Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.
Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…
Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Marzouk, Samah Abd Al Fatah Mohamed
This study examined the association between early childhood classroom quality and preschool children's social skills and emotional problems. Teachers completed the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment-Clinical Form (DECA-C). Participants included 141 preschool children from 10…
Domenech-Llaberia, Edelmira; Jane, Claustre; Canals, Josepa; Ballespi, Sergi; Esparo, Griselda; Garralda, Elena
Objective: To document prevalence and associations of somatic symptoms in Spanish preschool children. Method: Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds attending nurseries (8 urban, 30 rural). Parental questionnaires (response rate 77%) were used to inquire about somatic symptoms in the child in the 2 weeks prior to assessment, about preschool absence and…
Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.
Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…
Callu, D.; Giannopulu, I.; Escolano, S.; Cusin, F.; Jacquier-Roux, M.; Dellatolas, G.
Phonological awareness is strongly related to reading ability, but reports are more conflicting concerning the association of high level oculomotor skills with reading. Here, we show that phonological awareness is specifically associated with the ability to perform smooth pursuit eye movements in preschool children. Two large independent samples…
Fuhrmann, Pia; Equit, Monika; Schmidt, Karin; von Gontard, Alexander
Depression is an incapacitating disorder, which is often overlooked in preschool children. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of depressive symptoms and co-occurring risk factors in a large, population-based sample of preschool children. All 653 children (of a total of 731) in a defined geographical area were assessed during the school-entry exam by community care paediatricians. In addition to clinical appraisal, parents filled out the Preschool Feelings Checklist, a 16-item screening instrument with good psychometric properties. The mean age was 6.2 years (range 5.0-7.6 years) and the sample included 344 boys and 305 girls. The prevalence of depressive symptoms of clinical relevance (total score ≥3) was 5.7% (37). There were no differences between boys and girls, and between younger (<6 years) and older (>6 years) children. Depressive symptoms were associated with parental separation and comorbid behavioural problems, but especially with developmental motor and speech problems and disorders. Migration to Germany had no influence. Depressive symptoms are common in preschool children and associated with developmental problems. Depression should be considered in children with speech and motor problems who are at special risk. Early detection and treatment are recommended.
Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260
Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…
Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Darcey M; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Phillips, Beth M
Children's self-regulation, including components of executive function such as inhibitory control, is related concurrently and longitudinally with elementary school children's reading and math abilities. Although several recent studies have examined links between preschool children's self-regulation or executive function and their academic skill development, few included large numbers of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Among the fastest growing segments of the U.S. school-age population, many of these children are at significant risk of academic difficulties. We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores on this last measure were lower for children for whom it was administered in Spanish. For both English and Spanish outcomes, those scores were significantly and uniquely associated with higher scores on measures of phonological awareness and math skills but not vocabulary or print knowledge skills.
Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew
With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest…
Oliveira, Luciana B; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bönecker, Marcelo
The main objective of this study was to assess whether dental caries status was related to nutritional status in preschool urban Brazilian children aged 12-59 months. Dental and anthropometric examinations were conducted on 1,018 12-59-month-old children during the National Day of Children Vaccination. Dental caries prevalence and severity were measured using the decayed, missing or filled surfaces (dmfs) index. The World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards Reference was used to evaluate nutritional status. Results on nutritional status were presented as Z-scores. The data collected included socio-economic conditions. Multilevel linear regression was applied to investigate the effect of nutritional, socio-economic, and demographic factors on the status of children's dental caries. Caries was present in 23.4% of children. The final hierarchical logistic model showed a significant association between nutritional status and caries experience. Children with low Z-scores in some indexes had an increased risk of having caries. In addition, children whose mothers had < 8 yr of education and were from lower-income families had an increased risk of high levels of dental caries. There was an association between nutritional and socio-economic factors, and dental caries. In conclusion, underweight children and those with adverse socio-economic conditions were more likely to have caries experience.
Romano, Elisa; Kohen, Dafna; Findlay, Leanne C.
Canadian data based on maternal reports for a nationally representative sample of 4,521 4-5-year-olds were used to examine associations among child care, family factors, and behaviors in preschool-aged children. Linear regressions testing for direct and moderated associations indicated that regulated home-based care was associated with less…
Ziv, Yair; Kupermintz, Haggai; Aviezer, Ora
The links between social information processing (SIP) and social behavior in preschool are well documented. However, the antecedents of SIP in that age group are less clear. A number of influential theoretical models suggest that a major contributor to SIP is the quality of the child's relationships with the parent. Therefore, we examined the links among quality of the mother-child relationships (measured via direct observations of dyadic play interactions), the child's SIP patterns (measured via direct interview with the child), and the child's perceived behavior in preschool (measured via teacher reports) in a sample of 218 preschool and kindergarten children and their mothers. Applying structural equation modeling, we found support for our theoretical model with a specific emphasis on the negative nature of this association. Specifically, we found a strong indirect path from maternal negative control to the teacher's negative perception of the child's behavior in preschool and kindergarten via less competent SIP patterns. This empirical path remained intact after controlling for various variables such as the family income, the mother's education level, and the child's expressive language abilities, thereby providing further support for the robustness of this association.
Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L; Tardif, Twila; Thompson, Meaghan C; Gehring, William J
Deficient self-regulation plays a key role in the etiology of early onset disruptive behavior disorders and signals risk for chronic psychopathology. However, to date, there has been no research comparing preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific self-regulation sub-processes. We examined 15 preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior (35 % female) and 20 peers with low disruptive behavior (50 % female) who completed a Go/No-go task that provided emotionally valenced feedback. We tested whether 4 ERP components: the Error Related Negativity, the Error Positivity, the Feedback Related Negativity, and the No-go N2, differed in preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior. Preschoolers with high levels of disruptive behavior showed less differentiation between the Error Positivity and corresponding waveforms following correct responses at posterior sites. Preschoolers with high and low disruptive behavior also showed differences in Go/No-go N2 waveform amplitudes across electrodes. These findings suggest that preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior may show abnormal brain activity during certain self-regulation sub-processes, informing potential advances in conceptualizing and treating early disruptive behavior.
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Searle, Amelia K.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Baghurst, Peter A.
This 1-year prospective study aimed to examine associations between children's preschool emotional and behavioral problems and their kindergarten classroom engagement, and to identify any gender differences in this association. In preschool, parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing aspects of children's (n = 575) emotional…
Chung, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Yiin, Lih-Ming
The occurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR) may be significantly influenced by air pollution. This study examined the association between the first occurrence of AR in preschool children and the pre-incident levels of air pollutants in Taiwan. We identified 9960 eligible subjects from a systematic sampling cohort database containing 400,000 insureds of the National Health Insurance from 2007 to 2011 and matched them with the environmental monitoring data from 2006 to 2011 according to the locations of their clinics. Pre-incident levels were determined using the average concentrations of air pollutants one or two weeks prior to the AR diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine any significant relationships between AR and specific air pollutants. The first AR incidence for Taiwanese preschool children, which increased with age, was 10.9% on average; boys appeared to have a higher percentage (14.2%) than girls (8.27%). Among the air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were significantly related to AR after adjusting for age and gender (p < 0.05). Because both pollutants are considered to be traffic emissions, this study suggests that traffic emissions in Taiwan need to be controlled to lower the prevalence of children's AR.
Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol; Lawrence, Frank R
It is well established that monolingual preschoolers' oral language development (vocabulary and oral comprehension) contributes to their later reading abilities; however, less is known about this relationship in bilingual populations where children are developing knowledge of two languages. It may be that children's abilities in one language do not contribute to their reading abilities in their other language or that children's experiences with either language assist them in developing a common underlying proficiency that they draw upon when learning to read. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among bilingual children's receptive language development and reading outcomes in first grade. Eighty-one bilingual children who were attending Head Start participated in the study. Growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between children's language abilities during two years in Head Start and reading outcomes at the end of first grade. Children's growth in both English and Spanish receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension predicted their English and Spanish reading abilities at the end of first grade within languages. Associations were also observed between languages with growth in English receptive language predicting Spanish reading comprehension and growth in Spanish receptive language predicting English reading comprehension.
Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Motta, Thiago; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different types of malocclusion and the impact on quality of life among preschoolers and their families. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 451 children 3-5 years of age. A clinical exam was performed to evaluate the malocclusions according to criteria proposed by Foster and Hamilton. This examination was conducted by a calibrated dentist. Parents/caregivers answered the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for the assessment of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and the questionnaire on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, chi-square, Mann-Whitney and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression. The prevalence of malocclusion was 28.4%. The most frequent conditions were posterior crossbite (20.4%), anterior open bite (9.5%) and increased overjet (8.4%). A significant association was found between anterior open bite and OHRQoL (p < 0.001). The adjusted analysis confirmed the association between anterior open bite and a negative impact on quality of life (PR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.87 to 3.47; p < 0.001). Anterior open bite was associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of preschoolers.
Chung, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Yiin, Lih-Ming
The occurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR) may be significantly influenced by air pollution. This study examined the association between the first occurrence of AR in preschool children and the pre-incident levels of air pollutants in Taiwan. We identified 9960 eligible subjects from a systematic sampling cohort database containing 400,000 insureds of the National Health Insurance from 2007 to 2011 and matched them with the environmental monitoring data from 2006 to 2011 according to the locations of their clinics. Pre-incident levels were determined using the average concentrations of air pollutants one or two weeks prior to the AR diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine any significant relationships between AR and specific air pollutants. The first AR incidence for Taiwanese preschool children, which increased with age, was 10.9% on average; boys appeared to have a higher percentage (14.2%) than girls (8.27%). Among the air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were significantly related to AR after adjusting for age and gender (p < 0.05). Because both pollutants are considered to be traffic emissions, this study suggests that traffic emissions in Taiwan need to be controlled to lower the prevalence of children’s AR. PMID:26927153
Justice, Laura M; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew
With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest differently based on children's status in reference to their peers. Peer effects were assessed for 338 children in 49 classrooms. A significant interaction between the language skills of children's classmates and children's fall language skills indicated that peer effects were strongest for children with low language skills who were in classrooms that served children with relatively low skill levels, on average. Findings further showed that reference status, or children's relative standing to their peers, has the greater consequence for children with very low language skills in relation to their peers.
Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea; Durbin, C Emily; Laptook, Rebecca; Torpey, Dana; Klein, Daniel N
Emotion knowledge in childhood has been shown to predict social functioning and psychological well-being, but relatively little is known about parental factors that influence its development in early childhood. There is some evidence that both parenting behavior and maternal depression are associated with emotion recognition, but previous research has only examined these factors independently. The current study assessed auditory and visual emotion recognition ability among a large sample of preschool children to examine typical emotion recognition skills in children of this age, as well as the independent and interactive effects of maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting (i.e., hostility and intrusiveness). Results indicated that children were most accurate at identifying happy emotional expressions. The lowest accuracy was observed for neutral expressions. A significant interaction was found between maternal depression and negative parenting behavior: children with a maternal history of depression were particularly sensitive to the negative effects of maladaptive parenting behavior on emotion recognition ability. No significant effects were found for paternal depression. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of multiple interacting factors on children's emotional development and provide suggestions for identifying children for targeted preventive interventions.
Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra
The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…
Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann
Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.
Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea; Durbin, C. Emily; Laptook, Rebecca; Torpey, Dana; Klein, Daniel N.
Emotion knowledge in childhood has been shown to predict social functioning and psychological well-being, but relatively little is known about parental factors that influence its development in early childhood. There is some evidence that both parenting behavior and maternal depression are associated with emotion recognition, but previous research has only examined these factors independently. The current study assessed auditory and visual emotion recognition ability among a large sample of preschool children to examine typical emotion recognition skills in children of this age, as well as the independent and interactive effects of maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting (i.e., hostility and intrusiveness). Results indicated that children were most accurate at identifying happy emotional expressions, followed by other basic emotions. The lowest accuracy was observed for neutral expressions. A significant interaction was found between maternal depression and negative parenting behavior, such that children with a maternal history of depression were particularly sensitive to the negative effects of maladaptive parenting behavior on emotion recognition ability. No significant effects were found for paternal depression. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of multiple interacting factors on children’s emotional development, and provide suggestions for identifying children for targeted preventive interventions. PMID:24444174
Vega, Juliana Bergamo; Poblacion, Ana Paula; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo
The rising consumption of sweetened beverages such as soft drinks or artificial juices is associated with the prevalence of obesity in Brazil and around the world. This study seeks to verify the frequency of consumption of these beverages among Brazilian children aged 24-59 months and to investigate the association of soft drinks with demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Using data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children - 2006, the eating habits were obtained using the food and drink frequency questionnaire for the seven days preceding the interview, and anthropometry recorded the weight and height of children. Among preschoolers, 37.3% consumed soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. The factors significantly associated with frequent consumption of soft drinks were living in regions of higher economic development of the country, in urban areas, belonging to the higher income bracket, with mothers watching TV regularly and excess weight of the child, were associated with consumption of soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. Further studies are needed to understand the effective contribution of soft drinks on the epidemic of childhood obesity.
Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.
Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…
Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E
Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P < 0.01). In multivariate analyses, independent predictors for shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age included oppositional defiant disorder at 3, 4 or 5 years (β = -359.25, 95% CI -633.84 to 84.66; P = 0.01), exposure to maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (β = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (β = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (β = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children.
Fernandez, Carmen; Kasper, Nicole M.; Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Julie C.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary variety and diversity are recommended in dietary guidelines, but their association with BMI in US preschool-aged children is unknown. This study examined predictors of dietary variety and diversity and their association with child BMI z score (BMIz). METHODS: Primary caregivers responded to a food frequency questionnaire. Child anthropometry was obtained concurrently (n = 340) and prospectively (n = 264). Dietary variety scores and dietary diversity scores were computed. Multivariable linear regression was used to model predictors of these scores and their association with BMIz concurrently and BMIz change per year prospectively. RESULTS: The sample was 49.4% boys; 69.4% of the primary caregivers were non-Hispanic white and 46.2% had a high school education or less. Girls and older children had greater Fruit and Vegetable Variety (gender: P = .03, age: P < .001), Healthy Foods Variety (P = .02, P < .001), and Dietary Diversity (P = .04, P = .03) scores. Older children also had greater scores for Overall Variety (P < .001) and Moderation Foods (eg, high-fat, high-sugar foods recommended to be consumed in moderation) (P < .001). Having a non-Hispanic white primary caregiver (versus not) was associated with lower Dietary Diversity (P = .01). Greater Healthy Variety, Overall Variety, and Dietary Diversity were associated with greater annual increases in BMIz prospectively (β[SE] = 0.009 [0.004], P = .04; β[SE] = 0.007 [0.003], P = .02; β[SE] = 0.003 [0.001], P = .02, respectively), adjusted for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Greater dietary variety and diversity were prospectively associated with higher BMIz. Targeting dietary variety and diversity as an obesity prevention strategy in children requires careful consideration. PMID:26908657
Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita
ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in
Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J
Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.
Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L.; Queirolo, Elena I.; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S.
While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13–42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations. PMID:25694786
Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L; Queirolo, Elena I; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S
While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13-42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations.
Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie
In the present study, 314 preschool classrooms and 606 children were observed to understand the behavioral exchanges between teachers and children. Teachers’ emotionally and organizationally supportive behaviors and children’s engagement were explored for longitudinal associations throughout a day. Observations were conducted in each classroom wherein emotional and organizational supports were assessed, followed by observations of two children’s positive engagement with teachers, tasks, and peers as well as negative classroom engagement. Cross-lagged autoregressive models were used to test for time-lagged associations which could be unidirectional or bidirectional. Results indicated teachers’ emotionally and organizationally supportive behaviors were related to later child engagement in seven of eight models. Furthermore, in two of those seven models, we found evidence of bidirectional associations whereby children’s engagement was associated with later teacher emotional and organizational supports. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding classroom processes over the course of a day in preschool. PMID:26722153
Wilder, David A.; Chen, Liyu; Atwell, Julie; Pritchard, Josh; Weinstein, Phillip
A brief functional analysis was used to examine the influence of termination of prechange activities and initiation of postchange activities on tantrums exhibited by 2 preschool children. For 1 participant, tantrums were maintained by access to certain (pretransition) activities. For a 2nd participant, tantrums were maintained by avoidance of…
Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Fussell, Jill J.
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preschool children's social outcomes in the classroom (including hyperactivity, aggression, and social skills) and their media viewing habits (including the amount of television they watch and whether they watch videos/movies that are rated as inappropriate for…
Byers, Anthony I.; Cameron, Claire E.; Ko, Michelle; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Grissmer, David W.
Research Findings: This study examined the contribution of several classroom experience measures (classroom characteristics, teacher characteristics, and teacher-child interactions) to preschoolers' improvement in visuomotor integration. Children (N = 467) ranged in age from 3 to 5 years old and were enrolled in 115 classrooms in 5 U.S. states.…
Riggs, Maida L., Ed.; And Others
This booklet explores why movement education is important for preschool children, what activities to include in a program, how and where to conduct a program, and criteria that can help to structure the program environment. The first section presents a rationale for the use of movement education for helping preschool children to develop…
Doucette, Margaret R.; Kurth, Salome; Chevalier, Nicolas; Munakata, Yuko; LeBourgeois, Monique K.
Cognitive development is influenced by maturational changes in processing speed, a construct reflecting the rapidity of executing cognitive operations. Although cognitive ability and processing speed are linked to spindles and sigma power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), little is known about such associations in early childhood, a time of major neuronal refinement. We calculated EEG power for slow (10–13 Hz) and fast (13.25–17 Hz) sigma power from all-night high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in a cross-sectional sample of healthy preschool children (n = 10, 4.3 ± 1.0 years). Processing speed was assessed as simple reaction time. On average, reaction time was 1409 ± 251 ms; slow sigma power was 4.0 ± 1.5 μV2; and fast sigma power was 0.9 ± 0.2 μV2. Both slow and fast sigma power predominated over central areas. Only slow sigma power was correlated with processing speed in a large parietal electrode cluster (p < 0.05, r ranging from −0.6 to −0.8), such that greater power predicted faster reaction time. Our findings indicate regional correlates between sigma power and processing speed that are specific to early childhood and provide novel insights into the neurobiological features of the EEG that may underlie developing cognitive abilities. PMID:26556377
Cornell, Amy H.; Frick, Paul J.
This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = 0.51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being…
Rahbari, Noriyeh; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Executive functions (EFs) and intelligence were examined concurrently and longitudinally in 126 preschool children. EF was assessed using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Children's intelligence was assessed using the Verbal and Performance subtests from…
Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H
Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.
Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda
Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…
Kuriakose, Sobha; Prasannan, Meenu; Remya, K. C.; Kurian, Joy; Sreejith, K. R.
Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a severe form of dental decay with multi-factorial origin. Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and related risk factors of ECC among preschool children residing in rural and urban areas of Trivandrum district in Kerala. Methods: A sample size of 1329 preschool children of <60 months of age was randomly selected from rural and urban areas of Trivandrum and decayed missing filled teeth indices were recorded. A standardized questionnaire was distributed to the parents. The data were subjected to SPSS version 16 and statistically analyzed with Chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of ECC in the study sample was found to be 54%. Furthermore, a positive association was obtained between ECC and age of the child, location of residence, dietary habits, and oral hygiene habits. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to implement preventive and curative oral health programs for preschool children in rural and urban areas. PMID:25684915
The purposes of this research are, first, to make visible, examine, and illuminate preschool teachers' perception of what children enrolled in preschools learn and how they learn it; and second, to highlight and illuminate what abilities preschool teachers perceive that children can develop during their stay at preschools. As a theoretical…
Doi, Yuriko; Ishihara, Kaneyoshi; Uchiyama, Makoto
The timing, duration, and intensity of sleep are determined by the interaction between a sleep-wake-dependent homeostatic process and a sleep-wake-independent, intrinsic, clock-like circadian process. Chronotype represents individual differences in diurnal preferences, which are not only genetically determined but also influenced by social and environmental factors. Thus, the discrepancy between biological and social clocks, so-called "social jetlag", occurs. Chronotype, social jetlag, and the links between chronotype and behavioral problems are well documented in adults and adolescents. However, such studies on young children are limited. We conducted a survey of sleep and health for preschool children attending kindergarten or childcare centers in Wako, Okayama and Kurashiki cities, Japan, between May and July 2012. A total of 654 children aged 4-6 years (342 boys and 312 girls, with an average age of 4.7 years) were assessed using the Children's ChronoType Questionnaire and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Morning (M)-type, neither (N)-type and evening (E)-type accounted for 36.2%, 54.0% and 9.8% of the participants, respectively. The weekday-to-weekend differences in midsleep time--originally proposed as the concept of social jetlag--were 11, 25 and 35 min for M-, N- and E-types, respectively. There was a negative correlation between chronotype and sleep period during weekdays (p < 0.001) and a positive correlation on weekends (p < 0.001). The weekday-to-weekend difference in sleep period was 0.5 h for E-types, whereas there was no difference for M-types. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the links between chronotype and behavioral problems, adjusted for participants' sex, age, childcare programs and locations. Chronotype was significantly associated with hyperactivity/inattention: N-type (adjusted OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.95, p < 0.05) and E-type (adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.18-5.20, p < 0.05). E-type was significantly
Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Scheeringa, Michael S.
Abstract Objective: The present study sought to replicate previous findings of an association between the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptomatology in a novel age group, preschool children. Methods: COMT genotype was determined in a sample of 171 3–6-year-old trauma-exposed children. PTSD was assessed with a semistructured interview. Accounting for sex, trauma type, and age, genotype was examined in relation to categorical and continuous measures of PTSD both controlling for race and within the two largest racial categories (African American [AA] and European American [EA]). Results: Race significantly moderated the association between genotype and PTSD. Specifically, the genotype associated with increased PTSD symptoms in one racial group had the opposite association in the other racial group. For AA children the met/met genotype was associated with more PTSD symptoms. However, for EA children, val allele carriers had more PTSD symptoms. Whereas every AA child with the met/met genotype met criteria for PTSD, none of the EA children with the met/met genotype did. This genetic association with COMT genotype, in both races but in opposite directions, was most associated with increased arousal symptoms. Conclusions: These findings replicate previous findings in participants of African descent, highlight the moderating effect of race on the association between COMT genotype and PTSD, and provide direct evidence that consideration of population stratification within gene-by-environment studies is valuable to prevent false negative findings. PMID:25329975
Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, G.V.; Singh, Sanjay
Background Developmental Defects of Enamel in the primary dentition may be associated and predictors of dental caries and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel and its Association with, Dental-Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children of Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods Multistage Sampling was done. A total of 302 pre-school (Rural and Urban) children were examined. Type III examination was conducted with WHO Probe. Developmental Enamel Defects (DED) and Dental Caries were assessed using WHO (1997) Proforma. Results The prevalence of DED of any type was 39.9% with that of demarcated opacities being the highest, followed by hypoplasia. The most frequently affected teeth were maxillary anterior teeth, while the least affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The mean dmft was 3.5. A positive association between DED and caries was observed. Association between Dental Caries & BMI was non-significant whereas Pearson correlation showed a negative correlation between the two. Conclusion The prevalence of enamel defects and caries was high, as the enamel defects were strongly associated with caries. PMID:26557622
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Miller, Portia
This ambitious monograph tackles several important questions related to children's preschool experiences that have relevance for program and policy initiatives at the state and federal levels. The authors' approach is rigorous: they conduct parallel analyses across eight large and diverse studies of preschool children in center care and use meta-analysis to summarize patterns across studies. The study finds nonlinear associations between preschool quality and gains in language and literacy skills, with larger associations in higher versus lower quality classrooms. Results also show that domain-specific measures of preschool quality were more strongly related to children's development than global quality measures. The "dosage" of preschool was likewise important: more years in Head Start predicted larger vocabulary and literacy gains, whereas more time spent on instruction predicted greater literacy and math skills growth. In this commentary, we situate these findings in the broader literature addressing links between preschool experiences and children's development and discuss key takeaways for research, practice, and policy.
Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W S; Keung, Vera
Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy food intake
Selvam, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Shetty, Priya; Thennarasu, K; Raman, Vijaya; Khanna, Deepti; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
Executive functions (EFs) are essential and important for achieving success in children's everyday lives and play a fundamental role in children's cognitive, academic, social, emotional and behavioral functioning. A cross-sectional study was carried out to develop age- and sex-specific norms for EFs using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) among 2- to 5-year-olds from urban Bangalore, India. In addition, the association between EFs and anthropometric measures, a marker of nutritional status, is also examined. Primary caregivers of 412 children, equally distributed by age and sex, participated. Raw scores for each domain and indices were converted to standard t-scores and percentiles were computed. A t-score at or above 63 corresponding to the 90th percentile was considered as the cutoff for executive dysfunction in this sample. The prevalence of executive dysfunction is 10% based on the Global Executive Composite score of the BRIEF-P. The cutoff score for identifying executive dysfunction using existing United States (US) norms is higher compared to the cutoff score obtained in the current study. Therefore, using US norms for Indian children could result in the prevalence of executive dysfunction been underestimated. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that stunted and underweight children have significantly elevated EF scores after adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES; p < .01). A greater understanding of EFs in preschool children is important for the early identification of executive dysfunction and implementing interventions to improve their future prospects. This study also shows that undernourished children are more likely to have executive dysfunction.
Lovasi, Gina S; Jacobson, Judith S; Quinn, James W; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Ashby-Thompson, Maxine N; Rundle, Andrew
Preventing sedentary behavior and adiposity in childhood has become a public health priority. We examined urban social and built environment characteristics as correlates of physical activity and anthropometry among 428 preschool children from low-income families in New York City. We measured the children's height, weight, skinfold thicknesses, physical activity by accelerometer, and covariates. We geocoded home and Head Start center addresses and estimated the following for an area within 0.5 km of those two locations using a detailed geographic database: neighborhood composition, walkability, crime and traffic safety, and aesthetic characteristics. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations of area characteristics with physical activity or adiposity, adjusted for characteristics of the child, mother, and home. Participants were 2-5 years old, 53% female, 83% Hispanic, and 43% either overweight or obese. Of the walkability indicators, land use mix was associated with physical activity (26 more activity counts/minute per standard deviation increase in mixed land use, p = 0.015) and subway stop density was associated with adiposity (1.2 mm smaller sums of skinfold thicknesses sum per standard deviation increase in subway stop density, p = 0.001). The pedestrian-auto injury rate, an indicator of traffic safety problems, was associated with physical activity and adiposity (16 fewer activity counts/minute, p = 0.033, and 1.0 mm greater skinfold thickness per standard deviation increase in pedestrian-auto injuries, p = 0.018). Children living in areas with more street trees were more physically active and those living in areas with more park access had smaller skinfolds. However, many of the tested associations were not statistically significant and some trends were not in the hypothesized direction. Efforts to enhance walkability, safety, and green spaces in the local environment may be relevant to physical activity and
The purpose of this study was to investigate how very young children can influence their daily life in preschool, in relation to teacher control. The specific questions studied were: What opportunities do the children have to make their own choices and take the initiative? How does teacher control manifest itself? What form do permanent…
Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun
The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production.
Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.
Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…
Bonotto, Danielle Veiga; Montes, Gisele Ristow; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Assunção, Luciana Reichert da Silva; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto
Eating behavior of parents exerts an influence on eating practices among their children, including the consumption of cariogenic products. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the snack limits established by parents/caregivers and the prevalence of untreated dental caries (UDC) among their children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 686 children aged four and five years enrolled at public schools in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, and their parents/caregivers. The children were examined for dental caries and visible plaque. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS). Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests and Poison regression analysis. The prevalence of UDC was 45.6%. The Snack Limits subscale of the PMAS was associated with a lower prevalence rate of UDC (PR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.72-0.96), independently of the other variables. UDC was also associated with a greater prevalence of visible plaque (PR: 1.29; 95%CI: 1.08-1.54), a lower tooth brushing frequency (PR: 1.46; 95%CI: 1.22-1.77) and greater age of the child (PR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.08-1.59). Snack limits established by parents/caregivers were associated to a lower prevalence rate of UDC among preschool children.
Sainato, Diane M.; Strain, Phillip S.
This issue of the newsletter focuses on early intervention for handicapped preschool children. The lead article, entitled "Promoting Independent Work Skills in Handicapped Preschool Children," highlights findings of a project designed to identify critical skills needed for independent functioning in mainstream preschool and kindergarten…
Swyden, K; Sisson, S B; Lora, K; Castle, S; Copeland, K A
The time children spend in childcare overlaps with daily meals and opportunities to be active. Thus these environments have the opportunity to promote-or hinder-healthy weight gain among children who attend them. The purpose of this narrative review was to compile findings from studies examining childcare type and weight outcomes among preschool-age children. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and ERIC. Inclusion criteria were infant- to 5-year-old children exposed to any type of childcare with a cross-sectional or longitudinal weight outcome. Among 385 studies screened, 18 were included. For comparison across studies, type of childcare was categorized as: childcare center, Head Start, nanny/babysitter, non-relative care/family childcare home and relative care. Four studies found no association with childcare type and obesity, and 10 studies reported mixed results by type of care or subpopulation analyses. Two studies found an overall positive association, and two reported an inverse association. There were differences in direction of associations and findings by type of care arrangement. For Head Start, three of eight studies demonstrated a negative relationship with obesity; none demonstrated a positive association. No other childcare type demonstrated this inverse association. Informal types of care (relative and non-relative care in a home) were positively associated with child obesity in 3 of 10 studies. This association was less commonly reported among formal childcare centers (2 of 15 studies). The majority of studies, however, reported mixed findings or no association by childcare type. Results suggested no consistent evidence for a relationship between childcare and obesity risk, except Head Start. This review exposed the need for a consistent definition of childcare type and the exploration of unmeasured confounders, such as the nutrition and physical activity environment of childcare settings, to understand how they contribute to
In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…
Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario
In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…
Orenstein, Walter A.; And Others
Despite the effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing disease, preschool children, particularly in the inner cities, are not being adequately immunized. Inadequate clinic staff and hours, inconvenient locations, prohibitive policies, and missed opportunities within the health care system may contribute to this problem. Suggests policy changes…
A new methodology for testing preschool children's comprehension of television is described and the results of the first experiment with this method are presented. Original program material was created by filming 30 second animated stories in color and transferring them to videotape for subsequent editing and addition of sound. Thirty-five…
HULETTE, ANNMARIE C.; FREYD, JENNIFER J.; PEARS, KATHERINE C.; KIM, HYOUN K.; FISHER, PHILIP A.; BECKER-BLEASE, KATHRYN A.
This study examines dissociation and posttraumatic symptomatology in a sample of maltreated preschool-age children in foster care. Analyses compared Child Behavior Checklist subscale scores for the foster care sample and a community sample, and also examined differences between maltreatment subtypes. Exposure to any type of maltreatment was associated with greater dissociation and posttraumatic symptomatology in this sample. Preschool-age children with documented sexual abuse displayed high levels of posttraumatic symptoms, whereas children with documented physical abuse tended to use dissociation as a primary coping mechanism. The finding that physically abused children had high levels of dissociation confirms previous research with preschoolers.
Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R
The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior.
Machado, Daniella Borges; Brizon, Valéria Silva Cândido; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Madureira, Davidson Fróis; Gomes, Viviane Elisângela; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the prevalence of anterior open bite among five-year-old Brazilian children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using data from the National Survey of Oral Health (SB Brazil 2010). The outcome variable was anterior open bite classified as present or absent. The independent variables were classified by individual, sociodemographic and clinical factors. Data were analyzed through bivariate and multivariate analysis using SPSS statistical software (version 18.0) with a 95% level of significance. RESULTS: The prevalence of anterior open bite was 12.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that preschool children living in Southern Brazil had an increased chance of 1.8 more times of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 1.16 - 3.02). Children identified with alterations in overjet had 14.6 times greater chances of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 8.98 - 24.03). CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between anterior open bite and the region of Brazil where the children lived, the presence of altered overjet and the prevalence of posterior crossbite. PMID:25715723
Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna
Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels <10.5g/dL. Older child age, hemoglobin <10.5g/dL, and putting fingers/toys in the mouth were associated with higher BPbs. Young maternal age, less education, father's job with potential risk of lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age.
Martin, Roy P.
This article reviews selected issues and techniques in interviewing, direct observation, rating scales, sociometry, and associative techniques as used in the context of preschool assessment. Special problems encountered in assessing the social and emotional functioning of preschool children are discussed. (Author/LMO)
Featherstone, Helen J.
This study investigated whether various kinds of preschool programs have differential cognitive effects on different kinds of children. Relevant literature was reviewed and data, generated in the first 2 years of the Head Start Planned Variations Study (PVS), were analyzed. The eight preschool programs associated with the PVS were considered.…
van Stralen, M M; te Velde, S J; van Nassau, F; Brug, J; Grammatikaki, E; Maes, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verbestel, V; Galcheva, S; Iotova, V; Koletzko, B V; von Kries, R; Bayer, O; Kulaga, Z; Serra-Majem, L; Sánchez-Villegas, A; Ribas-Barba, L; Manios, Y; Chinapaw, M J M
This study aimed to (i) gain insight in the prevalence of overweight indices in European preschoolers (4-7 years); (ii) identify energy balance-related behaviours associated with overweight/obesity; and (iii) identify children at risk for overweight/obesity. Secondary analyses of six European data sets were conducted according to standardized protocols. Based on objectively measured height and weight, prevalence of overweight and obesity across the countries ranged from 8% to 30% and 1% to 13%, respectively, with highest rates in Southern European countries (i.e. Spain and Greece). Positive associations between sedentary behaviours and overweight indices were found. Physical activity and dietary behaviours were not associated, possibly because of methodological limitations. Children of parents with high body mass index or low socioeconomic status were at increased risk of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, large differences in prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers across Europe were observed. Future obesity prevention interventions in preschoolers should target screen time giving specific attention to children from overweight and/or low socioeconomic status parents. There is a need for high methodological quality studies, preferably with a long-term prospective design using sensitive, valid and reliable measures of behaviours, assessing whether and which physical activity and dietary behaviours are associated with overweight in preschoolers.
Coulthard, Helen; Thakker, Dipti
Previous research has shown that parental reports of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity are associated with lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in children. This study aimed to pilot a behavioral observation measure of tactile play in young children. The primary aim of the study was to see whether children's enjoyment of tactile play was associated with higher F/V consumption, as well as lower food neophobia. Seventy 2- to 5-year-old children (37 males and 33 females) and their parents were recruited through children's centers in the Leicester region of the United Kingdom during July to October 2012. Children's engagement in two tactile play tasks using sticky foods (mashed potatoes and vegetarian gelatin) was observed and rated by both the researcher and parent. Parents were asked to complete a series of questionnaires measuring F/V consumption, food neophobia, and sensory processing. It was found that lower child food neophobia was significantly related to enjoyment of tactile play, whereas child F/V consumption was associated with parental F/V consumption, but not enjoyment of tactile play. The findings strengthen the idea that tactile processing may be associated with the acceptance of food variety, but not the total amount of F/V consumed. Additional research is indicated to determine whether tactile play tasks can be used to lower child food neophobia.
Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…
Gleason, T R; Sebanc, A M; Hartup, W W
The developmental significance of preschool children's imaginary companions was examined. Mothers of 78 children were interviewed about their children's social environments and imaginary companions (if their children had them). Results revealed differences between invisible companions and personified objects (e.g., stuffed animals or dolls) in terms of the pretend friends' stability and ubiquity, identity, and relationship with the child. Relationships with invisible companions were mostly described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Mothers reported that personification of objects frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy, whereas invisible friends were often viewed as fulfilling a need for a relationship. Compared to children without imaginary companions, children with imaginary companions were more likely to be firstborn and only children.
Kilday, Carolyn R.
This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…
Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Bowles, Ryan P.
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe children's science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children's science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year. Results showed…
Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane
Objectives The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the ‘obesogenic’ home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children. Methods Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096) completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI) when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts) and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables), activity (sum of 6 variables), media (sum of 5 variables), and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5) home environments. These were categorized into ‘obesogenic risk’ tertiles. Results Children in ‘higher-risk’ food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27–0.57) and vegetables (0.47; 0.34–0.64), and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16–5.62) and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10–5.81) than children in ‘lower-risk’ food environments. Children in ‘higher-risk’ activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32–0.59) than children in ‘lower-risk’ activity environments. Children in ‘higher-risk’ media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48–4.96) than children in ‘lower-risk’ media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI. Conclusions Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing
Hirao, Aya; Murata, Shin; Kubo, Atsuko; Hachiya, Mizuki; Mitsumaru, Nozomi; Asami, Toyoko
[Purpose] To determine and compare changes over time in the physical strength of male and female children aged 4–5 years by measuring physical functions such as occlusal forces. [Subjects and Methods] The occlusal force, weight, height, grip strength, standing long jump, ball throwing, timed up and go (TUG), and the 25-m run time were measured of 331 children to determine their physical strength. All the children understood and were capable of completing all tests. [Results] Occlusal force among male infants significantly correlated with all items except ball throwing. Stepwise multiple regression analysis independently associated occlusal force with grip strength. In contrast, occlusal force of female infants significantly correlated with all the tested items. Stepwise multiple regression analysis also independently associated occlusal force with grip strength and TUG in females. [Conclusion] Grip strength indicating upper-limb muscle strength correlated with occlusal forces in both male and female children, whereas TUG, balance and walking ability indicating muscle strength of the lower limbs, correlated with items relevant to everyday functions in female infants. These findings show that different factors are involved in the occlusal forces of male and female children. PMID:26834340
Ai, Yuexian; Zhao, Sophie R.; Zhou, Guoping; Ma, Xiaoyang; Liu, Jianghong
Background Despite the body of literature that links anemia with poorer cognition in children and the evidence that the severity of the effects of anemia on children’s cognition vary in different populations, few studies have investigated the effects of anemia on the cognitive development of Chinese children. Study Design This longitudinal cohort includes 171 children from a developing region of China. Hemoglobin and iron levels were taken when the children were 4 years old. At age 6, the children’s cognition was tested with Chinese WPPSI. Psychosocial information was also used in analyses. Results Results showed that the children who had low Hb levels had significantly lower scores in PIQ, but not VIQ. Although blood Fe levels were not shown to moderate the link between hemoglobin levels and IQ, we found children who performed the best on IQ tests exhibited low iron levels concurrent with high hemoglobin levels, whereas the group who performed the worst exhibited high iron but low hemoglobin levels. We also found that psychosocial adversity did not differ significantly between children who had normal or low hemoglobin levels, although the effect of hemoglobin on PIQ became only suggestive after controlling for psychosocial adversity, therefore the relationship is not causal but only a suggestive association. Conclusion Our findings are in agreement with literature on the negative effects of anemia on children’s cognition and point to the possibility that the portions of the brain associated with PIQ components are particularly affected by low Hb during crucial periods of development. PMID:22507306
Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Mutwiri, George Mutembei; Kopplow, Regine; Guha-Sapir, Debarati
Background: Stunting is a major public health problem in Africa and is associated with poor child survival and development. We investigate factors associated to child stunting in three Tanzanian regions. Methods: A cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling survey was conducted among children aged 6-59 months. The sample included 1360 children aged 6-23 months and 1904 children aged 24-59 months. Descriptive statistics and binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Our main results are: in the younger group, stunting was associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.17; confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-3.09), maternal absence (AOR: 1.93; CI: 1.21-3.07) and household diet diversity (AOR: 0.61; CI: 0.41-0.92). Among older children, stunting was associated with male sex (AOR: 1.28; CI: 1.00-1.64), age of 4 and 5 (AOR: 0.71; CI: 0.54-0.95; AOR: 0.60; CI: 0.44-0.83), access to improved water source (AOR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to a functioning water station (AOR: 0.63; CI: 0.40–0.98) and mother breastfeeding (AOR: 1.97; CI: 1.18-3.29). Conclusions: Interventions that increase household wealth and improve water and sanitation conditions should be implemented to reduce stunting. Family planning activities and programmes supporting mothers during pregnancy and lactation can positively affect both newborns and older siblings. PMID:27122480
Taylor, Caroline M; Northstone, Kate; Wernimont, Susan M; Emmett, Pauline M
It has been suggested that constipation may be associated with picky eating. Constipation is a common condition in childhood and a low intake of dietary fibre may be a risk factor. Differences in fibre intake between picky and non-picky children and its relation to stool consistency is currently not well-understood. Children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children identified as picky eaters (PE) were compared with non-picky eaters (NPE): (1) to determine dietary fibre intake at 38 months; (2) to investigate whether any difference in dietary fibre intake was predictive of usual stool hardness at 42 months. PE was identified from questionnaires at 24 and 38 months. Usual stool hardness was identified from a questionnaire at 42 months. Dietary intake was assessed at 38 months with a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fibre intake was lower in PE than NPE (mean difference -1.4 (95% CI -1.6, -1.2) g/day, p < 0.001). PE was strongly associated with dietary fibre intake (adjusted regression model; unstandardised B -1.44 (95% CI -1.62, -1.24) g/day, p < 0.001). PE had a lower percentage of fibre from vegetables compared with NPE (8.9% vs 15.7%, respectively, p < 0.001). There was an association between PE and usually having hard stools (adjusted multinomial model; OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07, 1.61; p = 0.010). This was attenuated when dietary fibre was included in the model, suggesting that fibre intake mediated the association (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94, 1.43, p = 0.180). Picky eating in 3-year-old children was associated with an increased prevalence of usually having hard stools. This association was mediated by low dietary fibre intake, particularly from vegetables, in PE. For children with PE, dietary advice aimed at increasing fibre intake may help avoid hard stools.
Healey, Dione M.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Many preschoolers are highly inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive; but only some are impaired in their functioning. Yet factors leading to functional impairment, above and beyond the severity of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, have not been systematically examined. This study examined a model suggesting that after controlling for…
Swanson, Arthur J.; Siegel, Lawrence J.
This study was designed as a partial replication and extension of the research on interpersonal problem solving in preschool children by Shure and Spivack. Fifteen well-adjusted and 14 impulsive children from Head Start Centers were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving test (PIPS) under either incentive or no incentive…
Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.
One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…
Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...
Examined the effect of playing background classical guitar music at nap time on alternate days to toddlers and preschool children attending a model preschool. Specifically assessed music's effect on nap-time sleep onset. Found that children fell asleep faster on the music days than on the nonmusic days. Toddlers fell asleep faster than did the…
Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G
Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.
Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…
Kertz, Sarah J; Belden, Andy C; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan
Although depression and anxiety are common in youth (Costello et al. 2003), factors that put children at risk for such symptoms are not well understood. The current study examined associations between early childhood cognitive control deficits and depression and anxiety over the course of development through school age. Participants were 188 children (at baseline M = 5.42 years, SD = 0.79 years) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed ratings of children's executive functioning at preschool age and measures of depression and anxiety severity over seven assessment waves (a period of approximately 7.5 years). Longitudinal multilevel linear models were used to examine the effect of attention shifting and inhibition deficits on depression and anxiety. Inhibition deficits at preschool were associated with significantly greater depression severity scores at each subsequent assessment wave (up until 7.5 years later). Inhibition deficits were associated with greater anxiety severity from 3.5 to 7.5 years later. Greater shifting deficits at preschool age were associated with greater depression severity up to 5.5 years later. Shifting deficits were also associated with significantly greater anxiety severity up to 3.5 years later. Importantly, these effects were significant even after accounting for the influence of other key predictors including assessment wave/time, gender, parental education, IQ, and symptom severity at preschool age, suggesting that effects are robust. Overall, findings indicate that cognitive control deficits are an early vulnerability factor for developing affective symptoms. Timely assessment and intervention may be beneficial as an early prevention strategy.
Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo
The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.
Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…
Differences in subjective and objective safety may be explained by moderators that shape parental perceptions of the environment. This study examined associations between subjective and objective measures of traffic and crime safety in preschool parents (N=240) and potential moderators. Community co...
The aim of the study was to examine critically the roles and pedaogogy of preschool teachers from the perspectives of five- to six-year-old children who had extensive experience of being full day preschool children from the age of two. The participants were 32 children in the oldest preschool group in two preschools in Reykjavik. Data was gathered…
Nikolaeva, S. N.
The system of ecological education of preschool children includes multiple interconnected blocks that cover all aspects of the ecological pedagogical process in a preschool institution: the content of the ecological education, the ways it is conducted (methods and technologies), and the organization and management of the process.
Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Guler, Tulin
The purpose of this study is to describe ideas of preschool children about sustainable development. Basic qualitative research was utilized and 36 preschool children enrolled in four different preschools in Ankara were included in the study. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data related to ideas of preschool children on three pillars…
Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth
Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.
Downer, Jason T.; Mendez, Julia L.
A developmental ecological model was used to identify child attributes, father characteristics, and familial factors associated with multidimensional father involvement with preschool children enrolled in Head Start. The relations between father involvement and children's school readiness were also investigated. Eighty-five African American…
Shamir-Essakow, Galia; Ungerer, Judy A.; Rapee, Ronald M.
This study examined the association between insecure attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety in an at risk sample of preschool children. The relationship between maternal anxiety and child anxiety was also assessed. Participants were 104 children aged 3-4 years who were assessed for behavioral inhibition and mother-child attachment (using…
Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika
The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…
Wijga, A; Smit, H; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, H; Boshuizen, H; Brunekreef, B
Background: Environment and lifestyle contribute to the development of asthma in children. Understanding the relevant factors in this relationship may provide methods of prevention. The role of diet in the development of asthma in pre-school children was investigated. Methods: Data from 2978 children participating in a prospective birth cohort study were used. Food frequency data were collected at the age of 2 years and related to asthma symptoms reported at the age of 3 years. Results: The prevalence of recent asthma at age 3 was lower in children who consumed (at age 2) full cream milk daily (3.4%) than in those who did not (5.6%) and in those who consumed butter daily (1.5%) than in those who did not (5.1%). The prevalence of recent wheeze was lower in children who consumed milk products daily (13.7%) than in those who did not (18.4%) and in children who consumed butter daily (7.7%) than in those who did not (15.4%). These effects remained in a logistic regression model including different foods and confounders (adjusted odds ratio (CI) for recent asthma: full cream milk daily v rarely 0.59 (0.40 to 0.88), butter daily v rarely 0.28 (0.09 to 0.88)). Daily consumption of brown bread was also associated with lower rates of asthma and wheeze, whereas no associations were observed with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, margarine, and fish. Conclusions: In pre-school children, frequent consumption of products containing milk fat is associated with a reduced risk of asthma symptoms. PMID:12832666
Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam
The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…
Antshel, Kevin M.; Nastasi, Robert
An aspect of metacognition, metamemory (knowledge and awareness of one's memory) was investigated across time in preschool children with ADHD (n = 31) and a sample of age, sex, socioeconomic and IQ-matched typically developing children (n = 31). Only children with stable ADHD diagnoses were included. Participants were assessed on a variety of…
Two studies explored the possibility of inducing conservation understanding in intellectually normal preschoolers and mildly mentally retarded children of comparable mental age. Retarded children, MA 3-10 to 5-0, received Verbal Rule instruction. Three- and 4-year-old children were given Verbal Rule training in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design…
Thios, Samuel J.; Foster, Sally B.
This study investigated the impact of a program called "New Friends: Mainstreaming Activities To Help Young Children Understand and Accept Individual Differences" in teaching preschool children about similarities, differences, and disabilities, and assessed its effectiveness in improving nondisabled children's attitudes toward, and…
Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471
Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI) and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years) and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Results We found a direct correlation (p < 0.001) between children's BMI z-score and their mothers' BMI, both in boys (Spearman rho = 0.26) and girls (rho = 0.30). A direct association was also found between children's BMI z-score with scores of the subscale "concern for child's weight" (Spearman rho = 0.26 in boys and rho = 0.37 in girls; p < 0.001) and "food restriction" (rho = 0.19 in boys and rho = 0.27 in girls; p < 0.001). A reverse significant association was found between children's BMI z-score with scores of "pressure to eat" (rho = -0.30 in boys and rho = -0.36 in girls; p < 0.001). Analyses of the combined categories of childhood obesity and/or maternal obesity showed an important influence of children's weight status on CFQ scores. Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children. PMID:20040107
Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J
Background Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that comorbidity plays in determining children’s outcomes. Method The preschool attention, executive function and motor skills of 112 children at family risk for dyslexia, 29 of whom also met criteria for language impairment, were assessed at ages 3 ½ and 4 ½. The performance of these children was compared to the performance of children with language impairment and typically developing controls. Results Weaknesses in attention, executive function and motor skills were associated with language impairment rather than family risk status. Individual differences in language and executive function are strongly related in the preschool period and preschool motor skills predicted unique variance (4%) in early reading skills over and above children’s language ability. Conclusion Comorbidity between developmental disorders can be observed in the preschool years: children with language impairment have significant and persistent weaknesses in motor skills and executive function compared to those without language impairment. Children’s early language and motor skills are predictors of children’s later reading skills. PMID:24117483
Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi
Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears were compared with 32 non-fearful controls. Fears were assessed using child and parental reports. Children viewed images depicting fantastic or real entities and situations, and were asked to report whether these were imaginary or could occur in real life. The results revealed that children with nighttime fears demonstrated more fantasy-reality confusion compared to their controls. These differences in fantasy-reality differentiation were more pronounced in younger children. Additional significant associations were found between fantasy-reality differentiation and age and specific characteristics of the stimuli. These preliminary findings, suggesting a developmental delay in fantasy-reality differentiation in children with nighttime fears, have significant theoretical and clinical implications.
Sandberg, Anette; Eriksson, Anette
The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyse and describe preschool staff's concepts of children's participation in everyday preschool life, as well as preschool staff's experiences and concepts of what characterises the children who participate. Furthermore, it addresses the conditions that preschool staff consider as crucial in…
Wilson, Geraldine S.; And Others
Disturbances of growth and behavior in children of heroin-addicted mothers was studied in 77 preschool children. Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. (Author/DLS)
Clements, Mari L; Martin, Sarah E; Randall, David W; Kane, Karen L
Interparental relationship conflict has consistently been linked to child adjustment problems, with children's perceptions of such conflict particularly predictive of their outcomes. Despite mounting evidence that preschool children can provide reliable and valid accounts of family functioning, little research has examined preschool children's perceptions of interparental conflict. The present study employed a multi-informant design for both reports of interparental conflict (preschool children and their mothers and fathers) and reports of child adjustment (preschool children, their mothers and fathers, and their preschool teachers). Children completed pictorial measures of interparental conflict and of self-esteem that paralleled questionnaires completed by adult respondents. For both child behavior problems and child self-esteem, preschool children's perceptions of interparental conflict predicted their adjustment. Preschool children's reports of interparental conflict were significantly associated with their self-esteem and with both parents' and teachers' reports of child behavior problems, and this association remained significant when controlling for parents' reports of interparental conflict. Further, the interaction between parents' reports and children's reports of interparental conflict added unique variance to the prediction of preschool teachers' reports of children's behavior problems.
DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.
The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the peer conflict strategies of preschool children are situated and therefore vary across different conflict situations. Hypothetical conflict interviews were administered through a series of puppet shows. Participants were 178 preschool children. Results indicate that preschool children's conflict…
Clark, E. Audrey; Simmons, Robert A.
The American Lung Association of Los Angeles County developed the SAFE-AT-HOME curriculum to teach preschool children home safety concepts through early childhood group experiences. This report evaluates the efficacy of the curriculum by testing 2 experimental and 2 control groups of children from 34 preschool classes on fire, water, foreign…
Gahwaji, Nahla M.
This paper presents findings of a case study that investigates the effects of using interactive teaching programs on literacy development for preschool children. The significant of this study comes from the lack of studies associated with using interactive teaching programs for preschool children in Saudi Arabia. Data are presented from analyzing…
There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1) that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2) that computer u...
Bernstein, Daniel M.; Loftus, Geoffrey R.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
We introduce computer-based methodologies for investigating object identification in 3- to 5-year-old children. In two experiments, preschool children and adults indicated when they could identify degraded pictures of common objects as those pictures either gradually improved or degraded in clarity. Clarity transformations were implemented in four…
Scofield, Jason; Miller, Andrea; Hartin, Travis
Two studies examined whether preschool children preferred to select a moving object over stationary objects when determining the referent of a novel word. In both studies three- and four-year-olds observed three novel objects, one moving object and two stationary objects. In Study 1, children (n=44) were asked to select the object that best…
Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...
Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.
We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…
In a study of behavior modification two Down's syndrome preschool children, the first a 5-year-old boy with autistic behavior patterns and the second a 4-year-old girl whose behavior problem was to reject other children, were examined. The first S was engaged in ball catching activities with a teacher with positive reinforcement (playing the S's…
This study considers the teaching of probabilities and statistics to a group of preschool children using traditional classroom activities and Internet games. It was clear from this study that children can show a high level of understanding of probabilities and statistics, and demonstrate high performance in probability games. The use of Internet…
Briefly reviews the literature on gifted education for young children, offers specific methods, and recommends guidelines for working with gifted children in the regular preschool setting. A sample social studies unit on animals and a sample science unit are included in the text. (Author/RH)
Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel
Forty-two right-handed preschool children listened to dichotic presentations of digit names and were told to report only the digit arriving at the designated ear. A significant right-ear superiority was found, demonstrating a left lateralization of verbal processing in children as young as three years of age. (Author/JMB)
Nisenboum, Jean M.; And Others
The study investigated the prevalence and associated problems of ankyloglossia, characterized by restricted movement of the tongue usually due to the adhesion of the tongue to the frenum, among a preschool Head Start population (N=1,440). Ss were screened for six primary characteristics of the condition and of the 78 children who exhibited the…
Moyeda, Iris Xóchitl Galicia; Gómez, Ixtlixóchitl Contreras; Flores, María Teresa Peña
In light of the correlation between musical and linguistic skills, a program of musical activities was designed to promote discrimination of rhythmic and melodic elements and the association of auditory stimuli with visual stimuli and motor activities. The effects of the program on the vocabulary of preschool children were evaluated and compared…
Hasunuma, Hideki; Sato, Tosiya; Iwata, Tsutomu; Kohno, Yoichi; Nitta, Hiroshi; Odajima, Hiroshi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Omori, Takashi; Ono, Masaji; Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki
Objectives There has been little study on the effect of traffic-related air pollution on the incidence and persistence of asthma in preschool children. We evaluated the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution with the incidence/persistence of asthma during the first 3 years of life using a population-based study. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in 1½-year-old children (n=63 266). A follow-up survey at 3 years of age (n=43 343) identified new-onset asthma cases (n=853) and persistence of asthma (n=214). In the prevalence/persistence study, the outdoor concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC) at home during the first 1½ years of life were estimated by a dispersion model. In the nested case–control study, which regarded incidence of asthma as cases, the personal exposure levels were estimated by dispersion model including time-activity pattern. Results There was no statistically significant association between the incidence of asthma between age 1½ and 3 years and personal exposure levels to NOx nor EC. However, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms (between 1½ and 3 years) was significantly associated with outdoor concentrations of NOx. ORs for the persistence of asthmatic symptoms were 6.02 (95% CI 1.51 to 23.92) for the comparison between the upper 5th and lower 25th centiles of NOx. Conclusions While no statistically significant association was observed for the incidence of asthma, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms in preschool children was significantly associated with traffic-related air pollution. This supports its importance as a risk factor in childhood airway disease. PMID:26916696
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.
Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…
Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Gambrell, Linda B.
Build a rich literature environment that will foster preschoolers' reading comprehension. Emphasizing the importance of children's literature in the preschool classroom, this book shows how to effectively read stories to young children and create a classroom literacy center. Teachers will be able to use literature to help preschoolers understand…
Grünzweil, Bettina; Haller, Michael
Nowadays, even very young children begin to use software applications - mostly playing games. Not surprisingly, both skills and abilities of preschool children differ not only from adults, but also from older children. In this paper, we analyzed preschool children in the kindergarten to show the most effective ways of interacting with an application. In contrast to related work, we mainly focus on how preschool children interact with applications using various interaction metaphors and devices.
Haun, Daniel B M; Tomasello, Michael
Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous public judgments right before them. A follow-up study with 18 groups of 4 children between 4;0 and 4;6 years of age revealed that children did not change their "real" judgment of the situation, but only their public expression of it. Preschool children are subject to peer pressure, indicating sensitivity to peers as a primary social reference group already during the preschool years.
Greenhill, Laurence L; Posner, Kelly; Vaughan, Brigette S; Kratochvil, Christopher J
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a childhood onset of symptoms and impairment. Although it is most frequently identified during elementary school years, epidemiologic data suggest that the onset of ADHD frequently occurs earlier, with presentation as young as 3 years of age. Early identification, however, allows consideration of appropriate interventions. Many data are available on safe and efficacious treatment options for school-aged children who have ADHD; however, little is known about the use of these modalities in preschoolers and, ultimately, the long-term effects of early treatment. Recognition of the preschool presentation of ADHD, appropriate differential diagnosis, and identification of comorbid conditions, and a developmental perspective on the course and potential outcomes of the disorder may guide treatment planning. Newly available data on the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial intervention for preschoolers who have ADHD may help clinicians make treatment decisions for these young children and their families.
Harrill, Inez; And Others
Preschool personnel have a responsibility to help children achieve and maintain nutritional well-being. Nutrition education in the preschool program is an effective means of establishing positive attitudes toward food. (BL)
Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. PMID:23286454
Gruen, Gerald E.; And Others
Preschoolers' responses to Piagetian moral judgment stories indicate that they respond differentially to good and bad intent (punishing the bad intentions but not responding to good or neutral intentions), but that only older children respond reliably and differentially to consequences. (RL)
Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene
At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of…
Harris, Sandra L., Ed.; Handleman, Jan S., Ed.
This book highlights 10 preschool education programs for children with autism, focusing on each program's structure and content, diagnosis and assessment, staffing and administration, curriculum, integration, use of aversive behavior modification techniques, family involvement, and outcomes. The book consists of 11 chapters, the first of which is…
Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.
This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…
Brown, William H.
Examines definitions, scope, and negative effects of child abuse and neglect. Recommends inclusive therapeutic preschool programs to address special needs of children with significant histories of child maltreatment. Identifies service coordination for families and integration of early education and related services as critical components of the…
Landry, Richard G.; Pardew, E. Michelle
This study investigated whether a self-concept enhancement program would effect significant change in the self-concepts of 4-year-old middle class preschoolers as compared with classmates not in the program. All participating children (N=52) were pre- and posttested using the Thomas Self-Concept Values Test and the Developmental Profile. The…
Starkweather, Elizabeth K.
The Starkweather Target Game is designed to measure preschool children's willingness to try difficult tasks independent of ability. The game consists of a box-shaped target which responds, when the target is hit by a rolled ball, somewhat like a jack-in-a-box. When the bull's eye is hit, the lid opens and a surprise picture appears. After being…
Watanabe, Etsuko; Lee, Jung Su; Mori, Katsumi; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi
Objectives The purpose of this study is (1) to identify obesity-related lifestyle behaviour patterns of diet, physical activity, sedentary and sleep behaviours in preschool children, (2) to examine the association between identified behaviour clusters and overweight/obesity and (3) to investigate differences in children's family environments according to clusters. Design setting and participants A cross-sectional study on 2114 preschool children aged 3–6 years who attended childcare facilities (24 nursery schools and 10 kindergartens) in Tsuruoka city, Japan in April 2003 was conducted. Main outcome measures Children's principal caregivers completed a questionnaire on children's lifestyle behaviours (dinner timing, outside playtime, screen time and night-time sleep duration), family environment (family members, maternal employment, mealtime regularity and parents' habitual exercise and screen time) and measurements of weight and height. Cluster analysis was performed using children's 4 lifestyle behaviours based on those non-missing values (n=1545). The χ2 tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) estimated cluster differences in overweight/obesity and family environments. Results 6 clusters were identified. Children's overweight/obesity varied across clusters (p=0.007). The cluster with the most screen time, shorter night-time sleep duration, average dinner timing and outside playtime had the highest overweight/obesity prevalence (15.1%), while the cluster with the least screen time, the longest sleep duration, the earliest dinner timing and average outside playtime had the lowest prevalence (4.0%). Family environments regarding mealtime regularity and both parents' screen time also significantly varied across clusters. The cluster having the highest overweight/obesity prevalence had the highest proportion of irregular mealtimes and the most screen time for both parents. Conclusions This study suggests that public health approaches to prevent children
Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.
Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…
Gleason, Tracy R.; Sebanc, Anne M.; Hartup, Willard W.
Interviewed mothers to examine the developmental significance of preschoolers' imaginary companions. Found that relationships with invisible companions were described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Object personification frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy; invisible friends were viewed…
Darrow, Catherine L.
The objective of this report is to review studies that report language and literacy outcomes associated with preschool curriculum-based interventions. Results from studies reporting on interventions targeting preschool children from low-income families were included regardless of the specific type of program. Although the majority of preschool…
Williford, Amanda P.; Vick Whittaker, Jessica E.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Downer, Jason T.
This study used an observational measure to examine how individual children's engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks was associated with gains in self-regulation. A sample of 341 preschoolers was observed, and direct assessments and teacher reports of self-regulation were obtained in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Research…
Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos
Abstract Objective: To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. Methods: 370 preschoolers, aged 4–6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6–90.9%), followed by light (4.6–7.6%), moderate (1.3–3.0%) and vigorous (0.5–2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.05–0.83) and the playground (OR 0.08, 95%CI 0.00–0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.00–0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77), the playground (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.14–6.96) and the recess (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. Conclusions: The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. PMID:26975560
Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.
Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…
Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Woodward, Mark; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin
BACKGROUND School programs can be effective in modifying knowledge, attitudes, and habits relevant to long-term risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles. As part of a long-term research strategy, we conducted an educational intervention in preschool facilities to assess changes in preschoolers’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits toward healthy eating and living an active lifestyle. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 14 preschool facilities in Bogotá, Colombia to a 5-month educational and playful intervention (7 preschool facilities) or to usual curriculum (7 preschool facilities). A total of 1216 children aged 3–5 years, 928 parents, and 120 teachers participated. A structured survey was used at baseline, at the end of the study, and 12 months later to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS Children in the intervention group showed a 10.9% increase in weighted score, compared with 5.3% in controls. The absolute adjusted difference was 3.90 units (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–6.16; P <.001). Among parents, the equivalent statistics were 8.9% and 3.1%, respectively (absolute difference 4.08 units; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.12; P <.001), and among teachers, 9.4% and 2.5%, respectively (absolute difference 5.36 units; 95% CI, −0.29–11.01; P = .06). In the intervened cohort 1 year after the intervention, children still showed a significant increase in weighted score (absolute difference of 6.38 units; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A preschool-based intervention aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to healthy diet and active lifestyle is feasible, efficacious, and sustainable in very young children. PMID:23062403
Dickinson, David K
Early childhood programs have long been known to be beneficial to children from low-income backgrounds, but recent studies have cast doubt on their ability to substantially increase the rate of children's academic achievement. This Review examines research on the role of language in later reading, describes home and classroom factors that foster early language growth, and reviews research on preschool interventions. It argues that one reason interventions are not having as great an impact as desired is because they fail to substantially change the capacity of teachers to support children's language and associated conceptual knowledge.
Anthony, Jason L; Williams, Jeffrey M; McDonald, Renee; Francis, David J
Phonological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological access to lexical storage play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPA) in 389 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of each PPA as separate from general cognitive ability and separate from each other. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) with mean structure demonstrated that older preschoolers have better developed latent PPA than younger preschoolers but that the structure of PPA is equivalent. RAN was found uniquely associated with letter knowledge and text discrimination in younger preschoolers, and PA was found uniquely associated with word reading skills in older preschoolers. Finally, general cognitive ability was only indirectly associated with emergent literacy via PPA. These results highlight the importance of PPA in the early literacy development of English-speaking preschool children.
Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla
Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.
Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima
Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data from national oral health survey (SB Brazil) carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors), as well as clinical examinations in children. Descriptive, bivariate and mutiple analyzes were performed, described in odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (OR/95%CI). Results: 7280 preschoolers were included. Of these, 1520 (21.1%) had dental pain in the last 6 months. The chance of the occurrence of dental pain was higher among those who used dental services (1.51/1.02–2.23), with tooth decay (3.08/2.08–4.56), that self-perceveid the need for dental treatment (3.96/2.48–6.34), whose parents reported dissatisfaction by children with their teeth and mouth (1.47/1.04–2.10) and those who reported impact of oral problems on quality of life (5.76/3.90–8.49). Conclusions: The prevalence of dental pain among Brazilian preschool children was relatively high, being associated with the use of dental services and the normative and subjective oral health status. PMID:26965074
Reunamo, Jyrki; Hakala, Liisa; Saros, Leila; Lehto, Satu; Kyhälä, Anna-Liisa; Valtonen, Juha
The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of physical activity (PA) in day care and preschool. The participants were 823 Finnish 1-7-year-old children from 50 day care centres and preschools. The research methods were systematic observation, evaluation of children's skills and interviews with children. Altogether 18,366 observations…
Introducing Preschool Children to Reading through Parent Involvement is a project funded by a New York State Education Department mini-grant. The major activity of the project is to inform parents of preschool children of the research findings and theories concerning reading to young children. Three newsletters are mailed each year to families…
Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi
Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…
Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.
To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…
Hamre, Bridget; Hatfield, Bridget; Pianta, Robert; Jamil, Faiza
This study evaluates a model for considering domain-general and domain-specific associations between teacher-child interactions and children's development, using a bifactor analytic strategy. Among a sample of 325 early childhood classrooms there was evidence for both general elements of teacher-child interaction (responsive teaching) and domain-specific elements related to positive management and routines and cognitive facilitation. Among a diverse population of 4-year-old children (n = 1,407) responsive teaching was modestly associated with development across social and cognitive domains, whereas positive management and routines was modestly associated with increases in inhibitory control and cognitive facilitation was associated with gains in early language and literacy skills. The conceptual and methodological contributions and challenges of this approach are discussed.
King, Elizabeth K.; Johnson, Amy V.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Wang, Yudan C.; Lower, Joanna K.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.
The current study examined associations among teachers' financial well-being, including teachers' wages and their perceptions of their ability to pay for basic expenses, and teachers' work time supports, including teachers' paid planning time, vacation days, and sick days, and children's positive emotional expressions and behaviors in preschool…
DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A
The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; Mage = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were intensively observed several times a week over 1 academic year. Social network analyses revealed that children selected peer interaction partners with similar levels of preschool competency and were influenced over time by their partners' levels of preschool competency. These effects held even after controlling for several child (e.g., sex and language) and family factors (e.g., financial strain and parent education). Implications for promoting preschool competency among Head Start children are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…
Vorkapic, Sanja Tatalovic; Loncaric, Darko
With the aim of measuring preschool children temperament, EASI temperament Survey has been applied. Preschool teachers (N = 192), all female, rated a total of N = 3275 children (1612 girls and 1639 boys) with mean age M 4.368 (SD = 1.482) within age range between 7 months and 7.7 years. Validation for the instrument was run. Factor analysis on…
Areljung, Sofie; Ottander, Christina; Due, Karin
This study explores if and how teachers combine practices of science and of preschool (children 1-5 years old) into preschool science practice. Views of knowing may differ between science practices, traditionally associated with masculinity and rationality, and preschool practices, traditionally associated with femininity and caring. Recognising this, we have chosen to focus on how teachers' talk constructs and relates to possible ways of gaining knowledge and reaching explanations of phenomena in preschool science. The analysis builds on two concept pairs often associated with gender as well as knowing: objective-subjective and logical-intuitive. The analysed material consists of 11 group interviews where preschool teachers talk about activities concerning science content. Our results show that several ways of knowing are possible in work with science content in preschool. These include ways of knowing more associated with subjectivity, such as `individual liking' and `whole-body perception', as well as more associated with objectivity, such as `noticing differences and similarities'. Furthermore, the results show that the teachers' talk moves readily between possibilities associated with femininity (subjective and intuitive) and masculinity (objective and logical). This indicates that the teachers in this study have found ways to handle science in preschool that goes against presumed tensions between science and preschool practices. The results contribute to more nuanced ways of describing and thinking about science in preschool and pave the way for further development of science education in early childhood education.
Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Labarque, Valery; Gubbels, Jessica; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet
Preschools offer two main opportunities, recess and physical education (PE), for preschool children to participate in physical activity (PA) and are considered a suitable institution for PA promotion given the large number of children enrolled. Although PE can have a meaningful effect on preschoolers' PA levels, preschool PE characteristics…
Klibanoff, Raquel S; Levine, Susan C; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Hedges, Larry V
This study examined the relation between the amount of mathematical input in the speech of preschool or day-care teachers and the growth of children's conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year. Three main findings emerged. First, there were marked individual differences in children's conventional mathematical knowledge by 4 years of age that were associated with socioeconomic status. Second, there were dramatic differences in the amount of math-related talk teachers provided. Third, and most important, the amount of teachers' math-related talk was significantly related to the growth of preschoolers' conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year but was unrelated to their math knowledge at the start of the school year.
Pate, Russell R.; O’Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.
BACKGROUND Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children’s physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. METHODS We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School) and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. RESULTS Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr), MVPA (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr) and total PA (15.4 vs. 13.0 min/hr) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 vs. 6.2 min/hr) and All Day (8.5 vs. 7.6 min/hr), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 vs. 7.0 min/hr; 8.1 vs. 6.7 min/hr; 16.1 vs. 13.6 min/hr, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children. PMID:25274171
Bennadi, Darshana; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Sibyl, S; Reddy, C.V.K.
Background: Oral healthcare for pre-school children is given due priority, as their oral health will determine the oral health status of future generations. Generally, the type, frequency and quantity of toothpaste used by children are based purely on parental preferences. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers of preschool children by using a questionnaire. Results: Sixty two percent (n=154) mothers started brushing their children’s teeth more than one year after eruption of their teeth. A majority of the mothers used adult toothpaste to brush their children’s teeth and supervised their children while brushing. Fiftytwo percent mothers were aware about presence of fluoride in tooth paste but its clinical significance. Half the mothers applied full length of tooth paste to their children’s brushes and most mothers made their children brush their teeth twice daily. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it appears that there is still much lack of awareness on the proper guidelines on the selection and usage of toothpastes in children. Dental professionals should use this knowledge to help and motivate parents to properly supervise and assist their children’s brushing, with the goal of reducing the potential risk of fluorosis. PMID:24783140
Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.; Hernandez, Lynell M.
The data of recent research studies have shown that by 3 years of age children show an awareness of dysfluency and that by at least the age of six, youngsters who stutter have a speech-associated attitude that is more negative than that of their peers. These findings led to the present study in which the KiddyCAT, a self-report measure, was used…
Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis
Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic…
Tang, J M; Altman, D S; Robertson, D C; O'Sullivan, D M; Douglass, J M; Tinanoff, N
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in a large group of preschool children, to determine the extent to which the children received dental treatment, to examine the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the prevalence of caries, and to compare these findings with those from previous studies of preschool populations in the United States. METHODS: Dental caries exams were performed on 5171 children ages 5 months through 4 years, and a parent or other caregiver was asked to complete a questionnaire giving information about the child and her or his household. The children were recruited from Head Start programs; Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition programs; health fairs; and day care centers in a representative sample of Arizona communities with populations of more than 1000 people. RESULTS: Of the 994 one-year-old children examined, 6.4% had caries, with a mean dmft (decayed, missing [extracted due to caries], and filled teeth) score of 0.18. Nearly 20% of the 2-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 0.70. Thirty-five percent of the 3-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 1.35, and 49% of the 4-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 2.36. Children whose caregivers fell into the lowest education category had a mean dmft score three times higher than those with caregivers in the highest education category. Children with caregivers in the lowest income category had a mean dmft score four times higher than those with caregivers in the highest category. Children younger than age 3 had little evidence of dental treatment, and most of the children with caries in each age group had no filled or extracted teeth. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that dental caries is highly prevalent in this preschool population, with little of the disease being treated. Timing of diagnostic examinations and prevention strategies for preschool children need to be reconsidered, especially for children identified as having a high risk of
Chemtob, Claude M.; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert
To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression,…
Andrusaityte, Sandra; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Kudzyte, Jolanta; Bernotiene, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between surrounding greenness levels and asthma among children, and to explore a possible change of this association by the distance of the residence to a city park. Design A nested case–control study. Setting Children aged 4−6 years residing at their current address since birth in Kaunas, Lithuania, whose mothers were recruited in 2007–2009 to the KANC newborns cohort study. Participants The participants were 1489 children whose parents in 2012–2013 filled in the questionnaires and agreed to participate in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures We estimated clinically diagnosed asthma risk factors. The surrounding greenness was measured as the average of the satellite-based Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within the buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m from each child's home address, and the distance to a city park was defined as the distance to the nearest city park. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to study the relationship between the greenness exposures and asthma adjusted for relevant covariates. Results An increase in the NDVI (>median) in buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m was associated with a slightly increased risk of asthma, while an IQR increase in NDVI-100 m statistically significantly increased the risk of asthma (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.85). The stratified analysis by surrounding greenness revealed indications of stronger associations for children with higher surrounding greenness (NDVI-100>median) and those living farther away from parks (>1000 m), compared to NDVI-100≤median and the distance to a city park >1000 m (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.87). Conclusions A higher level of the surrounding greenness was associated with a slightly increased relative risk of asthma in children. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the influence of city parks and neighbourhood greenness levels on asthma. PMID:27067890
Raishevich, Natoshia; Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.
In the current study, the Five Minute Speech Sample was used to assess the association between parent attitudes and children's behavioral inhibition in mothers of 120 behaviorally inhibited (BI) and 37 behaviorally uninhibited preschool-aged children. Mothers of BI children demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional over-involvement…
Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna
This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…
Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.
The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…
Ravid, Ruth; Sullivan-Temple, Kara
This paper describes three studies that evaluated the Marvelous Me-Preschool Edition curriculum, a 12-session program designed to enhance the self-concept of preschool children. The program is organized around 6 central themes: feelings, self-image, getting to know oneself, family friends, and community. Children participate in activities such as…
Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy
Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school…
Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong
The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…
The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…
Corsaro, William A.; Molinari, Luisa
What happens when children in creative, Reggio-like preschools go to a more traditional elementary school? In this book, William Corsaro and his Italian coauthor, Luisa Molinari, tell a complete and important story about the lives of children as they grow from young preschoolers to preadolescents in Modena, Italy. The authors both explore and…
Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.
Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…
Pankey, Janel Christine
Noting that reading aloud to preschool children significantly influences their reading development, this master's thesis examines the many benefits from reading aloud to preschoolers. The thesis reviews research indicating that when parents read aloud, they help their children learn vocabulary, complex sentence structure, and story structure.…
In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…
This paper outlines the practical aspects of a project aimed to offer access to numerate knowledge for preschool children by providing them with take-home numeracy kits. A Koori preschool in an urban regional area of New South Wales, Australia, was involved in the project. The centre catered for 18 four- and five-year-old children. The two main…
Muge, Oguzkaya Artan; Baykan, Zeynep; Artan, Cem
The infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis was investigated in 1,070 preschool children aged 5-7 years in Kayseri, Turkey by cellotape anal swab from May-September 2005. The children's parents were asked to complete questionnaires inquiring into the potential risk factors involved. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 5.1%. The infection rate among boys and girls was similar. The association between family size, household income/month, education level of the parents, employment status of the mother and enterobiasis were found to be significant.
Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline
Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity.
Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P; Mareschal, Denis
Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good abilities to access goals at the lowest level of the representational hierarchy. However, only 5-year-olds consistently aligned their response choices with goals at superordinate levels. These findings suggest that the ability to maintain top-down control and adjust behavioural responses according to goals at multiple levels of abstraction undergoes a marked improvement throughout the preschool period. Results are discussed in relation to current accounts of cognitive control and the monitoring of conflict in sequential action.
du Prel, Xianming; Krämer, Ursula; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Oppermann, Hanna; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich
Background Social inequalities in health exist globally and are a major public health concern. This study focus on a systematic investigation into the associations between health indicators, living conditions and parental educational level as indicator of the social status of 6-year-old children living in West and East Germany in the decade after re-unification. Explanations of observed associations between parental education and health indicators were examined. Methods All boys and girls entering elementary school and living in predefined areas of East and West Germany were invited to participate in a series of cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2000. Data of 28,888 German children with information on parental education were included in the analysis. Information about educational level of the parents, individual living conditions, symptoms and diagnoses of infectious diseases and allergies were taken from questionnaire. At the day of investigation, atopic eczema was diagnosed by dermatologists, blood was taken for the determination of allergen-specific immuno-globulin E, height and weight was measured and lung function tests were done in subgroups. Regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations between the health indicators and parental educational level as well as the child's living conditions. Gender, urban/rural residency and year of survey were used to control for confounding. Results Average response was 83% in East Germany and 71% in West Germany. Strong associations between health indicators and parental education were observed. Higher educated parents reported more diagnoses and symptoms than less educated. Children of higher educated parents were also more often sensitized against grass pollen or house dust mites, but had higher birth weights, lower airway resistance and were less overweight at the age of six. Furthermore, most of the health indicators were significantly associated with one or more living conditions such
Graziano, Paulo A; Ros, Rosmary; Haas, Sarah; Hart, Katie; Slavec, Janine; Waschbusch, Daniel; Garcia, Alexis
The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) can identify behaviors indicative of callous-unemotional (CU) traits among their peers. Participants for this study included 86 preschool children (69% boys; Mage = 5.07 years) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP who were attending a summer treatment camp. Data collected from the children, their peers, and the counselors who worked at the summer camp examined preschoolers' social preference, likability, and behaviors indicative of CU. Parents and preschool teachers also reported on children's CU traits and severity of behavioral impairment, as well as school readiness. Peer nominations of CU traits showed (a) excellent factor structure as evidenced by clear CU items (e.g., "don't feel bad when they do something wrong") versus more prosocial items ("share," "cooperate"); (b) moderate construct validity when compared to counselor reports of the CU factor as well as preschool teacher reported ratings of CU traits and severity of behavioral impairment; and (c) good utility as evidenced by associations with peer and counselor rated social preference, likability, and school readiness measures as rated by both parents and preschool teachers. These findings indicate that as early as preschool, children with EBP can identify peers who engage in behaviors indicative of CU traits, which have significant implications for children's social status and overall school readiness.
Rantanen, K; Timonen, S; Hagström, K; Hämäläinen, P; Eriksson, K; Nieminen, P
The aims of this study were to describe the social competence of 3- to 6-year-old children with epilepsy (n=26) compared with that of age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n=26). Social competence was assessed with the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised, and the Child Behavior Checklist. The results indicate that the children with epilepsy, especially with complicated epilepsy, had fewer age-appropriate social skills and more attention and behavior problems than the healthy children, as reported by parents. It is possible that the lack of age-appropriate social skills and the presence of attention problems predispose to behavioral problems. Also, epilepsy-related factors impaired the achievement of social competence. This study shows that the preschool children with complicated, early-onset epilepsy are at increased risk of difficulties in social competence.
Plenk, Agnes M.
The article discusses the comprehensive services offered emotionally disturbed preschool children by a voluntary social agency (the Childrens Center in Salt Lake City, Utah), focusing on activity group therapy, the major therapeutic tool used there. (Author/DLS)
Lindberg, L; Ek, A; Nyman, J; Marcus, C; Ulijaszek, S; Nowicka, P
While the influence of parental socioeconomic status (SES) on children's weight status is well known, the impact of other family-related aspects such as parental and grandparental social support is less understood. This study investigates the importance of parents' SES and social support (functional and structural) for weight status in a clinical sample of preschoolers 4-6 years old with obesity (n = 39, 56% girls; 73% of parents were overweight/obese, 50% were of non-Swedish origin). Linear regression analyses, simple and multiple, were performed on SES and social support with child BMI SDS (body mass index standard deviation score) as the dependent variable. The results show that parents' income and low emotional support from paternal grandparents were significantly associated with more severe obesity. The association between parental income and the child's BMI SDS was stronger among parents who had low emotional support from their own parents. In conclusion, grandparental social support may be protective against childhood obesity.
Kendrick, April; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Hudson, Carmen; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Horton, Charlotte
Preschool-age children (range: 2.5-5 years old) were videotaped while in the sandbox and the climbing apparatus areas of a preschool playground prior to (i.e. baseline) and after a teacher "zone defence" training. The zone defence involved teachers being assigned to specific playground areas to monitor safety and facilitate the children's play and…
Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Deković, Maja; Matthys, Walter
In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance were assessed three times in 18 months. Across time, poorer inhibition performance in young children was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and poorer working memory performance was associated with ADHD. Inhibition and working memory performance increased over time, especially in the early preschool period. The improvement of inhibition performance was more pronounced in the clinically diagnosed children compared to the TD children.
Baker, Courtney N; Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H
Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers. Hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to account for the nested data structure. Even after controlling for children's actual academic skill, older children, children with stronger social skills, and children with fewer inattentive symptoms were perceived to have stronger academic abilities. Contrary to hypotheses, preschoolers with more behavior problems were perceived by teachers to have significantly better pre-academic abilities than they actually had. Teachers' perceptions were not associated with child gender or child race/ethnicity. Although considerable variability was due to teacher-level characteristics, child characteristics explained 42% of the variability in teachers' perceptions about children's language and pre-literacy ability and 41% of the variability in teachers' perceptions about mathability. Notably, these perceptions appear to have important impacts over time. Controlling for child baseline academic skill and child characteristics, teacher perceptions early in the preschool year were significantly associated with child academic outcomes during the spring for both language and pre-literacy and math. Study implications with regard to the achievement gap are discussed.
Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.
This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…
Bander, L.K.; Morgan, K.J.; Zabik, M.E.
A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 ..mu..g and ranged from 15 ..mu..g to 234 ..mu..g. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children.
Bander, L K; Morgan, K J; Zabik, M E
A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 micrograms and ranged from 15 micrograms to 234 micrograms. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children. PMID:6602559
Williford, Amanda P; Shelton, Terri L
This article summarizes behavior management strategies for preschool children who are at high risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder that have found to be effective in improving child behavior. Both parent and teacher training programs are reviewed, as these have been backed by substantial research evidence. In addition, multimodal treatments that include some combination of parent training, teacher training, and social skills training are also reviewed. Interventions emphasize the need for a strong adult-child relationship combined with proactive behavior management strategies to improve child behavior.
Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.
Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788
Prakash, Prashanth; Subramaniam, Priya; Durgesh, B.H.; Konde, Sapna
Objectives: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a devastating form of dental decay with multi-factorial origin. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the prevalence and related risk factors of ECC in preschool children of urban Bangalore (India). Methods: A random sample of 1,500 children aged between 8 and 48 months were selected from various parts of urban Bangalore. The status of dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Information regarding oral hygiene practices, feeding habits, socio-economic status, birth weight, and educational status of the mother was obtained through a structured questionnaire given to mothers of preschool children. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 12. Results: The prevalence of ECC in preschool children was 27.5%, while the mean deft was 0.854. ECC increased significantly with age. Children whose mothers had no schooling and those who belonged to low socioeconomic group showed higher caries prevalence. A significant increase in caries prevalence was found in children accustomed to the practice of on-demand breast feeding and bottle feeding at night. Caries also increased significantly when snacks were consumed between meals. However, increased frequency of tooth-brushing, parental supervision, use of a baby toothbrush, and fluoridated dentifrice significantly decreased caries prevalence. Conclusion: ECC is a serious public health problem in this population and measures to increase awareness should be undertaken. The target candidates for oral health promotion programs should include mothers, general dentists, pediatricians, nurses, primary care health workers, care-takers at day-care centers and gynecologists. PMID:22509116
Ruberry, Erika J; Lengua, Liliana J; Crocker, Leanna Harris; Bruce, Jacqueline; Upshaw, Michaela B; Sommerville, Jessica A
This study aimed to specify the neural mechanisms underlying the link between low household income and diminished executive control in the preschool period. Specifically, we examined whether individual differences in the neural processes associated with executive attention and inhibitory control accounted for income differences observed in performance on a neuropsychological battery of executive control tasks. The study utilized a sample of preschool-aged children (N = 118) whose families represented the full range of income, with 32% of families at/near poverty, 32% lower income, and 36% middle to upper income. Children completed a neuropsychological battery of executive control tasks and then completed two computerized executive control tasks while EEG data were collected. We predicted that differences in the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of executive attention and inhibitory control would account for income differences observed on the executive control battery. Income and ERP measures were related to performance on the executive control battery. However, income was unrelated to ERP measures. The findings suggest that income differences observed in executive control during the preschool period might relate to processes other than executive attention and inhibitory control.
Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner
This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; M = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and spring of the preschool year, and classroom observations were conducted three times throughout the year. Multilevel models tested associations between classroom behaviors of teachers and students using the Classroom Observation in Preschool and the Teacher Observation in Preschool and gains children made in a CSR composite score (Dimensional Change Card Sort, Peg Tapping, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Copy Design, and Corsi Blocks) across the preschool year. After controlling for demographic covariates and children's pretest scores, both affective and cognitive classroom processes were associated with gains. More teacher behavior approving, less disapproving, and more positive emotional tone were associated with gains. The proportion of observed time teachers spent delivering instruction as well as the proportion of time children were involved with mathematics and literacy were also related to CSR gains, as was the quality of teacher instruction. Although exploratory, these results highlight the potential for modifications in classroom practices to aid in children's CSR development.
Bryant, L E; Budd, K S
We examined the effectiveness of Barton and Ascione 's (1979) package for training sharing in a classroom setting with six behaviorally handicapped preschool children, four of whom were also developmentally delayed. Individual responses in sharing and not sharing were examined. Training consisted of initial instructions, modeling, and behavioral rehearsal, followed by teacher prompts and praise regarding sharing directly in a classroom free play period. Introduction of training in a multiple-baseline design across three pairs of children resulted in substantial increases in sharing for five of the six children. Results for negative interactions were less clear but suggested that concomitant decreases occurred for the same five children. The response analysis indicated that (a) individual components of sharing (offers, requests, and acceptances ) all increased with training; (b) most children were more likely to initiate sharing through requests than through offers; (c) the proportion of sharing initiatives accepted by peers increased with training despite a much greater absolute number of initiatives; and (d) of the three negative behaviors (opposing play, taking without asking, and aggression) examined as incompatible with sharing, the most prevalent response was opposing other children's play. Individual differences in initial social repertoires and responsiveness to training were examined with respect to their implications for research and practice. Overall, the findings provide an encouraging indication of an intervention program for children with behavioral, social, and developmental handicaps. PMID:6725169
Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.
Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068
Greenberg, Selma; And Others
Report summarizes the activities of a team of researchers in seven pre-school centers on Long Island, between October 1967 and April 1968. Aim of the project was to find a normative base for the construction of a new curriculum for pre-school children, in particular for those labeled disadvantaged.'' (Authors/CB)
Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana
The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…
This paper reports upon the evaluation and implementation of a 30-item Likert-type rating scale for teachers to use in assessing children's behaviors within preschool classrooms. The Preschool Observation Scale (POS) was developed to evaluate programs of the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project, North Ryde, Australia. Items were constructed on the…
This study explores how various aspects of language competence are related to social focus among preschoolers. The study presented is based on video-recorded observation of 64 children, aged 11-61 months, during free play at their kindergarten. A measure of social focus in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed…
Shively, Joe E.; And Others
A total of 699 Appalachian families with preschool children were surveyed to gather information on the availability and use of television, radio and telephone in their homes. The survey was designed to assess the practicality of using television as one of the components of the Marketable Preschool Education (MPE) Program, an extension of the…
Ural, Ozana; Kanlikilicer, Pinar
To diagnose behavioral problems in preschool children, and to look for an appropriate solution, is vital to prevent the problem from becoming permanent and insoluble. Teachers, working in preschool education institutions, need some instruments to diagnose behavioral problems of their students in order to help them and their parents. In this study,…
Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong
(1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children's fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.
Gautam, Shalini; Bulley, Adam; von Hippel, William; Suddendorf, Thomas
Adults are capable of predicting their emotional reactions to possible future events. Nevertheless, they systematically overestimate the intensity of their future emotional reactions relative to how they feel when these events actually occur. The developmental origin of this "intensity bias" has not yet been examined. Two studies were conducted to test the intensity bias in preschool children. In the first study, 5-year-olds (N=30) predicted how they would feel if they won or lost various games. Comparisons with subsequent self-reported feelings indicated that participants overestimated how sad they would feel to lose the games but did not overestimate their happiness from winning. The second study replicated this effect in another sample of 5-year-olds (n=34) and also found evidence of an intensity bias in 4-year-olds (n=30). These findings provide the first evidence of a negative intensity bias in affective forecasting among young children.
Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Shirakawa, Shuichiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare sleep and skin temperature (Tsk) of preschool children with those of their mothers. The subjects included 18 pairs of preschool children and their mothers. The actigraphic measurement of sleep, Tsk, heart rate, bedroom climate, and the microclimate temperature and humidity (bed climate) were measured. Proximal and distal Tsk, the temperature gradient of distal and proximal Tsk (DPG), and bed climate temperature were significantly lower in the children. Approximately 70% of the children slept without bed covering. Heat dissipation during sleep in preschool children may primarily rely on the proximal Tsk. The lower Tsk than adults, and behavioral thermoregulation, may be important for sleep in preschoolers.
Gibson, N. A.; Ferguson, A. E.; Aitchison, T. C.; Paton, J. Y.
BACKGROUND--Previous studies have shown poor compliance with regular drug therapy in children and adults with asthma. In preschool children the parents supervise and are responsible for drug administration, but little is known of compliance in this group. In addition, there are few data on the patterns of drug use of inhaled prophylactic asthma therapy or of the relation between compliance and symptom control. A study was undertaken to address these issues with the hypothesis that parental supervision would result in good compliance. METHODS--The subjects were 29 asthmatic children aged 15 months to five years already established on inhaled prophylactic medication delivered through a large volume spacer. The prescribed drug regimens varied between subjects. This was an observational study using an electronic inhaler timer device to record the date and time of each actuation of the aerosol canister. Diary cards were used for parallel recording of symptoms and parentally reported compliance with a drug regimen. RESULTS--Variable and generally poor compliance was demonstrated with a median of 50% of study days with full compliance (subject range 0-94%) and an overall median of 77% of prescribed doses of therapy taken during the study period. No relation was found between frequency of prescribed regimen and good compliance. Day care was associated with poorer compliance. No relation between good compliance and low symptom scores was found. CONCLUSION--Compliance with inhaled prophylactic therapy is poor in preschool children with asthma whose medication is administered under parental supervision. Images PMID:8553301
Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Waters, Sara; Anders, Thomas F.
Objective: This study investigated the association between preschool children's sleep patterns measured by actigraphy and parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms. Many previous studies have reported sleep problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms. Methods: This study examined a cross-sectional sample of…
Research Findings: Preschools have many norms and rules children are supposed to follow. Among them, behavioral norms associated with mealtime are of great consequence because eating is an essential life function. The present study examined young Japanese children's understanding of hygiene norms and rules at mealtime from the standpoint of their…
Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C.; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner
This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; "M" = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and…
Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Smidts, Diana P.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Maassen, Gerard H.; Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter
The question whether executive function (EF) deficits in children are associated with conduct problems remains controversial. Although the origins of aggressive behavior are to be found in early childhood, findings from EF studies in preschool children with aggressive behavior are inconsistent. The current study aimed to investigate whether…
Tarullo, Amanda R; Mliner, Shanna; Gunnar, Megan R
Associations between behavioral inhibition and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, a stress-sensitive neuroendocrine system indexed by salivary cortisol, have varied widely across studies. In the current study, we examined the role of peer social experiences in moderating patterns of association between inhibition/risk-aversion and cortisol reactivity. As expected based on previous research, preschool children (N = 165, 78 boys, 87 girls, 3.0-5.0 years) had significantly different social experiences in their preschool classrooms depending on temperament. Highly inhibited/risk-averse children were less socially integrated, less dominant, and less involved in aggressive encounters than both average and highly exuberant/risk-seeking children, but they were no more likely to be peer rejected. Highly exuberant children were more dominant, exhibited anger more often, and had friendships characterized by higher conflict. Cortisol levels fell from fall to spring for average and highly exuberant children but not for highly inhibited children. Unexpectedly, for highly inhibited children, having friends and being more dominant and popular than other highly inhibited children was associated with increasing cortisol levels over the school year. In contrast, highly exuberant children who were less socially integrated than other highly exuberant children maintained higher cortisol levels. Results indicate that the types of social experiences that affect stress-responsive biological systems may differ markedly for highly inhibited and highly exuberant children.
Reports on a study of attention span and persevering behaviors of preschool children. Finds the Suzuki Method of violin instruction is associated with longer attention spans and more persevering behaviors than creative movement instruction or other preschool programs. Concludes that teachers prefer the Suzuki Method's approach to other forms of…
Searle, Amelia Kate; Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Baghurst, Peter A.
The aim of this prospective study was to identify preschool factors that are associated with children's classroom engagement during their 1st school year. The study was guided by a social-motivational process model that highlights the importance of parent-child and teacher-child relationships in promoting engagement. In preschool, parents and…
Shafiek, Hanaa; Evangelisti, Melania; Rabasco, Jole; Cecili, Manuela; Montesano, Marilisa; Barreto, Mario
The sleep clinical record (SCR) may be a valid method for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). This study aimed to evaluate whether there were differences in SCR depending on age and to identify the possible risk factors for OSA development. We enrolled children with sleep disordered breathing between 2013 and 2015, and divided them according to age into preschool- and school-age groups. All patients underwent SCR and polysomnography. OSA was detected in 81.1% and 83.6% of preschool- and school-age groups, respectively. Obesity, malocclusions, nasal septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent in school-age children (p<0.05); however, only tonsillar hypertrophy had significant hazard ratio (2.3) for OSA development. Saddle nose, nasal hypotonia, oral breathing and tonsillar hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent for development of OSA in preschoolers (p<0.03). The SCR score was significantly higher among preschool children than in school-age children (8.4±2.22 versus 7.9±2.6; p=0.044). Further, SCR score >6.5 had a sensitivity of 74% in predicting OSA in preschool children with positive predictive value of 86% (p=0.0001). Our study confirms the validity of the SCR as a screening tool for patient candidates for a PSG study for suspected OSA, in both school and preschool children. PMID:27730168
Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)
We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure of 257 preschool children and their adult caregivers in their everyday environments. Participants were recruited randomly from eligible homes and daycare centers within six North Carolina (NC) and six Ohio (OH) c...
Guthrie, H. A.; And Others
On the basis of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to recommend elimination of some of the demography, anthropometry, and biochemical indices commonly evaluated in nutritional surveys of U.S. preschool children. (DM)
Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...
Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena
Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…
McKinnon, Jennifer; And Others
To determine whether preschool education benefits middle-class elementary school children, a study was conducted which compared the social, motor, and academic progress of kindergarten and elementary school children who had attended a Montessori preschool, another kind of preschool, or no preschool. The sample was chosen according to age,…
Lo, Ming Jae
Introduction: We examined the nighttime sleep habits associated with insufficient sleep quantity and poor sleep quality among healthy preschool-aged Taiwanese children. Materials and Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional survey was a stratified random sample of 3 to 6-year-old preschool children from 19 cities and counties in Taiwan. A caregiver-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on preschooler sleep quantity (sleep duration and sleep latency) and sleep quality (sleep disturbances and disruption) and potentially related sleep habits. Results: Of the 1253 children for whom analysable survey data were collected (children's mean age: 5.03 ± 1.27 years), more than half (53.07%) engaged in bedtime television (TV)-viewing, 88.95% required a sleep reminder, 43.85% exhibited bedtime resistance, 93.6% engaged in co-sleeping (bed-sharing or room-sharing), and only 33.72% slept in a well darkened bedroom. Bedtime TV-viewing, co-sleeping, bedroom light exposure, and bedtime resistance were the primary predictors, without a bedtime TV-viewing habit was the strongest predictor analysed; it explained 15.2% and 19.9% of the variance in adequate sleep quantity and improved sleep quality in preschool children. Conclusion: Sleep loss and poor sleep quality in preschool children could be alleviated, at least partly, by curtailing bedtime TV-viewing, limiting light exposure during sleeping, and reducing bed-sharing habit.
Pauwels, J H; Van Bever, H P; Desager, K N; Willemen, M J; Creten, W L; Van Acker, K J; Vermeire, P A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of routine functional residual capacity (FRC) measurements in healthy preschool children aged 2.7-6.4 yrs. Furthermore, accuracy and reproducibility were investigated and normal values were collected. A mass-produced closed-circuit helium dilution device (rolling seal) was used. Selection of the 113 healthy children (from the 571 measured) was based on an extensive personal and family history questionnaire and on clinical examination before measurements were performed. With three successive attempts it was possible to achieve at least two reproducible measurements in 73% of the children (repeatability coefficient 95.3 mL). The main problems were leakage at the corner of the mouth and irregular breathing pattern. The mean time to perform a measurement was 113 s. Mean FRC was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 778 versus 739 mL for a body length of 110 cm (p<0.05). FRC correlated with height (H) (r=0.69), weight (W) (r=0.56), age (A) (r=0.62) and all three combined (r=0.70): FRC = -534.89 + 1.84 x W (kg) + 10.07 x H (cm) + 2.51 x A (months). When a power or exponential function was used to describe FRC as a function of height, the results were not superior to the linear regression (r=0.69): FRC (mL) = -766.2 + 13.8 x H (cm) (r=0.69) or FRC (L) = 0.620 x H (m)(2.03) (r=0.69) or FRC (mL)= 99.5 x e(0.018xH (cm)) (r=0.69). Among these, we recommend the power function because it will better fit broader height ranges. Reliable functional residual capacity measurements can be routinely performed in preschool children with a mass-produced device. Reference values were collected for children 95-125 cm in height.
Di Santo, Aurelia; Berman, Rachel
This article describes a research study that investigated three- and four-year-old Canadian preschool children's perceptions about starting kindergarten. Findings from 33 focus-group discussions suggest that children begin to formulate ideas about starting kindergarten prior to school entry. Children's responses were grouped according to three…
Zanchi, Paola; Zampini, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco; D'Odorico, Laura
The present study examines narrative competence and its relationships with syntactic and prosodic skills in preschool children. The narrative skills of 30 typically developing Italian children were assessed during their first year of kindergarten attendance (T1) and again one year later (T2). A picture book was used to elicit children's…
This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…
Diamond, Karen E.
This study first found that an adaptation of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children exhibited construct validity and test-retest reliability in assessing preschool children's sensitivity to age-related differences in peers' developmental abilities. Second, children with disabilities were viewed as less…
Field, Tiffany; And Others
Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…
Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna
This article aims to explore young children's (from one to three years old) perspectives of the role and pedagogy of educators in play in an Icelandic preschool. The intention is to explore the meaning that children put into involving educators in their play and whether the children experience educators' actions as a resource for their play. The…
Larsson, Kristin; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo Ag; Giovanoulis, Georgios; Bibi, Momina; Bottai, Matteo; Bergström, Anna; Berglund, Marika
Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier. The most abundant plasticizers in preschool dust were the phthalates di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with geometric mean levels of 450 and 266μg/g dust, respectively, and the non-phthalate plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) and diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH) found at 105 and 73μg/g dust, respectively. The levels of several substitute plasticizers were higher in newer preschools, whereas the levels of the strictly regulated phthalate di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were higher in older preschools. The presence of foam mattresses and PVC flooring in the sampling room were associated with higher levels of DiNP in dust. Children's exposure from preschool dust ingestion was below established health based reference values and the estimated exposure to different phthalates and BPA via preschool dust ingestion accounted for 2-27% of the total exposure. We found significantly lower urinary levels of BPA and metabolites of strictly regulated phthalates, but higher levels of DiNP metabolites, in urine from the children in this study compared to the children who provided urine samples fifteen years earlier.
Hughes, Cerian; Cline, Tony
This study evaluated the efficacy of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), an early years curriculum designed to improve children's social and emotional competence, and reduce problem behaviour. Fifty-seven children aged three to four years took part in the study over one academic year. The control group (Group 1) received…
Piovesan, Chaiana; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Agostini, Bernardo Antonio; Michel-Crosato, Edgard
The effect of contextual factors on dental care utilization was evaluated after adjustment for individual characteristics of Brazilian preschool children. This cross-sectional study assessed 639 preschool children aged 1 to 5 years from Santa Maria, a town in Rio Grande do Sul State, located in southern Brazil. Participants were randomly selected from children attending the National Children's Vaccination Day and 15 health centers were selected for this research. Visual examinations followed the ICDAS criteria. Parents answered a questionnaire about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Contextual influences on children's dental care utilization were obtained from two community-related variables: presence of dentists and presence of workers' associations in the neighborhood. Unadjusted and adjusted multilevel logistic regression models were used to describe the association between outcome and predictor variables. A prevalence of 21.6% was found for regular use of dental services. The unadjusted assessment of the associations of dental health care utilization with individual and contextual factors included children's ages, family income, parents' schooling, mothers' participation in their children's school activities, dental caries, and presence of workers' associations in the neighborhood as the main outcome covariates. Individual variables remained associated with the outcome after adding contextual variables in the model. In conclusion, individual and contextual variables were associated with dental health care utilization by preschool children.
Wagner, Shannon L; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E
Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3-5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child's daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness.
Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.
Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047
Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert
This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents’ support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (ages 2-5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia and did not vary by immigrants’ socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems as well as “child effects” and population diversity in developmental research. PMID:25938712
Herbert, Sharonne D; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P
The present study examined the role of early fathering in subsequent trajectories of social emotional and academic functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Participants were 128 preschool-aged children (73 boys, 55 girls) with behavior problems whose biological fathers took part in a longitudinal study. Children were 3 years of age at the beginning of the study and were assessed annually for 3 years. Early paternal depressive symptoms predicted many aspects of children's outcome 3 years later, including externalizing and internalizing problems, social skills deficits, and lower cognitive and academic functioning, and predicted changes in children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems across the preschool years. Paternal socioeconomic status (SES) also consistently predicted children's later functioning across these domains. Furthermore, self-reported paternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and laxness, as well as observed frequent commands were associated with later externalizing problems in children. Paternal depressive symptoms and laxness mediated the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and child functioning. Results suggest that aspects of early father functioning play an important role in the psychosocial, cognitive, and academic development of preschool-aged children with behavior problems.
Moreira, Teresa; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Sara; Lopes, Carla
The present study aims to describe dietary intake and dietary adequacy according to eating location in preschool children. A sub-sample of 2414 children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal), evaluated during the follow-up between 2009 and 2011, was included. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 d food diaries and four groups of children were defined according to the eating location: 'Home' ( ≥ 80% of meals at home), 'Other homes', 'Preschool' and 'Restaurants'. A dietary adequacy index was developed based on general recommendations for children; a higher score represents a better dietary adequacy. The comparison of nutrients and foods daily intake according to the eating location groups was performed by ANOVA and ANCOVA to adjust for potential confounders. Children classified in 'Preschool' group ate significantly more vegetables, fruit, bread and fish, and less meat, compared to children classified into the 'Home' group. Children classified in the 'Restaurants' group ate more cakes, salty snacks and fruit juices than children in 'Home' group; and less vegetables, dairy products and pasta/rice/potatoes. In 'Restaurants' children obtained the lowest mean score of the dietary adequacy index (15.5, 95% CI 14.8, 16.3) and in 'Preschool' children had the highest mean score (18.3, 95% CI 18.1, 18.4), corresponding to a better dietary adequacy. Preschools seem to have a relevant role in promoting the intake of healthy foods in preschool children. The consumption in restaurants/coffee shops seems to contribute to energy-dense food intake and reduced consumption of nutrient-dense foods.
Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake
We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood.
Baker, Courtney N.; Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.
Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers.…
Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability.
Stephen, Julia M.; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W.; Kodituwakku, Elizabeth L.; Romero, Lucinda; Peters, Amanda M.; Sharadamma, Nirupama Muniswamy; Caprihan, Arvind; Coffman, Brian A.
Background Both sensory and cognitive deficits have been associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol; however, very few studies have focused on sensory deficits in preschool aged children. Since sensory skills develop early, characterization of sensory deficits using novel imaging methods may reveal important neural markers of prenatal alcohol exposure. Materials and Methods Participants in this study were 10 children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and 15 healthy control children aged 3-6 years. All participants had normal hearing as determined by clinical screens. We measured their neurophysiological responses to auditory stimuli (1000 Hz, 72 dB tone) using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a multi-dipole spatio-temporal modeling technique (CSST – Ranken et al. 2002) to identify the location and timecourse of cortical activity in response to the auditory tones. The timing and amplitude of the left and right superior temporal gyrus sources associated with activation of left and right primary/secondary auditory cortices were compared across groups. Results There was a significant delay in M100 and M200 latencies for the FASD children relative to the HC children (p = 0.01), when including age as a covariate. The within-subjects effect of hemisphere was not significant. A comparable delay in M100 and M200 latencies was observed in children across the FASD subtypes. Discussion Auditory delay revealed by MEG in children with FASD may prove to be a useful neural marker of information processing difficulties in young children with prenatal alcohol exposure. The fact that delayed auditory responses were observed across the FASD spectrum suggests that it may be a sensitive measure of alcohol-induced brain damage. Therefore, this measure in conjunction with other clinical tools may prove useful for early identification of alcohol affected children, particularly those without dysmorphia. PMID:22458372
Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A.; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela
Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child’s recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50–74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33–3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children. PMID:27258306
Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela
Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child's recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50-74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33-3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children.
Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry
Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated <1% were at risk for deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.
Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi
Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…
This article highlights the parent-teacher conferences in the Swedish preschool and the talk about children's inappropriate and undesirable behaviour in a preschool setting. The focus of the article concerns how teachers talk about children's resistance to the social order in preschool and especially how children show resistance to teachers. The…
Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats
Preschool teachers share their environment with young children on a daily basis and interventions promoting social competence are generally carried out in the preschool setting. The aim was to find out if and how preschool teachers' definitions of social competence are related to factors in the preschool environment like: a) the number of children…
Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette
The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in Urie…
Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P
The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (p<.05). The choice of tool for assessment of attention is discussed in relation to outdoor stay and play characteristics in Swedish preschool settings. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools as OPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.
Caiman, Cecilia; Lundegård, Iann
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in pre-school children's meaning-making and learning in education for sustainability. Young children should be recognized as "agents for change" and active participants in their own day-to-day practices. Such issues are thoroughly discussed in the early childhood education for…
STEWART, LUCILLE M.
THE AIM OF AN EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN WAS TO PREPARE THEM FOR REGULAR KINDERGARTEN CLASSES. ACTIVITIES AND EXPERIENCES WERE PROVIDED WHICH HELPED THE CHILDREN EXPRESS THEMSELVES VERBALLY AND BECOME AWARE OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT. THE BUDGET FOR A 6-WEEK PROGRAM, INCLUDING STAFF, PROGRAM SUPPLIES, AND…
Tsiakara, Angeliki; Digelidis, Nikolaos M.
The aim of this study was to develop a direct observational system in order to assess competitive behaviours in preschool children. Participants were 176 children (90 boys, 86 girls; M[subscript age]?=?5.2 years) from 10 kindergarten classes of one town of Central Greece. A new observational system (Observational System Assessing Competition in…
Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee
Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…
The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...
Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz
This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…
Wong, Kit-mei Betty
This paper reports part of a phenomenographic inquiry into arts education in early childhood. Research studies into how young children understand and conceive their early arts experiences are limited. In documenting children's views, this study contributes to an understanding of arts education in a preschool context, and raises possibilities for…
Davidson, Christina; Danby, Susan J.; Given, Lisa M.; Thorpe, Karen J.
Current perspectives on young children's use of digital technology suggest that preschool teachers need to provide more effective guidance for children. There is still little research, however, to inform how guidance might be understood and practiced during interactions with digital technology. This article employs an ethnomethodological…
Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael
Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…
Marjanovic Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska; Bajc, Katja
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence and parents' education. The sample included 219 children from 68 to 83 months old attending the first year of primary school, differentiated by whether or not they had attended…
Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma
The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…
Curby, Timothy W.; Brock, Laura L.
This study examined teachers' emotional support in classrooms and how it relates to children's outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Findings suggest that more consistent emotional support was related to better academic and social outcomes, emphasizing the potentially important role of consistency in children's school experiences. [This research…
This unit of the Flexible Learning System (FLS) is designed to help teachers analyzing the effects of classroom situations on the self-concepts of children in preschool through third grade. Among the questions addressed are: What is a healthy self-concept; How do teaching practices affect children's self-concepts; and When are situations…
Ilhan Ildiz,Gökçen; Ahmetoglu, Emine
The goal of this study is to study factors that influence attachment status of preschool children. Type of the study is relational screening and its sample comprise 78 typically developing children between 60-77 months who attend a Kindergarten affiliated to the Directorate of National Education in Süleymanpasa district of Tekirdag province. The…
Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…
Gulla, Kari; Fenheim, Gred Eva; Myhre, Arne K.; Lydersen, Stian
Objective: An anogenital examination is usually part of the standard medical assessment in children evaluated for suspected sexual abuse, and the emotional impact on the child has been studied. The primary aim of this study was to assess non-abused preschool children's responses to an anogenital examination. Method: One hundred and fifty-eight…
Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.
In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…
Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald
This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…
Nyland, Berenice; Nyland, Chris; Yan, Zhang
Chinese children with an urban household registration ("hukou") normally attend subsidized preschools for three years prior to primary school. This is an experience available to relatively few of China's many millions of migrant children whose families are registered as rural residents but choose to migrate to urban areas. This paper…
Cassidy, Jane W.; Geringer, John M.
Investigates the effects of audiovisual media on preschool children's attitudes toward music presentations from "The Lion King" and "Fantasia." Finds that the listening times for music-plus-video presentations of both selections were longer and a majority of the children expressed a preference for "The Lion King" over "Fantasia." (CMK)
Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.
This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…
Alwitt, Linda F.; And Others
Examines the relationship of preschool children's visual attention to the presence of 37 visual and auditory attributes of television programs. Attributes included the use of puppets, women, and children, auditory changes, peculiar voices, movement, cuts, sound effects, laughter, applause, adult male voices, extended zooms and pans, eye contact,…
Mokeyeva, Ekaterina V.; Andreeva, Irina N.
The urgency of the current research devoted to civic and patriotic education of pre-school children is determined by the contradiction between the necessity of civic-patriotic education of children in the current context, their readiness to defend their Motherland and the lack of the development of this issue both in pedagogical theory and…
Daly, Laura A.; Perez, Linda M.
This article examines the play behavior of 70 preschool children and its relationship to television violence and regulatory status. Linear regression analysis showed that violent program content and poor self-regulation were independently and significantly associated with overall and physical aggression. Advanced maternal age and child age and…
Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie
Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…
Camodeca, Marina; Coppola, Gabrielle
The present study examined whether bullying, defending, and outsider behaviors in preschool children were associated with two conscience aspects (empathic concern and internalization of rules) and with emotion understanding. We also investigated whether emotion understanding moderated the relationship between these dimensions and bullying roles.…
Robertson, Natalie; Ohi, Sarah
Speech and language disorders impede young children's abilities to communicate and are often associated with a number of behavioural problems arising in the preschool classroom. This paper reports a small-scale study that investigated 23 Australian educators' and 7 Speech Pathologists' experiences in working with three to five year old children…
We tested whether three sedentary activities were associated with obesity and adiposity in U.S. preschool children: 1) watching >2 hours/day of TV/videos, 2) computer use, and 3) >2 hours/day of media use (TV/videos and computer use). We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representat...
Yamamoto, Yoko; Holloway, Susan D.; Suzuki, Sawako
Studies conducted in the US consistently demonstrate that parenting self-efficacy and construction of the parent role are critical elements associated with parents' involvement in their children's elementary school education. Less is known about the dynamics of parent involvement during the preschool period, or in nations outside the US. This…
Svestka, Sherlie S.
This digest compares the efforts of the United States and of other member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to finance center- and facility-based preschool. In many OECD countries, public preschool is more widely available than in the United States. For example, in France, 100%, and in Italy,…
The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of topics featured in illustrated storybooks that address preschool children. The sample of the current study included a total of 1,050 illustrated storybooks published in Turkish between 1980 and 2013. Books for pre-school children that incorporated the components of setting, attempt, and…
Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong
(1) Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3) Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior. PMID:27649215
Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel
Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children.
Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M. Joao C. A.; Pate, Russell R.
In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system--the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed…
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Costa, Hiwet Mariam
Many factors influence children's performance in mathematical achievement, including both domain-specific and domain-general factors. This study aimed to verify and compare the effects of two types of training on early numerical skills. One type of training focused on the enhancement of working memory, a domain-general precursor, while the other focused on the enhancement of early numeracy, a domain-specific precursor. The participants were 48 five-year-old preschool children. Both the working memory and early numeracy training programs were implemented for 5 weeks. The results showed that the early numeracy intervention specifically improved early numeracy abilities in preschool children, whereas working memory intervention improved not only working memory abilities but also early numeracy abilities. These findings stress the importance of performing activities designed to train working memory abilities, in addition to activities aimed to enhance more specific skills, in the early prevention of learning difficulties during preschool years.
Lang, Sarah N.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Hur, Eunhye
Background: Young children's social and emotional competence is a key predictor of their current and future academic and social success. Although preschool teachers are critical socializing agent of children's social and emotional development, we know little about factors associated with preschool teachers' social and emotional responsiveness.…
Curtis, Carmen E.; Luby, Joan L.
Objective To investigate the relations between depressive symptoms, social behavior, and chronic medical illness in preschool children. Study design Caregivers of 273 preschool children (3.0 to 5.2 years of age) completed questionnaires regarding preschoolers’ physical health, depressive symptoms, and social behavior. Interviewers determined ratings for preschoolers’ impairment in social and behavioral functioning. Analyses examined the relationships between chronic medical conditions, depressive symptoms, peer acceptance/rejection, and social behavior. Results Chronic illness was significantly associated with early-onset depressive symptoms and impairment in several social functioning domains, even after accounting for socioeconomic status. Regression analyses demonstrated that the number of health conditions predicted higher depression scores, frequency of asocial behaviors, and impairment in daycare role cooperation and behavior towards others. Preschoolers with at least one medical condition experienced a greater frequency of peer rejection and bullying compared with healthy peers. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between illness and asocial behavior. Conclusions There is a need for greater attention to depression and difficulties in social functioning in preschool children with chronic illness. Given the potential impact on later developmental and mental health outcomes, primary care physicians should now be attentive to depressive symptoms in chronically ill preschoolers. PMID:18534206
Siska, Heather Smith
The intent of this manual is to present health and safety standards and procedures for the special environment of cooperative preschools, where both teacher-supervisors and parents are present and responsible for the well-being of the children. After a brief discussion about meeting environmental standards, child health is investigated in terms of…
Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan J.; Spence, Susan H.
The purpose of this study was to test the validity and factorial structure of a modified version of the Preschool Anxiety Scale (Spence, Rapee, McDonald, & Ingram, 2001). The measure was completed by 764 mothers and 418 fathers of children aged 3 to 5 years. After removing, two items tapping obsessive compulsive symptoms, confirmatory factor…
Jones, Jacquelyn O.
One of 10 documents developed for preschool programs for handicapped children, the manual presents classroom directed home training activities. The activities are based on such principles as the effectiveness of home instruction by a parent and the need for a parent to feel responsibility for the child's learning. Intended to provide teachers of…
Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.
In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…
Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.
Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…
All schools in Hong Kong were closed in April 2003 to prevent the spread of SARS. This paper considers the influence of the SARS epidemic on children's routines and behaviour when preschools re-opened, after a six-week closure. Observations were made in 20 kindergartens and principals of another 10 kindergartens completed questionnaires. The…
Wimpory, Dawn C; Hobson, R Peter; Nash, Susan
We studied the association between an adult's behavior and episodes of social engagement (ESEs) in young children with autism during play-based assessment. ESEs were defined as events in which a child looked toward the adult's face and simultaneously showed an additional form of communicative behavior. The adult's behavior before each ESE, and before time-sampled control periods, was rated using Coding Active Sociability in Preschoolers with Autism (CASPA). As predicted, adult musical/motoric activity, communications that followed the child's focus of attention, scaffolding through social routines, imitations of the child, and adult repetitions were significantly more prevalent before ESEs, but cognitive assessment activities, adult inactivity, and "ignoring" were significantly less prevalent. We consider the implications for understanding the developmental psychopathology of autism.
Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue
With the development of network technology, more and more data are transmitted over the network and privacy issues have become a research focus. In this paper, we study the privacy in health data collection of preschool children and present a new identity-based encryption protocol for privacy protection. The background of the protocol is as follows. A physical examination for preschool children is needed every year out of consideration for the children's health. After the examination, data are transmitted through the Internet to the education authorities for analysis. In the process of data collection, it is unnecessary for the education authorities to know the identities of the children. Based on this, we designed a privacy-preserving protocol, which delinks the children's identities from the examination data. Thus, the privacy of the children is preserved during data collection. We present the protocol in detail and prove the correctness of the protocol. PMID:24285984
Guan, Shaopeng; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue
With the development of network technology, more and more data are transmitted over the network and privacy issues have become a research focus. In this paper, we study the privacy in health data collection of preschool children and present a new identity-based encryption protocol for privacy protection. The background of the protocol is as follows. A physical examination for preschool children is needed every year out of consideration for the children's health. After the examination, data are transmitted through the Internet to the education authorities for analysis. In the process of data collection, it is unnecessary for the education authorities to know the identities of the children. Based on this, we designed a privacy-preserving protocol, which delinks the children's identities from the examination data. Thus, the privacy of the children is preserved during data collection. We present the protocol in detail and prove the correctness of the protocol.
Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chou, Willy; Yang, Shu-Han; Kung, Sheng-Chun; Lee, Ya-Chen; Tung, Li-Chen
Purpose This study aimed to establish 1) whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ]) and 2) whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence. Methods Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD]), VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD), and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD). Results The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05) and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05). Motor competence was significantly worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01) were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that 1) IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2) IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than
Dobbs, Jennifer; Arnold, David H.
The relationships between preschool children and their teachers are an important component of the quality of the preschool experience. This study used attribution theory as a framework to better understand these relationships, examining the connection between teachers’ perceptions of children's behavior and teachers’ behavior toward those children. One hundred seven preschool children and 24 preschool teachers participated in this study. Two teachers reported on each child's behavior using the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Commands and praise directed toward children by the teachers in the study were coded from classroom videotapes. Teachers gave more commands to children they perceived as having greater general behavior problems, even after controlling for the shared variance in the other classroom teacher's report of the child's behavior. Implications for school psychologists, teachers, and researchers are discussed. PMID:20431714
Kapil, U; Bali, P
Nutritional status of 486 preschool children residing in urban slums was assessed by making domiciliary visits. The overall prevalence of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was found to be 81.8%, while 31.8, 44.1, 5.7 and 0.2% of children had Grades I, II, III and IV PEM, respectively. Age, sex and education had a significant association with PEM.
Diener, Marissa L.; Wright, Cheryl; Brehl, Beverly; Black, Tyler
This study examines the correlates of creative potential in preschool children, with a focus on children's social behavior. Ninety-four preschool-aged children, their mothers, and teachers participated in the study. Mothers completed a questionnaire measure of children's shyness, and teachers reported on children's levels of shyness, prosocial…
Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva
In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…
Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.
Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…
Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan
Background: Little is known about how parents and other caregivers conceptualize preschool quality, or what factors they prioritize when selecting a preschool. Caregivers of children with disabilities have the additional challenge of finding a preschool that can address their children's special needs. Objective: We explored the factors caregivers…
The purpose of this study was to examine, through in-class observations, the messages preschool teachers use against children's undesirable behaviors, in order to warn the children and remove negative behaviors. The study group consisted of six preschool teachers. The messages used by preschool teachers against undesirable behaviors of children…
Wang, Feihong; Christ, Sharon L.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Cox, Martha J.
Using data from the longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1364), this study examined the association between mothers' sensitivity and children's externalizing behavior from preschool to preadolescence. Externalizing behavior declined on average across this period with a slowing of this decline around middle…
Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea
This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…
Pellegrini, A. D.; Greene, Helen
The extent to which free play versus sequenced questioning conditions facilitates preschoolers' associative fluency was investigated in this study. Twenty-four children (12 boys and 12 girls, with a mean age of 50.7 months) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: free play, sequenced questioning, and control. In the sequenced…
Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Williford, Amanda P.
The present study investigated teachers' and teacher aides' (TAs) agreement in their ratings of preschoolers' externalizing behavior and their associations with observed classroom behavior for a sample of children at risk of developing a disruptive behavior disorder. One hundred twenty-two teachers rated 360 students' externalizing behavior in the…
Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I
The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.
Ferrell, Kay Alicyn
The article describes preschool orientation and mobility programs for blind and visually impaired preschool children and makes suggestions for improvements in existing practices. Current programs are outlined including the skill areas covered and materials used by mobility instructors. (PHR)
Kana, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn
Previous studies show that young monolingual children's ability to "fast map" new word forms is closely associated with both their age and existing vocabulary knowledge. In this study we investigate potential relationships between age, fast mapping skills and existing vocabulary knowledge in both languages of developing bilingual preschool…
Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett
The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…
Nystad, W; Samuelsen, S; Nafstad, P; Edvardsen, E; Stensrud, T; Jaakkola, J
Background: There have been difficulties in applying spirometric tests to children of preschool age. Methods: The feasibility of measuring lung function was examined in 652 children aged 3–6 years using dynamic spirometry with an animation programme and the guidelines approved by the European Respiratory Society. Results: Data from 603 (92%) children with at least two acceptable forced expiratory manoeuvres were analysed; 408 (68%) achieved at least three acceptable manoeuvres. Children with only two acceptable manoeuvres were younger, shorter, and weighed less (p<0.001). The lower levels of lung function in this group were partly explained by body size. 63% of those with three acceptable manoeuvres had a difference of ≤5% between the highest and second highest forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1); when a difference of ≤10% was applied, 91% of the children were included. A similar trend was seen for forced vital capacity (FVC). The acceptability and reproducibility increased with increasing age, and levels of lung function increased linearly with age. The linear regression model showed that standing height was a satisfactory predictor of lung function; the explained fraction of variance (R2) was 59% for FEV1. Most FVC manoeuvres in children older than 3 years were acceptable and reproducible. Conclusions: Spirometric testing is feasible in preschool children and may be useful for both clinical practice and research. This study may fill the deficiency in reference values for European preschool children. PMID:12454295
Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0–24 months (57%), 25–40 months (21.1%), 41–56 months (10.4%), and 57–82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development. PMID:27134406
May, Richard J.; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon
We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]).…
Olson, David R.; Astington, Janet Wilde
Children's ability to ascribe beliefs to themselves and others has been shown to develop in the late preschool and early school years. This ability to represent, that is to think about, beliefs known to be false is described as metarepresentational development. This article extends these findings to the domain of linguistic representations by…
Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.
Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…
This study aimed to explore the timing and strategies of teacher participation in children's play and the factors which have a bearing on teacher participation. This study used qualitative research and conducted observation of natural situations. The samples were preschool teachers in an elementary school's affiliated kindergarten in Hualien. The…
Carlson, Stephanie M.; Wang, Tiffany S.
This research investigated the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control and emotion regulation. Preschool children (N=53) ages 4-6 (M=5; 0) were assessed on brief batteries of inhibitory control of prepotent responses and emotion regulation. Individual differences in inhibitory control were significantly correlated with…
Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.
We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…
Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.
The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…
Acosta, Phyllis B.; Wenz, Elizabeth
The report focuses on the diet management of infant and preschool children with phenylketonuria (PKU), a congenital deficiency resulting in brain damage. The effective methods for rapidly lowering serum phenylalanine levels following diagnosis are discussed, a method for prescribing and calculating the phenylalanine-restricted diet is described,…
Spaulding, Carol; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Jensen, Jody
Child- and family-serving programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) design and conduct interventions to improve the health of their clients through better nutrition. But these programs present a significant opportunity to improve physical activity levels in the preschool population as well,…
A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…
Ellenberg, Dolly F.
Describes funding and communication strategies at six, nonprofit, nonsectarian, tuition-free preschools for mentally retarded and developmentally delayed children. Details marketing strategies; the role of multiple markets; the targeting of potential funders among local citizens, foundations, and corporations; and the creation of honorary…
An experiment examined the possibilities that: (1) repeated deviations in a routine event become fused into the general event representation (GER) for that event; and (2) when deviations go unreported, it is because they have been forgotten. Preschool children were interviewed to get their script reports before and after repeated deviations in the…
Bell, Nancy J.; And Others
Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)
Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.
A pilot program was designed to address the special problems of children of substance abusers. The program was established at the Child Development and Family Guidance Center by Operation PAR, a nationally recognized substance abuse treatment and prevention program. The staff are well-trained preschool professionals who have received special…
Toner, Ignatius J.; And Others
This study explored the relationships among children's performance on a simplified version of Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test of conceptual tempo, their IQ, their performance on several measures of self-regulatory behavior, and their general activity level. Subjects were 55 preschool boys and girls. (Author/JMB)
This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…
Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.
One of nine brief guides for special educators on using computer technology, this guide focuses on uses with preschool children with either mild to severe disabilities. Especially noted is the ability of the computer to provide access to environmental experiences otherwise inaccessible to the young handicapped child. Appropriate technology for…
Beliefs have often been considered important because of their relation to practice. Little is known about the literacy beliefs of preschool teachers, particularly their print literacy beliefs, even though young children's experiences with print have implications for formal schooling. Therefore, this study explored the print literacy beliefs of…
DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly
This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…
Fulton, Robert T.
Threshold variability across repeated measures (N=10) was observed at 250 and 1,000 Hz with five severely hearing-impaired preschool children. Results indicated that variability at 1,000 Hz was within a 10 dB range (except for one measure) across Ss, while variability at 250 Hz was substantially larger, even though false positive responses to…
Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Rus, Andreea
The aim of this research is two-fold: first, to offer preschool children new learning situations in order to develop their drawing and painting abilities and second, to learn new techniques in a shorter period of time. The paper is grounded in the theory of creativity. Creativity is defined as the ability to propose something new, original and…
National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.
In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…
Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu
This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…
Jervis, Kathe; Polland, Barbara K.
This book, updated since initial publication in 1989, offers explanations, practical tips, and encouragement for teachers and families of preschool children facing the excitement--and stress--of separation. Topics discussed include ambivalence about separation and attachment, the comfort of routines, understanding the child perspective, supporting…
Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.
The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…
Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.
Described is a model program for developing the educational readiness and self-help skills of severely handicapped kindergarten and preschool children with a wide range of physical, mental, neurological or sensory deficits. It is explained that the program should provide heterogeneous grouping, individualized instruction, door-to-door…
Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.
The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…
Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…
Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi
This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.
Hudson, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Helen F.; Bovopoulos, Nataly
This research examines the relationship between behavioural inhibition (BI), family environment (overinvolved and negative parenting, parental anxiety and parent-child attachment) and anxiety in a sample of 202 preschool children. Participants were aged between 3 years 2 months and 4 years 5 months, 101 were male. A thorough methodology was used…
Adkins, Dorothy C.
An objective measure of motivation to achieve for preschool children called Gumpgookies is described. It is an objective-projective technique that requires choice between two alternate types of behavior portrayed in pictures and accompanying verbal descriptions. Gumpgookies are amoeba-like creatures who behave in ways intended to show differences…
Wilder, David A; Harris, Carelle; Reagan, Renee; Rasey, Amy
A functional analysis showed that noncompliance occurred most often for 2 preschoolers when it resulted in termination of a preferred activity, suggesting that noncompliance was maintained by positive reinforcement. A differential reinforcement procedure, which involved contingent access to coupons that could be exchanged for uninterrupted access to the activity maintaining noncompliance, was successful in increasing compliance for both children.
McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane
Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…
De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.
This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…
Ornstein, Michael; Stalker, Glenn J.
Based on the 2006 Canadian Census "long form" sample of one in every five households, the authors develop a detailed typology of family strategies for employment and the care of preschool children. The analysis is restricted to opposite-sex couples with at least one child under age 6 and no older child or other adult in the household.…
Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine
This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…
Preschoolers' ability to utilize language in spatial problem solving was tested with 64 predominately middle-class children. The number of correct responses was analyzed using an age/sex/medium analysis of variance. It was found that the verbal response mode leads to substantially more correct responses than do pictures and that girls performed…
Goshin, Lorie S.; Byrne, Mary W.; Blanchard-Lewis, Barbara
This study examined long-term outcomes of children who spent their first one to eighteen months in a US prison nursery. Behavioral development in 47 preschool children who lived in a prison nursery was compared with 64 children from a large national dataset who were separated from their mothers because of incarceration. Separation was associated with significantly worse anxious/depressed scores, even after controlling for risks in the caregiving environment. Findings suggest that prison nursery co-residence with developmental support confers some resilience in children who experience early maternal incarceration. Co-residence programs should be promoted as a best practice for incarcerated childbearing women. PMID:26609188
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in young children. About 40% of all preschool children regularly wheeze during common cold infections. The heterogeneity of wheezing phenotypes early in life and various anatomical and emotional factors unique to young children present significant challenges in the clinical management of this problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy, mainly consisting of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), is the cornerstone of asthma management. Since Leukotrienes (LTs) are chemical mediators of airway inflammation in asthma, the leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are traditionally used as potent anti-inflammatory drugs in the long-term treatment of asthma in adults, adolescents, and school-age children. In particular, montelukast decreases airway inflammation, and has also a bronchoprotective effect. The main guidelines on asthma management have confirmed the clinical utility of LTRAs in children older than five years. In the present review we describe the most recent advances on the use of LTRAs in the treatment of preschool wheezing disorders. LTRAs are effective in young children with virus-induced wheeze and with multiple-trigger disease. Conflicting data do not allow to reach definitive conclusions on LTRAs efficacy in bronchiolitis or post-bronchiolitis wheeze, and in acute asthma. The excellent safety profile of montelukast and the possibility of oral administration, that entails better compliance from young children, represent the main strengths of its use in preschool children. Montelukast is a valid alternative to ICS especially in poorly compliant preschool children, or in subjects who show adverse effects related to long-term steroid therapy. PMID:22734451
This paper describes a behaviour group, set up as a pilot project to empower parents and to promote their self-confidence in managing pre-school children's undesirable behaviour. Led by community nursery nurses (CNNs), the programme has already worked with six groups, each of six parents or carers and their children. Families are guided through coping strategies and learn management skills in changing undesirable behaviour problems in their pre-school children. Children between the ages of two to five years have been referred along with their parents to the group. Types of behaviours referred include: sleep problems, feeding/eating difficulties, sibling rivalry, temper tantrums, defiant anti-social behaviour and toilet/potty training. All these behaviours are prevalent among pre-school children, but are sometimes difficult for parents to manage. The evaluation of this pilot programme was based on pre-post-programme questionnaires and direct observation of parent-child interaction. Success of the behaviour group has indicated the need for such early preventative work to continue with parents and children. The children's services team, which includes health visitors and school health advisors, refers targeted families for immediate intervention, without families being on a long waiting list. Parents and carers who have difficulties coping with their child's undesirable behaviour can now access a service in their local clinic. Feedback from parents has been positive. Such a group is also beneficial in reducing the problem of less severe behavioural difficulties being referred to hard pressed and understaffed CAMHS teams.
Stetler, H. C.; Ayeboua, A.; Brink, E. W.; Agle, A. N.; Staehling, N. W.; Lane, J. M.
Survey teams visited 163 rural villages and 41 urban quarters in Togo and collected data on weight, height, arm circumference, age, and pedal oedema from 6120 children aged 6-72 months. Haemoglobin levels were determined for one-fifth of the survey children. When 80% of the reference median weight-for-height was used as the cut-off point, the prevalence of acute undernutrition was 2.0%. When 90% of the reference median height-for-age was used as the cut-off point, the prevalence of chronic undernutrition was 19.1%. The prevalence of both types of undernutrition was significantly higher in the northern rural regions, with the lowest prevalence in the urban areas. The prevalence of anaemia was 58.6%, with the highest prevalence in the northern regions. Anthropometric data on socioeconomically privileged preschool children were collected and compared with those for the survey children and the reference population. The socioeconomically privileged preschool group of Togolese children had a nutritional status substantially better than that of the survey children and nearly equivalent to that of the American reference population. The survey method was economical in terms of money, time, and personnel. The methodology employed rapidly provided objective data on the extent and distribution of protein-energy undernutrition and anaemia in the preschool children of Togo. PMID:6971186
Rawi, Nur Azwani Mohd Nor; Jalaludin, Juliana; Chua, Poh Choo
Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents.
Chua, Poh Choo
Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents. PMID:25984527
Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva
This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…
Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead teachers…
Dabrowska, A.; Pisula, E.
Background: The study examined the profile of stress in mothers and fathers of preschool children with autism, Down syndrome and typically developing children. A further aim was to assess the association between parenting stress and coping style. Methods: A total of 162 parents were examined using Holroyd's 66-item short form of Questionnaire of…
Simons, J; Leitschuh, C; Raymaekers, A; Vandenbussche, I
The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Bergès & Lézine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age with psychiatric disorders and 67 children without psychiatric disorders were matched for age and sex. A MANOVA indicated no significant interaction effects on the results between the sexes in the psychiatric group and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=.59, p≥0.05) or for active vocabulary (F(1,150)=.61, p≥0.05). An ANOVA was conducted to determine the differences between the boys and girls for passive and active vocabulary, and the differences between the psychiatric group and the control group for passive and active vocabulary. No significant differences between the boys and girls for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.968, p≥0.05) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.57, p≥0.05) were found. There was a significant difference between the psychiatric and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=9.511, p=0.002) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=16.18, p=0.00009). The study provides support for the presence of language disorders associated with active and passive body awareness in children with psychiatric disorders compared to typically developing children.
Weiland, Christina; Ulvestad, Kchersti; Sachs, Jason; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Despite evidence that high-quality preschool programs have substantial, long-lasting impacts on young children's developmental outcomes, associations between preschool quality measures and children's cognitive outcomes within preschool programs are generally small or null. Using data from a large urban prekindergarten program, we examined…
Briegel, W; Hofmann, C; Schwab, K O
This study investigates behaviour problems of preschool children with Moebius sequence, and their primary caregivers' stress. To this end, parents of all preschool children with Moebius sequence known to the German Moebius foundation were anonymously asked to fill out questionnaires, e.g. the Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL] 1.5-5. The primary caregivers of 13/22 children (seven males, six females; mean age: 3;10 [2;1-5;11] years) sent back filled-out questionnaires. Two children were rated as clinical on the CBCL-1.5-5. Boys had significantly higher scores on the scales aggressive behavior and total problems than girls. Compared to the general population, but not to other parents of mentally and / or physically handicapped children, the primary caregivers experienced higher levels of stress. In conclusion, preschool children with Moebius sequence do not show essentially increased rates of clinical behaviour problems. Nevertheless, their primary caregivers experience increased stress and need early and adequate support.
Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.
The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…
Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine
This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool…
Forge, Karen L. S.; Phemister, Sherri
If live-model prosocial programs such as "Sesame Street" and "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood" can facilitate favorable behavior in preschoolers, as was shown by Rushton (1982), then it seems reasonable to suggest that cartoons might have a similar positive impact. This study sought to determine whether viewing a prosocial cartoon would be as…
Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…
Belacchi, Carmen; Cubelli, Roberto
The study aimed at investigating the role of nominal gender in animal categorization in preschoolers. Given the regularities characterizing gender system, at both syntactical and morphological level, Italian language is suitable to address this issue. In three experiments, participants were asked to classify pictures of animals as male or female. Half stimuli had names of feminine gender and half of masculine gender. In Experiment 1, Italian speaking adults and preschoolers classified animals according to the nominal gender. This effect was not found with English speaking participants (Experiment 2) but confirmed with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old Italian-speaking children (Experiment 3). These results showed an implicit knowledge of grammatical gender in preschoolers, suggesting that semantic processing may be modulated by linguistic information.
Williford, Amanda P; Vick Whittaker, Jessica E; Vitiello, Virginia E; Downer, Jason T
This study used an observational measure to examine how individual children's engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks was associated with gains in self-regulation. A sample of 341 preschoolers was observed and direct assessments and teacher reports of self- regulation were obtained in the fall and spring of the preschool year. RESEARCH FINDINGS: Children's positive engagement with teachers was related to gains in compliance/executive function and children's active engagement with tasks was associated with gains in emotion regulation across the year. Engaging positively with teachers or peers was especially supportive of children's gains in task orientation and reductions in dysregulation. PRACTICE & POLICY: Results are discussed in relation to Vygotsky's developmental theory, emphasizing that psychological processes are developed in the context of socially embedded interactions. Systematically observing how a child interacts with peers, teachers, and learning tasks in the preschool classroom holds potential to inform the creation of professional development aimed at supporting teachers in fostering individual children's development within the early education environment.
Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Hee Soon; Chu, Sang-Hui; Jekal, Yoon-Suk; Lee, Ja-Yin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of predominant breast-feeding practices based on the criteria given by the World Health Organization and to identify the association between predominant breast-feeding during infancy and the development of obesity during preschool in South Korean children. This study employed a nonexperimental, retrospective study design. Five hundred and twenty-eight preschool children aged three to six years and their mothers were recruited. Twenty-seven percent of the participants engaged in predominant breast-feeding; on average they fed predominantly breast milk for the first 6.7 months. After adjusting for child and maternal characteristics, children who had mixed feeding were 1.68 times more likely to become obese than those who were predominantly breast-fed. In this study, it was identified that predominant breast-feeding has a positive effect on maintaining healthy body weight in Korean preschoolers. While encouraging predominant breast-feeding is only a part of the solution, it is an effective and important first step toward preventing preschool obesity.
Ribeiro, Gustavo Leite; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia
The aim of the study was to evaluate the perception of parents/caregivers regarding the financial impact of oral health problems on the families of preschool children. A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was conducted with 834 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale. "Financial impact" was the dependent variable. Questionnaires addressing socio-demographic variables, history of toothache and health perceptions were administered. Clinical exams were performed by three dentists previously calibrated (Kappa: 0.85-0.90). Descriptive statistics were performed, followed by logistic regression for complex samples (α = 5%). The frequency of financial impact due to oral health problems in preschool children was 7.7%. The following variables were significantly associated with financial impact: parental perception of child's oral health as poor, the interaction between history of toothache and absence of dental caries and the interaction between history of toothache and presence of dental caries. It is concluded that often parents/caregivers reported experiencing a financial impact due to seeking treatment late, mainly by the presence of toothache and complications of the clinical condition.
Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás
We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.
Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna
Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. Methods A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. Results There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.” Conclusion The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity. PMID:25938022
... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...
... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...
... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...
Gritz, Ellen R.; Tripp, Mary K.; James, Aimee S.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Mueller, Nancy H.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Parcel, Guy S.
The preschool is an important yet understudied setting for sun-protection interventions. This study evaluates the effects of Sun Protection is Fun! (SPF) on preschool staff behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to protecting children from sun exposure. Twenty preschools participated in a 2-year, group-randomized trial to evaluate SPF, a…
Natke, Ulrich; Sandrieser, Patricia; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Kalveram, Karl Theodor
This study compared the disfluencies of German-speaking preschool children who stutter (CWS, N=24) with those produced by age- and sex-matched comparison children who do not stutter (CWNS, N=24). In accordance with Yairi and Ambrose's [Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. (1992). A longitudinal study of stuttering in children: A preliminary report.…
Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Shen, I-hsuan; Liu, I-Shu; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi
This study examines the criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty-two children with CP (age range, two to five years and 11 months) and their caregivers participated in this study. The APCP consists of diversity and intensity…
Slusser, Wendelin; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Prelip, Michael; Fischer, Heidi; Cumberland, William G.; Frankel, Fred; Neumann, Charlotte
Parents are in an ideal position to promote long-term healthy dietary behaviours for their children. This study aimed to determine parent and child characteristics and to test their associations in a cross-sectional sample of urban low-income, low-education Latino immigrants with preschool-age children. Also determined were family demographic…
Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Addy, Cheryl L.; Pate, Russell R.
The twofold purposes of the investigation were (a) to describe with direct observation data the physical activity behaviors and the accompanying social and environmental events of those behaviors for children in preschools and (b) to determine which contextual conditions were predictors of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and…
Ferro, Pamela M.
Many preschool children are affected by disabilities requiring intervention through Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE; Camilli, Vargas, Ryan, & Barnett, 2010). Such interventions can include speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, counseling, and special education. Earlier delivery of these special education services…
Morris, Saul S; Olinto, Pedro; Flores, Rafael; Nilson, Eduardo A F; Figueiró, Ana C
Programs providing cash transfers to poor families, conditioned upon uptake of preventive health services, are common in Latin America. Because of the consistent association between undernutrition and poverty, and the role of health services in providing growth promotion, these programs are supposed to improve children's growth. The impact of such a program was assessed in 4 municipalities in northeast Brazil by comparing 1387 children under 7 y of age from program beneficiary households with 502 matched nonbeneficiaries who were selected to receive the program but who subsequently were excluded as a result of quasi-random administrative errors. Anthropometric status was assessed 6 mo after benefits began to be distributed, and beneficiary children were 0.13 Z-scores lighter (weight-for-age) than excluded children, after adjusting for confounders (P = 0.024). The children's growth trajectories were reconstructed by copying up to 10 recorded weights from their Ministry of Health growth monitoring cards and by relating each weight to the child's age, gender, and duration of receipt of the program benefit in a random effects regression model. Totals of 472 beneficiary and 158 excluded children under 3 y of age were included in this analysis. Each additional month of exposure to the program was associated with a rate of weight gain 31 g lower than that observed in excluded children of the same age (P < 0.001). This failure to respond positively to the program may have been due to a perception that benefits would be discontinued if the child started to grow well. Nutrition programs should guard against giving the impression that poor growth will be rewarded.
Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto
Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in preschool are related to both sociodemographic risk and behavior problems in preschool. Response evaluation and in particular the positive evaluation of an aggressive response were related to both sociodemographic risk and children's aggressive behavior and partially mediated the links between sociodemographic risk and aggressive behavior in preschool.
Fukada, H; Fukada, S; Hicks, J
In the present study the relationship between leadership behavior and sociometric status among preschool children was examined. Leadership behaviors of 24 6-year-old Japanese children were observed during free play and scored on the basis of a 2-dimensional leadership scale (facilitation of play and consideration-evaluation of playmates; Fukada, Fukada, & Hicks, 1994). Participants were categorized into three sociometric-status groups. Children who had high sociometric status showed higher scores on both leadership dimensions than those with low sociometric status.
Ghafournia, Maryam; Hajenourozali Tehrani, Maryam
Background and aims Bruxism is defined as a habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. In younger children bruxism may be a consequence of the masticatory neuromuscular system immaturity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bruxism and investigate the relationship between occlusal factors and bruxism among preschool children. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional survey, 400 3-6-year-old children were selected randomly from different preschools in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into two groups of bruxers and non-bruxers as determined by the clinical examination and their parents’ reports. The examiner recorded the primary canines (Class I, Class II, and Class III) and molars (mesial step, distal step, flash terminal plane) relationship, existence of anterior and posterior crossbite, open and deep bite. Also, rotated teeth, food impaction, sharp tooth edges, high restorations, extensive tooth caries, and painful teeth (categorized as irritating tooth conditions) were evaluated. The relationship between bruxism and occlusal factors and irritating tooth conditions was evaluated with chi-square test. Results Bruxism was seen in 12.75% of the subjects. Statistically significant relationships existed between bruxism and some occlusal factors, such as flash terminal plane (P = 0.023) and mesial step (P = 0.001) and also, between food impaction, extensive tooth caries, tooth pain, sharp tooth edge and bruxism. Conclusion The results showed significant relationship of bruxism with primary molar relationships and irritating tooth conditions among preschool children. PMID:23277860
Delgado, Christine E. F.
Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…
Lange, Garret; And Others
Examined two hypotheses that might account for episodic-recall differences in preschool children: (1) young children's differential tendencies to attend to and interact with presented stimuli account for verbal free-recall differences, and (2) improvements in episodic-recall memory are knowledge-dependent among preschool children. (Author/DB)
Luby, Joan L.; And Others
Hypothesizes higher rates of psychopathology in preschool children of alcoholic parents, based on findings of higher rates of psychopathology in school-age children of alcoholic parents. Forty-four children of at least one alcoholic biological parent were studied. Higher levels of distress were reported only in the preschool offspring of alcoholic…
Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie
This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…
This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…
Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare
This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of Jumpstart, a supplemental early literacy intervention, on preschool-age children from low-income backgrounds. Participants consisted of 74 low-income children from three preschools and child-care programs. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned by Jumpstart to the treatment group and 33…
Gottfried, Adele E.
Two purposes guided this study: (1) to investigate the effects of modeling on the verbalizations of lower-class, black, preschool children; and (2) to investigate the relationships between the dialect employed by the model and children's language production. As subjects, 72 black, preschool children in lower-class neighborhood day care centers of…
Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…
Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.
Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…
Associations between selected allergens, phthalates, nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and bedroom ventilation and clinically confirmed asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in preschool children.
Callesen, M; Bekö, G; Weschler, C J; Sigsgaard, T; Jensen, T K; Clausen, G; Toftum, J; Norberg, L A; Høst, A
Previous studies, often using data from questionnaires, have reported associations between various characteristics of indoor environments and allergic disease. The aim of this study has been to investigate possible associations between objectively assessed indoor environmental factors and clinically confirmed asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis. The study is a cross-sectional case-control study of 500 children aged 3-5 years from Odense, Denmark. The 200 cases had at least two parentally reported allergic diseases, while the 300 controls were randomly selected from 2835 participating families. A single physician conducted clinical examinations of all 500 children. Children from the initially random control group with clinically confirmed allergic disease were subsequently excluded from the control group and admitted in the case group, leaving 242 in the healthy control group. For most children, specific IgE's against various allergens were determined. In parallel, dust samples were collected and air change rates were measured in the children's bedrooms. The dust samples were analyzed for phthalate esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine, and various allergens. Among children diagnosed with asthma, concentrations of nicotine were higher (P < 0.05) and cat allergens were lower (P < 0.05) compared with the healthy controls; air change rates were lower for those sensitized (specific IgE+) compared with those not sensitized (specific IgE-, P < 0.05); and dust mite allergens were higher for specific IgE+ cases compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). When disease status was based solely on questionnaire responses (as opposed to physician diagnosis), significant associations were found between di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dog allergens in dust and current wheeze.
Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis
Introduction Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. Methods A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results The prevalence of iron deficiency (Serum ferritin <12mg/l), anaemia (Hb < 110g/l) and plasmodium falciparum malaria were 20.8%, 25% and 6.8% respectively. There was a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Conclusion Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children. PMID:26405498
Tumanova, Victoria; Conture, Edward G.; Lambert, E. Warren; Walden, Tedra A.
Purpose The goals of the present study were to investigate whether (1) the speech disfluencies of preschool-age children are normally distributed; (2) preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) differ in terms of non-stuttered disfluencies; (3) age, gender, and speech-language ability affect the number and type of disfluencies children produce; and (4) parents’ expressed concern that their child stutters is associated with examiners’ judgments of stuttered disfluency. Method Four hundred and seventy two children participated, of which 228 were CWS (56 girls), and 244 CWNS (119 girls). Participants provided conversational speech samples that were analyzed for frequency of occurrence of (a) stuttered disfluencies, (b) non-stuttered disfluencies, and (c) total disfluencies. Results Results indicated that the underlying distributions of preschool-age children’s stuttered and non-stuttered disfluency counts followed a negative binomial distribution (i.e., were not normal), with more children “piling up” at the low end [none or few disfluencies] and fewer children scoring in the upper [more severe stuttering] end of the distribution. Findings also indicated that non-stuttered disfluencies significantly predicted CWS/CWNS talker group classification, information that may be helpful to augment, but not supplant, talker group classification criteria based on stuttered disfluencies. Moreover, expressed parental concern about stuttering was strongly associated with frequency of stuttered disfluencies. Conclusion Findings suggest that the entirety of preschool-age CWS’ speech disfluencies –non-stuttered as well as stuttered – differs from that of their CWNS peers and that because these disfluencies are not normally distributed statistical analyses assuming normality of distribution are not the most appropriate means to assess these differences. In addition, certain “third-order” variables (e.g., gender) appear to impact frequency of
Liu, Jianghong; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ma, Chenjuan; Zhao, Sophie R.; Cao, Siyuan; Compher, Charlene
Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls) from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3–5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years). General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother’s education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers. PMID:24473235
Johnson, Paige; Montgomery, Michele; Ewell, Patrick
Childhood obesity remains a significant public health concern. Children from lower income households have a greater risk of being obese. Low-income families generally have less access to healthy, affordable food choices and turn to federal food assistance programs. Few studies have examined the impact of food assistance programs on childhood obesity rates. This study explored the association between BMI, blood lipid levels, and three food assistance programs (WIC, reduced lunch, and food stamps) in a sample of predominantly low-income, minority preschool children enrolled in a city-wide preschool program. Screenings were performed at on-site health fairs conducted at nine schools in disadvantaged areas. Screenings included vital signs, a finger stick, head-to-toe exam, vision screening, dental screening, and hearing screening. Of the sample of 229 preschool children, 23.1 % were obese, almost three times the national rate in preschoolers. Children whose families received WIC benefits weighed significantly less than those who did not receive benefits. In addition, 20.6 % of the children screened had elevated systolic blood pressures. Of the sample, 33 % had unhealthy triglyceride levels and 46 % had unhealthy HDL levels with those that received WIC benefits having significantly lower levels of LDL cholesterol This study confirms that low-income, minority children in the South continue to be disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. In addition, the results of this study indicate WIC as a potential public health initiative to combat the childhood obesity epidemic and reduce other cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood lipids and blood pressure.
Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt
This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…
Roberts, Jenny A; Pollock, Karen E; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C; Wang, Paul P
This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However, the vast majority scored within or well above the average range on 2 or more measures. Contrary to other reports on the language development of internationally adopted children, the results suggest that "second first language" acquisition proceeds rapidly in the majority of preschool-age children adopted as infants and toddlers. For the children in the sample who scored below average, results indicated that they were among the children who had been exposed to English for the least amount of time. The results of this study demonstrate both the robustness of the language system in the majority of adopted children from China as well as slower growth in a small subset of lower performers in the 1st years after adoption.
Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F
Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.
Hustyi, Kristin M; Normand, Matthew P; Larson, Tracy A
We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent measures used, in that the two measures covaried and a similar degree of change was observed with each across baseline and intervention phases.
Lowick, Sarah; Sawry, Shobna; Meyers, Tammy
Neurodevelopmental delay has been documented in up to 97.5% of HIV-infected children in Soweto who were not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). With growing numbers of children in South Africa being successfully treated with ART, the effects of ART on neurocognitive functioning in children require investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of neurodevelopmental delay in stable HIV-infected preschool children (aged five to six years) receiving ART and compare it to an apparently healthy (unconfirmed HIV-status) group of preschool children. Thirty HIV-infected preschool children (virologically and immunologically stable on ART for more than one year) were conveniently sampled from 350 eligible children on ART at the Harriet Shezi Children's Clinic in Soweto, Johannesburg. The comparison group comprised 30 well-nourished preschool children attending the Lilian Ngoyi Primary Health Care Clinic in Soweto for routine immunizations. Each child was assessed using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Extended Revised Version (GMDS-ER), at a single point in time. The overall developmental z-scores on GMDS-ER were <-2 (indicating severe delay) in 27 (90%) children in the HIV-infected group compared to 23 (76%) in the comparison group (p = 0.166). Mental handicap (overall GQ < 70) was evident in 46.7% of children in the HIV-infected group compared to 10% in the comparison group (p = 0.002). There was a 7.88-fold increased likelihood of severe delay in the HIV infected group. The HIV-infected group and comparison group had significantly different (p = 0.001) mean overall GQ scores of 70 (95% CI: 66.0-74.0) and 78 (95% CI: 75.6-80.5), respectively, with lower mean scores in the HIV-infected group in all individual domains. Early initiation of ART in HIV-infected infants may improve cognitive functioning among this group; however, intervention strategies which optimize early cognitive development for all children in the area need to be
Leung, Ting F; Liu, Tak C; Mak, Kwok K; Su, Xuefen; Sy, Hing Y; Li, Albert M; Lau, Joseph T F; Lum, Sooky; Wong, Gary W K
Spirometric testing is traditionally achievable in children of school-age and beyond. Incorporation of interactive incentives motivates preschool children to facilitate measurement of forced expiratory indices. Validated spirometric reference standards are available for Caucasian preschoolers but lacking in Asians. We established spirometric references in Chinese children aged 2-7 years, who were recruited from 19 randomly selected nurseries and kindergartens in Hong Kong. Parents completed International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, and children concurrently performed incentive spirometry on-site according to international guideline. Prediction equations for spirometric indices were formulated by linear regression. One thousand four hundred two (72.9%) of 1,922 consented children, with mean (SD) age 4.4 (1.0) years, successfully performed spirometry. Following exclusions due to medical and technical reasons, 895 (63.8%) children contributed spirometric data to our references. Girls had lower FEV0.5 , FEV0.75 , FEV1 , FVC, and PEF but similar FEF25-75 than boys, adjusted for age, weight, and standing height as covariates. Standing height was the most important predictor for FEV0.5 , FEV0.75 , FEV1 , FVC, and PEF in both boys (adjusted R(2) 0.525-0.734) and girls (adjusted R(2) 0.583-0.721), whereas the best prediction model for both gender is formed by standing height, weight, and age. At various standing heights, our preschoolers had FEV1 Z-scores 0.13-1.00 higher than those of collaborative Caucasian reference. This study justifies the need for ethnic-specific reference equations and presents spirometry references in young Chinese children. Their forced expiratory indices are determined by gender, age, weight and standing height, and standing height is the best anthropometric index to predict all spirometric indices.
Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Penelo, Eva; Domènech, Josep M.
Objective Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB), which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3–5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments. Method A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM) estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5. Results The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high) or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers). Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%–9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way. Conclusions Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children. PMID:24972147
Martins, Eva Costa; Osório, Ana; Veríssimo, Manuela; Martins, Carla
This investigation was aimed at studying the relations between executive functions (EFs) and categorical emotion understanding while controlling for preschoolers' IQ, language ability and theory of mind (ToM). Specifically, we wanted to analyse the association between emotion understanding and set shifting, due to the lack of studies with this EF.…
Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.
Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior in the shaping of verbal behavior is discussed. PMID:22477077
Zhan, Xiao; Sun, Jin
To examine the reciprocal relations between teacher-child relationships and children's behavior problems, the authors analyzed cross-lagged longitudinal data on teacher-child relationships and children's internalizing and externalizing problems using a structural equation modeling approach. The homeroom teachers of 105 first-year preschoolers aged 2-3 years filled in the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3, first at 3 months after the children's preschool entrance and then at the end of the first preschool year. Results showed significant cross-wave reciprocal relations between externalizing problems and teacher-child conflict and significant cross-wave relation from early internalizing problems to later teacher-child conflict. However, the cross-wave associations between internalizing and externalizing problems and teacher-child closeness were not significant.
Herbert, Sharonne D; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Jasmin L; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that involved teaching parenting strategies for managing hyperactive and disruptive behavior as well as emotion socialization strategies for improving children's emotion regulation. Compared to WL mothers, PT mothers reported significantly less child inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional defiance, and emotional lability; were observed using significantly more positive and less negative parenting; and reported significantly less maternal verbosity and unsupportive emotion socialization practices. Results provide some support for the effectiveness of this parenting program for reducing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and associated problems in preschool-aged children.
Allan, Nicholas P; Lonigan, Christopher J
Effortful control (EC) is an important developmental construct associated with academic performance, socioemotional growth, and psychopathology. EC, defined as the ability to inhibit or delay a prepotent response typically in favor of a subdominant response, undergoes rapid development during children's preschool years. Research involving EC in preschool children can be aided by ensuring that the measured model of EC matches the latent structure of EC. Extant research indicates that EC may be multidimensional, consisting of hot (affectively salient) and cool (affectively neutral) dimensions. However, there are several untested assumptions regarding the defining features of hot EC. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in a sample of 281 preschool children (Mage=55.92months, SD=4.16; 46.6% male and 53.4% female) to compare a multidimensional model composed of hot and cool EC factors with a unidimensional model. Hot tasks were created by adding affective salience to cool tasks so that hot and cool tasks varied only by this aspect of the tasks. Tasks measuring EC were best described by a single factor and not distinct hot and cool factors, indicating that affective salience alone does not differentiate between hot and cool EC. EC shared gender-invariant associations with academic skills and externalizing behavior problems.
Abanto, Jenny; Vidigal, Evelyn Alvarez; Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Sá, Stella Núbia Coelho de; Bönecker, Marcelo
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and socioeconomic indicators associated with dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries. A total of 100 children between 3 and 5 years of age were selected during a dental screening procedure. The selection criteria were having at least one tooth with dental caries and a visible pulpal involvement, ulceration, fistula, and abscess (PUFA) index of ≥1 in primary teeth. Before the clinical examination or any treatment procedure was performed, we evaluated the children's dental anxiety using the Facial Image Scale (FIS). Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, which included the family structure, number of siblings, parental level of education, and family income. A dentist blinded to FIS and socioeconomic data performed the clinical examination. Poisson regressions associate clinical and socioeconomic conditions with the outcome. Most of the children (53%) experienced extensive dental caries (dmf-t ≥ 6), and all children had severe caries lesions, with a PUFA index of ≥1 in 41% and that of ≥2 in 59%. The multivariate adjusted model showed that older children (4-5-year old) experienced lower dental anxiety levels compared with younger children (3-year old) (RR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.17-0.72 and RR = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.04-0.76, respectively), and children with three or more siblings were associated with higher levels of dental anxiety (RR = 2.27; 95%CI: 1.06-4.87). Older age is associated with low dental anxiety, and more number of siblings is associated with high dental anxiety in preschool children, whereas the severity or extent of dental caries is not associated with dental anxiety.
Educators contribute to children's anxiety and pain when they fail to provide children with information about loss and death and ways of coping with loss and death. Children who are denied factual information about experiences of loss and death develop fantasies and misconceptions regarding the experiences and suffer more anxiety and pain than…
Starting primary education is one of the most important changes that children encounter in early childhood. Moreover, especially within the last twenty years, as an outcome of the idea that children are active learners, listening to children's ideas about their learning, lives, and experiences has gained importance. In this sense, this study is…
Newman, Rochelle S.; Morini, Giovanna; Ahsan, Faraz; Kidd, Gerald
Previous work has shown that young children exhibit more difficulty understanding speech in the presence of speech-like distractors than do adults, and are more susceptible to at least some form of informational masking (IM). Yet little is known about how/when the “susceptibility” to linguistically-based IM develops. The authors tested adults, school-age children (aged 8 yrs), and preschool-age children (aged 4 yrs) on sentence recognition in the presence of normal speech, “jumbled” speech, and reversed speech distractors. As has been found previously with adults [e.g., Summers and Molis (2004). J. Speech, Lang. Hear. Res. 47, 245–256], children in both age groups showed a release of masking when the distractor was uninterpretable (reversed speech). This suggests that children already demonstrate linguistically-based IM by the age of 4 yrs. PMID:26233069
Almqvist, K; Brandell-Forsberg, M
Using play techniques, individual assessments were made of 50 preschool children from 47 Iranian refugee families living in Sweden, while their parents were interviewed about the children's exposure to violence and separation. Reenacting play involving war and persecution was performed by 19 of the children, most of them eyewitnesses to violence. The study demonstrated ways of obtaining information directly from young children to supplement parental reports.
De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Wijndaele, K; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Grammatikaki, E; Iotova, V; Usheva, N; Fernández-Alvira, J M; Zych, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G
Preschoolers already spend significant proportions of their waking hours being sedentary. Screen time (i.e. television/DVD viewing and computer use) has been negatively associated with several health outcomes but interventions aiming to reduce preschoolers' sedentary behaviour are scarce. This study aimed to explore parents' perceptions of their preschool children's screen time. One hundred twenty-two parents of low and medium-high socioeconomic status from six European countries with children between 4 and 6 years old were involved in 24 focus groups. Following a qualitative content analysis, the available information and key findings were centrally analysed. Results showed that children tend to like watching television (TV) and most parents do not express worries about their children's TV viewing time. Education is considered to be the main benefit of watching TV and in general, parents only have informal rules about TV viewing. Computer and active games use are less frequent compared with TV viewing. No univocal results are found about the influence of siblings or friends on children's screen time. Weather conditions and parental habits at home are the most important factors influencing children's screen time. Alternatives for screen activities and information on how to set rules for screen time should be provided to parents to assist them in decreasing their preschool children's screen time.
Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed.
Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.
This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…
Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A
The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.
Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary
Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…
This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…
Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo
This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.
Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo
This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427
Krisdapong, Sudaduang; Somkotra, Tewarit; Kueakulpipat, Wilai
This study aimed to investigate the caries experience and its impact on preschool children's quality of life and the associations between these outcomes and underlying determinants. A survey was conducted on 5- to 6-year-old children (503 in all) in Bangkok who were orally examined and interviewed on their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In addition, behavioral questionnaires were sent to parents. Associations between determinants and oral health outcomes were tested through logistic regression. It was found that 28% of children experienced high-level impacts on quality of life, mostly dental pain (58.3%) and eating difficulties (45.9%). Children of low socioeconomic status were more likely to have a high level of dental caries and subsequent OHRQoL impact. Oral status was related to oral behaviors and OHRQoL. Social disparities in preschool children's OHRQoL were identified.
Muhsen, Khitam; Cohen, Dani; Levine, Myron M
There are inconsistent findings concerning the role of Giardia lamblia in pediatric diarrhea. A prospective cohort study of the incidence of acute diarrhea among Israeli Arab preschool children offered the opportunity to examine the association between G. lamblia infection (at baseline) and subsequent diarrhea. Following baseline screening by light microscopy for the presence of Giardia in their stools, a cohort was assembled of 142 children who were followed between October 2003 and August 2004 for the incidence of diarrhea. Surveillance was performed through maternal interviews. At baseline, 21 children tested Giardia-positive. During the prospective surveillance, acute diarrhea occurred less often among Giardia-positive children (9.5%) than among children who were not infected with Giardia (26.5%). G. lamblia infection was associated with lower risk of acute diarrhea; adjusted odds ratio of 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.93) (p = 0.041). This prospective study provides additional evidence that Giardia may lower the risk of subsequent acute diarrhea among preschool children.
Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E
This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity.
Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins
The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.
Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina
The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…
Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi
Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend at…
A dinner meal is consumed by approximately 95% of preschool children, yet few studies have characterized the dinner meal within a broader environmental context. The primary goal of this study was to identify the average quantities of foods served and consumed at the dinner meal by preschool children...
Miller, Michael R.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Muller, Ulrich; McInerney, Robert J.; Kerns, Kimberly A.
The composition of executive function (EF) in preschool children was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A sample of 129 children between 3 and 5 years of age completed a battery of EF tasks. Using performance indicators of working memory and inhibition similar to previous CFA studies with preschoolers, we replicated a unitary EF…
Coplan, Robert J.; DeBow, Adrienne, Schneider, Barry H.; Graham, Allison A.
The goal of the present study was to explore the social behaviours of inhibited children in familiar social contexts, including: (1) free play with peers at preschool and (2) social activities at home and in the community. The initial participants were N = 248 preschool children between the ages of 42 and 66 months. From this initial data, two…
Larsen, Jean M.
As part of a study to investigate the immediate and long term effects of preschool upon educationally advantaged children, data from three waves of preschool-age subjects (N=291) and followup data on two waves of kindergarten-age subjects (N=171) were analyzed. All children in the sample were determined to be educationally advantaged, and all…
The author composes a questionnaire about conditions of preschool children's family music education. The survey includes 280 preschool children in a city of Shandong province. It finds that most parents have recognized the importance of early childhood music education, but there is the tendency of utilitarian. The content of family music education…
This report, one of several background papers for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education, examines the effects of preschool experience on Illinois children from low income families. The 1980 U. S. Census for Illinois identified 81,959 preschool-age children (3 to 5 years old) from poverty-level families; 54 of these young…
Leung, Cynthia; Cheung, Jasmine; Lau, Vanessa; Lam, Catherine
This paper aimed to describe the design and development of the social domain of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS), which would be used for assessment of preschool children with different developmental disabilities. The original version of the social domain consisted of 30 items. Children were asked questions about their social…
Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…
Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.
The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…
Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.
The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.
Klaar, Susanne; Öhman, Johan
Previous research has shown that the Swedish preschool educational tradition is characterised by outdoor-oriented and democratic approaches. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate what consequences these approaches have for preschool children's meaning-making of nature, when studied in practice, in children's spontaneous outdoor…
Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA.
A demonstration project was conducted involving itinerant educational consultant services for preschool visually handicapped children with the objective of preventing social and sensory deprivation and of developing personal independence. Channels were established for referral of applicable visually handicapped preschool children to the program.…
Morgan, Kimberly E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; McIntosh, David E.; Hunt, Madeline S.
The present study assessed the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) in relation to the synthesized Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence with a preschool sample. Participants were 200 preschool children between four and five years of age. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, and different…
Yi, Gina Jisun
The purpose of this study was to develop a measure for use in assessing musical behaviors of preschool children in the context of regular music instruction and to determine the validity and the reliability of the measure. The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure (ECMBM) was constructed for use with preschool-aged children to measure their…
Lewis, Jane S.; And Others
Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…
Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.
No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…
Svensson, Birgitta; Andershed, Henrik; Janson, Staffan
The aim of this study was to investigate a problem that is related to pre-school teachers' prolonged and temporary concerns for children's home situations and the extent to which these children were in need of special support in pre-school and/or were reported to the CPA. Data were obtained from a Swedish prospective study (the SOFIA-study)…
Yin, Larry; Bottrell, Christine; Clarke, Noreen; Shacks, Janice; Poulsen, Marie K.
Background: Normal hearing during the preschool years is essential for speech, language, social, emotional, and preacademic development. Children of low socioeconomic status may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of late identification and intervention. While a mass-screening effort focused on preschool children does not have broad…
Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia
Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…
Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye
This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…
DeFauw, Danielle L.
This article details a qualitative case study of 24 preschool children engaged with step-by-step drawing instruction provided by five educators as they developed their fine motor skills and drew detailed objects using the Drawing Children Into Reading curriculum (Halperin, W. A. (2011a). "Project 50 preschool manual." South Haven, MI:…
Wolf, Gail Marie
This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…
Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena
This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…
Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian
The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…
The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…
Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.
Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…
Bala, Gustav; Katić, Ratko
This paper provides systematic presentation of the issues related to methodology, and offers some possible solutions for analysis of different aspects of child development, especially preschool age. These issues are related to the definition, acceptance and preparation of the existing theories on development, which include analysis of the whole child's self his/her surroundings, and his/her activities. In addition, this analysis also includes some methodological problems related to sexual dimorphism, heritage-bound and surroundings-bound development, definition of the model of constructs affecting the selection of variables for evaluation of integral development, definition of the population and selection of the subject sample, determination of manifest characteristics and abilities, selection or construction of measuring instruments for their evaluation, appropriateness of the model and method of data analysis, as well as the possibility of designing the potential model of integrated development of preschool children.
The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...
Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.
Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…
Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas
The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…
Tyoalumun, Kpurkpur; Abubakar, Sani; Christopher, Nongu
Background and Objectives: Intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, contributing to high incidence of malnutrition and morbidity. This study aimed to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their association with nutritional status of children in Benue State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted from January-June 2016, among 418 school children under-5 years of age. Anthropometric data, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Results: Among the intestinal parasitic infections detected, the prevalence of E. histolytica was higher (51.0% and 29.0%) than all other parasites encountered in rural and urban pupils (P<0.05). Other parasites were Hookworm (46.2% and 24.8%); G. lamblia (11.5% and 8.6%); and T. trichiura (2.4% and 5.2%). The prevalence of stunting (HAZ<-2), in rural and urban pupils were 43.8% and 32.9%; 64.4% and 39.0% rural and urban pupils were underweight (WAZ<-2), while 30.3% and 24.3% were wasted (WHZ<-2). Infected children had significantly (P<0.05) higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: Benue State is among the Nigerian states with the highest burden of tropical diseases with a current plan of elimination implemented through mass drug administration. This study identify/evaluate some essential information that will support the planning and implementation of the State’s ongoing efforts. PMID:28058201
Duh, Shinchieh; Paik, Jae H; Miller, Patricia H; Gluck, Stephanie C; Li, Hui; Himelfarb, Igor
Cross-cultural research on children's theory of mind (ToM) understanding has raised questions about its developmental sequence and relationship with executive function (EF). The current study examined how ToM develops (using the tasks from Wellman & Liu, 2004) in relation to 2 EF skills (conflict inhibition, working memory) in 997 Chinese preschoolers (ages 3, 4, 5) in Chengdu, China. Compared with prior research with other Chinese and non-Chinese children, some general patterns in development were replicated in this sample. However, the children showed culture-specific reversals in the developmental sequence of ToM. For example, Chengdu children performed differently on the 2 false-belief tasks that were thought to be equivalent. Furthermore, conflict inhibition as well as working memory uniquely predicted ToM performance. We discuss the issues of ToM development as they relate to test items and cross-cultural--and subcultural--differences.
Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo
The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881
Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child’s general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869) and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284) and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759) were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families. PMID:26090927
Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869) and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284) and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759) were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families.
Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael
Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…
Roscoe, Bruce; Peterson, Karen L.
An exploratory study investigated preoperational children's understanding of the fictional movie character E.T. (The Extra-Terrestrial). Of 40 participating children (ages 40 to 66 months), 85 percent indicated they had seen the movie. Data were collected according to an interview method, and responses were recorded on audiotape, transcribed, and…
Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat
Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395
Hadjikoumi, I; Loader, P; Bracken, M; Milner, A
The common report of parents of asthmatic children that inhaled/nebulised salbutamol causes overactive behaviour was investigated. Nineteen children were assessed in a standardised setting before and after the administration of nebulised salbutamol and placebo. Neither parental report nor observer ratings suggested any significant increase in the child's level of activity. PMID:11861242
Early childhood educators and parents face the task of educating young children in Canada about environmental issues. The sooner young children participate in activities with an environmental theme, the more likely they are to appreciate the environment. This booklet is designed to introduce early childhood educators to environmental education…
Nalugwa, A; Olsen, A; Tukahebwa, M E; Nuwaha, F
Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short interviews with a standardized pre-tested questionnaire prepared in the local language (Lusoga) were administered to each caregiver to identify risk factors associated with S. mansoni infection. An overall S. mansoni prevalence of 39.3% (95% CI: 38.0-41.1%) was estimated out of the 3058 stool samples examined. The geometric mean intensity of S. mansoni among the infected children was 273 (95% CI: 241-305) eggs per gram of faeces. Both prevalence and intensity of infection increased linearly with age (P<0.0001) and were highest in the age group 49-60 months. Majority (61%) of the children, especially in the age group 12-24 months (84.2%; 95% CI: 75.6-90.1%), were lightly infected. Short interviews with caregivers revealed that preschool children, 1-5 years old, get exposed to S. mansoni infested waters through bathing, playing or swimming. It is important that the Uganda national control programme for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly.
Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul
In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…
Tanriverdi, Müberra; Mutluay, Fatma Karantay; Tarakçi, Devrim; Güler, Serhat; Iscan, Akin
This study investigated the possible presence of sensory-motor developmental impairments in preschool children with epilepsy and explored epilepsy impact on their activities and quality of life and on the stress load of their family. Study participants were children aged 2-6years diagnosed with epilepsy without any other comorbidities (epi-only children). The instruments used for assessment included the Neurological, Sensory, Motor, Developmental Assessment (NSMDA) scale for sensory-motor development, the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale (ICNDS), and the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Scale (IPES) for disease impact on disability and Quality of Life (QoL), as well as the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) for functional health status, and the Parental Stress Scale (PSS) for the family stress load. Required data were obtained from direct testing or observation of children's activities and mother-supplied answers to questions. Eighty-two children were investigated. The NSMDA scores were in the normal development range 6-8. Significant moderate impact of the disease on disability and QoL was estimated with the ICNDS and IPES instruments. The PODCI scores were similar to healthy population levels except for the happiness dimension which was better for children with epilepsy. PSS were significantly above normal. The functional health and QoL of the children as well as their family stress were found to be positively correlated with increasing age. It is found that epilepsy does not degrade neuromotor development and functional health status of preschool epi-only children, though it has a significant impact on their neurological disability and QoL and the stress level of their families; this impact seems to decrease with age.
Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko
Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.
Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E
The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool children (152 seen in consecutive years of data collection) from middle-class families participated. Affiliative subgroup type was assessed from observed proximity data. Social competence was assessed using observational and sociometric measures. Children in more cohesive affiliative subgroups had higher levels of SC, whereas ungrouped children had the lowest SC scores. Follow-up analyses indicated that 2 of the measured SC domains (social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior/personality attributes) were responsible for the overall difference in SC. Further, membership in a more cohesive subgroup in 1 year contributed to increases in scores for 2 of 3 SC domains (i.e., profiles of behavior/personality attributes and peer acceptance) in the following year. Results suggest that affiliative subgroups both reflect and support individual differences in peer SC during early childhood.
Kurdziel, Laura; Duclos, Kasey; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Despite the fact that midday naps are characteristic of early childhood, very little is understood about the structure and function of these sleep bouts. Given that sleep benefits memory in young adults, it is possible that naps serve a similar function for young children. However, children transition from biphasic to monophasic sleep patterns in early childhood, eliminating the nap from their daily sleep schedule. As such, naps may contain mostly light sleep stages and serve little function for learning and memory during this transitional age. Lacking scientific understanding of the function of naps in early childhood, policy makers may eliminate preschool classroom nap opportunities due to increasing curriculum demands. Here we show evidence that classroom naps support learning in preschool children by enhancing memories acquired earlier in the day compared with equivalent intervals spent awake. This nap benefit is greatest for children who nap habitually, regardless of age. Performance losses when nap-deprived are not recovered during subsequent overnight sleep. Physiological recordings of naps support a role of sleep spindles in memory performance. These results suggest that distributed sleep is critical in early learning; when short-term memory stores are limited, memory consolidation must take place frequently.
Giovagnoli, Giulia; Postorino, Valentina; Fatta, Laura M; Sanges, Veronica; De Peppo, Lavinia; Vassena, Lia; Rose, Paola De; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were shown to experience more stress than parents of typically developing peers, although little is known about risk factors predicting stress in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental stress levels and behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of preschool children with ASD as compared to typically developing (TD) peers and to investigate the role of several factors, including the severity of autistic symptoms, adaptive skills, cognitive abilities and behavioral and emotional problems, on parental stress. Results confirmed that parents of children with ASD experience higher stress levels than parents of TD and that children with ASD show more behavioral and emotional problems than controls. Moreover, our results showed that behavioral and emotional problems are strong predictors of parental stress, while stress related to a parent-child dysfunctional relationship was associated with daily living and communication skills as well as cognitive abilities. Findings revealed different behavioral and emotional problems affecting parental stress in ASD and TD samples. No association between the severity of autism symptoms and parental stress was detected. These results suggest that dysfunctional behaviors in preschool children with ASD have a strong impact on parental stress, profoundly affecting the well-being of the entire family. Therefore, strategies aimed at the early detection and management of these behavioral and emotional problems are crucial in order to prevent parental stress and to develop the most appropriate treatment interventions.
Vale, Susana Maria Coelho Guimarães; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto; da Cruz Soares-Miranda, Luísa Maria; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Mota, Jorge Augusto Silva
Aim. To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Methods. The study comprised 281 children (55.9% boys) aged from 4 to 6 years. PA was measured by accelerometer. Children were categorized as non-overweight (NOW) and overweight/obese (OW) according to the sex-adjusted BMI z-score (<1 and ≥1, resp.). Results. Total and moderate intensity PA were not associated with BMI. We observed that a higher proportion of OW children were classified as low-vigorous PA compared to their NOW peers (43.9 versus 32.1%, resp., P > .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that children with low-vigorous PA had higher odds ratio (OR) to be classified as OW compared to those with high-vigorous PA (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.4–13.4; P = .008) after adjusting for BMI at first and second years of life and other potential confounders. Conclusion. The data suggests that vigorous PA may play a key role in the obesity development already at pre-school age. PMID:20706649
Higbee, Kenneth L.
Investigates the effects of threat, surveillance, time, and sex of the child on obedience by four-year-old children to an adult's request to carry marbles one at a time from one box to another. (Author/MP)
Cai, Jiao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Huang, Chen
From April 2011 to April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. A total of 13,335 modified ISAAC questionnaires (response rate: 85.3%) were returned by parents or guardians for 4-6 year-old children. Six dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, visible damp stains, damp bed clothing, water damage, window pane condensation, and moldy odor) were used to evaluate home dampness-related exposures. In the present study, we applied logistic regression model to reveal associations, dose-response relationships, and statistical interaction effects of these dampness-related exposures, with childhood eczema, during lifetime since birth (ever) and in the last 12 months before the questionnaire. The dampness-related indicators were frequently reported in the perinatal and current residences. Prevalences of eczema ever and in the last 12 months were 22.9% and 13.2%, respectively. The dampness-related indicators were robustly associated and dose-response related with increased risk of eczema ever and in the last 12 months in the logistic regression analyses, with adjusted for potential confounders. Specifically, in the perinatal residence, visible mold spots or damp stains could increase 46% (OR, 95% CI: 1.46, 1.29-1.66) odds of childhood eczema (ever); in the current residence, visible mold spots and visible damp stains could increase 34% (1.34, 1.14-1.58) and 38% (1.38, 1.22-1.56) odds of childhood eczema (ever), respectively. Associations were not appreciably different between boys and girls, nor were they different between children with and without parental history of atopy. In conclusion, perinatal and current dampness-related exposures in the residence perhaps are risk factors for childhood eczema.
Balogun, Titilola B; Yakubu, Alhassan M
Good nutrition is necessary for the growth and development of preschool children. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, data on the determinants of their nutritional status are lacking. A cross-sectional survey of 366 preschool children was conducted in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and information about feeding practices, immunization and parental education was obtained from their mothers. Fifty-two percent were stunted, 30% were underweight and 25% were wasted. Recent history of diarrhea was associated with wasting (OR = 2.66, p < 0.001). Children whose fathers had postsecondary education were less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.45, p = 0.01) or underweight (OR = 0.37, p = 0.005). Promoting exclusive breastfeeding, preventing recurrent diarrhea and including fathers in community interventions will improve the health of children in this community.
Coyne, Sarah M; Stockdale, Laura; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nelson, David A; Collier, Kevin M; Essig, Lee W
Many schools and parents try to motivate children to become defenders of victimized peers. Defending behavior is common in the media (particularly in superhero programs); however, no study has examined the effect of media on defending behavior. The aim of the study was to examine longitudinal associations between superhero engagement and a variety of aggressive, prosocial, and defending behaviors in preschool children. Participants consisted of 240 preschoolers (49% male) and their parents who reported on child media use and outcomes at 2 different time points. Preschooler's engagement with superheroes was related to increased physical and relational aggression 1 year later. Engagement with superheroes was not related to prosocial or defending behaviors. Implications of the results are discussed.
Background Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has shown that parents play an important role in fostering and supporting preschoolers’ developing maturity and decisions about DT use, and in protecting them from potential risk due to excessive DT exposure, there have been limited studies conducted in Hong Kong focusing on parent-child DT use. This study had three objectives: 1) to explore parental use of DTs with their preschool children; 2) to identify the DT content that associated with child behavioral problems; and 3) to investigate the relationships between approaches adopted by parents to control children’s DT use and related preschooler behavioral problems. Methods This exploratory quantitative study was conducted in Hong Kong with 202 parents or guardians of preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 attending kindergarten. The questionnaire was focused on four aspects, including 1) participants’ demographics; 2) pattern of DT use; 3) parenting approach to manage the child’s DT use; and 4) child behavioral and health problems related to DT use. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the main data analysis method for identifying the DT or parental approach-related predictors of the preschooler behavioral problems. Results In the multiple linear regression model, the ‘restrictive approach score’ was the only predictor among the three parental approaches (B:1.66, 95% CI: [0.21, 3.11], p < 0.05). Moreover, the viewing of antisocial behavior cartoons by children also significantly increased the tendency of children to have behavioral problem (B:3.84, 95% CI: [1.66, 6.02], p < 0.01). Conclusions Since preschool children’s cognitive and functional abilities are still in the developmental stage, parents play a crucial role in fostering appropriate and safe DT
Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Dan; Feng, Ruifang; Zhao, Huashuo; Wang, Qinmei
The prevalence of refractive errors in urban preschool children in Xuzhou, China remains unknown. Children attending twelve randomly selected kindergartens participated in this study. Visual acuity, ocular alignment, cover-uncover test, cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp and funduscopy were performed under a standardized testing environment. Cycloplegic streak retinoscopy was performed for all subjects. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error was the main outcome measure. Emmetropia was defined as refractive status between +1.75 diopters (D) and -0.75D. Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia were defined as SE < -0.50D, SE > +2.0 D, cylindrical error > 1.0 D and SE difference ≥ 1 D between fellow eyes, respectively. Out of 2349 eligible children, 2255 (96%) children completed a refractive examination. Of the 2255 children, the mean SE of right eyes was +1.14 ± 0.95 diopters (D). Mean SE of the right eyes did not decline with age (r = -0.01; P = 0.56). The majority (86.6%) of children were emmetropia. The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 0.9% and 14.3%, respectively. The mean astigmatism for the right eyes was 0.87 ± 0.62 D. The prevalence of With-the-rule, against the rule and oblique astigmatism was 93.8%, 4.7% and 1.5%, respectively. The mean anisometropia between two eyes was 0.14 ± 0.38 D. The most common type of refractive error was hyperopia (14.3%), followed by astigmatism (8.8%), anisometropia (3.2%), and myopia (0.9%). The refractive status in this population of urban Xuzhou preschool children was stable and there was no evidence of a myopic refractive shift over this age range in our cross-sectional study. PMID:25674266
Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Dan; Feng, Ruifang; Zhao, Huashuo; Wang, Qinmei
The prevalence of refractive errors in urban preschool children in Xuzhou, China remains unknown. Children attending twelve randomly selected kindergartens participated in this study. Visual acuity, ocular alignment, cover-uncover test, cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp and funduscopy were performed under a standardized testing environment. Cycloplegic streak retinoscopy was performed for all subjects. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error was the main outcome measure. Emmetropia was defined as refractive status between +1.75 diopters (D) and -0.75D. Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia were defined as SE < -0.50D, SE > +2.0 D, cylindrical error > 1.0 D and SE difference ≥ 1 D between fellow eyes, respectively. Out of 2349 eligible children, 2255 (96%) children completed a refractive examination. Of the 2255 children, the mean SE of right eyes was +1.14 ± 0.95 diopters (D). Mean SE of the right eyes did not decline with age (r = -0.01; P = 0.56). The majority (86.6%) of children were emmetropia. The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 0.9% and 14.3%, respectively. The mean astigmatism for the right eyes was 0.87 ± 0.62 D. The prevalence of With-the-rule, against the rule and oblique astigmatism was 93.8%, 4.7% and 1.5%, respectively. The mean anisometropia between two eyes was 0.14 ± 0.38 D. The most common type of refractive error was hyperopia (14.3%), followed by astigmatism (8.8%), anisometropia (3.2%), and myopia (0.9%). The refractive status in this population of urban Xuzhou preschool children was stable and there was no evidence of a myopic refractive shift over this age range in our cross-sectional study.
Garrison, Michelle M.; Herrenkohl, Todd; Haggerty, Kevin; Rivara, Frederick P.; Zhou, Chuan; Liekweg, Kimberly
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have revealed that preschool-aged children imitate both aggression and prosocial behaviors on screen, there have been few population-based studies designed to reduce aggression in preschool-aged children by modifying what they watch. METHODS: We devised a media diet intervention wherein parents were assisted in substituting high quality prosocial and educational programming for aggression-laden programming without trying to reduce total screen time. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 565 parents of preschool-aged children ages 3 to 5 years recruited from community pediatric practices. Outcomes were derived from the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: At 6 months, the overall mean Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation score was 2.11 points better (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–3.44) in the intervention group as compared with the controls, and similar effects were observed for the externalizing subscale (0.68 [95% CI: 0.06–1.30]) and the social competence subscale (1.04 [95% CI: 0.34–1.74]). The effect for the internalizing subscale was in a positive direction but was not statistically significant (0.42 [95% CI: −0.14 to 0.99]). Although the effect sizes did not noticeably decay at 12 months, the effect on the externalizing subscale was no longer statistically significant (P = .05). In a stratified analysis of the effect on the overall scores, low-income boys appeared to derive the greatest benefit (6.48 [95% CI: 1.60–11.37]). CONCLUSIONS: An intervention to reduce exposure to screen violence and increase exposure to prosocial programming can positively impact child behavior. PMID:23420911
Beck, Danielle M.; Schaefer, Catherine; Pang, Karen; Carlson, Stephanie M.
Research suggests that executive function (EF) may distinguish between children who are well- or ill-prepared for kindergarten, however, little is known about the test-retest reliability of measures of EF for children. We aimed to establish a battery of EF measures that are sensitive to both development and individual differences across the preschool period using Conflict and Delay subtests that had a cool (abstract) or hot (extrinsic reward) focus. Results from 151 children in three age groups (2.5, 3.5, and 4.5) suggested acceptable same-day test-retest reliability on all but Delay-Cool subtasks. These findings will inform appropriate measurement selection and development for future studies. PMID:21643523
May, Richard J; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon
We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]). After intervention, increases in untaught second-language tacts (e.g., "What is this in Welsh?" [ceffyl]) and listener responses (e.g., "Point to the ceffyl") were observed for all 3 participants.
Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young; Tu, Huifang
Understanding children's decisions to include a child with a disability in activities is an important component of the social environment of children with disabilities. We examined preschool children's understanding of the motor and social competence of hypothetical children with a physical disability, children's decisions to include or exclude a…
Wagner, Jennifer B.; Johnson, Susan C.
The preschool years are a time of great advances in children's numerical thinking, most notably as they master verbal counting. The present research assessed the relation between analog magnitude representations and cardinal number knowledge in preschool-aged children to ask two questions: (1) Is there a relationship between acuity in the analog…