcón, Mardia; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Inda-Icaza, Patricia; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Armenta-Álvarez, Andrea; Bram-Falcón, María Teresa; Mayorga-Ochoa, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P < 0.01). Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity.

  16. Excessive Refined Carbohydrates and Scarce Micronutrients Intakes Increase Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Prepubertal and Pubertal Obese Children Independently of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    López-Alarcón, Mardia; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Armenta-Álvarez, Andrea; Bram-Falcón, María Teresa; Mayorga-Ochoa, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low-grade inflammation is the link between obesity and insulin resistance. Because physiologic insulin resistance occurs at puberty, obese pubertal children are at higher risk for insulin resistance. Excessive diets in refined carbohydrates and saturated fats are risk factors for insulin resistance, but calcium, magnesium, vitamin-D, and the omega-3 fatty acids likely protect against inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective. To analyze interactions among dietary saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of inflammation and insulin resistance in a sample of prepubertal and pubertal children. Methods. A sample of 229 children from Mexico City was analyzed in a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements, 24 h recall questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained. Serum insulin, glucose, calcium, magnesium, 25-OHD3, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and erythrocytes fatty acids were measured. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Results. While mean macronutrients intake was excessive, micronutrients intake was deficient (P < 0.01). Inflammation determinants were central obesity and magnesium-deficient diets. Determinants of insulin resistance were carbohydrates intake and circulating magnesium and adiponectin. Conclusions. Magnesium-deficient diets are determinants of inflammation, while high intake of refined carbohydrates is a risk factor for insulin resistance, independently of central adiposity. PMID:25477716

  17. Serum visfatin and vaspin levels in prepubertal children: effect of obesity and weight loss after behavior modifications on their secretion and relationship with glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, G Á; Kratzsch, J; Körner, A; Barrios, V; Hawkins, F; Kiess, W; Argente, J

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the impact of obesity, weight loss and oral glucose ingestion on serum visfatin and vaspin levels in prepubertal children. A total of 100 prepubertal obese Caucasian children (OB) and 42 controls (C) were studied. The OB group was studied at baseline and after moderate (n=46) and extensive (n=14) body mass index (BMI) reduction by conservative treatment, undergoing body composition studies (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Serum visfatin and vaspin levels were studied throughout the OGTT, as were their relationships with insulin, leptin, leptin soluble receptor (sOB-R), adiponectin (total and high molecular weight), resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α levels at every time point. OB had higher visfatin (P<0.001), but similar vaspin than C. BMI reduction decreased visfatin levels (P<0.001), with BMI, waist circumference and the surrogate markers of body fat (leptin and sOB-R) showing significant correlations (P<0.05) with this peptide, but not with vaspin. Visfatin and vaspin decreased during the OGTT (P<0.001). Weight reduction did not alter visfatin dynamics in the OGTT, but decreased the area under the curve (AUC) for vaspin (P<0.001), with a correlation between the AUCs for vaspin and insulin after weight loss (P<0.05). Visfatin levels were positively correlated with resistin and IL-6, after controlling for BMI and HOMA (homeostatic model assessment) index at every time point in the study. Serum visfatin, but not vaspin, levels are influenced by body fat content in obese children, whereas both adipokines are modulated by glucose intake in a BMI-dependent manner.

  18. Improved oxidative stress and cardio-metabolic status in obese prepubertal children with liver steatosis treated with lifestyle combined with Vitamin E.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, E; Marcovecchio, M L; Giannini, C; de Giorgis, T; Chiavaroli, V; Chiarelli, F; Mohn, A

    2013-03-01

    In obese adults with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), treatment with Vitamin E has resulted in an improvement in liver histology, whereas variable and limited results are available in children. Our aim was to assess whether lifestyle combined with supplementation with Vitamin E might reduce oxidative stress and improve cardio-metabolic status in obese children with NAFLD. 24 obese prepubertal children (16M) followed a 6-month lifestyle intervention combined with Vitamin E supplementation (600 mg/day) and they were compared with 21 age and sex-matched obese peers who underwent lifestyle intervention only. At baseline and after 6-month urinary prostaglandin F2α (PGF-2α), endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end products (esRAGE), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), alanine aminotransferases (ALT), lipid profile, glucose, and insulin were assessed. The two groups were comparable for age (8.3 ± 1.6 vs 8.4 ± 1.3 yr), sex and BMI SDS (2.16 ± 0.29 vs 2.13 ± 0.28). At the beginning of the study, PGF2-α, esRAGE hsCRP, ALT, lipid profile and HOMA-IR levels were similar between the two groups (all p > 0.05). After 6-month treatment, levels of PGF2-α (p < 0.001) significantly decreased and esRAGE significantly increased (p < 0.001) in children treated with Vitamin E. A significant reduction was also found in ALT (p = 0.001), lipid profile and HOMA-IR (p < 0.001). In contrast, no significant change in any of these markers was detected in the lifestyle only group. In conclusion, Vitamin E supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in oxidative stress and improved cardio-metabolic alterations. These data suggest that Vitamin E supplementation could represent a valuable treatment in obese children affected by NAFLD.

  19. Complementary Effects of Genetic Variations in LEPR on Body Composition and Soluble Leptin Receptor Concentration after 3-Month Lifestyle Intervention in Prepubertal Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Gajewska, Joanna; Kuryłowicz, Alina; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Weker, Halina; Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In obese individuals, weight loss might be affected by variants of the adipokine-encoding genes. We verified whether selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ are associated with changes in serum levels of the respective adipokines and weight loss in 100 prepubertal obese (SDS-BMI > 2) Caucasian children undergoing lifestyle intervention. Frequencies of the -2548G > A LEP, Q223R LEPR, K656N LEPR, -11377C > G and -11426A > G ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum adipokine and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) concentrations were measured using the ELISA method. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, only LEPR polymorphisms were associated with changes of SDS-BMI or sOB-R concentrations in children after therapy. Carriers of the wild-type K665N and at least one minor Q223R allele had the greatest likelihood of losing weight (OR = 5.09, p = 0.006), an increase in sOB-R (ptrend = 0.022) and decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with the decrease of fat mass (p < 0.001). In contrast, carrying of the wild-type Q223R and at least one minor K665N allele were associated with a decrease in sOB-R concentrations and a decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with a decrease in fat-free mass (p = 0.002). We suggest that the combination of different LEPR variants, not a single variant, might determine predisposition to weight loss in the prepubertal period. PMID:27240401

  20. Plasma from pre-pubertal obese children impairs insulin stimulated Nitric Oxide (NO) bioavailability in endothelial cells: Role of ER stress.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Natalia; Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Di Silvestre, Sara; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Cordone, Vincenzo Giuseppe Pio; Lanuti, Paola; Chiarelli, Francesco; Bologna, Giuseppina; Mohn, Angelika; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2017-03-05

    Childhood obesity is commonly associated with early signs of endothelial dysfunction, characterized by impairment of insulin signaling and vascular Nitric Oxide (NO) availability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be established. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that endothelial insulin-stimulated NO production and availability was impaired and related to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured with plasma obtained from pre-pubertal obese (OB) children. OB children (N = 28, age: 8.8 ± 2.2; BMI z-score: 2.15 ± 0.39) showed impaired fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR than normal weight children (CTRL; N = 28, age: 8.8 ± 1.7; BMI z-score: 0.17 ± 0.96). The in vitro experiments showed that OB-plasma significantly impaired endothelial insulin-stimulated NO production and bioavailability compared to CTRL-plasma. In parallel, in HUVECs OB-plasma increased GRP78 and activated PERK, eIF2α, IkBα and ATF6 (all ER stress markers). Moreover, OB-plasma increased NF-κB activation and its nuclear translocation. Notably, all these effects proved to be significantly restored by using PBA and TUDCA, known ER stress inhibitors. Our study demonstrate for the first time that plasma from obese children is able to induce in vitro endothelial insulin resistance, which is characterized by reduced insulin-stimulated NO production and bioavailability, endothelial ER stress and increased NF-κB activation.

  1. Changes in body mass index are associated with changes in inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers in obese prepubertal children after 9 months of body mass index SD score loss.

    PubMed

    Martos, Rosario; Valle, Miguel; Morales, Rosario M; Cañete, Ramón; Gascón, Félix; Urbano, Maria M

    2009-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, a systemic low-grade inflammatory state, and endothelial dysfunction. These disorders may arise at a very early age in obese children. The aim of this study was to confirm changes in endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory biomarkers in obese prepubertal children and to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) modification on these biomarkers. Biomarkers for inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance were measured in obese children (47) and healthy controls (47). Baseline pretreatment levels of insulin (P = .019), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = .004), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) (P = .003), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P < .001) were significantly higher in obese children than in controls. After 9 months of treatment, obese children with lowered BMI SD score (SDS-BMI) displayed a significant decrease in insulin (P = .011), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = .012), CRP (P = .006), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P = .045) levels compared with obese children with stable SDS-BMI; they also displayed a nonsignificant drop in sICAM levels. Similarly, obese children with lowered SDS-BMI displayed a decrease in CRP (P = .005) and IL-6 (P = .065) compared with baseline levels before treatment. In the total obese group, changes in SDS-BMI correlated positively with changes in CRP (P = .035), IL-6 (P = .027), and sICAM-1 (P = .038) levels. Only SDS-BMI was an independent predictive factor for CRP (P = .031), IL-6 (P = .027), and sICAM-1 (P = .033). Prepubertal obese children displayed alterations indicative of endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and inflammatory state. Lowering of the SDS-BMI after 9 months of treatment was associated with an improvement in these variables compared with those in obese children with stable SDS-BMI status.

  2. Growth tracks in pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, M; Grasedyck, L; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Prokopec, M; Chrzastek-Spruch, H

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation characterizes common growth tracks in pre-pubertal children. Growth tracks denominate areas of probability within which subsequent measurements of the body height (or body height SDS) of a healthy individual will predominantly be found. Growth tracks are defined over several years and they are insensitive to the timing of measurements. The concept of growth tracks was developed to improve separating aberrant patterns from normal growth. Longitudinal data on height were obtained from six large national growth studies, performed at Berkeley, USA, Jena, Germany, Lublin, Poland, Paris, France, Prague, Czech Republic and Zurich, Switzerland with a total of 515 healthy boys and 532 healthy girls. Four hundred and two series of annual height measurements were available in pre-pubertal boys (aged 3-11 years), 416 series in pre-pubertal girls (aged 3-10). Body height was converted into height SDS. Thereafter, average personal height SDS was determined, and subtracted from height SDS, resulting in individual series of residual height SDS. These were sorted by cluster analysis and distributed into groups (clusters) according to similarity or dissimilarity (squared difference). We identified similar clusters, and named them 'growth tracks'. We found five pre-pubertal male growth tracks, each containing between 4 and 37% of the boys. Twenty boys could not be assigned to either one of the five tracks. Very similar results were obtained in girls, with five pre-pubertal growth tracks also, each containing between 3 and 50%. Twenty-three individuals grew irregularly and could not be assigned. Growth tracks are narrow, with an average width between 12.1 and 14.8% of the SD of body height. Most children exhibited almost horizontal height SDS patterns. Others showed linearly declining, rising, or intersection -shaped patterns. None of the patterns were predominantly found in particularly short or tall children. Preliminary data support the practical

  3. Serum concentration of adipocytokines in prepubertal vegetarian and omnivorous children.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Rowicka, Grażyna; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    THE AIM of our study was to investigate associations between serum adipocytokines status and anthropometric parameters as well as total energy and macronutrient intake in vegetarian, normal-weight omnivorous and obese omnivorous children. We examined 90 healthy prepubertal children aged 4-10 years who had been referred to the Department of Nutrition at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw for dietary consultation. Patients with endocrine disorders or genetic syndromes, as well as those who were taking medications that could affect growth, pubertal development or nutritional status were excluded. Children were divided into groups: vegetarians (n=30), normal-weight omnivores (n=30) and obese omnivores (n=30). Anthropometric measurement (weight, height) was performed in all children and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed to determine fat mass, the percentage of body fat and lean body mass using a Lunar Prodigy (GE, USA). Dietary constituents were assessed by questionnaire (nutrient intake from a 3-day period: 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) and calculated using the nutritional computer program Dietetyk2®. Serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides concentrations were assessed by standard enzymatic methods. Serum levels of leptin, soluble leptin receptor and adiponectin were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. There were no significant differences in body weight, height, BMI and lean mass values between vegetarians and normal-weight children on traditional mixed diet. Children on vegetarian diet had lower fat mass (p<0.05) and fat mass/lean mass ratio (p<0.05) than normal-weight omnivores. However, omnivorous children with simple obesity had significantly higher body weight, height, BMI, fat and lean mass in comparison to vegetarian as well to normal-weight omnivorous children. The fat mass/lean mass ratio in obese children was about 2.5-fold

  4. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Aline Cristina; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga

    2012-01-01

    Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords ‘endothelial', ‘children', ‘pediatric' and ‘infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children. PMID:22473410

  5. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Aline Cristina; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga

    2012-01-01

    Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  6. Gender differences exist in the association of leptin and adiponectin levels with insulin resistance parameters in prepubertal Arab children.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Hussain, Tajamul; Sabico, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Differences in correlations between leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance in children exist in different ethnic populations. No such information is available in Arab children. This study aims to fill this gap. Three hundred and twenty-five prepubertal children were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences and fasting glucose were measured by standard procedures. Serum insulin, leptin and adiponectin were assayed by ELISA. Leptin and adiponectin levels were significantly correlated with anthropometric parameters, HOMA-IR and insulin in all subjects and with fasting glucose in girls only. Correlations of adiponectin with HOMA-IR and insulin in boys and of leptin with insulin in girls were independent of BMI, waist and hip circumferences. Gender differences exist in the distribution of adipocytokines in prepubertal children. The associations of adipocytokines with obesity biomarkers in prepubertal children suggest a causal link between childhood obesity and the risk of an early diabetes onset.

  7. Growth velocity and weight gain in prepubertal asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Renosto, Larissa Celiberto; Acatauassu, Carla; Andrade, Itana; Rafael, Marina; Paulino, Talita Lemos; Suano-Souza, Fabíola Isabel; Solé, Dirceu; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the stature growth rate (GR) and the weight gain of prepubertal asthmatic children. A retrospective cohort study evaluating medical records of 85 children diagnosed with asthma, aged less than 9 years, of both sexes, with at least one year of follow-up in the allergy outpatient clinic. The data on the disease, weights and heights were collected through a standardized questionnaire on two occasions, with an interval of one year. The curves proposed by Tanner were applied for the analysis of the GR, and the Z-score of the GR (ZGR) was calculated. Excess weight (risk for overweight, overweight and obesity) was observed in 31.8% (27/85) of the patients, but there was no association with the severity of asthma. Low GR (ZGR < -2) was found in 13.9% (11/79) of patients, most frequently among children with moderate/severe persistent asthma compared to persistent mild and intermittent forms (7/11 - 63.6% vs. 21/68 - 30.2%, respectively, p=0.047). Use of steroids (dose, type and time of use) was not associated with GR. GR was most affected in children with moderate/severe asthma.

  8. Low serum leptin concentration in vegetarian prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Laskowska-Klita, T; Klemarczyk, W

    2004-01-01

    Vegetarian diet may play a positive role in reducing risk of several chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and some types of cancer. There are different vegetarian dietary patterns, some of which are nutritionally adequate for children, whereas other may lack some essential nutrients. Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue plays a key role in the control of body fat stores and energy expenditure. Higher leptin levels were observed in obese subjects and lower in anorectic patients. Recent studies support that diet may be a factor which influences leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of leptin, lipids and apolipoproteins in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We examined 22 vegetarians and 13 omnivores in age 2-10 years. Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) and serum lipids were measured by enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. Average daily dietary energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar for both groups of children. We observed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet. Vegetarians had lower total cholesterol and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than children on traditional mixed diet. There is no significant differences in triglyceride concentration between studied groups. The apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of omnivores. The serum concentration of leptin was lower in vegetarians (3.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in nonvegetarians (5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL) (p < 0.01). Our results suggest that vegetarian diet may be accompanied by lower serum leptin concentration. Further studies on large group of children are needed for understanding this problem better.

  9. Dental arch dimensional changes after adenotonsillectomy in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Petraccone Caixeta, Anna Cristina; Andrade, Ildeu; Bahia Junqueira Pereira, Tatiana; Franco, Letícia Paiva; Becker, Helena Maria Gonçalves; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the dental arch changes after adenotonsillectomies in prepubertal children and to compare the dental arch dimensions of mouth-breathing and nasal-breathing children. The sample included 49 prepubertal severely obstructed mouth-breathing children and 46 prepubertal nasal-breathing children. Twenty-four of the 49 mouth-breathing children had an adenotonsillectomy and composed the adenotonsillectomy subgroup. The 25 children in whom the mouth-breathing pattern was unchanged during the 1-year study period composed the control subgroup. The mouth-breathing children showed a deeper palatal vault, a larger mandibular width, and a larger mandibular arch length in comparison with the nasal-breathing children. After airway clearance, the adenotonsillectomy group showed a significant maxillary transverse width gain compared with the control subgroup. The control subgroup showed a significant deepening of the palatal height when compared with the adenotonsillectomy subgroup after 1 year. The adenotonsillectomy subgroup had a significantly different pattern of arch development compared with the untreated controls. After adenotonsillectomy, the mouth-breathing children showed greater maxillary transverse development than did the controls. The palatal vault deepened in the untreated children. The mouth-breathing children showed a deeper palatal vault, a larger mandibular width, and a larger mandibular arch length in comparison with the nasal-breathing children. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Uric acid, carotid intima-media thickness and body composition in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Díaz-Roldán, F; Osiniri, I; Riera-Pérez, E; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2016-10-01

    Increased uric acid is an independent biomarker for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents and adults. We investigated whether uric acid relates to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in prepubertal children, and whether body mass index (BMI) and preperitoneal fat modulate this association. 359 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children were stratified according to BMI categories (171 with BMI-SDS < 0; 188 with BMI-SDS ≥ 0) and according to preperitoneal fat levels (180 with preperitoneal fat <50th centile; 179 with preperitoneal fat >50th centile). Uric acid levels, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), triacylglycerol (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), abdominal fat and cIMT (both by ultrasound) were assessed. Uric acid was associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, namely higher HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, BMI, waist, SBP, preperitoneal fat and cIMT (all P < 0.001 to P < 0.0001). Significant BMI and preperitoneal fat interactions were documented in the relationship between uric acid and cIMT (both P < 0.05), as uric acid was preferentially related to cIMT in heavier children (β = 0.247, P < 0.001, r(2)  = 9.1%) and in children with more preperitoneal fat (β = 0.263, P < 0.0001, r(2)  = 11.9%). Serum uric acid is associated with cIMT in asymptomatic prepubertal children. Both higher BMI and preperitoneal fat aggravate the potential risk of atherosclerotic disease imposed by higher concentrations of uric acid. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. Physical activity, energy expenditure and intake in 11 to 12 years old Japanese prepubertal obese boys.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Satoko; Mimura, Kanichi; Fujimoto, Shigeo; Bar-Or, Oded

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the differences in physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake (EI) under free-living conditions between Japanese prepubertal obese and nonobese boys. The subjects were 15 prepubertal obese boys (Age: 11.7+/-0.4 years old, Body fat: 35.2+/-1.6%) who do not have obese parents and siblings and 15 prepubertal nonobese boys (Age: 11.8+/-0.4 years old, Body fat: 18.5+/-0.8%). We assessed their daily PA by heart rate (HR) monitoring, pedometer step counts (PSC) and time for sedentary activities (SA). We also examined calculated EE from HR-VO(2) regression, EI and percentage of macronutrient EI. Results are as follows: Percentage of body fat had significant correlation with weight, BMI, time for SA, percentage EI of protein (positive, p<0.001), VO(2max), VO(2max) per body weight, VO(2max) per LBM, PSC, TEE per body weight, TEI per body weight (negative, p<0.001), percentage of EI of carbohydrate (negative, p<0.01). The values of the obese were significantly lower in total EE per body weight and in total EI per body weight. EI from dinner was significantly higher in the obese group. The values of the obese were significantly higher in percentage EI from protein and that from carbohydrate. The results of this study showed prepubertal obese boys who do not have obese parents and siblings have low PA and spend much time for sedentary activities. Obese boys consume higher percentage energy of protein and lower percentage of carbohydrate though differences in EE and EI were found only in total EE per body weight and total EI per body weight between obese boys and nonobese boys.

  12. Association between physical activity and blood pressure in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Hardy, Louise L; Teber, Erdahl; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of hypertension in later life. Although physical activity is known to positively moderate BP, data regarding this relationship are limited in prepubertal children. We aimed to assess the association between a range of physical activities (including indoor and outdoor activity) and BP in a large community-based sample of prepubertal schoolchildren. Eligible year-1 schoolchildren (n=1765; mean age 6.7 ± 0.4 years) from a random cluster sample of 34 schools in Sydney, Australia, were examined. Parents completed detailed questionnaires about their child's activity. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BP was measured using a standard protocol, and elevated BP was defined using published guidelines. Physical activity was classified as low, medium or high (that is, as tertiles). After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, height, BMI, parental qualifications and family history of hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease, children in the highest tertile of outdoor and indoor activities had significantly lower diastolic BP (∼1.5 mm Hg; P(trend)=0.01) and systolic BP (∼1.3 mm Hg; P(trend)=0.03), respectively, compared with those in the lowest tertile (reference). Linearly, time spent in indoor activities (each hour per day) was associated with ∼2.4 mm Hg decrease in diastolic BP (P=0.001). Physical activity was independently associated with lower BP in this sample of prepubertal children. The findings emphasize the importance of ensuring regular physical activity programs in primary schools to potentially reduce the risk of elevated BP in childhood and in later life.

  13. Changes in body composition and growth pattern after adenotonsillectomy in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Koycu, Alper; Aydin, Erdinc; Tulgar Kinik, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis are associated with growth interruption during childhood, while adenotonsillectomy has been associated with growth improvement and increased body mass index (BMI). However, no reported study has investigated the effect of adenotonsillectomy on the proportion of body muscle and fat mass. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy on body muscle and fat composition in prepubertal children. Thirty prepubertal children (22 boys, 8 girls; 3-9 years of age) were followed up for 6 months after adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy. Twenty-eight age-matched healthy children (12 boys, 16 girls) were followed for the same period, as controls. Data on dietary habits and physical activity were obtained from parent-completed questionnaires at baseline and 6 months. Height and weight z-scores, the amount and percentage of body fat and muscle mass, BMI z-scores, relative BMI and basal metabolic rate were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery with bioelectrical impedance analysis. After 6 months, body muscle mass and basal metabolic rate scores were significantly higher than at baseline in both groups (P<0.05). The rate of increase was not different between the groups. In the study group, the relative BMI scores improved significantly (P<0.05). Increases in body fat mass, body fat percentage, height z-scores, weight z-scores and BMI z-scores were not significantly different between the groups at 6 months (P>0.05). The number of overweight and obese children did not change significantly in either group (P<0.05). Adenotonsillectomy led to improvement in relative BMI and promoted healthy weight gain without increased body fat percentage in prepubertal children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cow's Milk Allergy and Bone Mineral Density in Prepubertal Children.

    PubMed

    Mailhot, Genevieve; Perrone, Vanessa; Alos, Nathalie; Dubois, Josée; Delvin, Edgard; Paradis, Louis; Des Roches, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Recent data suggest that cow's milk allergy (CMA) has become more persistent, prolonging treatment via strict elimination of cow's milk products into a period of skeletal growth. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineral density (BMD), vitamin D status, and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D between prepubertal children with persistent CMA and those with non-cow's milk food allergies (NCMA) as control subjects and to assess the use of and compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation among children with persistent CMA. Fifty-two children with persistent CMA and 29 with NCMA were recruited. BMD was measured by using dual energy radiograph absorptiometry, and vitamin D status was assessed by using plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium and vitamin D intakes, as well as compliance to calcium and vitamin D supplementation, were recorded. Lumbar spine BMD z scores were significantly lower in children with CMA. Low bone mass was detected in 6% of the CMA group compared with none in the NCMA group. Children with CMA displayed significantly lower calcium intakes than control subjects. Vitamin D status was not reduced in children with CMA compared with control subjects. Fewer than one-half of children with CMA reported the use of calcium and vitamin D supplements. However, adherence was high among supplement users, with a mean compliance rate of 5.5 days per week. These prepubertal children with persistent CMA had lower lumbar spine BMD z scores than children with NCMA, which likely resulted from lower calcium intake. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Toward an early marker of metabolic dysfunction: omentin-1 in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Prats-Puig, Anna; Bassols, Judit; Bargalló, Eva; Mas-Parareda, Marta; Ribot, Rosa; Soriano-Rodríguez, Pilar; Berengüí, Àngela; Díaz, Marta; de Zegher, Francis; Ibánez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel

    2011-09-01

    Omentin-1 is a recently recognized adipokine primarily originating in visceral adipose tissue. We posited that circulating omentin-1 could be an early marker of metabolic dysfunction. To this end, we examined the associations between circulating omentin-1, body fat (bioelectric impedance), an endocrine-metabolic profile (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), serum lipids, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin and blood pressure (BP)) and family history of obesity and diabetes in asymptomatic prepubertal children (n = 161; 77 boys and 84 girls; age 7 ± 1 year) with a normal distribution of height and weight. Increased circulating omentin-1 was associated with a poorer metabolic profile, with relatively higher HOMA(IR), fasting triacylglycerol, BP and familial prevalence of diabetes (all P < 0.005 to P < 0.0001), and relatively lower fraction of HMW adiponectin (P < 0.005), whereas no relationship was found with body weight or fat or with family history of obesity. All these associations were independent of age, gender and fat mass. In conclusion, circulating omentin-1 may become a marker of metabolic dysfunction integrating insulin sensitivity, markers of adipose-tissue metabolism and BP as early as in prepubertal childhood.

  16. Body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness in prepubertal children in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Planinsec, Jurij; Fosnaric, Samo

    2009-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze overweight and obesity in children on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF). The sample included 5613 children, aged 6 to12 years (X = 9.23; SD = 1.69) from Slovenia. Children were classified as non-overweight, overweight and obese according to age and sex specific BMI cut-off points. The results show that 18.3% of boys and 18.5% of girls are overweight and 6.5% of boys and 6.7% of girls are obese. The correlation between BMI and TSF in boys (r = 0.785) and girls (r = 0.783) are almost equal. Body weight has a lower correlation with TSF in boys (r = 0.691) and in girls (r = 0.631). The chi2 test show that there is a significant difference (p < 0.001) in TSF according to weight status. The results show that TSF and weight status of prepubertal children are closely related and that the criterion for the determination of weight status on the basis of BMI is well defined.

  17. Lower bone mass in prepubertal overweight children with pre-diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Norman K; Bernard, Paul J; Wenger, Karl; Misra, Sudipta; Gower, Barbara A; Allison, Jerry D; Zhu, Haidong; Davis, Catherine L

    2011-01-01

    Childhood studies of the fat-bone relationship are conflicting, possibly reflecting the influence of metabolic abnormalities in some but not all obese children. Bone mass was compared between prepubertal overweight children with (n=41) and without (n=99) pre-diabetes. Associations of bone mass with measures of total and central adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, systemic inflammation, and osteocalcin were also determined. In 140 overweight children aged 7–11 y, an oral glucose tolerance test was used to identify those with pre-diabetes and for determination of glucose, 2-h glucose, glucose AUC, insulin, 2-hr insulin, and insulin AUC. Blood samples were also assessed for lipids, C-reactive protein, and osteocalcin. Total body bone mineral content (BMC), fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST), and fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) were assessed using MRI. Total body BMC was 4% lower in overweight children with pre-diabetes than those without pre-diabetes, after controlling for sex, race, height, and weight (P=0.03). In the total sample, FM was positively related with BMC (β=0.16, P=0.01), after adjusting for sex, race, height, and FFST. However, VAT (β=−0.13, P=0.03) and SAAT (β=−0.34, P=0.02) were inversely associated with BMC, after controlling for sex, race, height, FFST, FM, and SAAT or VAT. No significant associations were found between BMC and the biochemical measurements. Prepubertal overweight children with pre-diabetes may be at risk for poor skeletal development. In addition, it appears that greater levels of central, rather than total, adiposity may be deleterious for developing bone. PMID:20641032

  18. Impact of the FITKids physical activity intervention on adiposity in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Pontifex, Matthew B; Castelli, Darla M; Donovan, Sharon M; Evans, Ellen M; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of a 9-month physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity among prepubertal children. Prepubertal children (8- to 9-year-olds, N = 220, 103 girls) were randomly assigned to a 9-month physical activity intervention or a control group. The intervention provided 70 minutes (5 days/week) of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max percentile) and dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry measured cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity, respectively. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed to assess baseline and follow-up cardiorespiratory fitness, percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage central fat mass (%CFM), and estimated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area. The intervention group increased in cardiorespiratory fitness (5.4th percentile; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 8.9) and decreased in %FM (-0.7%; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.4) and %CFM (-1.3%; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.7). Reductions in %FM were evident for both nonoverweight (-0.62%; 95% CI, -1.07 to -0.17) and overweight or obese (-0.86%; 95% CI,-1.46 to -0.25) intervention participants. Conversely, the control group displayed no change in cardiorespiratory fitness while exhibiting increases in %FM (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7), %CFM (0.6; 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.1), and VAT area (3.0 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.6 to 4.4). Nonoverweight control participants increased in %FM (0.52%; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.91), and their overweight and obese counterparts increased in VAT (4.76 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.90 to 7.63). The physical activity intervention improved cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced %FM, and prevented accumulation of %CFM among prepubertal children with varying adiposity levels. These findings provide support for daily physical activity recommendations to prevent excess fat mass accumulation in childhood.

  19. Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in prepubertal girls with obesity and/or premature pubarche.

    PubMed

    Siklar, Zeynep; Oçal, Gönül; Adiyaman, Pelin; Ergur, Ayça; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2007-04-01

    Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) is considered to be a form of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at adolescence. There are almost no data in the prepubertal period, although one of the earliest manifestations of PCOS is premature pubarche. Prepubertal girls with obesity or insulin resistance are also at risk to develop the full PCOS phenotype after puberty. The aim of this study was to evaluate prepubertal girls with premature pubarche and/or obesity for PCOS or FOH. Twenty-seven prepubertal girls with premature pubarche and/or obesity aged >6 years were evaluated. FOH was defined as abnormal ovarian 17OHP response to challenge with GnRH analog of >2 ng/ml after exclusion of adrenal dysfunction. All patients underwent a pelvic ultrasound examination. Sixteen patients had premature pubarche, seven were obese, and four had both premature pubarche and obesity. Eleven of 27 patients (40.7%) showed high (>2 ng/ml) 17OHP response to GnRH challenge. Three patients (11%) with FOH also showed PCO morphology on pelvic ultrasound examination. In prepubertal girls who carry risk factors, including genetic polymorphisms and/or particular environmental factors, FOH/PCOS could develop at a high rate.

  20. Metformin treatment to reduce central adiposity after prenatal growth restraint: a placebo-controlled pilot study in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Marta; Bassols, Judit; López-Bermejo, Abel; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2015-11-01

    Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) who experience rapid postnatal catch-up in weight are at risk for central adiposity and hyperinsulinemia. To study the effects of prepubertal metformin intervention over 24 months on the body composition and endocrine-metabolic profile of catch-up SGA children. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study including 23 post-catch-up non-obese prepubertal SGA children [age, 7.7 yr; body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) >50th and <97th centile for age] with increased visceral fat [by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) both p > 75th for age]. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or metformin (425 mg/d) for 24 months. Clinical, biochemical [IGF-I, glucose, insulin, lipids, androgens, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and high-molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin] and imaging [body composition (absorptiometry and MRI; carotid intima-media thickness (ultrasonography)] variables were assessed at baseline, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. After 24 months, metformin-treated children were leaner, had higher SHBG levels, and less total and abdominal fat than placebo-treated children (all p ≤ 0.05). Longitudinal analyses showed that metformin had a significant effect on anthropometric (weight, BMI, and waist) and biochemical variables [glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides] (all p ≤ 0.05); and in total and abdominal fat (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02). Prepubertal intervention with metformin reduces central adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in non-obese catch-up SGA children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Metabolic Setup and Risks in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Kocova, Mirjana; Sukarova-Angelovska, Elena; Tanaskoska, Milica; Palcevska-Kocevska, Snezana; Krstevska, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background In the past decades, the obesity epidemic in children of all ages has been an important research field for detecting the metabolic causes and consequences of obesity, the major focus being on insulin and adipocytokine levels. Metabolic work-up in obese children is recommended in the age group as young as 2–6 years. There is evidence that birth weight can be a factor causing obesity later in life accompanied by metabolic complications. Methods Insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were analyzed in 269 obese children and 60 controls, as well as 110 newborn children with different birth weight and different length of gestation, using standard methods. Results In 53.6% of the obese children, complications of obesity such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart attack or stroke were found in family members. The peak insulinemia on OGTT was significantly higher in the pubertal compared to the prepubertal group (110.5± 75.9 μU/mL versus 72.2±62.7 μU/mL) (p<0.005). Glucose intolerance was confirmed in 24%. The leptin level was significantly higher and the adiponectin level was lower in pubertal obese children compared to the prepubertal children and controls (p<0.05). In newborns the leptin and adiponectin levels were in correlation with anthropometric parameters: body weight (BW), body length (BL), BW/BL, BMI, and the pondered index (p<0.05). Conclusion Obese children have high insulinemia in all ages, reaching its peak towards puberty. The leptin and adiponectin levels might be indicators of the metabolic syndrome. Our findings in newborns might influence the nutritional approach in the future in order to prevent complications of obesity. PMID:28356821

  2. Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Maestrini, Lea; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of balance training (BT) followed by detraining on postural control, plantar flexor strength, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Thirty grade 1 school children participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention class (INT, n = 15, age 6.7 ± 0.5 years) or a control class (n = 15, age 6.6 ± 0.5 years). The INT participated in 4 weeks of BT (3 per week) integrated in their physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of postural sway on a balance platform, maximal torque and rate of force development of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, and jumping height on a force platform. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Balance training resulted in tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements in postural sway (f = 0.14; p > 0.05), force production of the plantar flexors (f = 0.18; p> 0.05), and jumping height (f = 0.25; p> 0.05). Immaturity of the postural control system and deficits in attentional focus during practice of balance exercises could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in this study. Thus, other training regimen (e.g., resistance training) should be applied alone or in combination with BT, which may have the potential to promote balance and strength in children.

  3. Sleepwalking and sleep terrors in prepubertal children: what triggers them?

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, Christian; Palombini, Luciana; Pelayo, Rafael; Chervin, Ronald D

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentation and polysomnography of prepubertal children with repetitive sleep terrors and sleepwalking, to compare them with a control group, and to evaluate the treatment of associated sleep disorders. Patients with complaint of sleep terrors with or without sleepwalking were studied retrospectively. A control group was also recruited. Each subject received a standardized evaluation, which included the following: 1) Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire; 2) interview regarding child's medical and sociofamilial history, orthodontic history, schooling, psychological difficulties, medication intake, and family history of medical and sleep disorders; 3) general pediatric physical examination and neurologic, otolaryngological, and craniofacial examination by a specialist; 4) obtaining medical history on variables relevant to early life sleep disorders; 5) polysomnography, which included electroencephalogram (EEG; C3/A2, Fp1/T1, T1/O1, O1/C3, C4/A1, Fp2/T2, T2/O2, O2/C4), chin and leg electromyelogram, right and left electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram (modified V2 lead); respiration was monitored with a nasal cannula/pressure transducer system, mouth thermistor, chest and abdominal bands, pulse oximeter, and neck microphone; respiratory effort was monitored with calibrated esophageal manometry; variables were collected on a computerized sleep system; and 6) available family members with a positive history of sleep terrors and sleepwalking received clinical evaluations similar to those used for index cases; they also underwent ambulatory monitoring with an Edentrace system, which monitors heart rate, body position, oro-nasal flow, chest impedance, breathing noises (neck microphone), and pulse oximetry. Movements are deduced from artifact, and leg movements may be recorded on one channel if the equipment is preset for such recording. Subjects used logs to record "lights out" time, "lights on" time, nocturnal awakenings, and other events that

  4. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Fucic, A.; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L.; Aerts, D.; Biot, P.; Katsonouri, A.; Cerna, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Castano, A.; Rudnai, P.; Gutleb, A.; Ligocka, D.; Lupsa, I-R.; Berglund, M.; Horvat, M.; Halzlova, K.; Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G.; Hadjipanayis, A.; Krskova, A.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  5. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L; Aerts, D; Biot, P; Katsonouri, A; Cerna, M; Knudsen, L E; Castano, A; Rudnai, P; Gutleb, A; Ligocka, D; Lupsa, I-R; Berglund, M; Horvat, M; Halzlova, K; Schoeters, G; Koppen, G; Hadjipanayis, A; Krskova, A; Középesy, S; Arendt, M; Fischer, M E; Janasik, B; Gurzau, A E; Gurzau, E S; Grandér, M; Larsson, K; Jajcaj, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Sepai, O; Exley, K; Bartolome, M; Cutanda, F; Mazej, D; Nielsen, J K S; Snoj-Tratnik, J; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Seiwert, M; Govarts, E; Den Hond, E; Koch, H M; Lopez, A; Joas, A; Joas, R

    2015-08-01

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10-0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80-39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating the Relative Exercise Intensity of Exergames in Prepubertal Children.

    PubMed

    McNarry, Melitta A; Mackintosh, Kelly A

    2016-04-01

    The literature remains equivocal as to whether exergames elicit energy expenditure (EE) commensurate with physical activity guidelines. Such discrepancies may be attributable to a reliance on absolute exercise intensities, which fail to account for differences in cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Thirty-four prepubertal children (20 boys, 14 girls; 10.8 ± 1.0 years old) completed a 30-minute exergame (two 15-minute games from "Kinect Adventures! Xbox 360" [Microsoft, Redmond, WA]) and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak oxygen uptake ( [Formula: see text]) throughout which breath-by-breath gas exchange was measured. Both games elicited moderate-intensity physical activity (5.7 ± 1.5 and 5.5 ± 1.4 metabolic equivalents [METs]), with 36 percent demonstrating a mean EE in excess of 6.0 METs, commensurate with vigorous intensity. Furthermore, boys demonstrated higher EE during both games (boys versus girls: Game 1, 6.0 ± 1.7 versus 5.2 ± 1.0 METs; Game 2, 6.0 ± 1.4 versus girls, 4.9 ± 1.2 METs; P < 0.05). Hierarchical linear regression revealed sex, maturity, and fitness to be significant predictors of EE, accounting for 24 percent of the variance: relative exergame [Formula: see text] = 24.53 + (2.12 × Sex) - (0.42 × Maturity offset) - (0.16 × Relative peak [Formula: see text]). There was no correlation between absolute [Formula: see text] during the exergames and peak [Formula: see text], but [Formula: see text] expressed as a percentage of peak [Formula: see text] was correlated with peak [Formula: see text] during both Game 1 (r = -0.62, P < 0.01) and Game 2 (r = -0.59, P < 0.01). The present findings provide further evidence that exergames can elicit EE values commensurate with national physical activity guidelines and extend our understanding of the mediators of EE. Specifically, cardiorespiratory fitness and sex must both be considered in the design and implementation

  8. Obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007508.htm Obesity in children To use the sharing features on this page, ... food choices have led to the rise of obesity among children . Children are surrounded by many things that make ...

  9. Twenty-four-hour cortisol secretion patterns in prepubertal children with anxiety or depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Feder, Adriana; Coplan, Jeremy D; Goetz, Raymond R; Mathew, Sanjay J; Pine, Daniel S; Dahl, Ronald E; Ryan, Neal D; Greenwald, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M

    2004-08-01

    Previous studies found few abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in prepubertal children with anxiety or depressive disorders. In this study, we combined data from two independent, consecutive studies to achieve a larger sample size. Our goal was to identify potential alterations in the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion in anxious or depressed children. A total of 124 prepubertal subjects from two independent samples (76 with major depressive disorder, 31 with anxiety disorders, and 17 healthy control subjects) were studied. Blood samples collected for cortisol at hourly intervals over a 24-hour period were examined. Analyses were performed aligning cortisol samples by clock-time. Additional analyses aligning samples by sleep-onset time were performed with a subsample of subjects. In the combined sample, significant findings emerged that were previously undetected. Anxious children exhibited significantly lower nighttime cortisol levels and an initially sluggish rise in cortisol during the nighttime when compared with depressed and healthy control children. In contrast, depressed children did not show a clear-cut pattern of differences compared with healthy control children. Anxious children seem to exhibit an altered pattern of nighttime cortisol secretion, with an initially sluggish or delayed nocturnal rise before reaching similar peak levels of cortisol near the time of awakening. These findings suggest subtle alterations in HPA axis function in prepubertal children with anxiety disorders.

  10. Site-specific differences of insulin action in adipose tissue derived from normal prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Stewart, Claire; Welsh, Gavin; Hunt, Linda; Tavaré, Jeremy; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Sabin, Matt; Crowne, Elizabeth

    2005-08-15

    Body fat distribution determines obesity-related morbidity in adults but little is known of the aetiology or pathophysiology in children. This study investigates differences in insulin-mediated metabolism in primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes derived from prepubertal children. The impact of differentiation and responses to TNFalpha exposure was also investigated. Proliferation rates were greater in subcutaneous versus visceral preadipocytes (41 h3 versus 69 h4; P=0.008). Insulin caused a dose-dependent increase in GSK-3 phosphorylation and an increase in MAPK phosphorylation over time, with increased sensitivity in subcutaneous preadipocytes. Post-differentiation, dose-dependent increases in GSK-3 phosphorylation were maintained, while MAPK phosphorylation was identical in both subtypes. No changes were observed in insulin receptor abundance pre-/post-differentiation. GLUT4 abundance was significantly increased in visceral versus subcutaneous adipocytes by 76(4)%; P=0.03), coincidental with increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (+150(26)% versus +79(10)%; P=0.014) and further elevated by acute exposure to TNFalpha (+230(52)%; P=0.019 versus +123(24)%; P=0.025, respectively). TNFalpha also significantly increased basal glucose transport rates (+44(14)%; P=0.006 versus +34(11)%; P=0.007) and GLUT1 localisation to the plasma membrane. These data establish site-specific differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat cells from children. Responses to insulin varied with differentiation and TNFalpha exposure in the two depots, consistent with parallel changes in GLUT1/4 abundance and localisation.

  11. Site-specific differences of insulin action in adipose tissue derived from normal prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Stewart, Claire; Welsh, Gavin; Hunt, Linda; Tavare, Jeremy; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Sabin, Matt; Crowne, Elizabeth . E-mail: Liz.Crowne@ubht.swest.nhs.uk

    2005-08-15

    Body fat distribution determines obesity-related morbidity in adults but little is known of the aetiology or pathophysiology in children. This study investigates differences in insulin-mediated metabolism in primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes derived from prepubertal children. The impact of differentiation and responses to TNF{alpha} exposure was also investigated. Proliferation rates were greater in subcutaneous versus visceral preadipocytes (41 h(3) versus 69 h(4); P = 0.008). Insulin caused a dose-dependent increase in GSK-3 phosphorylation and an increase in MAPK phosphorylation over time, with increased sensitivity in subcutaneous preadipocytes. Post-differentiation, dose-dependent increases in GSK-3 phosphorylation were maintained, while MAPK phosphorylation was identical in both subtypes. No changes were observed in insulin receptor abundance pre-/post-differentiation. GLUT4 abundance was significantly increased in visceral versus subcutaneous adipocytes by 76(4)%; P = 0.03), coincidental with increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (+150(26)% versus +79(10)%; P = 0.014) and further elevated by acute exposure to TNF{alpha} (+230(52)%; P = 0.019 versus +123(24)%; P = 0.025, respectively). TNF{alpha} also significantly increased basal glucose transport rates (+44(14)%; P = 0.006 versus +34(11)%; P = 0.007) and GLUT1 localisation to the plasma membrane. These data establish site-specific differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat cells from children. Responses to insulin varied with differentiation and TNF{alpha} exposure in the two depots, consistent with parallel changes in GLUT1/4 abundance and localisation.

  12. Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Savage, Tim; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2014-09-29

    To examine differences in growth and metabolism in prepubertal children born early term, full term, and late term. We retrospectively studied 294 prepubertal children aged 7.3 years (range 3.0-12.1 years). Children were separated into those born early term (37 0/7-38 6/7 weeks of gestation; n = 68), full term (39 0/7-40 6/7 weeks; n = 179), and late term (41 0/7-41 6/7 weeks; n = 47). Clinical assessments included anthropometry, DXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, and glucose homeostasis. Statistical models accounted for important confounding factors, such as gender, age, birth weight SDS, birth order, and parental variables. When birth weight was adjusted for sex and gestational age (birth weight SDS), late terms were heavier than both early (p = 0.034) and full (p = 0.020) terms. Early term children were shorter than both full (p = 0.010) and late (p = 0.049) term children, but differences in height disappeared following correction for parents' heights. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis, BMI SDS, adiposity, or fat distribution between groups. Lipid profiles were also similar. When important confounding factors were accounted for, there were no meaningful differences in anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile among children born early term, full term, or late term.

  13. Progressive Perineal Urethroplasty for Pelvic Fracture Urethral Distraction Defect in Prepubertal Children: The Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Bipin Chandra; Modi, Pranjal R.; Qadri, Syed Javid Farooq; Modi, Jayesh; Kumar, Suresh; Nagarajan, Ramya; Safee, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urethroplasty in pediatric patients is a challenging task. In this study, we have tried to assess the complexity and evaluate the outcome of progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty in prepubertal children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data of all the prepubertal children who underwent progressive perineal urethroplasty between March 2009 and April 2014 were analyzed. Patients were evaluated with history, examination, essential laboratory investigations, retrograde urethrogram, and voiding cystourethrogram. Before subjecting the patients for definitive surgery, antegrade and retrograde endoscopic assessment was done. The surgery was performed by the transperineal route with the help of ×2.5 magnification. Patients were followed up with uroflowmetry for every 3 months in the 1st year and for every 6 months in the subsequent years. Results: Mean age of the patients was 7.3 (range 5–11) years. Mean urethral distraction defect was 1.7 (range 1–2.5) cm. All the patients were successfully managed by the perineal approach. Crural separation was performed in all the patients while additional inferior pubectomy was required in six patients. Mean operating time was 298 (range 180–400) min. Mean blood loss was 174 (range 100–500) ml. One patient had the left calf hematoma in the immediate postoperative period. Seven out of nine (77.7%) patients had successful urethroplasty. Two patients had failed urethroplasty who were successfully managed by redo-urethroplasty. Transient incontinence was observed in one patient. Erectile function could not be assessed in these patients. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of progressive perineal urethroplasty by the perineal route in prepubertal children. An endoscopic assessment should be performed before the definitive surgery. Use of loupe helps in performing better anastomosis and hence yielding a better result. PMID:28082772

  14. Correlation of 2D:4D digit ratio and craniofacial shape in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Valla, Kalliopy; Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2014-01-01

    The 2D:4D ratio is sexually dimorphic and is considered a proxy of prenatal androgen levels, or, according to recent evidence, is related to genes involved in ocular and palate development. Our aim was to investigate correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and the shape of the craniofacial skeleton in a population of prepubertal children. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of 58 male and 59 female prepubertal children aged 7-12 years. Craniofacial shape was evaluated using 15 skeletal landmarks on lateral cephalometric radiographs and fingers were measured with a computer-assisted procedure that involved tracing the finger outline. Geometric morphometric analysis was applied to the craniofacial landmarks and multivariate regression between digit ratios and craniofacial shape was computed in shape space and form space. The male 2D:4D ratio was smaller than the female ratio (Cohen's d: 0.275 left hand, 0.126 right hand), but the difference was not statistically significant. Craniofacial shape did not show sexual dimorphism, but males were larger than females. No correlation was found between digit ratio and craniofacial shape in prepubertal children, either for the whole sample or for any of the two sex groups. As several factors might be involved in the development and growth of both the craniofacial complex and fingers, the 2D:4D ratio, a putative proxy for fetal sex-hormone levels, is probably unable to impose a measurable effect within the variation of a normal population. Future research needs to examine an adult sample for potential covariation arising after the pubertal growth spurt. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparison of body composition and adipokine levels between thin and normal-weight prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Gajewska, Joanna; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Chełchowska, Magdalena

    Thinness can have substantial consequences for child development and health. Adipokines, including leptin and adiponectin, play a significant role in the regulation of important metabolic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between body composition and serum leptin and adiponectin levels in thin and normal-weight children. The authors examined 100 healthy prepubertal children, who were divided into two subgroups: thin (n=50) and normal-weight children (n=50). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum concentrations of adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. Thin children had a similar body height but significantly lower (p<0.0001) body weight, body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content compared with normal-weight children. Serum concentrations of leptin were about 2-fold lower (p<0.0001) in thin vs. normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of total adiponectin, adiponectin multimers, and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were similar in both groups. The leptin/soluble leptin receptor ratio and leptin/adiponectin ratios were lower (p<0.0001) in thin vs. normal-weight children. In both groups of children, it was found that body composition parameters were positively related with leptin but not with adiponectin levels. Additionally, bone mineral content was positively related with body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, and leptin level in thin and normal-weight children. Prepubertal thin children have disturbances in body composition and adipokine profile. Early recognition of thinness and determination of body composition parameters and adipokine levels can be useful in medical and nutritional care of thin children for the optimization of bone mineral accrual. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Frailty of Obese Children: Evaluation of Plasma Antioxidant Capacity in Pediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Leo, F; Rossodivita, A N; Segni, C D; Raimondo, S; Canichella, S; Silvestrini, A; Miggiano, G A D; Meucci, E; Mancini, A

    2016-09-01

    Background: Obese children are subject to the same chronic oxidative and inflammatory stress, responsible for the onset of all the complications typical of adult age, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Objectives: Since few studies are reported in prepubertal obese children, we investigated the relationship between oxidative stress, body composition and metabolic pattern in childhood obesity in comparison with adult obese patients. Methods: We enrolled 25 prepubertal children (12 males and 13 females) aged 5-12 years with a mean value of standard deviation of BMI (SDS-BMI)±SEM of 1.96±0.09. We performed oral glucose tolerance test, hormonal and metabolic evaluation, bioimpedentiometry, evaluation of total antioxidant capacity using spectroscopical method using a radical cation, 2,2(I)- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulphonate) (ABTS), as indicator of radical formation, with a latency time (LAG) proportional to antioxidant in the sample. Results: LAG values significantly correlate with % fat mass, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio. However mean LAG values were significantly lower than in obese adults. Conclusions: We suggest that children are more susceptible to oxidative stress than adults, possibly to incomplete development of antioxidant system. Prognostic and therapeutical implications need to be further investigated.

  17. Physiological concentrations of serum cortisol are related to vascular risk markers in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Rodríguez, Pilar; Osiniri, Inés; Grau-Cabrera, Pilar; Riera-Pérez, Elena; Prats-Puig, Anna; Carbonell-Alferez, Míriam; Schneider, Stephan; Mora-Maruny, Carme; De Zegher, Francis; Ibánez, Lourdes; Bassols, Judit; López-Bermejo, Abel

    2010-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that cortisol contributes to cardiovascular risk. It is unclear whether physiological concentrations of serum cortisol are related to vascular risk markers in children. The cross-sectional associations between morning serum cortisol and cardiovascular risk markers: blood pressure (BP) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), were examined in a sample of healthy prepubertal children (age, 6.8 ± 0.1 y) attending primary care clinics. Serum cortisol was associated with increased systolic BP (SBP; n = 223; p < 0.001) and carotid IMT (n = 91; p < 0.0001). These associations were independent from age, BMI, body fat, waist, insulin resistance, serum lipids, and heart rate (HR). No gender interactions were apparent in these associations. In summary, a higher morning serum cortisol within the physiological range is in prepubertal children associated with vascular risk markers. Because childhood risk factors predict adult risk for cardiovascular disease, these observations may have implications in the prevention of cardiovascular disease early in life.

  18. Is anti-Mullerian hormone an indicator of potential polycystic ovary syndrome in prepubertal girls with simple obesity?

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Özlem; Gökşen, Damla; Özen, Samim; Darcan, Şükran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in prepubertal obese girls are a predictive marker for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and AMH. Sixty girls with premature pubarche or obesity and 20 healthy controls between the ages of 6-9 were enrolled. Of the patients, 22 (36.7%) were in the obese group (Group 1), 28 (46.7%) in the early pubarche group (Group 2) and 10 (16.6%) in the early pubarche + obese group (Group 3). Comparison of the subjects' fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) demonstrated significantly higher values for group 1 compared to group 2 (p=0.001 and 0.001) and, likewise, significantly higher values for group 3 compared to group 2. There was no significant differences between all groups for AMH levels. AMH levels were not significantly different in the obese girls compared to the other groups. There was also no relationship between AMH and insulin resistance in any of the groups. Further studies, however, are needed due the limited number of subjects in this study and in the absence of adequate relevant data.

  19. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents.

  20. Effects of Meals High in Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat on Ghrelin and Peptide YY Secretion in Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Lomenick, Jefferson P.; Melguizo, Maria S.; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Summar, Marshall L.; Anderson, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) are two hormones produced by the gastrointestinal tract that have effects on appetite. However, little is known about their secretion in response to meals high in individual macronutrients in prepubertal children. Objective: We sought to understand how meals high in carbohydrate, protein, and fat affect serum concentrations of total ghrelin and total PYY, hypothesizing that these macronutrients would exert differential effects on their secretion. Design and Setting: This was a cross-sectional study at one tertiary care center. Subjects: Subjects were 7- to 11-yr-old healthy normal-weight (NW) and obese (OB) volunteers recruited from local advertisements. Interventions: After an overnight fast, the subjects were given a breakfast high in carbohydrate, protein, or fat at 0800 h. Blood samples for total ghrelin and total PYY were taken at baseline, 30 min, and hourly from 0900 to 1200 h. Main Outcome Measure: We assessed postprandial ghrelin suppression and PYY elevation, as well as changes in reported hunger and satiety, after the three test meals. Results: After the high-protein meal, ghrelin declined gradually in both groups over the study period without subsequent increase, whereas ghrelin suppressed more rapidly to a nadir at 60 min after the high-carbohydrate meal in both NW and OB children, followed by rebound in ghrelin levels. Similarly, after the high-protein meal, PYY concentrations increased steadily over the course of the morning in both groups without decline, whereas PYY levels peaked 30 min after the high-carbohydrate meal in both NW and OB subjects with significant decline thereafter. Ghrelin and PYY responses to the high-fat meal were somewhat intermediate between that observed with high carbohydrate and high protein. The OB children reported higher hunger and lower satiety after the high-carbohydrate meal compared to the NW subjects, whereas appetite ratings were similar between the groups after the high

  1. Hypothalamic obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Bereket, A; Kiess, W; Lustig, R H; Muller, H L; Goldstone, A P; Weiss, R; Yavuz, Y; Hochberg, Z

    2012-09-01

    Hypothalamic obesity is an intractable form of obesity syndrome that was initially described in patients with hypothalamic tumours and surgical damage. However, this definition is now expanded to include obesity developing after a variety of insults, including intracranial infections, infiltrations, trauma, vascular problems and hydrocephalus, in addition to acquired or congenital functional defects in central energy homeostasis in children with the so-called common obesity. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying hypothalamic obesity are complex and multifactorial. Weight gain results from damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus, which leads, variously, to hyperphagia, a low-resting metabolic rate; autonomic imbalance; growth hormone-, gonadotropins and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency; hypomobility; and insomnia. Hypothalamic obesity did not receive enough attention, as evidenced by rarity of studies in this group of patients. A satellite symposium was held during the European Congress of Obesity in May 2011, in Istanbul, Turkey, to discuss recent developments and concepts regarding pathophysiology and management of hypothalamic obesity in children. An international group of leading researchers presented certain aspects of the problem. This paper summarizes the highlights of this symposium. Understanding the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding and energy metabolism will help us gain insights into the pathogenesis and management of common obesity. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Adiposity indices in the prediction of insulin resistance in prepubertal Colombian children

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T; Pereira, Mark A; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Rodríguez, Diana C; Duran, Alvaro E; Ruiz, Alvaro J; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Villa-Roel, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare BMI with abdominal skinfold thickness (ASF), waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) in prepubertal Colombian children. Design We calculated age- and sex-specific Z-scores for BMI, ASF, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and three other skinfold-thickness sites. Logistic regression with stepwise selection (P = 0·80 for entry and P = 0·05 for retention) was performed to identify predictors of IR and extreme IR, which were determined by age- and sex-specific Z-scores to identify the ≥ 90th and ≥ 95th percentile of homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR), respectively. We used receiver operating characteristic curves to compare the area under the curve between models. Setting Bucaramanga, Colombia. Subjects Children (n 1261) aged 6–10 years in Tanner stage 1 from a population-based study. Results A total of 127 children (seventy girls and fifty-seven boys) were classified with IR, including sixty-three children (thirty-three girls and thirty boys) classified with extreme IR. Only ASF and BMI Z-scores were retained as predictors of IR by stepwise selection. Adding ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·794 (95% CI 0·752, 0·837) to 0·811 (95% CI 0·770, 0·851; P for contrast = 0·01). In predicting extreme IR, the addition of ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·837 (95% CI 0·790, 0·884) to 0·864 (95% CI 0·823, 0·905; P for contrast = 0·01). Conclusions ASF Z-score predicted IR independent of BMI Z-score in our population of prepubertal children. ASF and BMI Z-scores together improved IR risk stratification compared with BMI Z-score alone, opening new perspectives in the prediction of cardiometabolic risk in prepubertal children. PMID:22916737

  3. Perceptions of self, mother and family and behavior of prepubertal depressed children.

    PubMed

    Brand-Gothelf, A; Yoeli-Bligh, N; Gilboa-Schechtman, E; Benaroya-Milshtein, N; Apter, A

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the perceptions of self, mother and family of prepubertal children and to determine if the perceptions of children with depression and their behavior towards their mothers are different from children with anxiety disorders and nonpsychiatric controls. Children (aged 7-13 years) with major depressive disorder (n=30), anxiety disorders (n=37) and nonpsychiatric controls (n=32) underwent structured psychiatric evaluations and completed questionnaires on their perceptions of themselves and their relations with their mothers and families. The child-mother dyad was observed during structured interactions. Self-perceptions of depressed children were significantly more negative than those of children with anxiety and controls. Depression severity negatively correlated with the child's self-perception and positively correlated with perceptions of the mother as being more rejecting, controlling, less accepting and less allowing autonomy, and of the family as being less cohesive. Depression severity was also positively associated with the child's hostile attitude towards the mother during the interactions. Our findings of greater negative perceptions of self, mother and family in depressed children compared to children with anxiety disorders and nonpsychiatric children suggest that approaches specifically addressing negative perceptions and targeting familial relationships could be especially effective for treating young children with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of levetiracetam and valproic acid monotherapy on sex-steroid hormones in prepubertal children--results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Bitsche, Gabriele; Svalheim, Sigrid; Tauboll, Erik; Haberlandt, Edda; Wildt, Ludwig; Rostasy, Kevin; Luef, Gerhard

    2010-02-01

    The influence of levetiracetam (LEV) and valproic acid (VPA) monotherapy on sex-steroid hormone profile was investigated in thirty prepubertal children. VPA-treated children showed greatest androstendione concentrations when compared to LEV treated children (p=0.016) and to controls (p=0.011). All other reproductive endocrine hormones were similar among groups. In conclusion, LEV does not seem to induce changes in reproductive endocrine functions as well as clinically relevant endocrine side effects in prepubertal children.

  5. Sleep architecture and REM sleep measures in prepubertal children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, L; Puig-Antich, J; Goetz, R; Hanlon, C; Davies, M

    1983-01-01

    A 2-night polysomnographic study of 9 rigorously assessed prepubertal children who fit Diagnostic Statistical Manual-III criteria for attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) and a contrast group of 11 control children is reported. Despite the fact that 57% of the ADDH group were reported to experience restless sleep on structured parental rating forms, they did not show any sleep architecture abnormalities on polysomnographic recordings when compared with the normals at baseline other than decreased rapid eye movement (REM) activity. Seven of the ADDH boys were restudied after 6 months of continuous methylphenidate therapy (mean daily dose of 34.4 +/- 14.0 mg or 1.4 +/- 0.7 mg/kg). Across and within (pre-post) group comparisons showed that methylphenidate therapy was associated with delayed sleep onset, lengthened sleep, and changes in certain REM sleep variables.

  6. The effect of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation on osteocalcin carboxylation in healthy prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    van Summeren, Marieke J H; Braam, Lavienja A J L M; Lilien, Marc R; Schurgers, Leon J; Kuis, Wietse; Vermeer, Cees

    2009-10-01

    Vitamin K contributes to bone health, probably through its role as cofactor in the carboxylation of osteocalcin. Intervention studies in adults have demonstrated that markedly higher osteocalcin carboxylation is obtained by intakes of vitamin K well above the current recommended dietary intake. However, the relationship between increased vitamin K2 intake and enhanced osteocalcin carboxylation has never been shown in healthy children. The objective was to study the effect of 45 microg menaquinone-7 (MK-7; one of the vitamin K2 species) on the circulating levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) in healthy prepubertal children. We hypothesised that MK-7 supplementation will reduce the ucOC:cOC ratio (UCR), indicating an improved vitamin K status. The present study is a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial examining the effect of 8 weeks MK-7 supplementation on the carboxylation of osteocalcin in healthy children (n 55). Serum levels of ucOC, cOC and MK-7 were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks, together with bone markers and coagulation parameters. The UCR was used as an indicator of vitamin K status. In the MK-7-supplemented group (n 28), the circulating concentration of inactive ucOC reduced and the UCR improved whereas the concentration of MK-7 increased. Within the placebo group, ucOC, cOC, UCR and MK-7 did not significantly change over time. In both groups, bone markers and coagulation parameters remained constant over time. These findings demonstrate that in healthy, prepubertal children, modest supplementation with MK-7 increases circulating concentrations of MK-7 and increases osteocalcin carboxylation.

  7. Sleep Disturbances in Prepubertal Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Home Polysomnography Study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Reut; Xi, Tong; Frenette, Sonia; Robert, Manon; Vannasinh, Phetsamone; Carrier, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine sleep architecture and reported sleep problems in children with ADHD and normal controls, while considering the roles of pertinent moderating factors. Design: Overnight sleep recordings were conducted in 15 children diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-IV) without comorbid psychiatric problems and in 23 healthy controls aged 7 to 11 years. Children were on no medication, in good health and did not consume products containing caffeine ≥ 7 days prior to the polysomnography (PSG) study. PSG evaluation was performed at each child's home; children slept in their regular beds and went to bed at their habitual bedtimes. Measurements Standard overnight multichannel PSG evaluation was performed using a portable polysomnography device. In addition, parents were asked to complete a sleep questionnaire. Results: Compared to controls, children in the ADHD group had significantly shorter duration of REM sleep, smaller percentage of total sleep time spent in REM sleep, and shorter sleep duration. In addition, the ADHD group had higher scores on the insufficient sleep and sleep anxiety factors than children in the control group. Conclusions: The present findings support the hypothesis that children with ADHD present sleep disturbances. Citation: Gruber R; Xi T; Frenette S; Robert M; Vannasinh P; Carrier J. Sleep disturbances in prepubertal children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A home polysomnography study. SLEEP 2009;32(3):343-350. PMID:19294954

  8. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  9. Predicting total fat mass from skinfold thicknesses in Japanese prepubertal children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal validation.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Ohta, Megumi; Hikihara, Yuki; Torii, Suguru; Bemben, Michael G; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to develop regression based prediction equations for fat mass from skinfold thickness in Japanese children, and to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of these equations. A total of 127 healthy Japanese prepubertal children aged 6-12 years were randomly separated into two groups: the model development group (54 boys and 44 girls) and the cross-sectional validation group (18 boys and 11 girls). Fat mass was initially determined by using DXA (Hologic Delphi A-QDR whole-body scanner) to provide reference data. Then, fat thickness was measured at triceps and subscapular using an Eiken-type skinfold calipers. Multiple anthropometric and DXA measures were obtained one year later for 28 of the original 127 subjects (longitudinal validation group: 14 boys and 14 girls). Strong significant correlations were observed between total fat mass by DXA measurement and the skinfold thickness × height measures by caliper in the model development group of boys and girls (R2=0.91-0.92, p<0.01). When these fat mass prediction equations were applied to the cross-sectional and longitudinal validation groups, the measured total fat mass was also very similar to the predicted fat mass. In addition, there were significant correlations between the measured and predicted total fat mass for boys and girls, respectively, although Bland-Altman analysis indicated a bias in cross-sectional validation group. Skinfold-derived prediction equations underestimate for obese children but are generally useful for estimating total fat mass in field research.

  10. Stunting delays maturation of triceps surae mechanical properties and motor performance in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Maria das Graças; Souza, Thaysa O L; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal; Xavier, Luciana C C; Ferraz, Karla M; Osório, Mônica M; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Lambertz, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition can lead to possible irreversible consequences in the development of muscle function and some of them are yet poorly characterized. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae and motor performance in stunted (S) and eutrophic (E) prepubertal children (9 years ± 6 months). Height-for-age ratio was used as indicator of stunting due to early malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization. Torque was determined by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and musculotendinous (MT) stiffness was achieved through quick-release tests to obtain MT stiffness index (SI(MT)) and passive stiffness (K (p)) from linear MT stiffness-torque relationships. Percutaneous supramaximal electrically elicited contractions determined twitch torque (Pt) and electromechanical delay (EMD). Motor performance was evaluated by balance test. S group presented significantly lower MVC and a trend of lower Pt values indicating lower capacities to develop force under voluntary or induced conditions. Significantly higher SI(MT) and EMD values were observed, while K (p) and motor performance in balance were significantly lower. Higher SI(MT) values have been reported previously in youngest prepubertal children, indicating that immature activation capacities can mask MT stiffness assessment during voluntary contractions, taking into consideration the higher EMD values as a measure of muscle stiffness contribution. Lower K (p) may indicate a delay in the maturation of tendinous tissue in S group, influencing motor performance in balance. The present study shows that malnutrition leads to adaptation of intrinsic MT elastic properties, but depends on the level of the observed structure.

  11. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p < 0.001). In spite of this, girls had higher levels of GSSG (p < 0.001) and TG (p = 0.001), and a lower GSH/GSSG ratio (p < 0.001) than boys. For the antioxidant response, girls had higher levels of SOD (p = 0.002) than boys. All analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  12. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    PubMed

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  13. Cognition and behavior in pre-pubertal children with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2008-12-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by hypotonia, hypogonadism, obesity, and short stature. Neurobehavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) are common. In the general population associations between neurobehavioral and cognitive abnormalities and SRBD have been found. We investigated cognition, behavior, and SRBD in children with PWS. Thirty-one pre-pubertal PWS children were evaluated (5 with paternal deletion, 14 with maternal disomy, 4 with imprinting-center mutation, and in 8 the defect was not specified). Cognition was assessed by Wechsler scale subtests, and behavior by parent-questionnaires. Polysomnography was performed. Cognition, behavior, and associations with SRBD were evaluated. All cognitive subtests were significantly below O SDS, with the lowest median (interquartile range) scores for the Block design subtest (-2.7 SDS (-3.0 to -0.3)). In 60%, verbal subtests were less affected than performance subtests. Parents reported problem behavior related to "emotions/behavior not adapted to the social situation" and "insensitivity to social information." All children had SRBD, with an Apnea Hypopnea Index of 4.1/hr (2.6-7.9). One performance subtest score was significantly higher in children with better sleep efficiency, and daytime sleepiness was associated with more autistic-like social impairment. In contrast to our expectations, behavior was worse in children with better sleep-related breathing. In pre-pubertal PWS children, cognition is impaired. Neurobehavioral abnormalities are common, particularly autistic-like social impairment. Sleep efficiency was associated with better performance on one of the performance subtests, and neurobehavioral abnormalities were associated with daytime sleepiness. In contrast, we could not confirm a positive association of neurobehavioral abnormalities with SRBD in PWS. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Marked elevation of adrenal steroids, especially androgens, in saliva of prepubertal autistic children.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Hill, Martin; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Namysłowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Autism is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral manifestations, but its biomarkers are not well defined. A strong gender bias typifying autism (it is 4-5 times more prevalent in males) suggests involvement of steroid hormones in autism pathobiology. In order to evaluate the potential roles of such hormones in autism, we compared the salivary levels of 22 steroids in prepubertal autistic male and female children from two age groups (3-4 and 7-9 years old) with those in healthy controls. The steroids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed that autistic children had significantly higher salivary concentrations of many steroid hormones (both C21 and C19) than control children. These anomalies were more prominent in older autistic children and in boys. The levels of androgens (androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and their polar conjugates) were especially increased, indicative of precocious adrenarche and predictive of early puberty. The concentrations of the steroid precursor, pregnenolone, and of several pregnanolones were also higher in autistic than in healthy children, but cortisol levels were not different. Some steroids, whose levels are raised in autism (allopregnanolone, androsterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate conjugates) are neuroactive and modulate GABA, glutamate, and opioid neurotransmission, affecting brain development and functioning. These steroids may contribute to autism pathobiology and symptoms such as elevated anxiety, sleep disturbances, sensory deficits, and stereotypies among others. We suggest that salivary levels of selected steroids may serve as biomarkers of autism pathology useful for monitoring the progress of therapy.

  15. Buspirone treatment of psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children with symptoms of anxiety and moderately severe aggression.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, C R; Jiang, H; Domeshek, L J

    1997-01-01

    Open-label buspirone was studied in 25 prepubertal psychiatric inpatients (age 8.0 +/- 1.8 years, 76% boys) presenting with anxiety symptoms and moderately aggressive behavior. Patients with severe aggression, requiring rapid treatment with mood stabilizers or neuroleptics, were excluded. A 3-week titration (maximum 50 mg daily) preceded a 6-week maintenance phase at optimal dose. Buspirone was discontinued in 6 children (25%): 4 developed increased aggression and agitation, and 2 developed euphoric mania. For the 19 patients who completed the study, mean optimal dose was 28 mg daily. Among completers, depressive symptoms were reduced 52% by Week 6 on Children's Depression Inventory (p < or = 0.001). Decreased aggressivity was reflected in a 29% reduction on Measure of Aggression, Violence, and Rage in Children [MAVRIC] ratings (p < or = 0.02) and in 86% less time in seclusion or physical restraints (p < or = 0.02). Clinical Global Assessment scores improved (CGAS 41 vs. 54, p < or = 0.01). Only 3 children improved sufficiently to continue buspirone after the study. Residual aggressivity and global functioning remained problematic. Buspirone may pose behavioral risks in treating moderate aggressivity in 24% of children with anxiety; in the others, the therapeutic effects on aggression, anxiety, and depression were limited but significant.

  16. Obesity in children & adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raj, Manu; Kumar, R Krishna

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken.

  17. Predicting skeletal muscle mass from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Japanese prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, T; Ohta, M; Hikihara, Y; Torii, S; Sakamoto, S

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop regression-based prediction equations for estimating total and regional skeletal muscle mass (SMM) from measurements of lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and investigate the validity of these equations. In total, 144 healthy Japanese prepubertal children aged 6-12 years were divided into 2 groups: the model development group (62 boys and 38 girls) and the validation group (26 boys and 18 girls). Contiguous MRI images with a 1-cm slice thickness were obtained from the first cervical vertebra to the ankle joints as reference data. The SMM was calculated from the summation of the digitized cross-sectional areas. Total and regional LSTM was measured using DXA. Strong significant correlations were observed between the site-matched SMM (total, arms, trunk and legs) measured by MRI and the LSTM obtained by DXA in the model development group for both boys and girls (R(2)adj=0.86-0.97, P<0.01, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=0.08-0.44 kg). When these SMM prediction equations were applied to the validation group, the measured total (boys 9.47±2.21 kg; girls 8.18±2.62 kg) and regional SMM were very similar to the predicted values for both boys (total SMM 9.40±2.39 kg) and girls (total SMM 8.17±2.57 kg). The results of the Bland-Altman analysis for the validation group did not indicate any bias for either boys or girls with the exception of the arm region for the girls. These results suggest that the DXA-derived prediction equations are precise and accurate for the estimation of total and regional SMM in Japanese prepubertal boys and girls.

  18. Effects of resistance training on tendon mechanical properties and rapid force production in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Waugh, C M; Korff, T; Fath, F; Blazevich, A J

    2014-08-01

    Children develop lower levels of muscle force, and at slower rates, than adults. Although strength training in children is expected to reduce this differential, a synchronous adaptation in the tendon must be achieved to ensure forces continue to be transmitted to the skeleton with efficiency while minimizing the risk of strain-related tendon injury. We hypothesized that resistance training (RT) would alter tendon mechanical properties in children concomitantly with changes in force production characteristics. Twenty prepubertal children (age 8.9 ± 0.3 yr) were equally divided into control (nontraining) and experimental (training) groups. The training group completed a 10-wk RT intervention consisting of 2-3 sets of 8-15 plantar flexion contractions performed twice weekly on a recumbent calf-raise machine. Achilles tendon properties (cross-sectional area, elongation, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus), electromechanical delay (EMD; time between the onset of muscle activity and force), rate of force development (RFD; slope of the force-time curve), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) increase (REI; slope of the EMG time curve) were measured before and after RT. Tendon stiffness and Young's modulus increased significantly after RT in the experimental group only (∼29% and ∼25%, respectively); all other tendon properties were not significantly altered, although there were mean decreases in both peak tendon strain and strain at a given force level (14% and 24%, respectively; not significant) which may have implications for tendon injury risk and muscle fiber mechanics. A decrease of ∼13% in EMD was found after RT for the experimental group, which paralleled the increase in tendon stiffness (r = -0.59); however, RFD and REI were unchanged. The present data show that the Achilles tendon adapts to RT in prepubertal children and is paralleled by a change in EMD, although the magnitude of this change did not appear to be sufficient to influence RFD. These

  19. Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype from Pediatric Versus Psychiatric Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Rebecca; Geller, Barbara; Frazier, Jeanne; Beringer, Linda; Zimerman, Betsy; Klages, Tricia; Bolhofner, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics between subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype from pediatric versus psychiatric venues. Method: Subjects (N = 93) with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype were obtained through consecutive new case ascertainment from designated pediatric and…

  20. Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype from Pediatric Versus Psychiatric Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Rebecca; Geller, Barbara; Frazier, Jeanne; Beringer, Linda; Zimerman, Betsy; Klages, Tricia; Bolhofner, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics between subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype from pediatric versus psychiatric venues. Method: Subjects (N = 93) with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype were obtained through consecutive new case ascertainment from designated pediatric and…

  1. Immediate post-exercise energy intake and macronutrient preferences in normal weight and overweight pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Dan; Arieli, Rakefet; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2010-05-03

    To examine the immediate effect of three different types of popular exercise activities on food intake and preferences in normal weight and overweight children. Forty-four (22 overweight) age and gender matched, pre-pubertal children participated in four separate visits. All performed three typical, 45 min, aerobic, indoor resistance and swimming exercise sessions and a control visit (no exercise). A similar buffet lunch was served immediately after each visit to both groups. The total energy intake and relative consumption of carbohydrates, fat and protein were recorded. In the normal weight children, total energy intake was reduced following exercise. This difference reached statistical significance only following the resistance-type exercise (14.0 + or - 1.4 [58.6 + or - 5.9] versus 19.4 + or - 1.7 [81.2 + or - 7.1] kcal/kg [kJ/ kg], in resistance exercise and control, respectively; p<0.008). The different types of exercise were associated with increased relative consumption of carbohydrate and decreased consumption of fat. In contrast, in the overweight children, total energy intake was increased following exercise. This increase reached statistical significance following the swimming exercise session (23.0 + or - 2.4 [96.3 + or - 10.0] versus 18.5 + or - 1.5 [77.4 + or - 6.3] kcal/kg [kJ/kg] in swimming and control, respectively; p<0.02). All types of exercise lead to a significant increase in the relative consumption of proteins in the overweight children. Finally, the total energy intake was significantly greater in the overweight children following the control (i.e., no exercise), and all types of exercise sessions. After normalization of the total energy intake to body mass, this difference remained significant only following the swimming practice (23.0 + or - 2.4 [96.3 + or - 10.0] versus 15.9 + or - 1.6 [66.6 + or - 6.7] kcal/kg [kJ/kg] in overweight and normal weight, respectively; p<0.04). Understanding the complicated relationship between exercise

  2. Could mean platelet volume among complete blood count parameters be a surrogate marker of metabolic syndrome in pre-pubertal children?

    PubMed

    Aypak, Cenk; Türedi, Ozlem; Bircan, Mustafa A; Yüce, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Interest in childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased substantially due to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity on a global scale. Early recognition of MetS is critical in order to delay the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we evaluated the relationship between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and MetS among pre-pubertal children which may provide evidence in support of using low cost, readily available clinical haematological parameters for the detection of MetS. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 (125 lean vs. 205 overweight) Turkish pre-pubertal children who attend to a paediatric outpatient clinic. Age, gender, puberty, body mass index, CBC parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors including lipid profiles, high sensitive serum reactive protein (hsCRP) and insulin resistance index calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were evaluated and compared among lean, overweight children and children with MetS. The mean age of the study population was 7.4 ± 1.9 years. In both gender, the mean values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly lower and red blood cell (RBC), platelet (PLT) counts were significantly higher in overweight children. Overall, 8.4% (n = 28) of patients met the criteria of MetS. Children with MetS had higher levels of PLT and lower levels of mean platelet volume (MPV). Of all the haematological parameters analysed, PLT was positively, whereas MPV was negatively correlated with MetS in girls. In addition, MPV was inversely correlated with fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio in girls after adjusting for confounding factors. The risk analyses of MetS in terms of MPV quartiles showed that the adjusted OR (95% CI) for the lowest vs. the

  3. Obesity prevention in children.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children.

  4. Agreement Analysis among Measures of Thinness and Obesity Assessment in Iranian School Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed-Mohammad-Taghi; Bagheri, Zahra; Heydari, Seyyed-Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the agreement of four anthropometric-based measurements including weight-for-height (WH), body mass index-for-age (BMI), mid-upper arm circumference-for-age (MUAC) and triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (TST) to identify underweight and overweight children and adolescents. Methods Two data sets were used in this research. The first one was a multistage random sample of 2397 healthy school children in pre-pubertal stage in Shiraz. The second data set consisted of 487 healthy students in pubertal stage and 558 students in post-pubertal stage. The parametric LMS method was used to construct reference centiles curves for each measure. The Kappa statistic was applied to examine the pairwise agreement of the four indices for detecting thinness and obesity. Results Generally, the pairwise agreement of adiposity measures was higher for identifying obesity than thinness. There was an excellent agreement between WH and BMI for detecting both thin and obese children in almost all subgroups (P<0.001). MUAC had an excellent agreement with BMI in pre-pubertal individuals (P<0.001). However, TST had a weak agreement with the other three indices for detecting thinness and weak to good agreement for classification of obesity. Conclusion The performance of the four anthropometric-based measurements varied by sex and maturity level. MUAC as a simple and low-cost screening tool can also be used as an alternative to BMI for obesity assessment among pre-pubertal groups. PMID:24800002

  5. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas; de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; França, Mardone Cavalcante; de Almeida, Maria das Graças; Brandão-Neto, José

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31) and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31) for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results Our study showed (1) an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2) a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3) increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4) increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5) an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001). Conclusions Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations. PMID:26507491

  6. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maria; Gallai, Beatrice; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years), and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years). The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI) skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC). No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725), gender (P = 0.886), z-body mass index (P = 0.149), or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient) (P = 0.163). The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M-ABC evaluation and in pathologic performance on VMI Total Task compared to controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences between the two study groups were found for pathologic performances on the M-ABC (P = 0.07), VMI Visual Task (P = 0.793), and VMI Motor Task (P = 0.213). Our findings pinpointed that PMNE should not be considered as a voiding disorder alone and, consequently, the children affected should be referred to specific rehabilitative programs that aim to improve motor coordination and visuomotor integration.

  7. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Maria; Gallai, Beatrice; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. Methods The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years), and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years). The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI) skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC). Results No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725), gender (P = 0.886), z-body mass index (P = 0.149), or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient) (P = 0.163). The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M-ABC evaluation and in pathologic performance on VMI Total Task compared to controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences between the two study groups were found for pathologic performances on the M-ABC (P = 0.07), VMI Visual Task (P = 0.793), and VMI Motor Task (P = 0.213). Conclusion Our findings pinpointed that PMNE should not be considered as a voiding disorder alone and, consequently, the children affected should be referred to specific rehabilitative programs that aim to improve motor coordination and visuomotor integration. PMID:23847418

  8. The effect of topiramate on body weight and ghrelin, leptin, and neuropeptide-Y levels of prepubertal children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Ayse Aysima; Serdaroglu, Ayşe; Bideci, Aysun; Arhan, Ebru; Soysal, Şebnem; Demir, Ercan; Gücüyener, Kıvılcım

    2014-08-01

    Weight loss is one of the most frequent side effects of topiramate treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of topiramate on body mass index, serum glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and neuropeptide-Y levels and the role of these variables on the pathogenesis of weight loss in prepubertal children with epilepsy. Twenty prepubertal children with epilepsy who were treated with topiramate were enrolled in the study. Topiramate was used at a daily dose of 5 mg/kg. Body mass index and fasting insulin-to-glucose ratio were calculated. Serum glucose, insulin, leptin, neuropeptide-Y, ghrelin, and cortisol levels were measured for all patients before the treatment and at the third and sixth months of the treatment. There were significant decreases in mean body mass index, fasting insulin-to-glucose ratio, and serum cortisol and leptin levels at the third and sixth months of the treatment compared with pretreatment levels. No significant changes were observed in serum glucose, ghrelin, neuropeptide-Y, or insulin levels. The exact mechanism of topiramate on energy balance regulation is not clearly understood. Topiramate affects body mass index, fasting insulin-to-glucose ratio, and serum leptin and cortisol levels in prepubertal children. These changes may be key factors in weight loss due to topiramate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [EPIDIDYMO-ORCHITIS IN PREPUBERTAL CHILDREN--PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, SUGGESTED DIAGNOSIS ALGORITHM].

    PubMed

    Halachmi, Sarel

    2015-12-01

    Gonadal inflammation (GI) is a common disease that may affect prepubertal boys. Neonates may suffer from bacterial infection due to congenital or aging processes affecting the urinary tract. This inflammatory process is also prevalent in prepubertal boys. However, in this group, the etiology, the needed imaging modalities and proper management have not yet been clearly defined. This manuscript will systematically review the various etiologies causing GI in pre-pubertal boys, discuss the proper imaging needed, and image interpretation and will provide treatment and follow-up recommendations.

  10. Sex Differences in Inflammatory Response and Acid-Base Balance in Prepubertal Children with Severe Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Nicolas; Noyon, Benjamin; Biarent, Dominique; Corazza, Francis; Duchateau, Jean; Casimir, Georges

    2017-04-01

    The severity and prognosis of various acute inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis, differ between males and females. The mechanisms underlying these sex differences probably involve both hormonal and genetic factors. In order to evaluate a possible genetic influence, we reviewed clinical signs and biological inflammatory markers of prepubertal children with severe sepsis admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A total of 142 prepubertal children, 66 girls and 76 boys, suffering from severe sepsis and admitted to the PICU were included. The survival rate demonstrated a tendency to be higher in females (P = 0.14). Maximum white blood cell count (23,800 cells/μL [15,110-34,600] in girls vs. 19,025 cells/μL [12,358-26,098] in boys, P = 0.02), neutrophil count (16,944 cells/μL [10,620-27,540] vs. 13,756 cells/μL [8410-20,110], P = 0.03), and C-reactive protein level (26.2 mg/dL [15.7-33.6] vs. 18.8 mg/dL [11.1-30.0], P = 0.04) were all significantly higher in girls. Girls also exhibited significantly longer fever duration (2 days [1-6] vs. 1 day [1-3] for the boys, P <0.01), lower pH on admission (7.32 [7.25-7.39] vs. 7.37 [7.31-7.43] P = 0.03), and lower base excess (-6 mEq/L [-10.7 to -0.8] vs. -2.3 mEq/L [-6.6 to -2.6], P <0.01), as well as lower bicarbonate levels (19.1 mEq/l [15.9-24.0] vs. 21.15 mEq/l [18.3-26.68], P = 0.04), when compared with the boys. Our study revealed higher neutrophilic inflammation, as well as lower pH on admission, in girls with severe sepsis; associated with longer fever duration, which could contribute to better pathogen clearance. However, further studies are needed to demonstrate the link between acidosis and modulation of the immune response.

  11. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  12. Central adiposity is negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Baym, Carol L; Monti, Jim M; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Moore, R Davis; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2015-02-01

    To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Prepubertal children (age 7-9 years; n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th percentile body mass index [BMI]-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th percentile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks. Performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (ie, percent whole-body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Backward regression identified significant (P < .05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status (SES), IQ, oxygen consumption, and BMI z-score. Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with SES jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of SES and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Regional, but not whole-body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Selected gene polymorphisms effect on skin and hair pigmentation in Polish children at the prepubertal age.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Aneta; Rosset, Iwona; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Siewierska-Górska, Anna; Pietrowska, Edyta; Strapagiel, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    Background: Human pigmentation, similarly as many other biological features, changes in the course of post-natal ontogenesis, while in case of hair, pigmentation changes are more distinctive than in the skin or the iris. It is therefore extremely important to identify the genes, involved in the constitution of human pigmentation features at various stages of ontogenesis. Results of this type of analyses are of high practical significance in forensic study because they enable to create mathematical tools, allowing for prediction of the pigmentation phenotype, based on DNA studies. Aim: The objective of the investigation was finding out whether the genes, associated with pigmentation of adult subjects, differentiated in any way the newly forming pigmentation phenotype in Polish prepubertal children. Material and methods: The study encompassed Polish children, aged 7 to 10 years, without any abnormalities in skin or hair pigmentation. A total of 245 children were examined. Constitutive skin pigmentation according to skin melanin index (SMI) was evaluated, using a dermaspectrometer, and classified into three groups based on the reference values of 25 and 75 percentile for Polish children. Hair colors were evaluated by means of the descriptive Fischer-Saller scale and classified by a division of color variants (as accepted in that scale) (light blonde, blonde, dark blonde, brown and dark brown). In saliva samples, collected from the children, five (5) single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: SNPs: rs1800401 (OCA2-15q11.2-q12), rs35264875 (TPCN2-11q13.3), rs16891982 (SLC45A2-5p13.2), rs12913832 (HERC2-15q13) and rs1805007 (MC1R-16q24.3). An association between each allele of verified genotype and skin and hair color phenotypes was assessed, using the z-statistic and associated p-value. The quality of classifiers was evaluated by 10-fold stratified cross-validation and was characterized by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results

  14. Maternal obesity disturbs the postnatal development of gonocytes in the rat without impairment of testis structure at prepubertal age.

    PubMed

    Christante, Caroline Maria; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether maternal obesity (MO) affects testis development and gonocyte differentiation in the rat from 0.5 to 14.5 postnatal days. Male Wistar rats were used at 0.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 14.5 days post partum (dpp). These rats were born from obese mothers, previously fed with a high-fat diet (20% saturated fat), for 15 weeks, or normal mothers that had received a balanced murine diet (4% lipids). MO did not affect testis weight or histology at birth but changed the migratory behavior of gonocytes. The density of relocated cells was higher in MO pups at 0.5 dpp, decreased at 4.5 dpp, and differed from those of control pups, where density increased exponentially from 0.5 to 7.5 dpp. The numerical density of gonocytes within seminiferous cords did not vary in MO, in relation to control neonates, for any age considered, but the testis weight was 50% lower at 4.5 dpp. A wide variation in plasmatic testosterone and estrogen levels was observed among the groups during the first week of age and MO pups exhibited higher steroid concentrations at 4.5 dpp, in comparison with controls. At this age, higher estrogen levels of MO pups impaired the gonocyte proliferation. At 7.5 dpp, the testicular size and other parameters of gonocyte development are retrieved. In conclusion, MO and saturated lipid diets disturb gonocyte development and sexual steroid levels during the first days of life, with recovery at prepubertal age.

  15. Effect of weight reduction on leptin, total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, T; Gitto, E; Ferraù, V; Munafò, C; Alibrandi, A; Marseglia, G L; Salpietro, A; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Leonardi, S; Ciprandi, G; Salpietro, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate fasting levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, total ghrelin, and obestatin in a group of prepubescent obese children before and after weight loss. We enrolled 64 prepubescent obese children, but only 35 completed the study (mean age 7.6 +- 0.9 years, 19 females) and 20 normal-weight prepubescent children as controls. Fasting plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and leptin, total ghrelin, and obestatin levels were measured at baseline and after a 6-month lifestyle intervention (i.e. improved nutrition and increased physical activity). At baseline, obese children showed significantly (p less than 0.001) higher leptin and obestatin levels, and lower total ghrelin concentrations than control subjects. Weight loss significantly (p less than 0.001) diminished plasma leptin and insulin levels and increased ghrelin and obestatin concentrations. Weight loss in prepubescent children is associated with a significant change in leptin, ghrelin and obestatin concentrations. These results confirm the hypothesis that levels of these hormones are closely associated with obesity in childhood and might take part, as consequence but not as a cause, in glucose, fat, and energy metabolism.

  16. Major cardiac surgery induces an increase in sex steroids in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, Matthias; d'Uscio, Claudia H; de Laffolie, Jan; Neuhaeuser, Christoph; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Thul, Josef; Schranz, Dietmar; Frey, Brigitte M

    2014-03-01

    While the neuroprotective benefits of estrogen and progesterone in critical illness are well established, the data regarding the effects of androgens are conflicting. Surgical repair of congenital heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but there are scant data regarding the postoperative metabolism of sex steroids in this setting. The objective of this prospective observational study was to compare the postoperative sex steroid patterns in pediatric patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (MCS) versus those undergoing less intensive non-cardiac surgery. Urinary excretion rates of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen metabolites (μg/mmol creatinine/m(2) body surface area) were determined in 24-h urine samples before and after surgery using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 29 children undergoing scheduled MCS and in 17 control children undergoing conventional non-cardiac surgery. Eight of the MCS patients had Down's syndrome. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the groups. Seven patients from the MCS group showed multi-organ dysfunction after surgery. Before surgery, the median concentrations of 17β-estradiol, pregnanediol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were (control/MCS) 0.1/0.1 (NS), 12.4/11.3 (NS), 4.7/4.4 (NS), and 2.9/1.1 (p=0.02). Postoperatively, the median delta 17β-estradiol, delta pregnanediol, delta DHT, and delta DHEA were (control/MCS) 0.2/6.4 (p=0.0002), -3.2/23.4 (p=0.013), -0.6/3.7 (p=0.0004), and 0.5/4.2 (p=0.004). Postoperative changes did not differ according to sex. We conclude that MCS, but not less intensive non-cardiac surgery, induced a distinct postoperative increase in sex steroid levels. These findings suggest that sex steroids have a role in postoperative metabolism following MCS in prepubertal children.

  17. Sweating responses to isometric hand-grip exercise and forearm muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and elderly.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Kai, Seiko; Nakajima, Michi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Gerrett, Nicola; Kondo, Narihiko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-thermal factors (e.g. muscle metaboreflex) contribute to the sweating response during exercise. Although it is well recognized that the sweating responses caused by core temperature elevation in prepubertal children and the elderly are attenuated compared with young adults, it is unknown whether non-thermal sweating is also attenuated in these populations. What is the main finding and its importance? The non-thermal sweating response during isometric hand-grip exercise and isolated muscle metaboreflex were attenuated in prepubertal children compared with young adults in a non-uniform manner over the body, but only during the muscle metaboreflex in the elderly. This may explain the maturation- and ageing-related decline of sweating during exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate sweating responses to isometric hand-grip (IH) exercise and muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and the elderly. In hot conditions (ambient temperature, 35°C; relative humidity, 45%), 13 healthy young adults, 10 prepubertal children and 10 elderly subjects (aged 20.4 ± 1.2, 11.4 ± 0.5 and 63.5 ± 3.1 years, respectively) repeated a three hand-grip exercise protocol that consisted of 1 min IH exercise at 15, 30 or 45% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 2 min postexercise forearm occlusion. Local sweat rates (SRs) on the forehead, chest, forearm, thigh and palm were continuously measured (ventilated capsule method). The forehead SR in prepubertal children during IH exercise at 45% MVC was significantly lower than that of young adults (0.26 ± 0.22 and 0.08 ± 0.15 mg cm(-2)  min(-1) for young adults and children, respectively; P < 0.05) but not of the elderly at any exercise intensities. The SR on the chest (0.22 ± 0.22 and -0.01 ± 0.05 mg cm(-2)  min(-1) for young adults and children, respectively), forearm (0.14 ± 0.12 and 0.03 ± 0.04 mg cm(-2)  min(-1) ) and

  18. Bone mineral density in prepubertal children with beta-thalassemia: correlation with growth and hormonal data.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A T; El Banna, N; Abdel Fattah, M; ElZalabani, M M; Ansari, B M

    1998-05-01

    Patients with beta-thalassemia major (beta-thalassemia) frequently have bone disorders of multifactorial etiology. We attempted to analyze the relationship between the bone mineral density ([BMD] measured by dual-photon absorptiometry) and auxanologic parameters, degree of siderosis, function of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) axis, calcium-phosphate balance, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and cytokines (interleukin-1beta [IL-1] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha]) in 30 prepubertal children with beta-thalassemia major and 15 age-matched children with constitutional short stature (CSS), who have normal glucose tolerance and thyroid function. Children with beta-thalassemia had a significantly decreased BMD and mean BMD% for age and sex (0.75+/-0.24 g/cm2 and 71%+/-10%, respectively) versus children with CSS (1.06+/-0.3 g/cm2 and 92%+/-7%, respectively). Thalassemic patients had significantly lower circulating concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP3 (49+/-21 ng/mL and 1.2+/-0.25 mg/L, respectively) compared with control children (153+/-42 ng/mL and 2.1+/-0.37 mg/L, respectively). The GH response to provocation by clonidine and glucagon was defective (peak GH < 7 microg/L) in 12 of the 30 thalassemic children. Serum concentrations of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha did not differ among the two study groups. Hypocalcemia was detected in five of the 30 thalassemic patients: hypoparathyroidism was diagnosed in two of the five and rickets in the other three. BMD was highly correlated with the circulating concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP3, as well as with the auxanologic parameters (age, weight, height, height standard deviation score [HSDS], and body mass index [BMI]). It is suggested that increasing the circulating IGF-I concentration through aggressive nutritional therapy and/or GH/IGF-I therapy with supplementation with vitamin D and/or calcium might improve bone growth and mineralization and prevent the development of

  19. Waist to height ratio: a simple screening tool for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children.

    PubMed

    Özhan, Bayram; Ersoy, Betül; Özkol, Mine; Kiremitci, Seniha; Ergin, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Simple predictors are needed for the screening of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. We aimed to assess the role of anthropometric parameters in the prediction of NAFLD. Three hundred and thirty two obese children (152 male, 180 female) aged 4.6-17.0 years were included in this study. Weight, height, waist (WC), and hip circumference were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), and waist-height-ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Obesity was defined as BMI for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile. NAFLD was diagnosed using ultrasonography (US). NAFLD was present in 60.8% of obese children. Fatty liver prevalence differed significantly by gender and puberty (55.0% of girls vs 67.7% of boys, and 28.7% in prepubertal vs 71.3% in pubertal children; p < 0.05). Significantly higher BMI, BMI standard deviation score (SDS), WC, and WHtR were found in obese children with NAFLD compared to obese children without NAFLD (p < 0.05). Only WHtR was found to be an independent predictor for NAFLD in a logistic regression analysis (p < 0.001, B:1.096, 95% CI 1.047-1.148). Fatty liver is common among obese children, particularly in obese boys. WHtR is a simple and easy index for predicting of NAFLD in obese children and can be used for mass screening in public health.

  20. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty. PMID:23610607

  1. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty.

  2. Bone Density, Osteocalcin and Deoxypyridinoline for Early Detection of Osteoporosis in Obese Children.

    PubMed

    El-Dorry, Ghada; Ashry, Hala; Ibrahim, Tarek; Elias, Tahany; Alzaree, Fatma

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed at comparing between bone density using DEXA, serum osteocalcin and urinary DPD in obese and non obese prepubertal children. After taking the consent of eighty children they were subjected to: full examination, anthropometric measurements, blood samples were withdrawn to determine serum osteocalcin, Ca, Ph, alkaline phosphatase, and urinary DPD. Bone densities, body composition of the whole body were examined using DEXA. Data were analyzed using SPSS. All anthropometric variables showed significant increase in obese children except for height in comparison to control group. Total mass, lean + BMC, lean, fat, area, BMC, BMD and Z score of the whole body were significantly increased in obese children. Serum calcium showed significant increase while alkaline phosphatase was significantly decreased in obese children. DPD showed no significant difference between obese and non obese children. Significant negative correlation was found between ca, lean, lean + BMC and total mass. Serum alkaline phosphatase showed also a significant negative correlation with (lean + BMC and total mass). Serum osteocalcin showed negative significant correlation with area, BMC, BMD, lean and Z score. Obese children showed significant increase in anthropometric and DEXA parameters, increase in serum calcium and significant decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase. Osteocalcin was negatively correlated with most of DEXA results.

  3. Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation Profile, Unrelated to Homocysteinemia, in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    V. Economou, Emanuel; V. Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne; P. Pitsavos, Christos; E. Kouskouni, Evangelia; Magaziotou-Elefsinioti, Ioanna; Creatsas, George

    2005-01-01

    To investigate in prepubertal obese children (POC) the profile of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation (CLGSI) and its relation to homocysteinemia, 72 POC were evaluated for serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and amyloid A (SAA) levels, both markers of CLGSI, and plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), an independent risk factor for adult atherosclerosis, in comparison to 42 prepubertal lean children (PLC). The main observations in POC were higher CRP levels compared to PLC, positive association of SAA levels to CRP levels, no association of CRP or SAA levels to tHcy levels. Thus, in POC, positively interrelated to each other, elevated CRP and unaltered SAA levels reveal a unique profile of the CLGSI, not explaining homocysteinemia-induced risk for future atherosclerosis. PMID:16489253

  4. The effects of a high calcium dairy food on bone health in pre-pubertal children in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Megan J; Gilchrist, Nigel L; Frampton, Christopher; Maguire, Patricia; Reilly, Penelope H; March, Rachel L; Wall, Clare R

    2004-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence is the period of most rapid skeletal growth in an individual's lifetime. A greater peak bone mass achieved in the first 2-3 decades of life, may protect against the risk of osteoporotic fracture in later life. The aim of this randomized, controlled study was to assess in pre-pubertal boys and girls (aged 8-10 years) the effect of 18 months of a calcium enriched, cocoa flavoured product on bone density, bone growth and bone size in New Zealand children. One hundred and fifty four pre-pubertal boys and girls (aged 8-10 years) were randomized to receive a high calcium dairy drink or a control drink reconstituted with water for 18 months. They were assessed at baseline and then every 6 months for the first 18 months, while they were having the supplement; they were then followed up 12 months after supplementation had finished. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were assessed at the total body, hip and spine. Indicators of bone size (vertebral width and height) were also measured at the spine. Anthropometric data was collected, medical history questionnaires were administered (including the Tanner or pubertal stage questionnaire), dietary calcium intake was assessed with a calcium food frequency questionnaire and calcium supplement compliance was determined. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups for bone mineral density or bone mineral content at any time point. There was no difference in vertebral height or width at any stage of the study, indicating no additional influence on bone size at the lumbar vertebrae. There were no significant differences between height, weight, lean mass or fat mass at any time point. Both groups had higher habitual calcium intakes than recommended for this age group going into the study and throughout the study. In this 2(1/2) year study (18 months supplementation, 1 year follow-up) we did not observe a difference in bone mineral density in pre-pubertal children. This was probably due

  5. Relationship between body mass index and adiposity in prepubertal children: ethnic and geographic comparisons between New York City and Jinan City (China)

    PubMed Central

    Navder, Khursheed P.; He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Thornton, John; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is often used as a surrogate estimate of percent body fat in epidemiological studies. This study tested the hypothesis that BMI is representative of body fatness independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and geographic location in prepubertal children. The study sample included a total of 605 prepubertal children (275 girls and 330 boys) of which 247 were Chinese from Jinan, Shandong, Mainland China, and 358 children were from various ethnic backgrounds in New York City (NYC): 121 Caucasians, 94 African Americans, and 143 Asians (Chinese and Korean). In this cross-sectional study, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify total body fat (TBF) and percent body fat (PBF). Prepubertal status was assessed by the criteria of Tanner. Multiple regression models were developed with TBF and PBF as the dependent variables and BMI, age, sex, and ethnicity as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI alone explained 85% and 69% of between-subject variance for TBF and PBF, respectively. Sex was a significant contributor to the models (P < 0.001) with girls having higher TBF and PBF than boys. Ethnicity and geographic location were significant contributors to the model (P < 0.0001) with Asians (Jinan and NYC Asians) having higher PBF than all non-Asian groups (P < 0.0001), and Jinan Asians having higher TBF and PBF than NYC-Asians. Among prepubertal children, for the same BMI, Asians have significantly higher PBF compared with African Americans and Caucasians. Caution is warranted when applying BMI across sex and ethnic prepubertal groups. PMID:19541740

  6. Effects of yoga training and detraining on physical performance measures in prepubertal children--a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Crystal; Avadhany, Sandhya T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of yoga training and detraining on physical performance measures in pre-pubertal (7-9 year old) school going children. Subjects were randomized to two groups - yoga group and Physical exercise (PE) group after the baseline assessment. All the subjects were assessed for strength, endurance, whole body endurance through 20 meter shuttle and physical fitness, at 3 time points - Baseline, 3 months Post intervention and 3 months after detraining. The results suggest that the improvement in the physical performance is largely by the increase in the respiratory muscle strength in the yoga group. In conclusion, the study presents the efficacy of yoga to improve strength, endurance, whole body endurance and aerobic capacity with 3 months of training in the pediatric group. However, the effect of the training does not last after 3 months detraining.

  7. Causes and risks for obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... genes. Genetics is not the only cause of obesity. To become obese, children must also eat more calories than they need for growth and energy. Obesity may be linked to rare genetic conditions, such as Prader Willi syndrome .

  8. Metabolic syndrome among prepubertal Brazilian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Silva, Edina Mariko Koga da; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini

    2008-11-01

    This was a two-stage cross-sectional study that assessed metabolic syndrome and associated factors among prepubertal schoolchildren. In the first stage, nutritional status, blood pressure, personal (low birth weight) and family antecedents for cardiovascular disease (CVD) were collected. In the second stage, schoolchildren with at least one of these criteria participated: obesity, personal or family history. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by ATP III and WHO definitions. Among 929 (6-10 year old) schoolchildren, 27.7% presented with overweight/obesity, 12.2% hypertension, and personal (9.4%) and family (35.3%) antecedents. 205 children finished the second stage. The frequencies of MS-ATP and MS-WHO were 9.3% and 1.9%. Among the obese, MS was present in 25.8% (ATP) and 5.2% (WHO). Children with normal weight presented: low HDL (23.6%), hyperglycaemia (3.6%), HOMA-IR (0.9%) and MS-ATP (0.9%). In conclusion, overweight/obesity was associated with metabolic syndrome in schoolchildren. It was found that children with normal weight with personal and/or family antecedents presented with HOMA-IR and MS-ATP.

  9. Body Fat Mass Is Associated With Ratio of Steroid Metabolites Reflecting 17,20-Lyase Activity in Prepubertal Girls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hye; Moon, Ju-Yeon; Sasano, Hironobu; Choi, Man Ho; Park, Mi-Jung

    2016-12-01

    Pediatric obesity has been related to hyperandrogenism and premature adrenarche in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the association between body fat mass and steroidogenic enzyme activities in children. To examine whether body fat mass is associated with serum steroid profiles in girls. We enrolled 242 girls (125 prepubertal, 117 pubertal; age, 7-13 years). Early morning blood samples were drawn at a university hospital to measure serum steroid profiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and steroidogenic enzyme activities were assessed from the ratios of steroid metabolites. We evaluated serum steroid profiles and estimated steroidogenic enzyme activities and their association with anthropometric indices and body composition. Prepubertal obese girls demonstrated significantly higher progestin, androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], androstenedione [A-dione], T, androsterone), and ratio of steroid metabolites reflecting 17,20-lyase activity [(DHEA + A-dione)/17-hydroxypregnenolone] compared with prepubertal controls. Pubertal obese girls demonstrated significantly higher serum T and androsterone than pubertal controls; however, serum steroid metabolite ratios reflecting steroidogenic enzyme activities did not significantly differ among obese and non-obese girls. Partial correlation analysis revealed that body fat mass was positively correlated with pregnenolone, DHEA, A-dione, T, androsterone, and ratio of (DHEA + A-dione)/17-hydroxypregnenolone in prepubertal girls only. Prepubertal girls with increased body fat mass had significantly higher serum DHEA and ratio of (DHEA + A-dione)/17-hydroxypregnenolone than controls. Increased androgen production in prepubertal obese girls could be at least partly due to increased body fat mass and 17,20-lyase activity.

  10. Defining overweight and obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these in adults. In ... than 95% (95 out of 100) of other children their age and sex, they are considered overweight or obese.

  11. Are Pediatricians Diagnosing Obese Children?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katharine; Urrego, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pediatric obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in American children. The detrimental social, psychological, and physiological effects of obesity call for pediatricians to address this health concern. The literature demonstrates that clinicians are underreporting the diagnosis of obesity in the pediatric setting. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if pediatricians at one pediatrics clinic in the Ochsner Health System are documenting the presence of an overweight or obese body mass index (BMI) as a diagnosis in the medical record. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine the demographics of all pediatric patients in the Ochsner Health System to be used for program development. Methods: A retrospective medical record review was conducted. Records from April 1, 2012 to April 1, 2016, were reviewed for the presence of the diagnosis of BMI classified as obese or overweight. Results: We analyzed a total of 175,066 records in this study. Of these records, 1.32% documented a diagnosis of obesity, and 0.5% documented a BMI score indicating overweight. The percentages of patient visits that met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria to be classified as obese or overweight were 28.66% and 30.41%, respectively. The majority of our pediatric patients were male (51.76%), white (43.31%), and 5-12 years old (43.80%). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that pediatricians at Ochsner Health Center for Children are not diagnosing patients who have unhealthy BMI scores as overweight or obese. Interventions are needed to increase the identification of children who may benefit from receiving resources that encourage a healthy lifestyle and optimal weight maintenance. PMID:28331453

  12. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level.

    PubMed

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel; Monteau, Fabrice; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2007-03-14

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view, especially with regard to the corresponding endogenous production level in this target population. As a starting point, it was estimated that a (re)-evaluation of the endogenous production of natural estrogens for this population was necessary, on the basis of a very sensitive and specific confirmatory measurement technique (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry). Thus, a new ultra-sensitive approach for steroid trace measurement in biological samples was developed, which was mainly based on a specific derivatisation (pentafluorobenzyl derivative) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI). Preliminary results obtained by applying this method on plasma samples from healthy prepubertal children demonstrated that estradiol endogenous level in prepubertal children is unsurprisingly very low. Estrone was determined in almost all samples at concentration in the 2-70 ng L(-1) range while 17alpha and 17beta estradiol were quantified in only few samples at concentrations ranging from 2 to 6 ng L(-1). Exogenous contributions of estrogens will therefore constitute a relatively higher proportion of sex hormone activity in the immature child.

  13. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Schoeneman, Samantha E; Zhang, Huiyuan; Kwon, Soyang; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Shore, Richard M; Josefson, Jami L

    2015-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of

  14. Predicting Spontaneous Stone Passage in Prepubertal Children: A Single Institution Cohort.

    PubMed

    Dangle, Pankaj; Ayyash, Omar; Shaikh, Humza; Stephany, Heidi A; Cannon, Glenn M; Schneck, Francis X; Ost, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    No method currently exists for predicting which young child with a renal or ureteral stone will require surgery as opposed to pass the stone. Our goals were to analyze practice patterns at a major pediatric center and to identify factors that predicted spontaneous stone passage. A retrospective review of all prepubertal patients (≤ 11 years) presenting to our institution from January 2005 to July 2014 with symptomatic nephrolithiasis was performed. Demographic data and stone details were reviewed, including anatomic location, size, and outcomes. Spontaneous stone passage was determined by parental report and/or stone absence on imaging obtained within 6 months after initial diagnosis. A total of 119 eligible patients were identified, with an average age of 88.7 months (4-143). Forty eight (40.3%) patients spontaneously passed their stone and the remaining 59.7% required endoscopic intervention. Overall, 79.0% had symptomatic presentation (flank pain, hematuria) and 39.5% of patients were obstructing stones. Symptomatic presentation was more common with ureteral (86.5%) than with renal (66.7%) stones, but was not associated with increased passage of stones in general (p-value 0.1765). Of the 48 patients who spontaneously passed stones, 11 (24.4%) were renal stones compared with 37 (50.0%) ureteral stones. The average size of spontaneously passed stones was 3.5 mm (2-8) for renal and 3.4 mm (1-7) for ureteral stones. Based on logistic regression, the single most important predictor of stone passage was stone size (p-value <0.001). The odds of passage were 3.1 times higher for ureteral stones compared with renal stones (p = 0.0070) when not controlling for size. In prepubertal patients, ureteral stones with an average size of 3.5 mm or less are more likely to pass spontaneously. Based on this information, watchful waiting is a reasonable option in clinically stable nonseptic patients with renal/ureteral stones of this size.

  15. Effect of weight loss on high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese children.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Martínez, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico; Argente, Jesús

    2010-12-01

    Our aim was to determine the influence of weight reduction on total (T-) and high-molecular weight (HMW-) adiponectin in obese (OB) prepubertal children. Seventy OB prepubertal white patients were followed for 18 months and studied after reducing their BMI by 1 (n = 51) and 2 standard deviation scores (SDS) (n = 21) under conservative treatment, and 6 months after achieving weight loss (n = 44). Body composition dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum levels of T- and HMW-adiponectin, resistin, leptin, leptin soluble receptor (sOB-R), tumoral necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were determined. The control group consisted of 61 healthy prepubertal children. At diagnosis T-adiponectin was higher (P < 0.01; confidence interval (+0.04) - (+0.15)) and HMW-adiponectin lower (P < 0.001; confidence interval (-0.45) - (-0.21)) in OB children than in controls. A reduction in body fat increased T- and HMW-adiponectin and sOB-R (all P < 0.001) and decreased leptin (P < 0.001) and interleukin-6 levels (P < 0.05). After 6 months of sustained weight reduction a decrease in tumoral necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01) occurred, whereas weight recovery increased leptin (P < 0.001) and decreased T-adiponectin (P < 0.05). HMW-adiponectin levels negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and BMI in the whole cohort (both P < 0.001), as did T-adiponectin levels and HOMA index in OB patients (P < 0.01), but neither T- nor HMW-adiponectin correlated with body fat content (BFC) in OB children. We conclude that the impairment of T- and HMW-adiponectin levels in childhood obesity is different to that in elder OB patients, showing closer relationship with carbohydrate metabolism parameters than with BFC, but increasing their levels after weight loss and in association with metabolic improvement.

  16. There's Something about Obesity: Culture, Contagion, Rationality, and Children's Responses to Drinks "Created" by Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Theories of the development of obesity stereotypes cannot easily explain the stigma associated with being obese. Evidence that important similarities exist between the symptoms of obesity and contagious illnesses, young children have "theories" of illnesses, and obesity stereotypes are among the earliest that children develop led to the hypothesis…

  17. Pre-Pubertal Children Born Post-Term Have Reduced Insulin Sensitivity and Other Markers of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ayyavoo, Ahila; Derraik, José G. B.; Hofman, Paul L.; Mathai, Sarah; Biggs, Janene; Stone, Peter; Sadler, Lynn; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are no data on the metabolic consequences of post-term birth (≥42 weeks gestation). We hypothesized that post-term birth would adversely affect insulin sensitivity, as well as other metabolic parameters and body composition in childhood. Methods 77 healthy pre-pubertal children, born appropriate-for-gestational-age were studied in Auckland, New Zealand: 36 born post-term (18 boys) and 41 (27 boys) born at term (38–40 weeks gestation). Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergman’s minimal model. Other assessments included fasting hormone concentrations and lipid profiles, body composition from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and inflammatory markers. Results Insulin sensitivity was 34% lower in post-term than in term children (7.7 vs. 11.6 x10-4·min-1·(mU/l); p<0.0001). There was a compensatory increase in acute insulin response among post-term children (418 vs 304 mU/l; p=0.037), who also displayed lower glucose effectiveness than those born at term (2.25 vs 3.11 x10-2·min-1; p=0.047). Post-term children not only had more body fat (p=0.014) and less fat-free mass (p=0.014), but also had increased central adiposity with more truncal fat (p=0.017) and greater android to gynoid fat ratio (p=0.007) compared to term controls. Further, post-term children displayed other markers of the metabolic syndrome: lower normal nocturnal systolic blood pressure dipping (p=0.027), lower adiponectin concentrations (p=0.005), as well as higher leptin (p=0.008) and uric acid (p=0.033) concentrations. Post-term boys (but not girls) also displayed a less favourable lipid profile, with higher total cholesterol (p=0.018) and LDL-C (p=0.006) concentrations, and total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (p=0.048). Conclusions Post-term children have reduced insulin sensitivity and display a number of early markers of the metabolic syndrome. These findings

  18. Getting to the Height of the Matter: The Relationship between Stature and Adiposity in Pre-Pubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lynae J.; Newton, Anna L.; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Objective Height has been inversely associated with cardiometabolic disease, with adiposity as the proposed contributor. Childhood represents a time when underlying metabolic pathways converge to determine growth. Although the extent to which influence is relevant, insulin, as a key growth signaling factor, likely provides key insight into mechanisms linking height and adiposity. Insulin concentration displays well-established sex and racial differences, with hyperinsulinemia more common among African Americans (AA) females relative to European Americans (EA). The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between height and adiposity in children. In addition, a secondary objective was to evaluate potential moderation by insulin concentration. Design Seventy-two pre-pubertal children aged 4–10 years (μ=6.6 ± .2) participated. Main Outcome Measures Percent fat was assessed by DXA and fasting insulin by serum assay. Results Height was positively associated with percent fat in the overall sample (P=.04). When evaluated according to age, an association was identified at age seven years (P=.02). When evaluated by sex, a positive relationship was apparent only in AA girls (P=.05). Inclusion of insulin in the model attenuated all significant associations, barring marginal significance in those aged seven years (P=.08). Conclusions A positive relationship between height and adiposity is apparent, particularly among those in younger years, which is contrary to what has been consistently reported in adults. Interestingly, age seven years was identified as a point of race-associated divergence in body composition. The degree to which growth-related processes in childhood underlie developmental origins of health disparities warrants further study. PMID:23495625

  19. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia: a five-year dose-response trial.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten; Aronson, Stefan; Westphal, Otto; Sipilä, Ilkka; Kaitila, Ilkka; Bland, Jon; Veimo, Dag; Müller, Jørn; Mohnike, Klaus; Neumeyer, Lo; Ritzen, Martin; Hagenäs, Lars

    2005-10-01

    Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. Patients were randomized to either 0.1 IU/kg (n = 18) or 0.2 IU/kg (n = 17) per day. GH treatment was interrupted for 12 mo after 2 y of treatment in prepubertal patients to study catch-down growth. Mean height SDS (HSDS) at start was -5.6 and -5.2 for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively, and mean age 7.3 and 6.6 y. Mean growth velocity (baseline 4.5/4.6 cm/y for the groups) increased significantly by 1.9/3.6 cm/y during the first year and by 0.5/1.5 cm/y during the second year. During the third year, a decrease of growth velocity was observed at 1.9/1.3 cm/y below baseline values. HSDS increased significantly by 0.6/0.8 during the first year of treatment and in total by 1.3/1.6 during the 5 y of study. Sitting height SDS improved significantly from -2.1/-1.7 to -0.8/0.2 during the study. Body proportion (sitting height/total height) or arm span did not show any significant change. GH treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature.

  20. Mental disorders in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vila, Gilbert; Zipper, Ewa; Dabbas, Myriam; Bertrand, Catherine; Robert, Jean Jacques; Ricour, Claude; Mouren-Siméoni, Marie Christine

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the type and frequency of psychiatric disorders in obese children and adolescents; to assess the correlation between psychopathology and severity of obesity; to explore the relationship between psychiatric disorders in obese children and obesity and psychopathology in their parents. One hundred fifty-five children referred and followed for obesity were evaluated (98 girls and 57 boys; age, 5 to 17 years). Psychiatric disorders were assessed through a standardized diagnostic interview schedule (K-SADS R) and self-report questionnaires completed by the child (STAIC Trait-anxiety and CDI for depression) or his (her) parents (CBCL or GHQ). These obese children were compared with insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) outpatient children (N = 171) on questionnaire data. Eighty-eight obese children obtained a DSM-IV diagnosis, most often an anxiety disorder (N = 63). Psychological disorders were particularly pronounced in those obese children whose parents were disturbed. There was no correlation between severity of obesity in the child or his (her) parents and frequency of psychiatric disorders. Compared with diabetic children, they displayed significantly higher internalized and externalized questionnaire scores and poorer social skills. These results highlight the importance of including a child psychiatric component in the treatment of obesity, which must engage the whole family.

  1. Relation of oxygen uptake to work rate in prepubertal healthy children - reference for VO2/W-slope and effect on cardiorespiratory fitness assessment.

    PubMed

    Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-08-09

    Exercise testing by cycle ergometer allows to observe the interaction between oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and workload (W), and VO2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. Respectively, peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK ) can be estimated by maximal workload. We aim to determine reference for VO2 /W-slope among prepubertal children and define agreement between estimated and measured VO2PEAK . A total of 38 prepubertal children (20 girls) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with respiratory gas analysis. VO2 /W-slopes were computed using linear regression. Agreement analysis by Bland and Altman for estimated and measured VO2PEAK was carried out including limits of agreement (LA). Determinants for VO2 /W-slopes and estimation bias were defined. VO2/W-slope was in both girls and boys ≥9·4 and did not change with exercise level, but the oxygen cost of exercise was higher among physically more active children. Estimated VO2PEAK had 6·4% coefficient of variation, and LA varied from 13% underestimation to 13% overestimation. Bias had a trend towards underestimation along lean mass proportional VO2PEAK . The primary determinant for estimation bias was VO2/W-slope (β = -0·65; P<0·001). The reference values for VO2 /W-slope among healthy prepubertal children were similar to those published for adults and among adolescents. Estimated and measured VO2PEAK should not be considered to be interchangeable because of the variation in the relationship between VO2 and W. On other hand, variation in the relationship between VO2 and W enables that VO2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Galactocele in a Prepubertal Girl.

    PubMed

    Alaniz, Veronica I; Jeudy, Myrlene; Pearlman, Mark; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2017-08-01

    Galactoceles have been previously described as an unusual cause of benign breast enlargement in male infants and children. A 3-year-old prepubertal girl presented with a right-sided breast mass and was found to have a 4.4-cm hypoechoic cyst on ultrasound imaging with otherwise normal endocrine studies including prolactin levels. She underwent cyst aspiration which revealed milky fluid. Fat globules were identified with microscopic examination, confirming the diagnosis of a galactocele. Aspiration resolved the mass. The etiology of galactoceles in nonlactating women is poorly understood. Traditionally, treatment of these benign cysts in male children has been surgical excision. In prepubertal girls, conservative management by surveillance or needle aspiration is warranted to prevent damage to developing breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Twelve-month effectiveness of a parent-led, family-focused weight-management program for prepubertal children: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Golley, Rebecca K; Magarey, Anthea M; Baur, Louise A; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Daniels, Lynne A

    2007-03-01

    Parenting-skills training may be an effective age-appropriate child behavior-modification strategy to assist parents in addressing childhood overweight. Our goal was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of parenting-skills training as a key strategy for the treatment of overweight children. The design consisted of an assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled trial involving 111 (64% female) overweight, prepubertal children 6 to 9 years of age randomly assigned to parenting-skills training plus intensive lifestyle education, parenting-skills training alone, or a 12-month wait-listed control. Height, BMI, and waist-circumference z score and metabolic profile were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months (intention to treat). After 12 months, the BMI z score was reduced by approximately 10% with parenting-skills training plus intensive lifestyle education versus approximately 5% with parenting-skills training alone or wait-listing for intervention. Waist-circumference z score fell over 12 months in both intervention groups but not in the control group. There was a significant gender effect, with greater reduction in BMI and waist-circumference z scores in boys compared with girls. Parenting-skills training combined with promoting a healthy family lifestyle may be an effective approach to weight management in prepubertal children, particularly boys. Future studies should be powered to allow gender subanalysis.

  4. Controlled Study of Encopresis and Enuresis in Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar-I Disorder Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klages, Tricia; Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Bolhofner, Kristine; Zimerman, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  5. Controlled Study of Encopresis and Enuresis in Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar-I Disorder Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klages, Tricia; Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Bolhofner, Kristine; Zimerman, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  6. Nutritional status and metabolic disorders in HIV-exposed uninfected prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Claudio, Cristiane Chiantelli; Patin, Rose Vega; Palchetti, Cecília Zanin; Machado, Daisy Maria; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes; Oliveira, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status and metabolic alterations in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIVe) children compared with HIV-unexposed (HIVn) children. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 76 children distributed into two groups: HIVe (n = 31) and HIVn (n = 45). Biochemical data (hematologic test, lipid profile, insulin resistance, hepatic profile, and C-reactive protein) were evaluated. Anthropometric parameters and body composition analyses were performed. The groups were similar regarding body mass index-for-age z-scores (P = 0.297) and height-for-age z-scores (P = 0.666). HIVe had a higher dyslipidemia prevalence (38.7% versus 11.1%; P = 0.010), altered total cholesterol (TC) values (19.4% versus 2.2%; P = 0.016) higher LDL-C mean levels (97.8 mg/dl versus 86 mg/dl; P = 0.028), borderline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (40% versus 14%; P = 0.011) and TC (41.9% versus 20%; P = 0.038) compared with HIVn. Despite the similar nutritional status between groups, our data clearly demonstrated a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia, altered TC, higher LDL-C levels and also LDL-C and TC borderline values in HIVe children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic effects of antipsychotics in prepubertal children: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Tanya; Midbari, Yael; Shmilovitz, Ronen; Kosov, Ira; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Ram, Anca

    2014-05-01

    Antipsychotics, especially atypical ones, are in common use in children and adolescents with psychotic or affective spectrum disorders, as well as in various other psychopathologies. The adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics in children and adolescents are similar to those seen in adults, and include weight gain, elevated blood glucose levels, and hyperlipidemia. In this retrospective chart review, we compared these adverse events in children who were treated with typical, atypical, or no antipsychotic treatment. The medical charts of 72 children, 65 boys and 7 girls, were reviewed. All children were 6-13 years old (mean age 9.5±1.7 years). In total, 48 children received antipsychotic treatment, and 24 children were in the control group. Data were extracted from the medical charts, including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose blood levels. We examined the values in the beginning of the antipsychotic treatment and at release from the hospital in the study group, and at admission and in the end of the drug-free period or at release from the hospital (a duration of at least 4 weeks) in the control group. The average weight gain was 3.9±3.8 kg in the atypical antipsychotic treatment (AAT) group, 1.1±4.4 kg in the typical antipsychotic treatment (TAT) group, and 0.23±2.9 kg in the control group. The average increase in BMI was 15.1±22.0 percentiles in the AAT group, 6.4±14.2 percentiles in the TAT group, and 1.6±12.5 percentiles in the control group. No statistically significant difference was found in the increase in height percentile. There were no significant differences in the rates of elevated values of serum triglycerides, cholesterol, AST, ALT, or fasting blood glucose. We found a significant increase in both absolute weight gain and BMI percentile following atypical antipsychotic treatment. In contrast, typical

  8. High fat diet-induced obesity reduces bone formation through activation of ppar gamma to suppress wnt/beta-catenin signaling in prepubertal rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of a high fat diet (HFD) and of obesity on skeletal development, maturation and remodeling remain largely unclear particularly in children. In this report, we utilized a total enteral nutrition (TEN) model to examine the direct effect of HFD feeding on bone prior to puberty. We chronical...

  9. Baseline Body Composition in Prepubertal Short Stature Children with Severe and Moderate Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Klesiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare body composition parameters in short children with severe versus moderate and no growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Design and Method. 61 children (40 boys) were studied. Height SDS, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (W/HtR), and body composition parameters (BIA) as fat tissue (FAT%), fat-free mass (FFM%), predicted muscle mass (PMM%), and total body water (TBW%) were evaluated. GH secretion in the overnight profile and two stimulation tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level were measured. Results. Overall, in 16 (26%) moderate (7.0 > peak GH < 10 ng/mL) and in 11 (18%) severe (GH ≤ 7.0 ng/mL) GHD was diagnosed. In children with sGHD BMI Z-score, W/HtR and FAT% were significantly higher, while FFM%, PMM%, and TBW% were significantly lower versus mGHD and versus noGHD subgroups. No significant differences between mGHD and noGHD were found. There were no differences in height SDS and IGF-1 SDS between evaluated subgroups. Night GH peak level correlated significantly with FAT%, FFM%, PMM%, and TBW%, (p < 0.05) in the entire group. Conclusions. Only sGHD is associated with significant impairment of body composition. Body composition analysis may be a useful tool in distinguishing between its severe and moderate form of GHD. PMID:27656208

  10. Biceps skin-fold thickness may detect and predict early lipoatrophy in HIV-infected pre-pubertal children on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Steve; Schulte-Kemna, Eva; Cotton, Mark F.; Zöllner, Ekkehard Werner; Haubrich, Richard; Klinker, Hartwig; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Edson, Clair; van Niekerk, Margaret; Ryan, Emily; Rabie, Helena; Browne, Sara H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of lipoatrophy in children on antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa is high, affecting around a third of children. Early diagnosis of lipoatrophy is essential for effective intervention to arrest progression. Methods Pre-pubertal children on antiretroviral therapy were recruited from a hospital-based family HIV clinic in Cape Town and followed up prospectively. Lipoatrophy was identified and graded by consensus between two HIV pediatricians. A dietician performed anthropometric measurements of trunk and limb fat. Anthropometric measurements in children with and without lipoatrophy were compared using multivariable linear regression adjusting for age and gender. The most discerning anthropometric indicators of lipoatrophy underwent Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. The precision of anthropometric measurements performed by an inexperienced healthcare worker was compared to a research dietician. Results 36/100 recruits had lipoatrophy at baseline and a further 9 developed lipoatrophy by 15 month follow-up. Annual incidence of lipoatrophy was 12% (CI: 5–20%) per person-year of follow-up. A biceps skin-fold thickness <5mm at baseline had a sensitivity of 89% (CI: 67–100%) and a specificity of 60% (CI: 46–75%) for predicting which children would go on to develop lipoatrophy by 15 month follow-up. Negative and positive predictive values were 97% (CI: 91–100%) and 32% (CI: 14–50%). Conclusion Biceps skin-fold thickness <5mm in pre-pubertal children exposed to thymidine analogue-based antiretroviral therapy may be a useful screening tool to identify children who are likely to go on to develop lipoatrophy. The variation in precision of measurements performed by an inexperienced healthcare worker only marginally impacted performance. PMID:23249919

  11. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  12. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Márcia; Melges, Ana Paula B.; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel S.; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz A.; Sarni, Roseli Oselka S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2). Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room) for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL), lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides), oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes) and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62%) and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57%) subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10%) and 36/61 (59%), respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001)]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents. PMID:24676190

  13. Evaluation of appetite-stimulating hormones in prepubertal children with epilepsy during topiramate treatment.

    PubMed

    Okuyaz, Cetin; Kursel, Onur; Komur, Mustafa; Tamer, Lulufer

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the mechanism of topiramate-related appetite loss and exposed its relationship to body weight, body mass index, body fat index, and serum insulin, lipid, leptin, neuropeptide-Y, cortisol, ghrelin, and adiponectin levels. Twenty children with epilepsy were evaluated at baseline and months 3 and 6 of treatment. Their body fat index, leptin, and neuropeptide-Y levels significantly decreased at month 3, whereas significant decreases occurred in body weight, body mass index, body fat index, neuropeptide-Y, cholesterol, and cortisol levels of patients at month 6 compared with baseline. Weight loss during topiramate treatment was attributed to loss of appetite and reduced food intake caused by reductions in neuropeptide-Y. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe reductions in neuropeptide-Y with topiramate use in humans.

  14. Dietary fiber is positively associated with cognitive control among prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence now indicates that aerobic fitness and adiposity are key correlates of childhood cognitive function and brain health. However, the evidence relating dietary intake to executive function/cognitive control remains limited. The current study assessed cross-sectional associations between performance on an attentional inhibition task and dietary fatty acids (FAs), fiber, and overall diet quality among children aged 7-9 y (n = 65). Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task. Three-day food records were used to conduct nutrient-level analyses and to calculate diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2005) scores. Bivariate correlations revealed that socioeconomic status and sex were not related to task performance or diet measures. However, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), pubertal staging, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and percentage of fat mass (%fat mass) correlated with task accuracy. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the relation between diet variables and task accuracy and reaction time across both congruent and incongruent trials of the flanker task. After adjustment of confounding variables (age, IQ, pubertal staging, V̇O2max, and %fat mass), congruent accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.26, P = 0.03) and total dietary fiber (β = 0.23, P = 0.05). Incongruent response accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.35, P < 0.01), pectins (β = 0.25, P = 0.04), and total dietary fiber (β = 0.32, P < 0.01). Higher diet quality was related to lower accuracy interference (β = -0.26, P = 0.03), whereas higher total FA intake was related to greater accuracy interference (β = 0.24, P = 0.04). No statistically significant associations were observed between diet variables and reaction time measures. These results demonstrate that children's diet quality, specifically dietary fiber, is an important correlate of performance on a cognitive task requiring variable

  15. Metabolic effects of long-term growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with chronic renal failure and after kidney transplantation. The German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Nissel, R; Wühl, E; Schaefer, F; Bettendorf, M; Tönshoff, B; Mehls, O

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the metabolic effects of long-term treatment with recombinant human (rh) GH in short children with chronic renal failure (CRF), annual oral glucose tolerance tests (oGTT) during rhGH therapy for up to 5 y in 53 prepubertal children with CRF on conservative treatment, dialysis, and after renal transplantation were compared with that of 12 age-matched children treated with rhGH for idiopathic short stature. At the start of rhGH treatment, fasting values of glucose, insulin, glycosylated Hb A (HbA1C), triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin responses during oGTT were significantly elevated in all patient groups compared with control subjects (p < 0.001). In the total population, fasting and 2-h postprandial glucose concentrations were inversely correlated with GFR and positively with age and methylprednisolone dosage in transplanted patients. Fasting insulin levels were positively correlated with body mass index and inversely with GFR. RhGH treatment was not associated with a change in fasting or stimulated glucose concentrations in any treatment group throughout the observation period. In contrast, serum insulin levels increased during the first treatment year in all groups, resulting in a more marked elevation of integrated insulin levels in transplant (1402 +/- 179 pM) and dialysis (1025 +/- 114 pM) patients compared with conservatively treated patients (829 +/- 94 pM), and control subjects (719 +/- 89 pM) (p < 0.01). Hyperinsulinemia persisted in all treatment groups for up to 5 y of follow-up. In conclusion, age, renal function, and obesity are the major independent predictors of glucose tolerance in children with CRF. Long-term rhGH treatment does not affect glucose tolerance, but aggravates the preexisting hyperinsulinemia in children with end-stage renal disease. In concert with the dyslipidemia of uremia, the rhGH-promoted hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the long-term risk for premature atherosclerosis in patients with childhood onset

  16. Dietary Fiber Is Positively Associated with Cognitive Control among Prepubertal Children12

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Converging evidence now indicates that aerobic fitness and adiposity are key correlates of childhood cognitive function and brain health. However, the evidence relating dietary intake to executive function/cognitive control remains limited. Objective: The current study assessed cross-sectional associations between performance on an attentional inhibition task and dietary fatty acids (FAs), fiber, and overall diet quality among children aged 7–9 y (n = 65). Methods: Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task. Three-day food records were used to conduct nutrient-level analyses and to calculate diet quality (Healthy Eating Index–2005) scores. Results: Bivariate correlations revealed that socioeconomic status and sex were not related to task performance or diet measures. However, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), pubertal staging, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and percentage of fat mass (%fat mass) correlated with task accuracy. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the relation between diet variables and task accuracy and reaction time across both congruent and incongruent trials of the flanker task. After adjustment of confounding variables (age, IQ, pubertal staging, V̇O2max, and %fat mass), congruent accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.26, P = 0.03) and total dietary fiber (β = 0.23, P = 0.05). Incongruent response accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.35, P < 0.01), pectins (β = 0.25, P = 0.04), and total dietary fiber (β = 0.32, P < 0.01). Higher diet quality was related to lower accuracy interference (β = −0.26, P = 0.03), whereas higher total FA intake was related to greater accuracy interference (β = 0.24, P = 0.04). No statistically significant associations were observed between diet variables and reaction time measures. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that children’s diet quality, specifically dietary fiber, is an important

  17. Obesity, Nutrition and Liver Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein, Ariel E.; Patton-Ku, Dana; Boutelle, Kerri N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the US and many other parts of the world. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes and metabolic complications. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several aspects of childhood obesity from epidemiology and associated metabolic complications, to management strategies and therapy with particular attention to the impact of obesity on the liver resulting in non-alcoholic or metabolic fatty liver disease. The deleterious effects of obesity on the liver and health overall can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. Here we summarize the current evidence supporting pharmacologic, behavioral and dietary interventions for the management of obesity and fatty liver disease in children. PMID:24274876

  18. Waist-to-height ratio distinguish obstructive sleep apnea from primary snoring in obese children.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Caixêta, Juliana Alves; Saramago, Alex Martins; de Cácia Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia Lourdes; Moreira, Gustavo Antônio; Tufik, Sergio; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo

    2015-03-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is caused by the interaction of multiple factors, including tonsillar hypertrophy, retrognathia, maxillary atresia, neuromuscular abnormalities, activation of inflammatory mediator cascades, and obesity. The prevalence and severity of obesity among children and adolescents increased worldwide during recent decades and has thus become a public health concern. The aim of this study is to assess the metabolic and anthropometric changes associated with sleep-disordered breathing in obese children. Prospective assessment of prepubertal obese children followed at a pediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic that had history of frequent snoring. Children were submitted to polysomnography, measurements of body weight, height, blood pressure, neck circumference, and waist circumference. BMI, neck-to-height, and waist-to-height ratios were calculated. Laboratory tests included a complete blood count, liver function tests, lipid profile, and glucose metabolism assessment. Additionally, the presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed. Differences between obstructive sleep apnea and primary snoring groups were calculated using unpaired t-test, Fisher's exact test or Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). The sample included 20 children with primary snoring and nine with obstructive sleep apnea. The two groups did not differ with regard to age, gender, BMI, or BMI z-score, serum lipids, glucose metabolism, cell count, liver function, or arterial blood pressure. Anthropometric data did not differ between groups. The waist-to-height ratio was greater among children with obstructive sleep apnea, compared to those with primary snoring. In the present study, the waist-to-height ratio was greater in children with obstructive sleep apnea and, thus, could distinguish these children from those with primary snoring.

  19. Cardiac Autonomic Functions in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Taşçılar, Mehmet Emre; Yokuşoğlu, Mehmet; Boyraz, Mehmet; Baysan, Oben; Köz, Cem; Dündaröz, Ruşen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The autonomic nervous system is assumed to have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in obese children. Methods: Thirty-two obese and 30 healthy children (mean ages: 11.6±2.0 years and 11.0±2.9 years, respectively) were enrolled in the study. Obesity was defined as a body mass index higher than 97th percentile for age- and gender-specific reference values. All participants were free of any disease and none of them was receiving any medication. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings were obtained and the time-domain and frequency-domain indices of HRV were analyzed. The study group was evaluated with respect to insulin resistance by HOMA-IR values. Results: A significant decrease in calculated HRV variables was observed in obese children as compared to controls. The HRV alteration was found in both time-domain and frequency-domain parameters. The subgroup analysis of the study group revealed a significant decrease in all investigated HRV parameters in the insulin-resistant obese children compared to the non-insulin-resistant obese ones. Conclusions: Our results indicate that HRV is decreased in obese children, which implies parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic predominance. A marked decrease in HRV was observed in insulin-resistant obese children compared to their non-insulin-resistant counterparts. We propose that autonomic imbalance pertaining especially to insulin resistance may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity in pediatric patients Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750633

  20. Changes in resting energy expenditure and their relationship to insulin resistance and weight gain: a longitudinal study in pre-pubertal children (EarlyBird 17).

    PubMed

    Hosking, Joanne; Henley, William; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Voss, Linda D; Wilkin, Terence J

    2010-08-01

    In adults, adjustments in resting energy expenditure (REE) are used to defend energy balance against disturbance caused by over-and under-nutrition, and may be linked to changes in insulin resistance and leptin. Little is known of these associations in children. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that long-term weight gain in children is met with adaptive changes in resting energy expenditure, mediated by insulin resistance and/or leptin. REE by indirect calorimetry, anthropometry, body composition by DEXA, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum leptin were measured annually in 232 children from the age of 7-10 y. REE rose from 7 to 10 y, and the rise exceeded that predicted by the concurrent rise in fat and fat-free mass by 184 kcal/day in the boys and by 160 kcal/day in the girls. However, there were no significant relationships in either gender between this 'excess' rise in REE and change in body composition (r < or = 0.08, p > or = 0.42). The rise in both boys and girls was associated with, but not explained by, a rise in insulin resistance (p < or = 0.002). There was no association with serum leptin (p > or = 0.32). The data do not support the hypothesis of adaptive changes in REE in pre-pubertal children, and insulin resistance explains very little of the pre-pubertal rise in REE. The rise in REE beyond that explained by changes in body composition may reflect an increase in energy requirements prior to puberty. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A

    2014-01-01

    This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain.

  2. Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A

    2014-01-01

    This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24077005

  3. Obesity, nutrition, and liver disease in children.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Ariel E; Patton-Ku, Dana; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2014-02-01

    In this article, several aspects of childhood obesity are discussed, including epidemiology, associated metabolic complications, management strategies, and therapy with particular attention to the impact of obesity on the liver, resulting in nonalcoholic or metabolic fatty liver disease. The deleterious effects of obesity on the liver and health overall can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. The current evidence is summarized supporting pharmacologic, behavioral, and dietary interventions for the management of obesity and fatty liver disease in children.

  4. VNN1 Gene Expression Levels and the G-137T Polymorphism Are Associated with HDL-C Levels in Mexican Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Aguayo-de la Rosa, Pablo I.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Bojalil, Rafael; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children. Methodology/Principal Findings VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6–8 years (107 boys and 117 girls) and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612). To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P = 2.9 × 10−5), decreased HDL-C levels (β = −6.19, P = 0.028) and with higher body mass index (BMI) z-score (β = 0.48, P = 0.024) in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r = 0.220; P = 0.017) and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r = −0.225; P = 0.015) only in girls. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls. PMID:23185446

  5. Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, fatty liver disease and psychosocial complications. It is also a major contributor to increasing healthcare expenditures. For all these reasons, it is important to prevent childhood obesity as well as to identify overweight and obese children at an early stage so they can begin treatment and attain and maintain a healthy weight. At present, pharmacotherapy options for treatment of pediatric obesity are very limited. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive management program that emphasizes appropriate nutrition, exercise and behavioral modification is crucial. The physician’s role should expand beyond the clinical setting to the community to serve as a role model and to advocate for prevention and early treatment of obesity. PMID:25241606

  6. Trace elements in obese Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Tascilar, Mehmet Emre; Ozgen, Ilker Tolga; Abaci, Ayhan; Serdar, Muhittin; Aykut, Osman

    2011-10-01

    The quality of the diet of obese children is poor. Eating habits may alter micronutrient status in obese patients. In this study, we determined the serum levels of selenium, zinc, vanadium, molybdenum, iron, copper, beryllium, boron, chromium, manganese, cobalt, silver, barium, aluminum, nickel, cadmium, mercury, and lead in obese Turkish children. Thirty-four obese and 33 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum vanadium and cobalt levels of obese children were significantly lower than those of the control group (0.244 ± 0.0179 vs. 0.261 ± 0.012 μg/l, p < 0.001, and 0.14 ± 0.13 vs. 0.24 ± 0.15 μg/l, p = 0.011, respectively). There was no significant difference between groups regarding the other serum trace element levels. In conclusion, there may be alterations in the serum levels of trace elements in obese children and these alterations may have a role in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  7. There's something about obesity: culture, contagion, rationality, and children's responses to drinks "created" by obese children.

    PubMed

    Klaczynski, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Theories of the development of obesity stereotypes cannot easily explain the stigma associated with being obese. Evidence that important similarities exist between the symptoms of obesity and contagious illnesses, young children have "theories" of illnesses, and obesity stereotypes are among the earliest that children develop led to the hypothesis that children would find beverages purportedly created by obese children less tasteful and more memorable than beverages created by average weight children. After assignment to two story conditions in which a child became ill after eating an unfamiliar food, Caucasian-American and Chinese 7- and 10-year-olds sampled identically flavored "obese-created" and "average-created" beverages. Taste ratings were lower, ratings of the chances of feeling sick were higher, and memory was superior for obese-created drinks than for average-created drinks, particularly when the character in the story contracted a contagious illness and memory was scored for "gist." Finally, children often created the false memory that the story character was an obese beverage creator. The roles of contagion and magical beliefs are discussed, as are the rationality of children's responses and the relevance of the findings for theories of obesity stereotypes.

  8. [Orthopedic Problems in Overweight and Obese Children].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S; Stücker, R; Rupprecht, M

    2016-03-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a growing problem with an increasing number of patients presenting with comorbidities to pediatricians and orthopedic surgeons. This overview summarizes the most common orthopedic problems in overweight children and obesity and highlights the treatment options in addition to weight reduction and physiotherapy leaded activation. In early infancy a persitent genu varum may be seen as a sign of Blount disease. In the school ages flat feet or persistent knock-knees has a higher incidence in overweight children. The incidence for back pain and osteoporosis are related with overweight and obese. At puberty, the slipped capital epiphysis, which always needs a surgical management, is mostly related to overweight/obese. A symptomatic retroversion of the femur can cause discomfort and lead to a surgical therapy himself.

  9. [Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children].

    PubMed

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-12-01

    To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos/SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-0 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Food Types in the Diet and the Nutrient Intake of Obese and Non−Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Garipağaoğlu, Muazzez; Budak, Nurten; Akdikmen, Öznur; Altan, Tuğçe; Baban, Melis

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions world−wide. Objective: To compare the types of food in the diet and the nutrient intake of obese children with those of non−obese children. Methods: A total of 95 obese and 592 non−obese children aged between 6 and 10 years participated in the study. A body mass index (BMI) value exceeding the 95th percentile for age and gender was taken as the criterion for obesity. Three−day food consumption was recorded and evaluated according to standard international recommendations. Results: Macronutrient intake was adequate in both obese and non−obese children. Energy intake of the obese children was significantly higher than that of the non−obese children. Micronutrient intake except fiber of both groups, calcium intake of obese children and vitamin A intake of non−obese children were higher than recommended amounts. The obese children consumed excessive fat and sugar, but less fruit and vegetables as compared to the non−obese children, and less than the recommendations of the food guide pyramid as adopted by the US Department of Food and Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services. Conclusion: The implementation of educational programs on nutrition may be important for promoting knowledge about healthy eating among obese children. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21318061

  11. Food types in the diet and the nutrient intake of obese and non-obese children.

    PubMed

    Garipağaoğlu, Muazzez; Sahip, Yusuf; Budak, Nurten; Akdikmen, Oznur; Altan, Tuğce; Baban, Melis

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions world-wide. To compare the types of food in the diet and the nutrient intake of obese children with those of non-obese children. A total of 95 obese and 592 non-obese children aged between 6 and 10 years participated in the study. A body mass index (BMI) value exceeding the 95th percentile for age and gender was taken as the criterion for obesity. Three-day food consumption was recorded and evaluated according to standard international recommendations. Macronutrient intake was adequate in both obese and non-obese children. Energy intake of the obese children was significantly higher than that of the non-obese children. Micronutrient intake except fiber of both groups, calcium intake of obese children and vitamin A intake of non-obese children were higher than recommended amounts. The obese children consumed excessive fat and sugar, but less fruit and vegetables as compared to the non-obese children, and less than the recommendations of the food guide pyramid as adopted by the US Department of Food and Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services. The implementation of educational programs on nutrition may be important for promoting knowledge about healthy eating among obese children.

  12. Short-term changes in bone formation markers following growth hormone (GH) treatment in short prepubertal children with a broad range of GH secretion.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Björn; Swolin-Eide, Diana; Magnusson, Per; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) promotes longitudinal growth and bone modelling/remodelling. This study investigated the relationship between levels of bone formation markers and growth during GH treatment in prepubertal children with widely ranging GH secretion levels. The study group comprised 113 short prepubertal children (mean age ± SD, 9·37 ± 2·13 years; 99 boys) on GH treatment (33·0 ± 0·06 μg/kg/day) for 1 year. Blood samples were taken at baseline and 1 and 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months, and 1 year after treatment start. Intact amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and osteocalcin were measured using an automated IDS-iSYS immunoassay system. Intact amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), BALP and osteocalcin, increased in the short-term during GH treatment. PINP after 1 week (P = 0·00077), and BALP and osteocalcin after 1 month (P < 0·0001 and P = 0·0043, respectively). PINP levels at 1 and 3 months correlated positively, and osteocalcin levels at 1 week and percentage change after 1 month correlated negatively, with first year growth response. No significant correlations were found between BALP and first year growth. Multiple regression analysis showed that bone marker levels together with auxological data and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 explained the variation in first year growth response to 36% at start, 32% after 2 weeks and 48% at 3 months. Short-term increases in levels of the bone formation markers PINP, BALP and osteocalcin showed different temporal patterns, but all correlated with first year growth response during GH treatment. These markers may be a useful addition to existing prediction models for growth response. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Overeating phenotypes in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Harnack, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify overeating phenotypes and their correlates in overweight and obese children. One hundred and seventeen treatment-seeking overweight and obese 8-12year-old children and their parents completed the study. Children completed an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) paradigm, the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and measurements of height and weight. Parents and children completed questionnaires that evaluated satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness, negative affect eating, external eating and eating in the absence of hunger. Latent profile analysis was used to identify heterogeneity in overeating phenotypes in the child participants. Latent classes were then compared on measures of demographics, obesity status and nutritional intake. Three latent classes of overweight and obese children were identified: High Satiety Responsive, High Food Responsive, and Moderate Satiety and Food Responsive. Results indicated that the High Food Responsive group had higher BMI and BMI-Z scores compared to the High Satiety Responsive group. No differences were found among classes in demographics or nutritional intake. This study identified three overeating phenotypes, supporting the heterogeneity of eating patterns associated with overweight and obesity in treatment-seeking children. These finding suggest that these phenotypes can potentially be used to identify high risk groups, inform prevention and intervention targets, and develop specific treatments for these behavioral phenotypes.

  14. Healthcare utilization by obese and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Hayes, Josette; Calixte, Rose; Huang, Jiayu; Cataldo, Rosa; Wong, Angie; Pati, Susmita

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relationship between childhood obesity and health care use in a large, nationally representative group of children with measured anthropometrics. Analysis of 5 combined National Health and Nutrition Survey datasets from 2001 to 2010. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models assessed the relationship between health care use variables and weight status (overweight: body mass index 85th to <95th percentile for age and sex; obese: body mass index ≥95th percentile for age and sex) for children 2-18 years of age. Overweight and obese children are more likely to receive their routine medical care in an emergency department than a primary care setting (overweight OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.22-3.14 and obese OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.24-2.86) than their normal-weight peers. After we adjusted for relevant covariates, this finding persisted among overweight, but not obese, children. Other health care use variables were not significantly associated with weight status. Overweight children may be more likely to use the emergency department than primary care settings for routine medical care. Interventions to establish primary care medical homes for overweight children merit consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interventions for treating obesity in children.

    PubMed

    De Miguel-Etayo, Pilar; Bueno, Gloria; Garagorri, Jesús M; Moreno, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity remains an important public health concern and prevention programmes should be the priority in order to decrease the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this review is to summarize the most effective types of intervention for treating obesity in children and adolescents. A number of identified strategies used to treat childhood obesity range from lifestyle approaches, pharmacotherapy to surgical intervention. Dietary treatment of obese children and adolescents should aim to ensure adequate growth and development by reducing excessive fat mass accumulation, avoiding loss of lean body mass, improving well-being and self-esteem, and preventing cyclical weight regain. Management protocols involve behaviour modifications, family support, and lifestyle changes which are difficult to put into practice and may require multidisciplinary professional teams. The cornerstone of weight loss programmes is to achieve a negative energy balance. There is evidence that dietary interventions are more effective in achieving weight loss when combined with other strategies, such as increasing physical activity levels and/or psychological interventions to promote behavioural changes. Psychological interventions have been employed in an effort to achieve long-term maintenance of behavioural change. Childhood obesity treatments should involve a combination of lifestyle changes including strategies to reduce energy intake, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary activities, facilitate family involvement and change behaviours associated with eating and physical activity. However, drug therapy in obese children must not be used as isolated treatment but as complementary to the traditional treatments of diet, physical activity and lifestyle changes. Besides, surgical procedures have been used to treat severe morbid obesity in children and adolescents when more conservative treatments have proven to be inadequate.

  16. Thyroid dysfunction in obese and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Witkowska-Sędek, Ewelina; Kucharska, Anna; Rumińska, Małgorzata; Pyrżak, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and thyroid function are closely related. Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of metabolism, thermogenesis, food intake, and fat oxidation. In obese children the most frequent hormonal abnormalities are slight hyperthyrotropinaemia and moderate increases in total T3 and/or fT3 concentrations. Those abnormalities are usually considered a cause of obesity, but according to recent studies, they should actually be considered an adaptation process aimed at increasing resting energy expenditure and total energy expenditure. Those abnormalities do not require any treatment and normalise after substantial weight loss. The mechanisms of those changes are dependent on leptin, thyroid hormone resistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The present paper describes the abovementioned mechanisms based on the latest research. We also present a review of some recent original studies evaluating thyroid function in overweight and obese children, including thyroid ultrasound. A thyroid ultrasound scan in obese children frequently shows increased thyroid volume, which correlates with moderately increased TSH levels and a hypoechoic pattern typical of autoimmune thyroiditis, but without antithyroid autoantibodies. Alterations of thyroid function in overweight and obese patients cause an increase in energy expenditure, which facilitates weight loss and prevents further weight gain. Therefore, normalisation of TSH and fT3 after weight loss could explain difficulties in maintaining reduced weight. (Endokrynol Pol 2017; 68 (1): 54-60).

  17. Obesity Prevention for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Carol; Hubbard, Kristie; Sikich, Linmarie; Bedford, James; Bandini, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The prevention of obesity in children with DD is a pressing public health issue, with implications for health status, independent living, and quality of life. Substantial evidence suggests that children with developmental disabilities (DD), including those with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have a prevalence of obesity at least as high if not higher than their typically developing peers. The paper reviews what is known about the classic and unique risk factors for childhood obesity in these groups of children, including dietary, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and family factors, as well as medication use. We use evidence from the literature to make the case that primary prevention at the individual/family, school and community levels will require tailoring of strategies and adapting existing intervention approaches. PMID:25530916

  18. Obesity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Carol; Jojic, Mirjana; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the prevalence of obesity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is at least as high as that seen in typically developing children. Many of the risk factors for children with ASD are likely the same as for typically developing children, especially within the context of today's obesogenic environment. The particular needs and challenges that this population faces, however, may render them more susceptible to the adverse effects of typical risk factors, and they may also be vulnerable to additional risk factors not shared by children in the general population, including psychopharmacological treatment, genetics, disordered sleep, atypical eating patterns, and challenges for engaging in sufficient physical activity. For individuals with ASD, obesity and its sequelae potentially represent a significant threat to independent living, self-care, quality of life, and overall health.

  19. Parenting style and obesity risk in children.

    PubMed

    Kakinami, Lisa; Barnett, Tracie A; Séguin, Louise; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    Parents play a critical role in their children's lifestyle habits. The objective was to assess the effect of parenting style on the risk of childhood obesity, and to determine whether poverty was a moderator of the association. Participants were from the 1994-2008 cross-sectional samples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), a nationally representative survey of Canadian youth. Factor and cluster analyses identified four parenting styles consistent with Baumrind's parenting style prototypes. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the risk of obesity based on parenting style after adjusting for covariates. Analyses were stratified by age (preschool: 2-5years of age, n=19,026; school-age: 6-11years of age, n=18,551) and the moderating effect of poverty (household incomechildren with authoritarian parents were 35% (95% CI: 1.2-1.5) and 41% (CI: 1.1-1.8) more likely to be obese, respectively. In preschool children, poverty moderated this association: authoritarian and negligent parenting was associated with 44% (CI: 1.3-1.7) and 26% (CI: 1.1-1.4) increased likelihood of obesity, respectively, but only among the children not living in poverty. In school-age children, poverty was not a moderator. Parenting style is associated with childhood obesity, but may be moderated by poverty. Successful strategies to combat childhood obesity should reflect the independent and interactive associations of sociodemographic and social-familial influences on health especially in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rumińska, Małgorzata; Majcher, Anna; Pyrzak, Beata; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Brzewski, Michał; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cardiometabolic risk factors andcarotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in obese children. We studied 122 obese children fulfilling the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force and 58 non-obese children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin were assessed in all children. Glucose and insulin during the oral glucose tolerance test were assessed in obese children. The IMT was determined using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 81 obese and 32 non-obese children. We found that obese children had significantly higher levels of lipid andother non-lipid atherogenic indicators, but lower levels of adiponectin compared with non-obese children. The difference in the mean carotid IMT was insignificant in the two groups. Taking the combined groups, the level of adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index and lipid atherogenic indicators. The IMT strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure in obese children. In the children fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 17 out of the 84 obese children older than 10 years of age, IMT was greater than in those who did not fulfil these criteria. We conclude that the coexistence of abdominal obesity with abnormal lipid profile and hypertension leads to the early development of atherosclerosis accompanied by increased carotid intima-media thickness. Obesity initiates the atherosclerotic processes in early childhood.

  1. Micronutrient deficiencies in obese Thai children.

    PubMed

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Kangwanpornsiri, Channagan

    2013-01-01

    We reported the cases of 3 obese children who presented variously with costochondral beading, numbness of both hands and feet, and hypochromic-microcytic anemia. Serum ascorbic acid concentration, erythrocyte thiamin pyrophosphate effect, and serum hepcidin concentration were done to investigate these symptoms, respectively, with findings of ascorbic acid insufficiency, thiamin deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia from poor iron absorption due to a hyper-inflammatory state, respectively. This report indicated that obese children not only have energy excess but may also risk being micronutrient deficiencies; therefore, weight management with special attention to an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals should be provided.

  2. Comparison between parameters from maximal cycle ergometer test first without respiratory gas analysis and thereafter with respiratory gas analysis among healthy prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lintu, Niina; Soininen, Sonja; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo Antero

    2016-06-01

    It is important to distinguish true and clinically relevant changes and methodological noise from measure to measure. In the clinical practice, maximal cycle ergometer tests are typically performed first without respiratory gas analysis and thereafter, if needed, with respiratory gas analysis. Therefore, we report a comparison of parameters from maximal cycle ergometer exercise tests that were done first without respiratory gas analysis and thereafter with it in 38 prepubertal and healthy children (20 girls, 18 boys). The Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement in maximal workload (WMAX), heart rate (HR), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) between rest and maximum. Girls achieved higher WMAX in the exercise tests with respiratory gas analysis compared with exercise tests without respiratory gas analysis (p = 0.016), whereas WMAX was similar in the tests among boys. Maximal HR (proportional offset, -1%; coefficients of variation, 3.3%) and highest SBP (proportional offset, 3%; coefficients of variation, 10.6%) were similar in the tests among children. Precision and agreement for HR improved and precision for SBP worsened with increasing exercise intensity. Heteroscedasticity was not observed for WMAX, HR, or SBP. We conclude that maximal cycle ergometer tests without and with respiratory gas analysis can be used consecutively because measurement of respiratory gases did not impair performance or have a significant effect on the maximality of the exercise tests. Our results suggest that similar references can be used for children who accept or refuse using a mask during a maximal exercise test.

  3. Obesity identified by discharge ICD-9 codes underestimates the true prevalence of obesity in hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jessica G; Zeller, Meg H; Wilson, Kimberly; Inge, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    To define inpatient care of obese children with or without an obesity diagnosis. A total of 29,352 inpatient discharges (18,459 unique inpatients) from a tertiary children's hospital were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and weight. "Obesity" was defined as BMI >or=95th percentile by using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts. "Diagnosed obesity" was defined by primary, secondary or tertiary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for "obesity" or "overweight." Analyses controlled for multiple inpatient records per individual. A total of 5989 discharges from the hospital (20.4%) were associated with obesity, but only 512 discharges (1.7%) indicated obesity as a diagnosis. An obesity diagnosis identified only 5.5% of inpatient days for obese inpatients. Obese patients with an obesity diagnosis (Ob/Dx) had fewer hospital discharges per person and shorter lengths of stay than obese patients without an obesity diagnosis (Ob/No Dx). Patients with Ob/Dx had higher odds of mental health, endocrine, and musculoskeletal disorders than non-obese inpatients, but Ob/No Dx patients generally did not. Inpatient obesity diagnoses underestimate inpatient utilization and misidentify patterns of care for obese children. Extreme caution is warranted when using obesity diagnoses to study healthcare utilization by obese children.

  4. The emotional impact of obesity on children.

    PubMed

    Cornette, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity has become a global epidemic affecting children of all ages and ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. While the physical and financial consequences are well documented, little research is available on the emotional effect of overweight and obesity on children and adolescents. To assess the emotional effect of overweight and obesity on a child's self-esteem and self-concept. The following databases were searched: CINAHL, Clinical Pharmacology, Health Source-Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, Pre-CINAHL, Psychological and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, and Sociological Collection, along with the Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute, National Institute of Health (NIH), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). SELECTION CRITERIA INCLUDED: Studies published from January 1995 to December 2005 whose primary aim was to investigate psychological impact of being overweight or obese on children and adolescents of both genders and all ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies of 50 or more participants with outcomes that included an assessment tool of psychological measurement and weight or body mass index (BMI), and were in English or translated to English were considered. All participants reported some level of psychosocial impact from being overweight or obese. Younger children, girls, and those with little control over eating suffered the greatest consequences. Evidence to determine the emotional impact of being overweight in children and adolescents is limited. There is even less research focused on the efforts to address the problem of low self-esteem, depression, and other emotional consequences. More attention should be focused on the emotional effect of childhood overweight and obesity in order to provide more holistic care for this pediatric population.

  5. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2) relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES), TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3) compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015) in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit) was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p < 0.05). In the 2007 survey 23% of children were overweight (17%) or obese (6%) while in the 1995 survey this figure was 21%. The proportion of children consuming SSBs in 1995 and 2007 for selected age groups were: 2-3 years - 25.8% and 12.8% respectively and 4-7 years - 33.6% and 20.5% respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB

  6. Medication Dosage in Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Kelly L.; Horton, Evan R.; Capino, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 31.8% of U.S. children ages 2 to 19 years are considered overweight or obese. This creates significant challenges to dosing medications that are primarily weight based (mg/kg) and in predicting pharmacokinetics parameters in pediatric patients. Obese individuals generally have a larger volume of distribution for lipophilic medications. Conversely, the Vd of hydrophilic medications may be increased or decreased due to increased lean body mass, blood volume, and decrease percentage of total body water. They may also experience decreased hepatic clearance secondary to fatty infiltrates of the liver. Hence, obesity may affect loading dose, dosage interval, plasma half-life, and time to reach steady-state concentration for various medications. Weight-based dosing is also a cause for potential medication errors. This position statement of the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group recommends that weight-based dosing should be used in patients ages < 18 years who are < 40 kg; weight-based dosing should be used in patients ≥ 40 kg, unless, unless the recommended adult dose for the specific indication is exceeded; clinicians should use pharmacokinetic analysis for adjusting medications in overweight/obese children; and research efforts continue to evaluate dosing of medications in obese/overweight children.

  7. INFLUENCE OF SLEEP ON OBESITY IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Anton-Paduraru, Dana-teodora; Teslariu, Oana; Mocanu, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic with long term implications. The main cause of obesity is an increase in calorie intake and a decrease in physical activity, but also there is clear evidence suggesting a link between the duration and quality of sleep and obesity risk. Good sleep habits are involved in increased ability to concentrate at school, improvement of general state, immune system development, increased quality of life. On the other hand, there are several mechanisms by which chronic sleep deprivation induces weight gain: disturbance of hormones that control hunger center, increased time for meals, reduced physical activity, metabolic changes. Recently, nighttime sleep duration has declined, in contrast with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Childhood sleep habits have a long term effect on weight, with repercussions even into adulthood. This is the reason why there is increasing interest to include sleep quality on the list for childhood obesity prevention. Sleep represents an important and independent risk factor of obesity in children and adolescents and it should be taken into consideration in the management of obesity.

  8. Children, adolescents, obesity, and the media.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2011-07-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide public health problem. Considerable research has shown that the media contribute to the development of child and adolescent obesity, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. Screen time may displace more active pursuits, advertising of junk food and fast food increases children's requests for those particular foods and products, snacking increases while watching TV or movies, and late-night screen time may interfere with getting adequate amounts of sleep, which is a known risk factor for obesity. Sufficient evidence exists to warrant a ban on junk-food or fast-food advertising in children's TV programming. Pediatricians need to ask 2 questions about media use at every well-child or well-adolescent visit: (1) How much screen time is being spent per day? and (2) Is there a TV set or Internet connection in the child's bedroom?

  9. [Risk factors of children overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Younes, Kawthar; Gabsi, Zvinemira; Bouslah, Amel; Maalel, Issam; Maatouk El May, Wahiba; Dahmen, Hayet; Bel Abed, Najet; Bchir, Nedra; Gabsi, Abdallah; Tekaya, Mohamed Salah; Jebara, Hassen

    2012-05-01

    The increase of the prevalence of children obesity in some countries as Tunisia, necessitate to welling known risk factors for obesity, to prevent and early management. To determine the prevalence of overweight and of obesity in a group of 4-6 year-old school children in Monastir and to investigate the association with possible risk factors. A descriptive transversal study including 121 children aged 4-6 years old (637 males, 698 females), was conducted in 10 Kindergartens in Monastir, in 2011. Personal data such as age, sex, birth weight, breastfeeding history and parental data including parental weights and heights, parental education level and occupation were collected by questionnaires completed by parents. Height and weight were measured with a weighing-scale and body mass index (BMI; kg/m²) was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined based according to the curves of the french reference of Rolland Cachera. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.1% and 11.6% respectively. Parental factors associated with overweight were: parental obesity: 44% vs 17% (p=0.005) (OR = 3.65: 1.27-10.57), artificial feeding: 68% vs 33% (p=0.0016) (OR= 4.25: 1.51-12.27), and the early diversification of food before the age of 6 months: 88% vs 65% (p=0.029) (OR= 3.84: 0.98 - 17.66). Exclusive breast feeding duration ≥ 6mois is probably protector factor against obesity: 0% vs 21% (p=0. 01) (OR=0: 0.00 < OR < 0.78). We found no significant difference between overweight and non-overweight schoolchildren in frequency of high degree educated mother and father, birth weight, breakfast intake, eating habits and exercise. However overweight children intake high-caloric food, low in fiber, with troubles of nutritional comportment, and a sedentary lifestyle. Risk factors for obesity, well known in most industrialized countries, necessitate to be more understood in Tunisia, to place a preventive strategy included supervision of children weight, nutritional

  10. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  11. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  12. Timing of puberty and physical growth in obese children: a longitudinal study in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    De Leonibus, C; Marcovecchio, M L; Chiavaroli, V; de Giorgis, T; Chiarelli, F; Mohn, A

    2014-08-01

    To assess whether puberty and physical growth vary in obese when compared to normal-weight children. One hundred obese pre-pubertal children (44 boys; mean age (±SD): 9.01 ± 0.62 years; 56 girls; 8.70 ± 0.57 years) were compared to 55 normal-weight controls (27 boys; 9.17 ± 0.26 years; 28 girls; 8.71 ± 0.62 years). All study participants were followed prospectively with 6-monthly follow-up visits. At each study visit, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and pubertal stage were assessed. Obese children entered puberty and achieved later stages of puberty earlier than controls (onset of puberty: boys: 11.66 ± 1.00 vs. 12.12 ± 0.91 years, P = 0.049; girls: 9.90 ± 0.78 vs. 10.32 ± 1.70, P = 0.016; late puberty: boys: 13.33 ± 0.71 vs. 14.47 ± 1.00 years, P < 0.001; girls: 11.54 ± 0.99 vs. 12.40 ± 1.02, P = 0.001). Pre-pubertal BMI standard deviation score (SDS) was inversely associated with both age at the onset of puberty (β = -0.506, P < 0.001) and age at late puberty (β = -0.514, P < 0.001). Obese children also showed an earlier age at peak height velocity (PHV) (boys: 12.62 ± 0.82 vs. 13.19 ± 0.96 years, P = 0.01; girls: 11.37 ± 0.89 vs. 12.77 ± 0.76, P < 0.001) and a lower PHV (boys: 7.74 ± 1.49 vs. 9.28 ± 1.64 cm year(-1) , P < 0.001; girls: 7.60 ± 1.64 vs. 8.29 ± 1.03, P = 0.03). Height SDS progressively declined over the study period in the obese group (P for trend <0.001), whereas there were no significant changes in the control group (P for trend = 0.5). Obese boys and girls presented an earlier onset of puberty and completion of puberty and an impaired height gain during puberty. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnoea in children with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Rubina; Harris, Margaret-Anne; Leong, Gary M; Heussler, Helen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that predict risk of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in obese children, which could aid in prioritising sleep studies. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of obese children seen in the KOALA weight management clinic and Sleep clinic. Data collected included demographics, clinical history, examination findings, biochemical markers, and polysomnogram results. Two hundred seventy-two obese children were seen in the KOALA clinic out of which 54 (20%) were also seen in the Sleep clinic because of snoring. Thirty-two were referred by the KOALA clinic; the remaining 22 were referred by other medical practitioners prior to being seen in the KOALA clinic. Thirty-nine had polysomnograms. The time from referral to Sleep clinic ranged from 10 days to 1.5 years with 50% seen within 6 months; with similar time gap between the blood tests and time of polysomnograms. Thirty-six percent (14/39) were reported to have OSA. Six children were Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) and all had OSA, which was statistically significant (P = 0.004). There was a statistically significant correlation between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and obstructive event index (OEI) in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. (r = 0.50, P = 0.04). Correlation between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and OEI in REM was r = 0.36, P = 0.06, which approached significance. Ethnicity was a significant factor with more obese ATSI children having OSA. The significant correlation between hs-CRP with OEI is consistent with findings of previous studies. Several factors (glycosylated haemoglobin, LDL) approached significance. © 2016 Mater Research Institute. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Overweight and obese children: mothers' strategies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy; Faga, Pat; McDonald, Glenda

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a study exploring the strategies a group of mothers of overweight and obese children were using and planned to use in the future to assist their children to achieve a healthy weight. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown exponentially to become a major public health concern. Extant literature suggests that childhood obesity is associated with a range of physical, social and psychological effects, including poor self-esteem, depression, social isolation, and cardio-vascular and other morbidity. Parents are known to be important in determining early eating and exercise habits, and their involvement is crucial to achieving positive child health outcomes. An exploratory-descriptive design informed by feminist research principles shaped the study, which was carried out in 2003-2004. Eleven mothers meeting the inclusion criteria took part in in-depth interviews. These were transcribed, and qualitatively analysed. Participants revealed sound understandings of the concept and ramifications of obesity. They had initiated a range of strategies including role modelling, developing opportunities for increased physical activity, reducing the use of junk food, and heightened awareness of how they used food. Participants viewed the problem as a family rather than an individual problem, and aimed many of the interventions at the entire family to avoid targeting the focus child. Further research into how childhood obesity is managed within the context of family life is needed. Specifically, additional perspectives on how mothers from various socio-cultural groups address childhood obesity within family life, and longitudinal studies to explore the efficacy and sustainability of family-based lifestyle changes that are made in response to concerns about child weight issues. Additional research to explore the type and nature of family support that can best assist families to achieve sustainable lifestyle improvements is needed.

  15. Does maternal obesity have an influence on feeding behavior of obese children?

    PubMed

    Cebeci, A N; Guven, A

    2015-12-01

    Although the pathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi factorial, maternal obesity and parenting have major roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal obesity on feeding practices toward their obese school children. Obese children and adolescents referred to the pediatric endocrinology department were enrolled consecutively. Height and weight of all children and their mothers were measured. Maternal feeding practices were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Answers were compared between obese (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) and non-obese mothers. A total of 491 obese subjects (292 girls, mean age 12.0 ± 2.8 years) and their mothers participated in this study. A direct correlation between children's BMI and their mothers' BMI was found (P<0.001) both in girls (r = 0.372) and boys (r = 0.337). While 64.4% of mothers were found obese in the study, only half of them consider themselves as obese. No difference were found in the scores of the subscales "perceived responsibility", "restriction", "concern for child's weight" and "monitoring" between obese and non-obese mothers. Child's BMI-SDS positively correlated with mothers' personal weight perception, concern for child's weight and restriction after adjustment for child's age (P < 0.001, P = 0.012 and P = 0.002, respectively). Mothers' BMI highly correlate with children's BMI-z-scores. The degree of child's obesity increases mothers' concern and food restriction behavior. While mothers of obese children have a high prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity was found to have no significant influence on feeding behavior of obese school children.

  16. Impulse oscillometry and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Maíra S de; Ribeiro, José D; Wamosy, Renata M G; Figueiredo, Fernanda C X S de; Parazzi, Paloma L F; Schivinski, Camila I S

    2017-09-08

    To compare impulse oscillometry system (IOS) parameters of normal-weight children with overweight and obese children. All participants were submitted to the evaluation of lung function (spirometry and impulse oscillometry) following the American Thoracic Society (ATS) standards. The evaluation of respiratory mechanics was performed using the Jaeger™ MasterScreen™ Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) (Erich Jaeger, Germany), three tests were recorded, with acquisition for at least 20s. The study included 81 children (30 in the CG, 21 in the OWG, and 30 the in OG), matched for age and sex. Regarding spirometry data, OG showed higher numerical values in relation to the CG; however, there were no significant differences among the three groups. For impulse oscillometry parameters, there was a difference between CG and OG for respiratory impedance (Z5) (p=0.036), resistance at 5hertz (R5) (p=0.026), resonant frequency (Fres) (p=0.029), and reactance area (AX) (p=0.014). For the parameters expressed in percentage of predicted, there were differences in resistance at 5 hertz (R5%), resonant frequency (Fres%), and reactance area (AX%) between CG and OG. Obese children showed increased oscillometry parameters values representative of airway obstruction, compared to normal-weight children. Changes in some oscillometry parameters can already be observed in overweight school-aged children. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Children's Perceptions of Obesity and Health

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Joseph A.; Irby, Megan Bennett; Guzman, M. Angelica; Beech, Bettina M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hispanic boys are one of the most at-risk groups for the development of obesity, yet few effective interventions have been reported. The objective of this study was to assess Hispanic boys' perceptions of health and obesity to inform future, targeted interventions. Methods This is a qualitative and quantitative study of Hispanic boys aged 8 to 12 years in Forsyth County, North Carolina (n = 25). Three focus groups were conducted combined with anthropometrics and measures of body image. Interview guides were developed to elicit children's perceptions of obesity, nutrition, physical activity, and family influences over health behaviors. Focus group comments were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using a multistage inductive approach, and grounded theory was used to analyze responses. Results The following 6 themes emerged: boys had a limited and superficial understanding of health, nutrition, and activity; perceptions of health were based on muscular appearance, frequency of exercise, and media messages; boys had negative perceptions of overweight children and physical performance; family meals were infrequent and unstructured; boys prefer restaurants with fast food, buffets, and entertainment; and neighborhood safety influences activity participation. Boys did not mention parents as influencers of health and habits. Conclusions From their findings, the authors have outlined several key areas that will inform clinicians and researchers in the prevention and treatment of obesity in this highly vulnerable population. PMID:24723991

  18. Appetitive behaviours of children attending obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Croker, H; Cooke, L; Wardle, J

    2011-10-01

    Associations between appetite and adiposity have not been examined in clinical samples of obese children. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to compare appetite in community (n=406) and clinical (n=66) samples. Clear graded patterns were seen for food responsiveness and emotional overeating; levels increased with increasing BMI SDS and the clinical sample scored highest. The reverse was seen for satiety responsiveness/slowness in eating. Differences were not solely explained by weight differences, suggesting that the clinical sample had more pronounced 'obesogenic' appetitive traits. This could make adherence to dietary guidance difficult.

  19. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    PubMed

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P < 0.001) were associated with higher plasma irisin level in the whole study group. The association of plasma FA composition with plasma irisin level was stronger among overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese

  20. Effect of Parent Weight on Weight Loss in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed effect of parent weight and parent control versus child self-control on weight loss in obese preadolescent children over three-year period. Children of nonobese parents had significantly greater decrease in relative weight after one year than children of obese parents. At three years, there was no effect of parent weight. Locus of control…

  1. Children With Morbid Obesity Benefit Equally as Children With Overweight and Obesity From an Ongoing Care Program.

    PubMed

    Rijks, J M; Plat, J; Mensink, R P; Dorenbos, E; Buurman, W A; Vreugdenhil, A C E

    2015-09-01

    Despite stabilization of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence, there is a shift toward more severe degrees of obesity, which results in an increasing prevalence of children with morbid obesity. Prior studies demonstrated that lifestyle modification without ongoing treatment has only a modest and not sustainable effect in children with morbid obesity. This suggests that a chronic care model is necessary for long-term effects on weight management and health. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an ongoing lifestyle intervention in children with morbid obesity in comparison with children with overweight and obesity. This was a nonrandomized prospective intervention study with 12- and 24-month followup at the Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare. Children and adolescents (n = 100 females and 72 males) with overweight, obesity, or morbid obesity were given long-term, outpatient, tailored lifestyle intervention. Body mass index (BMI) z score was measured. In children with morbid obesity, 12- and 24-month interventions resulted in a decrease of BMI z score of -0.13 ± 0.25 (P = .001) and -0.23 ± 0.32 (P = .01) respectively, whereas weight status category improved to obese in 21% and 25% of the children. Cardiovascular risk parameters including serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diastolic blood pressure significantly improved after 1-year intervention in the complete group. Most important, BMI z score as well as cardiovascular risk parameters improved to a similar degree in children with overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity. Children with overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity benefit equally from an ongoing, outpatient, tailored lifestyle intervention, and demonstrate significant weight loss and improvement of cardiovascular risk parameters.

  2. Comparison of two visual methods for detecting caries among obese and non-obese children.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Eduardo Gomes; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida; de Jesus Campos, Elisângela; de Oliveira, Thaís Feitosa Leitão; Magalhães, Juliana Cunha; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; Boa-Sorte, Ney

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to compare two visual methods for detecting caries among obese and non-obese children in Salvador, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2011-2012, which evaluated 180 paediatric patients, 6-14 years old, girls and boys, categorized into two groups: obese and non-obese (healthy weight), according to the body mass index. For the evaluation of dental caries, the decayed, missing or filled teeth index (DMFT/dmft) and International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS II) visual criteria were used. The mean DMFT value was 0.98 in obese children and 0.57 in the non-obese children, without significant differences between groups (p = 0.206). The mean dmft value in the non-obese children (1.66) was higher than in obese children (0.95), with significant differences between groups (p = 0.021). According to ICDAS II criteria, there was a higher prevalence of non-cavitated enamel lesions (D1-3) in obese children (n = 156, 10.5%) compared to the non-obese children (n = 55, 1.9%), with significant differences between the groups (p < 0.001). The inclusion of non-cavitated lesions during the caries evaluation represents a challenge in diagnosis, which allows for control of this process before the evolution of these lesions to cavitation.

  3. Increased incidence of perforated appendicitis in children with obesity.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Felix C; Sandler, Anthony D; Nadler, Evan P

    2012-10-01

    Based on their clinical impression, the authors hypothesized that children with obesity may more commonly present with perforated appendicitis. Therefore, the authors reviewed their experience from 2008 to 2010 to determine whether obesity affected the clinical presentation of appendicitis. Variables studied were height, weight, use of diagnostic imaging, and clinical findings of appendicitis at presentation. Outcomes assessed were length of stay and complication rate. The study identified 319 patients with appendicitis. Children with obesity were more likely (P = .026) to present with perforation (28/62, 45%) than nonobese patients (78/257, 30%). Neither length of stay nor complication rate was affected by the presence of obesity. The data suggest that children with obesity are more likely to present with perforated appendicitis. This finding suggests that the diagnosis of appendicitis may be more difficult in obese patients or their presentation may be delayed. Practitioners should have heightened awareness in children with obesity and symptoms of abdominal pain.

  4. Decreased prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and stabilisation of obesity trends in 5-year-old children: possible effects of changed public health policies.

    PubMed

    Sedej, Katarina; Kotnik, Primož; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Grošelj, Urh; Širca Čampa, Andreja; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Bratina, Nataša

    2014-02-01

    Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001-2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005. Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003-2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children. Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included. Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN BMI VALUES AND TC LEVELS WAS FOUND. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY PREVALENCE WERE STABILISED FROM 2001 TO 2009 (ODDS RATIO (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99-1.3) and 1.13 (0.89-1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65-0.79) and 0.75 (0.64-0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41-0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61-0.8)). This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

  5. Potential Use of Singing in Educational Settings with Pre-Pubertal Children Possessing Speech and Voice Disorders: A Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinta, Tiija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether children who possess speech and voice disorders could benefit from engaging in singing activities in educational settings, based on the psychological benefits of such activities. The impact of singing on children's psychological state and well-being was investigated with a participant population…

  6. Potential Use of Singing in Educational Settings with Pre-Pubertal Children Possessing Speech and Voice Disorders: A Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinta, Tiija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether children who possess speech and voice disorders could benefit from engaging in singing activities in educational settings, based on the psychological benefits of such activities. The impact of singing on children's psychological state and well-being was investigated with a participant population…

  7. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  8. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  9. Children's understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fielden, Amy L.; Sillence, Elizabeth; Little, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old) and Year 6 (10–11 years old), and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full. PMID:21897830

  10. Late potentials in the signal-averaged electrocardiogram in pre-pubertal children with ADHD, before and after methylphenidate treatment.

    PubMed

    Nahshoni, Eitan; Golubchik, Pavel; Glazer, Jonathan; Sever, Jonathan; Strasberg, Boris; Imbar, Shula; Shoval, Gal; Weizman, Abraham; Zalsman, Gil

    2012-02-01

    Reports on sudden cardiac death (SCD) of children and adolescents treated with stimulant agents have raised concerns regarding the need for cardiovascular monitoring and risk stratification schedules. Cardiac ventricular late potentials (LPs) represent delayed ventricular activation that might predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias and SCD in cardiac patients. LPs have not previously been measured in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). LPs were measured in 18 physically healthy ADHD children (5 girls and 13 boys, age 11.9 ± 2.5 years, treatment duration 2.6 ± 1.9 years) before and 2 h after oral methylphenidate administration. No significant changes were detected and LPs were found to be within normal ranges. In conclusion, this preliminary small-scale study suggests that methylphenidate in physically healthy children with ADHD was not associated with cardiac ventricular LPs, suggesting the safety of the agent in this age group.

  11. Laboratory assessment of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children shows an increasing tendency. Many of overweight or obese children will become obese adults with enhanced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, inflammation and disturbances in adipocytokines secretion are associated with endothelial dysfunction which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Obese children and adolescents with a clinically-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is currently recognized as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, are at more severe cardiovascular risk compared with normal-weight. Obesity-related insulin resistance is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and is associated with the increased lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipokines contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships yet among several recently discovered adipokines only few (adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor 21, apelin) have been partly studied in obese pediatric population. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities observed in children with overweight and obesity and the role of laboratory in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in order to differentiate between healthy obese and those at risk to most effectively prevent progression of cardiovascular disease in childhood.

  12. Influence of Obesity on Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Lori J.; Rothpletz-Puglia, Pamela; Touger-Decker, Riva; Duggan, Christopher; Mehta, Nilesh M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Obesity is prevalent among hospitalized children. Knowledge of the relationship between obesity and outcomes in hospitalized children will enhance nutrition assessment and provide opportunities for interventions. Objective To systematically review the existing literature concerning the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes in hospitalized children. Evidence Acquisition PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched for studies of hospitalized children aged 2 to 18 years with identified obesity and at least 1 of the following clinical outcomes: all-cause mortality, incidence of infections, and length of hospital stay. Cohort and case-control studies were included. Cross-sectional studies, studies of healthy children, and those without defined criteria for classifying weight status were excluded. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Results Twenty-eight studies (26 retrospective; 24 cohort and 4 case-control) were included. Of the 21 studies that included mortality as an outcome, 10 reported a significant positive relationship between obesity and mortality. The incidence of infections was assessed in 8 of the 28 studies; 2 reported significantly more infections in obese compared with nonobese patients. Of the 11 studies that examined length of stay, 5 reported significantly longer lengths of hospital stay for obese children. Fifteen studies (53%) had a high quality score. Larger studies observed significant relationships between obesity and outcomes. Studies of critically ill, oncologic or stem cell transplant, and solid organ transplant patients showed a relationship between obesity and mortality. Conclusions and Relevance The available literature on the relationship between obesity and clinical outcomes is limited by subject heterogeneity, variations in criteria for defining obesity, and outcomes examined. Childhood obesity may be a risk factor for higher mortality in hospitalized children with critical illness

  13. Obesity in children with poorly controlled asthma: Sex differences.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jason E; Holbrook, Janet T; Wise, Robert A; Dixon, Anne E; Teague, W Gerald; Wei, Christine Y; Irvin, Charles G; Shade, David; Lima, John J

    2013-09-01

    Obesity increases asthma risk, and may alter asthma severity. In adults, sex appears to modify the effect of obesity on asthma. Among children, the effect of sex on the relationship between obesity and asthma severity remains less clear, particularly when considering race. To determine how obesity affects disease characteristics in a diverse cohort of children with poorly controlled asthma, and if obesity effects are altered by sex. We analyzed 306 children between 6 and 17 years of age with poorly controlled asthma enrolled in a 6-month trial assessing lansoprazole for asthma control. In this secondary analysis, we determined associations between obesity and symptom severity, spirometry, exacerbation risk, airway biomarkers, bronchial reactivity, and airflow perception. We used both a multivariate linear regression and longitudinal mixed-effect model to determine if obesity interacted with sex to affect asthma severity. Regardless of sex, BMI >95th percentile did not affect asthma control, exacerbation risk or airway biomarkers. Sex changed the effect of obesity on lung function (sex × obesity FEV1%, interaction P-value < 0.01, sex × obesity FEV1/FVC, interaction P-value = 0.03). Obese males had significantly worse airflow obstruction compared to non-obese males, while in females there was no obesity effect on airflow obstruction. In females, obesity was associated with significantly greater FEV1 and FVC, and a trend toward reduced airway reactivity. Obesity did not affect asthma control, airway markers or disease stability; however obesity did affect lung function in a sex-dependent manner. In males, obesity associated with reduced FEV1/FVC, and in females, obesity associated with substantially improved lung function. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Alarming high prevalence of overweight/obesity among Sudanese children.

    PubMed

    Nagwa, M A; Elhussein, Abdelrahim M; Azza, M; Abdulhadi, N H

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Khartoum state, Sudan. Multistage stratified random sampling methodology was used. Sampling included different residential areas within the state. A total of 1138 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years were involved in the study. More than 9% of the children were obese, 10.8% were overweight whereas combined overweight/obesity scored 20.5%. The prevalence of combined overweight/obesity among higher, middle and lower socioeconomic class children was 56.8, 27.3 and 3.1%, respectively. These figures, being higher than those reported among Nigerian and South African children, living in similar conditions, may refer to an emerging problem of overweight and obesity especially among children of the higher and middle class families. Adoption of national programs of promoting healthy food habits and physical activity among children is recommended.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Masao; Tanaka, Satoru; Shimago, Atsushi; Sameshima, Koji; Nishi, Junichiro; Nomura, Yuichi; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Hashiguchi, Jun; Ichiki, Takeo; Shimizu, Shinichiro

    2005-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of and sex differences related to the metabolic syndrome among obese and overweight elementary school children. Subjects were 471 overweight or obese Japanese children. Children meeting at least three of the following five criteria qualified as having the metabolic syndrome: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and high fasting glucose levels. Fasting insulin levels were also examined. Japanese obese children were found to have a significantly lower prevalence (17.7%) of the metabolic syndrome than U.S. obese adolescents (28.7%, p = 0.0014). However, Japanese overweight children had a similar incidence (8.7%) of the metabolic syndrome compared with U.S. overweight adolescents (6.8%). Hyperinsulinemia in girls and abdominal obesity in boys are characteristic features of individual metabolic syndrome factors in Japanese children. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is not lower in preteen Japanese overweight children than in U.S. overweight adolescents, although it is significantly lower in Japanese obese preteen children than in U.S. obese adolescents. Primary and secondary interventions are needed for overweight preteen children in Japan.

  16. Treatment of obesity-related hypertension in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Halbach, Susan M; Flynn, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    The obesity epidemic has become a common concern among pediatricians, with an estimated 32 % of US children and adolescents classified as overweight and 18 % as obese. Along with the increase in obesity, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that chronic diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes, primary hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, once thought to be confined solely to adulthood, are commonly seen among the obese in childhood. Following a brief summary of the diagnosis and evaluation of hypertension in obese children and adolescents, this review will highlight recent research on the treatment of obesity-related hypertension. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment will be discussed. Additionally, current and emerging therapies for the primary treatment of obesity in children and adolescents, which have been gaining in popularity, will be reviewed.

  17. Retrospective Study of Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basil, Janet S; Santoro, Stephanie L; Martin, Lisa J; Healy, Katherine Wusik; Chini, Barbara A; Saal, Howard M

    2016-06-01

    To assess whether children with Down syndrome in the US are at an increased risk for obesity, we determined the obesity prevalence and analyzed obesity development throughout childhood in a cohort of children with Down syndrome. In addition, we analyzed a comorbidity that is associated with Down syndrome and obesity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study was a retrospective chart review that evaluated 303 children ages 2 through 18 years with a diagnosis of Down syndrome. All children were patients at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center with multiple height and weight measurements. To determine obesity burden, the rate of obesity was compared with a local control cohort using contingency tables. Change in obesity rate through time was determined with mixed models. Association of obesity with OSAS was determined with contingency tables. We evaluated 303 individuals, 47.8% of whom were obese (body mass index ≥95th percentile for age and sex). This was significantly higher than the general pediatric population, which had a 12.1% obesity rate (P < .0001). Body mass index z-scores did not change markedly over time (P = .40). The majority of children with Down syndrome also had OSAS (74.0% of the 177 children who had polysomnography studies). However, OSAS risk was elevated in obese children (risk ratio = 2.4, P = .0015). Our results indicate that children with Down syndrome are at a substantial risk for obesity and OSAS. These findings support the need for more aggressive weight management in early childhood and throughout the lifespan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and lifestyle determinants of central obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Grigorakis, Dimitris A; Georgoulis, Michael; Psarra, Glykeria; Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-08-01

    Central obesity is a strong risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiometabolic diseases in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of central obesity and to determine its cross-sectional association with lifestyle habits in a sample of school-aged children in Greece. The study sample consisted of 124,113 children (9.9 ± 1.1 years old, 51 % boys) attending the third and fifth grade of primary school. Anthropometric measurements were performed by trained physical education teachers, and central obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5. Children's lifestyle habits were assessed through 7-day recall questionnaires. Of the participating children, 33.4 % were classified as centrally obese. Central obesity was significantly more prevalent in boys than in girls (36.0 vs. 30.7 %, P < 0.001) and was present in 95 % of obese children, as well as in a significant percentage of overweight (69.5 %) and normal-weight ones (12.0 %). Children with central obesity, compared to their non-centrally obese counterparts, reported poorer dietary habits and were less physically active. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, frequent breakfast (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.69-0.75) and snack consumption (OR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.67-0.74), as well as frequent participation in sedentary activities (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.07-1.14), were the strongest lifestyle determinants of central obesity. Strategies for the prevention of central obesity and associated comorbidities are urgently needed, for both obese and non-obese children. Our results suggest the need for a shift towards a healthier environment for our children, with emphasis on specific lifestyle habits, such as regular meal consumption and low sedentariness.

  19. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Romualdo, Monica Cristina dos Santos; Nóbrega, Fernando José de; Escrivão, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of insulin resistance and its association with other metabolic abnormalities in obese children and adolescents. Retrospective study of 220 children and adolescents aged 5-14 years. Anthropometric measurements were performed (weight, height, and waist circumference) and clinical (gender, age, pubertal stage, and degree of obesity) and biochemical (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and fractions, triglycerides) data were analyzed. Insulin resistance was identified by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The analysis of the differences between the variables of interest and the HOMA-IR quartiles was performed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Insulin resistance was diagnosed in 33.20% of the sample. It was associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; p=0.044), waist circumference measurement (p=0.030), and the set of clinical and metabolic (p=0.000) alterations. Insulin-resistant individuals had higher mean age (p=0.000), body mass index (BMI; p=0.000), abdominal circumference (p=0.000), median triglycerides (p=0.001), total cholesterol (p≤0.042), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; p≤0.027); and lower HDL-C levels (p=0.005). There was an increase in mean BMI (p=0.000), abdominal circumference (p=0.000), and median triglycerides (p=0.002) as the values of HOMA -IR increased, with the exception of HDL-C, which decreased (p=0.001). Those with the highest number of simultaneous alterations were between the second and third quartiles of the HOMA-IR index (p=0.000). The results confirmed that insulin resistance is present in many obese children and adolescents, and that this condition is associated with alterations that represent an increased risk for developing metabolic disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Differences between Normal-Weight, Overweight, Obese, and Morbidly Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian; Johnson, Romaine F; Mitchell Md, Ron B

    2016-05-01

    The severity of obstructive sleep apnea in children determines perioperative management and is an indication for postoperative polysomnography. The relationship between increasing weight and sleep apnea severity in children remains unclear. To compare demographic, clinical, and polysomnography parameters in normal-weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children, as well as identify demographic factors that predict sleep apnea severity. Case series with chart review. Academic children's hospital. A retrospective chart review of 290 children aged 2 to 18 years who underwent polysomnography at an academic children's hospital was performed. Demographics, clinical findings, and polysomnographic parameters were recorded. Children were categorized as normal weight, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Differences were assessed using linear and logistical regression models. Significance was set at P < .05. Morbidly obese were older than normal-weight children (mean, 8.0 ± 0.5 years vs 5.8 ± 0.3 years; P < .001) and less likely to have a normal polysomnogram (16% vs 48%; P = .02). There were no differences in sex, ethnicity, birth status (term or preterm), or tonsil size between normal-weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese children. Sleep efficiency and percentage of time in rapid eye movement were decreased in morbidly obese compared with other children (P < .05). The apnea-hypopnea index was positively correlated with increasing body mass index z score only as a function of increasing age (P < .001). Obstructive sleep apnea severity is correlated with a combination of increasing age and weight but not with either variable independently. This study suggests that obese and morbidly obese older children are most likely to have severe obstructive sleep apnea. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  1. The Neurocognitive Performance of Visuospatial Attention in Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Tseng, Yu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) in children with obesity and healthy weight children when performing a visuospatial attention task. Twenty-six children with obesity (obese group) and 26 healthy weight children (control group) were recruited. Their behavioral performance during a variant of the Posner paradigm was measured, and brain ERPs were recorded concurrently. The behavioral data revealed that the obese group responded more slowly, especially in the invalid condition, and exhibited a deficit in attentional inhibition capacity as compared to the control group. In terms of cognitive electrophysiological performance, although the obese group did not show significant differences on P3 latency elicited by the target stimuli when compared to the control group, they exhibited smaller P3 amplitudes when performing the visuospatial attention task. These results broaden previous findings, and indicate that childhood obesity is associated with a reduced ability to modulate the executive function network which supports visuospatial attention. PMID:27458421

  2. Obesity in children with developmental and/or physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bandini, Linda; Danielson, Melissa; Esposito, Layla E; Foley, John T; Fox, Michael H; Frey, Georgia C; Fleming, Richard K; Krahn, Gloria; Must, Aviva; Porretta, David L; Rodgers, Anne Brown; Stanish, Heidi; Urv, Tiina; Vogel, Lawrence C; Humphries, Kathleen

    2015-07-01

    Children with developmental or physical disabilities, many of whom face serious health-related conditions, also are affected by the current obesity crisis. Although evidence indicates that children with disabilities have a higher prevalence of obesity than do children without disabilities, little is known of the actual magnitude of the problem in this population. To address this concern, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) held a conference on obesity in children with intellectual, developmental, or physical disabilities, bringing together scientists and practitioners in the fields of obesity and disability to foster collaboration, identify barriers to healthy weight status in populations with disabilities, propose avenues to solutions through research and practice, and develop a research agenda to address the problem. This article describes current knowledge about prevalence of obesity in this population, discusses factors influencing obesity risk, and summarizes recommendations for research presented at the conference.

  3. The Neurocognitive Performance of Visuospatial Attention in Children with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Tseng, Yu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) in children with obesity and healthy weight children when performing a visuospatial attention task. Twenty-six children with obesity (obese group) and 26 healthy weight children (control group) were recruited. Their behavioral performance during a variant of the Posner paradigm was measured, and brain ERPs were recorded concurrently. The behavioral data revealed that the obese group responded more slowly, especially in the invalid condition, and exhibited a deficit in attentional inhibition capacity as compared to the control group. In terms of cognitive electrophysiological performance, although the obese group did not show significant differences on P3 latency elicited by the target stimuli when compared to the control group, they exhibited smaller P3 amplitudes when performing the visuospatial attention task. These results broaden previous findings, and indicate that childhood obesity is associated with a reduced ability to modulate the executive function network which supports visuospatial attention.

  4. Obesity in Children - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Obesity in Children URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Obesity in Children - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. The Future of Children: Spring 2006. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina, Ed.; Donahue, Elisabeth, Ed.; Orleans, Tracy, Ed.; Grisso, Jeane Ann, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The third volume of "The Future of Children" examines the causes and consequences of increasing rates of obesity and overweight among children. It also reviews specific policies and programs aimed at reducing obesity and overweight and the related health problems that result. Contents include: (1) Introducing the Issue (Christina Paxson, Elisabeth…

  6. The Future of Children: Spring 2006. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina, Ed.; Donahue, Elisabeth, Ed.; Orleans, Tracy, Ed.; Grisso, Jeane Ann, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The third volume of "The Future of Children" examines the causes and consequences of increasing rates of obesity and overweight among children. It also reviews specific policies and programs aimed at reducing obesity and overweight and the related health problems that result. Contents include: (1) Introducing the Issue (Christina Paxson, Elisabeth…

  7. Proteomic analysis allows for early detection of potential markers of metabolic impairment in very young obese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of initial metabolic derangements in young obese children could influence their management; however, this impairment is frequently not overt, but subtle and undetectable by routinely used clinical assays. Our aim was to evaluate the ability of serum proteomic analysis to detect these incipient metabolic alterations in comparison to standard clinical methods and to identify new candidate biomarkers. Methods A cross-sectional study of fasting serum samples from twenty-two prepubertal, Caucasian obese (OB; 9.22 ± 1.93 years; 3.43 ± 1.08 BMI-SDS) and twenty-one lean controls (C; 8.50 ± 1.98 years; -0.48 ± 0.81 BMI-SDS) and a prospective study of fasting serum samples from twenty prepubertal, Caucasian obese children (11 insulin resistant [IR]) before (4.77 ± 1.30 BMI-SDS) and after weight reduction (2.57 ± 1.29 BMI-SDS) by conservative treatment in a reference hospital (Pros-OB) was performed. Proteomic analysis (two-dimension-eletrophoresis + mass spectrometry analysis) of serum and comparative evaluation of the sensitivity of routinely used assays in the clinics to detect the observed differences in protein expression level, as well as their relationship with anthropometric features, insulin resistance indexes, lipid profile and adipokine levels were carried out. Results Study of the intensity data from proteomic analysis showed a decrease of several isoforms of apolipoprotein-A1, apo-J/clusterin, vitamin D binding protein, transthyretin in OBvs. C, with some changes in these proteins being enhanced by IR and partially reversed after weight loss. Expression of low molecular weight isoforms of haptoglobin was increased in OB, enhanced in IR and again decreased after weight loss, being positively correlated with serum interleukin-6 and NAMPT/visfatin levels. After statistical correction for multiple comparisons, significance remained for a single isoform of low MW haptoglobin (OB vs. C and IR vs. non-IR) and

  8. Are the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor microsatellites related to hypersexuality in children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype?

    PubMed

    Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Badner, Judith A; Cook, Edwin H

    2005-12-01

    To examine family-based transmission of the number of 5' flanking arginine vasopressin V1a receptor (AVPR1A) microsatellites, which include [(GATA)(14)] and complex [(CT)(4)-TT-(CT)(8)-(GT)(24)] repeats, in probands with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype (PEA-BP). Preferential transmission of the number of AVPR1A microsatellite repeats to hypersexual and uninhibited people-seeking probands was hypothesized, based on reports from preclinical work in the literature. Probands were 83 participants in an ongoing controlled study of PEA-BP. The PEA-BP phenotype was defined by DSM-IV mania with at least one of the cardinal symptoms of mania (elation and/or grandiosity) to avoid diagnosing mania only by symptoms that overlapped with those for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comprehensive assessment of the probands included separate Washington University in St. Louis Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (WASH-U-KSADS) interviews of parents about their children and of children about themselves. Hypersexuality and uninhibited people-seeking were assessed from the corresponding WASH-U-KSADS items. Microsatellite genotyping of the AVPR1A repeats was conducted using fluorescently labeled primers and detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Alleles were determined with the assistance of semi-automated allele-calling software. There were 32 complete, biological trios (28 informative families) for the GATA repeat and 34 complete, biological trios (30 informative families) for the complex repeat. Data were analyzed using case-control and family-based association methods. Preferential transmission of AVPR1A GATA or complex repeats was not significant for hypersexuality or uninhibited people-seeking, using the transmission disequilibrium test. Similarly, case-control analyses found no significant associations between hypersexuality or uninhibited people-seeking and the number of AVPR1A GATA or complex repeats. For p < 0

  9. Predictors of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in obese children.

    PubMed

    Lerret, Stacee Marie; Garcia-Rodriguez, Laura; Skelton, Joseph; Biank, Vincent; Kilway, Denise; Telega, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) also escalates. This study's purpose was to identify the clinical criteria to aid in determining when a liver biopsy is indicated for this growing population because currently no guidelines exist. We performed a retrospective chart review on all patients who were seen in the Nutrition Exercise and Weight Loss Kids™ Program at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin from July 2003 through December 2004. We analyzed only individuals who underwent liver biopsy with the following criteria: (1) no evidence of other liver disease and (2) aspartate transaminase or alanine aminotransferase greater than 200 IU/L or any elevation of or for more than 6 months. Of the 284 patients reviewed, only eight patients (3%) met the criteria for analysis. Biopsy results demonstrated that 100% had histological evidence of NASH with steatosis, and seven of the eight (87.5%) had NASH with fibrosis, cirrhosis, or both. Obese children with an aspartate transaminase or alanine aminotransferase greater than 200 IU/L or any elevation of aspartate transaminase or alanine aminotransferase for more than 6 months, have a strong likelihood of having NASH with or without fibrosis, cirrhosis, or both.

  10. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758

  11. Prevalence of obesity among young Asian-American children.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anjali; Mitchell, Stephanie; Chirumamilla, Radha; Zhang, Jin; Horn, Ivor B; Lewin, Amy; Huang, Z Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Asian-American children are considered to be at low risk of obesity, but previous estimates have not distinguished between children from different Asian countries. We estimate the prevalence of obesity among Asian-American children by mother's country of origin, generational status, and family socioeconomic factors using a secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) wave III (children ∼4 years old) dataset. The ECLS-B is a nationally representative study of children born in 2001 that oversampled births to Asian mothers. Asian ethnic categories included Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Asian Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, and Other Asian/Pacific Islander. The primary outcome variable was weight status; overweight = BMI ≥85(th) and obese = BMI ≥95(th) percentile for age and gender. Twenty-six percent [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.6-29.1] of Asian-American 4 year olds were overweight or obese, and 13% (95% CI 10.2-15.2) were obese. Chinese-American children were at lower risk of overweight or obesity (23.5%, 95% CI 18.4-29.5 ) compared to whites (36%, 95% CI 34.3-37.7); Asian-Indian 4 year olds had the lowest rates of overweight or obesity (15.6%, 95% CI 8.0-28.2) and were most likely to be underweight (10%, 95% CI 4.9-19.4). Among Asians,Vietnamese-American children had the highest rate of overweight or obesity (34.7%, 95% CI 0.6-52.3). Vietnamese-American children are at elevated risk of obesity and overweight, whereas Chinese and Asian-Indian children are at low risk. After controlling for Asian ethnicity, maternal education, and household poverty status, Asian-American children whose mothers were born outside the United States were less likely to be obese [odds ratio = 0.55 (0.32-0.95), p = 0.03].

  12. Pathophysiology of hypertension in obese children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wirix, A J G; Kaspers, P J; Nauta, J; Chinapaw, M J M; Kist-van Holthe, J E

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension is increasingly common in overweight and obese children. The mechanisms behind the development of hypertension in obesity are complex, and evidence is limited. In order to effectively treat obese children for hypertension, it is important to have a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertension in obese children. The present review summarizes the main factors associated with hypertension in obese children and discusses their potential role in its pathophysiology. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMed and EMBASE for articles published up to October 2014. In total, 60 relevant studies were included. The methodological quality of the included studies ranged from weak to strong. Several factors important in the development of hypertension in obese children have been suggested, including endocrine determinants, such as corticosteroids and adipokines, sympathetic nervous system activity, disturbed sodium homeostasis, as well as oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension in overweight and obese children is important and could have implications for its screening and treatment. Based on solely cross-sectional observational studies, it is impossible to infer causality. Longitudinal studies of high methodological quality are needed to gain more insight into the complex mechanisms behind the development of hypertension in obese children.

  13. Effect of obesity on bronchial hyperreactivity among Latino children.

    PubMed

    Del Rio-Navarro, Blanca E; Blandon-Vijil, Virginia; Escalante-Domínguez, Alberto J; Berber, Arturo; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2013-12-01

    The association between obesity and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in children has not been fully demonstrated in cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, and no study has specifically addressed Latino children. A cross-sectional study of 450 children (10-18 years) from public schools was conducted in Mexico city. Among this group, 260 met the study criteria (no chronic respiratory illnesses, including asthma and rhinitis; no acute respiratory infections; and no tobacco-exposure or endocrine or body dysmorphic disorders), and 229 performed reproducible pulmonary function and methacholine challenge tests and were fully analyzed. According to BMI percentiles, 40 were normal weight, 116 were obese, and 73 morbidly obese. Children in the morbidly obese group had significantly higher % FVC than those in the normal-weight group, and obese children had higher % PEF those in the morbidly obese and normal-weight groups. In the BHR methacholine challenge test, baseline FEV1 values among obese children were significantly lower than in the morbidly obese group. Using adjusted percentages for FEV1 , values were significantly lower among obese compared to morbidly obese children at metacholine concentrations of 0.25, 1, and 4 mg/ml. The proportion of positive BHR (PC20  ≤ 16 mg/ml) was higher in these two groups compared to normal-weight children (28.4%, 17.8%, and 12.5%, respectively), although differences were not significant. Our findings show that obesity by itself is not a sufficient condition to alter airway responsiveness to methacholine in a group of adolescents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Obesity among Latino children within a migrant farmworker community.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Javier I; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; McGinnity, Kelly A; Cuevas, Jordan P

    2013-03-01

    Childhood obesity has increased substantially among Latino children, placing them at risk for its related health consequences. Limited attention has been given to childhood obesity among Latino migrant farm-working communities. To examine, within a migrant farm-working community, (1) the prevalence of obesity among Latino children and parents and (2) parent perceptions of children's weight status and intentions to take corrective action. Structured interviews were completed with the parents of 495 children seen for well-child office visits in the pediatric department of a community health center during a 15-month period between 2010 and 2011. Medical chart reviews were completed for each child participant. Forty-seven percent of the children were overweight (20%) or obese (27%). In comparison to preschool-aged children, those in elementary and middle school were more likely to be obese. In elementary school, girls were more likely than boys to be overweight or obese. Child obesity was associated with parent obesity. Parental concern about their child's weight was associated with child obesity but not with child overweight. Parental concern was associated with parent intention to address the child's weight, particularly in older children. Analysis was completed in 2012. Interventions are needed that address both childhood obesity and parent weight status among Latino migrant farmworkers. Prevention programs that address the weight status of Latino children who are overweight, but not necessarily obese, are also needed, as their parents tend to be no more concerned about a child who is overweight than one who is normal weight. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interventions for preventing obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Waters, Elizabeth; de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Hall, Belinda J; Brown, Tamara; Campbell, Karen J; Gao, Yang; Armstrong, Rebecca; Prosser, Lauren; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2011-12-07

    Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can implement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation). Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomised at a cluster level, 6 clusters were required. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies.  Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA)-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours.  Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardised BMI (zBMI) score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings). This review includes 55 studies (an additional 36 studies found for this update). The majority of studies targeted children aged 6

  16. Interventions for preventing obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Spinola e Castro, Angela Maria

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can implement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation). Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA)-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI) score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings). This review includes 55 studies (an additional 36 studies found for this update). The majority of studies targeted children aged v 6

  17. Elevated blood pressure in overweight and obese Irish children.

    PubMed

    Finucane, F M; Pittock, S; Fallon, M; Hatunic, M; Ong, K; Burns, N; Costigan, C; Murphy, N; Nolan, J J

    2008-12-01

    The Irish childhood obesity epidemic, one of the highest ranking internationally, represents a major threat to public health. We sought to perform a retrospective observational study of a clinic based cohort of obese Irish children. Clinical data relating to gender, age, height, weight, body mass index and blood pressure were analysed, from 206 children referred to a paediatric endocrine referral centre over a 15-year period for assessment of obesity. Younger patients tended to have a higher standardised body mass index at initial presentation; 92% of boys and 96% of girls referred were obese (age-related BMI >/= 95th percentile). Boys (51%) and girls (49%) had initial blood pressure measurements in the hypertensive range. There was a correlation between the degree of obesity and systolic blood pressure, particularly in boys. Obese Irish children present with significant long-term health risks, including hypertension at baseline.

  18. Asthma and overweight/obese: double trouble for urban children.

    PubMed

    Wiesenthal, Elise N; Fagnano, Maria; Cook, Stephen; Halterman, Jill S

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of overweight/obese versus normal weight on symptoms, activity limitation and health care utilization among a group of urban children with persistent asthma. Data were obtained from the School Based Asthma Therapy trial. We enrolled 530 children ages 3-10 with persistent asthma from 2006 to 2009 (response rate: 74%). We conducted in-home interviews to assess symptoms and health care utilization. We measured height and weight in school nurse offices to determine BMI percentile, and compared normal weight children to overweight/obese (BMI >85th percentile) children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. We collected BMI data from 472 children (89%); 49% were overweight/obese. When controlling for child race, child ethnicity, intervention group, caregiver age and screen time, overweight/obese children had more days with asthma symptoms (4.25 versus 3.42/2 weeks, p = 0.035) and more activity limitation (3.43 versus 2.55/2 weeks, p = 0.013) compared to normal weight children. Overweight/obese children were more likely to have had an ED visit or hospitalization for any reason (47% versus 36%, OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.01, 2.19), and there was a trend for overweight/obese children to have more acute asthma visits in the past year (1.68 versus 1.31, p = 0.090). Overweight/obese children were not more likely to be taking a daily preventive inhaled corticosteroid (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.68, 1.56). Overweight/obese children with persistent asthma experience more asthma symptoms, activity limitation and health care utilization compared to normal weight children, with no increased use of inhaled corticosteroids. Further efforts are needed to improve the health of these children.

  19. Serum ghrelin levels and gender-related indices of body composition in prepubertal children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Minoo; Ansari, Sara; Sotoudeh, Gity; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Speakman, John R; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2015-03-01

    A wide variety of functions has been attributed to ghrelin, a peptide hormone secreted in the stomach. The objective of the study was to assess the association of ghrelin concentrations with body composition among Iranian children. In this study, blood samples of 57 boys and 54 girls aged 6-10 were collected to measure ghrelin levels. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were examined by body composition analyzer. Actigraph GT3X was administered to assess children's physical activity and sleep. Data were analyzed using linear regression models. All measured parameters did not differ between genders except for sleep time which was higher and sleep efficacy which was lower in boys compared with girls. None of the FM and FFM indices studied in boys was significantly associated with ghrelin levels. In girls, however, ghrelin concentrations were significantly associated with FM (β = 0.04, P = 0.01), fat mass index (β = 0.07, P = 0.008), and fat-free mass index (β = 0.08, P = 0.04) and near-significantly associated with FFM (β = 0.03, P = 0.09) after adjusting for age, physical activity, sleep, and dietary intake. Girls with higher ghrelin levels were more likely to have increased total FM and FFM. Conversely, body composition was not associated with ghrelin levels in boys. Consequently, ghrelin may influence the gender-related differences of body composition during childhood in girls. But, further study is needed to confirm our findings.

  20. The stigmatization of obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children.

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildikó; Túry, Ferenc

    2013-06-01

    Prejudice against obese people has been widely confirmed in scientific papers. Therefore, recent studies have increasingly focused on investigating the individual and cultural factors related to attitudes towards obesity. Since there have been no comparative studies involving Gypsy people, our present research aimed at exploring the possible discrepancies in children's attitudes towards obese children between Gypsy and Hungarian cultures. Our survey included 247 children aged 9-16 (108 boys and 139 girls), of which 136 considered themselves Hungarian (55.1 %), while 111 children (44.9 %) claimed themselves as Gypsy. The subjects were asked to rank six male and six female figure drawings according to their preference. Each sequence of figure drawings included a healthy child, an obese child, and four drawings depicted children with disabilities. According to our results, the drawings portraying the healthy child figure were rated most preferable and those portraying the obese child figure the least preferable amongst the subjects regardless of gender and origin. However, the obese girl figures and boy figures were rated significantly more positively by Gypsy children than Hungarian children. Our results suggest that there is a difference in attitude towards obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children. Therefore, it is worthwhile to further explore this phenomenon.

  1. Applying motivational interviewing to counselling overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Lena Lindhe; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group interviews concerning their experiences with applying MI to counselling overweight and obese children. Important barriers were nurses' lack of recognition that overweight and obesity among children constitute a health problem, problem ambivalence among nurses who felt that children's weight might be a problem although there was no immediate motivation to do anything and parents who the nurses believed were unmotivated to deal with their children's weight problem. Facilitators included nurses' recognition of the advantages of MI, parents who were cooperative and aware of the health problem and working with obese children rather than those who were overweight.

  2. Adiposity, chronic inflammation, and the prepubertal decline of sex hormone binding globulin in children: evidence for associations with the timing of puberty (Earlybird 58).

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Jonathan; Streeter, Adam; Hosking, Joanne; Mostazir, Mohammod; Mohammod, Mostafir; Jeffery, Alison; Wilkin, Terence

    2014-09-01

    The regulation and role of SHBG in children are poorly defined. Here we investigated whether adiposity-related mechanisms regulate SHBG and whether SHBG levels are associated with the age of puberty. Longitudinal modelling of annual physiological and endocrine measurements from age 5 to 15 years in a cohort of 347 Plymouth schoolchildren. SHBG levels were highest at age 5 years and then declined. Mean (SE) SHBG levels were higher in boys than girls at age 5 years [mean (SE) difference 7.68 (3.80) nmol/L; P = .045] but lower in boys by age 15 years [difference 12.19 (3.4) nmol/L; P < .001]. SHBG correlated inversely with adiposity [body mass index SD score (BMI SDS)], insulin, IGF-I, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leptin and positively with adiponectin but not with dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, or T. In linear mixed models, five adiposity-related covariates (insulin, leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, and CRP) all exerted significant main effects on SHBG (boys P = .04 to < .001; girls P = .007 to < .001). However, the further addition of BMI SDS rendered the effects of leptin, insulin, and adiponectin nonsignificant, whereas CRP and IGF-I remained significant. In separate models, the individual effects on SHBG of insulin, leptin, IGF-I, and adiponectin, but not CRP, were displaced by BMI SDS. Finally, in linear regression, BMI SDS little affected R(2) resulting from the five adiposity-related signals. Girls with lower SHBG levels at age 5 years reached Tanner stage 2 earlier, tended to have earlier LH secretion, and earlier age at peak height velocity and menarche. In contrast, boys with lower SHBG levels at age 5 years reached Tanner stage 2 earlier, but there were no relationships between SHBG and earlier onset of LH secretion or age at peak height velocity. Adiposity-related endocrine mechanisms and chronic inflammation were associated with the prepubertal decline of SHBG, and lower SHBG levels anticipated earlier puberty. These findings may be

  3. Independent and Combined Effects of Sex and Biological Maturation on Motor Coordination and Performance in Prepubertal Children.

    PubMed

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Cumming, Sean P; Duarte, João P; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Almeida, Maria J; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides; Padez, Cristina; Carmo, Bruno Cleiton M; Santos, Rute; Seabra, André; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J

    2016-04-01

    Sex differences and maturation-associated variation in fitness and motor coordination were examined in children aged 8-9 years (n = 128, 67 girls). Assessments included stature and body mass, two-component body composition, percentage of predicted adult stature (as an index of biological maturation), and motor performance and coordination (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder). Compared to girls, boys were less advanced in maturation status, possessed larger fat mass, demonstrated superior performances in six tests of fitness, and obtained one superior score on the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. After controlling for somatic maturation, sex differences persisted in the two multivariate domains: motor performance and motor coordination. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Massive prolactinoma with galactorrhoea in a prepubertal boy.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, R. J.; McEniery, J. M.; Grossman, A.; Doniach, I.; Besser, G. M.; Savage, M. O.

    1989-01-01

    An 8 year old prepubertal boy presented with raised intracranial pressure, left proptosis and was noted to have galactorrhoea. Cranial computerized tomography revealed a large pituitary tumour infiltrating the cavernous sinus and left orbit. The serum prolactin was 180,600 mU/l (normal value less than 360 mU/l). Prolactinomas are rare in children and galactorrhoea has not previously been reported in a prepubertal child. The management of massive prolactinomas is difficult, but the child presented has made an impressive response to a combination of treatment with surgery, dopamine agonist therapy and radiotherapy. PMID:2608583

  5. Obesity and Airway Dysanapsis in Children with and without Asthma.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Weiner, Daniel J; Mullen, James; Sawicki, Gregory; Kurland, Geoffrey; Han, Yueh Ying; Cloutier, Michelle M; Canino, Glorisa; Weiss, Scott T; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-02-01

    For unclear reasons, obese children with asthma have higher morbidity and reduced response to inhaled corticosteroids. To assess whether childhood obesity is associated with airway dysanapsis (an incongruence between the growth of the lungs and the airways) and whether dysanapsis is associated with asthma morbidity. We examined the relationship between obesity and dysanapsis in six cohorts of children with and without asthma, as well as the relationship between dysanapsis and clinical outcomes in children with asthma. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each cohort and in a combined analysis of all cohorts; longitudinal analyses were also performed for cohorts with available data. Hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical outcomes were calculated for children with asthma in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Being overweight or obese was associated with dysanapsis in both the cross-sectional (OR, 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62-2.35 [for overweight/obese compared with normal weight children]) and the longitudinal (OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 2.99-6.22 [for children who were overweight/obese at all visits compared with normal weight children]) analyses. Dysanapsis was associated with greater lung volumes (FVC, vital capacity, and total lung capacity) and lesser flows (FEV1 and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase), and with indicators of ventilation inhomogeneity and anisotropic lung and airway growth. Among overweight/obese children with asthma, dysanapsis was associated with severe disease exacerbations (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.38-2.75) and use of systemic steroids (HR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.02-5.14). Obesity is associated with airway dysanapsis in children. Dysanapsis is associated with increased morbidity among obese children with asthma and may partly explain their reduced response to inhaled corticosteroids.

  6. Evidence in obese children: contribution of hyperlipidemia, obesity-inflammation, and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Jen; Jian, Deng-Yuan; Lin, Ming-Wei; Zhao, Jun-Zhi; Ho, Low-Tone; Juan, Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows a high incidence of insulin resistance, inflammation and dyslipidemia in adult obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the relevance of inflammatory markers, circulating lipids, and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese children. We enrolled 45 male children (aged 6 to 13 years, lean control = 16, obese = 19, overweight = 10) in this study. The plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels, the circulating levels of inflammatory factors, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1, and the high-sensitive CRP level were determined using quantitative colorimetric sandwich ELISA kits. Compared with the lean control subjects, the obese subjects had obvious insulin resistance, abnormal lipid profiles, and low-grade inflammation. The overweight subjects only exhibited significant insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation. Both TNF-α and leptin levels were higher in the overweight/obese subjects. A concurrent correlation analysis showed that body mass index (BMI) percentile and fasting insulin were positively correlated with insulin resistance, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers but negatively correlated with adiponectin. A factor analysis identified three domains that explained 74.08% of the total variance among the obese children (factor 1: lipid, 46.05%; factor 2: obesity-inflammation, 15.38%; factor 3: insulin sensitivity domains, 12.65%). Our findings suggest that lipid, obesity-inflammation, and insulin sensitivity domains predominantly exist among obese children. These factors might be applied to predict the outcomes of cardiovascular diseases in the future.

  7. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M

    2017-03-01

    Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95(th) percentile. Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity.

  8. Overweight and obesity in Portuguese children: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A R

    2014-11-03

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children's BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9-11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287-0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23-0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27-0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children's BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.

  9. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  10. The mode of school transportation in pre-pubertal children does not influence the accrual of bone mineral or the gain in bone size--two year prospective data from the paediatric osteoporosis preventive (POP) study.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Bjarne; Stenevi-Lundgren, Susanna; Dencker, Magnus; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2010-02-03

    Walking and cycling to school are one source of regular physical activity. The aim of this two years observational study in pre-pubertal children was to evaluate if walking and cycling to school was associated with higher total amount of physical activity and larger gain in bone mineral content (BMC) and bone width than when going by car or bus. 133 boys and 99 girls aged 7-9 years were recruited to the Malmö Prospective Paediatric Osteoporosis Prevention (POP) study. BMC (g) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in total body, lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck (FN) at baseline and after 24 months. Bone width was measured in L2-L4 and FN. Skeletal changes in the 57 boys and 48 girls who consistently walked or cycled to school were compared with the 24 boys and 17 girls who consistently went by bus or car. All children remained in Tanner stage I. Level of everyday physical activity was estimated by accelerometers worn for four consecutive days and questionnaires. Comparisons were made by independent student's t-tests between means and Fisher's exact tests. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to adjust for group differences in age at baseline, duration of organized physical activity, annual changes in length and BMC or bone width if there were differences in these traits at baseline. After the adjustments, there were no differences in the annual changes in BMC or bone width when comparing girls or boys who walked or cycled to school with those who went by car or bus. Furthermore, there were no differences in the levels of everyday physical activity objectively measured by accelerometers and all children reached above the by the United Kingdom Expert Consensus Group recommended level of 60 minutes moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. A physical active transportation to school for two years is in pre-pubertal children not associated with a higher accrual of BMC or bone width than a passive mode of transportation, possibly due to the fact

  11. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity in obese children.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ataç; Ozçetin, Mustafa; Yerli, Yasemin; Damar, Ibrahim Halil; Kadı, Hasan; Koç, Fatih; Ceyhan, Köksal

    2011-10-01

    Obesity may start in childhood and obese children are more likely to grow up to be obese adults. Atherosclerosis is one of the most important complications of obesity. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a noninvasive measure of arterial stiffness, is accepted to be an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to determine PWV in obese children. The study included 30 obese (12 boys, 18 girls; mean age 13 ± 2 years) and 30 lean children (13 boys, 17 girls; mean age 12.5 ± 1.7 years). Weight and height were measured and obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) of greater than the 95th percentile for age. All the subjects underwent echocardiographic evaluation and blood samples were obtained. Pulse-wave velocity was calculated using the following equation: PWV (m/sec) = height-based aortic length (cm)/(100xtransit time [sec]). The latter was measured as the difference in the time of onset of two flows at the diaphragm and the aortic valve. Obese subjects had significantly higher blood pressure levels compared to the control group (p<0.001). The two groups were similar with respect to fasting glucose, hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and lipid levels. Among echocardiographic parameters, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, interventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass index, left atrium dimension, and aortic root dimension were significantly increased in obese subjects compared to controls (p<0.01). Obese children had significantly higher PWV values than the controls (4.0 ± 0.8 vs. 3.3 ± 0.7 m/sec, p<0.001). A positive significant correlation was found between PWV and BMI (r=0.391, p=0.002). Our findings show that aortic PWV is increased in obese children, suggesting that obesity may cause subclinical atherosclerosis even at early ages.

  12. Increased endothelial microparticles in obese and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Zübeyde; Dursun, İsmail; Tülpar, Sebahat; Baştuğ, Funda; Baykan, Ali; Yıkılmaz, Ali; Patıroğlu, Türkan; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Akın, Leyla; Yel, Sibel; Düşünsel, Ruhan

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children increases the risk of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are considered as markers of endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to evaluate circulating EMPs in obese and overweight children and to disclose the measure of obesity with the strongest relation with circulating microparticles and carotid atherosclerosis. This prospective study included 55 obese and overweight children and 23 healthy controls. Insulin resistance was studied. Both in vivo and in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cell evaluations were used for the study. Circulating EMPs (CD144 and CD146) were measured by flow cytometry. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured using ultrasound and echocardiography, respectively. Study groups were compared for anthropometric measurement, insulin resistance, circulating EMP, cIMT, and LVMI. The relationship among overweight, obesity, and circulating EMPs were investigated. Blood pressure, CD144+EMP levels, and LVMI were statistically higher in the patients group than in the control group. The multiple logistic regression analysis and the backward elimination method showed that CD144+EMP and systolic blood pressure had a linear relationship with overweight and obesity. Our results suggest that endothelial damage starts in the early stage of childhood obesity and that obese and overweight children have increased circulating CD144+EMPs, showing that endothelial dysfunction and increased CD144+EMPs may be related to obesity.

  13. Increasing obesity rates in school children in United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, S.; AlTunaiji, M.; Fares, N.; AlShehhi, L.; AlShehhi, H.; AlMazrouei, A.; Souid, A. ‐K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The remarkable socioeconomic changes in United Arab Emirates (UAE) necessitate regular monitoring of obesity in our population. This study explored the epidemiology of obesity in a large cohort of UAE students. Methods This population‐based study investigated the prevalence of obesity in 44,942 students attending governmental schools in Ras Al‐Khaimah. Body‐mass‐index (BMI) was calculated in 15,532 children (4–12 y) in 2013–2014, and in 29,410 children (3–18 y) in 2014–2015. The International Obesity Task Force, World Health Organization, and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reference methods were used to identify overweight, obesity, and extremely‐obesity. Results Using CDC interpretation of BMI, from 11 to 14 y, the prevalence of BMI ≥85th percentile was 41.2%, BMI ≥95th percentile 24.3% and BMI ≥99th percentile 5.7%. Obesity increased linearly from 3 to 12 y (R 2 ≥ 0.979); each year an additional 2.36% of the students became obese and 0.28% became extremely obese. The rate of extreme‐obesity was 9.6‐fold higher in boys than girls (0.58% vs. 0.06%). From 15 to 18 y, 10.3% of boys were extremely obese and 3.0% of girls were extremely obese. Conclusions These results confirm a steady rise in obesity in children 3–18 y. The rising rate of extreme obesity is also alarming, especially among boys. PMID:27818779

  14. Environmental correlates of children's physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Settles, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    To examine the individual, parental, and neighborhood environment correlates of children's physical activity and risk of obesity. Secondary data of 1514 children drawn from the Delaware Survey of Children's Health were used for analysis. A conceptual framework was developed based on the Social Determinants of Health and Environmental Health Promotion model and tested using structural equation modeling. Findings confirmed that parental support on physical activity and a favorable neighborhood environment predicted children's physical activity. However, the risk of overweight and obesity was not associated with parental support of physical activity and children's physical activity. Future preventive practice requires a multifaceted approach incorporating both individual and environmental changes.

  15. Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Bilić-Kirin, Vesna; Gmajnić, Rudika; Burazin, Jelena; Milicić, Valerija; Buljan, Vesna; Ivanko, Marija

    2014-06-01

    The perception of obesity among people has not changed significantly regardless numerous public educational programs. Reasons for obesity pandemics are numerous and complex, but can be mostly resumed to life-style changes. The aim of this research was to determine connection between socioeconomic factors and obesity with children of our region. Study included pupils aged 7-8 from 19 first grades in 8 primary schools in Osijek-Baranya County. Body height and weight were measured and socioeconomic data status were collected. Socioeconomic status included data on marital status, educational level, employment, number of children in the family, kindergarten attendance and urban/rural location and also smoking habits of parents. BMI was calculated as a parameter for obesity assessment according to Croatian reference values. Total of 372 children were measured. There were 6.5% of overweight children (BMI between 90th and 97th percentile) and 2.4% of obese children (BMI above 97th percentile). The prevalence of obese children in our research was 8.9%. Obesity is not influenced by rural/urban residence, marital status of parents, number of children in the family, mother's education, or by parents' smoking habits. Positive correlation between obesity and father's education and parents' unemployment was found. Available literature data, same as our study, did not show consistent association between socioeconomic factors and obesity with children. Contradictory results of different studies can be a result of a small sample, difference in study design and different criteria for defining categories within investigated socioeconomic factor.

  16. Factors predictive of the short- and long-term efficacy of growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with chronic renal failure. The German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Wühl, E; Schaefer, F; Nissel, R; Tönshoff, B; Mehls, O

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate the growth-stimulating effects of short- and long-term treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in growth-retarded children with chronic renal failure (CRF), 103 prepubertal children with CRF on conservative treatment (n = 74) or dialysis (n = 29) were treated with rhGH for up to 5 yr. rhGH treatment persistently increased standardized height (+ 1.6 SD scores) and predicted adult height (+7.7 cm, Tanner method) during the first 3 treatment years (P < 0.001 versus baseline), followed by percentile parallel growth during continued treatment. Both standardized height and predicted adult height were significantly more increased in conservatively treated than in dialyzed children (P < 0.001). Age, GFR, target height, and prestudy growth rate were identified as independent predictors of the response to rhGH treatment during the first and second treatment year. GFR and target height were positively correlated with the change in height SD score and the change in absolute or age-standardized height velocity. Age affected the growth response depending on which outcome measure was used: Although the first-year change in height SD score was inversely correlated with age, the change in absolute height velocity was independent of age, and the change in standardized height velocity was positively correlated with age. The growth response during the first treatment year positively predicted the long-term response. In conclusion, the short- and long-term growth response to rhGH treatment in prepubertal growth-retarded children with CRF is significantly affected by age, GFR, target height, and the pretreatment growth rate. Therefore, rhGH should be preferably started at a young age, and early in the course of CRF.

  17. Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. Methods A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. Results There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.” Conclusion The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity. PMID:25938022

  18. Nutritional Counseling for Obese Children with Obesity-Related Metabolic Abnormalities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ki Soo

    2017-06-01

    Child obesity has become a significant health issue in Korea. Prevalence of obesity in school-age children in Korea has been alarmingly rising since 2008. Prevalence of obesity among infants and preschool-age children in Korea has doubled since 2008. Obese children may develop serious health complications. Before nutritional counseling is pursued, several points should be initially considered. The points are modifiable risk factors, assessment for child obesity, and principles of treatment. Motivational interviewing and a multidisciplinary team approach are key principles to consider in managing child obesity effectively in the short-term as well as long-term. Nutritional counseling begins with maintaining a daily log of food and drink intake, which could possibly be causing obesity in a child. Several effective tools for nutritional counseling in practice are the Traffic Light Diet plan, MyPlate, Food Balance Wheel, and 'Food Exchange Table'. Detailed nutritional counseling supported by a qualified dietitian is an art of medicine enabling insulin therapy and hypoglycemic agents to effectively manage diabetes mellitus in obese children.

  19. Does obesity prolong anesthesia in children undergoing common ENT surgery?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer J; Sun, Lena S; Gu, Brian; Kim, Minjae; Wang, Shuang; Han, Sena

    2014-10-01

    To report the epidemiology of obesity in a pediatric surgical population and determine whether obesity is a risk factor for longer anesthesia duration. Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem in the United States. Epidemiologic studies on pediatric surgical populations have been limited to states with very high prevalence of adult obesity (Michigan, Texas). Data from other states and more recent data since 2006 are unavailable. We examined anesthesia records for surgical patients age 2-18 years at Columbia University Medical Center from January 2009 to December 2010. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery or those with records missing preoperative height or weight data were excluded. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m(2) ). BMI ≥95th percentile according to national growth charts were considered obese. We reviewed 9522 patients of which 1639 were obese (17.2%). The sex-age category interaction on obesity was not significant using logistic regression (P = 0.11). Among surgical groups, the otolaryngology (ENT) cohort had the highest obesity rate (21.7%, 360/1656). Obese children who had tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both did not have a prolonged anesthetic (P = 0.33) or surgical duration (P = 0.61) compared with nonobese children, adjusting for surgeon, season, surgical procedure code, and ASA status. Children presenting for surgery, particularly the ENT cohort, have a high prevalence of obesity. Obese and nonobese children who had tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both had comparable durations of anesthesia. Therefore, obesity did not lead to longer anesthetic duration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS <1.28. All participants were characterized by anthropometrics (weight, height, and waist circumference) and fasting serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. Results: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (p<0.0001) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) (p<0.0001) independent of age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage, whereas fasting serum fT4 concentrations were associated positively only with WHtR. The odds ratio of exhibiting SH was 1.8 when being overweight/obese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). Conclusion: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity. PMID:27611730

  1. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens Christian

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS <1.28. All participants were characterized by anthropometrics (weight, height, and waist circumference) and fasting serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (p<0.0001) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) (p<0.0001) independent of age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage, whereas fasting serum fT4 concentrations were associated positively only with WHtR. The odds ratio of exhibiting SH was 1.8 when being overweight/obese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity.

  2. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children with and without obesity].

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris Paola; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia Berenice; Muñoz Valle, José Francisco; Vences-Velázquez, Amalia; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-03-09

    Childhood obesity is considered the main risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) during childhood, adolescence and adulthood. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS components and its main defining combinations in a sample of school children with and without obesity. A total of 225 children aged 6-12 years, 106 obese and 119 with normal weight were included. MetS was defined by the presence of 3 or more of the following: obesity as a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile, fasting glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c)<40 mg/dL and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile. We found MetS components in both groups. Most frequent abnormalities in the obese group included increased levels of HDL-c, triglycerides, fasting glucose and total cholesterol, while increased levels of glucose and total cholesterol, and lower HDL-c levels predominated in the normal weight group. The prevalence of MetS in the obese group was 44.3% and, in normal weight children, it was 0.84%. The 3 main components that defined the MetS in the obese group were obesity/triglycerides/HDL-c (34.0%), obesity/glucose/triglycerides/HDL-c (29.8%) and obesity/glucose/HDL-c (14.9%), while the only combination observed in the normal weight group was glucose/HDL-c/triglycerides. A percentage of 44.3 of obese school children had MetS, and dyslipidemia showed to be strong determinants of MetS. Although the prevalence of MetS was low in children with normal weight, one third of them showed one of the components of MetS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  4. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  5. Oxidative stress and nitric oxide are increased in obese children and correlate with cardiometabolic risk and renal function.

    PubMed

    Correia-Costa, Liane; Sousa, Teresa; Morato, Manuela; Cosme, Dina; Afonso, Joana; Areias, José C; Schaefer, Franz; Guerra, António; Afonso, Alberto C; Azevedo, Ana; Albino-Teixeira, António

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) appear to represent important links between obesity and cardiovascular, metabolic and/or renal disease. We investigated whether oxidative stress and NO production/metabolism are increased in overweight and obese prepubertal children and correlate with cardiometabolic risk and renal function. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of 313 children aged 8-9 years. Anthropometrics, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), insulin resistance (homoeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR)), inflammatory/metabolic biomarkers, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma and urinary isoprostanes (P-Isop, U-Isop), urinary hydrogen peroxide (U-H2O2), and plasma and urinary nitrates and nitrites (P-NOx, U-NOx) were compared among normal weight, overweight and obese groups, according to WHO BMI z-score reference. U-Isop were increased in the obese group, whereas U-NOx were increased in both overweight and obese children. U-Isop were positively correlated with U-H2O2, myeloperoxidase (MPO), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, HOMA-IR and TAG. TAS correlated negatively with U-Isop and MPO and positively with PWV. HOMA-IR and U-H2O2 were associated with higher U-Isop, independently of BMI and eGFR, and total cholesterol and U-H2O2 were associated with U-NOx, independently of BMI, eGFR values and P-NOx concentration. In overweight and obese children, eGFR decreased across P-NOx tertiles (median: 139·3 (25th, 75th percentile 128·0, 146·5), 128·0 (25th, 75th percentile 121·5, 140·4), 129·5 (25th, 75th percentile 119·4, 138·3), P for linear trend=0·003). We conclude that oxidant status and NO are increased in relation to fat accumulation and, even in young children, they translate into higher values of cardiometabolic risk markers and affect renal function.

  6. Effects of obesity and obesity-induced stress on depressive symptoms in Korean elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Min; Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong, Seong-Chul; Kim, Yeol; Hyun, Mi-Youl; Kwak, Young-Sook; Lee, Chang-In; Park, Min-Jeong; Jang, Yun-Hee; Moon, Ji-Hyun; Seok, Eun-Mi; Song, Young-Ja; Hyeon Ju Kim

    2009-07-01

    Obesity is becoming prevalent in Korean children. Because body image is becoming increasingly important, it is likely that obesity-induced stress has a significant effect on childhood depression. To examine the correlation between obesity-induced stress and depressive symptoms in Korean elementary school students. The study participants were 2,305 elementary school children and their parents in the districts of Jeju-si, Seogwipo-si, Namjeju-gun and Bukjeju-gun on Jeju Island, Korea, who completed questionnaires involving demographic information, an obesity-induced stress scale and the Korean form of Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) from September to December 2006. After controlling for significant independent variables that are wellknown correlates of depressive symptoms in children (e.g. age, gender, residence, family monthly income, obesity status of both parents, family history of chronic illness, and time spent with mother), obesity-induced stress had an odds ratio of 1.128 (95% CI 1.111-1.146). Reducing the prevalence of depressive symptoms in elementary school children in Jeju Island will require special attention, particularly the development of coping strategies to resolve obesity-induced stress in various areas including school, family and society.

  7. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P < 0.0001), "emotional overeating" (P < 0.001) and "food responsiveness" (P < 0.0001). Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile. PMID:21985269

  8. Why obese children cannot resist food: the role of impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Braet, Caroline; Van Eijs, Yvonne; Tanghe, Ann; Jansen, Anita

    2006-11-01

    Facing the undesirable health consequences of being obese, an important question is why some people are not able to resist eating to excess. It is theorized that increased impulsivity at least partly underlies the inability to control eating behaviour; being more impulsive is supposed to make it more difficult to resist food intake. Thirty-three obese children in a residential setting and 31 lean control children are tested. Impulsivity is measured with two behavioural measures (inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward) and questionnaires. Results show that the obese children in treatment were more sensitive to reward and showed less inhibitory control than normal weight children. In addition, the obese children with eating binges were more impulsive than the obese children without eating binges. Most interesting finding was that the children that were the least effective in inhibiting responses, lost less weight in the residential treatment program. To conclude: impulsivity is a personality characteristic that potentially has crucial consequences for the development and maintenance, as well as treatment of obesity.

  9. Self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children.

    PubMed

    Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Ratanopas, Wasoontara; Temcharoen, Paradee; Srisorrachatr, Suwat

    2011-03-10

    Childhood obesity has become an important public health problem in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the relationship between self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children. A case control study was conducted. 140 cases (obese children) and 140 controls (normal weight children) were randomly chosen from grades 4-6 students in 4 Bangkok public schools. Questionnaire responses regarding general characteristics and child self-discipline were obtained from children and their parents. Self discipline in eating habits, money management and time management were reported at significantly lower levels among the obese group (p < 0.05). After controlling all other variables, it was revealed that the ranking of factors associated with obesity by adjusted odds ratio (OR) were low self-discipline in managing expenses (3.1), poor home environment (3.0,), moderate self-discipline in time management (2.9), television viewing time ≥2 hours/day (2.6), an obese father (2.2), and an obese mother (1.9). It was recommended that parents and teachers participate in child self-discipline guidance, particularly with regard to eating habits, money management and time management in a supportive environment that both facilitates prevention of obesity and simultaneously develops a child's personal control.

  10. Self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity has become an important public health problem in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the relationship between self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children. Methods A case control study was conducted. 140 cases (obese children) and 140 controls (normal weight children) were randomly chosen from grades 4-6 students in 4 Bangkok public schools. Questionnaire responses regarding general characteristics and child self-discipline were obtained from children and their parents. Results Self discipline in eating habits, money management and time management were reported at significantly lower levels among the obese group (p < 0.05). After controlling all other variables, it was revealed that the ranking of factors associated with obesity by adjusted odds ratio (OR) were low self-discipline in managing expenses (3.1), poor home environment (3.0,), moderate self-discipline in time management (2.9), television viewing time ≥2 hours/day (2.6), an obese father (2.2), and an obese mother (1.9). Conclusions It was recommended that parents and teachers participate in child self-discipline guidance, particularly with regard to eating habits, money management and time management in a supportive environment that both facilitates prevention of obesity and simultaneously develops a child's personal control. PMID:21392376

  11. A genetic contribution to circulating cytokines and obesity in children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytokines are considered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Study objectives are to determine the heritability of circulating cytokine levels, to investigate pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and to present genome scan results for cytokines in 1030 Hispanic children...

  12. [Dental status in children and adolescents diagnosed with obesity].

    PubMed

    Galkina, Iu V; Gavrilova, O A; Piekalnits, I Ia; Dianov, O A

    2015-01-01

    Dental status was studied in 168 obese teenagers aged from 12 to 17 years. The study revealed high prevalence in this group of teenagers of oral pathology like caries and fluorosis, inflammatory periodontal disease in 75% of children and poor oral hygiene level. One should consider high need for development of treatment-and-prophylactic measures for improvement of dental status in obese teenagers.

  13. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  14. Obesity and Other Predictors of Absenteeism in Philadelphia School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Elizabeth B.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Andrel, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited data indicate that obese children are absent from school more than their normal-weight peers. We analyzed administrative data from a large urban school district to investigate the association of obesity and student sociodemographic characteristics with absenteeism. Methods: We analyzed 291,040 records, representing 165,056…

  15. Obesity and Other Predictors of Absenteeism in Philadelphia School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Elizabeth B.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Andrel, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited data indicate that obese children are absent from school more than their normal-weight peers. We analyzed administrative data from a large urban school district to investigate the association of obesity and student sociodemographic characteristics with absenteeism. Methods: We analyzed 291,040 records, representing 165,056…

  16. Obesity Increases Operative Time in Children Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Pandian, T K; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn). In total, 1757 patients were identified. Due to low rates of obesity in children <9 years old, analyses were limited to those 9-17 (n = 1611, 43% obese). Among obese children, 80.6% were girls. A higher proportion of obese patients had diabetes (3.0% versus 1.0%, P < .01) and contaminated or dirty/infected wounds (15.1% versus 9.4%, P < .01). Complication rates were low. The most frequent indications for surgery were cholelithiasis/biliary colic (34.3%), chronic cholecystitis (26.9%), and biliary dyskinesia (18.2%). On multivariable analysis, obesity was an independent predictor of OT >90 (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.55-2.63), and DOAn >140 minutes (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42-2.43). Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased OT in children undergoing LC. Pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists should be prepared for the technical and physiological challenges that obesity may pose in this patient population.

  17. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  18. Obesity-Associated Biomarkers and Executive Function in Children

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison L.; Jong, Hannah; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing focus on links between obesity and cognitive decline in adulthood, including Alzheimer’s disease. It is also increasingly recognized that obesity in youth is associated with poorer cognitive function, specifically executive functioning skills such as inhibitory control and working memory, which are critical for academic achievement. Emerging literature provides evidence for possible biological mechanisms driven by obesity; obesity-associated biomarkers such as adipokines, obesity-associated inflammatory cytokines, and obesity-associated gut hormones have been associated with learning, memory, and general cognitive function. To date, examination of obesity-associated biology with brain function has primarily occurred in animal models. The few studies examining such biologically-mediated pathways in adult humans have corroborated the animal data, but this body of work has gone relatively unrecognized by the pediatric literature. Despite the fact that differences in these biomarkers have been found in association with obesity in children, the possibility that obesity-related biology could affect brain development in children has not been actively considered. We review obesity-associated biomarkers that have shown associations with neurocognitive skills, specifically executive functioning skills which have far-reaching implications for child development. Understanding such gut-brain associations early in the lifespan may yield unique intervention implications. PMID:25310758

  19. Parental Anthropometric Indices and Obesity in Children.

    PubMed

    Koomanaee, Shahin; Tabrizi, Manijeh; Naderi, Novin; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Boloky Moghaddam, Kobra; Dalili, Setila

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between each parent's Body Mass Index (BMI) and maternal age with weight status of children. This was an analytic cross-sectional study which was conducted on 12-year-old students from different areas in Rasht, north part of Iran. The checklist included demographic characteristics such as age, maternal age during childbirth, student and maternal height and weight, child rank. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis, paired t-test and ANOVA test and chi-square in SPSS software 19.0. A P-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 200 adolescents participated in this study consisted of 106 (53%) boys. Results showed a significant correlation between students' BMI and parental BMI and father's weight. Also, there was a significant correlation between students' weight with parental BMI and father's weight, and birth rankIn conclusion, the role of the family in changing nutritional habits of children must be considered because through parental education and changing their perceptions we can prevent obesity.

  20. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis

    PubMed Central

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Pollak, Michael N; Nakamoto, Erika K; Kleinman, Ken; Tserendolgor, Uush; Willett, Walter C; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Background Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children. Methods In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2%) milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk. Results After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p < 0.0001), IGF-I/IGFBP-3 (p < 0.0001), and 75th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005). After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH. Conclusion Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production. PMID:17900364

  1. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy L; Tschann, Jeanne; Butte, Nancy F; Penilla, Carlos; Greenspan, Louise C

    2014-02-01

    To determine the association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American school-aged children. Cross-sectional study using the baseline data from a cohort study. Mothers and children answered questions about the frequency and quantity of the child's consumption of soda, diet soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice, milk and water. The questions were adapted from the Youth/Adolescent FFQ. Children were weighed and measured. Data were collected on the following potential confounders: maternal BMI, household income, maternal education, maternal occupational status, maternal acculturation, child physical activity, child screen time and child fast-food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between servings (240 ml) of each beverage per week and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile). Participants were recruited from among enrolees of the Kaiser Permanente Health Plan of Northern California. Data were collected via an in-home assessment. Mexican American children (n 319) aged 8-10 years. Among participants, 20% were overweight and 31% were obese. After controlling for potential confounders, consuming more servings of soda was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1·29; P < 0·001). Consuming more servings of flavoured milk per week was associated with lower odds of obesity (OR = 0·88; P = 0·004). Consumption of other beverages was not associated with obesity in the multivariate model. Discouraging soda consumption among Mexican American children may help reduce the high obesity rates in this population.

  2. Bone fractures in children: is there an association with obesity?

    PubMed

    Sabhaney, Vikram; Boutis, Kathy; Yang, Gaby; Barra, Lorena; Tripathi, Reetika; Tran, Tinh Trung; Doan, Quynh

    2014-08-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and odds of extremity bone fractures in children. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at 2 tertiary care pediatric emergency departments. A convenience sample of children 2-17 years of age with a nonpenetrating extremity injury was enrolled. Demographics, activity level, mechanism of injury, participant BMI, and presence of a fracture were recorded. The main outcome was the odds of an extremity bone fracture based on BMI category; logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of fracture by BMI category. We enrolled 2213 children, of whom 1078 (48.7%) sustained a fracture and 316 (14.3%) were classified as obese. The mean (SD) age was 9.5 (4.2) years, and percentage of male children was 56.8%. Compared with children with a normal BMI, the adjusted odds of fracture among obese, overweight, and underweight children were 0.75 (0.58, 0.97), 1.15 (0.89, 1.48), and 1.44 (1.00, 2.07) respectively. Obese children had a minor but statistically significant decreased odds of fracture relative to children with a normal BMI, but no association was observed in overweight children. However, underweight children were found to be at an increased odds of fracture. This study suggests that overweight and obese children do not have increased odds of extremity fracture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour in obese and non-obese Malaysian children.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p < 0.001). In both healthy weight and obese children, physical activity levels were exceptionally low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.

  4. Association of wider neck circumference and asthma in obese children.

    PubMed

    Akın, Onur; Sarı, Erkan; Arslan, Mutluay; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent; Yavuz, Suleyman Tolga

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for asthma. Previous studies have reported that central obesity is associated with asthma. To investigate the association between fat distribution, which is determined by anthropometric measures, including neck circumference (NC), and asthma in school-aged children. Children diagnosed as having asthma were enrolled along with controls who were admitted to our outpatient department with allergic symptoms, such as rhinitis, urticaria and atopic dermatitis. Anthropometric measures, including height, weight, NC, waist circumference, and hip circumference, were obtained. Skin prick tests, blood eosinophil counts, and serum total IgE level measurements were performed. A total of 196 children (92 male [46.9%]) were included. Asthma was present in 102 patients (52.1%). Ninety-one of the patients (46.4%) were overweight, and 45 patients (22.9%) were obese. The NC of children with asthma was significantly higher than that of children in the control group. Grades defined according to NC percentiles were also significantly different between groups. In children with asthma, the prevalence of children with an NC higher than the 90th percentile (grade 6) was more frequent when compared with controls. The median NC of obese-overweight children with asthma was significantly higher compared with obese-overweight controls without asthma. Results of multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of an NC in the greater than 90th percentile was associated with asthma in obese-overweight children. This study found that NC, which is a simple anthropometric measure, is associated with asthma in obese children. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fetuin-A, adiposity-linked insulin resistance and responsiveness to an educational-based weight excess reduction program: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Murdolo, Giuseppe; Tortoioli, Cristina; Celi, Federica; Bini, Vittorio; Papi, Francesco; Brozzetti, Annalisa; Falorni, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    The secreted hepatokine fetuin-A emerges as an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The overall aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the associations of fetuin-A with adiposity and insulin resistance, as well as its relationship with adipokines, in prepubertal children, and, (2) to evaluate whether, in prepubertal obesity, serum fetuin-A levels may either change or predict the responsiveness to an educational-based weight excess reduction program. We studied 200 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 89/111; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 years), included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 100 individuals were lean (boys/girls: 57/43) and 100 obese (boys/girls: 54/46). A subset of 53 obese individuals (boys/girls: 28/25; age: 6-12 years) were also evaluated after a weight excess reduction program. Serum fetuin-A, leptin, total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels, as well as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were assessed. When compared with lean, obese children exhibited higher ( p < 0.0001) fetuin-A concentrations, without differences between sex. Fetuin-A was positively associated with adiposity, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and leptin levels. In multivariate analysis, the associations between fetuin-A and leptin or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance lost the significance after adjustment for BMI Z-score, which, in turn, represented an independent determinant of fetuin-A (R (2)adj 0.327; p < 0.0001). Notably, after weight excess reduction program, fetuin-A levels dropped ( p < 0.0001 vs. basal). Interestingly, no significant differences of fetuin-A concentrations between responders and no responders were found. In prepubertal children, fetuin-A represents an early marker of adiposity, and its reduction after lifestyle intervention may partly contribute to the beneficial effects

  6. Physical Activity, Obesity Status, and Blood Pressure in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Vale, Susana; Trost, Stewart G; Rêgo, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Mota, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    To examine the combined effects of physical activity and weight status on blood pressure (BP) in preschool-aged children. The sample included 733 preschool-aged children (49% female). Physical activity was objectively assessed on 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. Children were categorized as sufficiently active if they met the recommendation of at least 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Body mass index was used to categorize children as nonoverweight or overweight/obese, according to the International Obesity Task Force benchmarks. BP was measured using an automated BP monitor and categorized as elevated or normal using BP percentile-based cut-points for age, sex, and height. The prevalence of elevated systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP was 7.7% and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obese was 32%, and about 15% of children did not accomplish the recommended 60 minutes of daily MVPA. After controlling for age and sex, overweight/obese children who did not meet the daily MVPA recommendation were 3 times more likely (OR 3.8; CI 1.6-8.6) to have elevated SBP than nonoverweight children who met the daily MVPA recommendation. Overweight or obese preschool-aged children with insufficient levels of MVPA are at significantly greater risk for elevated SBP than their nonoverweight and sufficiently active counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening for obesity-related complications among obese children and adolescents: 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Benson, Lacey J; Baer, Heather J; Kaelber, David C

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem among American children. Screening for obesity associated comorbid conditions has been shown to be inconsistent. The current study was undertaken to explore patterns of ordering screening tests among obese pediatric patients. We analyzed electronic medical records (EMR) from 69,901 patients ages 2-18 years between June 1999 and December 2008. Obese children who had documented diagnoses of obesity were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Screening rates for glucose, liver, and lipid abnormalities were assessed. Regression analysis was used to examine impact of patient characteristics and temporal trends were analyzed. Of the 9,251 obese diagnosed patients identified, 22% were screened for all three included obesity-related conditions: diabetes, liver, and lipid abnormalities; 52% were screened for glucose abnormalities; 30% for liver abnormalities; and 41% for lipid abnormalities. Increasing BMI and age were associated with increased rates of screening. Females and Hispanic patients were more likely to be screened. The majority of screening was ordered under "basic metabolic panel," "hepatic function panel," and "full lipid profile" for each respective condition. The percentages of patients screened generally increased over time, although the percentages screened for diabetes and lipid abnormalities seemed to plateau or decrease after 2004. Even after diagnosis, many obese patients are not receiving recommended laboratory screening tests. Screening increased during the study period, but remains less than ideal. Providers could improve care by more complete laboratory screening in patients diagnosed with obesity.

  8. Children's Hospital Association Consensus Statements for Comorbidities of Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma; Hampl, Sarah; Mietus-Snyder, Michele; Mirza, Nazrat; Rhodes, Erinn; Sweeney, Brooke; Tinajero-Deck, Lydia; Woolford, Susan J.; Pont, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Childhood obesity and overweight affect approximately 30% of US children. Many of these children have obesity-related comorbidities, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), sleep apnea, psychosocial problems, and others. These children need routine screening and, in many cases, treatment for these conditions. However, because primary care pediatric providers (PCPs) often are underequipped to deal with these comorbidities, they frequently refer these patients to subspecialists. However, as a result of the US pediatric subspecialist shortage and considering that 12.5 million children are obese, access to care by subspecialists is limited. The aim of this article is to provide accessible, user-friendly clinical consensus statements to facilitate the screening, interpretation of results, and early treatment for some of the most common childhood obesity comorbidities. Methods: Members of the Children's Hospital Association (formerly NACHRI) FOCUS on a Fitter Future II (FFFII), a collaboration of 25 US pediatric obesity centers, used a combination of the best available evidence and collective clinical experience to develop consensus statements for pediatric obesity-related comorbidities. FFFII also surveyed the participating pediatric obesity centers regarding their current practices. Results: The work group developed consensus statements for use in the evaluation and treatment of lipids, liver enzymes, and blood pressure abnormalities and PCOS in the child with overweight and obesity. The results of the FFFII survey illustrated the variability in the approach for initial evaluation and treatment as well as pattern of referrals to subspecialists among programs. Conclusions: The consensus statements presented in this article can be a useful tool for PCPs in the management and overall care of children with overweight and obesity. PMID:25019404

  9. Obesity in Nursery School Children in Corum, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akca, Selen Ozakar; Uysal, Gulzade; Aysegul Buyukgonenc, Lale

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular body mass index (BMI) screenings in schools is important to ensure that 3- to 6-year-old children are not negatively affected by obesity in terms of their current and future health. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the overweight and obesity results of 3- to 6-year-old children and to guide children and their family in making healthier dietary choices by informing them. Methods This analytical-descriptive study was conducted in Corum, Turkey, in the year 2011. The study’s sample consisted of all available 3- to 6-year-old children entering nursery school (specifically, the Buharaevler, Karsıyaka, Nasrettin Hoca, Ulukavak, Mimar Sinan, and Sevgi nursery schools). Findings from the study were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) program were used in the comparison of study data. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results It was determined that 9.5% of the participating female children and 5.2% of the male children were underweight and that the boys were more obese than the girls in general. The correlation between the child’s gender and their BMI was not found to be statistically significant (P-value > 0.05). The overweight frequency of the children was 12.1%, and the obesity frequency was 14.3%. Furthermore, it was determined that the obesity rates of the children increased with their age. Accordingly, the correlation between the child’s age and BMI was found to be statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). Conclusions An approach to preventing obesity must not be enacted only in health centers. Schools should also offer information and resources for families in order to prevent obesity in children. PMID:28180017

  10. [The effects of a multi agent obesity control program in obese school children].

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hye Young; Im, Sook Bin; Hong, Kyung Ja; Hur, Myung Haeng

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a multi agent obesity control program in obese school children. This program was composed of strategies to modify diet and exercise habits and to change cognitive behavior variables(stress, coping, and self-efficacy). The subjects were 40 obese school children who participated in our project voluntarily via homepage, TV, newspaper, public paper and school official documents. The program was implemented daily for 4 sessions per day for ten days from August 16 to 26, 2004. The daily program consisted of exercise therapy, dance therapy, cognitive behavior therapy and aroma therapy. The data was analyzed by paired t-test using the SPSSWIN program. There was a significant decrease in children's waist-hip ratio (p=.04) and in children's stress (p=.00) after the program. There was a significant increase in children's self-confidence after the program(p=.02) and a significant decrease in children's diet habit after the program(p=.02). This study provides evidence that a multiagent obese control program is effective in changing waist-hip ratio, stress, self-confidence, and diet habits in obese school children.

  11. Maternal obesity - a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    MOREA, MELINDA; MIU, NICOLAE; MOREA, VICENŢIU FLORIN; CORNEAN, RODICA

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between the metabolic syndrome in children (MS) and the pre-pregnancy nutritional status of the mother. Design and methods A total number of 180 children aged between 6–19 years were examined. Self reported data about parents and their children were collected. The children underwent physical examination; weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) were measured. The nutritional status of the children was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and laboratory tests needed to diagnose MS were performed. IDF criteria for MS were used in children 10 years and older, and age and gender specific cut-off points in children younger than 10 years. The mothers were classified in the normal weight, overweight and obese categories according to the pre-pregnancy BMI. The statistical analysis of the data was descriptive and inferential analysis. In the bivariate analysis of the association between qualitative variables, we used the Chi-Square test and the exact Fisher test. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v 13.0. Results 73 (40.55%) children were normal weight, 54 (30%) were overweight and 53 (29.44%) were obese. None of the normal weight children, 16 (29.60%) of the overweight and 23 (43.40%) of the obese ones had MS; 125 (69.44%) of the mothers were normal weight, 44 (24.44%) were overweight and 11 (6.11%) were obese. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI was significantly associated with offspring MS in both genders, obese children and in the 10–16 age group. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy maternal overweight/obesity represents a risk factor for offspring MS. The results are very difficult to compare between studies because of different cut-off values and definition of MS in children. If prevention is the goal rather than treatment, the perinatal period may be an important focus for future research. PMID:26527958

  12. Obesity and asthma in children: current and future therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jason E

    2014-06-01

    With the childhood prevalence of obesity and asthma increasing, it is important for pediatric professionals to appreciate that obesity modifies the diagnosis and management of asthma. These disease modifications present challenges to clinical management, including decreased responsiveness to controller therapy and decreased quality of life compared with normal-weight asthmatic children. While consensus guidelines do not currently suggest specific changes in asthma management for obese patients, management of some patients may be improved with consideration of the latest evidence. This article briefly summarizes what is known regarding the complex relationship between obesity and asthma in children, and discusses practical issues associated with the diagnosis and effective clinical management of asthma in obese children. On average, obese patients with asthma do not respond as well to inhaled corticosteroid therapy. Management approaches including weight loss and routine exercise are safe, and may improve important asthma outcomes. Asthma providers should learn to facilitate weight loss for their obese patients. In addition, pharmacologic interventions for weight loss in obese asthma, though not currently recommended, may soon be considered.

  13. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Makedou, Kali; Zormpa, Areti; Karampola, Maria; Ioannou, Anastasia; Hitoglou-Makedou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425) children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3%) of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031) times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity. PMID:27335587

  14. Parents' food choices: obesity among minority parents and children.

    PubMed

    Sealy, Yvette M

    2010-01-01

    This article examines obesity among minority parents and children in the context of culture, socioeconomic status, and the parent-child dyad. Knowing parental attitudes about eating habits, food preparation, and dietary guidelines is crucial to addressing childhood obesity. Parents of African American, Caribbean, and Hispanic descent participated in focus groups to explore their attitudes and practices regarding the food choices they make for themselves and their 6- to 12-year-old children. Cultural identification and time constraints were identified as key themes that influence food choice decisions. Several recommendations are made for health care practitioners working with families to reduce the incidence of obesity.

  15. Obesity and physical activity patterns in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laguna, María; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Gallardo, Cristian; García-Pastor, Teresa; Lara, María-Teresa; Aznar, Susana

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to measure objectively and accurately the physical activity (PA) patterns in Spanish children and adolescents according to their obesity status, gender and age groups. A sample of 487 children and 274 adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study participated in the study. The variables measured were anthropometric characteristics (height, weight and body mass index), and PA was measured during 6 consecutive days using the GT1M accelerometer. Three-way analysis of variance (age × gender × obesity status) showed significant differences in the interaction effect in age, gender and obesity status (normal-weight and overweight/obesity) for mean of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (P = 0.02) and vigorous PA (VPA) (P = 0.014) within the sample. Nine-year-old normal-weight children achieved significantly (P < 0.05) more MVPA on weekdays than 9-year-old overweight/obesity children. During weekend days, all sample achieved significant more MVPA (P < 0.01) and significant more VPA (P < 0.05) than during weekdays. Few children (37.5% of 9-year-old normal-weight and 34.0% of 9-year-old overweight/obese) and adolescents (16.4% and 27.3% normal-weight and overweight/obese, respectively) met the current health-related recommendations of 60 min of MVPA daily. It is clear that activity levels are insufficient for all children, in particular overweight/obese children and adolescents, although the precise nature of the relationship appears to differ between boys and girls. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. [Caries prevalence in preschool children with overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Villa-Ramos, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    The diet with high and frequent carbohydrates consumption specially between meals increases the risk of nutritional diseases and dental decay. Also, in Mexico in the last years the changes in feeding patterns have increased the cases augmented of overweight and obesity in children, so the aim of the present study was to determine if dental decay is associated to overweight and obesity in preschool children from Mexico City. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in 189 children aged of 3 to 6 years old, selected by convenience from Iztapalapa's area of Mexico City. According the body mass index (BMI) the children were qualified in three groups: 63 with normal weight, 63 with overweight and 63 with obesity. The clinical examination was performance by one observer. There were registered dmf-t, dmf-s indexes and the index of dental plaque of O'Leary. The chi2 and ANOVA tests were applied to compare among the groups, and odds ratio to estimate association. RESULTS. Caries prevalence was of 77% for the children with normal weight, 84% for those with overweight and 79% for the obese group. There was not association between caries with overweight, neither obesity, with exception for the obese girls who presented a higher affectation of dental decay in comparison with the obese boys(OR = 4.24; IC95%: 1.04-17.31, p < 0.05). In the overweight group, those children with poor hygienic habits showed more dental caries (OR = 7.83; IC95%: 1.74-35.21 p = 0.003). A high prevalence on dental caries was observed in preschool children, nevertheless, overweight and obesity did not correlate with to dental decay.

  17. Obesity and physical fitness in California school children.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Melanie; Li, Zhongmin; Bommer, William J

    2012-02-01

    Obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions in the United States and California. Thus, the California Department of Education began a series of steps to address the increase in obesity and decline in fitness in the 6.3 million public school children in California. We evaluated serial changes in obesity and fitness in California school children following implementation of prevention steps in all California public schools. The California Department of Education implemented changes in school nutrition and exercise programs aimed at reducing obesity and improving fitness. Outcome results were monitored by performing Physical Fitness Testing on 8.4 million students (5th, 7th, and 9th grade) for body composition, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and upper body, abdominal, and truncal strength using the Cochran-Armitage trend test and multivariable logistic regression models. Overall fitness improved from 2003 to 2008. Serial changes in body composition, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and upper body, abdominal, and truncal strength improved or remained stable within school as students progressed from 5th to 7th to 9th grade. However, students entering 5th grade were more obese every year, and this early obesity was not reversible within the school programs. Following prevention measures within California public schools, obesity and fitness levels have stabilized. However, continued increases in early entrance (5th grade) obesity will require additional efforts directed at preschool and elementary students to completely stop and reverse this obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Melanocortin-4 receptor gene mutations in obese Slovak children.

    PubMed

    Stanikova, D; Surova, M; Ticha, L; Petrasova, M; Virgova, D; Huckova, M; Skopkova, M; Lobotkova, D; Valentinova, L; Mokan, M; Stanik, J; Klimes, I; Gasperikova, D

    2015-01-01

    The most common etiology of non-syndromic monogenic obesity are mutations in gene for the Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC485) with variable prevalence in different countries (1.2-6.3 % of obese children). The aim of our study was 1) to search for MC4R mutations in obese children in Slovakia and compare their prevalence with other European countries, and 2) to describe the phenotype of the mutation carriers. DNA analysis by direct Sanger sequencing of the coding exons and intron/exon boundaries of the MC4R gene was performed in 268 unrelated Slovak children and adolescents with body mass index above the 97(th) percentile for age and sex and obesity onset up to 11 years (mean 4.3+/-2.8 years). Two different previously described heterozygous loss of function MC4R variants (i.e. p.Ser19Alafs*34, p.Ser127Leu) were identified in two obese probands, and one obese (p.Ser19Alafs*34), and one lean (p.Ser127Leu) adult family relatives. No loss of function variants were found in lean controls. The prevalence of loss-of-function MC4R variants in obese Slovak children was 0.7 %, what is one of the lowest frequencies in Europe.

  19. Psychosocial stress and obesity among children residing in Kaunas City.

    PubMed

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Petraviciene, Inga; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute

    2017-08-01

    An unfavorable psychosocial environment has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity among children. However, the available evidence on the association of low socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships with childhood obesity is scarce. The aim of our study was to conduct a simultaneous evaluation of the risks associated with pathological mother-child relationships, education level, and overweight/obesity among 4-6 year-old children. This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The Parenting Stress Index was measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children's overweight/obesity was defined as the body mass index ≥18kg/m(2). Logistic regression models as well as crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to indicate the strength of the associations between childhood overweight/obesity, maternal education level, and psychosocial stress. The percentage of children with overweight/obesity rose with an increasing Parenting Stress Index score. The percentage of children with overweight/obesity in the group of parents with better education and normal mother-child relations was 6.0%, while in the group of less educated parents and pathological mother-child relations, this percentage reached 13.9%. The stratified multivariable model showed that, with reference to the group of better educated parents and normal mother-child relations, lower education level and pathological mother-child relations were statistically significant risk factors for overweight/obesity in 4-6 year-old children, increasing the OR of overweight/obesity (aOR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.31-4.51). Pathological mother-child relations and maternal smoking mediated the effect of low maternal education level on children's BMI z-scores. Pathological mother-child relations, lower parental education levels, and smoking may be predictors of children's overweight/obesity. Measures

  20. Energy expenditure in obese children with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, A H; Lomenick, J P; Saville, B R; Wang, W; Buchowski, M S; Cone, R D

    2013-08-01

    Patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP-1a) develop early-onset obesity. The abnormality in energy expenditure and/or energy intake responsible for this weight gain is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure in children with PHP-1a compared with obese controls. We studied 6 obese females with PHP-1a and 17 obese female controls. Patients were recruited from a single academic center. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and thermogenic effect of a high fat meal were measured using whole room indirect calorimetry. Body composition was assessed using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1C were measured. Children with PHP-1a had decreased REE compared with obese controls (P<0.01). After adjustment for fat-free mass, the PHP-1a group's REE was 346.4 kcals day(-1) less than obese controls (95% CI (-585.5--106.9), P<0.01). The thermogenic effect of food (TEF), expressed as percent increase in postprandial energy expenditure over REE, was lower in PHP-1a patients than obese controls, but did not reach statistical significance (absolute reduction of 5.9%, 95% CI (-12.2-0.3%), P=0.06). Our data indicate that children with PHP-1a have decreased REE compared with the obese controls, and that may contribute to the development of obesity in these children. These patients may also have abnormal diet-induced thermogenesis in response to a high-fat meal. Understanding the causes of obesity in PHP-1a may allow for targeted nutritional or pharmacologic treatments in the future.

  1. Energy Expenditure in Obese Children with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1a

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Ashley H.; Lomenick, Jefferson P.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Wang, Wenli; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cone, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Context Patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP-1a) develop early-onset obesity. The abnormality in energy expenditure and/or energy intake responsible for this weight gain is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure in children with PHP-1a compared with obese controls. Patients We studied 6 obese females with PHP-1a and 17 obese female controls. Patients were recruited from a single academic center. Measurements Resting energy expenditure and thermogenic effect of a high fat meal were measured using whole room indirect calorimetry. Body composition was assessed using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin and hemoglobin A1C were measured. Results Children with PHP-1a had decreased resting energy expenditure compared with obese controls (P <0.01). After adjustment for fat free mass, the PHP-1a group’s resting energy expenditure was 346.4 kcals/day less than obese controls (95% CI [−585.5 to −106.9], P <0.01). The thermogenic effect of food, expressed as percent increase in postprandial energy expenditure over resting energy expenditure, was lower in PHP-1a patients than obese controls but did not reach statistical significance (absolute reduction of 5.9%, 95% CI [−12.2% to 0.3%], P = 0.06). Conclusions Our data indicate that children with PHP-1a have decreased resting energy expenditure compared with obese controls and that may contribute to the development of obesity in these children. These patients may also have abnormal diet-induced thermogenesis in response to a high fat meal. Understanding the causes of obesity in PHP-1a may allow for targeted nutritional or pharmacologic treatments in the future. PMID:23229731

  2. Expression and clinical significance of obesity-associated gene STEAP4 in obese children.

    PubMed

    Xu, H M; Cui, Y Z; Wang, W G; Cheng, H X; Sun, Y J; Zhao, H Y; Yan, Y Q

    2016-10-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical significance of the obesity-associated gene STEAP4 in obese children. Fifty-three obese children and 33 children with a standard body weight (control) from our hospital were recruited to this study. The expression of STEAP4 mRNA and protein in the adipose tissue were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in order to analyze the relationship between STEAP4 mRNA and protein levels and blood pressure, blood lipid profile, blood glucose levels, and inflammation in obese children. Obese children showed significantly lower levels of STEAP4 mRNA and protein in the adipose tissue compared to the control subjects (P < 0.05). The obese subjects exhibited significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, and a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, compared to the control subjects (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that STEAP4 expression was negatively correlated with the DBP, SBP, TC, TG, LDL, FPG, IL-6, and TNF-α levels, and was positively correlated with the HDL level (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the expression of STEAP4 was significantly downregulated in the adipose tissue of obese children and was closely related to the blood pressure, blood lipid, blood glucose, and inflammation in these patients; therefore, these results could provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of childhood obesity.

  3. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model.

    PubMed

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to 'treats' and excessive meal amounts given by the 'pet-parent' and child-parent to obtain affection from the pet/child, which enables 'eating addiction' in the pet/child and results in parental 'co-dependence'. Pet-parents and child-parents may even become hostage to the treats/food to avoid the ire of the pet/child. Eating addiction in the pet/child also may be brought about by emotional factors such as stress, independent of parental co-dependence. An applicable treatment for child obesity has been trialled using classic addiction withdrawal/abstinence techniques, as well as behavioural addiction methods, with significant results. Both the child and the parent progress through withdrawal from specific 'problem foods', next from snacking (non-specific foods) and finally from excessive portions at meals (gradual reductions). This approach should adapt well for pets and pet-parents. Pet obesity is more 'pure' than child obesity, in that contributing factors and treatment points are essentially under the control of the pet-parent. Pet obesity might thus serve as an ideal test bed for the treatment and prevention of child obesity, with focus primarily on parental behaviours. Sharing information between the fields of pet and child obesity would be mutually beneficial.

  4. Trends of overweight and obesity among children in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bacardi-Gascón, M; Jiménez-Cruz, A; Jones, E; Velasquez Perez, I; Loaiza Martinez, J A

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the trends of obesity from 2001-02 to 2006-07 in school children of Tijuana, Mexico and to investigate the relationship with the child's gender and type of school attended. Bietapic random sample was selected by cluster of schools and groups. Results of the 1684 children from 6-14 years of age assessed showed an overall prevalence of obesity (> 95(th)) of 28%. An overall increase of overweight and obesity of 7-percentage points (p=0.0003), from 41 to 48%, being higher among boys and younger girls. Prevalence of obesity was higher among boys and children from private schools. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  5. Constipation and colonic transit times in children with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    vd Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; Liem, Olivia; Bekkali, Noor; van Aalderen, Wim M C; Rijcken, Tammo H Pels; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Benninga, Marc A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria in children with morbid obesity and to evaluate by measuring colonic transit times (CTTs) whether decreased colonic motility is present in these children. Ninety-one children with morbid obesity ages 8 to 18 years, entering a prospective, randomized controlled study evaluating the effect of an outpatient versus inpatient treatment program of obesity, participated. All of the children filled out a standardized questionnaire regarding their bowel habits, and CTTs were measured using radioopaque markers. Food diaries were also recorded to evaluate their diet. A total of 19 children (21%) had functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria, whereas 1 child had functional nonretentive fecal incontinence. Total CTT exceeded 62 hours in only 10.5% of the children with constipation, and among them, 2 had a total CTT of >100 hours. In the nonconstipated group 8.3% had a delayed CTT. Furthermore, no difference was found between the diet of children with or without constipation, specifically not with respect to fiber and fat intake. Our study confirms a high frequency of functional constipation in children with obesity, using the Rome III criteria. However, abnormal colonic motility, as measured by CTT, was delayed in only a minority of patients. No relation was found between constipation in these children and fiber or fat intake.

  6. Evaluation of Periaortic Adiposity and Metabolic Disorders in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Akyürek, Nesibe; Alp, Hayrullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between periaortic fat thickness (PAFT) and parameters involved in the development of metabolic complications of the cardiovascular system in obese children and to assess the usefulness of echocardiographic measurements of PAFT in correlation with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: The study was conducted with 263 obese and 100 healthy children and adolescents. PAFT was measured with echocardiography method which was recently performed in obese children and adolescents. Results: PAFT was significantly higher in the obese group (0.258±0.031 mm) than in the control group (0.137±0.032 mm) (p<0.001). In multivariable regression analysis, body mass index-standard deviation score and total body fat were predictors of PAFT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.989 and was quite significant at p<0.001. PAFT above 0.179 mm was determined as the cut-off value in obese children and adolescents (sensitivity=1, specificity=0.97). Conclusion: The measurement of PAFT in obese children and adolescents may be a good method to reveal the presence of early cardiovascular risk. PMID:26758313

  7. Breast carcinoma in a prepubertal girl

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Singh, Sudipto Kumar; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is a very rare disease in children. We present a rare case of breast cancer in an 11-year-old prepubertal girl. Clinically, it was a case of locally advanced breast cancer (T4bN1M0). The core biopsy report showed adenocarcinoma of the not otherwise specified (NOS) variety (oestrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative). Diagnosis was late in this case due to lack of suspicion. A modified radical mastectomy was considered to be adequate treatment. Histologically, it was adenocarcinoma NOS, which is rare in young girls (the secretory type being more common). Incidence, differential diagnoses, investigation and management of breast carcinoma in young girls are discussed. The purpose of reporting this case is to highlight that prevention and early detection of breast carcinoma in children is very important. PMID:24810441

  8. Concerns, expectations and perception regarding stature, physical appearance and psychosocial functioning before and during high-dose growth hormone treatment of short pre-pubertal children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Lagrou, K; Froidecoeur, C; Thomas, M; Massa, G; Beckers, D; Craen, M; de Beaufort, C; Rooman, R; François, I; Heinrichs, C; Lebrethon, M C; Thiry-Counson, G; Maes, M; De Schepper, J

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available about parental concerns and psychosocial functioning of young children born small for gestational age (SGA) treated with growth hormone (GH). The present study focused on the perception of short stature and the concerns and expectations of the parents regarding GH treatment. Forty prepubertal short SGA children, randomized into a GH-treated and a GH-untreated group, and their parents were evaluated by a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview at start and after 2 years of follow-up. Before start, 85% of the parents were concerned about short stature, 76% expected an increase in adult height of > or =10 cm and 81% expected a positive impact on well-being. Half of the parents expressed fears regarding GH treatment. After 2 years, more parents of treated children reported obvious growth and physical changes, and fewer parents reported teasing because of short stature. An improvement of well-being was reported by half of the parents of treated and untreated children. Fears about GH treatment disappeared almost completely. The perspective of GH treatment induced major adult height expectations. In treated children, the physical effects of GH treatment became obvious, teasing because of short stature decreased and initial concerns about short stature and GH therapy decreased. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Maternal work and children's diet, activity, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Mothers' work hours are likely to affect their time allocation towards activities related to children's diet, activity and well-being. For example, mothers who work more may be more reliant on processed foods, foods prepared away from home and school meal programs for their children's meals. A greater number of work hours may also lead to more unsupervised time for children that may, in turn, allow for an increase in unhealthy behaviors among their children such as snacking and sedentary activities such as TV watching. Using data on a national cohort of children, we examine the relationship between mothers' average weekly work hours during their children's school years on children's dietary and activity behaviors, BMI and obesity in 5th and 8th grade. Our results are consistent with findings from the literature that maternal work hours are positively associated with children's BMI and obesity especially among children with higher socioeconomic status. Unlike previous papers, our detailed data on children's behaviors allow us to speak directly to affected behaviors that may contribute to the increased BMI. We show that children whose mothers work more consume more unhealthy foods (e.g. soda, fast food) and less healthy foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, milk) and watch more television. Although they report being slightly more physically active, likely due to organized physical activities, the BMI and obesity results suggest that the deterioration in diet and increase in sedentary behaviors dominate.

  11. Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation in obese and eutrophic children

    PubMed Central

    Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Júnior, Ismael Forte Freitas; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity causes alterations in cardiac autonomic function. However, there are scarce and conflicting data on this function with regard to heart rate variability in obese children. OBJECTIVE: To compare the autonomic function of obese and eutrophic children by analyzing heart rate variability. METHODS: One hundred twenty-one children (57 male and 64 female) aged 8 to 12 years were distributed into two groups based on nutritional status [obese (n  =  56) and eutrophic (ideal weight range; n  =  65) according to the body mass index reference for gender and age]. For the analysis of heart rate variability, heart rates were recorded beat by beat as the children rested in the dorsal (prone) position for 20 minutes. Heart rate variability analysis was carried out using linear approaches in the domains of frequency and time. Either Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare variables between groups. Statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, SD1, SD2, LF and HF indices in milliseconds squared were lower among the obese children when compared to the eutrophic group. There were no alterations in the SD1/SD2 ratio, LF/HF ratio, LF index or HF index in normalized units. There was a significant difference between groups in the RR interval (R-to-R EKG interval). CONCLUSION: The obese children exhibited modifications in heart rate variability, characterized by a reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. These findings stress the need for the early holistic care of obese children to avoid future complications. PMID:20835556

  12. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  13. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American school-aged children. Cross-sectional study using the baseline data from a cohort study. Mothers and children answered questions about the frequency and quantity of the child's consumption of soda, diet soda, other...

  14. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  15. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  16. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  17. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in Children: Epidemiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pulgaron, Elizabeth R.; Delamater, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of overweight and obesity among children has increased dramatically in recent decades, with about one-third of children in the U.S. currently being either overweight or obese. Being overweight in early childhood increases risk for later obesity. There is evidence for the efficacy of family-based behavioral treatment to control weight and improve health outcomes. Obesity-related health risks have been documented, including metabolic syndrome. There is also increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among youth in recent years, with obesity and family history of T2D generally present. Lower income and ethnic minority status are associated with both obesity and T2D in youth. Most youth with T2D do not achieve optimal glycemic control, and are at high risk for later health complications. Obesity and T2D represent significant public health issues with potentially great personal and societal cost. Research addressing the prevention of obesity and T2D among youth is urgently needed. PMID:24919749

  18. [Overweight and obesity in children: known facts and new trends].

    PubMed

    Molinari-Büchi, B; Barth, J; Janner, M; Frey, P

    2010-05-19

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is increasing. A growing number of children are thus suffering from complications of obesity. Contributing factors can be found on an individual level as well as in the familial and social environment of affected children. Currently there is no single evidence-based treatment strategy available. Studies from family practice are scarce. Multimodal, long-term, easily accessible treatments as offered in family practice are promising and likely to be cost-effective. The sustainability of these changes in behavior still needs to be demonstrated.

  19. Differences in dietary pattern between obese and eutrophic children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive consumption of energy is a decisive factor of obesity, but a simple quantitative assessment of consumption between obese and eutrophic individuals not always explains the problem, raising questions about the importance of the qualitative aspects of food. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in nutrient composition and meal patterns between eutrophic and obese schoolchildren. Methods The diet of 83 children (42 obese and 41 eutrophic), aged between 7 and 11 years of age, was assessed by two non-consecutive dietary recalls. After the software analysis of macro and micronutrients composition, the different types and amount of legumes, fruits and vegetables were analyzed to verify the dietary patterns. Results No differences were verified in energy consumption between the groups (eutrophic = 1934.2 ± 672.7 kcal, obese = 1835.8 ± 621.2 kcal). In general, children showed consumption within the recommended ranges of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The average consumption of fiber was higher in the eutrophic group (20.7 g) when compared to the obese group (14.8 g). The dietary fiber was strongly correlated with the number of servings of beans (r = 0.77), when compared to fruits (r = 0.44) and leafy vegetables (r = 0.13). It was also observed that the higher the consumption of fiber and beans, the lower the proportion of dietary fat (r = -0.22) in the diet. Generally, there was a low consumption of fiber (20.7 g = eutrophic group/14.8 g = obese group), beans (1.1 portions in the eutrophic and obese groups), fruits (0.7 portions eutrophic group and 0.6 obese group) and vegetables (1.3 eutrophic group and 1.1 obese group). Conclusions It is concluded that the obesity was more related to a dietary pattern of low intake of dietary fiber than excessive energy consumption and macronutrients imbalance. PMID:22206728

  20. Obesity and other predictors of absenteeism in Philadelphia school children.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Elizabeth B; Daskalakis, Constantine; Andrel, Jocelyn

    2011-06-01

    Limited data indicate that obese children are absent from school more than their normal-weight peers. We analyzed administrative data from a large urban school district to investigate the association of obesity and student sociodemographic characteristics with absenteeism. We analyzed 291,040 records, representing 165,056 unique students (grades 1-12). Obesity status was classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention age- and sex-specific percentiles for body mass index (BMI) and analyses were based on negative binomial regression. Overall rates of overweight and obesity were 17% and 20%, respectively, and the estimated absence rate was 17 absences per 180 student-days. Obesity was weakly associated with increased school absences. The association was present mainly among the most obese students (BMI >99th percentile), who had an 11% greater absence rate compared to normal-weight students. Compared to white students, Hispanics and African Americans had higher absence rates (14% and 10%, respectively), and Asians had lower absence rates (43%). Students eligible for free or reduced-cost meals had 24% higher absence rates than those who were not eligible. Overweight and obesity do not seem strongly associated with school absence, except among extremely obese children. Race and poverty appear to affect absences to a greater extent than overweight and obesity. Additional research is needed to investigate the contribution of contextual factors in schools and neighborhoods. This study suggests that data routinely collected in schools could be used to track childhood obesity and to efficiently evaluate public health interventions designed to decrease childhood obesity. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  1. [Obesity, eating habits and nutritional knowledge among school children].

    PubMed

    Triches, Rozane Márcia; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate the association between obesity and eating habits and nutritional knowledge among schoolchildren. Weight and height were measured in 573 schoolchildren of public schools in two cities of State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Obesity was defined as Body Mass Index above the 95th percentile based on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) criteria. Eating habits and nutrition knowledge were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire. Simple and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess associations. Obesity among children was found to be associated with limited nutrition knowledge and unhealthy eating and habits. These children were five times more likely to be obese (OR=5.3;1.1-24.9). The level of knowledge affects the association between obesity and eating habits, and there's reason to suspect that children who have more nutrition knowledge report habits known to be healthier but not necessarily the ones they actually practice. Taking into account children's level of knowledge, unhealthy habits were strongly associated to obesity.

  2. Visual and brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with obesity.

    PubMed

    Akın, Onur; Arslan, Mutluay; Akgün, Hakan; Yavuz, Süleyman Tolga; Sarı, Erkan; Taşçılar, Mehmet Emre; Ulaş, Ümit Hıdır; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Ünay, Bülent

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate alterations in visual evoked potentials (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) in children with obesity. A total of 96 children, with a mean age of 12.1±2.0 years (range 9-17 years, 63 obese and 33 age and sex-matched control subjects) were included in the study. Laboratory tests were performed to detect insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia. The latencies and amplitudes of VEP and BAEP were measured in healthy and obese subjects. The VEP P100, BAEP interpeak latency (IPL) I-III and IPL I-V averages of obese children were significantly longer than the control subjects. When the obese group was divided into two subgroups, those with IR and without IR, BAEP wave I, wave III and P100 wave latencies were found to be longer in the group with IR. A statistically significant correlation was observed between BAEP wave I latency, IPL I-V, IPL I-III and the homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA IR) index and fasting insulin level. Our findings suggest that VEP and BAEP can be used to determine early subclinical on auditory and visual functions of obese children with insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement error of DXA: interpretation of fat and lean mass changes in obese and non-obese children.

    PubMed

    Wosje, Karen S; Knipstein, Brittany L; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2006-01-01

    Information on reproducibility of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements is essential because DXA is frequently used by clinicians and researchers to assess body composition changes. We estimated measurement error and absolute and relative smallest detectable differences (SDDs) for fat, lean, and bone mass in children. The SDD is the change necessary to be confident that the change is not a consequence of measurement error. Duplicate whole body DXA (Hologic QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA) scans were obtained on 32 obese and 34 non-obese children ages 6-19 yr. Absolute (kg) and relative (coefficient of variation) measurement error and SDD were calculated. Absolute SDDs for fat and lean were higher for obese (1.39 and 1.30 kg, respectively) than for non-obese children (0.42 and 0.47 kg, respectively). The %SDD for fat was lower for obese (3.58%) than non-obese children (5.24%), but for lean the %SDD was higher for obese (2.60%) than non-obese children (1.32%). The SDDs for bone mass were similar for obese and non-obese children. An obese child must lose or gain more absolute fat and lean mass than a non-obese child to be confident that the change is not a reflection of measurement error. Overall, SDD values for fat, lean, and bone mass are low.

  4. Epicardial Adiposity in Children with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Erdal; Koca, Bulent; Ture, Mehmet; Guzel, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity increases cardiac diseases by increasing tendency to atherosclerosis. Our aim was to define epicardial adipose tissue thickness, and its related factors in obese children. Methods: Total of 94 patients were divided into obesity with metabolic syndrome (MS) (n=30), obesity without MS (n=33), and control (n=31) groups. Auxological values with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, alanine transaminase, serum lipid levels, and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were evaluated. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness, interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular mass were measured by echocardiography. Findings: Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, insulin, alanine transaminase, and high sensitive C-reactive protein values were markedly higher in obesity group when compared with controls (P<0.001). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness was 0.64±0.23 cm in obesity with MS; 0.60±0.20 cm in obesity without MS, and 0.27±0.12 cm in control group (P<0.001). Interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular mass values were markedly high in obesity without MS group (P<0.001 and P=0.002). Conclusion: Our study has indicated that obesity has unfavorable effects on heart starting in the adolescence. PMID:25755863

  5. The response to growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency in Japan: Comparing three consecutive years of treatment data of The Foundation for Growth Science in Japan between the 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2017-09-30

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment for children with GH deficiency (GHD) is effective in improving adult height. To achieve favorable effects, GH treatment before puberty is very important, because prepubertal height gain is highly correlated with total height gain. However, no report has studied the effects by analyzing a nationwide data from recent GHD patients in Japan. We investigated the response to GH treatment using data compiled in the Foundation for Growth Science in Japan, and compared the effects between the 1990s and 2000s using analysis of covariance. We analyzed 534 prepubertal GHD subjects treated in the 2000s with three consecutive years of data from the start and investigated predictive factors for the effects. The cumulative height standard deviation score (SDS) change over three years of GH treatment was 0.91 ± 0.57 and 1.20 ± 0.62 in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Subjects in the 2000s were divided into three groups by severity, and the cumulative height SDS was 1.60 ± 0.93, 1.20 ± 0.54, and 1.00 ± 0.40 indicating severe, moderate, and mild GHD, respectively. Age and height SDS at the start and severity were identified as independent predictive factors. We also found a significant difference in the effects between the two cohorts after adjusting for the different factors (regression coefficient: -0.069, 95% confidence interval: -0.11 to -0.030, p = 0.0006), which might be due to the GH dose effect. We conclude that the effects of GH treatment in the 2000s had improved compared with those in the 1990s.

  6. [EARLY MOTHER-CHILD BONDING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Vargas Martínez, Gabriela; Cruzat Mandich, Claudia; Díaz Castrillón, Fernanda; Moore Infante, Catalina; Ulloa Jiménez, Valentina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experience of a group of mothers with obese children, regarding how early bond affects the relationship that both have with food and this, in turn, impacts on childhood obesity. The present study has a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design. The sample consists of five chilean women between 22 and 39 years old, with obese children between 2 and 4 years old. In-depth interviews were carried out and open coding strategy was used as method of analysis. Results show a tendency of mothers to establish insecure attachment relations, difficulties of tuning and expression of affection, and a predominance of a permissive parenting style around food. This has important implications for prevention and treatment of obesity, focusing on the attachment bond between mother and child.

  7. Anxiety, Family Functioning and Neuroendocrine Biomarkers in Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Inês; Wilkinson, Simon; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Calhau, Conceição; Coelho, Rui

    2017-04-28

    This observational study explores potential links between obese children's cortisol, and parental mental state, family functioning, and the children's symptoms of anxiety and depression. A non-random sample of 104 obese children (55 boys), mean age 10.9 years (standard deviation 1.76), was recruited from a childhood obesity clinic. Obesity was defined as body mass index above the 95th age- and gender-specific percentiles. Neuroendocrine biomarkers were measured. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed with self and parent-reported questionnaires (Anxiety, Depression and Stress Scales; Child Behaviour Checklist). Family functioning was assessed with parent-reported questionnaires (Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales-III). A significant, negative correlation (rs = -0.779; p = 0.003) between girls' cortisol and their parents' anxiety symptoms was found, limited to high functioning families. Boys scored significantly higher than girls on parent-reported internalizing symptoms but not on self-report. No association was found between cortisol in children and parental depressive symptoms. Whether the association between cortisol levels in obese children and parental mental health is effectively restricted to girls from high functioning families or is due to study limitations, requires further research. The lack of associations between cortisol in children and parental depressive symptoms, suggests a specific association between cortisol and parental anxiety symptoms. These results highlight the importance of taking into account family functioning, parental mental state and gender, when investigating neuroendocrine biomarkers in obese children associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  8. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. PMID:25372884

  9. [Prevalence of obesity among children in Ceuta. PONCE study 2005].

    PubMed

    Briz Hidalgo, F J; Cos Blanco, A I; Amate Garrido, A M

    2007-01-01

    The continuous increasing of overweight and obesity, among children and adolescents, constitutes an important public health problem. It is necessary to know and quantify this problem in order to delimit its magnitude and to identify the main risk groups. The enKid study (1998-2000) has estimated an obesity prevalence in Spain of 13,9% within the population group aged 2-22 years. Up to now, there was no data available about the city of Ceuta. In this study, it has been estimated an obesity prevalence of 8,75% among the Ceuta population group aged 6-13 years.

  10. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  11. Economic differences in risk factors for obesity among overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was 33.3% in the low-income bracket, and the prevalence of MS was 27.2% for the population. The children in the low-income group were more prone to have poor eating behavior and more likely to spend more than 2 hr viewing television. They also were more likely to have lower self-esteem and more depressive symptoms. School nurses should understand that risk factors for childhood obesity are more prevalent in low-income groups, which will eventually aggravate health disparities between socioeconomic status groups. Therefore, prevention programs for childhood obesity, which target high-risk groups of such children need to be developed and prioritized.

  12. [Management of children and adolescents with severe obesity].

    PubMed

    Valerio, G; Licenziati, M R; Tanas, R; Morino, G; Ambruzzi, A M; Balsamo, A; Brambilla, P; Bruzzi, P; Calcaterra, V; Crinò, A; De Falco, R; Franzese, A; Giordano, U; Grugni, G; Iaccarino Idelson, P; Iughetti, L; Maffeis, C; Manco, M; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Mozzillo, E; Zito, E; Bernasconi, S

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a complex public health issue. Recent data indicate the increasing prevalence and severity of obesity in children. Severe obesity is a real chronic condition for the difficulties of long-term clinical treatment, the high drop-out rate, the large burden of health and psychological problems and the high probability of persistence in adulthood. A staged approach for weight management is recommended. The establishment of permanent healthy lifestyle habits aimed at healthy eating, increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior is the first outcome, because of the long-term health benefits of these behaviors. Improvement in medical conditions is also an important sign of long-term health benefits. Rapid weight loss is not pursued, for the implications on growth ad pubertal development and the risk of inducing eating disorders. Children and adolescents with severe obesity should be referred to a pediatric weight management center that has access to a multidisciplinary team with expertise in childhood obesity. This article provides pediatricians a comprehensive and evidence based update on treatment recommendations of severe obesity in children and adolescents.

  13. [Obesity in children: new controversies and present prevention measures].

    PubMed

    Moraru, Evelina; Luchian, Ana-Maria; Bozomitu, Laura; Rusu, Tania; Sacaci, Paula; Antonesei, Luiza; Stana, B A; Tugurlan, Demetra Simona; Grudnicki, Alice; Popoiu, Anne-Marie; Ozkan, Mirçan; Moraru, D

    2006-01-01

    The authors realise a synthesis on classical data and recent pathogenic explanations in childhood obesity. The obesity is a nutritional disorder of great interest nowadays and surpasses the incidence of the major problem of pediatrics until now--the malnutrition. There is documented data concerning the global incidence of obesity which is continuously growing when it comes to children. That is why the prophylaxis must become a priority by using measures in the first period of life (natural feeding, the need of late diversification, the avoidance of hyperproteic diets). The recent pathogenic data and the long term populational studies change the old conceptions regarding the risk of some categories of children. Thus mother's malnutrition, the low birth weight, children that followed hyperproteic diets paradoxically represent categories of risk for obesity. A recent recorded phenomenon, which amplifies the risk for obesity is the early adiposity rebound which is recorded nowadays even for ages lower than five years. There are described the hormonal mechanisms involved in appetite and satiety up to the receptor level: leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, endocannabinoid receptors. There are pointed out all the long term risk elements (high birth weight, low birth weight, the pregnant woman's nutrition) and the modern medical treatments for obesity.

  14. The frequency of lingual tonsil enlargement in obese children.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Carolina V A; Kalra, Maninder; Donnelly, Lane F; Shott, Sally R; Fitz, Kelly; Singla, Saroj; Amin, Raouf S

    2008-04-01

    Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is being increasingly recognized as a not uncommon and treatable cause of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly in patients with Down syndrome who have undergone palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. We have recognized an increasing number of patients who are obese and have obstructive sleep apnea with enlarged lingual tonsils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of enlarged lingual tonsils in obese children. Seventy-one obese children (mean body mass index = 41.6 kg/m(2)) underwent sagittal fast spin-echo inversion recovery imaging. Lingual tonsils were identified and measured in the greatest anteroposterior diameter. Lingual tonsils > 10 mm were considered markedly enlarged. The subgroup with absent palatine tonsils (previous tonsillectomy) (n = 41) were compared with those with palatine tonsils present (n = 30). Forty-four (62%) of the obese children had measurable lingual tonsils, which is greater than the frequency previously reported in normal subjects (0%), subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (33%), or subjects with Down syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (50%). Ten (14%) had lingual tonsils > 10 mm. Obese subjects with absent palatine tonsils (previous tonsillectomy) had a higher prevalence of measurable lingual tonsils than those with palatine tonsils (78% vs 22%, respectively; p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of lingual tonsils > 10 mm (90% vs 10%, p < 0.001). Obese children have a high frequency of enlargement of the lingual tonsils with a significantly higher prevalence in those with previous tonsillectomy. Enlarged lingual tonsils may play a role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea in obese children.

  15. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amy L; Tschann, Jeanne; Butte, Nancy F; Penilla, Carlos; Greenspan, Louise C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American school-aged children. Design Cross-sectional study using the baseline data from a cohort study. Mothers and children answered questions about the frequency and quantity of the child’s consumption of soda, diet soda, other sugar-sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice, milk and water. The questions were adapted from the Youth/Adolescent FFQ. Children were weighed and measured. Data were collected on the following potential confounders: maternal BMI, household income, maternal education, maternal occupational status, maternal acculturation, child physical activity, child screen time and child fast-food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between servings (240 ml) of each beverage per week and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile). Setting Participants were recruited from among enrolees of the Kaiser Permanente Health Plan of Northern California. Data were collected via an in-home assessment. Subjects Mexican American children (n 319) aged 8–10 years. Results Among participants, 20% were overweight and 31% were obese. After controlling for potential confounders, consuming more servings of soda was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1·29; P < 0·001). Consuming more servings of flavoured milk per week was associated with lower odds of obesity (OR = 0·88; P = 0·004). Consumption of other beverages was not associated with obesity in the multivariate model. Conclusions Discouraging soda consumption among Mexican American children may help reduce the high obesity rates in this population. PMID:23308395

  16. Two-year recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment is more effective in pre-pubertal compared to pubertal short children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR).

    PubMed

    Rothenbuhler, Anya; Esterle, Laure; Gueorguieva, Iva; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Mignot, Brigitte; Colle, Michel; Linglart, Agnes

    2017-08-15

    Twenty-five to 40% of patients with well-controlled X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) have a final height under -2 SDS. Previous studies have shown that recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment improves linear growth in short children with XLHR. We studied the effectiveness of rhGH treatment in children with XLHR in a larger cohort. Monocentric, prospective, non-randomized trial. University hospital in France. 19 patients with XLHR and a mutation in the PHEX gene. Six male and 6 female Tanner stage 1 patients (age 6.1±2.4years) and 4 male and 3 female Tanner stage 2 patients (age 13.1±1years). At inclusion, height SDS was -2.35±0.8 SDS and growth velocity was -1.12±1.2 SDS. 2years of treatment with 67mcg/kg/day of rhGH at initiation. Every three months rhGH dosage was adjusted using an IGF-1 dosing protocol. Comparison in change from baseline to year 2 in height and growth velocity. Height SDS improved from -2.35±0.8 SDS at baseline, to -1.62±0.8 SDS (p=0.01) after one and to -1.2±1 SDS (p=0.04) after two years of rhGH treatment. There was a strong correlation (r(2)=0.6104, p<0.0001) between the age of onset of rhGH treatment and the number of cm gained over the study period. Pre-pubertal patients height SDS improved compared to baseline height SDS after one (-1.5±0.7, p<0.03) and two (-0.96±1, p<0.03) years of rhGH treatment. In pubertal patients there was no significant improvement in height SDS after one year (-1.75±1) and after two years (-1.7±0.8) of rhGH treatment. Two-year rhGH treatment is effective to treat short stature in XLHR children. Pre-pubertal children responded better to rhGH. NCT02720770. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Childhood obesity: bringing children's rights discourse to public health policy.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Julie

    2008-05-01

    Childhood obesity is widely understood as a public health issue, but is not commonly understood from a legal perspective. Children's rights discourse can add significant empowerment to public health-based policy, which alone lacks effectiveness in the face of commercial and other counteracting influences. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has the potential to be used by advocates for children's health to facilitate child health policies pertaining to the issue of childhood obesity. This is because children's rights, as defined in the articles of the convention, establish the essential conditions required by children to achieve optimal health and wellbeing. A rights-based approach may improve children's welfare by encouraging a less fragmented approach to the issue of childhood obesity. The articles of the convention can be used as a template for interdisciplinary collaboration, with a more coherent outcome possible. By articulating childhood obesity as a children's rights issue--not just a public health issue--a more effective strategy for addressing the problem can be developed and implemented.

  18. Do parents of obese children use ineffective parenting strategies?

    PubMed

    Morawska, Alina; West, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown mixed findings about the relationship between parenting style and child lifestyle outcomes. This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to clarify the relationship between ineffective parenting and childhood obesity by using multiple measures of child and family functioning. Sixty-two families with an obese child (aged four to 11 years) were matched with 62 families with a healthy weight child on key sociodemographic variables. Significant differences were found on several measures, including general parenting style, domain-specific parenting practices, and parenting self-efficacy (d = .53 to 1.96). Parents of obese children were more likely to use permissive and coercive discipline techniques, and to lack confidence in managing children's lifestyle behaviour. In contrast, parents of healthy weight children were more likely to implement specific strategies for promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  19. Blood pressure and arterial stiffness in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A strong relationship exists between obesity and elevated BP in both children and adults. Obesity and elevated BP in childhood track into adult life increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ambulatory BP is the most precise measure to evaluate the BP burden, whereas carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating arterial (i.e. aortic) stiffness. These measures might contribute to a better understanding of obesity's adverse impact on the cardiovascular system, and ultimately a better prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The overall aim of the present PhD thesis is to investigate arterial stiffness and 24-hour BP in obese children and adolescents, and evaluate whether these measures are influenced by weight reduction. The present PhD thesis is based on four scientific papers.  In a cross-sectional design, 104 severe obese children and adolescents with an age of 10-18 years were recruited when newly referred to the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbæk University Hospital, and compared to 50 normal weighted age and gender matched control individuals. Ambulatory BP was measured, and cfPWV was investigated in two ways in respect to the distance measure of aorta; the previously recommended length - the so called subtracted distance, and the currently recommended length - the direct distance. In a longitudinal design, the obese patients were re-investigated after one-year of lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic in purpose of reducing the degree of obesity. In the cross-sectional design, the obese group had higher measures of obesity, while matched for age, gender and height, when compared to the control group. In the longitudinal design, 74% of the 72 followed up obese patients experienced a significant weight reduction. CfPWV was dependent on the method used to measure the

  20. Sleep and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Chantelle N.; Cairns, Alyssa; Jelalian, Elissa

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of the present review is to provide a comprehensive update of current epidemiological studies that have assessed the association between sleep and obesity risk. Data from 29 studies conducted in 16 countries suggest that short sleep is associated with an increased risk for being or becoming overweight/obese or having increased body fat. Late bedtimes were also found to be a risk factor for overweight/obesity. Findings also suggest that changes in eating pathways may lead to increased body fat. Future experimental studies are needed to enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which sleep may play a role in the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. PMID:21600351

  1. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  2. [Single central obesity and combined with overweight/obesity in preeschool Mexican children].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martínez, Ana Maria; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Mathiew-Quirós, Alvaro; González-Guajardo, Eduardo Enrique

    2012-12-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a useful measure for identifying children at higher risk of complications related with abdominal fat. We determined the magnitude of central adiposity, single and combined with overweight and obesity in infants 1-5 years old. We also identified smoothed age-and sex-specific WC percentile values, which were compared with other countries available data. This was a cross-sectional study in children of 8 day care centers located in Monterrey, Mexico (n = 903, 431 boys and 472 girls). Because the risk due to abdominal obesity begins at WC percentile > or = 75, we considered two thresholds, percentile 75 y 90. Overweight was defined based on body mass index at percentile 85-94 for age and sex; and obesity, at percentile > or = 95. Analysis consisted of point prevalence and 95% confidence intervals. The LMS Chart Maker Light software was used for smoothing WC percentile values. The study population mean age was 2.7 +/- 1.0 years. Mexican children's WC was 1 cm above that of Afro-American; and it was up to 4 cm below that Mexican-American. Prevalence of central obesity with WC at percentile 75 combined with overweight/obesity was 25.1% (95% CI 22.3-28.0) and single, 15.4% (95 CI% 13.0-17.8). Prevalence of single abdominal obesity with WC at percentile > or = 90 was 4.4% (IC 95% 3.0, 5.8). Day care centers represent a key opportunity for defying central obesity. WC can be used since early age for screening and caring children at higher cardiovascular risk.

  3. ADHD and Aggression as Correlates of Suicidal Behavior in Assaultive Prepubertal Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Geoff; Gerstadt, Cherie; Pfeffer, Cynthia R.; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2008-01-01

    Forty-three psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children were assessed regarding their assaultive and suicidal behaviors. These children were subsequently classified into two groups, assaultive/suicidal (AS) and assaultive-only (AO). AS children had higher aggression and suicidal-scale scores, but not higher depression scores, and were more…

  4. Sex-Specific Mediating Role of Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in the Effect of Adiposity on Blood Pressure of Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Costa, Liane; Santos, Ana Cristina; Severo, Milton; Guerra, António; Schaefer, Franz; Caldas Afonso, Alberto; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between obesity indices and blood pressure (BP) at 4 years of age, in each sex, and to quantify to which extent this association is mediated by inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Materials and Methods We studied 1250 4-year-old children selected from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Associations between body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), office BP, inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein) and IR (HOMA-IR index) were assessed. Path Analysis, a modified multivariate regression approach, was applied to test causal models and quantify direct and indirect effects of predictors of systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). Results SBP and DBP increased significantly with BMI and WHtR in both sexes. There was a strong direct association (explaining 74.1-93.2% of the total association) of both measures of adiposity with SBP, in both sexes. This association was additionally indirectly mediated by IR, particularly regarding WHtR (20.5% in girls and 9.4% in boys). Mediation by inflammation did not reach statistical significance in either sex. Regarding DBP, the direct effect of adiposity was strong (>95% for BMI and WHtR in boys) and the mediation by IR was much smaller in boys than in girls. Discussion The direct association between adiposity and BP in healthy 4-year-old children is strong and IR plays an important mediating role. The strength of effects of IR and inflammation suggests sex differences in the complex interplay between BP, adiposity and inflammation. PMID:26125190

  5. Prevalence of obesity in children in north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Piccoli, R; Gonfiantini, E; Pinelli, L

    1993-05-01

    This study was performed to analyse the prevalence of obesity in children living in six different areas of the north-east of Italy. The study included 1523 children (749 male, 774 female), divided into four age categories (4, 8, 10, 12 +/- 0.5 years of age, respectively). The physical characteristics of the children were measured by trained and standardized examiners. In accordance with the guidelines on the Italian Consensus Conference on Obesity (Rome, 4-6 June 1991), a child was defined as obese when his weight was higher than 120% of the weight predicted for height, as calculated from the Tanner's tables. On average, the prevalence of obesity was higher in males than in females (15.7% vs. 11%). The highest prevalence was seen in 10-year-old males (23.4%). The prevalence increased with age both in males (4 years = 3.6%, 8 years = 11.2%, 10 years = 23.4%, 12 years = 17.3%) and in females (4 years = 2%, 8 years = 13.3%, 10 years = 12.7%, 12 years = 11.9%). This tendency was maintained when calculating the obesity prevalence by other methods, such as BMI, triceps skinfold and fat mass, although the magnitude of the prevalence was different depending on the criteria used to define it. A consensus on more precise criteria to define obesity is needed for a better diagnosis of obesity in childhood and to allow a more reliable measurement and comparison of the prevalence of obesity among populations.

  6. The lipid profile in obese asthmatic children compared to non-obese asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Fang, L-J; Huang, C-S; Liu, Y-C; Su, Y-M; Wan, K-S

    2016-01-01

    A relationship between asthma and obesity has been documented in children and adolescents. An alternate day calorie restriction diet has been reported to improve asthma symptoms by decreasing levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides, reducing markers of oxidative stress and increasing levels of the antioxidant uric acid. Therefore, to investigate the lipid profile in asthmatic children may be important in asthma control treatment. One hundred and sixty newly diagnosed persistent asthmatic children were selected to participate in the study. They were divided into four groups based on their body mass index (BMI): Group I normal weight (BMI=20-24.9kg/m(2), n=30); Group II under-weight (BMI<20kg/m(2), n=30); Group III overweight (BMI=25-30kg/m(2), n=25); and Group IV obese (BMI>30kg/m(2), n=25). Fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, and HbA1c were measured to exclude the possibility of pre-diabetes. Lipid profile measurements included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apo-A1, apo-B and triglycerides. There were no significant differences in the levels of apo-A1, apo-B, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL in all four groups. Only the level of HDL was higher in GIV>GIII>GII>GI (75.84±13.95, 68.56±15.28, 64.17±13.93, 63.17±14.34mg/dl, respectively). There were no cases of pre-diabetes in any of the four groups. Hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia were not found in any of the persistent asthmatic children, and thus they are not high risk factors for asthma. Similarly, there were no differences in apo-A1 and apo-B between any of the BMI groups. No differences were found in LDL levels, however HDL levels were increased in all four groups, indicating that allergic sensitisation may have occurred. Controlling body weight and restricting calorie intake may be as important as appropriate pharmacological management in controlling asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  7. Management of obesity in children differs from that of adults.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Hilary

    2014-11-01

    Obesity in childhood is a very common disorder with an increasing prevalence. It is one of the most serious public health challenges. The objectives of the present paper are to increase the awareness of the problem of obesity in childhood, its serious complications and the need for prevention. Overweight and obese children are likely to remain obese into adulthood and more likely to develop serious complications including health problems such as diabetes and CVD, as well as psychological and social challenges. Overweight and obesity are largely preventable. In adults it is difficult to reduce excessive weight gain once it has become established, thus children should be considered the priority population for intervention strategies and prevention. Nutrition, exercise, weight gain in infancy, genetic and environmental factors, all contribute to the aetiology. Prevention and treatment of obesity in childhood requires education and empowerment of families relating to diet and exercise, along with the regulation and control of food marketing and clear nutritional labelling. The eating and physical activity behaviour of a child is strongly influenced by environmental and social factors. Therefore treatment will have only limited success in an environment where adequate physical activity is inhibited and the consumption of high-energy food is stimulated. Government investment in a health promotion programme addressing the issue of obesity in the population as a whole, with particular emphasis on the prevention and management of obesity in childhood is vital. The family doctor and multidisciplinary team play an important role. Regular visits to the family doctor, including growth assessment, will help motivate the family to restrict energy intake and to increase exercise. Therefore the prevention of childhood obesity needs high priority.

  8. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children.

    PubMed

    Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R

    2006-05-01

    There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (P<0.05). A greater reduction in food stimuli in the home (P<0.05) was noted in the parents-only group. In both groups, the parents' weight status did not change. Regression analysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children.

  9. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  10. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  11. Movement skills and physical activity in obese children: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Steele, Julie R; Jones, Rachel A; Colyvas, Kim; Baur, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support physical activity program in overweight children. A multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with three intervention arms: 1) child-centered physical activity skill development program (Activity), 2) parent-centered dietary modification program (DIET), or 3) both programs combined (PA+DIET). Movement skill proficiency, perceived athletic competence, accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and parent-reported time spent in screen behaviors were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months in 165 prepubertal children aged 5.5-9 yr (59% girls, 78% obese). Differences in changes in outcomes between groups were assessed using linear mixed models. Compared with the diet group, the activity group (mean (95% confidence interval): +7.7 units (3.8-11.6 units)) and the activity + diet group (+6.7 units (2.9-10.5 units)) displayed 11%-13% greater improvement in overall movement skill proficiency (gross motor quotient) at 6 months. Perceived athletic competence increased across groups at follow-up (across groups: 6 months = +0.21 units (0.11-0.31 units), 12 months = +0.21 units (0.07-0.35 units)). Groups did not differ statistically for change in physical activity outcomes. Total screen time (min·wk(-1)) decreased in all groups at 6 months (across groups: -385.4 (-501.0 to -269.8)) and in the activity group (-261.8 (-470.5 to -53.1)) and activity + diet group (-340.5 (-534.6 to -146.4)) at 12 months. The diet group reported greater reductions in TV or DVD viewing time at 6 months compared with the activity group (248.6 (24.0-473.3)). The activity and the activity + diet programs were efficacious in improving overweight children's movement skill proficiency. All programs were efficacious in reducing time spent in screen behaviors. Other correlates may need to be targeted in addition to movement skills to increase physical activity among overweight children.

  12. The role of overweight and obesity in urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Gholmohammadi, Parisa; Moshiri, Seyed Alireza; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI in children. A comparison was made, in terms of overweight and obesity, between 135 children with UTI (case group) and 135 healthy children (control group). UTI was diagnosed through urine culture. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (DMSA) was also used to distinguish between lower UTI and acute pyelonephritis. Overweight and obesity were determined based on standard body mass index (BMI) curves. There were 12 (8.8%) overweight and 26 (19.2%) obese children in the case group. Four (3.0%) overweight and five (3.7%) obese children were found in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding overweight and obesity frequencies. However, no such difference existed between children with cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. This study showed a significant relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI. Therefore, overweight and obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of UTI in children.

  13. Salivary inflammatory markers and microbiome in normoglycemic lean and obese children compared to obese children with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Amarpeet; Tsompana, Maria; Berman, Harvey A.; Haase, Elaine M.; Miecznikowski, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence linking diabetes with periodontal disease. Diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for periodontal disease. Conversely, pro-inflammatory molecules released by periodontally-diseased tissues may enter the circulation to induce insulin resistance. While this association has been demonstrated in adults, there is little information regarding periodontal status in obese children with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that children with T2D have higher rates of gingivitis, elevated salivary inflammatory markers, and an altered salivary microbiome compared to children without T2D. Methods Three pediatric cohorts ages 10–19 years were studied: lean (normal weight—C), obese (Ob), and obese with T2D (T2D). Each subject completed an oral health survey, received a clinical oral examination, and provided unstimulated saliva for measurement of inflammatory markers and microbiome analysis. Results The diabetes group was less likely to have had a dental visit within the last six months. Body mass index (BMI) Z-scores and waist circumference/height ratios were similar between Ob and T2D cohorts. The number of carious lesions and fillings were similar for all three groups. The gingival index was greater in the T2D group compared to the Ob and C groups. Although salivary microbial diversity was minimal between groups, a few differences in bacterial genus composition were noted. Conclusions Obese children with T2D show a trend toward poorer oral health compared to normal weight and obese children without T2D. This study characterizes the salivary microbiome of children with and without obesity and T2D. This study supports a modest link between T2D and periodontal inflammation in the pediatric population. PMID:28253297

  14. A genetic contribution to circulating cytokines and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Smith, C Wayne; Mehta, Nitesh R; Voruganti, V Saroja; Proffitt, J Michael; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-11-01

    Cytokines are considered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Study objectives are to determine the heritability of circulating cytokine levels, to investigate pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and to present genome scan results for cytokines in 1030 Hispanic children enrolled in VIVA LA FAMILIA Study. Cytokine phenotypes included monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), leptin, adiponectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1), C-reactive protein (CRP), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and eotaxin. Obesity-related phenotypes included body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), truncal FM and fasting serum insulin. Heritabilities ranged from 0.33 to 0.97. Pleiotropy was observed between cytokines and obesity traits. Positive genetic correlations were seen between CRP, leptin, MCP-1 and obesity traits, and negative genetic correlations with adiponectin, ICAM-1 and TGF-beta1. Genome-wide scan of sICAM-1 mapped to chromosome 3 (LOD=3.74) between markers D3S1580 and D3S1601, which flanks the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ). Suggestive linkage signals were found in other chromosomal regions for other cytokines. In summary, significant heritabilities for circulating cytokines, pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and linkage for sICAM-1 on chromosome 3q substantiate a genetic contribution to circulating cytokine levels in Hispanic children.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal Malays: effects of diabetic parentage.

    PubMed

    Choo, Keng Ee; Lau, Kim Bee; Davis, Wendy A; Chew, Peng Hong; Jenkins, Alicia J; Davis, Timothy M E

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly in Asian populations but the influence of a family history of diabetes on cardiovascular risk is unknown. To assess this relationship, 120 urban-dwelling Malays were recruited to a cross-sectional case-control study. Sixty were pre-pubertal children, 30 of diabetic parentage (Group 1) and 30 with no diabetes family history (Group 2). Group 1 and 2 subjects were the offspring of adults with (Group 3) or without (Group 4) type 2 diabetes. Subjects were assessed for clinical and biochemical variables defining cardiovascular risk. Principal component analysis assessed clustering of variables in the children. Group 1 subjects had a higher mean waist:hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and HbA(1c) than those in Group 2, and a lower HDL:total cholesterol ratio (P<0.03). Although there were no correlations between Group 1 and 3 subjects for cardiovascular risk variables, significant associations were found in Groups 2 and 4, especially HbA(1c) and insulin sensitivity (P< or =0.004). Of five separate clusters of variables (factors) identified amongst the children, the strongest comprised diabetic parentage, HbA(1c), insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. Features of the metabolic syndrome are becoming evident in the young non-obese children of diabetic Malays, suggesting that lifestyle factors merit particular attention in this group.

  16. Neurocognitive correlates of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Liang, J.; Matheson, BE.; Kaye, WH.; Boutelle, KN.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have risen dramatically over the past few decades. Although obesity has been linked to poorer neurocognitive functioning in adults, much less is known about this relationship in children and adolescents. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between obesity and obesity-related behaviors with neurocognitive functioning in youth. We reviewed articles from 1976 to 2013 using PsycInfo, PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. Search terms included cognitive function, neurocognitive function/performance, executive function, impulsivity, self-regulation, effortful control, cognitive control, inhibition, delayed gratification, memory, attention, language, motor, visuo-spatial, academic achievement, obesity, overweight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, adiposity and body fat. Articles were excluded if participants had health problems known to affect cognitive functioning, the study used imaging as the only outcome measure, they were non-peer-reviewed dissertations, theses, review papers, commentaries, or they were non-English articles. Sixty-seven studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Overall, we found data that support a negative relationship between obesity and various aspects of neurocognitive functioning, such as executive functioning, attention, visuo-spatial performance, and motor skill. The existing literature is mixed on the effects among obesity, general cognitive functioning, language, learning, memory, and academic achievement. Executive dysfunction is associated with obesity-related behaviors, such as increased intake, disinhibited eating, and less physical activity. Physical activity is positively linked with motor skill. More longitudinal research is needed to determine the directionality of such relationships, to point towards crucial intervention time periods in the development of children, and to inform effective treatment programs. PMID:23913029

  17. Neurocognitive correlates of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liang, J; Matheson, B E; Kaye, W H; Boutelle, K N

    2014-04-01

    Childhood obesity rates have risen dramatically over the past few decades. Although obesity has been linked to poorer neurocognitive functioning in adults, much less is known about this relationship in children and adolescents. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between obesity and obesity-related behaviors with neurocognitive functioning in youth. We reviewed articles from 1976 to 2013 using PsycInfo, PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. Search terms included cognitive function, neurocognitive function/performance, executive function, impulsivity, self-regulation, effortful control, cognitive control, inhibition, delayed gratification, memory, attention, language, motor, visuo-spatial, academic achievement, obesity, overweight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, adiposity and body fat. Articles were excluded if participants had health problems known to affect cognitive functioning, the study used imaging as the only outcome measure, they were non-peer-reviewed dissertations, theses, review papers, commentaries, or they were non-English articles. Sixty-seven studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Overall, we found data that support a negative relationship between obesity and various aspects of neurocognitive functioning, such as executive functioning, attention, visuo-spatial performance, and motor skill. The existing literature is mixed on the effects among obesity, general cognitive functioning, language, learning, memory, and academic achievement. Executive dysfunction is associated with obesity-related behaviors, such as increased intake, disinhibited eating, and less physical activity. Physical activity is positively linked with motor skill. More longitudinal research is needed to determine the directionality of such relationships, to point towards crucial intervention time periods in the development of children, and to inform effective treatment programs.

  18. Associations among the Degree of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, Degree of Obesity in Children, and Parental Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min-Su; Kim, Sorina; Jang, Joon-Hyuck; Park, Jong Yoon; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Lee, Mu Sook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the associations among the degrees of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by ultrasonography and metabolic syndrome, degrees of obesity in children, and degrees of parental obesity. Methods A total of 198 children with obesity who visited a pediatric obesity clinic were prospectively enrolled in this study. The severity of NAFLD based on ultrasonography was classified into no, mild, moderate, or severe NAFLD group. The degree of obesity based on the percentage over standard weight for height per sex was classified into mild, moderate, or severe. Results Of 132 patients evaluated for the degree of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome, the p-value of correlation between the two factors was 0.009. Therefore, metabolic syndrome might significantly affect the degree of NAFLD. Of 158 patients evaluated for the degree of NAFLD and the degree of obesity, the p-value of correlation between the two factors was 0.122. Of 154 patients evaluated for the degree of obesity and father's obesity, the p-value was 0.076. Of 159 patients evaluated for the degree of obesity and mother's obesity, the p-value was 0.000, indicating that mother's obesity could significantly affect the degree of obesity in children. Of 142 patients evaluated for the degree of obesity and metabolic syndrome, the p-value was 0.288. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome might significantly affect the degree of nonalcoholic fatty liver in children. In addition, mother's obesity might be a significant factor that affects the degree of obesity in children. PMID:27738602

  19. Onset of obesity in children through the recall of parents: relationship to parental obesity and life events.

    PubMed

    Franzese, A; Valerio, G; Argenziano, A; Esposito-Del Puente, A; Iannucci, M P; Caputo, G; Alfonsi, L; Contaldo, F; Rubino, A

    1998-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease due to the influence of both genetic and environmental factors. Parents of 886 obese patients (427 boys and 459 girls, aged 1-18 years) were investigated by means of a questionnaire in order to study the factors associated with the onset of obesity in children and the relationship to genetic background. At presentation obese patients had a very high mean ideal body weight percent (IBW%) (154 +/- 19%, median 152%, range 120-246). A significantly higher mean IBW% was found in children of obese parents (one obese parent: 158 +/- 21%, median 156%, range 120-246; two obese parents 160 +/- 18%, median 158%, range 123-226) in comparison to children of normal weight parents (150 +/- 18%; median 147%, range 120-235; p = 0.0001 for children of one or two obese parents versus children of normal weight parents). Parents of 414 subjects (46.7%) (Group A) answered that obesity had always been present. The remaining 472 parents (53.3%) (Group B) stated that obesity had had a beginning at a mean age of 5.3 +/- 2.6 years (median 5.0 years, range 1.0-17.0). No difference was found in age at presentation, sex distribution, birth weight and number of obese parents between the two groups. Parents in Group B recalled an event associated with obesity onset in 197 cases (health event: 119 answers, psycho-social event: 78 answers). Genetic background did not influence this pattern of feedback. In conclusion, parents of obese subjects seek medical advice when obesity is severe. Pediatricians should exert strict surveillance on weight from a very young age. The recall in 22% patients of health or psychosocial events at the onset of obesity emphasizes that medical counselling is important when the occurrence of particular events in life may cause erroneous eating habits.

  20. Obesity, overweight, and eating problems in children with incontinence.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Catharina; Equit, Monika; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to analyze the prevalence of eating problems and specific associations between overweight, obesity, and eating behavior in children with incontinence. Forty-three consecutively presented children with incontinence, diagnosed to International Children's Continence Society standards, and 44 matched continent controls were examined prospectively. All children received a physical examination, sonography, and a one-dimensional intelligence test. Child psychopathology was measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18). Eating problems were assessed with the German version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for Children (DEBQ-C) and a 40-item-parental questionnaire referring to atypical eating problems. Of the 43 children with incontinence, 23.3% had nocturnal enuresis (NE) only, 37.2% had any form of daytime urinary incontinence (DUI) (isolated or combined with NE) and 39.5% had fecal incontinence (FI) (isolated or combined with NE and/or DUI). Incontinent children showed significantly more CBCL externalizing symptoms (35.7% vs. 6.8%) and total problems (46.3% vs. 6.8%) in the clinical range (>90th percentile), as well as significantly lower mean IQ (105.5 vs. 120.6) than continent controls. Of the children with incontinence, 16.9% were affected by obesity (≥95th body mass index [BMI] percentile) compared with none of the continent controls. Especially in children with FI, the rate of obesity was significantly increased (23.5%). In addition, 46.5% of incontinent children, but none of the controls, had constipation. Again, children with FI (82.4%) had the highest rate of constipation (>DUI: 25% > NE only: 20%). "Food refusal" (FR) and "intense fear of gaining weight" (GW), but not other eating problems, were significantly more common among incontinent children (FR mean score 7.3; GW mean score 1.4) than in controls (FR mean score 5.6; GW mean score 0.7). After controlling for BMI percentiles, FR still was significantly higher in

  1. [Narcolepsy in sleepy obese children. Two case reports].

    PubMed

    Rives-Lange, C; Karsenty, A; Chantereau, H; Oderda, L; Dubern, B; Lecendreux, M; Tounian, P

    2016-06-01

    Narcolepsy is a disabling disorder, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, irresistible sleep attacks, and partial or complete cataplexy. Many cases of obesity and precocious puberty have been reported in narcoleptic children, suggesting that the deficiency of hypocretin in narcolepsy could also be implicated in appetite stimulation. We report the observations of two young girls, who were referred for obesity and who developed narcolepsy accompanied by an abrupt weight gain. In both cases, specific drugs promoted wakefulness and overweight stabilization. Narcolepsy has to be suspected in sleepy obese children and not misdiagnosed as obstructive apnea. A nocturnal polysomnography with multiple sleep latency tests should be performed to confirm the diagnosis and begin specific treatment that is effective for sleep disorders and weight gain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Cutaneous manifestations in children with diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    PubMed

    Baselga Torres, E; Torres-Pradilla, M

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are chronic diseases that affect people all over the world, and their incidence is increasing in both children and adults. Clinically, they affect a number of organs, including the skin. The cutaneous manifestations caused or aggravated by obesity and diabetes are varied and usually bear some relation to the time that has elapsed since the onset of the disease. They include soft fibromas, acanthosis nigricans, striae, xerosis, keratosis pilaris, plantar hyperkeratosis, fungal and bacterial skin infections, granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. In this review article we present the skin changes found in children with diabetes mellitus and obesity and related syndromes and highlight the importance of the skin as a tool for establishing clinical suspicion and early diagnosis of systemic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Child obesity associated with social disadvantage of children's neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Grow, H Mollie Greves; Cook, Andrea J; Arterburn, David E; Saelens, Brian E; Drewnowski, Adam; Lozano, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Evidence suggests variability in adult obesity risk at a small-scale geographic area is associated with differences in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, the extent to which geographic variability in child obesity is associated with neighborhood SES is unknown. The objective of this paper was to estimate risk of child obesity associated with multiple census tract SES measures and race within a large urban U.S. county. Height, weight, age, sex, medical insurance type and census tract residence were obtained for 6-18 year old children (n=8616) who received medical care at a health plan in King County, Washington, in 2006. Spatial analyses examined the individual risk of obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile) with 2000 US census tract measures of median household income, home ownership, adult female education level, single parent households, and race as predictors. Conditional autoregressive regression models that incorporated adjacent census tracts (spatial autocorrelation) were applied to each census tract variable, adjusting for individual variables. We found that in adjusted spatial models, child obesity risk was significantly associated with each census tract variable in the expected direction: lower household income, lower home ownership, and for each 10% increase in less educated women, and single parent households, as well as non-white residents. In a spatial model including all variables, the SES/race variables explained approximately 24% of geographic variability in child obesity. Results indicated that living in census tracts with social disadvantage defined by multiple different measures was associated with child obesity among insured children in a large U.S. urban county. These results contribute new information on relationships between broader social and economic context and child obesity risk using robust spatial analyses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Arterial rigidity and endothelial dysfunction in obese children].

    PubMed

    Aggoun, Y; Tounian, P; Dabbas-Tyan, M; Massih, T Abdel; Girardet, J P; Ricour, C; Sidi, D; Bonnet, D

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor in adults. Poorly is known about effect of obesity on cardiovascular system in children. Mechanical properties of a great elastic trunk, the common carotid artery (CCA) and endothelium function of the brachial artery were studied in 130 obese children (age: 12 +/- 3 years, body mass index (BMI): 29 +/- 5.5 kg/m2, without hypertension (115 +/- 19/58 +/- 8 mmHg). These patients had a vascular high resolution echographical analysis. Cross sectional compliance (CSC), cross sectional distensibility (CSD) and incremental elastic modulus (Einc) were analysed at the CCA site. The brachial artery dilation was measured after hyperthemia (flow mediated dilation, FMD), an endothelium dependent function and after sublingually glyceryl trinitrate (GTNMD), an independent endothelium function. Fat mass composition and distribution were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 70 patients. In 50 obese patients an oral glucose tolerance test was done to determine insulin resistance. The obese children had significantly lower CSC and CSD than the healthy controls (respectively 0.12 +/- 0.04 vs 0.14 +/- 0.05 mm2.mmHg-1; p < 0.05 and 0.5 +/- 0.2 vs 0.8 +/- 0.4 mmHg(-1).10(-2); p < 0.001). Obese children had higher value than the controls for Einc (2.4 +/- 0.4 vs 1 +/- 0.24 mmHg.10(3); p < 0.001) that correlated poorly with fasting insulin concentrations (r = 0.34; p < 0.06) and BMI (r = 0.34; p < 0.01). FMD was significantly lower in obese children than in controls (6 +/- 3 vs 8 +/- 4%, p < 0.01) without modification of GTNMD (17 +/- 6 vs 18 +/- 7%, NS). These two parameters were respectively correlated with the android fat distribution (r = 0.36; p < 0.01; r = 0.49; p < 0.001). The CCA stiffness of obese children is linked to the amount of the overweight and to insulin resistance. The android fat distribution is related to endothelium dysfunction.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Amílcar BT; Rodrigues, Sérgio L; Baldo, Marcelo P; Mill, José Geraldo; Silva, Amílcar BT; Capingana, Daniel P; Magalhães, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mauer AA; Mateus, Miguel SB; Molina, Maria del Carmen B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Methods The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially in countries with accelerated economic growth. We determined the prevalence of and associations between overweight/ obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal (seven- to 11-year-old) schoolchildren (both genders, n = 198) in Luanda, Angola. Biochemical (fasting blood) and clinical examinations were obtained in a single visit. Data are reported as prevalence (95% confidence intervals) and association (r, Pearson). Results Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 17.7% (12.4–23.0%), high blood pressure (BP < 90% percentile) was 14.6% (9.7–19.5%), elevated glucose level was 16.7% (11.5–21.9%) and total cholesterol level < 170 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l) was 69.2% (62.8–75.6%). Significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic BP (r = 0.46 and 0.40, respectively; p < 0.05) were found. No association between BMI and elevated glucose or cholesterol levels was found. Conclusion The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was high in pre-pubertal schoolchildren in Angola and fat accumulation was directly associated with blood pressure increase but not with other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27805243

  6. Gastroesophageal Reflux Affects Sleep Quality in Snoring Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Eneli, Ihuoma; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the quality of sleep in snoring obese children without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and to study the possible relationship between sleep interruption and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in snoring obese children. Study subjects included 13 snoring obese children who were referred to our sleep lab for possible sleep-disordered breathing. Patients underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria included history of fundoplication, cystic fibrosis, and infants under the age of 2 years. Significant association between arousals and awakenings with previous reflux were defined by symptom-association probability using 2-minute intervals. Sleep efficiency ranged from 67-97% (median 81%). A total of 111 reflux episodes (90% acidic) were detected during sleep, but there were more episodes per hour during awake periods after sleep onset than during sleep (median 2.3 vs. 0.6, p=0.04). There were 279 total awakenings during the sleep study; 56 (20.1%) of them in 9 patients (69.2%) were preceded by reflux episodes (55 acid, 1 non-acid). In 5 patients (38.5%), awakenings were significantly associated with reflux. The data suggest that acid GER causes sleep interruptions in obese children who have symptoms of snoring or restless sleep and without evidence of OSA.

  7. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. T...

  8. Applying Motivational Interviewing to Counselling Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhe Soderlund, Lena; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group…

  9. Applying Motivational Interviewing to Counselling Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhe Soderlund, Lena; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group…

  10. Gastroesophageal Reflux Affects Sleep Quality in Snoring Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Eneli, Ihuoma; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the quality of sleep in snoring obese children without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and to study the possible relationship between sleep interruption and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in snoring obese children. Methods Study subjects included 13 snoring obese children who were referred to our sleep lab for possible sleep-disordered breathing. Patients underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria included history of fundoplication, cystic fibrosis, and infants under the age of 2 years. Significant association between arousals and awakenings with previous reflux were defined by symptom-association probability using 2-minute intervals. Results Sleep efficiency ranged from 67-97% (median 81%). A total of 111 reflux episodes (90% acidic) were detected during sleep, but there were more episodes per hour during awake periods after sleep onset than during sleep (median 2.3 vs. 0.6, p=0.04). There were 279 total awakenings during the sleep study; 56 (20.1%) of them in 9 patients (69.2%) were preceded by reflux episodes (55 acid, 1 non-acid). In 5 patients (38.5%), awakenings were significantly associated with reflux. Conclusion The data suggest that acid GER causes sleep interruptions in obese children who have symptoms of snoring or restless sleep and without evidence of OSA. PMID:27066445

  11. Externality and Locus of Control in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbitsky, Joyce Renee; White, Donna Romano

    1981-01-01

    Significant sex differences indicated that boys generally ate more than girls and held more internal locus of control expectancies. However, obese and normal-weighted children were not differentiated by their performance on either food-related measures nor by their locus of control expectancies. (Author/MP)

  12. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  13. Association between dental caries and obesity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Yen, C E; Hu, S W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity in preschool children. A total of 329 preschool children were recruited from nine day care centers. A qualified dentist examined the oral health of each child and a caries score was recorded. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, and body fat. Body mass index, and weight-for-height index were calculated. Parents or guardians answered a questionnaire regarding their children's dietary patterns, oral hygiene habits, and medical history, as well as parental practices and attitudes towards their children's oral health. The prevalence of dental caries was 73% in this study. Fourteen percent of the children were overweight or obese. The caries scores were not significantly different according to weight-for-height index categories. After taking into account important factors in the multiple regression models, body mass index and weight-for-height index, respectively, were not significantly associated with dental caries. This study showed that obesity was not significantly associated with dental caries in preschool children.

  14. [Perioperative adverse respiratory events in overweight and obese children].

    PubMed

    Ulrici, J; Hempel, G; Sasse, M; Vollrath, J; Höhne, C

    2016-12-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing problems in pediatric anesthesia. This observational study was designed to examine how airway-related complications occur in overweight children and adolescents during general anesthesia and if this is a relevant problem in Germany. From October 2008 until August 2009, at the university clinic in Leipzig, 504 in- and outpatients, aged 2-18 years, ASA I-III, undergoing elective procedures (ENT and pediatric surgery), were observed. With the aid of special data sheets, the following parameters were determined: Mallampati Score, difficult mask ventilation and intubation, use of a Guedel/Wendl tube, Cormack-Lehane Score, number of intubation attempts, airway obstructions (broncho- and laryngospasms), coughing as a sign of airway irritation, and decreases in oxygen saturation >10 %. Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher Mallampati Score and a significantly higher prevalence of coughing (p < 0.05). None of the other parameters showed any significant differences between the groups. However, the incidence of desaturation was 9.5 % in overweight children and 6.3 % in children of normal weight, and that of airway obstructions was 4.1 vs 2.7 %. This study demonstrated a very low incidence of respiratory problems, which may be caused by the low proportion of morbidly obese children and the older age of overweight children in comparison with other studies.

  15. Early adiposity rebound and obesity in children with congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shou-Yen; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chou, Yen-Yin

    2013-04-01

    Earlier adiposity rebound (AR) is correlated with obesity. Our goal is to examine rates of obesity and AR in congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) and analyze the risk factors of obesity. We retrospectively reviewed the cases with abnormal newborn screens of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from 1990 to 2005 and enrolled permanent CHT patients who continued to receive treatment after the 3(rd) year of life. We determined subgroups of obesity/being overweight and normal body mass index (BMI) by the latest BMI at 6-7 years of age. BMI at each age and the age of AR were compared with the general population in Taiwan. The statistical correlation of obesity with the age and BMI at both AR and first peak, and thyroid function was calculated. A total of 90 cases of CHT were enrolled. The prevalence of obesity/being overweight was 32.2%. The age of AR was 4.94 ± 1.81 and 4.58 ± 1.86 years old in boys and girls, respectively. The age of AR in the girls with CHT was earlier than in girls in general, but no statistical significance was found in boys with CHT compared to the general population. Obesity was correlated with earlier age of AR, higher BMI at first peak and AR, and lower T4 after treatment, but not with the age of first peak of BMI, T4/TSH at diagnosis and AR, and TSH after treatment. Children with CHT have a higher risk of obesity due to earlier age of AR. We recommend that supervision and intervention on weight control should be provided to prevent the occurrence of obesity later. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in obese normotensive children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Isabelle Magalhães G.; Miranda, Josiane Aparecida; Mira, Pedro Augusto C.; Lanna, Carla Marcia M.; Lima, Jorge Roberto P.; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that obese normotensive children and adolescents present impaired cardiac autonomic control compared to non-obese normotensive ones. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 66 children and adolescents were divided into the following groups: Obese (n=31, 12±3 years old) and Non-Obese (n=35, 13±3 years old). Obesity was defined as body mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age and gender. Blood pressure was measured by oscillometric method after 15 minutes of rest in supine position. The heart rate was continuously registered during ten minutes in the supine position with spontaneous breathing. The cardiac autonomic control was assessed by heart rate variability, which was calculated from the five-minute minor variance of the signal. The derivations were the index that indicates the proportion of the number of times in which normal adjacent R-R intervals present differences >50 miliseconds (pNN50), for the time domain, and, for the spectral analysis, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands, besides the low and high frequencies ratio (LF/HF). The results were expressed as mean±standard deviation and compared by Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (116±14 versus 114±13mmHg, p=0.693) and diastolic blood pressure (59±8 versus 60±11mmHg, p=0.458) were similar between the Obese and Non-Obese groups. The pNN50 index (29±21 versus 43±23, p=0.015) and HF band (54±20 versus 64±14 normalized units - n.u., p=0.023) were lower in the Obese Group. The LF band (46±20 versus 36±14 n.u., p=0.023) and LF/HF ratio (1.3±1.6 versus 0.7±0.4, p=0.044) were higher in Obese Group. CONCLUSIONS: Obese normotensive children and adolescents present impairment of cardiac autonomic control. PMID:25119757

  17. Asthma, allergy, and obesity: Examining the relationship among Nevada children.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jennifer A; Moonie, Sheniz; Olsen-Wilson, Kimberly; Hogan, Mary Beth

    2017-08-01

    The majority of pediatric asthma is atopic, but whether pediatric obese asthma is atopic is indeterminate in the literature. In Nevada, children become sensitized to aeroallergens, a risk factor for asthma, at young ages. Additionally, Nevada children have high rates of obesity. Our objective is to determine whether elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with asthma severity, allergen sensitization, and polysensitization. Medical records from a pediatric allergy clinic provided BMI percentile, physician-diagnosed asthma severity, skin prick test data, and sociodemographics such as age, race, sex, and insurance status from asthmatic patients. Descriptive statistics and binary and multinomial logistic regression were conducted. In this population (N = 125) aged 1-16, 61% were male, 65% were white, and 74% had private health insurance. Sixty-five percent of children were under/healthy weight and 29% were overweight/obese. Asthma symptoms were moderate in 66% of the population, and severe in 18%. Nearly 85% of this population was atopic, and 82% were polysensitized. Sensitization and polysensitization occurred in all weight categories. Asthma severity and elevated BMI were not associated significantly. Overweight/obese children (≥85(th) percentile) had lower odds of allergen sensitization (adjusted odds ratio 0.26, 95% CI = 0.85-0.78, p = 0.016) and polysensitization (adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11-0.85, p = 0.023) than healthy weight children (<85(th) percentile). Although overweight children did show allergen sensitization, those who were overweight had lower odds of allergen sensitization and lower odds of polysensitization, as compared to normal weight asthmatic children. Elevated BMI was not a significant predictor of asthma severity.

  18. Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Christian, C W; Lavelle, J M; De Jong, A R; Loiselle, J; Brenner, L; Joffe, M

    2000-07-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends forensic evidence collection when sexual abuse has occurred within 72 hours, or when there is bleeding or acute injury. It is not known whether these recommendations are appropriate for prepubertal children, because few data exist regarding the utility of forensic evidence collection in cases of child sexual assault. This study describes the epidemiology of forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. The medical records of 273 children <10 years old who were evaluated in hospital emergency departments in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and had forensic evidence processed by the Philadelphia Police Criminalistics Laboratory were retrospectively reviewed for history, physical examination findings, forensic evidence collection, and forensic results. Some form of forensic evidence was identified in 24.9% of children, all of whom were examined within 44 hours of their assault. Over 90% of children with positive forensic evidence findings were seen within 24 hours of their assault. The majority of forensic evidence (64%) was found on clothing and linens, yet only 35% of children had clothing collected for analysis. After 24 hours, all evidence, with the exception of 1 pubic hair, was recovered from clothing or linens. No swabs taken from the child's body were positive for blood after 13 hours or sperm/semen after 9 hours. A minority of children (23%) had genital injuries. Genital injury and a history of ejaculation provided by the child were associated with an increased likelihood of identifying forensic evidence, but several children had forensic evidence found that was unanticipated by the child's history. The general guidelines for forensic evidence collection in cases of acute sexual assault are not well-suited for prepubertal victims. The decision to collect evidence is best made by the timing of the examination. Swabbing the child's body for evidence is unnecessary after 24 hours. Clothing and

  19. Circulating IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 Molar Ratio Concentration and Height Outcome in Prepubertal Short Children on rhGH Treatment over Two Years of Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ballerini, María Gabriela; Braslavsky, Débora; Scaglia, Paula Alejandra; Keselman, Ana; Rodríguez, María Eugenia; Martínez, Alicia; Freire, Analía Verónica; Domené, Horacio Mario; Jasper, Héctor Guillermo; Bergadá, Ignacio; Ropelato, María Gabriela

    2017-09-19

    To investigate the occurrence of abnormally elevated values of biomarkers of growth hormone (GH) action in short children on recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy. Sixty-three prepubertal short children were examined: 31 with GH deficiency (GHD), 25 small for gestational age (SGA), and 9 with Turner syndrome (TS). The main outcomes were the following: standard deviation score (SDS) values of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio before, at the 1st and at the 2nd year on rhGH and Δheight (Ht)-SDS to evaluate GH treatment efficacy (adequate 1st-year ΔHt SDS: >0.4 SDS for GHD and >0.3 SDS for non-GHD). Seventy-eight percent of GHD, 78% of SGA and 55% of TS children had adequate 1st-year ΔHt SDS. In GHD, 88% of IGF-I SDS and IGFBP-3 SDS that were ≤-2.0 SDS at baseline normalized on treatment. Abnormal IGF-I values >+2.0 SDS were observed in 52% of SGA and in 55% of TS patients on rhGH. Within each group, the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly from pretreatment and throughout therapy, remaining within normal range for most patients. ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio SDS were significantly higher in children with an adequate response (p < 0.01). Non-GHD groups presented markedly elevated concentrations of GH biomarkers on rhGH and normal IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in most patients. Since there is a lack of consensus regarding the molar ratio usefulness, we think that interventions towards a more physiological IGF-I serum profile should be implemented. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. School-based obesity prevention intervention in Chilean children: effective in controlling, but not reducing obesity.

    PubMed

    Kain, Juliana; Concha, Fernando; Moreno, Lorena; Leyton, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6-8 y old low-income children (N = 1474). Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children's nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA). Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant). % class time in MVA declined (24.5-16.2) while remaining unchanged (24.8-23.7%) in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33-1.24) and increased (1.22-1.35) in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91-1.06, P = 0.024). Interaction group ∗ time was significant for boys (P < 0.0001) and girls (P = 0.004). This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.

  1. School-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention in Chilean Children: Effective in Controlling, but not Reducing Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Juliana; Concha, Fernando; Moreno, Lorena; Leyton, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N = 1474). Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children's nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA). Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant). % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2) while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7%) in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24) and increased (1.22–1.35) in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P = 0.024). Interaction group ∗ time was significant for boys (P < 0.0001) and girls (P = 0.004). Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases. PMID:24872892

  2. [Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The worldwide situation].

    PubMed

    Pigeot, I; Buck, C; Herrmann, D; Ahrens, W

    2010-07-01

    There is a worldwide increase of overweight and obesity not only in adults, but also in children. Data used to estimate prevalence are, however, collected in differing age groups using nonstandardized measurements and instruments and refer to differing time periods. Moreover, various reference systems to classify overweight and obesity exist, thus, adding to the difficulty in comparing countries. In this paper, these problems are discussed in detail. The most common reference systems are introduced, and their impact on the estimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity is demonstrated. Based on available data of the global situation, maps that depict the worldwide distribution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are presented. Finally, these maps will be discussed critically. Although it may be assumed that these data are collected according to the best quality standards available, the lack of a unified protocol to conduct studies on childhood obesity hampers the comparability of data between countries. Obvious limitations in that respect are the use of different reference systems, differing sampling schemes, and differing age groups. More subtle limitations result from, e.g., different measurement methods, including self-reported weight and height.

  3. Intracranial Lesions in Children and Adolescents with Morbid Obesity.

    PubMed

    Törel Ergür, Ayça; Odabaşı Güneş, Sevinç; Tan, Sinan; Tandırcıoğlu, Ü Ayşe

    2017-04-05

    Intracranial lesions may affect the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis and lead to some neuro-endocrinological dysfunctions (hyperphagia, sleep disorders and hormonal dysfunctions). There is a very limited number of studies about childhood obesity and intracranial lesions. To evaluate the incidence of intracranial lesions and its role in clinical symptoms and aetiology in cases with morbid obesity who have been admitted to the paediatric endocrinology department with this complaint. Cross-sectional study. A total of 120 cases admitted to the paediatric endocrinology department with the complaint of morbid obesity between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. A detailed history was taken and a physical examination was performed; biochemical, hormonal parameters were evaluated. Contrast dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in order to visualize cranial pathologies. An intracranial lesions was detected in 16.6% of the patients and 55% of these lesions were adenoma of the hypophysis. Prolactin levels were increased in six patients but front hypophyseal hormone levels were within normal range in the rest of the patients. Growth velocity of the patients was not affected. In our study, the incidence of intracranial lesions in children and adolescents with morbid obesity was much higher than in the normal population. According to this data, we are of the opinion that contrast dynamic magnetic resonance imaging is helpful in children with morbid obesity for the early detection of the mass before it causes any clinical or neurological symptoms and in the prevention of future complications.

  4. Is C-reactive protein a reliable test for suspected appendicitis in extremely obese children?

    PubMed

    Kutasy, Balazs; Laxamanadass, Ganapathy; Puri, Prem

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute appendicitis by physical examination can sometimes be difficult in extremely obese children. C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used to support the clinical diagnosis of appendicitis. However, obesity has been widely recognized as a chronic inflammatory condition and associated with elevated inflammatory indicators including CRP. The aim of this study was to examine the association between obesity and CRP levels in extremely obese children presenting with suspected appendicitis. The hospital records of 947 consecutive patients, who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis between 2002 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. 164 children (17.3%) were extremely obese. Extreme obesity was defined, as greater than two standard deviations above the standardized mean weight for age. The diagnostic value of CRP level was compared between extremely obese and non-obese children. The incidence of histologically normal appendix was significantly higher in extremely obese children [42 out of 164 (25.6%)] compared to non-obese children [85 out of 783 (10.8%) (P < 0.001)]. The mean CRP levels were significantly higher in extremely obese children with histologically normal appendix compared to non-obese children with normal appendix (P < 0.001). The specificity and the positive predictive value were significantly lower in the extremely obese children group than in the non-obese group (P < 0.001). CRP is not a reliable marker of inflammation in extremely obese children presenting with suspected appendicitis. Our data highlight the importance of obesity when interpreting the significance of an elevated CRP level in children with suspected diagnosis of appendicitis.

  5. Reduced facial emotion recognition in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Koch, Anne; Pollatos, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Emotional problems often co-occur in overweight or obese children. However, questions of whether emotion recognition deficits are present and how they are reflected have only been sparsely investigated to date. Therefore, the present study included 33 overweight and obese as well as 33 normal weight elementary school children between six and ten years that were matched for sex, age and socioeconomic status. Participants were shown different emotional faces of a well-validated set of stimuli on a computer screen, which they categorized and then rated on an emotional intensity level. Key measures were categorization performance along with reaction times and emotional intelligence as well as emotional eating questionnaire ratings. Overweight children exhibited lower categorization accuracy as well as longer reaction times as compared to normal weight children, while no differences in intensity ratings occurred. Reaction time to neutral facial expressions was negatively related to intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional intelligence and emotional eating correlated negatively with accuracy for recognizing sad expressions. Facial emotion decoding difficulties seem to be of importance in overweight and obese children and deserve further consideration in terms of their exact impact on social functioning as well as on the maintenance of elevated body weight during child development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CD4(+), CD25(+), FOXP3 (+) T Regulatory Cell Levels in Obese, Asthmatic, Asthmatic Obese, and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Donma, Metin; Karasu, Erkut; Ozdilek, Burcu; Turgut, Burhan; Topcu, Birol; Nalbantoglu, Burcin; Donma, Orkide

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this prospective case control study is to determine CD4(+), CD25(+), and FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) and T helper cells (Ths) in obese, asthmatic, asthmatic obese, and healthy children. Obese (n = 40), asthmatic (n = 40), asthmatic obese (n = 40), and healthy children (n = 40) were included in this study. Blood samples collected from children were marked with CD4, CD25, ve Foxp3 in order to detect Tregs and Ths by flow cytometric method. Statistical analyses were performed. p ≤ 0.05 was chosen as meaningful threshold. Tregs exhibiting anti-inflammatory nature were significantly lower in obese (0.16 %; p ≤ 0.001), asthmatic (0.25 %; p ≤ 0.01), and asthmatic obese (0.29 %; p ≤ 0.05) groups than control group (0.38 %). Ths were counted higher in asthma group than control (p ≤ 0.01) and obese (p ≤ 0.001) groups. T cell immunity plays important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases such as obesity and asthma pathogeneses. Decreased numbers of Tregs found in obese, asthmatic, and asthmatic obese children might represent a challenge of these cells.

  7. Antibiotic administration and the development of obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotics are the most common prescription drugs administered at the paediatric age, however their administration can cause unwanted problems. Among these issues, antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis has appeared as an emerging issue and has been associated with obesity. This problem is particularly relevant in children because they are frequently treated with antibiotics. Early development of obesity increases the risk of adult obesity, which is associated with the emergence of very severe clinical problems. Dysbiosis induced in the first periods of life can have the most relevant practical consequences because a decrease in the number of microbes and their substitution with other microbes dramatically modifies the development of the immune system as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Unfortunately, not all of the mechanisms that could explain the relationship between gut microbiota modification and the development of obesity have been defined. Consequently, no definitive therapeutic approach has been elucidated. Probiotics and prebiotics could play a role in treating microbial dysbiosis because the addition of specific bacterial strains has been associated with normal weight and has been demonstrated to be useful in clinical conditions other than obesity that are caused by microbiota disruption. Considering that antibiotics are commonly prescribed and that obesity is increasing in paediatric patients, further studies specifically designed to evaluate how to disrupt the relationship between antibiotics and dysbiosis are urgently needed. Presently, paediatricians have to consider dysbiosis to be a new and serious reason for the judicious use of antibiotics in clinical practice.

  8. [Health consequences of obesity in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Valerio, G; Licenziati, M R; Manco, M; Ambruzzi, A M; Bacchini, D; Baraldi, E; Bona, G; Bruzzi, P; Cerutti, F; Corciulo, N; Crinò, A; Franzese, A; Grugni, G; Iughetti, L; Lenta, S; Maffeis, C; Marzuillo, P; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Morandi, A; Morino, G; Moro, B; Perrone, L; Prodam, F; Ricotti, R; Santamaria, F; Zito, E; Tanas, R

    2014-10-01

    Obesity in childhood is associated with the presence of complications that can undermine health immediately or in the long term. Several conditions, such as pulmonary or orthopedic complications are strictly associated with the severity of overweight, since they are directly associated to the mechanic stress of fat tissue on the airways or on the bones. Other conditions, such as metabolic or liver complications, although increasing with the extent of overweight, are associated with insulin resistance, which can be modulated by different other factors (ethnicity, genetics, fat distribution) and can occur in overweight children as well. No less important are psychological correlates, such as depression and stigma, which can seriously affect the health related quality of life. Pediatric services for the care of childhood obesity need to be able to screen overweight and obese children for the presence of physical and psychological complications, which can be still reversed by weight loss. This article provides pediatricians a comprehensive update on the main complications in obese children and adolescents and their treatment.

  9. Ecological Risk Model of Childhood Obesity in Chinese Immigrant Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 years old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  10. Sleep and the epidemic of obesity in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Van Cauter, Eve; Knutson, Kristen L

    2008-12-01

    Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism in children as well as in adults. In recent years, sleep curtailment has become a hallmark of modern society with both children and adults having shorter bedtimes than a few decades ago. This trend for shorter sleep duration has developed over the same time period as the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity. There is rapidly accumulating evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies to indicate that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present article reviews laboratory evidence indicating that sleep curtailment in young adults results in a constellation of metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, elevated sympathovagal balance, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. We also review cross-sectional epidemiological studies associating short sleep with increased body mass index and prospective epidemiological studies that have shown an increased risk of weight gain and obesity in children and young adults who are short sleepers. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity.

  11. Obese Mexican American children have elevated MCP-1, TNF-alpha, monocyte concentration, and dyslipidemia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic disease. The prevalence of obesity is especially high among Mexican American children. Peripheral blood monocytes are altered with obesity contributing to elevated systemic inflammation and increased risk of chronic disease. In addition, obesity alte...

  12. [Hyperuricaemia and metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Durán, Carlos; Sepúlveda A, Cecilia; Espinoza G, Aníbal; Rebollo G, María Jesús; Le Roy O, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricaemia has been suggested as an additional metabolic factor in adult obese patients, but it has not been sufficiently studied in paediatric. To assess the relationship between serum uric acid levels (SUAL) with the level of general and visceral obesity, and other biochemical parameters in children and adolescents of Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was conducted on 770 children and adolescents (ages: 6-15 y.) from a public school in Santiago, Chile, of whom 227 (29%) were obese (BMI>2 SD, WHO growth standards). Ninety subjects were randomly selected and 77 with no other chronic disease (41 males) accepted to participate. Data was collected on weight, stature, abdominal circumference (AC), visceral adiposity using ultrasound, and other biochemical measurements including fasting glucose, insulin, serum lipids, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and SUAL. The mean SUAL was 0.200±0.065 mmol/L, and was increased in children with hyperinsulinism (adjusted by age: 0.221±0.075 vs. 0.183±0.054 mmol/L; P<.01), with no significant differences according to HOMA. Differences were also found between children with ALT>or<26 U/mL: 0.238±0.070 vs. 0.178±0.054 mmol/L, P<.001. The logistic regression showed the increased SUAL was only associated with increased ALT. No significant differences were found in general or visceral adiposity measurements or fatty liver. Children and adolescents from Santiago, Chile have higher uric acid serum uric acid levels as well as an association with increased ALT and insulin. It is demonstrated in this study that uric acid should be measured in obese children and adolescents, and in their follow up. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  14. Obesity in children with different risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Su, Miao-Shang; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Cai, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Ying; Liu, Pei-Ning; Zhang, Yuan-Bo; Hu, Wen-Zhen; Li, Chang-Chong; Xiao, Yan-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the association between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in preschool and school-age children. Parents of obese and randomly chosen normal weight children completed a questionnaire on sleep-related symptoms, demography, family, and medical history. All subjects were invited to undergo polysomnography (PSG). OSA cases were defined as obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) ≥1. A total of 5930 children were studied with 9.5% obese (11.9% boys/6.1% girls), 205/2680 preschool and 360/3250 school children. There were 1030 children (535 obese/495 normal weight) who underwent PSG. OSA was higher in obese children and obese school children had higher OAHI, arousal index, and shorter total sleep time. However, there was no positive correlation between OSA and body mass index (BMI). The main risk factors for OSA in preschool children were adenotonsillar hypertrophy and recurrent respiratory tract infection. The main cause for OSA in school children was a history of parental snoring and obesity. Mallampati scores and sleep-related symptoms were found to be associated with OSA in both preschool and school children. We demonstrated differential risk factors for OSA in obese children, which suggest that a different mechanism may be involved in OSA development in preschool and school-age children. Various risk factors have been reported in obese children with OSA owing to the different age and different study design. Obese children have a higher prevalence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OSA risk factors in obese children are affected by different ages and study designs. A differential prevalence and risk factors for obese preschool and school-age children with OSA has been demonstrated.

  15. Relationship between Obesity Indices and Pulmonary Function Parameters in Obese Thai Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kongkiattikul, Lalida; Sritippayawan, Suchada; Chomtho, Sirinuch; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Prapphal, Nuanchan

    2015-12-01

    To determine the correlation between various obesity indices and pulmonary function parameters in obese Thai children and adolescents. Obese children and adolescents aged from 8 to 18 y and diagnosed under the criteria of International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were enrolled. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (bioelectrical impedance analysis) of all eligible participants were recorded. Pulmonary function studies (spirometry and body plethysmography) were also performed on the same day. Forty-five children and adolescents [84 % boys; mean age 11.9 ± 2.4 y; mean BMI 31.8 ± 5.1 kg/m(2); and, mean body mass index (BMI) z-score 3.2 ± 0.5] were studied. Mean body fat percentage, mean fat mass index (FMI), mean fat free mass index, and mean truncal fat percentage were 47.4 ± 10.2 %, 15.2 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), 16.3 ± 3.1 kg/m(2), and 47.7 ± 11.5 %, respectively. Abnormal lung functions were found in 73.2 % of subjects; the most common was decreased functional residual capacity (FRC) (29 cases; 64.4 %). There was a negative correlation between FRC and BMI z-score (r = -0.32; p 0.03), waist-height ratio (r = -0.32; p 0.02), body fat percentage (r = -0.32; p 0.03), FMI (r = -0.36; p 0.02), and truncal fat percentage (r = -0.32; p 0.04). Obese individuals who had FMI > 17 kg/m(2) were 5.7 times more likely to have decreased FRC than those who had lower FMI (95 % CI 1.1-29.7; p 0.016). Decreased FRC was the most common pulmonary function abnormality in obese children and adolescents. BMI z-score, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, FMI, and truncal fat percentage were all negatively correlated with FRC. FMI had the highest negative correlation. Obese individuals with FMI > 17 kg/m(2) had a 5.7 times increased risk of low FRC. Appropriate planning for respiratory care and follow-up may be required in this population.

  16. [Effects of a comprehensive intervention program on simple obesity of children in kindergarten].

    PubMed

    He, Yi-feng; Wang, Wen-yuan; Fu, Ping; Sun, Yun; Yu, Shuang-yu; Chen, Ru; Wang, Yu-xia

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore a comprehensive management program for the obese children in kindergarten. The program should be scientific, rational, suitable for kindergarten, and easy to apply. Child care workers, parents, and child health care doctors participated in the program to help obese children establish a scientific life style through their daily life, to control their weight and to maintain their physical and mental health. The theories of behavior science, nutriology and kinematics were applied to make the weight control of obese children in kindergarten quantified and relatively standardized. Children were divided into three groups, intervened obese children, non-intervened obese children and normal children. Data such as weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were observed to assess the effect of weight control and define whether it affects the linear gain of children's height. The recovery rate of intervened obese group, non-intervened group was 62.5% and 5.3%, respectively. The general effective rate was 91.7% and 15.8%, respectively. The weight gain of intervened group was 4.15 kg lower than that of non-intervened group. The BMI of intervened group significantly decreased by 2.9 as compared to the non-intervened group. The height gain of intervened group was similar to that of normal group. Parents and health care workers' realization of children obesity and their corresponding actions, the behaviors of obese children at home and in kindergarten were changed toward the direction beneficial to weight control. The implementation of the comprehensive intervention program for obesity in children, which involved obese children, child care worker, parents, and child care doctors alleviated the obesity level of those obese children without affecting their normal height gain. The program was safe and effective. Through the comprehensive intervention, the obese children could establish good habits during the sensitive period.

  17. Prepubertal gynecomastia and chronic lavender exposure: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Alejandro; Luque, Laura; Badar, Zain; Kornic, Steve; Danon, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Prepubertal gynecomastia is a rare condition characterized by the growth of breast tissue in males as a consequence of early exposure to sexual hormones. When this condition is present, pathological sources of testosterone/estrogen production, such as adrenal or gonadal tumors must be searched for. A few reports have described an association between gynecomastia and substances that produce stimulation of the estrogen receptor, such as lavender and tea tree oil. Here we describe the cases of three boys who presented with prepubertal gynecomastia and were chronically exposed to lavender. Two of these boys were exposed to a cologne, named agua de violetas, used by Hispanic communities in the US, and in their countries of origin. We studied a sample of the cologne used by one of the patients. Analysis of the chemical composition of the agua de violetas cologne was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography as well as off-line mass spectrometric detection. All these, combined with the physical appearance and the smell, determined that the cologne had lavender as an ingredient. Exposure to estrogenic substances, such as lavender, should be explored in children presenting with prepubertal gynecomastia/thelarche.

  18. BMI in Japanese children since 1948: no evidence of a major rise in the prevalence of obesity in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, Michael; Molinari, Luciano; Satake, Takashi

    2007-09-01

    The dramatic world-wide trend towards increasing body weight seems to be less obvious in the Japanese population. The aim of this study is to extract potentially useful information regarding childhood and adolescence obesity in Japan from series of mean height and mean body mass index between 1948 and 2003. Mean values for height and weight of Japanese boys and girls aged 5+ to 17+ years were obtained from the "Reports on School Health Survey", Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, comprising approximately 4.5% of all children and adolescents in Japan between 1948 and 2003. The data were fitted by the Preece and Baines model (Preece & Baines 1978) in order to obtain estimates of the age of peak height velocity (APHV) and final height. Isochrones for height and BMI were calculated based upon measurements that were obtained at the same chronological ages at different historic epochs. The APHV as estimated by Preece & Baines (1978) has decreased from 14.07 to 12.03 years in Japanese boys, and from 11.80 to 9.92 years in Japanese girls, indicating that the tempo of child and adolescent maturation (maturational tempo) has accelerated. Body height increased by 10.1 cm in near adult 17+ year old Japanese males and by 5.7 cm in 17+ year old Japanese females since 1948. Due to the acceleration and the earlier attainment of adult stature, isochrones for height tend to diverge for prepubertal ages and to converge for postpubertal ages. The same is true for weight. Body weight has increased by 11.8 kg in near adult males, and by 4.4 kg in near adult females. Also BMI has increased since 1948. But in contrast to height and weight, the rise in BMI only reflects the acceleration of the maturational tempo. Tempo-conditioned isochrones for BMI are almost horizontal, and even tended to temporarily decrease during the 60ies and the 70's. The BMI of Japanese children and adolescents dramatically contrasts the recent and historic BMI changes in the Western

  19. Effect of catastrophic wildfires on asthmatic outcomes in obese children

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Kevin; Chen, Lie; Tse, Mabel; Zuraw, Bruce; Christiansen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollutants from wildfires and obesity independently exacerbate asthma, yet no study has determined the combined effects of these 2 variables on asthma outcomes. Objective To determine the effect of 2 catastrophic wildfires affecting the Southern California region (in 2003 and 2007) on several asthma outcomes in a cohort of children. Methods To investigate the association between wildfire exposure and asthma outcomes, we stratified our study population by body mass index categories (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese) and zip codes (to distinguish individuals who were closer to the fires vs farther away). The primary outcome was the prevalence of physician-dispensed short-acting β-agonist (SABAs). Secondary outcomes included the rate of emergency department visits and/or hospitalizations for asthma, the frequency of oral corticosteroid use for asthma, and number of new diagnoses of asthma. Results A total of 2,195 and 3,965 asthmatic children were analyzed as part of our retrospective cohort during the 2003 and 2007 wildfires, respectively. SABA dispensing increased the most in the obese group after the 2003 wildfires (P <.05). Increased prevalence of SABA dispensing was also noted in the obese group in 2007, but this was not statistically higher than the increases seen in other body mass index groups. There was no observed increase in emergency department and/or hospitalization rates, oral corticosteroid dispensing frequency, or new asthma diagnoses after either wildfire. Conclusion Catastrophic wildfires lead to worsening asthma outcomes, particularly in obese individuals. This study gives further evidence of a link between obesity and asthma severity and suggests that air pollutants released during wildfires can have substantial detrimental effects on asthma control. PMID:25747784

  20. Parenting practices were associated with children's TV viewing among overweight and obese children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An expert panel recommended that TV reduction should be a component in obesity treatment programs. Parents are an important social influence on children and could be a target for interventions. Valid measures of TV-parenting practices (PP) are needed to understand parental influences on children's T...

  1. Obesity, appearance, and psychosocial adaptation in young African American children.

    PubMed

    Young-Hyman, Deborah; Schlundt, David G; Herman-Wenderoth, Leanna; Bozylinski, Khristine

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of weight status, skin tone, peer teasing, and parental appraisals of child's size to self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment in overweight African American children. Overweight to very obese 5- to 10-year-old African American children (N = 117) completed measures of self-esteem, skin tone satisfaction, peer teasing, and body size perception. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and rated their child's body size. Overweight was associated with low appearance self-esteem, and body size dissatisfaction with low global self-worth and low appearance self-esteem in children 8 and older. Appearance self-esteem but not global self-worth was lower in girls than boys. Parental perception of child's size as heavier than average was associated with low child appearance self-esteem. Heavier children also had more parental report of behavior and psychosocial problems, but their scores were in the nonclinical range. Child skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with low global self-worth. Weight-related peer teasing was associated with low self-esteem. The relationship between obesity and self-esteem in African American children depends upon age, gender, and children's experiences with teasing and parental evaluation of their size. Other factors, like skin tone satisfaction, contribute to a child's sense of self-worth.

  2. Prepubertal Unilateral Gynecomastia: Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Bacak, Gökhan; Baran, Rıza Taner; Avcı, Yahya; Baran, Ahmet; Keleş, Ayşenur; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Alanay, Yasemin; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia is an extremely rare condition. At present, its etiology and management strategy are not well known. Two unrelated prepubertal boys of ages 8 and 9 who presented with complaints of unilateral enlargement of breast tissue are reported. Physical examination, biochemical, hormonal and oncologic work-up findings were normal. Both patients were treated with peripheral liposuction successfully. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed benign fibroglandular gynecomastia and intensive (3+) estrogen receptor expression in 100% of periductal epithelial cells. Although an extremely rare and generally benign condition, patients with prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia should have a full endocrine and oncologic work-up. PMID:25541897

  3. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THYROID HORMONES AND OBESITY SEVERITY, METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS IN TURKISH CHILDREN WITH OBESITY.

    PubMed

    Özer, Samet; Bütün, İlknur; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Yılmaz, Resul; Demir, Osman

    2015-08-01

    we investigated the relationships between thyroid function and obesity severity, metabolic syndrome (MS) and MS components in 260 obese children and adolescents 10-17 years of age. we aimed to determine the association of thyroid functions with obesity severity and the components of metabolic syndrome (MS) in pediatric obese patients. only obese children and adolescents were included, and divided the obese children into three groups according to body mass index (BMI)-SDS quartiles. The first quartile was group 1, the second and third quartiles were group 2, and the fourth quartile was group 3. Group 3 indicated severe obesity. The modified WHO criteria adapted for children were used to diagnose MS. We assessed anthropometric data and serum biochemical parameters, including the lipid profile and fasting glucose (FG), insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with a standard digital sphygmomanometer. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated to determine insulin resistance (IR). TSH level was significantly higher in obese children with MS than that in the others (p = 0.045). Mean TSH level was not different among the BMI-SDS groups (p = 0.590). TSH levels and the fT3/fT4 ratio were not different in children with dyslipidemia, IR or hypertension (p = 0.515, 0.805, 0.973, 0.750, 0.515, and 0.805, respectively). obesity severity does not affect TSH level or the fT3/fT4 ratio in obese children and adolescents. IR is in close relationship with TSH level. Elevated TSH level is a risk factor for MS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep duration and quality associated with obesity among Arab children.

    PubMed

    Bawazeer, Nahla M; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Valsamakis, George; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A; Sabico, Shaun Louie B; Huang, Terry T-K; Mastorakos, George P; Kumar, Sudhesh

    2009-12-01

    The link between sleep duration and obesity has been well established in adults, but several epidemiological studies revealed inconsistent findings in adolescents and younger children. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep length and obesity in Saudi students. A total of 5,877 Saudi students, boys (55.2%) and girls (44.8%), aged between 10 and 19 years were randomly selected from elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools in different regions of Riyadh. A questionnaire on sleep behaviors was given. Anthropometry included BMI and waist and hip circumferences. Sleeping obesity in both boys and girls (all age categories) (odds ratio = 1.25-1.38, 95% confidence intervals = 1.02-1.89). Overall prevalence of overweight and obese were higher among those sleeping intermittently (18.68%) than those sleeping continuously (14.5%) (P = 0.024). Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are significantly associated with obesity among Arab youth. Further studies need to employ more objective measures of sleep, such as actigraphy, and examine the mechanism of these associations.

  5. Emerging treatments for severe obesity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coles, Nicole; Birken, Catherine; Hamilton, Jill

    2016-09-29

    Severe obesity in childhood is increasing in prevalence and is associated with considerable morbidity. Studies into pediatric obesity have focused largely on interventions that do not necessarily target the unique biologic or psychological underpinnings for the weight gain in the individual child or adolescent. Outcomes show modest improvement and are of questionable benefit for patients with severe obesity. Although weight is a commonly used outcome, other psychological and metabolic parameters including normalization of physical activity and eating behaviors should be primary outcome goals. The durability of weight loss is often limited by physiologic systems that are evolutionarily designed to promote weight gain. Drug therapies for children are limited, as is their effect on weight and metabolism. Existing drugs that are incidentally found to cause weight loss through off-target effects are being actively investigated for obesity indications. Bariatric surgery results in the most significant weight reduction, but it is associated with potential morbidity and long term data are not available for adolescents undergoing this procedure. As understanding of the biologic and psychosocial contributors to eating behaviors and body weight regulation increases, multifaceted and targeted behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical treatment algorithms should be developed and applied to target the underlying pathways involved for the individual child or adolescent with severe obesity.

  6. Prevalence of obesity in elementary school children and its association with dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Deema J.; Elkhodary, Heba M.; Merdad, Leena A.; Farsi, Najat M.A.; Alaki, Sumer M.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Bakhaidar, Haneen A.; Alolayyan, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child’s caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p<0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC. PMID:27874156

  7. Hispanic parents of overweight and obese children and their outcome expectations for children's television viewing: A qualitative study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. We found tha...

  8. Obesity in children with Down syndrome: background and recommendations for management.

    PubMed

    Murray, Julie; Ryan-Krause, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome have a higher risk for developing obesity. The primary care provider can assist the family in preventing or managing obesity by recognizing the physiological and behavioral factors that place children and adolescents with Down syndrome at increased risk to become obese, and establishing a screening and management plan early to prevent or treat excess weight gain. By using adapted strategies, the negative physiological and psychological outcomes associated with obesity may be lessened or avoided in this specific population.

  9. [Obesity and life style of Japanese school children with Down syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kawana, H; Nonaka, K; Takaki, H; Tezuka, F; Takano, T

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire-based investigation was performed on 325 Japanese school children with Down syndrome ages 6 to 18. Data on height and body weight, eating habits, physical activity for these children were obtained through their parents. Proportion of obese children was higher among these subjects than the average for Japanese children (34.3% and 7.47% respectively, for the ages from 6 to 14). We examined characteristics of eating habits and physical activities between the obese group (obesity index greater than 20% above the average of Japanese school children) and the non-obese group. Obesity started to increase in the obese group around age 7. The obese group tended to have had a greater intake of sweets, juice and total foods in their preschool days, but unexpectedly had been physically more active in their primary school days.

  10. Ambulatory blood pressure parameters in office normotensive obese and non-obese children: relationship with insulin resistance and atherosclerotic markers.

    PubMed

    Tekın, Nese; Ersoy, Betul; Coskun, Senol; Tekın, Gokhan; Polat, Muzaffer

    2014-01-01

    To determine differences in ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) parameters between office normotensive obese and non-obese children and to evaluate correlations of ABP parameters with insulin resistance and the lipid profile. Thirty-eight obese [body mass index (BMI) above the 95th percentile] and 38 non-obese children aged 9-17 years were recruited. All subjects who were normotensive during office visits and who underwent 24-hour ABP monitoring were evaluated. Insulin resistance and the lipid profile were also evaluated. The mean daytime, night-time and 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the daytime and 24-hour diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in normotensive obese children were significantly higher compared to the values in non-obese children (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the frequency of nocturnal non-dippers and nocturnal hypertension (night-time SBP at or above the 95th percentile) between the two groups (p > 0.05). Children with night-time SBP at or above the 95th percentile and non-dippers had higher atherosclerotic markers than children with night-time SBP below the 95th percentile and dippers (p < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C):high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and night-time SBP had significantly positive associations with being obese in adolescents (OR 6.54, 95% CI 1.15-37.07, p = 0.03, and OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.01-1.19, p = 0.02, respectively). Normotensive obese children had higher ABP parameters. A high LDL-C:HDL-C ratio and night-time SBP were associated with an increased risk of being obese. High LDL-C:HDL-C ratios and total cholesterol:HDL-C levels in children and adolescents may be risk factors for night-time hypertension. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Asthma control and obesity in urban African American children.

    PubMed

    Loman, Deborah G; Kwong, Christina G; Henry, Lisa D; Mahl, Christina; Meadows, Lisa; Ellis, Alysa G

    2017-08-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI), gender, age, controller medication use, household smoke exposure, season, and allergic rhinitis status with asthma control in a group of lower income, African American children. We hypothesized that non-obese children would have better asthma control. Baseline data from a longitudinal study of children in a school-based asthma program in a Midwest urban area were analyzed. 360 children, ages 4-15 years, who were enrolled in either the 2012-2013 or 2013-2014 program were included. Asthma control was classified using criteria from the 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Multiple ordinal regression was performed. The median age was 9 years, 61% had well-controlled asthma, and 29% were obese. The model included all main effects plus two interaction terms and was significant (χ(2)(7) = 22.17, p =.002). Females who were normal weight (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.38-5.60, p =.004) or overweight (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.26-7.72, p =.014) had better asthma control than obese females. For males, there were no differences by BMI category but males without allergic rhinitis had significantly better asthma control (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.25-3.97, p =.006) than those with allergic rhinitis. Non-obese girls and non-allergic males had better asthma control. Promotion of healthy activity and nutrition as well as management of allergic rhinitis should be part of the asthma plan in school-based programs in low income urban areas. Innovative approaches to address asthma care in low income populations are essential.

  12. Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Parameters in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Akyürek, Nesibe; Alp, Hayrullah

    2016-03-05

    In this study, our aim was to determine cardiovascular risk and cardiac function in prediabetic obese children and adolescents. The study was conducted on 198 obese children and adolescents 6-18 years of age. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure measurements, oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, and HbA1c levels of patients were assessed. Prediabetes was defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Left ventricular mass index (LVMi), carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), and tissue Doppler measurements records were used. LVMi was found to be significantly higher in the prediabetes group (p=0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in right ventricular tissue Doppler measurements between the prediabetic and non-prediabetic groups. Left ventricular tissue Doppler measurements were significantly higher in the prediabetes group: LVEEM (left ventricular E/e ratio) (p=0.04); LVEM (left ventricular myocardial velocity cm/s) (p=0.035). LVMi was found to positively correlate with triglyceride level, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body weight standard deviation score and to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.043, r=0.15; p=0.039, r=0.15; p=0.025, r=0.17; p=0.009, r=0.19; p=0.038, r=-0.15, respectively). LVEM was correlated with glucose (p=0.046, r=0.15) and LVEEM was correlated with systolic blood pressure (p=0.035, r=0.15). In linear regression analysis for clinical cardiovascular risk factors, fasting glucose level was the best predictor of LVEM. In this study, deterioration of cardiac function in prediabetic obese children and adolescents was shown. We recommend determining cardiovascular risk and cardiac dysfunction at early stages in prediabetic obese children and adolescents.

  13. Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Parameters in Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Akyürek, Nesibe; Alp, Hayrullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, our aim was to determine cardiovascular risk and cardiac function in prediabetic obese children and adolescents. Methods: The study was conducted on 198 obese children and adolescents 6-18 years of age. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure measurements, oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, and HbA1c levels of patients were assessed. Prediabetes was defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Left ventricular mass index (LVMi), carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), and tissue Doppler measurements records were used. Results: LVMi was found to be significantly higher in the prediabetes group (p=0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in right ventricular tissue Doppler measurements between the prediabetic and non-prediabetic groups. Left ventricular tissue Doppler measurements were significantly higher in the prediabetes group: LVEEM (left ventricular E/e ratio) (p=0.04); LVEM (left ventricular myocardial velocity cm/s) (p=0.035). LVMi was found to positively correlate with triglyceride level, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body weight standard deviation score and to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.043, r=0.15; p=0.039, r=0.15; p=0.025, r=0.17; p=0.009, r=0.19; p=0.038, r=-0.15, respectively). LVEM was correlated with glucose (p=0.046, r=0.15) and LVEEM was correlated with systolic blood pressure (p=0.035, r=0.15). In linear regression analysis for clinical cardiovascular risk factors, fasting glucose level was the best predictor of LVEM. Conclusion: In this study, deterioration of cardiac function in prediabetic obese children and adolescents was shown. We recommend determining cardiovascular risk and cardiac dysfunction at early stages in prediabetic obese children and adolescents. PMID:26759114

  14. Behavioral assessment of physical activity in obese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Normand, Matthew P; Larson, Tracy A

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent measures used, in that the two measures covaried and a similar degree of change was observed with each across baseline and intervention phases.

  15. Associations between familial affluence and obesity risk behaviours among children

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Gavin R; Hawe, Penelope; Perry, Rosemary; Blackstaffe, Anita

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Results of studies examining associations between socioeconomic status and obesity among children are mixed. OBJECTIVE To examine whether physical activity, television viewing, computer use, and fruit, vegetable, soft drink and sweet consumption differed according to familial affluence of children attending schools in disadvantaged communities. METHOD A total of 218 children (seven to 11 years of age) recruited from three Calgary (Alberta) schools located in two adjacent socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods completed online surveys during the spring of 2005/2006. The number of days per week participating in vigorous physical activity for more than 20 min, and weekly frequency of fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption were collected. Time spent watching television and using a computer during a normal school day was also captured. A family affluence scale was used to assess socioeconomic status (number of family holidays in the past year, ownership of motor vehicles and computers, and bedroom sharing). Associations between familial affluence and obesity risk behaviours were estimated using Pearson’s correlation and demographic-adjusted logistic regression ORs. RESULTS Higher family affluence scale scores were significantly associated with weekly fruit consumption (r=0.14). Children with lower affluence were less likely to participate in vigorous physical activity five days/week or more (OR=0.39), and to use a computer for more than 2 h/day (OR=0.41) than children with higher affluence. Linear trends between familial affluence and the likelihood of participating in physical activity and using a computer were also found. However, no other behaviours were related to affluence. CONCLUSIONS Increasing opportunities for physical activity and accessibility to healthy food may be important for reducing obesity risk among less affluent children. PMID:22211068

  16. Associations between familial affluence and obesity risk behaviours among children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Gavin R; Hawe, Penelope; Perry, Rosemary; Blackstaffe, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Results of studies examining associations between socioeconomic status and obesity among children are mixed. To examine whether physical activity, television viewing, computer use, and fruit, vegetable, soft drink and sweet consumption differed according to familial affluence of children attending schools in disadvantaged communities. A total of 218 children (seven to 11 years of age) recruited from three Calgary (Alberta) schools located in two adjacent socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods completed online surveys during the spring of 2005/2006. The number of days per week participating in vigorous physical activity for more than 20 min, and weekly frequency of fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption were collected. Time spent watching television and using a computer during a normal school day was also captured. A family affluence scale was used to assess socioeconomic status (number of family holidays in the past year, ownership of motor vehicles and computers, and bedroom sharing). Associations between familial affluence and obesity risk behaviours were estimated using Pearson's correlation and demographic-adjusted logistic regression ORs. Higher family affluence scale scores were significantly associated with weekly fruit consumption (r=0.14). Children with lower affluence were less likely to participate in vigorous physical activity five days/week or more (OR=0.39), and to use a computer for more than 2 h/day (OR=0.41) than children with higher affluence. Linear trends between familial affluence and the likelihood of participating in physical activity and using a computer were also found. However, no other behaviours were related to affluence. Increasing opportunities for physical activity and accessibility to healthy food may be important for reducing obesity risk among less affluent children.

  17. Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Biosca, Mireia; Moreno, Luis A

    2008-03-01

    Sedentary lifestyle patterns in children and adolescents, i.e. playing digital games, using computers and especially watching television, have been associated with obesity. However, not all sedentary behaviour has shown the same relevance to, and relationship with, obesity. Therefore, we conducted a review including published studies found in PubMed and other medical journals, dated between January 1990 and April 2007. The ages of the children and adolescents who were the object of the study ranged between 2 and 18 years. For the purpose of this paper, we selected cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies. Sufficient evidence exists to recommend setting a limit to the time spent watching TV, especially for younger children. However, video games and computers do not represent such a high risk compared to watching TV, when they do not replace physical activity too much. In fact, there is no evidence to suggest that sedentary behaviour displaces physical activity levels. Mechanisms that explain the link between sedentariness and obesity are also discussed. Finally, future studies should take into account important mediators such as socioeconomic status and family structure.

  18. [Obesity in children. III. Feeding pattern in relation to the possible development of obesity].

    PubMed

    de Wijn, J F

    1981-12-01

    It appears from literature that obesity among breastfed infants is less prevalent than among over bottle fed infants. There is conflicting understanding as to a significant contribution of infant food habits to lasting obesity. Attention for prudent food intake seems to be particularly indicated when one of the parents or both are obese. Too early introduction of solids in addition to milk formula does probably not contribute too much to infants overfeeding, but enlarges the risk for early manifestation of allergies or coeliac disease and for restricted iron absorption. The food pattern of toddlers and schoolchildren in the Netherlands is characterized by an over validation of the health promoting significance of animal protein rich products. This may contribute to the consumption of excess saturated fatty acids and relatively little dietary fibre. Both relatively fatty food and little dietary fibre as well as over consumption of milky products and sugar in soft drinks or lemonade can easily enhance the development of obesity in young children. Protein consumption of 2.5 grams per kg BW, two thirds of which is from animal source, is repeatedly noted, whereas 1 à 1.5 grams of mixed protein per kg BW can be considered adequate for healthy toddlers and young school age children to guarantee normal growth and development. In addition to the traditional three main meals, it appears that 8 year olds in the Netherlands consume 20 pct of the total amount of energy intake in the form of in-between-meal snacks, which may also contribute to the possible development of obesity.

  19. Associations of Television Content Type and Obesity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Janice F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the associations of content types of children's television viewing with subsequent body mass index (BMI) to assess the plausibility of different causal pathways. Methods. We used time-use diary data from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics to measure television viewing categorized by format and educational and commercial content. Analyses were stratified by age because children younger than 7 years are less able to understand the persuasive intent of advertising. BMI z scores in 2002 were regressed on television viewing, sociodemographic variables, mother's BMI, and BMI in 1997 (for older children only). Results. Among children aged 0 to 6 years in 1997, commercial viewing in 1997 was significantly associated with BMI z scores in 2002 in fully adjusted regressions. Among children older than 6 years, commercial viewing in 2002 was associated with 2002 BMI. These results were robust after adjustment for exercise and eating while watching television. Conclusions. The evidence does not support the contention that television viewing contributes to obesity because it is a sedentary activity. Television advertising, rather than viewing per se, is associated with obesity. PMID:20019313

  20. Associations of television content type and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Frederick J; Bell, Janice F

    2010-02-01

    We tested the associations of content types of children's television viewing with subsequent body mass index (BMI) to assess the plausibility of different causal pathways. We used time-use diary data from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics to measure television viewing categorized by format and educational and commercial content. Analyses were stratified by age because children younger than 7 years are less able to understand the persuasive intent of advertising. BMI z scores in 2002 were regressed on television viewing, sociodemographic variables, mother's BMI, and BMI in 1997 (for older children only). Among children aged 0 to 6 years in 1997, commercial viewing in 1997 was significantly associated with BMI z scores in 2002 in fully adjusted regressions. Among children older than 6 years, commercial viewing in 2002 was associated with 2002 BMI. These results were robust after adjustment for exercise and eating while watching television. The evidence does not support the contention that television viewing contributes to obesity because it is a sedentary activity. Television advertising, rather than viewing per se, is associated with obesity.

  1. Peer effects on obesity in a sample of European children.

    PubMed

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis; Kovács, Éva; Lauria, Fabio; Konstabel, Kenn; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Vyncke, Krishna; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries. Peers are defined as same-sex children in the same school and age group. The results show that peer effects do exist in this European sample but that they differ among both regions and different fatness measures. Peer effects are larger in Spain, Italy, and Cyprus--the more collectivist regions in our sample--while waist circumference generally gives rise to larger peer effects than BMI. We also provide evidence that parental misperceptions of their own children's weight goes hand in hand with fatter peer groups, supporting the notion that in making such assessments, parents compare their children's weight with that of friends and schoolmates.

  2. Brain responses to food logos in obese and healthy weight children.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Amanda S; Lepping, Rebecca J; Bruce, Jared M; Cherry, J Bradley C; Martin, Laura E; Davis, Ann M; Brooks, William M; Savage, Cary R

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate brain activation in response to common food and nonfood logos in healthy weight and obese children. Ten healthy weight children (mean body mass index in the 50th percentile) and 10 obese children (mean body mass index in the 97.9th percentile) completed self-report measures of self-control. They then underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing food and nonfood logos. Compared with the healthy weight children, obese children showed significantly less brain activation to food logos in the bilateral middle/inferior prefrontal cortex, an area involved in cognitive control. When shown food logos, obese children showed significantly less brain activation than the healthy weight children in regions associated with cognitive control. This provides initial neuroimaging evidence that obese children may be more vulnerable to the effects of food advertising. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    PubMed

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P < 0·05). We determined the prevalence of Adv36 positivity in obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  4. Parents’ perception of children's obesity, in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in Saudi Arabia, parents are unable to appreciate obesity in their child. The objective of the study was to identify the percentage of parents who misclassify the status of child's weight, and determine whether there is a difference between those parents whose children are overweight and obese and those with children of normal weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 601 children aged 6-10 years. The children were recruited from the primary schools located in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index of the children was assessed in the school, and their parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contained questions on parental perception of the children's weight/obesity status. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Parents with overweight/obese children had significantly more misclassification than those with normal weight children. Ninety percent of parents of the 81 overweight children misclassified and reported that their child had normal weight, while 65% of parents of the 61 obese children, misclassified the child's weight status. Conclusions: The level of misclassification of children's weight status by parents is high. Saudi parents with overweight and obese children do not recognize their child's weight status. Parents’ awareness of childhood obesity and its negative health impact needs to be improved. PMID:27625586

  5. Autonomic dysfunction: a possible pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity in children at-risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Poirier, Paul; Quality Cohort Collaborative Group

    2015-02-01

    While mounting evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in the etiology of obesity, the underlying pathogenic pathways are complex and unresolved. Experimental sleep deprivation studies demonstrate sympathovagal imbalance, indicative of diminished parasympathetic activity and/or heightened sympathetic activity, is consequent to poor sleep. Further, obese children exhibit sympathovagal imbalance, particularly during the night, compared to non-obese children. The question remains whether sympathovagal imbalance is one potential pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sympathovagal imbalance contributed to the association between sleep and obesity in children. Participants included 564 children aged 10 to 12 years (M = 11.67, SD = 0.95; 43.5% girls) from the QUALITY Cohort, a longitudinal study of children at-risk for the development of obesity. While children were at-risk due to confirmed parental obesity status, 57.7% of children were of normal body mass index (5-85th percentile). Sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep disturbances were based on child- and parent-report. Anthropometrics were measured for central adiposity (waist circumference) and body composition (body mass index, fat mass index). Sympathovagal imbalance was derived from heart rate variability spectral analyses. Estimated path coefficients revealed that sympathovagal imbalance partially contributed to the association between poor sleep (later bedtimes, sleep-disordered breathing) and obesity. These findings highlight the importance of better understanding sympathovagal imbalance and its role in the etiology and maintenance of obesity. Future research should consider investigating nocturnal sympathovagal balance in youth.

  6. The Relationship between Obesity and Cognitive Performance in Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Amna Sadaf; Gortmaker, Steven

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between obesity and academic outcomes remains unclear. We evaluated the association between obesity and cognitive performance in US children. We analyzed two nationally representative prospective cohorts of children in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, ages 2 through 8 at baseline and followed for 6 years, from 1988 to 1994 (cohort 1, n=2672) and 1994 to 2000 (cohort 2, n=1991). The main exposure variable was obesity (defined as never obese, became obese, always obese, and became nonobese). The main outcomes were standardized scores on four cognitive assessments. Univariate regression analyses of test scores on obesity were performed. Fixed-effects regression models, controlling for measured and unmeasured time-invariant confounders, were additionally adjusted for time-variant confounders to analyze the impact of change in obesity status on change in test scores. Unadjusted analyses revealed a significant association between obesity and Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) scores. In cohort 1, always obese children had lower PIAT math scores than never obese children (β=-7.48; p<0.05). Always obese boys had lower PIAT math scores than those who were never obese (β=-16.45; p<0.01). In cohort 2, PIAT math scores were lower in the became obese category than the never obese category (β=-4.10; p<0.05). Always obese girls had lower PIAT reading scores than those who were never obese (β=-11.28; p<0.01). Fixed-effects models additionally adjusted for Home Observation Measurement of the Environment, Short Form score and height percentile showed no significant relationship between obesity and test scores in either cohort. Childhood obesity is unlikely to be causally related to cognitive performance.

  7. Glucose effectiveness in obese children: relation to degree of obesity and dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ram; Magge, Sheela N; Santoro, Nicola; Giannini, Cosimo; Boston, Raymond; Holder, Tara; Shaw, Melissa; Duran, Elvira; Hershkop, Karen J; Caprio, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Impaired glucose effectiveness (GE) plays a role in the deterioration of glucose metabolism. Our aim was to validate a surrogate of GE derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess the impact of degrees of obesity and of glucose tolerance on it. The OGTT-derived surrogate of GE (oGE) was validated in obese adolescents who underwent an OGTT and an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). We then evaluated anthropometric determinants of the oGE and its impact on the dynamics of glucose tolerance in a cohort of children with varying degrees of obesity. The correlation of oGE and IVGTT-derived GE in 98 obese adolescents was r = 0.35 (P < 0.001) as a whole and r = 0.51 (P < 0.001) in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. In a cohort of 1,418 children, the adjusted GE was associated with increasing obesity (P < 0.001 for each category of obesity). Quartiles of oGE and the oral disposition index were associated with 2-h glucose levels (P < 0.001 for both). Among 421 nondiabetic obese subjects (276 subjects with normal glucose tolerance/145 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who repeated their OGTT after a mean time of 28 ± 16 months), oGE changes were tightly associated with weight (r = 0.83, P < 0.001) and waist circumference changes (r = 0.67, P < 0.001). Baseline oGE and changes in oGE over time emerged as significant predictors of the change in 2-h glucose levels (standardized B = -0.76 and B = -0.98 respectively, P < 0.001 for both). The oGE is associated with the degree of and changes in weight and waist circumference and is an independent predictor of glucose tolerance dynamics. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. [Prevalence of obesity in school children in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Kramoh, K E; N'goran, Y N K; Aké-Traboulsi, E; Boka, B C; Harding, D E; Koffi, D B J; Koffi, F; Guikahue, M K

    2012-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, an increased prevalence of hypertension in children is observed since several years due to an epidemic of childhood obesity. What is the extent of this epidemic in our African context? We conducted a prospective descriptive study of pupils encountered in primary and secondary schools of the district of Abidjan from May 3 to June 1st 2010. A sample of 2038 pupils aged 6 to 18 years was randomly selected. Overweight in pupils was assessed by body mass index (BMI). There were 1182 girls (58%) and 856 boys (42%) whose average age was 12.7±3.6 years. The average weight was 42.6kg±16 (range 14.6 to 106.2kg), the average size was 1.48m±0.19 (range 1 to 1.95m). BMI was 17.2kg/m(2)±3.7 (range 14.6-35.7). The prevalence of obesity was of 5%. In addition, 4% of the students were overweight, 39% extremely thin, 25% thin and 27% normal. Obesity was more common in girls (6.8%) than boys (1.8%). The prevalence of obesity in hypertensives was 16%. BMI influenced the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sexes (P<0.001 in both cases). Childhood obesity exists in a country like the Ivory Coast where wealthness is far from generalized. A well-organized management of childhood obesity is necessary to avoid complications such as hypertension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of obese children and adolescents: a survey of pediatric obesity-management programs.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Joey C

    2011-09-01

    This article provides descriptive information on the assessments conducted in stage 3 or 4 pediatric obesity-management programs associated with National Association of Children's Hospital and Related Institutions hospitals enrolled in FOCUS on a Fitter Future. Eighteen institutions completed a survey that considered the following assessments: patient/family medical history; physical examination; blood pressure; body size and composition; blood chemistry; aerobic fitness; resting metabolic rate; muscle strength and flexibility; gross motor function; spirometry; sedentary behavior and physical activity; dietary behavior and nutrition; and psychological assessments. Frequency distributions were determined for each question. Overall, the results indicate that most programs that participated in this survey were following 2007 Expert Committee assessment recommendations; however, a variety of measurement tools were used. The variation in assessment tools, protocols, etc is partially caused by the program diversity dictated by personnel, both in terms of number and duties. It also shows the challenges in standardizing methodologies across clinics if we hope to establish a national registry for pediatric obesity clinics. In addition to providing a better understanding of the current assessment practices in pediatric obesity-management programs, the results provided herein should assist other clinics/hospitals that are developing pediatric obesity programs.

  10. Rapid carbohydrate digestion rate produced lesser short-term satiety in obese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Alviña, M; Araya, H

    2004-04-01

    To examine whether high carbohydrate meals with different carbohydrate digestion rates have an effect on the short-term satiety in normal and obese preschool children. In total, 48 children of both gender, 24 normal and 24 obese, according to body mass index, aged between 3 and 6 y, were selected from children who were attending to a day-care center where they consumed three meals in the day. Rapid (potato-based meal) and lente (spaghetti-based meal) carbohydrate digestion rate meal were given at lunch, matching energy intake, carbohydrate, protein and fat levels, and then the preschool children's energy intake at the subsequent mealtime was observed. In this last mealtime, the children received varied types of high-acceptability foods in higher quantities than the normal serving. At lunch, a significant higher energy intake, lesser satiation, was observed in both groups, normal-weight and obese children, when they consumed the potato-based meal. In the subsequent mealtime, a significant effect of carbohydrate digestion rate was demonstrated, but only in obese preschool children, being higher in the meal with rapid digestion rate carbohydrates. Rapid carbohydrate digestion rate meal produced a significative lesser satiation in normal-weight and obese children. However, only in obese children a significant lesser satiety was observed after consumption of the rapid carbohydrate digestion rate meal, indicating a decreased capacity of energy regulation in obese children. The finding of the present work could provide dietary strategies required for decreasing prevalence in overweight and obesity in preschool children.

  11. Health care utilization from prevalent medical conditions in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Colman, Ian; Veugelers, Paul J

    2012-02-01

    To explore the commonly recorded diagnoses in overweight and obese children presenting to a clinical care setting compared with their normal-weight peers. This was a cross-sectional study linking data from 3361 fifth grade students from the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School Performance Study with Nova Scotia administrative health data over 6 years. Overweight and obese children were more likely to have had a diagnosis of internalizing disorders, asthma, other respiratory disorders, obesity, otitis media, and chronic adenoid/tonsil disorder. Conversely, normal-weight children were more likely to have a diagnosis of conduct disorder or other mental diseases. Except for internalizing disorders, overweight and obese children also had significantly higher health care costs for these conditions. Overweight and obese children had higher health care utilization across a range of diagnoses, further confirming that health care utilization patterns of overweight and obese children differ from those of their normal-weight peers. Greater attention to the relationship between more common childhood conditions and overweight and obesity is needed, given the greater prevalence in overweight and obese children and the fact that some of the more established obesity-related conditions occur less frequently, particularly in younger children. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in obesity prevalence and disparities among low-income children in Oklahoma, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Weedn, Ashley E; Hale, Jessica J; Thompson, David M; Darden, Paul M

    2014-08-01

    National WIC (the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) data indicate a decrease in obesity prevalence among most low-income preschool-aged children. Though racial/ethnic disparities exist, studies examining obesity trends among various racial/ethnic groups are lacking. The aims of this study were to identify racial/ethnic disparities in obesity among low-income preschool children in Oklahoma and describe trends in obesity prevalence among four major racial/ethnic groups. Subjects included 218,486 children 2-4 years of age who participated in WIC in Oklahoma from 2005 to 2010. Logistic regression was performed to identify disparities and trends in obesity among American Indian, Hispanic, White, and African American children. Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity were evident, with prevalence highest in Hispanics and lowest in African Americans. Obesity increased among girls for all racial/ethnic groups from 2005 to 2010 (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01, 1.03). Among boys, obesity increased in African Americans (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.07), but remained stable in other racial/ethnic groups. In Oklahoma, in contrast to recent national studies, obesity is increasing among certain groups of low-income preschool children. These findings suggest geographic diversity in obesity and that state-specific obesity surveillance is important to help target interventions to those at highest risk.

  13. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with clinical and biochemical variables in obese children and adolescents: effect of a one-year intervention on lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Santomauro, Mercedes; Paoli-Valeri, Mariela; Fernández, Maricelia; Camacho, Nolis; Molina, Zarela; Cicchetti, Rosanna; Valeri, Lenin; Dávila de Campagnaro, Evila; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    To study the frequency of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its relationship to clinical and biochemical variables, and the effect 12-month's lifestyle intervention in obese children and adolescents. Thirty-six obese patients aged 7 to 18 years, 42% female and 58% male, 72.2% prepubertal and 27.8% pubertal, were selected. Anthropometric measurements and glucose, insulin (baseline and after a glucose load), lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and aminotransferase tests were performed before and 12 months after dietary and physical activity intervention. Liver ultrasound was performed to determine the presence of NAFLD. NAFLD was found in 66.7% (n=24), and was mild in 30.6%, moderate in 27.8%, and severe in 8.3%. Subjects with NAFLD had higher body mass index (BMI, p=0.007), waist (p=0.005), fat area (p=0.002), basal insulin (p=0.01), and HOMA-IR (p=0.008) values and lower QUICKI (p=0.02) values than those with no NAFLD. After intervention, physical activity increased (p=0.0001) and calorie intake remained unchanged. NAFLD disappeared in 9 patients (37.5%, p=0.02) and disease severity decreased in 3 patients (12.5%). In addition, BMI Z-score (p=0.005), fat area (p=0.0001), basal insulin (p<0.05), insulin resistance (p<0.005), lipid profile (p<0.03), and transaminases decreased. Weight loss was the main variable accounting for NAFLD improvement. This group of obese children and adolescents showed a high frequency of NAFLD. The lifestyle intervention with weight reduction is effective for the treatment of NAFLD. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Overweight and Obesity Prevalence among Public School Children in Guam

    PubMed Central

    Paulino, Yvette C.; Guerrero, Rachael T. Leon; Uncangco, Alyssa A.; Rosadino, Mary Grace; Quinene, Julietta C.; Natividad, Zenaida N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Government of Guam passed Public Law 28-87, which established the collection of child Body Mass Index (BMI) measurements in the Guam Department of Education (GDOE). This paper aimed to analyze the BMI data and report the childhood obesity prevalence on Guam. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on a repeated cross-section of 106,827 children in the GDOE from 2010 to 2014. Age- and sex-specific prevalence estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) by weight status were calculated for each year. Test for trends in the high weight status were performed. Results The childhood obesity prevalence was 23.1% (95% CI, 22.9%–23.4%). It declined from 23.6% (95% CI, 23.1%–24.1%) in 2010–2011 to 22.6% (95% CI, 22.1%–23.0%) in 2013–2014 (p=.007). Conclusion Childhood obesity on Guam has declined, though it remains higher than the U.S. Mainland. Continued BMI data collection is needed to monitor childhood obesity and measure the impact of Public Law 28-87. PMID:25981088

  15. [Obesity in children and its relationship with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Zurita-Cruz, Jessie Nallely; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased worldwide, in parallel. This article focuses on the current issues of obesity on renal damage, with special emphasis on what happens at pediatric ages. While obesity has been linked closely with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, reduced insulin sensitivity is a direct mechanism for renal damage. The pathophysiologic mechanisms on renal damage include glomerular hyperfiltration and hypertrophy, hypercellularity and broadening of the mesangial regions, while the lack of sensitivity to insulin increases the effects of angiotensin II, exacerbates proteinuria and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines. Many epidemiological studies have documented the relationship of increased BMI with the development of ERC, but most of these studies have been conducted in adults. In children, the information is scarce, but is consistent with findings in adults. In contrast, there are studies which show that interventions aimed to improve weight loss and limit renal damage and proteinuria is reduced, the blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate. Allthe above make us think on the need to improve efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity from the early stages of life, which could reduce the number of patients with CKD in the future.

  16. Obesity in Kolkata children: Magnitude in relationship to hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Partha; Dey, Subrata; Pal, Ranabir; Kar, Sumit; Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Pal, Shrayan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited data is available from India regarding the distribution and profile of childhood obesity and hypertension. Materials and Methods: A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban schools of Kolkata. Using stratified random sampling method, 979 participants were selected. Body mass index (BMI) status and blood pressure (BP) were estimated using standard protocol and their various correlates regarding sociodemographic characteristics were looked into. Results: Majority (38.92%) of the study population were in the preadolescent group followed by adolescent group (33.40%). Male constituted 52.09%, overweight was more prevalent among preadolescent age group (22.57%). Overall 27 cases of prehypertension were found of which 19 (70.37%, n=27) were in the adolescent age group. There was no significant association between ages with increased BMI status. We detected total 15 cases (1.53%) of hypertension in our study population and three-fourths of them were from adolescent age group. However, significant association was seen between high BP with increasing age. Average fast food intakes and screen time was higher in obese as compared to their normal peers. Upper and upper-middle social status contributed to higher number of obese/overweight and hypertensive children and was the significant risk factor. Conclusion: Childhood obesity and hypertension were found to be common in the city of Kolkata which suggest the need for greater public awareness programs on these morbidities. PMID:22470242

  17. Racial differences in the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and children's behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Tanda, Rika; Salsberry, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the adverse effects of prepregnancy obesity on offspring's neurodevelopmental outcomes has begun to emerge. The authors examined the association between prepregnancy obesity and children's behavioral problems and if the association would differ by race. This observational study used a total of 3395 white (n = 2127) and African-American (n = 1268) children aged 96 to 119 months from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Behavior Problem Index (BPI) total and subscale scores were used to measure children's behavioral problems. The association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and the BPI scores for each racial group was examined using multivariate linear and logistic regressions, controlling for prenatal, child, maternal, and family background factors. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was independently associated with an increase in the BPI total scores among the white sample only. Among the African-Americans, prepregnancy obesity was not associated with the BPI scores. Subsample analyses using externalizing and internalizing subscales also revealed similar trends. Among the white sample, children born to obese women were more socially disadvantaged than those born to nonobese women, whereas no such trend was observed in children of African-American obese and nonobese women. The impact of maternal prepregnancy obesity on children's behavioral problems differed by racial groups. Obesity-related metabolic dysregulations during the intrauterine period may not contribute to later children's behavioral problems. Social and psychological factors seem to play key roles in the association between prepregnancy obesity and childhood behavioral problems among whites.

  18. Motivational Interviewing in an Obesity Prevention Program for Children.

    PubMed

    Ige, Teminijesu John; DeLeon, Patrice; Nabors, Laura

    2017-03-01

    After-school programs are an ideal setting for childhood obesity prevention interventions. This qualitative study examined the implementation of a training technique in the Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise Program: motivational interviewing. Participants included 19 children in Grades 3 through 5, nine coaches enrolled in university health education classes, and four parents. Nine lessons were presented during the fall session (N = 5) and eight during the spring (N = 14), with five individual coaching sessions per child. From September, 2014 through April 2015, child and coach perceptions were assessed using goal sheets, surveys, a focus group, and the analysis of the video recording of a health habit commercial created by teams of children grouped by gender. Children developed weekly eating and exercise goals with coaches and reported on their progress the following week. Following the intervention, children reported improved eating and exercise habits and coaches reported they learned more about healthy food options for themselves. Overall, children responded positively to the motivational interviewing. Involving teachers may allow for dissemination of lessons and reinforcement for healthy choices during the school day. Involving parents in training may remove roadblocks to healthy lifestyle changes for children for nonschool hours and when packing lunches.

  19. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity from four to 16 years old children living in the Mexico-USA border.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jones, Elizabeth G; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexicans is alarming in both the child and adult populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity in pre-school (PS), elementary (ES), and middle high (MHS) public school children from Tijuana. From February to April of 2011, a bietapic random sample was selected by cluster method of 30 PS, 30 ES, and 30 MHS children. And a sample of 30 groups for each level was chosen. Twenty elementary teachers and eight graduate students were trained at one central location on how to take anthropometric measurements using a portable scale, a stadiometer, and a measuring tape to determine weight, height, and waist circumference. Body Mass Index values were computed and compared to age/gender BMI percentiles according to WHO criteria. Waist circumference for-age at the 90th percentile from NHANES III (Mexican-American) was used to define abdominal obesity. The sample was composed of 646 PS children, 961 ES children, and 1,095 MHS children. Their ages ranged from 4- 16 years. Results showed an overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in younger than 5y preschool children (> 2 SD) of 23.1%, in ≥ 5 y PS (> 1 SD) of 33.8%, in ES children of 46.3%, and in MHS children of 41.9%. Abdominal obesity in PS children was 18%, in ES children was 16.7%, and in MHS children was 15.2%. These results warrant immediate and comprehensive actions to prevent a critical public health problem in Mexico.

  20. Explaining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin: the Calcutta childhood obesity study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors among Bengalee children and adolescents in the Kolkata, India. A total of 1061 Bengalee school children and adolescents (610 boys and 451 girls) participated and were divided into three age groups: Group I = 8-11 years; Group II = 12-15 years and Group III = 16-18 years. Overweight and obesity were defined as: Overweight (between ≥85 th and <95 th percentile) and obesity (≥95 th percentile). Multivariate regression analyses (adjusted for age and sex) of body mass index (BMI) revealed that about 18% (R2 = 0.185) of total variance of BMI could be explained by monthly family income, participants think obese, consumption of too much junk foodstuffs, breakfast skip, extra consumption of salt, and computer hours. Sedentary lifestyles, including increasing fast food preferences may be responsible for increasing occurrence of pediatric and adolescent obesity in this population.

  1. Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant status in overweight and morbidly obese Saudi children

    PubMed Central

    Albuali, Waleed H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antioxidant enzymes and oxidative products in overweight and obese Saudi children before the onset of metabolic complications. METHODS: The study was carried out on 231 Saudi children. They were classified into three groups: uncomplicated overweight, uncomplicated morbid obesity, and the matched age group as control. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, the concentrations of reduced GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA) oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) were measured in the blood of these groups. RESULTS: Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher body mass index, while obese children only had a significantly higher waist-to-hip ratio compared to that of the control group. The enzyme activities under study were significantly elevated in the overweight group, although they were significantly reduced among obese children. The concentration of GSH was reduced in both the overweight and obese groups. The mean values of ox-LDL, MDA and AOPP were non-significantly increased in overweight children, while they were significantly elevated in obese children compared to that of normal weight children. A significant disturbance of oxidant-antioxidant status was observed in severely morbid children. CONCLUSION: The increase of oxidative stress in obese children is associated with the increase in AOPPs and MDA which reflects an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant defense. PMID:25254179

  2. Raising healthy children: Moral and political responsibility for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Childhood obesity and chronic disease rates continue to climb, but policy and programme responses are mainly limited to education and awareness activities. These encourage individuals to make responsible lifestyle choices. Regulation and environmental change have a minor role, as they involve more intrusive roles for government, invading traditionally private domains of nutrition and physical activity. But to address children's health needs, today's emphasis on self-management is inappropriate. Children, especially the very young, are dependent and vulnerable. I describe why the current public health strategies, with their political and moral foundations, remain ineffective. The foundations are based primarily upon the traditional liberal understanding of the public/private divide, while neglecting to recognize the legal obligations and implications of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and theories of justice and citizenship as they apply to children.

  3. Metabolic profil in a group of obese Moroccan children enrolled in schools in the city of Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Mouane, Nezha; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui; Ettair, Said; Meskini, Toufik; Khalloufi, Nabil; Bouklouze, Aziz; Barkat, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To determine the metabolic profile in a group of obese children in Morocco. Methods The BMI, the waist circumference, the blood pressure and metabolic parameters in 73 children (37 obese and 36 normal) were compared. Results 80% of obese children had abdominal obesity (p <0.0001). For systolic blood pressure among children who have a higher value than the 95th percentile, 85.7% were obese and 14.3% children are normal children. For diastolic blood pressure, 83.34% of obese children had higher diastolic blood pressure values in the 95th percentile and 16.6% of normal children have a higher value than the 95th percentile (p=0.013). No obese child had hyperglycemia. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. Conclusion Obesity is number one risk of cardiovascular disease for children. Early detection can help for an appropriate care. PMID:25977740

  4. Treating obesity in children and adolescents: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, T J; Thoresen, C E

    1978-01-01

    Researchers and health practitioners are becoming increasingly concerned with the problems associated with obesity among children and adolescents. Obesity tends to persist into adulthood and to be associated with a variety of physical and psychological problems. Treatment approaches used to date are generally impotent, but some promising short-term results have been achieved with some forms of dietary counseling, exercise programs, total environmental management, and behavior therapy. But even with these strategies, clinically significant weight loss is rare and advances during treatment are rarely maintained. Radical departures from current treatment strategies are needed in the form of more structured and intensive treatments, family involvement, and training in problem solving. Closer adherence to sound scientific methodology might at least provide a foundation from which more effective treatments might be developed. PMID:626257