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Sample records for preschool children association

  1. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  2. Association between obesity and asthma in preschool Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Vàzquez-Nava, Francisco; Morales Romero, Jaime; Crodova Fernandez, José A; Saldívar-González, Atenogenes H; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Barrientos Gomez, Maria del C; Lin-Ochoa, Dolorez; Vázquez Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2010-07-07

    The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI) in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile), overweight (> or =85th and <95th percentile), and obesity (> or =95th percentile). Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66-1.58), obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68-1.30), and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.

  3. Association between obesity and asthma in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Yoshie; Adachi, Yuichi; Itazawa, Toshiko; Yoshida, Koichi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Odajima, Hiroshi; Akasawa, Akira; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Obesity may increase the risk of subsequent asthma. We have previously reported that there is a clear association between obesity and asthma in Japanese school-aged children. To evaluate whether a similar association exists in younger children, a nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was performed focusing on children aged 4-5 yr. A child who had experienced wheezing during the past 12 months and had ever been diagnosed with asthma by a physician was defined as having current asthma. Overweight and underweight were defined as BMI ≥90th percentile and ≤10th percentile, respectively, according to the reference values for Japanese children from 1978 to 1981. After excluding 2547 children because of incomplete data, 34,699 children were analyzed. Current asthma was significantly more prevalent in overweight children compared with underweight and normal weight children (13.2% for overweight vs. 10.5% for underweight and 11.1% for normal weight; both p < 0.001). Even after adjusting for other variables, such as gender, other coexisting allergic diseases, and parental history of asthma, there was an association between overweight and current asthma (adjusted odds ratio: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.10-1.38, p < 0.001). Even in preschool children, obesity is already associated with asthma, and there was no gender effect on this association. Physicians should consider the impact of obesity when managing asthma in younger children.

  4. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  5. The Association between Preschool Classroom Quality and Children's Social-Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Marzouk, Samah Abd Al Fatah Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between early childhood classroom quality and preschool children's social skills and emotional problems. Teachers completed the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment-Clinical Form (DECA-C). Participants included 141 preschool children from 10…

  6. Home gardening is associated with Filipino preschool children's dietary diversity.

    PubMed

    Cabalda, Aegina B; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Solon, Florentino S

    2011-05-01

    Dietary diversification through home gardening is a sustainable strategy that can address multiple micronutrient deficiencies. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between home gardening and the dietary diversity of preschool-aged children. Households with children aged 2 to 5 years (n=200) were surveyed from Baras and Angono in the province of Rizal, Philippines in January 2008. Food security was determined based on the US Department of Agriculture Food Security Questionnaire. Dietary diversity score was based on the number of unique food groups consumed during the past 24 hours. The Student t test was performed to compare means between groups (households with gardens vs households without gardens) whereas proportions between groups were compared using Pearson's χ(2) analyses. Multiple linear regression was performed to model the adjusted regression coefficients for the quantitative outcome variables by exposure variable. Around 52.5% of children were from households with a fruit and/or vegetable garden. Children from households with gardens had higher dietary diversity scores whether using the all-inclusive dietary diversity score (6.12 vs 5.62; P=0.040) or applying a 10-g minimum intake for each food group (5.89 vs 5.37; P=0.044) compared with children who lived in homes without a garden. Children from households with gardens were significantly more likely to eat vegetables more frequently (χ(2)=9.06; P=0.029). The presence or absence of a garden was not significantly associated with food security. Having a home garden was positively associated with the child's diet diversity and with frequency of vegetable consumption. Households without gardens may benefit from interventions promoting gardens as a means to improve diet quality.

  7. Parental Reports of Somatic Symptoms in Preschool Children: Prevalence and Associations in a Spanish Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech-Llaberia, Edelmira; Jane, Claustre; Canals, Josepa; Ballespi, Sergi; Esparo, Griselda; Garralda, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To document prevalence and associations of somatic symptoms in Spanish preschool children. Method: Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds attending nurseries (8 urban, 30 rural). Parental questionnaires (response rate 77%) were used to inquire about somatic symptoms in the child in the 2 weeks prior to assessment, about preschool absence and…

  8. Associations of Preschool Type and Teacher-Child Relational Quality with Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Mahatmya, Duhita; Moses, Laurence Kimberly; Bolt, Elizabeth N.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined associations of preschool type (i.e., urban and suburban Head Start and university-affiliated center) and teacher-child variables with positive and negative child outcomes among 145 preschoolers (74 boys). Differences emerged across preschools, with urban Head Start children scoring lowest on the emotional…

  9. Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children's emergent literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children's name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children's emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In study 1, a range of emergent literacy tasks was administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. The more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on all emergent literacy measures. Furthermore, children with longer names did not show superior performance compared to children with shorter names. In study 2, four measures of alphabet knowledge and spelling were administered to 104 preschool children. Once again, the more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on the alphabet knowledge and spelling measures. Results indicated that having longer names did not translate into an advantage on the alphabet knowledge and spelling tasks. Name writing proficiency, not length of name appears to be associated with preschool children's developing emergent literacy skills. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. PMID:22523450

  10. Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements Are Associated with Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callu, D.; Giannopulu, I.; Escolano, S.; Cusin, F.; Jacquier-Roux, M.; Dellatolas, G.

    2005-01-01

    Phonological awareness is strongly related to reading ability, but reports are more conflicting concerning the association of high level oculomotor skills with reading. Here, we show that phonological awareness is specifically associated with the ability to perform smooth pursuit eye movements in preschool children. Two large independent samples…

  11. Differences in association between birth parameters and blood pressure in children from preschool to high school.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, B; Baur, L A; Pfund, N; Burlutsky, G; Mitchell, P

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between birth parameters with blood pressure (BP) among preschool- and school-aged children. Two separate childhood datasets were used: (1) 1295 children aged 3-6 years were examined during 2007-2009; and (2) 1741 and 2353 children aged 6 and 12 years, respectively, were examined during 2004-2006. Birth parameter data were obtained from parental records. BP was measured using standard protocols. Among 6-year-old children, each 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with a 1.33- and 1.20-mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, after multivariable adjustment. In 6-year-old children, a decrease of 1 week in gestational age was independently associated with a 0.33- and 0.37-mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Six-year-old children in the low birth weight category (≤ 2499 g) versus those in the normal/high birth weight category (≥ 2500 g) had significantly higher systolic BP (P<0.0001). Girls in the low birth weight category versus those in the normal/high weight category had higher systolic BP (P=0.02). Significant associations were not observed among preschool-aged children and preadolescents. Birth weight and gestational age were strongly associated with BP among 6-year-old children, particularly girls, but not among preschoolers or preadolescents.

  12. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated developmental disorders in preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Pia; Equit, Monika; Schmidt, Karin; von Gontard, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Depression is an incapacitating disorder, which is often overlooked in preschool children. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of depressive symptoms and co-occurring risk factors in a large, population-based sample of preschool children. All 653 children (of a total of 731) in a defined geographical area were assessed during the school-entry exam by community care paediatricians. In addition to clinical appraisal, parents filled out the Preschool Feelings Checklist, a 16-item screening instrument with good psychometric properties. The mean age was 6.2 years (range 5.0-7.6 years) and the sample included 344 boys and 305 girls. The prevalence of depressive symptoms of clinical relevance (total score ≥3) was 5.7% (37). There were no differences between boys and girls, and between younger (<6 years) and older (>6 years) children. Depressive symptoms were associated with parental separation and comorbid behavioural problems, but especially with developmental motor and speech problems and disorders. Migration to Germany had no influence. Depressive symptoms are common in preschool children and associated with developmental problems. Depression should be considered in children with speech and motor problems who are at special risk. Early detection and treatment are recommended. PMID:23839066

  13. Smooth pursuit eye movements are associated with phonological awareness in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Callu, D; Giannopulu, I; Escolano, S; Cusin, F; Jacquier-Roux, M; Dellatolas, G

    2005-07-01

    Phonological awareness is strongly related to reading ability, but reports are more conflicting concerning the association of high level oculomotor skills with reading. Here, we show that phonological awareness is specifically associated with the ability to perform smooth pursuit eye movements in preschool children. Two large independent samples of preschool children (n=838 and n=732) aged 5-6.4 years, without history of neurological disorder, were examined by school medical doctors for visual and oculomotor problems. Nineteen percent of the children in the first sample and 14% in the second failed at the clinical evaluation of smooth pursuit eye movements, and 17 and 15%, respectively, presented another visual or oculomotor problem. Ten short cognitive tests were performed by the same children. Visual and oculomotor problems other than a failure on smooth pursuit were not consistently related to the cognitive tasks, with one exception, the visual recognition of letters. Children who failed at smooth pursuit obtained lower scores at a number of cognitive tasks, and especially phonological awareness tasks and copy of visually presented trajectories. Poor working memory and/or failure of anticipation during the tracking of a visual or auditory stimulus related to frontal cortex immaturity may explain these associations in preschool children. PMID:15919554

  14. Smooth pursuit eye movements are associated with phonological awareness in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Callu, D; Giannopulu, I; Escolano, S; Cusin, F; Jacquier-Roux, M; Dellatolas, G

    2005-07-01

    Phonological awareness is strongly related to reading ability, but reports are more conflicting concerning the association of high level oculomotor skills with reading. Here, we show that phonological awareness is specifically associated with the ability to perform smooth pursuit eye movements in preschool children. Two large independent samples of preschool children (n=838 and n=732) aged 5-6.4 years, without history of neurological disorder, were examined by school medical doctors for visual and oculomotor problems. Nineteen percent of the children in the first sample and 14% in the second failed at the clinical evaluation of smooth pursuit eye movements, and 17 and 15%, respectively, presented another visual or oculomotor problem. Ten short cognitive tests were performed by the same children. Visual and oculomotor problems other than a failure on smooth pursuit were not consistently related to the cognitive tasks, with one exception, the visual recognition of letters. Children who failed at smooth pursuit obtained lower scores at a number of cognitive tasks, and especially phonological awareness tasks and copy of visually presented trajectories. Poor working memory and/or failure of anticipation during the tracking of a visual or auditory stimulus related to frontal cortex immaturity may explain these associations in preschool children.

  15. Is There Any Association between TV Viewing and Obesity in Preschool Children in Japan?

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ayako; Yorifuji, Takashi; Iwase, Toshihide; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Obesity in children is a serious public health problem, and TV viewing is considered a potential risk factor. Since, however, no relevant association studies have been conducted in Japan, we evaluated the association between TV viewing and obesity using a population-based study conducted in a Japanese town. All 616 preschool children in the town were enrolled in February 2008, and a self-administered questionnaire to collect children's and parents' characteristics was sent to the parents. We dichotomized the time spent TV viewing and evaluated associations by logistic regression using a "less than 2h" category as a reference. The questionnaire was collected from 476 participants (77.3%), of whom 449 were available for the final analyses. Among them, 26.9% of preschool children reported 2 or more hours of TV viewing per day and 8.2% were defined as obese. In logistic regression analyses, there was no positive association in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:0.50-2.49) or adjusted models for exclusively breastfed status, sleep duration, or maternal factors (OR = 1.11, 95% CI:0.50-2.51). We also found no positive association between TV viewing and overweight status, possibly owing to the influence of social environment, low statistical power, or misclassification.

  16. Name-Writing Proficiency, Not Length of Name, Is Associated with Preschool Children's Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children's name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children's emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In Study 1, a range of emergent…

  17. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…

  18. Peer Effects in Preschool Classrooms: Is Children's Language Growth Associated with Their Classmates' Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest…

  19. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  20. Dance for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauman, Lilo S.

    1983-01-01

    Dance for preschool children can be a vehicle for self-expression and for learning, but teachers must present material in the form of play. Ideas for teaching dance to three- to five-year-old children, such as the proper way to jump and skip, are presented, along with a sample lesson. (PP)

  1. Association between the First Occurrence of Allergic Rhinitis in Preschool Children and Air Pollution in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Yiin, Lih-Ming

    2016-02-27

    The occurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR) may be significantly influenced by air pollution. This study examined the association between the first occurrence of AR in preschool children and the pre-incident levels of air pollutants in Taiwan. We identified 9960 eligible subjects from a systematic sampling cohort database containing 400,000 insureds of the National Health Insurance from 2007 to 2011 and matched them with the environmental monitoring data from 2006 to 2011 according to the locations of their clinics. Pre-incident levels were determined using the average concentrations of air pollutants one or two weeks prior to the AR diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine any significant relationships between AR and specific air pollutants. The first AR incidence for Taiwanese preschool children, which increased with age, was 10.9% on average; boys appeared to have a higher percentage (14.2%) than girls (8.27%). Among the air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were significantly related to AR after adjusting for age and gender (p < 0.05). Because both pollutants are considered to be traffic emissions, this study suggests that traffic emissions in Taiwan need to be controlled to lower the prevalence of children's AR.

  2. Association between the First Occurrence of Allergic Rhinitis in Preschool Children and Air Pollution in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Yiin, Lih-Ming

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR) may be significantly influenced by air pollution. This study examined the association between the first occurrence of AR in preschool children and the pre-incident levels of air pollutants in Taiwan. We identified 9960 eligible subjects from a systematic sampling cohort database containing 400,000 insureds of the National Health Insurance from 2007 to 2011 and matched them with the environmental monitoring data from 2006 to 2011 according to the locations of their clinics. Pre-incident levels were determined using the average concentrations of air pollutants one or two weeks prior to the AR diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine any significant relationships between AR and specific air pollutants. The first AR incidence for Taiwanese preschool children, which increased with age, was 10.9% on average; boys appeared to have a higher percentage (14.2%) than girls (8.27%). Among the air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were significantly related to AR after adjusting for age and gender (p < 0.05). Because both pollutants are considered to be traffic emissions, this study suggests that traffic emissions in Taiwan need to be controlled to lower the prevalence of children's AR. PMID:26927153

  3. Nutrition-related hair signs in Zairian preschool children and associations with anthropometry.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, I; Van den Broeck, J

    1995-01-01

    To assess prevalence of hair dyspigmentation, decurling, thinness and frailty, a random sample of more than 4,000 preschoolers, representative for a large area in Northern Zaire, was examined clinically and anthropometrically. Isolated dyspigmentation, isolated thinness and the combination of both were the most frequent signs (> 5%). Prevalence of hair signs did not differ according to sex or season. Peak prevalence was found between ages 6 and 18 months, suggesting a relationship with weaning. Most hair signs, studied separately or as combinations, increased gradually with lowering weight-for-age (WFA) or weight-for-height but not with height-for-age. Isolated dyspigmentation, however, was unrelated to WFA or marasmus. All signs occurred also in children with 'normal' WFA (SD > -2). In these children, hair signs were associated with the presence of clinical muscle wasting.

  4. Nutrition-related hair signs in Zairian preschool children and associations with anthropometry.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, I; Van den Broeck, J

    1995-01-01

    To assess prevalence of hair dyspigmentation, decurling, thinness and frailty, a random sample of more than 4,000 preschoolers, representative for a large area in Northern Zaire, was examined clinically and anthropometrically. Isolated dyspigmentation, isolated thinness and the combination of both were the most frequent signs (> 5%). Prevalence of hair signs did not differ according to sex or season. Peak prevalence was found between ages 6 and 18 months, suggesting a relationship with weaning. Most hair signs, studied separately or as combinations, increased gradually with lowering weight-for-age (WFA) or weight-for-height but not with height-for-age. Isolated dyspigmentation, however, was unrelated to WFA or marasmus. All signs occurred also in children with 'normal' WFA (SD > -2). In these children, hair signs were associated with the presence of clinical muscle wasting. PMID:8650734

  5. Association between the First Occurrence of Allergic Rhinitis in Preschool Children and Air Pollution in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Yiin, Lih-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of allergic rhinitis (AR) may be significantly influenced by air pollution. This study examined the association between the first occurrence of AR in preschool children and the pre-incident levels of air pollutants in Taiwan. We identified 9960 eligible subjects from a systematic sampling cohort database containing 400,000 insureds of the National Health Insurance from 2007 to 2011 and matched them with the environmental monitoring data from 2006 to 2011 according to the locations of their clinics. Pre-incident levels were determined using the average concentrations of air pollutants one or two weeks prior to the AR diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine any significant relationships between AR and specific air pollutants. The first AR incidence for Taiwanese preschool children, which increased with age, was 10.9% on average; boys appeared to have a higher percentage (14.2%) than girls (8.27%). Among the air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were significantly related to AR after adjusting for age and gender (p < 0.05). Because both pollutants are considered to be traffic emissions, this study suggests that traffic emissions in Taiwan need to be controlled to lower the prevalence of children’s AR. PMID:26927153

  6. Peer effects in preschool classrooms: is children's language growth associated with their classmates' skills?

    PubMed

    Justice, Laura M; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Mashburn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of young children participating in preschool education, this study determined whether peer effects are present in this earliest sector of schooling. Specifically, this work examined whether peer effects were influential to preschoolers' growth in language skills over an academic year and whether peer effects manifest differently based on children's status in reference to their peers. Peer effects were assessed for 338 children in 49 classrooms. A significant interaction between the language skills of children's classmates and children's fall language skills indicated that peer effects were strongest for children with low language skills who were in classrooms that served children with relatively low skill levels, on average. Findings further showed that reference status, or children's relative standing to their peers, has the greater consequence for children with very low language skills in relation to their peers.

  7. Emotion recognition in preschool children: associations with maternal depression and early parenting.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea; Durbin, C Emily; Laptook, Rebecca; Torpey, Dana; Klein, Daniel N

    2014-02-01

    Emotion knowledge in childhood has been shown to predict social functioning and psychological well-being, but relatively little is known about parental factors that influence its development in early childhood. There is some evidence that both parenting behavior and maternal depression are associated with emotion recognition, but previous research has only examined these factors independently. The current study assessed auditory and visual emotion recognition ability among a large sample of preschool children to examine typical emotion recognition skills in children of this age, as well as the independent and interactive effects of maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting (i.e., hostility and intrusiveness). Results indicated that children were most accurate at identifying happy emotional expressions. The lowest accuracy was observed for neutral expressions. A significant interaction was found between maternal depression and negative parenting behavior: children with a maternal history of depression were particularly sensitive to the negative effects of maladaptive parenting behavior on emotion recognition ability. No significant effects were found for paternal depression. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of multiple interacting factors on children's emotional development and provide suggestions for identifying children for targeted preventive interventions.

  8. The Association between Preschool Children's Social Functioning and Their Emergent Academic Skills.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David H; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Marshall, Nastassja

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between social functioning and emergent academic development in a sample of 467 preschool children (M = 55.9 months old, SD = 3.8). Teachers reported on children's aggression, attention problems, and prosocial skills. Preliteracy, language, and early mathematics skills were assessed with standardized tests. Better social functioning was associated with stronger academic development. Attention problems were related to poorer academic development controlling for aggression and social skills, pointing to the importance of attention in these relations. Children's social skills were related to academic development controlling for attention and aggression problems, consistent with models suggesting that children's social strengths and difficulties are independently related to their academic development. Support was not found for the hypothesis that these relationships would be stronger in boys than in girls. Some relationships were stronger in African American than Caucasian children. Children's self-reported feelings about school moderated several relationships, consistent with the idea that positive feelings about school may be a protective factor against co-occurring academic and social problems.

  9. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.

  10. Emotion Recognition in Preschool Children: Associations with Maternal Depression and Early Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea; Durbin, C. Emily; Laptook, Rebecca; Torpey, Dana; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Emotion knowledge in childhood has been shown to predict social functioning and psychological well-being, but relatively little is known about parental factors that influence its development in early childhood. There is some evidence that both parenting behavior and maternal depression are associated with emotion recognition, but previous research has only examined these factors independently. The current study assessed auditory and visual emotion recognition ability among a large sample of preschool children to examine typical emotion recognition skills in children of this age, as well as the independent and interactive effects of maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting (i.e., hostility and intrusiveness). Results indicated that children were most accurate at identifying happy emotional expressions, followed by other basic emotions. The lowest accuracy was observed for neutral expressions. A significant interaction was found between maternal depression and negative parenting behavior, such that children with a maternal history of depression were particularly sensitive to the negative effects of maladaptive parenting behavior on emotion recognition ability. No significant effects were found for paternal depression. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of multiple interacting factors on children’s emotional development, and provide suggestions for identifying children for targeted preventive interventions. PMID:24444174

  11. The Association between Preschool Children's Social Functioning and Their Emergent Academic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Marshall, Nastassja A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between social functioning and emergent academic development in a sample of 467 preschool children (M=55.9 months old, SD=3.8). Teachers reported on children's aggression, attention problems, and prosocial skills. Preliteracy, language, and early mathematics skills were assessed with standardized tests. Better…

  12. [Factors associated with the consumption of soft drinks among Brazilian preschool children: national survey of 2006].

    PubMed

    Vega, Juliana Bergamo; Poblacion, Ana Paula; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-08-01

    The rising consumption of sweetened beverages such as soft drinks or artificial juices is associated with the prevalence of obesity in Brazil and around the world. This study seeks to verify the frequency of consumption of these beverages among Brazilian children aged 24-59 months and to investigate the association of soft drinks with demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Using data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children - 2006, the eating habits were obtained using the food and drink frequency questionnaire for the seven days preceding the interview, and anthropometry recorded the weight and height of children. Among preschoolers, 37.3% consumed soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. The factors significantly associated with frequent consumption of soft drinks were living in regions of higher economic development of the country, in urban areas, belonging to the higher income bracket, with mothers watching TV regularly and excess weight of the child, were associated with consumption of soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. Further studies are needed to understand the effective contribution of soft drinks on the epidemic of childhood obesity. PMID:26221802

  13. No Association between Obesity and Behavior in Low-income, Preschool Latino Children

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Jason M.; Hagan, Melissa J.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between behavioral problems and obesity in early childhood in Latinos is largely unknown. Methods Cross-sectional anthropometric and behavioral data of children at three years of age were gathered from a cohort of 174 children of Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals. Child behaviors were assessed using the preschool Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/11/2–5). Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between behavior and obesity. Results At three years, 27.7% were obese. There were no associations between affective (OR = 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42–8.59), anxiety (OR = 1.86; 95% CI 0.53–6.47), pervasive developmental (OR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.13–1.36), attention deficit hyperactivity (OR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.12–2.76), or oppositional defiant (OR = 6.49; 95% CI 0.65–64.49) problems and obesity. Conclusions Though psychological problems and obesity are associated among older children and adolescents, there was no association in Latino three-year olds in a low-income sample. PMID:25913339

  14. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E

    2015-06-16

    Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P < 0.01). In multivariate analyses, independent predictors for shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age included oppositional defiant disorder at 3, 4 or 5 years (β = -359.25, 95% CI -633.84 to 84.66; P = 0.01), exposure to maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (β = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (β = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (β = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children.

  15. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  16. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  17. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  18. Previous antibacterial treatment due to concomitant infections in preschool children is associated with a lower Helicobacter pylori positivity.

    PubMed

    Daugule, Ilva; Rumba, Ingrida; Ejderhamn, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial agents has been proposed as 1 of the factors that contribute to the loss of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a previous treatment with antibiotics on the prevalence of H. pylori infection in preschool children. Parents of 146 asymptomatic children (aged 0.5-5 y; no antibiotic treatment during the previous 4 weeks) completed a questionnaire about previous treatment with antibiotics and socioeconomic status. Infection with H. pylori was assessed by the monoclonal stool antigen test. H. pylori positivity was 18% (27/146). It was significantly lower in children who had been treated with antibiotics previously compared to those who had been never treated (12.5% (12/96) vs 30% (15/50), p=0.01). It is concluded that previous antibiotic treatment for concomitant infections is associated with a lower prevalence of H. pylori infection in preschool children.

  19. Patterns of exposure to multiple metals and associations with neurodevelopment of preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L; Queirolo, Elena I; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13-42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations.

  20. Patterns of Exposure to Multiple Metals and Associations with Neurodevelopment of Preschool Children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Ardoino, Graciela; Coffman, Donna L.; Queirolo, Elena I.; Ciccariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Ettinger, Adrienne S.

    2015-01-01

    While it is known that toxic metals contribute individually to child cognitive and behavioral deficits, we still know little about the effects of exposure to multiple metals, particularly when exposures are low. We studied the association between children's blood lead and hair arsenic, cadmium, and manganese and their performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Ninety-two preschool children (age 13–42 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay, provided a hair sample and 78 had a blood lead level (BLL) measurement. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we identified four groups of exposure based on metal concentrations: (1) low metals, (2) low-to-moderate metals, (3) high lead and cadmium, and (4) high metals. Using the four-group exposure variable as the main predictor, and fitting raw scores on the cognitive, receptive vocabulary, and expressive vocabulary scales as dependent variables, both complete-case and multiple imputation (MI) analyses were conducted. We found no association between multiple-metal exposures and neurodevelopment in covariate-adjusted models. This study demonstrates the use of LCA together with MI to determine patterns of exposure to multiple toxic metals and relate these to child neurodevelopment. However, because the overall study population was small, other studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate these associations. PMID:25694786

  1. Significant associations among hemostatic parameters, adipokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Horigome, Hitoshi; Katayama, Yasutomi; Yoshinaga, Masao; Kato, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Development of cardiovascular diseases could originate in early childhood. However, reference values of hemostatic parameters and adipokines in preschool children remain to be explored. We measured blood levels of adipokines and parameters of the hemostatic/fibrinolytic systems in 167 healthy children aged 4 to 6 years at 9:00 to 10:30 am after a strictly enforced overnight fast. Participants with body mass index (BMI) values ≥90th percentile had significantly higher values of systolic blood pressure and heart rate, as well as blood levels of insulin, coagulation factor (F) VII, FX, protein S, leptin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lower values of desacyl-ghrelin than children with BMI < 90th percentile. Circulating levels of fibrinogen and leptin increased with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors. Stepwise regression analysis identified many hematological variables to be associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. The results implicated the hemostatic/fibrinolytic system or adipokines in the insidious progression of cardiovascular diseases from an early age. PMID:21949035

  2. Behavioral Exchanges between Teachers and Children Over the Course of a Typical Preschool Day: Testing Bidirectional Associations

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, 314 preschool classrooms and 606 children were observed to understand the behavioral exchanges between teachers and children. Teachers’ emotionally and organizationally supportive behaviors and children’s engagement were explored for longitudinal associations throughout a day. Observations were conducted in each classroom wherein emotional and organizational supports were assessed, followed by observations of two children’s positive engagement with teachers, tasks, and peers as well as negative classroom engagement. Cross-lagged autoregressive models were used to test for time-lagged associations which could be unidirectional or bidirectional. Results indicated teachers’ emotionally and organizationally supportive behaviors were related to later child engagement in seven of eight models. Furthermore, in two of those seven models, we found evidence of bidirectional associations whereby children’s engagement was associated with later teacher emotional and organizational supports. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding classroom processes over the course of a day in preschool. PMID:26722153

  3. Social Outcomes Associated with Media Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Fussell, Jill J.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preschool children's social outcomes in the classroom (including hyperactivity, aggression, and social skills) and their media viewing habits (including the amount of television they watch and whether they watch videos/movies that are rated as inappropriate for…

  4. What Preschool Classroom Experiences Are Associated with Whether Children Improve in Visuomotor Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Anthony I.; Cameron, Claire E.; Ko, Michelle; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Grissmer, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the contribution of several classroom experience measures (classroom characteristics, teacher characteristics, and teacher-child interactions) to preschoolers' improvement in visuomotor integration. Children (N = 467) ranged in age from 3 to 5 years old and were enrolled in 115 classrooms in 5 U.S. states.…

  5. Preschool Children's Views on Emotion Regulation: Functional Associations and Implications for Social-Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Kelemen, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and…

  6. Brief Functional Analysis and Treatment of Tantrums Associated with Transitions in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A.; Chen, Liyu; Atwell, Julie; Pritchard, Josh; Weinstein, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    A brief functional analysis was used to examine the influence of termination of prechange activities and initiation of postchange activities on tantrums exhibited by 2 preschool children. For 1 participant, tantrums were maintained by access to certain (pretransition) activities. For a 2nd participant, tantrums were maintained by avoidance of…

  7. Consumption of tomato products is associated with lower blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Doris; Lauzière, Julie; Blanchet, Rosanne; Vézina, Carole; Vaissière, Emilie; Ayotte, Pierre; Turgeon O'Brien, Huguette

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that various diet components and nutrients, including vegetables, fruit and food-derived antioxidants, could mitigate contaminant exposure and/or adverse health effects of contaminants. To examine the effect of the consumption of tomato products on blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children, 155 Inuit children (25.0±9.1months) were recruited from 2006-2008 in Nunavik childcare centers (northern Québec, Canada). Food frequency questionnaires were completed at home and at the childcare center, and total blood mercury concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Multivariate regression analysis was performed after multiple imputation. The median blood concentration of mercury was 9.5nmol/L. Age, duration of breastfeeding, annual consumption frequency of seal meat, and monthly consumption frequency of tomato products were significant predictors of blood mercury levels, whereas annual consumption frequencies of beluga muktuk, walrus, Arctic char, and caribou meat were not. Each time a participant consumed tomato products during the month before the interview was associated with a 4.6% lower blood mercury level (p=0.0005). All other significant predictors in the model were positively associated with blood mercury levels. Further studies should explore interactions between consumption of healthy store-bought foods available in Arctic regions and contaminant exposure. PMID:23127601

  8. Movement Education For Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Maida L., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet explores why movement education is important for preschool children, what activities to include in a program, how and where to conduct a program, and criteria that can help to structure the program environment. The first section presents a rationale for the use of movement education for helping preschool children to develop…

  9. Brief functional analysis and treatment of tantrums associated with transitions in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wilder, David A; Chen, Liyu; Atwell, Julie; Pritchard, Josh; Weinstein, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    A brief functional analysis was used to examine the influence of termination of prechange activities and initiation of postchange activitieson tantrums exhibited by 2 preschool children. For 1 participant, tantrums were maintained by access to certain (pretransition) activities. For a 2nd participant, tantrums were maintained by avoidance of certain task initiations. Although advance notice of an upcoming transition was ineffective, differential reinforcement of other behavior plus extinction reduced tantrums for both participants.

  10. Preschool children's views on emotion regulation: Functional associations and implications for social-emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Tracy A; Kelemen, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively "ineffective" strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment. PMID:19724663

  11. Topography of Slow Sigma Power during Sleep is Associated with Processing Speed in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Doucette, Margaret R.; Kurth, Salome; Chevalier, Nicolas; Munakata, Yuko; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive development is influenced by maturational changes in processing speed, a construct reflecting the rapidity of executing cognitive operations. Although cognitive ability and processing speed are linked to spindles and sigma power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), little is known about such associations in early childhood, a time of major neuronal refinement. We calculated EEG power for slow (10–13 Hz) and fast (13.25–17 Hz) sigma power from all-night high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in a cross-sectional sample of healthy preschool children (n = 10, 4.3 ± 1.0 years). Processing speed was assessed as simple reaction time. On average, reaction time was 1409 ± 251 ms; slow sigma power was 4.0 ± 1.5 μV2; and fast sigma power was 0.9 ± 0.2 μV2. Both slow and fast sigma power predominated over central areas. Only slow sigma power was correlated with processing speed in a large parietal electrode cluster (p < 0.05, r ranging from −0.6 to −0.8), such that greater power predicted faster reaction time. Our findings indicate regional correlates between sigma power and processing speed that are specific to early childhood and provide novel insights into the neurobiological features of the EEG that may underlie developing cognitive abilities. PMID:26556377

  12. Topography of Slow Sigma Power during Sleep is Associated with Processing Speed in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Margaret R; Kurth, Salome; Chevalier, Nicolas; Munakata, Yuko; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2015-11-04

    Cognitive development is influenced by maturational changes in processing speed, a construct reflecting the rapidity of executing cognitive operations. Although cognitive ability and processing speed are linked to spindles and sigma power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), little is known about such associations in early childhood, a time of major neuronal refinement. We calculated EEG power for slow (10-13 Hz) and fast (13.25-17 Hz) sigma power from all-night high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in a cross-sectional sample of healthy preschool children (n = 10, 4.3 ± 1.0 years). Processing speed was assessed as simple reaction time. On average, reaction time was 1409 ± 251 ms; slow sigma power was 4.0 ± 1.5 μV²; and fast sigma power was 0.9 ± 0.2 μV². Both slow and fast sigma power predominated over central areas. Only slow sigma power was correlated with processing speed in a large parietal electrode cluster (p < 0.05, r ranging from -0.6 to -0.8), such that greater power predicted faster reaction time. Our findings indicate regional correlates between sigma power and processing speed that are specific to early childhood and provide novel insights into the neurobiological features of the EEG that may underlie developing cognitive abilities.

  13. Topography of Slow Sigma Power during Sleep is Associated with Processing Speed in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Margaret R; Kurth, Salome; Chevalier, Nicolas; Munakata, Yuko; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive development is influenced by maturational changes in processing speed, a construct reflecting the rapidity of executing cognitive operations. Although cognitive ability and processing speed are linked to spindles and sigma power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), little is known about such associations in early childhood, a time of major neuronal refinement. We calculated EEG power for slow (10-13 Hz) and fast (13.25-17 Hz) sigma power from all-night high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in a cross-sectional sample of healthy preschool children (n = 10, 4.3 ± 1.0 years). Processing speed was assessed as simple reaction time. On average, reaction time was 1409 ± 251 ms; slow sigma power was 4.0 ± 1.5 μV²; and fast sigma power was 0.9 ± 0.2 μV². Both slow and fast sigma power predominated over central areas. Only slow sigma power was correlated with processing speed in a large parietal electrode cluster (p < 0.05, r ranging from -0.6 to -0.8), such that greater power predicted faster reaction time. Our findings indicate regional correlates between sigma power and processing speed that are specific to early childhood and provide novel insights into the neurobiological features of the EEG that may underlie developing cognitive abilities. PMID:26556377

  14. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles in the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Parent-Reported Guilt and Empathy in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Amy H.; Frick, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = 0.51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being…

  15. Longitudinal Associations between Executive Functions and Intelligence in Preschool Children: A Multi-Method, Multi- Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) and intelligence were examined concurrently and longitudinally in 126 preschool children. EF was assessed using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Children's intelligence was assessed using the Verbal and Performance subtests from…

  16. Measuring Creativity in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, James D., III; And Others

    The purposes of this article are (1) to report empirical findings of studies of original or creative thinking in preschoolers, (2) to point out important issues to be considered in measuring the creativity of preschool children, and (3) to discuss the practical implications of these findings and issues. Research conducted at the Virginia…

  17. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  18. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts. PMID:24808883

  19. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  20. Preschool children's attachment security is associated with their sharing with others.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; Becker, Eva; Scheub, Annemarie; König, Lilith

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined relations between preschool children's attachment pattern and their sharing behavior. To this end, 26 German children aged five years (15 girls) were first administered an Attachment Story Completion Task to assess their attachment pattern and the degree of their attachment security. Immediately thereafter, they participated in an established paradigm, a mini-dictator game, that assessed their inclination to share costly as well as noncostly with a friend, a disliked other, and a stranger. Analyses showed that degree of attachment security was positively correlated with children's generosity towards a disliked other and their inclination to engage in costly sharing. Moreover, the absence of an organized attachment pattern was related to a general decrease in generosity towards all recipients. The results point to the functional role of children's attachment for the early development of sharing behavior.

  1. Preschool children's attachment security is associated with their sharing with others.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; Becker, Eva; Scheub, Annemarie; König, Lilith

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined relations between preschool children's attachment pattern and their sharing behavior. To this end, 26 German children aged five years (15 girls) were first administered an Attachment Story Completion Task to assess their attachment pattern and the degree of their attachment security. Immediately thereafter, they participated in an established paradigm, a mini-dictator game, that assessed their inclination to share costly as well as noncostly with a friend, a disliked other, and a stranger. Analyses showed that degree of attachment security was positively correlated with children's generosity towards a disliked other and their inclination to engage in costly sharing. Moreover, the absence of an organized attachment pattern was related to a general decrease in generosity towards all recipients. The results point to the functional role of children's attachment for the early development of sharing behavior. PMID:26524972

  2. Woodworking for Preschool Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulla-Branz, John

    1984-01-01

    Woodworking experiences based on a task analysis approach can be motivating instructional experiences for preschool handicapped children. The article presents sequentially ordered hammering and sawing skills adaptations for specific disability groups. (CL)

  3. What Do Children Learn at Swedish Preschools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindström, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research are, first, to make visible, examine, and illuminate preschool teachers' perception of what children enrolled in preschools learn and how they learn it; and second, to highlight and illuminate what abilities preschool teachers perceive that children can develop during their stay at preschools. As a theoretical…

  4. Energy balance-related behaviours associated with overweight and obesity in preschool children: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    te Velde, S J; van Nassau, F; Uijtdewilligen, L; van Stralen, M M; Cardon, G; De Craemer, M; Manios, Y; Brug, J; Chinapaw, M J M

    2012-03-01

    The current review aimed to systematically identify dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in preschool children (4-6 years of age) that are prospectively related to overweight or obesity later in childhood. Prospective studies published between January 1990 and June 2010 were selected from searches in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. Studies examining the prospective association between at least one relevant behaviour measured during preschool period (children aged 4-6 years at baseline) in relation to at least one anthropometric measurement at follow-up (age <18 years) were included. Harvest plots were used to summarize the results and draw conclusions from the evidence. Of the 8,718 retrieved papers, 23 papers reporting on 15 different study samples were included in this review. Strong evidence was found for an inverse association between total physical activity and overweight. Moderate evidence was observed for a positive association between television viewing and overweight. Because of the heterogeneity in the assessed dietary behaviours, insufficient evidence was found for an association between dietary intake or specific dietary behaviours and overweight. These results suggest that interventions aiming to prevent overweight among preschool children should focus on promotion of total physical activity and limitation of screen time and that further research is needed to establish whether and which dietary behaviours are important for obesity prevention in this age group. However, despite the lack of evidence for dietary behaviours from the present review, future interventions may already target specific dietary behaviours that are highly prevalent and for which there a clear rationale as well as preliminary evidence that these behaviours are associated with overweight.

  5. Associations of chronotype with social jetlag and behavioral problems in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Ishihara, Kaneyoshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The timing, duration, and intensity of sleep are determined by the interaction between a sleep-wake-dependent homeostatic process and a sleep-wake-independent, intrinsic, clock-like circadian process. Chronotype represents individual differences in diurnal preferences, which are not only genetically determined but also influenced by social and environmental factors. Thus, the discrepancy between biological and social clocks, so-called "social jetlag", occurs. Chronotype, social jetlag, and the links between chronotype and behavioral problems are well documented in adults and adolescents. However, such studies on young children are limited. We conducted a survey of sleep and health for preschool children attending kindergarten or childcare centers in Wako, Okayama and Kurashiki cities, Japan, between May and July 2012. A total of 654 children aged 4-6 years (342 boys and 312 girls, with an average age of 4.7 years) were assessed using the Children's ChronoType Questionnaire and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Morning (M)-type, neither (N)-type and evening (E)-type accounted for 36.2%, 54.0% and 9.8% of the participants, respectively. The weekday-to-weekend differences in midsleep time--originally proposed as the concept of social jetlag--were 11, 25 and 35 min for M-, N- and E-types, respectively. There was a negative correlation between chronotype and sleep period during weekdays (p < 0.001) and a positive correlation on weekends (p < 0.001). The weekday-to-weekend difference in sleep period was 0.5 h for E-types, whereas there was no difference for M-types. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the links between chronotype and behavioral problems, adjusted for participants' sex, age, childcare programs and locations. Chronotype was significantly associated with hyperactivity/inattention: N-type (adjusted OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.95, p < 0.05) and E-type (adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.18-5.20, p < 0.05). E-type was significantly

  6. Interactions between maternal parenting and children's early disruptive behavior: bidirectional associations across the transition from preschool to school entry.

    PubMed

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A; Olson, Sheryl L; Lunkenheimer, Erika S; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2009-11-01

    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important developmental transition and 2) examine whether there would be different patterns of associations for boys and girls. Participants were 235 children (111 girls; T1; M = 37.7 months, T2; M = 63.4 months) and their mothers and teachers. Observational and multi-informant ratings of child disruptive behavior showed differential patterns of stability and associations with measures of parenting risk. Results indicated bidirectional and interactive contributions of externalizing behavior and negative parenting across time. Results also indicated that risk mechanisms operate similarly for both sexes. Findings support transactional models of disruptive child behavior that highlight the joint contributions of parents and children.

  7. Prevalence and Association of Developmental Defects of Enamel with, Dental- Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children, Lucknow

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, G.V.; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental Defects of Enamel in the primary dentition may be associated and predictors of dental caries and nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to assess the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel and its Association with, Dental-Caries and Nutritional Status in Pre-School Children of Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods Multistage Sampling was done. A total of 302 pre-school (Rural and Urban) children were examined. Type III examination was conducted with WHO Probe. Developmental Enamel Defects (DED) and Dental Caries were assessed using WHO (1997) Proforma. Results The prevalence of DED of any type was 39.9% with that of demarcated opacities being the highest, followed by hypoplasia. The most frequently affected teeth were maxillary anterior teeth, while the least affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The mean dmft was 3.5. A positive association between DED and caries was observed. Association between Dental Caries & BMI was non-significant whereas Pearson correlation showed a negative correlation between the two. Conclusion The prevalence of enamel defects and caries was high, as the enamel defects were strongly associated with caries. PMID:26557622

  8. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W S; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy food intake

  9. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W S; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy food intake

  10. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children.

    PubMed

    Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production.

  11. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children

    PubMed Central

    Degé, Franziska; Kubicek, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and language, in particular, the overlap in their processing results in the possibility to use one domain for the enhancement of the other. Especially in the preschool years music may be a valuable tool to train language abilities (e.g., precursors of reading). Therefore, detailed knowledge about associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading can be of great use for designing future music intervention studies that target language-related abilities. Hence, the present study investigated the association between music perception as well as music production and precursors of reading. Thereby, not only phonological awareness, the mostly studied precursor of reading, was investigated, but also other precursors were examined. We assessed musical abilities (production and perception) and precursors of reading (phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory) in 55 preschoolers (27 boys). Fluid intelligence was measured and controlled in the analyses. Results showed that phonological awareness, working memory, and rapid retrieval from long-term memory were related to music perception as well as to music production. Our data suggest that several precursors of reading were associated with music perception as well as music production. PMID:26347687

  12. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  13. [Factors associated with acute malnutrition in migrating pre-school children from the sugar cane region of Jalisco].

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Rocha, A L; Prado-Aguilar, C A

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the association between socioeconomic, environmental, feeding and individual factors involved in the acute malnutrition of the migrating pre-schooler. A comparative, transversal, observational study was conducted in 511 children between the ages of 1 and 5 from child care centers in the Jalisco sugar cane area. Using anthropometric indicators, classified according to Waterlow, their nutritional state was evaluated. The prevalence of the malnutrition was 79.0 per 100 preschoolers (68.1% adapted, 21.5% acutely chronic and 10.4% acute). Those factors associated with acute malnutrition included: a family income of less than the established minimum wage (O.R. = 6.32, P = 0.00), a lesser amount with an acute pathology (O.R. = 3.34, P = 0.00) and being a year old (O.R. = 2.22, P = 0.01). Significant differences were found among children of parents who: did not have an education (P = 0.04) and who were sugar cane cutters (P = 0.05). The findings identify risk factors for acute malnutrition, probably modifiable using nutritional epidemiological surveillance strategies.

  14. Associations between Parental Feeding Styles and Childhood Eating Habits: A Survey of Hong Kong Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Keung, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children’s food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into ‘instrumental feeding’, ‘emotional feeding’, ‘prompting and encouragement to eat’ and ‘control over eating’. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy

  15. The Story Preferences of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Marcia

    Preschool children's story preferences were studied to determine if differences existed in preschoolers' preferences for reality, fantasy, people, and animals. Sex of character versus sex of subject was also investigated. Subjects were 84 children from preschools in Lincoln, Nebraska (39 boys and 45 girls). Through use of a nonverbal testing…

  16. Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Pham, Thu Trang; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Finch, Sarah L; El Hayek, Jessy; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry; Rodd, Celia J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between vitamin D status, bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and markers of calcium homeostasis in preschool-aged children. Children (n=488; age range: 1.8-6.0 y) were randomly recruited from Montreal. The distal forearm was scanned using a peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner (Lunar PIXI; GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT). A subset (n=81) had clinical dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (cDXA) scans (Hologic 4500A Discovery Series) of lumbar spine (LS) 1-4, whole body, and ultradistal forearm. All were assessed for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone concentrations (Liaison; Diasorin), ionized calcium (ABL80 FLEX; Radiometer Medical A/S), and dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes by survey. Age (p<0.001) and weight-for-age Z-score (p<0.001) were positively associated with BMC and aBMD in all regression models, whereas male sex contributed positively to forearm BMC and aBMD. Having a 25(OH)D concentration of >75 nmol/L positively associated with forearm and whole body BMC and aBMD (p<0.036). Sun index related to (p<0.029) cDXA forearm and LS 1-4 BMC and whole-body aBMD. Nutrient intakes did not relate to BMC or aBMD. In conclusion, higher vitamin D status is linked to higher BMC and aBMD of forearm and whole body in preschool-aged children.

  17. Preschool Curriculum for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Saur, Cheryl

    The curriculum guide for use with preschool handicapped children provides 28 activity units as well as general teaching suggestions. An initial section covers ideas for adapting activities to specific handicapping conditions including the visually impaired, hearing impaired, physically handicapped, and mentally disabled. Subsections also cover…

  18. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  19. Preschool Children's Informal Division Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins-Knabe, Belinda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…

  20. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  1. Barriers to Vaccinating Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orenstein, Walter A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing disease, preschool children, particularly in the inner cities, are not being adequately immunized. Inadequate clinic staff and hours, inconvenient locations, prohibitive policies, and missed opportunities within the health care system may contribute to this problem. Suggests policy changes…

  2. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior.

  3. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. PMID:25700629

  4. Enjoyment of tactile play is associated with lower food neophobia in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Thakker, Dipti

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that parental reports of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity are associated with lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in children. This study aimed to pilot a behavioral observation measure of tactile play in young children. The primary aim of the study was to see whether children's enjoyment of tactile play was associated with higher F/V consumption, as well as lower food neophobia. Seventy 2- to 5-year-old children (37 males and 33 females) and their parents were recruited through children's centers in the Leicester region of the United Kingdom during July to October 2012. Children's engagement in two tactile play tasks using sticky foods (mashed potatoes and vegetarian gelatin) was observed and rated by both the researcher and parent. Parents were asked to complete a series of questionnaires measuring F/V consumption, food neophobia, and sensory processing. It was found that lower child food neophobia was significantly related to enjoyment of tactile play, whereas child F/V consumption was associated with parental F/V consumption, but not enjoyment of tactile play. The findings strengthen the idea that tactile processing may be associated with the acceptance of food variety, but not the total amount of F/V consumed. Additional research is indicated to determine whether tactile play tasks can be used to lower child food neophobia.

  5. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  6. Identifying Creative Activities in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keily, Margaret Mary

    This study compared the creative self-direction, creative behavior, and creative activities of preschool children to determine if students and teachers trained in the creative process and in observation techniques can, with reliability, observe the creative potential of young children. Creative abilities of 155 children from four preschool centers…

  7. Association between occlusal force and physical functions in preschool children: a comparison of males and females.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Aya; Murata, Shin; Kubo, Atsuko; Hachiya, Mizuki; Mitsumaru, Nozomi; Asami, Toyoko

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To determine and compare changes over time in the physical strength of male and female children aged 4-5 years by measuring physical functions such as occlusal forces. [Subjects and Methods] The occlusal force, weight, height, grip strength, standing long jump, ball throwing, timed up and go (TUG), and the 25-m run time were measured of 331 children to determine their physical strength. All the children understood and were capable of completing all tests. [Results] Occlusal force among male infants significantly correlated with all items except ball throwing. Stepwise multiple regression analysis independently associated occlusal force with grip strength. In contrast, occlusal force of female infants significantly correlated with all the tested items. Stepwise multiple regression analysis also independently associated occlusal force with grip strength and TUG in females. [Conclusion] Grip strength indicating upper-limb muscle strength correlated with occlusal forces in both male and female children, whereas TUG, balance and walking ability indicating muscle strength of the lower limbs, correlated with items relevant to everyday functions in female infants. These findings show that different factors are involved in the occlusal forces of male and female children. PMID:26834340

  8. Food neophobia and enjoyment of tactile play: Associations between preschool children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Sahota, Simran

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine whether the relationship between enjoyment of tactile play and food neophobia observed in children (Coulthard & Thakker, 2015) would be related to levels seen in their parents. One hundred and twenty six participants were recruited from playgroup centres in the Walsall area of the West Midlands, UK; 63 children (2-5 years; 30 girls and 33 boys) and 63 attendant parents (53 mothers and 10 fathers). Children and their parents' enjoyment of a tactile play task was rated by both the parent and a researcher, and questionnaire measures of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity were completed by the parent for both themselves and their children. Strong associations were found between parent and child scores across all the measures; food neophobia, tactile sensitivity and tactile play enjoyment. The variables most strongly related to child food neophobia were parental neophobia and enjoyment of tactile play (parent and child). These findings indicate that family resemblance exists not only for food neophobia, but for tactile sensory processing as well, and may represent a possible inherited route to neophobia. The findings strengthen the suggestion that tactile processing is associated with food neophobia although the causal nature of this relationship is still not known. PMID:26631252

  9. Factors Associated with Stunting among Pre-school Children in Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Mutwiri, George Mutembei; Kopplow, Regine; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stunting is a major public health problem in Africa and is associated with poor child survival and development. We investigate factors associated to child stunting in three Tanzanian regions. Methods: A cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling survey was conducted among children aged 6-59 months. The sample included 1360 children aged 6-23 months and 1904 children aged 24-59 months. Descriptive statistics and binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Our main results are: in the younger group, stunting was associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.17; confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-3.09), maternal absence (AOR: 1.93; CI: 1.21-3.07) and household diet diversity (AOR: 0.61; CI: 0.41-0.92). Among older children, stunting was associated with male sex (AOR: 1.28; CI: 1.00-1.64), age of 4 and 5 (AOR: 0.71; CI: 0.54-0.95; AOR: 0.60; CI: 0.44-0.83), access to improved water source (AOR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to a functioning water station (AOR: 0.63; CI: 0.40–0.98) and mother breastfeeding (AOR: 1.97; CI: 1.18-3.29). Conclusions: Interventions that increase household wealth and improve water and sanitation conditions should be implemented to reduce stunting. Family planning activities and programmes supporting mothers during pregnancy and lactation can positively affect both newborns and older siblings. PMID:27122480

  10. Maternal Positive Parenting Style Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione M.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Many preschoolers are highly inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive; but only some are impaired in their functioning. Yet factors leading to functional impairment, above and beyond the severity of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, have not been systematically examined. This study examined a model suggesting that after controlling for…

  11. Music Enhances Sleep in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effect of playing background classical guitar music at nap time on alternate days to toddlers and preschool children attending a model preschool. Specifically assessed music's effect on nap-time sleep onset. Found that children fell asleep faster on the music days than on the nonmusic days. Toddlers fell asleep faster than did the…

  12. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  13. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  14. Interactions between Maternal Parenting and Children's Early Disruptive Behavior: Bidirectional Associations across the Transition from Preschool to School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…

  15. The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Amy H; Frick, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = .51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being behaviorally inhibited showed higher levels of parent-rated guilt and empathy than uninhibited children, irrespective of the type and quality of parenting they experienced. However, for uninhibited children, greater inconsistent discipline was associated with lower levels of guilt and lower levels of empathy, whereas higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with higher levels of guilt. These results support the presence of important interactions between temperament and parenting in explaining two critical dimensions of callous-unemotional traits.

  16. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  17. Understanding and Facilitating Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, Kristen M.

    This digest discusses factors associated with the acceptance and rejection of preschool children by their peers and offers a number of strategies that teachers and other adults can use in their attempts to help children achieve social acceptance. Behaviors and characteristics associated with peer rejection include aggression and misinterpretation…

  18. Association between Hypothesized Parental Influences and Preschool Children's Physical Activity Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…

  19. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  20. Developing Gifted Children in Hungarian Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene

    2013-01-01

    At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of preschool teachers…

  1. The Ecological Education of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    The system of ecological education of preschool children includes multiple interconnected blocks that cover all aspects of the ecological pedagogical process in a preschool institution: the content of the ecological education, the ways it is conducted (methods and technologies), and the organization and management of the process.

  2. Preschool Children's Ideas on Sustainable Development: How Preschool Children Perceive Three Pillars of Sustainability with the Regard to 7R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Guler, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe ideas of preschool children about sustainable development. Basic qualitative research was utilized and 36 preschool children enrolled in four different preschools in Ankara were included in the study. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data related to ideas of preschool children on three pillars…

  3. Speech Development Patterns and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Virginia A.; Foy, Judith G.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the association between speech production and early literacy skills, this study of 102 preschool children looked at phonological awareness in relation to whether children were delayed, typical, or advanced in their articulation of consonants. Using a developmental typology inspired by some of the literature on speech development (Kahn…

  4. African American Father Involvement and Preschool Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    A developmental ecological model was used to identify child attributes, father characteristics, and familial factors associated with multidimensional father involvement with preschool children enrolled in Head Start. The relations between father involvement and children's school readiness were also investigated. Eighty-five African American…

  5. Attachment, Behavioral Inhibition, and Anxiety in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir-Essakow, Galia; Ungerer, Judy A.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the association between insecure attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety in an at risk sample of preschool children. The relationship between maternal anxiety and child anxiety was also assessed. Participants were 104 children aged 3-4 years who were assessed for behavioral inhibition and mother-child attachment (using…

  6. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  7. Why good placements matter: Pre-placement and placement risk factors associated with mental health disorders in pre-school children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Thomas; Gafson, Leonie

    2015-07-01

    Pre-school children placed in local authority care show elevated rates of mental health disorders when compared to the general population. This study investigated risk factors for mental health disorders relating to the period prior to entering care and while in care. A representative sample of 43 children in care aged 0-72 months in an inner London borough underwent comprehensive multidimensional assessments. Presence of emotional, behavioural, attachment and adaptive disorders was ascertained. Exposure to two pre-placement risk factors and six placement risk factors was compared between children with and without a disorder. A total of 26 children (60.5%) had at least one mental health disorder. The two pre-placement risk factors, multiple types of maltreatment and entry into care after the age of 6 months, were both significantly associated with mental health disorders. The three placement risk factors of sudden placement moves, multiple placement moves and child-carer alienation showed a significant association with mental health disorders. There was a strong correlation between the number of risk factors and the number of co-morbid mental health disorders per child (r = .67, p < .001). In conclusion, this study identified five modifiable risk factors related to the quality of safeguarding and fostering services which showed a significant association with pre-school mental health.

  8. Why good placements matter: Pre-placement and placement risk factors associated with mental health disorders in pre-school children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Thomas; Gafson, Leonie

    2015-07-01

    Pre-school children placed in local authority care show elevated rates of mental health disorders when compared to the general population. This study investigated risk factors for mental health disorders relating to the period prior to entering care and while in care. A representative sample of 43 children in care aged 0-72 months in an inner London borough underwent comprehensive multidimensional assessments. Presence of emotional, behavioural, attachment and adaptive disorders was ascertained. Exposure to two pre-placement risk factors and six placement risk factors was compared between children with and without a disorder. A total of 26 children (60.5%) had at least one mental health disorder. The two pre-placement risk factors, multiple types of maltreatment and entry into care after the age of 6 months, were both significantly associated with mental health disorders. The three placement risk factors of sudden placement moves, multiple placement moves and child-carer alienation showed a significant association with mental health disorders. There was a strong correlation between the number of risk factors and the number of co-morbid mental health disorders per child (r = .67, p < .001). In conclusion, this study identified five modifiable risk factors related to the quality of safeguarding and fostering services which showed a significant association with pre-school mental health. PMID:24733375

  9. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  10. Mental Models of School for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kildan, A. Oguzhan; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan; Ahi, Berat

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine mental models of 334 pre-school children concerning school. Children in the city center of Kastamonu in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey were included. Content analysis was conducted on pictures drawn by the children, and the models were split into two groups, scientific and nonscientific. The…

  11. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  12. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI) and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years) and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Results We found a direct correlation (p < 0.001) between children's BMI z-score and their mothers' BMI, both in boys (Spearman rho = 0.26) and girls (rho = 0.30). A direct association was also found between children's BMI z-score with scores of the subscale "concern for child's weight" (Spearman rho = 0.26 in boys and rho = 0.37 in girls; p < 0.001) and "food restriction" (rho = 0.19 in boys and rho = 0.27 in girls; p < 0.001). A reverse significant association was found between children's BMI z-score with scores of "pressure to eat" (rho = -0.30 in boys and rho = -0.36 in girls; p < 0.001). Analyses of the combined categories of childhood obesity and/or maternal obesity showed an important influence of children's weight status on CFQ scores. Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children. PMID:20040107

  13. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  14. Comorbidities in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Background Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that comorbidity plays in determining children’s outcomes. Method The preschool attention, executive function and motor skills of 112 children at family risk for dyslexia, 29 of whom also met criteria for language impairment, were assessed at ages 3 ½ and 4 ½. The performance of these children was compared to the performance of children with language impairment and typically developing controls. Results Weaknesses in attention, executive function and motor skills were associated with language impairment rather than family risk status. Individual differences in language and executive function are strongly related in the preschool period and preschool motor skills predicted unique variance (4%) in early reading skills over and above children’s language ability. Conclusion Comorbidity between developmental disorders can be observed in the preschool years: children with language impairment have significant and persistent weaknesses in motor skills and executive function compared to those without language impairment. Children’s early language and motor skills are predictors of children’s later reading skills. PMID:24117483

  15. Children's Participation in Preschool--On the Conditions of the Adults? Preschool Staff's Concepts of Children's Participation in Preschool Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Eriksson, Anette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyse and describe preschool staff's concepts of children's participation in everyday preschool life, as well as preschool staff's experiences and concepts of what characterises the children who participate. Furthermore, it addresses the conditions that preschool staff consider as crucial in…

  16. The Development of Preschool Children of Heroin-Addicted Mothers: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Geraldine S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Disturbances of growth and behavior in children of heroin-addicted mothers was studied in 77 preschool children. Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. (Author/DLS)

  17. Emotional Displays Associated with Preschoolers' Prosocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Randy; Eisenberg, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    In this study, in which triads of children were filmed while they played with a toy, the relation between (1) preschoolers' emotional status and (2) their performance and receipt of prosocial behaviors was examined. (PCB)

  18. Associations of Prenatal and Perinatal Factors with Cortisol Diurnal Pattern and Reactivity to Stress at Preschool Age Among Children Living in Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Elhassan, Maha E.; Miller, Alison L.; Vazquez, Delia M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of pre- and perinatal factors with diurnal cortisol pattern and reactivity to a stressor at preschool age among children living in poverty. Methods: Preschool aged children (n=275) provided saliva samples 3 times per day for 3 days to assess circadian rhythmicity (intercept and slope reflected diurnal pattern) and during a behavioral stress elicitation protocol to measure reactivity (5 samples before, during and after the stressor). Pre- and perinatal predictors were pregnancy weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), infant birth weight z-score and gestational age. We ran 7 linear regression models predicting each of the cortisol outcomes including all pre- and perinatal predictors and covariates simultaneously. Results: Greater pregnancy weight gain predicted higher morning cortisol [b=0.020 (SE 0.007), p=0.003]. Greater pregnancy weight gain also predicted higher cortisol at recovery from the stressor in girls only [β=0.002 (SE 0.001), p=0.036]. There was no association of pre-pregnancy BMI with any cortisol outcome. Higher birth weight z-score predicted higher morning cortisol in the total sample [β=0.134 (SE 0.066, p=0.043]. Greater gestational age predicted lower cortisol during peak stress in the sample who underwent cortisol reactivity testing [β=-0.015 (SE 0.007), p=0.032] and in boys [β=-0.032 (SE 0.014), p=0.027]. Conclusion: Pre- and perinatal factors are associated with cortisol patterning in offspring at preschool age. The implications for child health require additional studies. PMID:26316433

  19. Second-hand smoke exposure and the factors associated with avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children: a school-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Second-hand Smoke (SHS) exposure is a significant public health problem that may be responsible for serious health hazards for child. This study aimed to examine the exposure status of SHS and the factors associated with SHS avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a sample of the mothers of pre-school children (n = 1,020) in 30 registered kindergartens in eastern Taiwan. Overall, 919 (a response rate of 90%) completed the questionnaires. Regression models were used to identify factors with respect to the avoidance behavior of SHS. Results The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 70% and 50% for the mothers and their children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, mothers who were current smokers (β = -0.260, p < 0.001), had spouses who smoked (β = -0.060, p < 0.05), SHS exposure (β = -0.138, p < 0.001), and/or children with exposure to SHS (β = -0.084, p < 0.05) were found to be less likely to avoid SHS, whereas mothers with a high knowledge score about SHS (β = 0.082, p < 0.01), positive attitudes (β = 0.274, p < 0.001) and a high self-efficacy level in regard to the avoidance of SHS (β = 0.397, p < 0.001) were observed to be more likely to avoid SHS. Regression analyses confirmed that the significantly factors associated with the avoidance behavior of SHS were self-efficacy, being a current smoker, and the attitude toward the avoidance of SHS to be that of 55.5% of the total variance explained (p < 0.001). Conclusions The high prevalence rate of exposure to SHS for mothers and their children suggests that a well-designed future intervention program should be implemented in regard to pre-school children's mothers in order to prevent these mothers and their children from SHS exposure hazards, more particularly, to strengthen the knowledge base, to enhance self-efficacy and to foster a more positive attitude toward the avoidance of SHS in the mothers. PMID:20942977

  20. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  1. Television viewing, computer use, obesity, and adiposity in US preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1) that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2) that computer u...

  2. The Effects of Using Interactive Teaching Programs on Preschool Children's Literacy Development: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahwaji, Nahla M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a case study that investigates the effects of using interactive teaching programs on literacy development for preschool children. The significant of this study comes from the lack of studies associated with using interactive teaching programs for preschool children in Saudi Arabia. Data are presented from analyzing…

  3. Prevention of obesity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, Julie; Barber, Sally; Singhal, Atul

    2010-05-01

    Obesity is a serious problem that affects children from diverse ethnic backgrounds in both industrialised and developing countries. Worldwide, an estimated twenty-two million children <5 years of age were overweight in 2007. In the UK if current trends continue an estimated one-quarter of all children <16 years of age will be obese by 2050. Recent evidence suggests that most obesity is established during the preschool years, and because one in five obese 4 year olds will become obese adults this situation has major implications for public health. The causes of obesity in preschool children are complex and multifactorial. Although 30-50% of the predisposition towards obesity in preschool children can be explained by genetic factors, environmental influences also play a crucial role. The preschool period in particular is a pivotal time during which long-term dietary and physical activity habits are established, with potential lifelong effects on health. However, research in this age-group is limited. Previous studies have aimed to improve diet, increase physical activity and achieve behavioural change. However, few of these studies have been successful and there is an urgent need, therefore, for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at the prevention of preschool obesity.

  4. Teaching Probabilities and Statistics to Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pange, Jenny

    2003-01-01

    This study considers the teaching of probabilities and statistics to a group of preschool children using traditional classroom activities and Internet games. It was clear from this study that children can show a high level of understanding of probabilities and statistics, and demonstrate high performance in probability games. The use of Internet…

  5. Relating Preschool Quality to Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Denise D.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool classrooms were investigated to determine the extent to which quality is related to children's literacy development. The study included 24 classrooms of 428 prekindergarten children in a large, urban Midwestern school district. Results suggest that global classroom quality and literacy environment quality are strongly related. Literacy…

  6. An Art Appreciation Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Kim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week art appreciation curriculum on 17 preschool children's levels of self-esteem, art involvement, and art appreciation. Pre- and postintervention tests demonstrated that, as a result of the curriculum, the children's self-esteem increased and that they displayed greater interest and knowledge of art. (MDM)

  7. Object Movement in Preschool Children's Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scofield, Jason; Miller, Andrea; Hartin, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined whether preschool children preferred to select a moving object over stationary objects when determining the referent of a novel word. In both studies three- and four-year-olds observed three novel objects, one moving object and two stationary objects. In Study 1, children (n=44) were asked to select the object that best…

  8. Developmental-Behavioral Dysfunction in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberklaid, Frank; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Historical data and information regarding present functioning (including a neurodevelopmental assessment) were collected on 79 preschool children with behavioral and developmental problems. When compared with a matched cohort of children from the community, the clinic population had a higher incidence of developmental concerns. Journal…

  9. Gender Effects in Preschool Childrens' Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Shari Haynie; Moran, James D., III

    An experiment was conducted to determine if gender differences among preschool children would be found on measures of creative potential. Subjects were 58 English-speaking children, 31 boys and 27 girls, with a mean age of 57.6 months, who attended the Child Development Laboratory School at Oklahoma State University. Subjects were tested…

  10. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  11. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  12. Assessment of Language in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stick, Sheldon L.; Sharifi, Hassan

    1977-01-01

    A study involving 40 nursery school and kindergarten children was conducted to obtain information on how preschool children understand the following three aspects of spoken sentences: word patterns; word regularities, and word relationships. Available from: Journal of Practical Approaches to Developmental Handicap, 3304-33rd Street N.W., Calgary,…

  13. Implementing a Musical Program to Promote Preschool Children's Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyeda, Iris Xóchitl Galicia; Gómez, Ixtlixóchitl Contreras; Flores, María Teresa Peña

    2006-01-01

    In light of the correlation between musical and linguistic skills, a program of musical activities was designed to promote discrimination of rhythmic and melodic elements and the association of auditory stimuli with visual stimuli and motor activities. The effects of the program on the vocabulary of preschool children were evaluated and compared…

  14. Association between traffic-related air pollution and asthma in preschool children in a national Japanese nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Hideki; Sato, Tosiya; Iwata, Tsutomu; Kohno, Yoichi; Nitta, Hiroshi; Odajima, Hiroshi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Omori, Takashi; Ono, Masaji; Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There has been little study on the effect of traffic-related air pollution on the incidence and persistence of asthma in preschool children. We evaluated the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution with the incidence/persistence of asthma during the first 3 years of life using a population-based study. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in 1½-year-old children (n=63 266). A follow-up survey at 3 years of age (n=43 343) identified new-onset asthma cases (n=853) and persistence of asthma (n=214). In the prevalence/persistence study, the outdoor concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC) at home during the first 1½ years of life were estimated by a dispersion model. In the nested case–control study, which regarded incidence of asthma as cases, the personal exposure levels were estimated by dispersion model including time-activity pattern. Results There was no statistically significant association between the incidence of asthma between age 1½ and 3 years and personal exposure levels to NOx nor EC. However, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms (between 1½ and 3 years) was significantly associated with outdoor concentrations of NOx. ORs for the persistence of asthmatic symptoms were 6.02 (95% CI 1.51 to 23.92) for the comparison between the upper 5th and lower 25th centiles of NOx. Conclusions While no statistically significant association was observed for the incidence of asthma, the persistence of asthmatic symptoms in preschool children was significantly associated with traffic-related air pollution. This supports its importance as a risk factor in childhood airway disease. PMID:26916696

  15. Mild head injury in preschool children: evidence that it can be associated with a persisting cognitive defect.

    PubMed

    Wrightson, P; McGinn, V; Gronwall, D

    1995-10-01

    This study describes the effect of mild head injury in preschool children on aspects of their cognitive performance in the year after injury and at the age of 6.5 years, with particular reference to the development of reading skills. Mild head injury was defined by diagnosis at a hospital emergency department of a head injury which was not severe enough to need admission for observation. Seventy eight such children were compared with a group of 86 with a minor injury elsewhere. The groups had similar developmental, family, and socioeconomic status. There were no differences in cognitive tests soon after the injury, but at six months and one year children with mild head injury scored less than controls on one test, solving a visual puzzle (visual closure); they were also more likely to have had another mild head injury. At 6.5 years of age they still scored less than controls, reading ability was related to their visual closure score at one year, and they were more likely to have needed help with reading. Mild head injury seems to be able to produce subtle but significant changes which can affect school performance. PMID:7561915

  16. Social and Non-Social Behavioral Inhibition in Preschool-Age Children: Differential Associations with Parent-Reports of Temperament and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Margaret W.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Durbin, C. Emily

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) has generally been treated as a unitary construct and assessed by combining ratings of fear, vigilance, and avoidance to both novel social and non-social stimuli. However, there is evidence suggesting that BI in social contexts is not correlated with BI in non-social contexts. The present study examined the distinction between social and non-social BI in a community sample of 559 preschool-age children using a laboratory assessment of child temperament, a diagnostic interview, and parent-completed questionnaires. Social and non-social BI were not significantly correlated and exhibited distinct patterns of associations with parent reports of temperament and anxiety symptoms. This study suggests that BI is heterogeneous, and that distinguishing between different forms of BI may help account for the variation in trajectories and outcomes exhibited by high BI children. PMID:21479511

  17. Vision screening of preschool children in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ingrosso, A; Mancioppi, S; Orsoni, J G

    1995-03-01

    Vision screening of preschool children is designed and performed to identify those affected by amblyopia or related, predisposing visual defects. In order to determine the prevalence of preschool vision screening in Italy, a questionnaire was mailed to the 635 regional health offices in which the country's national health system was organized at the time of the study. Results of this survey demonstrated that in 61.3% of the regions which responded, some form of preschool vision screening is performed. However, individual, non-standardized methods are used by the physicians or health care professionals responsible in each regional program. It is evident from this study that standardized procedures for preschool vision testing are lacking in Italy, and that the existing European Community guidelines should be disseminated and applied on a greater scale for the development of such a program on the national and European level.

  18. Matching preschool children's and teachers' cognitive styles.

    PubMed

    Saracho, O N; Spodek, B

    1994-04-01

    The study examined the significance of matching the cognitive styles of 3-, 4-, and 5-yr.-old preschool children and their teachers. 150 female teachers and their children were administered several instruments to measure cognitive style, intelligence, and the teachers' assessment of their classroom children. They included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Articulation of the Body-concept Scale, and Teachers' Ranking Form. Analysis indicated that teachers assessed their matched and mismatched children's relative standing on a standardized test differently by age. For 3-yr.-olds, field-dependent teachers underestimated their mismatched children more than their other children, while field-independent teachers underestimated their matched children more. Teachers of 4-yr.-old children overestimated all children. For 5-yr.-olds, field-dependent teachers assessed their mismatched children more negatively than their matched children, while field-independent teachers assessed their mismatched children more positively than the field-dependent teachers.

  19. Children's Access to Pre-School Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school education…

  20. A Demographic Survey of Appalachian Parents of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.

    This is a demographic survey of families with preschool children in the Appalachian area conducted to provide information concerning the target audience for the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's Home-Oriented Preschool Education Program (HOPE). HOPE is an integrated approach to education for preschool and kindergarten children using home, group…

  1. Home Dampness Signs in Association with Asthma and Allergic Diseases in 4618 Preschool Children in Urumqi, China-The Influence of Ventilation/Cleaning Habits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijing; Zhao, Zhuohui; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Tingting; Kan, Haidong; Norback, Dan

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of childhood asthma and allergic diseases in mainland of China. Few studies investigated the indoor dampness, ventilation and cleaning habits and their interrelationship with childhood asthma and allergic diseases. A large-scale cross-sectional study was performed in preschool children in Urumqi, China. Questionnaire was used to collect information on children's health, home dampness and ventilation/cleaning (V/C) habits. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations between childhood asthma/allergic diseases and each sign of home dampness, dampness levels, each V/C habit and total V/C scores. The associations between dampness and health were further performed by strata analyses in two groups with low and high V/C scores. Totally 4618(81.7%) of 5650 children returned the questionnaire. Reports on home dampness were most common for water condensation on windows (20.8%) followed by damp beddings (18.0%). The most common ventilation measure was the use of exhaust fan in bathroom (59.3%), followed by daily home cleaning (48.3%), frequently putting beddings to sunshine (29.9%) and frequently opening windows in winter (8.4%). There were positive associations between the 6 signs of home dampness and children's health particularly the symptoms last 12 months. By comparing with the reference dampness level (dampness scored 0), both the low dampness (scored 1~2) level and the high dampness level (scored 3~6) showed significantly increasing associations with childhood symptoms. There were crude negative associations between V/C habits and childhood health but not significant adjusting for home dampness levels. The risks of home dampness on children's health were lower in the group with higher V/C score but the differences were not statistically significant. Home dampness is a potential risk factor for childhood asthma and allergic symptoms in preschool children in Urumqi, China. No significant effects were observed

  2. AN EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN. ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE (MONTREAL, DECEMBER 29, 1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRAY, SUSAN W.; KLAUS, RUPERT A.

    THE EXPERIMENTS ATTEMPTED TO MEASURE ACHIEVEMENT, MOTIVATION, DELAY OF GRATIFICATION, ASPECTS OF PERCEPTION DEVELOPMENT, COGNITION, AND LANGUAGE OF CULTURALLY DEPRIVED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. THERE WERE FOUR EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS--CHILDREN ATTENDING SUMMER SCHOOL FOR 3 YEARS AND HAVING CONTACTS WITH A HOME VISITOR IN THE FALL, WINTER, AND SPRING MONTHS,…

  3. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. PMID:23286454

  4. Preschool Education Programs for Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra L., Ed.; Handleman, Jan S., Ed.

    This book highlights 10 preschool education programs for children with autism, focusing on each program's structure and content, diagnosis and assessment, staffing and administration, curriculum, integration, use of aversive behavior modification techniques, family involvement, and outcomes. The book consists of 11 chapters, the first of which is…

  5. Development of Spanish Consonants in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Mary Ann

    1993-01-01

    This study tested the production of 18 Spanish consonants by 120 Mexican-American preschool children (ages 3-5), to determine the age of acquisition of Spanish consonants. Data are provided on percent of correct production of each sound at six different age levels and are graphically illustrated to compare age of acquisition with another study's…

  6. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  7. Gender and Language in Japanese Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Keiko

    2001-01-01

    Explores the relation between gender and language use in Japanese preschool children. Gender-based differences in Japanese include phonological, lexical, and morphosyntactical differences, as well as differences in conversational style. Data come from monthly naturalistic observations of 24 monolingual Japanese boys and girls engaged in same-sex…

  8. Correlates of Attraction Among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael B.

    The generalizability of several variables which have been related to attraction among adults to preschool children was investigated. It was found that perceived physical attractiveness, perceived proximity, and familiarity are all significantly positively correlated with how popular a child is in his nursery school class. (Author)

  9. PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S WILLINGNESS TO TRY DIFFICULT TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STARKWEATHER, ELIZABETH K.

    INSTRUMENTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO MEASURE THEIR PERFORMANCE ON VARIOUS TASKS. THE INSTRUMENTS WERE (1) A BUTTONING TASK FOR FINE MOTOR COORDINATION, (2) A PUZZLE TASK FOR VISUAL DISCRIMINATION, AND (3) A TARGET GAME FOR GROSS MOTOR COORDINATION. EACH INSTRUMENT CONSISTED OF FIVE TASKS GRADED IN DIFFICULTY, ADJUSTED TO THE…

  10. High-Quality Preschool: The Socioeconomic Composition of Preschool Classrooms and Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jeanne L.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: As policymakers expand access to preschool, the sociodemographic composition of preschool classrooms will become increasingly important. These efforts may create programs that increase the concentration of children from low-income families or, alternatively, foster the creation of socioeconomically diverse preschool classrooms.…

  11. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by…

  12. Imaginary Companions of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Sebanc, Anne M.; Hartup, Willard W.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed mothers to examine the developmental significance of preschoolers' imaginary companions. Found that relationships with invisible companions were described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Object personification frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy; invisible friends were viewed…

  13. Ecological Influences of the Home and the Child-Care Center on Preschool-Age Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.; Bennett, Kymberley K.

    2005-01-01

    Based on ecological theory, this study examined how four components of children's home and child-care literacy environments, and the connections between these environments, were associated with preschool-age children's literacy and language development. Interview and standardized assessment data were collected from 85 preschool-age children, their…

  14. Language and Literacy Effects of Curriculum Interventions for Preschools Serving Economically Disadvantaged Children: A Meta Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to review studies that report language and literacy outcomes associated with preschool curriculum-based interventions. Results from studies reporting on interventions targeting preschool children from low-income families were included regardless of the specific type of program. Although the majority of preschool…

  15. Children's Engagement within the Preschool Classroom and Their Development of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Vick Whittaker, Jessica E.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Downer, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an observational measure to examine how individual children's engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks was associated with gains in self-regulation. A sample of 341 preschoolers was observed, and direct assessments and teacher reports of self-regulation were obtained in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Research…

  16. Associations between hair manganese levels and cognitive, language, and motor development in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rink, Stephanie M; Ardoino, Graciela; Queirolo, Elena I; Cicariello, Daniela; Mañay, Nelly; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Environmental manganese (Mn) exposure in childhood has been associated with developmental deficits. This study investigated associations between low-level Mn exposure and developmental scores in children aged 14-45 months. Children's hair samples (n = 60) were analyzed for Mn and lead (Pb) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Children were assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (BSID). Mean hair Mn and Pb concentrations were 0.98 ± 0.74 and 10.1 ± 10.5 μg/g, respectively. Unadjusted inverse associations were seen between Mn and BSID subscales, with girls having lower scores related to Mn than boys. No significant associations remained in covariate-adjusted models, although when stratified by sex boys had a positive association between hair Mn levels and language scores. This study does not show clear evidence of an association between hair Mn concentrations and children's developmental scores in a region of low-level Mn exposure.

  17. Sustained Attention and Social Competence in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Laura M. Bennett; Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Brinkman, Tara M.; McNamara, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between sustained attention and social competence in preschool children. While studies demonstrate that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit poor social competence, less is known about typically developing children. Since children with ADHD have associated behavior…

  18. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  19. Reading Children's Books to the Preschool Children in Greek Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsiopoulou, Triantafillia; Souliotis, Dimitrios; Kyridis, Argyris; Hatzisavvides, Sophronis

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a report on a study of the practice of reading to young children in 1115 families in Greece. The outcome of the study shows that families from high socio-economic (HSES) backgrounds buy and read children's books to their preschoolers significantly more than families from low socio-economic (LSES) backgrounds do. HSES families use…

  20. Stereoacuity of Preschool Children with and without Vision Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ciner, Elise B.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Maguire, Maureen G.; Quinn, Graham E.; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Cyert, Lynn A.; Moore, Bruce; Huang, Jiayan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate associations between stereoacuity and presence, type, and severity of vision disorders in Head Start preschool children and determine testability and levels of stereoacuity by age in children without vision disorders. Methods Stereoacuity of children aged 3 to 5 years (n = 2898) participating in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study was evaluated using the Stereo Smile II test during a comprehensive vision examination. This test uses a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with four stereoacuity levels (480 to 60 seconds of arc). Children were classified by the presence (n = 871) or absence (n = 2027) of VIP Study–targeted vision disorders (amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, or unexplained reduced visual acuity), including type and severity. Median stereoacuity between groups and among severity levels of vision disorders was compared using Wilcoxon rank sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Testability and stereoacuity levels were determined for children without VIP Study–targeted disorders overall and by age. Results Children with VIP Study–targeted vision disorders had significantly worse median stereoacuity than that of children without vision disorders (120 vs. 60 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Children with the most severe vision disorders had worse stereoacuity than that of children with milder disorders (median 480 vs. 120 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Among children without vision disorders, testability was 99.6% overall, increasing with age to 100% for 5-year-olds (p = 0.002). Most of the children without vision disorders (88%) had stereoacuity at the two best disparities (60 or 120 seconds of arc); the percentage increasing with age (82% for 3-, 89% for 4-, and 92% for 5-year-olds; p < 0.001). Conclusions The presence of any VIP Study–targeted vision disorder was associated with significantly worse stereoacuity in preschool children. Severe vision disorders were more likely associated with poorer stereopsis than milder

  1. Targeting Preschool Children to Promote Cardiovascular Health: Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Woodward, Mark; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND School programs can be effective in modifying knowledge, attitudes, and habits relevant to long-term risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles. As part of a long-term research strategy, we conducted an educational intervention in preschool facilities to assess changes in preschoolers’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits toward healthy eating and living an active lifestyle. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 14 preschool facilities in Bogotá, Colombia to a 5-month educational and playful intervention (7 preschool facilities) or to usual curriculum (7 preschool facilities). A total of 1216 children aged 3–5 years, 928 parents, and 120 teachers participated. A structured survey was used at baseline, at the end of the study, and 12 months later to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS Children in the intervention group showed a 10.9% increase in weighted score, compared with 5.3% in controls. The absolute adjusted difference was 3.90 units (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–6.16; P <.001). Among parents, the equivalent statistics were 8.9% and 3.1%, respectively (absolute difference 4.08 units; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.12; P <.001), and among teachers, 9.4% and 2.5%, respectively (absolute difference 5.36 units; 95% CI, −0.29–11.01; P = .06). In the intervened cohort 1 year after the intervention, children still showed a significant increase in weighted score (absolute difference of 6.38 units; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A preschool-based intervention aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to healthy diet and active lifestyle is feasible, efficacious, and sustainable in very young children. PMID:23062403

  2. Quality of Social and Physical Environments in Preschools and Children's Development of Academic, Language, and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations between quality of social and physical environments in preschools and children's development of academic, language, and literacy skills, and the extent to which preschool quality moderated the associations between child risk and development. Participants were a diverse sample of 540 four-year-old children in…

  3. Preschool Teachers' Financial Well-Being and Work Time Supports: Associations with Children's Emotional Expressions and Behaviors in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth K.; Johnson, Amy V.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Wang, Yudan C.; Lower, Joanna K.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among teachers' financial well-being, including teachers' wages and their perceptions of their ability to pay for basic expenses, and teachers' work time supports, including teachers' paid planning time, vacation days, and sick days, and children's positive emotional expressions and behaviors in preschool…

  4. Temperamental Emotionality in Preschool-Aged Children and Depressive Disorders in Parents: Associations in a Large Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Durbin, C. Emily

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have long hypothesized that there are temperamental vulnerabilities to depressive disorders. Despite the fact that individual differences in temperament should be evident in early childhood, most studies have focused on older youth and adults. We hypothesized that if early childhood temperament is a risk factor for depressive disorders, it should be associated with better-established risk markers, such parental depression. Hence, we examined the associations of laboratory-assessed positive emotionality (PE), negative emotionality (NE), and behavioral inhibition (BI) with semi-structured interview-based diagnoses of parental depressive disorders in a community sample of 536 three-year old children. Children with higher levels of NE and BI had higher probabilities of having a depressed parent. However, both main effects were qualified by interactions with child PE. At high and moderate, but not low, levels of child PE, greater NE and BI were associated with higher rates of parental depression. Conversely, at low, but not high and moderate, levels of child NE, low PE was associated with a higher rate of parental depression. Child temperament was not associated with parental anxiety and substance use disorders. These findings indicate that laboratory-assessed temperament in young children is associated with parental depressive disorders, however the relations are complex and it is important to consider interactions between temperament dimensions rather than focusing exclusively on main effects. PMID:20677836

  5. Influences of preschool policies and practices on children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Trost, Stewart G; Almeida, M Joăo C A; Sirard, John R

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of 3-5 year old preschool children varied with differences in policies/practices, and overall quality of preschools. A total of 266 children (47% males, 60% African American) from 9 preschools were observed for 1 hour on 3 different days. PA of children was observed twice per minute and scored as 1-5, with 1 for stationary/motionless and 5 for fast movement. Summary MVPA was calculated over the 3 days as percent of times observed at levels of 4 or 5, and percent of time at levels 1 or 2 as sedentary activity. A structured interview about PA policies was conducted with an administrator at each preschool and overall quality of the preschool was assessed using Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ECERS-R). Preschools were divided into groups according to whether a specific policy/practice that would be logically hypothesized to promote PA was in place at the school. MVPA differences between groups of children was assessed using mixed ANOVA controlling for preschool. When preschools offered more field trips, and more college educated teachers, the children participated in more MVPA. Children who attended preschools with lower quality spent more time in sedentary activity. In conclusion, children in preschools which may have more resources and better quality appear to show both more sedentary behavior and more MVPA.

  6. Exploring Preschool Children's Science Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Bowles, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe children's science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children's science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year.…

  7. A Study on Gross Motor Skills of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joanne Hui-Tzu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a creative movement program on gross motor skills of preschool children. Sixty children between the ages of 3 to 5 were drawn from the population of a preschool in Taichung, Taiwan. An experimental pretest-posttest control-group design was utilized. The children enrolled in the…

  8. The Effect of Preschool Children on Family Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In a study of 1,000 New Zealand children from birth to 10 years, risks of family breakdown were found to vary inversely to the number of preschool children in the family. These results persisted when many fixed and time-dependent variates were controlled, suggesting that the presence of preschool children reduces risks of family breakdown.…

  9. Nighttime Fears and Fantasy-Reality Differentiation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…

  10. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  11. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-02-26

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.

  12. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-03-01

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner. PMID:24577283

  13. Hidden Spaces and Places in the Preschool: Withdrawal Strategies in Preschool Children's Peer Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanfors, Lovisa; Lofdahl, Annica; Hagglund, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses how children make use of their preschool context in order to withdraw. Ethnographic observations were made of two-to five-year-old children's interactions during free play and teacher-led activities in the preschool, and documentation was carried out through field notes and video recordings. The empirical material was…

  14. Measuring Preschool Children Temperament: Implications for Preschool Care and Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorkapic, Sanja Tatalovic; Loncaric, Darko

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of measuring preschool children temperament, EASI temperament Survey has been applied. Preschool teachers (N = 192), all female, rated a total of N = 3275 children (1612 girls and 1639 boys) with mean age M 4.368 (SD = 1.482) within age range between 7 months and 7.7 years. Validation for the instrument was run. Factor analysis on…

  15. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  16. `Drawing the Leaves Anyway': Teachers Embracing Children's Different Ways of Knowing in Preschool Science Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areljung, Sofie; Ottander, Christina; Due, Karin

    2016-09-01

    This study explores if and how teachers combine practices of science and of preschool (children 1-5 years old) into preschool science practice. Views of knowing may differ between science practices, traditionally associated with masculinity and rationality, and preschool practices, traditionally associated with femininity and caring. Recognising this, we have chosen to focus on how teachers' talk constructs and relates to possible ways of gaining knowledge and reaching explanations of phenomena in preschool science. The analysis builds on two concept pairs often associated with gender as well as knowing: objective-subjective and logical-intuitive. The analysed material consists of 11 group interviews where preschool teachers talk about activities concerning science content. Our results show that several ways of knowing are possible in work with science content in preschool. These include ways of knowing more associated with subjectivity, such as `individual liking' and `whole-body perception', as well as more associated with objectivity, such as `noticing differences and similarities'. Furthermore, the results show that the teachers' talk moves readily between possibilities associated with femininity (subjective and intuitive) and masculinity (objective and logical). This indicates that the teachers in this study have found ways to handle science in preschool that goes against presumed tensions between science and preschool practices. The results contribute to more nuanced ways of describing and thinking about science in preschool and pave the way for further development of science education in early childhood education.

  17. Variables associated with sun protection behaviour of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Negro, José Eduardo; Buendía-Eisman, Agustín; Cabrera León, Andrés; Serrano Ortega, Salvio

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been published on the variables associated with sun protection behaviour in preschoolers. We aimed to define variables associated with sun protection behaviour of a sample of Spanish preschoolers. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in two stages: 1) the design and validation of the measurement instrument, and 2) its application in a final sample of 100 (60 valid questionnaires) children for bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses of the data. The sun protection behaviour of the children was most strongly associated with: parental sun protection behaviour, absence or low frequency of sunburn in parents and children, and lower parental perception of obstacles to sun protection. Other significant factors were lower phototype, younger age, shorter sun exposure times and awareness of the sun as a risk factor. The role of social communication programmes, dermatologists and other agents providing information or sun protection advice was contradictory and associated with lower sun protection in some cases. Parental sun protection, absence or lower frequency of sunburns in parents and children, lower phototype of children, knowledge about sun exposure as a risk factor, younger age and lower parental perception of obstacles to their children's sun protection were significantly associated with the sun protection of the children.

  18. Blunted Cortisol Response to Stress is Associated with Higher Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Caitlin; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    No known studies have tested the hypothesis that a blunted pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress, which is often found following exposure to chronic life stressors, is associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) in very young children. Low-income children (n = 218, mean age 56.6 (range: 38.1 to 78.5; SD 7.0) months, 49.1% male, 56.4% white, 16.1% black, 11.5% Hispanic/Latino) participated in a series of behavioral tasks designed to elicit stress. Cortisol was sampled in saliva 5 times during the protocol, and area under the curve (AUC), representing total cortisol output during stress elicitation, was calculated. Children were weighed and height measured and body mass index (BMI) z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between cortisol AUC and BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white vs. not); primary caregiver weight status (overweight, defined as BMI > 25 vs. not); and family income-to-needs ratio. Mean child BMI z-score was 0.88 (SD = 1.03). Mean cortisol AUC was 6.11 μg/dL/min (SD = 10.44). In the fully adjusted model, for each 1-standard deviation unit decrease in cortisol AUC, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.17 (SE 0.07) standard deviation units (p <.02). A blunted cortisol response to stress, as is often seen following chronic stress exposure, is associated with increased BMI z-score in very young children. Further work is needed to understand how associations between stress, cortisol, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. PMID:23849598

  19. Preschooler's Physical Activity Levels and Associations with Lesson Context, Teacher's Behavior, and Environment during Preschool Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Labarque, Valery; Gubbels, Jessica; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Preschools offer two main opportunities, recess and physical education (PE), for preschool children to participate in physical activity (PA) and are considered a suitable institution for PA promotion given the large number of children enrolled. Although PE can have a meaningful effect on preschoolers' PA levels, preschool PE characteristics…

  20. Toothpaste Utilization Profiles among Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Bennadi, Darshana; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Sibyl, S; Reddy, C.V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral healthcare for pre-school children is given due priority, as their oral health will determine the oral health status of future generations. Generally, the type, frequency and quantity of toothpaste used by children are based purely on parental preferences. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers of preschool children by using a questionnaire. Results: Sixty two percent (n=154) mothers started brushing their children’s teeth more than one year after eruption of their teeth. A majority of the mothers used adult toothpaste to brush their children’s teeth and supervised their children while brushing. Fiftytwo percent mothers were aware about presence of fluoride in tooth paste but its clinical significance. Half the mothers applied full length of tooth paste to their children’s brushes and most mothers made their children brush their teeth twice daily. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it appears that there is still much lack of awareness on the proper guidelines on the selection and usage of toothpastes in children. Dental professionals should use this knowledge to help and motivate parents to properly supervise and assist their children’s brushing, with the goal of reducing the potential risk of fluorosis. PMID:24783140

  1. Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic performance…

  2. Changes in prevalence, aetiology, age at detection, and associated disabilities in preschool children with hearing impairment born in Göteborg.

    PubMed

    Darin, N; Hanner, P; Thiringer, K

    1997-12-01

    The prevalence of hearing impairment (HI) in preschool children born in Göteborg in 1980 to 1984 was 2.0 per 1000. This was significantly lower than the 3.8 per 1000 found in a previous study for 1970 to 1974. The decrease took place in the moderate to severe range of HI, while deafness and mild HI remained unchanged during the period. The cause was considered to be prenatal in 58% with heredity in 33% as the main causative factor. Following the introduction of the MPR (Morbilli-Parotitis-Rubella) vaccination programme in Sweden, no cases of rubella- or mumps-induced HI could be found. The number of HI of perinatal origin decreased by half, in spite of the fact that the figures for preterm baby survival almost doubled during the period. Associated disabilities were diagnosed in 62% of the children with HI; speech retardation in 33%, visual abnormalities in 30%, mental retardation in 12% and neuropsychiatric disorders in 9% of the cases. The importance of collaborative efforts between the otolaryngologist and the neurologically and neuropsychiatrically interested paediatrician in the complete evaluation of additional difficulties in the HI child is emphasized.

  3. Associations between neighbourhood greenness and asthma in preschool children in Kaunas, Lithuania: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Andrusaityte, Sandra; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Kudzyte, Jolanta; Bernotiene, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between surrounding greenness levels and asthma among children, and to explore a possible change of this association by the distance of the residence to a city park. Design A nested case–control study. Setting Children aged 4−6 years residing at their current address since birth in Kaunas, Lithuania, whose mothers were recruited in 2007–2009 to the KANC newborns cohort study. Participants The participants were 1489 children whose parents in 2012–2013 filled in the questionnaires and agreed to participate in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures We estimated clinically diagnosed asthma risk factors. The surrounding greenness was measured as the average of the satellite-based Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within the buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m from each child's home address, and the distance to a city park was defined as the distance to the nearest city park. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to study the relationship between the greenness exposures and asthma adjusted for relevant covariates. Results An increase in the NDVI (>median) in buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m was associated with a slightly increased risk of asthma, while an IQR increase in NDVI-100 m statistically significantly increased the risk of asthma (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.85). The stratified analysis by surrounding greenness revealed indications of stronger associations for children with higher surrounding greenness (NDVI-100>median) and those living farther away from parks (>1000 m), compared to NDVI-100≤median and the distance to a city park >1000 m (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.87). Conclusions A higher level of the surrounding greenness was associated with a slightly increased relative risk of asthma in children. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the influence of city parks and neighbourhood greenness levels on asthma. PMID:27067890

  4. Impact of Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Following Exposure to the September 11 Attacks on Preschool Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression,…

  5. Expressed Emotion Displayed by the Mothers of Inhibited and Uninhibited Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raishevich, Natoshia; Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, the Five Minute Speech Sample was used to assess the association between parent attitudes and children's behavioral inhibition in mothers of 120 behaviorally inhibited (BI) and 37 behaviorally uninhibited preschool-aged children. Mothers of BI children demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional over-involvement…

  6. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  7. The Integration of Migrant Children Into Pre-School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France). Committee for General and Technical Education.

    This working paper was prepared by the Council of Europe Programme Adviser for Pre-School Education for a symposium on "the integration of migrant children into pre-school education". The symposium aimed to identify and suggest appropriate pedagogical measures which should be taken to facilitate and improve the integration of migrant children into…

  8. I Compagni: Understanding Children's Transition from Preschool to Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.; Molinari, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    What happens when children in creative, Reggio-like preschools go to a more traditional elementary school? In this book, William Corsaro and his Italian coauthor, Luisa Molinari, tell a complete and important story about the lives of children as they grow from young preschoolers to preadolescents in Modena, Italy. The authors both explore and…

  9. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  10. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  11. The Development of Distinct Speaking Styles in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Melissa A.; Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine when and how socially conditioned distinct speaking styles emerge in typically developing preschool children's speech. Method: Thirty preschool children, ages 3, 4, and 5 years old, produced target monosyllabic words with monophthongal vowels in different social-functional contexts designed to elicit clear and casual speaking…

  12. Children's Sense of Agency in Preschool: A Sociocultural Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…

  13. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  14. Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context.

    PubMed

    Cools, Wouter; De Martelaer, Kristine; Samaey, Christiane; Andries, Caroline

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests the development of fundamental movement skill (FMS) is a key factor in promoting long-term physical activity. Low levels of activity among preschool children and the relationship between physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills underline the need to determine the factors associated with children's development of such skills. As parents play an important role in the socialization process, the aim of this study was to examine correlates of family and neighbourhood characteristics as well as parental behaviour and beliefs on FMS performance in 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. Relationships between preschool children's FMS performance and family contextual variables were examined within a sample of 846 preschool children. Results identified positive associations of FMS performance with parental education, father's physical activity, transport to school by bicycle, and the high value placed by parents high on sport-specific aspects of children's physical activity. Variables negatively associated with preschool children's FMS performance included father-child interaction in TV-viewing and reading books, the high importance placed by parents on winning and performance in children's physical activity. Furthermore, the ambiguity of associations between FMS performance and parental beliefs underlined its complexity.

  15. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  16. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in primary school and preschool children of khorramabad in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.

  17. Assessing Callous-Unemotional Traits in Preschool Children With Disruptive Behavior Problems Using Peer Reports.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Ros, Rosmary; Haas, Sarah; Hart, Katie; Slavec, Janine; Waschbusch, Daniel; Garcia, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) can identify behaviors indicative of callous-unemotional (CU) traits among their peers. Participants for this study included 86 preschool children (69% boys; Mage = 5.07 years) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP who were attending a summer treatment camp. Data collected from the children, their peers, and the counselors who worked at the summer camp examined preschoolers' social preference, likability, and behaviors indicative of CU. Parents and preschool teachers also reported on children's CU traits and severity of behavioral impairment, as well as school readiness. Peer nominations of CU traits showed (a) excellent factor structure as evidenced by clear CU items (e.g., "don't feel bad when they do something wrong") versus more prosocial items ("share," "cooperate"); (b) moderate construct validity when compared to counselor reports of the CU factor as well as preschool teacher reported ratings of CU traits and severity of behavioral impairment; and (c) good utility as evidenced by associations with peer and counselor rated social preference, likability, and school readiness measures as rated by both parents and preschool teachers. These findings indicate that as early as preschool, children with EBP can identify peers who engage in behaviors indicative of CU traits, which have significant implications for children's social status and overall school readiness.

  18. Activity Group Therapy for Emotionally Disturbed Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plenk, Agnes M.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the comprehensive services offered emotionally disturbed preschool children by a voluntary social agency (the Childrens Center in Salt Lake City, Utah), focusing on activity group therapy, the major therapeutic tool used there. (Author/DLS)

  19. Talking Books for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, S.; Jorgensen, N.

    1989-01-01

    The article asserts that books on tape with sound illustrations (accurate narrative descriptions of graphics and photos) and tactile books stimulate visually impaired and blind children to better understand the physical world. (Author/DB)

  20. Coding Group Behaviours for Preschool Children in the Playground and the Effects of Teachers' Proximity on Preschool Children's Playground Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, April; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Hudson, Carmen; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Horton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Preschool-age children (range: 2.5-5 years old) were videotaped while in the sandbox and the climbing apparatus areas of a preschool playground prior to (i.e. baseline) and after a teacher "zone defence" training. The zone defence involved teachers being assigned to specific playground areas to monitor safety and facilitate the children's play and…

  1. Associations among Preschool Children's Classroom Literacy Environment, Interest and Engagement in Literacy Activities, and Early Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…

  2. Speech development patterns and phonological awareness in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mann, Virginia A; Foy, Judith G

    2007-06-01

    To examine the association between speech production and early literacy skills, this study of 102 preschool children looked at phonological awareness in relation to whether children were delayed, typical, or advanced in their articulation of consonants. Using a developmental typology inspired by some of the literature on speech development (Kahn and Lewis, The Kahn-Lewis phonological analysis, 1986; Shriberg, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 36(1):105-140, 1993a), we found that failure to master the early-8 consonants and a greater prevalence of certain types of production errors were associated with deficient phonological awareness. We also found that children who made no consonant errors had advanced phonological awareness relative to other children in the sample. In all cases, both productive speech patterns and speech errors were more closely linked with rhyme awareness than with phoneme awareness. The association between speech production and rhyme awareness may provide some new directions for the early preschool assessment of risk for reading problems. PMID:17849216

  3. Executive functions in preschool children with ADHD and DBD: an 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Deković, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance were assessed three times in 18 months. Across time, poorer inhibition performance in young children was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and poorer working memory performance was associated with ADHD. Inhibition and working memory performance increased over time, especially in the early preschool period. The improvement of inhibition performance was more pronounced in the clinically diagnosed children compared to the TD children.

  4. Behavior management for preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Williford, Amanda P; Shelton, Terri L

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes behavior management strategies for preschool children who are at high risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder that have found to be effective in improving child behavior. Both parent and teacher training programs are reviewed, as these have been backed by substantial research evidence. In addition, multimodal treatments that include some combination of parent training, teacher training, and social skills training are also reviewed. Interventions emphasize the need for a strong adult-child relationship combined with proactive behavior management strategies to improve child behavior. PMID:25220082

  5. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors in preschool children of urban Bangalore, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Prashanth; Subramaniam, Priya; Durgesh, B.H.; Konde, Sapna

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a devastating form of dental decay with multi-factorial origin. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the prevalence and related risk factors of ECC in preschool children of urban Bangalore (India). Methods: A random sample of 1,500 children aged between 8 and 48 months were selected from various parts of urban Bangalore. The status of dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Information regarding oral hygiene practices, feeding habits, socio-economic status, birth weight, and educational status of the mother was obtained through a structured questionnaire given to mothers of preschool children. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 12. Results: The prevalence of ECC in preschool children was 27.5%, while the mean deft was 0.854. ECC increased significantly with age. Children whose mothers had no schooling and those who belonged to low socioeconomic group showed higher caries prevalence. A significant increase in caries prevalence was found in children accustomed to the practice of on-demand breast feeding and bottle feeding at night. Caries also increased significantly when snacks were consumed between meals. However, increased frequency of tooth-brushing, parental supervision, use of a baby toothbrush, and fluoridated dentifrice significantly decreased caries prevalence. Conclusion: ECC is a serious public health problem in this population and measures to increase awareness should be undertaken. The target candidates for oral health promotion programs should include mothers, general dentists, pediatricians, nurses, primary care health workers, care-takers at day-care centers and gynecologists. PMID:22509116

  6. Teaching behaviorally handicapped preschool children to share.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, L E; Budd, K S

    1984-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of Barton and Ascione 's (1979) package for training sharing in a classroom setting with six behaviorally handicapped preschool children, four of whom were also developmentally delayed. Individual responses in sharing and not sharing were examined. Training consisted of initial instructions, modeling, and behavioral rehearsal, followed by teacher prompts and praise regarding sharing directly in a classroom free play period. Introduction of training in a multiple-baseline design across three pairs of children resulted in substantial increases in sharing for five of the six children. Results for negative interactions were less clear but suggested that concomitant decreases occurred for the same five children. The response analysis indicated that (a) individual components of sharing (offers, requests, and acceptances ) all increased with training; (b) most children were more likely to initiate sharing through requests than through offers; (c) the proportion of sharing initiatives accepted by peers increased with training despite a much greater absolute number of initiatives; and (d) of the three negative behaviors (opposing play, taking without asking, and aggression) examined as incompatible with sharing, the most prevalent response was opposing other children's play. Individual differences in initial social repertoires and responsiveness to training were examined with respect to their implications for research and practice. Overall, the findings provide an encouraging indication of an intervention program for children with behavioral, social, and developmental handicaps. PMID:6725169

  7. Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children's cognitive self-regulation skills development.

    PubMed

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; M = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and spring of the preschool year, and classroom observations were conducted three times throughout the year. Multilevel models tested associations between classroom behaviors of teachers and students using the Classroom Observation in Preschool and the Teacher Observation in Preschool and gains children made in a CSR composite score (Dimensional Change Card Sort, Peg Tapping, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Copy Design, and Corsi Blocks) across the preschool year. After controlling for demographic covariates and children's pretest scores, both affective and cognitive classroom processes were associated with gains. More teacher behavior approving, less disapproving, and more positive emotional tone were associated with gains. The proportion of observed time teachers spent delivering instruction as well as the proportion of time children were involved with mathematics and literacy were also related to CSR gains, as was the quality of teacher instruction. Although exploratory, these results highlight the potential for modifications in classroom practices to aid in children's CSR development.

  8. Children's Perspectives on the Role of Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine critically the roles and pedaogogy of preschool teachers from the perspectives of five- to six-year-old children who had extensive experience of being full day preschool children from the age of two. The participants were 32 children in the oldest preschool group in two preschools in Reykjavik. Data was gathered…

  9. Maternal face processing in Mosuo preschool children.

    PubMed

    Dai, Junqiang; Zhai, Hongchang; Wu, Haiyan; Yang, Suyong; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Luo, Yue-jia

    2014-05-01

    Instinctively responding to maternal face is an evolutionary function of enhancing survival and development. However, because of the confounding nature of familiarity, little is known concerning the neural mechanism involved in maternal face recognition. We had a rare opportunity to examine Mosuo preschool children who were raised in a matrilineal society in which mothers and aunts represent equally familiar faces to the children. The participants were exposed to photographs of their mother's face, aunt's face, and an unfamiliar female's faces during electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The EEG results showed that the mother's face elicited a more negative N1 component, a larger left N170 component, and a larger P300 component; both the mother's and aunt's faces elicited a larger right N170 component. These results suggest that the emotional attachment between mother and child has neural ramifications across three successive face processing stages that are distinguished from the neural effects of facial familiarity. PMID:24631724

  10. The comprehension of metaphor by preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pearson, B Z

    1990-02-01

    Comprehension of metaphor in preschoolers was studied through an elicited repetition task. Subjects were 52 children aged 3.0 to 5.2. Repetition performance on metaphors was compared to repetitions of semantically well-formed literal sentences as well as semantically anomalous sentences, all matched for length, vocabulary and sentence structure. Accuracy on literal and metaphoric stimuli was comparable, and both were significantly better than performance on anomalous sentences. There were no effects for age or sex. It was shown that the metaphors were not semantically anomalous to the children and that they were processed on a par with literal language. The argument is advanced from a review of the literature that imitation implicates understanding of the material imitated. If metaphor is thus shown to emerge early in the child's linguistic repertory, figurative language, it may be argued, occupies a more central position in linguistic theory than it has been accorded.

  11. Effects of Instructional Condition on Preschool Children's Novel Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Lori A.; Barron, Eunice V.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that children's exposure to complex vocabulary during the preschool years has an impact on their later reading achievement. Yet, the most efficient way to incorporate vocabulary instruction into preschool classrooms remains an open question. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate effects of…

  12. Preschool Predictors of Narrative Writing Skills in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Nelson, Lauren; Zeisel, Susan; Kasambira Fannin, Danai

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the preschool predictors of elementary school narrative writing skills. The sample included 65 typically developing African American children, ranging in age from 5.0 to 5.5 years, and was 44.6% male. Targeted preschool predictors included measures of phonological processing, core language abilities, prereading skills, and…

  13. A Television Survey of Appalachian Parents of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.; And Others

    A total of 699 Appalachian families with preschool children were surveyed to gather information on the availability and use of television, radio and telephone in their homes. The survey was designed to assess the practicality of using television as one of the components of the Marketable Preschool Education (MPE) Program, an extension of the…

  14. Preschool Language Development among Children of Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Monica; Spieker, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined a comprehensive set of predictors of preschool language performance in a sample of children of adolescent mothers. Six domains of risk (low maternal verbal ability, intergenerational risk, contextual risk, relational risk, home environmental risk, and child characteristics) for poor preschool language development,…

  15. Children, Play, and Computers in Pre-School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Lydia; Stephen, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports a study designed to inform the development of an information and communication technology strategy for the pre-school years of education. The main methods of collecting evidence were observations at seven pre-school settings and interviews with at least two practitioners and a number of children at each site. Practitioners…

  16. Language Competence and Social Focus among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerland, Terje

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how various aspects of language competence are related to social focus among preschoolers. The study presented is based on video-recorded observation of 64 children, aged 11-61 months, during free play at their kindergarten. A measure of social focus in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed…

  17. Children's Images of Preschool: The Power of Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Ethridge, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Families often ask, "What did you do at school today?" when their children come home from preschool. When a child responds with a typical "Play" or "I don't know," it is difficult for families to learn details about their child's program day. But when preschoolers have access to cameras to take photographs of their experiences, they can provide an…

  18. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  19. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children's fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior. PMID:27649215

  20. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children's fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  1. Preschool language development among children of adolescent mothers

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Monica; Spieker, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined a comprehensive set of predictors of preschool language performance in a sample of children of adolescent mothers. Six domains of risk (low maternal verbal ability, intergenerational risk, contextual risk, relational risk, home environmental risk, and child characteristics) for poor preschool language development, measured throughout early childhood, were examined in a sample of 154 children born to adolescent mothers. Logistic regression revealed that having a poor language-learning home environment was associated with children's low language scores even after accounting for mothers' below-average verbal ability. More importantly, however, was the exploration of the ‘dual risk’ hypothesis that evaluated the effects of combined risk factors. Being reared by a mother with low verbal ability amplified the risk of a poor quality home linguistic environment, whereas having a poor home linguistic environment did not adversely affect the language development of children with mothers of average verbal ability. Implications for intervention are discussed with regard to specificity of intervention efforts within subpopulations of risk identified in this paper. PMID:16619087

  2. Measures of Preschool Children's Interest and Engagement in Literacy Activities: Examining Gender Differences and Construct Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple approaches to measuring preschool children's literacy interest and engagement (i.e., parent-, teacher-, child-reported child literacy interest and observer-reported child literacy engagement) were examined in a sample of 167 four- and five-year-old children (M=56.62 months, SD=6.01) enrolled in Head Start. Associations among measures as…

  3. Objective Sleep Measurement in Typically and Atypically Developing Preschool Children with ADHD-Like Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Waters, Sara; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between preschool children's sleep patterns measured by actigraphy and parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms. Many previous studies have reported sleep problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms. Methods: This study examined a cross-sectional sample of…

  4. Preschool Classroom Processes as Predictors of Children's Cognitive Self-Regulation Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C.; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; "M" = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and…

  5. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with Aggressive Behavior: Impairments in Inhibitory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Smidts, Diana P.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Maassen, Gerard H.; Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The question whether executive function (EF) deficits in children are associated with conduct problems remains controversial. Although the origins of aggressive behavior are to be found in early childhood, findings from EF studies in preschool children with aggressive behavior are inconsistent. The current study aimed to investigate whether…

  6. Preschool Teachers' Explanations for Hygiene Habits and Young Children's Biological Awareness of Contamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschools have many norms and rules children are supposed to follow. Among them, behavioral norms associated with mealtime are of great consequence because eating is an essential life function. The present study examined young Japanese children's understanding of hygiene norms and rules at mealtime from the standpoint of their…

  7. Left-Handed Preschool Children with Orthopedic Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banham, Katharine M.

    1983-01-01

    The mental development of 332 preschool-age children with orthopedic disabilities was assessed at a children's hospital over a 10-year period, and comparisons were made for right-handed and left-handed. The left-handed children were slower than right-handed children in learning speech and language skills (Author/SEW)

  8. Vocal overimitation in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Winters, Katherine; Krumpak, Kathryn; Core, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Overimitation--copying incorrect, idiosyncratic, or causally irrelevant actions--has been linked to our species' long history with artifacts whose functions are often opaque. It is an open question, however, whether children overimitate outside the artifact domain. We explored this question by presenting preschool-age children (3- to 5-year-olds, N=120) with an elicited imitation task that included high- and low-frequency disyllabic nouns (e.g., 'pizza) and nonwords (e.g., 'chizza), all of which had a stressed first syllable. However, during testing, half of the stimuli were incorrectly pronounced by stressing the second syllable (e.g., pi'zza). More than half of the children copied the model's incorrect pronunciation of high-frequency familiar words, consistent with overimitation. This pattern of response persisted even after children had themselves correctly named the familiar words prior to the start of testing, confirming that children purposefully altered the pronunciation of known words to match the incorrect pronunciations used by a model. These results demonstrate that overimitation is not restricted to the artifact domain and might extend to many different tasks and domains. PMID:26407825

  9. Computer Use by Preschool Children: Rethinking Practice as Digital Natives Come to Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevenbergen, Robyn; Logan, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the outcomes of a survey implemented in a large regional community of Australia. The survey was completed by parents of children aged four-five years and attending local early childhood centres. The survey identified the types of access and use of computers by preschool children. It was found that the children of the…

  10. Inhibition and Exuberance in Preschool Classrooms: Associations with Peer Social Experiences and Changes in Cortisol across the Preschool Year

    PubMed Central

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Mliner, Shanna; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between behavioral inhibition and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, a stress-sensitive neuroendocrine system indexed by salivary cortisol, have varied widely across studies. The current study examined the role of peer social experiences in moderating patterns of association between inhibition/risk-aversion and cortisol reactivity. As expected based on previous research, preschool children (N= 165, 78 boys, 3.0–5.0 years) had significantly different social experiences in their preschool classrooms depending on temperament. Highly inhibited/risk-averse children were less socially integrated, less dominant, and less involved in aggressive encounters than both average and highly exuberant/risk-seeking children, but they were no more likely to be peer rejected. Highly exuberant children were more dominant, exhibited anger more often, and had friendships characterized by higher conflict. Cortisol levels fell from fall to spring for the average and highly exuberant children, but not for the highly inhibited children. Unexpectedly, for highly inhibited children, having friends and being more dominant and popular than other highly inhibited children was associated with increasing cortisol levels over the school year. In contrast, highly exuberant children who were less socially integrated than other highly exuberant children maintained higher cortisol levels. Results indicate that the types of social experiences that affect stress-responsive biological systems may differ markedly for highly inhibited and highly exuberant children. PMID:21688898

  11. Sensory Processing in Preterm Preschoolers and Its Association with Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jenna N.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Loe, Irene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms of abnormal sensory processing have been related to preterm birth, but have not yet been studied specifically in preterm preschoolers. The degree of association between sensory processing and other domains is important for understanding the role of sensory processing symptoms in the development of preterm children. Aims To test two related hypotheses: (1) preterm preschoolers have more sensory processing symptoms than full term preschoolers and (2) sensory processing is associated with both executive function and adaptive function in preterm preschoolers. Study Design Cross-sectional study Subjects Preterm children (≤34 weeks of gestation; n = 54) and full term controls (≥37 weeks of gestation; n = 73) ages 3-5 years. Outcome Measures Sensory processing was assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. Executive function was assessed with (1) parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function- Preschool version and (2) a performance-based battery of tasks. Adaptive function was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Results Preterm preschoolers showed significantly more sensory symptoms than full term controls. A higher percentage of preterm than full term preschoolers had elevated numbers of sensory symptoms (37% vs. 12%). Sensory symptoms in preterm preschoolers were associated with scores on executive function measures, but were not significantly associated with adaptive function. Conclusions Preterm preschoolers exhibited more sensory symptoms than full term controls. Preterm preschoolers with elevated numbers of sensory symptoms also showed executive function impairment. Future research should further examine whether sensory processing and executive function should be considered independent or overlapping constructs. PMID:25706317

  12. Sleep clinical record: what differences in school and preschool children?

    PubMed Central

    Shafiek, Hanaa; Evangelisti, Melania; Rabasco, Jole; Cecili, Manuela; Montesano, Marilisa; Barreto, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The sleep clinical record (SCR) may be a valid method for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). This study aimed to evaluate whether there were differences in SCR depending on age and to identify the possible risk factors for OSA development. We enrolled children with sleep disordered breathing between 2013 and 2015, and divided them according to age into preschool- and school-age groups. All patients underwent SCR and polysomnography. OSA was detected in 81.1% and 83.6% of preschool- and school-age groups, respectively. Obesity, malocclusions, nasal septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent in school-age children (p<0.05); however, only tonsillar hypertrophy had significant hazard ratio (2.3) for OSA development. Saddle nose, nasal hypotonia, oral breathing and tonsillar hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent for development of OSA in preschoolers (p<0.03). The SCR score was significantly higher among preschool children than in school-age children (8.4±2.22 versus 7.9±2.6; p=0.044). Further, SCR score >6.5 had a sensitivity of 74% in predicting OSA in preschool children with positive predictive value of 86% (p=0.0001). Our study confirms the validity of the SCR as a screening tool for patient candidates for a PSG study for suspected OSA, in both school and preschool children. PMID:27730168

  13. Attention and Perseverance Behaviors of PreSchool Children Enrolled in Suzuki Violin Lessons and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Laurie

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of attention span and persevering behaviors of preschool children. Finds the Suzuki Method of violin instruction is associated with longer attention spans and more persevering behaviors than creative movement instruction or other preschool programs. Concludes that teachers prefer the Suzuki Method's approach to other forms of…

  14. Factor Analysis of Measures of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, H. A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    On the basis of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to recommend elimination of some of the demography, anthropometry, and biochemical indices commonly evaluated in nutritional surveys of U.S. preschool children. (DM)

  15. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  16. The Elicitation of Vocal Responses from Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champley, Elizabeth Hyne; Andrews, Moya L.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the construction of tasks used to elicit vocal responses from preschool children with and without communication disorders. Procedures to elicit valid and reliable responses are proposed, and a sample assessment protocol is presented. (Author/DB)

  17. Educational intervention with multiply handicapped preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, R K; Chinitz, S P

    1982-02-01

    A study was conducted to objectively measure changes in functioning of multiply handicapped children in a specialized nursery school program. The study population consisted of the 18 children who entered the program in the study year. A quantitative teacher rating scale was developed, tested, and found to be reliable. Significant improvements were demonstrated in interaction, communication, and task orientation after 3 months and in self-care after 6 months. There was no measurable change in motor performance, and the intellectual functioning of the children remained in the same diagnostic category as at the outset. The study documented improvement on social competence of multiply handicapped children enrolled in a preschool program with minimal parental involvement. The teacher rating scale was found to be useful in measuring social functioning in a school setting for a young population with a limited range of possible achievements. Teachers proved to be reliable evaluators of their pupils. To measure social and interactional parameters, it appears necessary to have both a standardized instrument and an informed observer who knows the child's daily functioning. PMID:6460491

  18. Construct Validity of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities: Regression Analysis with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Ernest O.; Wiebe, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    A sample of preschool children was used to assess the construct validity of each of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Clinical interpretation of the General Cognitive Index (GCI) may be warranted, but diagnostic use of the Memory or Motor Scales with preschool children should be avoided. (Author/GK)

  19. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  20. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on…

  1. The built environment and obesity among low-income preschool children.

    PubMed

    Salois, Matthew J

    2012-05-01

    In spite of the evidence that adult obesity is influenced by environmental factors, the influence of the environment on childhood obesity remains under-investigated. This paper examines the association of the built environment with the prevalence of obesity in low-income preschool children. Built environment indicators include measures relating to food choice and physical activity. The relationship of the environment with childhood obesity is further stratified by urban-rural location. Overall, the built environment is associated with the prevalence of obesity in low-income preschool children, although the impact of the environment is affected by urban-rural status. Results imply broad-scope for community-level interventions.

  2. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  3. Syntax and Prosody in Narratives: A Study of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanchi, Paola; Zampini, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco; D'Odorico, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines narrative competence and its relationships with syntactic and prosodic skills in preschool children. The narrative skills of 30 typically developing Italian children were assessed during their first year of kindergarten attendance (T1) and again one year later (T2). A picture book was used to elicit children's…

  4. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  5. Young Children's Views of the Role of Preschool Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore young children's (from one to three years old) perspectives of the role and pedagogy of educators in play in an Icelandic preschool. The intention is to explore the meaning that children put into involving educators in their play and whether the children experience educators' actions as a resource for their play. The…

  6. The Relationship between Creativity and Conformity among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Cheryl W.; Tegano, Deborah W.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between creativity and conformity (social conformity and impersonal conformity) with 45 preschool children. Findings support the hypothesis that highly conforming and highly nonconforming children do not score as highly on creativity measurements as children in the freedom of expression group (i.e., not…

  7. Beyond the Preschool Years: Children's Perceptions about Starting Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Santo, Aurelia; Berman, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a research study that investigated three- and four-year-old Canadian preschool children's perceptions about starting kindergarten. Findings from 33 focus-group discussions suggest that children begin to formulate ideas about starting kindergarten prior to school entry. Children's responses were grouped according to three…

  8. Literacy Socialization in the Homes of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Chris A.; Wright, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Parents (N=239) of preschool children with either a speech-language impairment, different disability, or no disability completed a survey of home literacy experiences. Significantly different activities and interactions with print were available to the children with speech-language impairments. Results suggest these children are exposed to print…

  9. Interactions between Turkish mothers and preschool children with autism.

    PubMed

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Rating Scale (O. Diken, 2009 ). Similar to mothers from Western countries, Turkish mothers tended to engage in highly directive interactions with their children. However, a cluster analysis revealed considerable variability in mothers' style of interaction. This included a directive nonengaged style, a directive/achievement-oriented style, and a responsive style of interaction. Children's level of engagement was associated with differences in mothers' style of interaction. Children were least engaged with directive/nonengaged mothers and most engaged with responsive mothers. However, children's engagement was only associated with their mothers' responsiveness, not with their directiveness. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for early intervention.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTHWEST ENGLAND.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls. PMID:26270852

  11. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool Onset (PO) Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202

  12. An Evaluation of the Preschool PATHS Curriculum on the Development of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Cerian; Cline, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), an early years curriculum designed to improve children's social and emotional competence, and reduce problem behaviour. Fifty-seven children aged three to four years took part in the study over one academic year. The control group (Group 1)…

  13. Prematurity and School Readiness in a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children: Does Typically Occurring Preschool Moderate the Relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Claessens, Amy; Msall, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between indicators of prematurity and children’s cognitive and behavioral school readiness in a nationally representative sample and to investigate whether typically occurring preschool enrollment moderates this relationship, particularly for children from disadvantaged families in Australia. METHODS The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children is a nationally representative prospective sample of two cohorts of children with sequentially obtained indicators of child health and developmental outcomes. We analyzed information on 8,060 children age 4–5 years who had complete data on birth weight, gestational age, prenatal risks, social factors, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school readiness. Multivariate regressions were used to relate three indicators of prematurity (low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age) to cognitive and behavioral school readiness. RESULTS Children born preterm, small for gestational age, or with low birth weight have significantly lower cognitive school readiness after controlling for social factors and prenatal risks. None of the premature indicators was associated with behavioral school readiness. All children benefited from attending preschool. Yet, preschool enrollment did not moderate the relationship between prematurity and school readiness. The only exception is for small for gestational age survivors with low educated mothers. Preschool enrollment was associated with an increase in cognitive school readiness skills. CONCLUSIONS Prematurity was associated with lower cognitive school readiness skills. Typical occurring preschool did not eliminate this association. Findings suggest that simply expanding the preschool enrollment is inadequate to address the developmental needs of premature children from disadvantaged backgrounds. PMID:24401664

  14. Immigration and the interplay of parenting, preschool enrollment, and young children's academic skills.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents' support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (Ages 2 to 5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment, and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia, and did not vary by immigrants' socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems, as well as "child effects" and population diversity, in developmental research.

  15. Immigration and the Interplay of Parenting, Preschool Enrollment, and Young Children's Academic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of the reciprocal relations among parents’ support for early learning and children's academic skills and preschool enrollment. Structural equation modeling of data from 6,250 children (ages 2-5) and parents in the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) revealed that parental support for early learning was associated with gains in children's academic skills, which, in turn, were associated with their likelihood of preschool attendance. Preschool experience then was associated with further gains in children's early academic competencies, which were then associated with increased parental support. These patterns varied by parents' nativity status. Specifically, foreign-born parents' support for early learning was directly linked with preschool enrollment and the association between the academic skills of children and parental support was also stronger for foreign-born parents. These immigration-related patterns were primarily driven by immigrant families who originated from Latin America, rather than Asia and did not vary by immigrants’ socioeconomic circumstances. Together, these results underscore the value of considering the synergistic relations between the home and school systems as well as “child effects” and population diversity in developmental research. PMID:25938712

  16. Sugar consumption, locomotion, task orientation, and learning in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Roshon, M S; Hagen, R L

    1989-06-01

    A challenge design was employed to investigate the effect of sucrose consumption on the behavior of 12 preschool children. On separate experimental days, subjects were tested individually with either a challenge sucrose drink (2 gm/kg body weight) or a placebo drink sweetened with aspartame. Fifteen-minute observations of each child during free play were made at 15, 45, and 75 minutes after ingestion of the drink. Assessment with a paired-associate learning task was made before ingestion and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after ingestion. This study was a partial replication and extension of one of the few studies in the literature that has found an effect of sucrose on the behavior of normal children. On all dependent measures (locomotion, task orientation, and learning), the study failed to obtain significant differences between the two conditions.

  17. Eating out of home and dietary adequacy in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Teresa; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Sara; Lopes, Carla

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to describe dietary intake and dietary adequacy according to eating location in preschool children. A sub-sample of 2414 children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal), evaluated during the follow-up between 2009 and 2011, was included. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 d food diaries and four groups of children were defined according to the eating location: 'Home' ( ≥ 80% of meals at home), 'Other homes', 'Preschool' and 'Restaurants'. A dietary adequacy index was developed based on general recommendations for children; a higher score represents a better dietary adequacy. The comparison of nutrients and foods daily intake according to the eating location groups was performed by ANOVA and ANCOVA to adjust for potential confounders. Children classified in 'Preschool' group ate significantly more vegetables, fruit, bread and fish, and less meat, compared to children classified into the 'Home' group. Children classified in the 'Restaurants' group ate more cakes, salty snacks and fruit juices than children in 'Home' group; and less vegetables, dairy products and pasta/rice/potatoes. In 'Restaurants' children obtained the lowest mean score of the dietary adequacy index (15.5, 95% CI 14.8, 16.3) and in 'Preschool' children had the highest mean score (18.3, 95% CI 18.1, 18.4), corresponding to a better dietary adequacy. Preschools seem to have a relevant role in promoting the intake of healthy foods in preschool children. The consumption in restaurants/coffee shops seems to contribute to energy-dense food intake and reduced consumption of nutrient-dense foods. PMID:26082269

  18. Eating out of home and dietary adequacy in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Teresa; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Sara; Lopes, Carla

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to describe dietary intake and dietary adequacy according to eating location in preschool children. A sub-sample of 2414 children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal), evaluated during the follow-up between 2009 and 2011, was included. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 d food diaries and four groups of children were defined according to the eating location: 'Home' ( ≥ 80% of meals at home), 'Other homes', 'Preschool' and 'Restaurants'. A dietary adequacy index was developed based on general recommendations for children; a higher score represents a better dietary adequacy. The comparison of nutrients and foods daily intake according to the eating location groups was performed by ANOVA and ANCOVA to adjust for potential confounders. Children classified in 'Preschool' group ate significantly more vegetables, fruit, bread and fish, and less meat, compared to children classified into the 'Home' group. Children classified in the 'Restaurants' group ate more cakes, salty snacks and fruit juices than children in 'Home' group; and less vegetables, dairy products and pasta/rice/potatoes. In 'Restaurants' children obtained the lowest mean score of the dietary adequacy index (15.5, 95% CI 14.8, 16.3) and in 'Preschool' children had the highest mean score (18.3, 95% CI 18.1, 18.4), corresponding to a better dietary adequacy. Preschools seem to have a relevant role in promoting the intake of healthy foods in preschool children. The consumption in restaurants/coffee shops seems to contribute to energy-dense food intake and reduced consumption of nutrient-dense foods.

  19. Preschool children with externalizing behaviors: experience of fathers and mothers.

    PubMed

    Baker, B L; Heller, T L

    1996-08-01

    Childhood behavior disorders are related to family stress and maladjustment. Little is known, however, about the adjustment of families with preschool-aged children at risk for subsequent behavior disorders. Moreover, fathers' perceptions of child problem behavior and their reactions to it generally have been neglected. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 52 preschool-aged children assigned to one of three groups: control, moderate externalizing, and high externalizing. Higher child externalizing behavior was associated with greater negative family impact, lowered parenting sense of efficacy, and child-rearing practices that were more authoritarian and less authoritative. Mothers and fathers did not differ in actual perceived level of child behavior problems, although both believed that mothers saw more problems. Child Group x Parent interactions indicated that mothers experienced increased stress and a need for help with moderate as well as high child externalizing behaviors, whereas fathers were not elevated on these measures unless the child's externalizing behaviors were high. Implications of these findings for early family intervention are considered.

  20. Teacher (Mis)Perceptions of Preschoolers' Academic Skills: Predictors and Associations with Longitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Courtney N.; Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Preschool teachers have important impacts on children's academic outcomes, and teachers' misperceptions of children's academic skills could have negative consequences, particularly for low-income preschoolers. This study utilized data gathered from 123 preschool teachers and their 760 preschoolers from 70 low-income, racially diverse centers.…

  1. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated <1% were at risk for deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  2. Relationship between dietary intake and dental caries in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chin-En; Huang, Yi-Chia; Hu, Suh-Woan

    2010-06-01

    This study assessed the relationship between intake of nutrients and dental caries in preschool children. One hundred and eighty-two children aged three to six years were recruited from nine day care centers in central Taiwan. These children had an oral health examination, and their parents or guardians answered a questionnaire. Each child's intake of nutrients was estimated using the 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire data. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the associations between dental caries and intake of each nutrient or food group, with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of dental caries was 73 % and increased with age. Not being a first-born and having more between-meal snacks were associated with increased caries risk. After controlling for other important factors, vitamin A intake was significantly associated with fewer dental caries (deft, decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary teeth: ≥ 4 vs. < 4), with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95 % confidence interval: 0.94 - 0.99) for an 100-μg increase in vitamin A intake. There was no significant association between dental caries and energy, macronutrient intake, and Ca/P ratio, respectively. Vegetable intake was also significantly associated with lower dental caries score.

  3. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A.; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child’s recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50–74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33–3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children. PMID:27258306

  4. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Allergic Diseases in New Zealand Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, Carolyn; Grant, Cameron; Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cath; McDonald, Barry; Houghton, Lisa; Eyles, Darryl; Camargo, Carlos A; Coad, Jane; von Hurst, Pamela

    2016-06-01

    Recent research on vitamin D in young children has expanded from bone development to exploring immunomodulatory effects. Our aim was to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status and allergic diseases in preschool-aged children in New Zealand. Dried capillary blood spots were collected from 1329 children during late-winter to early-spring for 25(OH)D measurement by LC-MS/MS. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their child's recent medical history. Analysis was by multivariable logistic regression. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 52(SD19) nmol/L, with 7% of children <25 nmol/L and 49% <50 nmol/L. Children with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥75 nmol/L (n = 29) had a two-fold increased risk for parent-report of doctor-diagnosed food allergy compared to children with 25(OH)D 50-74.9 nmol/L (OR = 2.21, 1.33-3.68, p = 0.002). No associations were present between 25(OH)D concentration and presence of parent-reported eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic asthma. Vitamin D deficiency was not associated with several allergic diseases in these New Zealand preschool children. In contrast, high 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a two-fold increased risk of parental-report food allergy. This increase supports further research into the association between vitamin D status and allergic disease in preschool children.

  5. Talking about Children's Resistance to the Institutional Order and Teachers in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Ann-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights the parent-teacher conferences in the Swedish preschool and the talk about children's inappropriate and undesirable behaviour in a preschool setting. The focus of the article concerns how teachers talk about children's resistance to the social order in preschool and especially how children show resistance to teachers. The…

  6. Emotional displays associated with preschoolers' prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Lennon, R; Eisenberg, N

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between preschoolers' emotional status and their performance and receipt of prosocial behaviors. Triads of children were filmed while playing with a toy. Instances of sharing behaviors as well as benefactors' and recipients' facial expressions were coded prior and subsequent to sharing. Moreover, recipients' affect prior to defensive behaviors of potential benefactors was noted. Recipients and benefactors exhibited more than average positive affect subsequent to spontaneous prosocial behaviors, and benefactors tended to exhibit more than average positive affect prior to emitting such behaviors. Benefactors exhibited more positive emotion subsequent to the performance of spontaneously emitted than requested prosocial behaviors. Recipients displayed more positive affect subsequent to the receipt of spontaneous than requested behaviors and more anger prior to the receipt of requested actions. Displays by recipients tended to be followed by the receipt of prosocial behaviors, whereas nonpositive displays tended to be followed by the receipt of defensive reactions. PMID:3608668

  7. Executive function in preschool children: examination through everyday behavior.

    PubMed

    Isquith, Peter K; Gioia, Gerard A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2004-01-01

    Clinical assessment of executive function in preschool-age children is challenging given limited availability of standardized tasks and preschoolers' variable ability to participate in lengthy formal evaluation procedures. Given the benefits of ecological validity of measuring behavior by rating scales, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) was modified for use with children ages 2 through 5 years to assess executive functions in an everyday context. The scale development process, based on samples of 460 parents and 302 teachers, yielded a single 63-item measure with 5 related, but nonoverlapping, scales, with good internal consistency and temporal stability. Exploratory factor analyses identified 3 consistent factors: Emergent Metacognition, Flexibility, and Inhibitory Self-Control across parent and teacher samples. In a second study with a mixed sample of preschool children with various developmental disorders, parents and teachers rated these preschool children as having greater executive difficulties in most domains than matched controls. Such rating-scale methodology may be a useful complementary tool by which to reliably assess executive functions in preschool children via everyday behaviors in the natural environment.

  8. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (p<.05). The choice of tool for assessment of attention is discussed in relation to outdoor stay and play characteristics in Swedish preschool settings. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools as OPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools. PMID:19643655

  9. Children's Storytelling: The Effect of Preschool and Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona

    2010-01-01

    Storytelling reflects children's pragmatic language ability, which develops rapidly in early childhood and is related to various characteristics of the child's environment. This study examines the effect of preschool, maternal education and quality of the home environment on children's storytelling skills. The sample included 229 Slovenian…

  10. Non-Abused Preschool Children's Perception of an Anogenital Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulla, Kari; Fenheim, Gred Eva; Myhre, Arne K.; Lydersen, Stian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: An anogenital examination is usually part of the standard medical assessment in children evaluated for suspected sexual abuse, and the emotional impact on the child has been studied. The primary aim of this study was to assess non-abused preschool children's responses to an anogenital examination. Method: One hundred and fifty-eight…

  11. Nutrition Survey of White Mountain Apache Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, George M.; And Others

    As part of a national study of the nutrition of preschool children, data were collected on 201 Apache children, 1 to 6 years of age, living on an Indian reservation in Arizona. This report reviews procedures and clinical findings, and gives an analysis of growth data including skeletal maturation, nutrient intakes and clinical biochemical data. In…

  12. PAH EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...

  13. The Development of Flexibility and Abstraction in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joanna; Muller, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of flexibility and abstraction in preschool children by using a newly designed Pattern Completion Task (PCT) and the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST). In the PCT, children were presented with an incomplete pattern consisting of different-colored shapes and were asked to select the colored shape that…

  14. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  15. Teachers' Emotional Consistency Matters for Preschool Children. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Brock, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' emotional support in classrooms and how it relates to children's outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Findings suggest that more consistent emotional support was related to better academic and social outcomes, emphasizing the potentially important role of consistency in children's school experiences. [This research…

  16. Observations on Hearing Levels of Preschool Cleft-Palate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Robert J.; Philips, Betty Jane

    1971-01-01

    Pure-tone audiometry performed monthly on nine preschool cleft palate children showed the incidence of hearing loss ranging from 25 to 71 percent from month to month, with all children experiencing a significant hearing loss at some time. (Author/KW)

  17. The Development of Written Language Awareness in Black Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Argiro L.

    1987-01-01

    Examines (using a variety of measures for assessment) the development of print awareness in urban, Black preschool children of a wide age range enrolled in a day-care setting. Finds that Black children prior to kindergarten entry have begun to acquire some concepts about written language. (MM)

  18. Dimensions of Self-Concept in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Ann; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Investigates two major aspects of the self-concepts of preschoolers: diversions used by three- to five-year-old children to describe themselves and the saliency of activity as opposed to body image in the children's self-concepts. (CM)

  19. Effects of Animated Videos on Preschool Children's Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jane W.; Geringer, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of audiovisual media on preschool children's attitudes toward music presentations from "The Lion King" and "Fantasia." Finds that the listening times for music-plus-video presentations of both selections were longer and a majority of the children expressed a preference for "The Lion King" over "Fantasia." (CMK)

  20. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  1. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  2. Lack of Acceptance of Reciprocity Norms in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies investigated preschool children's acceptance of the reciprocity norms that allow retaliation and that require returning favors. Children viewed cartoons that portrayed animal puppets involved in reciprocal or nonreciprocal aggressive and prosocial behavior. They were then asked to evaluate the actor in each cartoon as "good" or "bad"…

  3. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  4. Body Awareness in Preschool Children with Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…

  5. A Study of Race and Class Heterogeneity Among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietze, Peter M.; Sigel, Irving E.

    An experimental preschool was set up to study the effect of mixing children differing in SES and race on racial awareness and interaction. It was hypothesized that racial self-selection could be explained in terms of SES level and that interracial contact when different SES children were included would serve to counteract racial stereotypes and…

  6. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

  7. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  8. Parents' Self-Concepts and Preschool Children's Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Roni Beth

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which parents' positive self-concepts predicted their preschool children's behaviors in nursery school and the extent to which this relation was mediated by gender of parent and gender of the child. Subjects were 25 nursery school children from middle to upper-middle class homes, their mothers and their fathers.…

  9. Facilitating Young Children's Use of the Web in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Christina; Danby, Susan J.; Given, Lisa M.; Thorpe, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Current perspectives on young children's use of digital technology suggest that preschool teachers need to provide more effective guidance for children. There is still little research, however, to inform how guidance might be understood and practiced during interactions with digital technology. This article employs an ethnomethodological…

  10. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the…

  11. The Construct of Social Competence--How Preschool Teachers Define Social Competence in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Preschool teachers share their environment with young children on a daily basis and interventions promoting social competence are generally carried out in the preschool setting. The aim was to find out if and how preschool teachers' definitions of social competence are related to factors in the preschool environment like: a) the number of children…

  12. Preschool--An Arena for Children's Learning of Social and Cognitive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in…

  13. Building a Model of Support for Preschool Children with Speech and Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Natalie; Ohi, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Speech and language disorders impede young children's abilities to communicate and are often associated with a number of behavioural problems arising in the preschool classroom. This paper reports a small-scale study that investigated 23 Australian educators' and 7 Speech Pathologists' experiences in working with three to five year old children…

  14. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  15. Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Laura A.; Perez, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the play behavior of 70 preschool children and its relationship to television violence and regulatory status. Linear regression analysis showed that violent program content and poor self-regulation were independently and significantly associated with overall and physical aggression. Advanced maternal age and child age and…

  16. Bullying, Empathic Concern, and Internalization of Rules among Preschool Children: The Role of Emotion Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camodeca, Marina; Coppola, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether bullying, defending, and outsider behaviors in preschool children were associated with two conscience aspects (empathic concern and internalization of rules) and with emotion understanding. We also investigated whether emotion understanding moderated the relationship between these dimensions and bullying roles.…

  17. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Obesity, And Adiposity In US Preschool Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested whether three sedentary activities were associated with obesity and adiposity in U.S. preschool children: 1) watching >2 hours/day of TV/videos, 2) computer use, and 3) >2 hours/day of media use (TV/videos and computer use). We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representat...

  18. Preschool Teachers' Literal and Inferential Questions and Children's Responses during Whole-Class Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which preschool teachers used literal and inferential questions during classroom-based shared reading. Specific foci included (a) investigating the association among the level of literal or inferential language in the text, teachers' text-related questions, and children's responses using sequential analysis, and…

  19. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    (1) Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3) Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior. PMID:27649215

  20. Perceptual context and individual differences in the language proficiency of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children.

  1. Gender influences on preschool children's social problem-solving strategies.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sue; Irving, Kym; Berthelsen, Donna

    2002-06-01

    The authors investigated gender influences on the nature and competency of preschool children's social problem-solving strategies. Preschool-age children (N = 179; 91 boys, 88 girls) responded to hypothetical social situations designed to assess their social problem-solving skills in the areas of provocation, peer group entry, and sharing or taking turns. Results indicated that, overall, girls' responses were more competent (i.e., reflective of successful functioning with peers) than those of boys, and girls' strategies were less likely to involve retaliation or verbal or physical aggression. The competency of the children's responses also varied with the gender of the target child. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of gender-related social experiences on the types of strategies and behaviors that may be viewed as competent for boys and girls of preschool age.

  2. Preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and fluoxetine treatment.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Kandulu, Rasiha; Akyol Ardic, Ulku

    2012-03-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder which can substantially disable children's ability to function at home and school. Clinicians frequently rely on knowledge about symptoms that can be examined early in treatment to determine future treatment effectiveness. However, OCD in preschoolers has also received little attention in literature. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one retrospective chart review and one case report in the literature for preschool cases treated with SSRIs. Therefore, the effect of fluoxetine on preschool children was imprecisely understood. The aim of this case report was to examine the efficacy and safety of fluoxetine treatment for pediatric OCD. Four preschool children with OCD completed an 8-week fluoxetine (up to 20 mg) trial. We diagnosed OCD according to Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and symptoms of OCD were assessed with the Childrens' Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Initial and post-treatment symptom severity and improvement were assessed by using the severity (S) and improvement (I) scales of Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI). The CY-BOCS total, obsessions and compulsions subscale scores and CGI-S scores were significantly improved for all of the cases at the end of the eighth week. In this case report four preschool children, with severe OCD and resistant to the previous non-psychopharmacologic treatment responded well to fluoxetine monotherapy. On the other hand, the usage of SSRIs in preschool children remains highly controversial, due to the lack of data on safety and efficacy. PMID:22271063

  3. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  4. Health and Safety in the Preschool. Together for Children: Cooperative Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siska, Heather Smith

    The intent of this manual is to present health and safety standards and procedures for the special environment of cooperative preschools, where both teacher-supervisors and parents are present and responsible for the well-being of the children. After a brief discussion about meeting environmental standards, child health is investigated in terms of…

  5. The Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: The Revised Preschool Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan J.; Spence, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity and factorial structure of a modified version of the Preschool Anxiety Scale (Spence, Rapee, McDonald, & Ingram, 2001). The measure was completed by 764 mothers and 418 fathers of children aged 3 to 5 years. After removing, two items tapping obsessive compulsive symptoms, confirmatory factor…

  6. Program Performance Report 1980-81. Preschool Program: A Regional Demonstration Program for Preschool Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    One of 10 documents developed by the Preschool Program for Handicapped Children of the Putnam/Northern Westchester (NY) Board of Cooperative Educational Services, the report details accomplishments during the 1980-81 school year. The following are reported as major accomplishments: Joint Dissemination Review Panel (JDRP) unanimous approval;…

  7. SARS, Preschool Routines and Children's Behaviour: Observations from Preschools in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    All schools in Hong Kong were closed in April 2003 to prevent the spread of SARS. This paper considers the influence of the SARS epidemic on children's routines and behaviour when preschools re-opened, after a six-week closure. Observations were made in 20 kindergartens and principals of another 10 kindergartens completed questionnaires. The…

  8. Privacy-preserving health data collection for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shaopeng; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2013-01-01

    With the development of network technology, more and more data are transmitted over the network and privacy issues have become a research focus. In this paper, we study the privacy in health data collection of preschool children and present a new identity-based encryption protocol for privacy protection. The background of the protocol is as follows. A physical examination for preschool children is needed every year out of consideration for the children's health. After the examination, data are transmitted through the Internet to the education authorities for analysis. In the process of data collection, it is unnecessary for the education authorities to know the identities of the children. Based on this, we designed a privacy-preserving protocol, which delinks the children's identities from the examination data. Thus, the privacy of the children is preserved during data collection. We present the protocol in detail and prove the correctness of the protocol. PMID:24285984

  9. Privacy-preserving health data collection for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shaopeng; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2013-01-01

    With the development of network technology, more and more data are transmitted over the network and privacy issues have become a research focus. In this paper, we study the privacy in health data collection of preschool children and present a new identity-based encryption protocol for privacy protection. The background of the protocol is as follows. A physical examination for preschool children is needed every year out of consideration for the children's health. After the examination, data are transmitted through the Internet to the education authorities for analysis. In the process of data collection, it is unnecessary for the education authorities to know the identities of the children. Based on this, we designed a privacy-preserving protocol, which delinks the children's identities from the examination data. Thus, the privacy of the children is preserved during data collection. We present the protocol in detail and prove the correctness of the protocol.

  10. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chou, Willy; Yang, Shu-Han; Kung, Sheng-Chun; Lee, Ya-Chen; Tung, Li-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to establish 1) whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ]) and 2) whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence. Methods Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD]), VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD), and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD). Results The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05) and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05). Motor competence was significantly worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01) were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that 1) IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2) IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than

  11. A Study of Rural Preschool Practitioners' Views on Young Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunting, Robert P.; Mousley, Judith A.; Perry, Bob

    2012-01-01

    The project "Mathematical Thinking of Preschool Children in Rural and Regional Australia: Research and Practice" aimed to investigate views of preschool practitioners about young children's mathematical thinking and development. Structured individual interviews were conducted with 64 preschool practitioners from rural areas of three Australian…

  12. Characteristics of Swedish Preschools That Provide Education and Care to Children with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…

  13. The Relations among Young Children's Peer-Reported Trustworthiness, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, K. J.; Michalik, N.; Eisenberg, N.; Betts, L. R.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five (38 male and 27 female) preschool children (mean age=5 years 1 month) completed measures of peers' trustworthiness (promise keeping and secret keeping). Teachers rated the preschool children's inhibitory control, trustworthiness, and preschool adjustment. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) yielded support for the hypothesized model. The…

  14. Examination of the Messages Preschool Teachers Use against Undesirable Behaviors of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, through in-class observations, the messages preschool teachers use against children's undesirable behaviors, in order to warn the children and remove negative behaviors. The study group consisted of six preschool teachers. The messages used by preschool teachers against undesirable behaviors of children…

  15. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool…

  16. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  17. How Do Caregivers Select Preschools? A Study of Children with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how parents and other caregivers conceptualize preschool quality, or what factors they prioritize when selecting a preschool. Caregivers of children with disabilities have the additional challenge of finding a preschool that can address their children's special needs. Objective: We explored the factors caregivers…

  18. The Use of a Sequenced Questioning Paradigm to Facilitate Associative Fluency in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, A. D.; Greene, Helen

    The extent to which free play versus sequenced questioning conditions facilitates preschoolers' associative fluency was investigated in this study. Twenty-four children (12 boys and 12 girls, with a mean age of 50.7 months) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: free play, sequenced questioning, and control. In the sequenced…

  19. "Inclusion in Practice": Programme Practices in Mainstream Preschool Classrooms and Associations with Context and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…

  20. Association between Maternal Sensitivity and Externalizing Behavior from Preschool to Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feihong; Christ, Sharon L.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Cox, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1364), this study examined the association between mothers' sensitivity and children's externalizing behavior from preschool to preadolescence. Externalizing behavior declined on average across this period with a slowing of this decline around middle…

  1. [Specific features of oral hygiene education in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh; Tel'nova, Zh N

    2015-01-01

    Health education of children mostly covers children of preschool age. It is not always successful because sanitary training inkindergarten is a mere formality. The aim of the study was to increase the effectiveness of prevention of oral diseases inpreschool children by improving the system of hygiene training and education. Dental examination of 225 3 to 5 years oldsliving in the city of Omsk was performed. The level of hygienic habits/oral care formation was carried out by studyingquestionnaires and interviewing children, parents, caregivers and healthcare professionals. Authors method of oral hygieneeducation in preschool children was introduced and compared to different methods of hygienic training and education may. Itsimplementation resulted in 46.5% caries incidence growth reduction The developed technique of the gradual formation of oralhygiene habits proved to be both clinically and cost effective.

  2. Social Competence of Preschool Children Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelly M.; Champion, Patricia R.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the early social development of children born very preterm despite clear suggestions of later interpersonal difficulties. Aims To compare the social competence of very preterm (VPT) and full term (FT) born children at age 4 and identify infant, social and family factors associated with later risk. Study design Prospective longitudinal study. Subjects A regionally representative cohort of 103 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) children and a comparison group of 105 FT children (36-41 weeks gestation) born between 1998 and 2000. Outcome measures At corrected age 4 years, a range of parent report, observational and laboratory measures assessed children's emotional and behavioral adjustment, emotional regulation, social interactive behavior and theory of mind understanding. Extensive perinatal, social background and family functioning data were also available from birth to age 4. Results Compared to their FT peers, VPT born children had poorer emotional and behavioural adjustment, were less effective in regulating their emotions, had lower levels of positive peer play and had less synchronous interactions with their parents. Within the VPT group, predictors of poor social competence included family socioeconomic disadvantage, extreme prematurity, severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities and early childhood exposure to high levels of maternal anxiety and negative parenting. Conclusions VPT pre-schoolers are characterized by a range of subtle social difficulties likely to adversely affect their ability to establish and maintain positive relationships with others. These difficulties need to be monitored alongside other potential neurodevelopmental concerns and parents supported to actively nurture child social competence. PMID:23870752

  3. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence

    PubMed Central

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0–24 months (57%), 25–40 months (21.1%), 41–56 months (10.4%), and 57–82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development. PMID:27134406

  4. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence.

    PubMed

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0-24 months (57%), 25-40 months (21.1%), 41-56 months (10.4%), and 57-82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development.

  5. Phonological Process Usage by Young EMR Children and Nonretarded Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klink, Marcia; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Phonological skills of 20 mentally retarded preschool children were compared with those of 10 communication handicapped, nonretarded children and 10 normally speaking nonretarded children. Retarded and communication handicapped children used a significantly greater total number of phonological processes more frequently, but all groups used the…

  6. Separation: Supporting Children in Their Preschool Transitions. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Kathe; Polland, Barbara K.

    2007-01-01

    This book, updated since initial publication in 1989, offers explanations, practical tips, and encouragement for teachers and families of preschool children facing the excitement--and stress--of separation. Topics discussed include ambivalence about separation and attachment, the comfort of routines, understanding the child perspective, supporting…

  7. The Pedagogical Support for Preschool Children with Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…

  8. Effects of Pretend Imagery on Learning Dance in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacha, Tori J.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2006-01-01

    Play is important in child development and learning. The intent of this study was to assess the effects of play, using physical movement and pretend imagery, on learning dance. Four preschool dance classes, encompassing 32 children ages 3-6, were randomly divided into pretend imagery groups and traditional teaching groups. The classes were…

  9. Objective Measurement of Emerging Affective Traits in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.

    An objective measure of motivation to achieve for preschool children called Gumpgookies is described. It is an objective-projective technique that requires choice between two alternate types of behavior portrayed in pictures and accompanying verbal descriptions. Gumpgookies are amoeba-like creatures who behave in ways intended to show differences…

  10. Grief Counseling for Muslim Preschool and Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.

  11. Non-accidental injury to preschool children in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D W

    1975-01-01

    Serious attention must be given to the physical maltreatment of pre-school children in New Zealand if realistic solutions to presently neglected problems of maltreatment are to be devised. A concept of maltreatment is operationally defined, some available New Zelaand data discussed, and a strategy for improved prevention and treatment outlined.

  12. Am I Interfering? Preschool Teacher Participation in Children Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the timing and strategies of teacher participation in children's play and the factors which have a bearing on teacher participation. This study used qualitative research and conducted observation of natural situations. The samples were preschool teachers in an elementary school's affiliated kindergarten in Hualien. The…

  13. Emergent Verbal Behavior in Preschool Children Learning a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Richard J.; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]).…

  14. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  15. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  16. Guide for Parents of Pre-School Visually Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Dorothy

    Written as a guide for parents of preschool visually handicapped children, the booklet provides background information and some basic facts thought to be necessary to help the child grow into a happy, well-rounded and successful adult. Guidelines are presented concerning the following: the need for positive parental attitudes toward the young…

  17. Identifying Preschool Caregivers' Beliefs about Children's Social Development. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droege, Kristin L.

    This study examined the assumption that all caregivers have a set of beliefs which represent their own underlying theory of child development and tested one strategy for identifying the beliefs that preschool caregivers hold. In order to classify caregivers' beliefs about children's social development, an adaptation of McGillicudy-DeLisi's (1992)…

  18. Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Sophie E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether preschoolage…

  19. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  20. The Integration of Verbal and Motor Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Sherryl Hope

    1981-01-01

    Results of a study of 38 preschool children observed and videotaped during performance on a jigsaw-puzzle task indicate that puzzle solutions accompanied by a high rate of verbalizations were judged as more proficient, solved with a high rate of puzzle-solving moves, and completed in a shorter period of time. (Author/RH)

  1. Speech Sound Disorders in a Community Study of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…

  2. Developmental Scales for Preschool Children. Annotated Bibliography of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    Most of the 161 rating scales, observation instruments, and questionnaires in this bibliography are geared to assessing the developmental levels of preschoolers and children. There are, however, some scales to assess adults' and adolescents' development. Both non-handicapped and handicapped populations are represented. Developmental areas assessed…

  3. Identifying and Cultivating Talent in Preschool and Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This collection of articles abnout gifted and talented preschool and elementary students begins with background information on the program and philosophy for young students at the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University (Maryland). The following articles are then presented: "Some Thought for Parents of Very Young Gifted Children"…

  4. Assessment of Language Skills in Rural Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tina T.; Myers-Jennings, Corine; Coleman, Thalia

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which linguistic variation in the English language might have been affecting the performance of 160 rural preschoolers in South Carolina. When dialectal variations were not considered, the performance of the children differed from that of the normative populations on tests that assessed grammatical morphemes.…

  5. Onset of Stuttering in Preschool Children: Selected Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with parents of 87 preschool children within a year of a stuttering diagnosis found that onset tended to occur earlier than was previously thought and was sudden and/or severe in many cases; about twice as many boys as girls stuttered; and there was a positive relationship between severe stuttering and sudden onset. (DB)

  6. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  7. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  8. Tracking Preschool Children with Developmental Delay: Third Grade Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2006-01-01

    Educational outcomes were evaluated for 2,046 preschool children identified with developmental delay. Results indicated that at third grade, 26% were in regular education and the remaining 74% were receiving special education services. The most common disability classifications at outcome were specific learning disabilities and educable mentally…

  9. Rhythmic Characteristics of Improvisational Drumming among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    A call-and-response drumming activity was carried out to determine the rhythmic characteristics of improvised patterns created by preschool children. Specific goals of the study were to: (1) determine the durations, start and stop times, and rhythmic patterns of improvised responses to a simple given call using drums; (2) determine the presence or…

  10. Environmentally Enriched Classrooms and the Development of Disadvantaged Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Thomas V.; And Others

    This study evaluates the effects of placement of additional equipment in preschool classrooms on the cognitive, perceptual, and social development of urban Negro four-year-old children. Two Get Set classrooms in each of six areas of Philadelphia were paired for teachers, subjects, physical facilities and equipment. One classroom in each pair was…

  11. Ethnic and Demographic Variables and Achievement Scores of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ralph; Smith, James E.

    1972-01-01

    Findings suggest that family environmental process variables, as well as Ss' gain scores on the Concepts subtest of the Iowa Test of Preschool Development, are particularly sensitive measures than can be employed to identify children who are, or are not, profiting from cognitive-enrichment programs. (Author)

  12. Temperament, Family Environment and Anxiety in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Helen F.; Bovopoulos, Nataly

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between behavioural inhibition (BI), family environment (overinvolved and negative parenting, parental anxiety and parent-child attachment) and anxiety in a sample of 202 preschool children. Participants were aged between 3 years 2 months and 4 years 5 months, 101 were male. A thorough methodology was used…

  13. A Unique Program for Preschool Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.

    A pilot program was designed to address the special problems of children of substance abusers. The program was established at the Child Development and Family Guidance Center by Operation PAR, a nationally recognized substance abuse treatment and prevention program. The staff are well-trained preschool professionals who have received special…

  14. A Piagetian Method of Evaluating Preschool Children's Development in Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance; Peper, Robert

    A preschool curriculum for lower class children was developed based on Piaget's theory. Evaluation procedures were developed to parallel a Piagetian curriculum. According to Piagetian theory, the mechanism of classification is the coordination of the intensive and extensive properties of a group of objects. The ability to dichotomously classify…

  15. Auditory Threshold Variability with Severely Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold variability across repeated measures (N=10) was observed at 250 and 1,000 Hz with five severely hearing-impaired preschool children. Results indicated that variability at 1,000 Hz was within a 10 dB range (except for one measure) across Ss, while variability at 250 Hz was substantially larger, even though false positive responses to…

  16. Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior in Japanese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…

  17. Helping Behaviors: An Observational Study of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dahlia F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the stability and circumstances of helping behaviors of 51 children of 41-69 months in a preschool classroom. Frequency of helping behaviors was not correlated with age or sex and was not stable over four 10-minute observation periods. Most helping acts were performed during nonimaginary play. (RJC)

  18. Affiliative Structures and Social Competence in Portuguese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…

  19. Preschool Children. Tech Use Guide: Using Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.

    One of nine brief guides for special educators on using computer technology, this guide focuses on uses with preschool children with either mild to severe disabilities. Especially noted is the ability of the computer to provide access to environmental experiences otherwise inaccessible to the young handicapped child. Appropriate technology for…

  20. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  1. Diet Management of PKU for Infants and Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Phyllis B.; Wenz, Elizabeth

    The report focuses on the diet management of infant and preschool children with phenylketonuria (PKU), a congenital deficiency resulting in brain damage. The effective methods for rapidly lowering serum phenylalanine levels following diagnosis are discussed, a method for prescribing and calculating the phenylalanine-restricted diet is described,…

  2. Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Trauma: Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    There are children in preschool who have experienced trauma. Generally, traumatic events evoke feelings of extreme fear and helplessness. Reactions to traumatic events are determined by the subjective experience of the child, which could be impacted by developmental and cultural factors. What is extremely traumatic for one child may be less so for…

  3. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  4. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  5. Canadian Families' Strategies for Employment and Care for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Michael; Stalker, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2006 Canadian Census "long form" sample of one in every five households, the authors develop a detailed typology of family strategies for employment and the care of preschool children. The analysis is restricted to opposite-sex couples with at least one child under age 6 and no older child or other adult in the household. The typology…

  6. Functional analysis and treatment of noncompliance by preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wilder, David A; Harris, Carelle; Reagan, Renee; Rasey, Amy

    2007-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that noncompliance occurred most often for 2 preschoolers when it resulted in termination of a preferred activity, suggesting that noncompliance was maintained by positive reinforcement. A differential reinforcement procedure, which involved contingent access to coupons that could be exchanged for uninterrupted access to the activity maintaining noncompliance, was successful in increasing compliance for both children.

  7. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Noncompliance by Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, David A; Harris, Carelle; Reagan, Renee; Rasey, Amy

    2007-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that noncompliance occurred most often for 2 preschoolers when it resulted in termination of a preferred activity, suggesting that noncompliance was maintained by positive reinforcement. A differential reinforcement procedure, which involved contingent access to coupons that could be exchanged for uninterrupted access to the activity maintaining noncompliance, was successful in increasing compliance for both children. PMID:17471801

  8. The Study of Drawing and Painting Abilities in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Rus, Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is two-fold: first, to offer preschool children new learning situations in order to develop their drawing and painting abilities and second, to learn new techniques in a shorter period of time. The paper is grounded in the theory of creativity. Creativity is defined as the ability to propose something new, original and…

  9. Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…

  10. Preschool Outcomes of Children Who Lived as Infants in a Prison Nursery

    PubMed Central

    Goshin, Lorie S.; Byrne, Mary W.; Blanchard-Lewis, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined long-term outcomes of children who spent their first one to eighteen months in a US prison nursery. Behavioral development in 47 preschool children who lived in a prison nursery was compared with 64 children from a large national dataset who were separated from their mothers because of incarceration. Separation was associated with significantly worse anxious/depressed scores, even after controlling for risks in the caregiving environment. Findings suggest that prison nursery co-residence with developmental support confers some resilience in children who experience early maternal incarceration. Co-residence programs should be promoted as a best practice for incarcerated childbearing women. PMID:26609188

  11. Correlates of the CBCL-dysregulation profile in preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyon; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Meyer, Stephanie E.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing literature indicates that the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) identifies youths with heightened risk for severe psychopathology, comorbidity, and impairment. However, this work has focused on school-age children and adolescents; no studies have examined whether preschool-aged children with the CBCL-DP exhibit a similar constellation of problems. Method Using a community sample of preschoolers, we compared children with (N = 61) and without (N = 488) the CBCL-DP on a broad range of variables assessed using multiple methods. Results Univariate analyses revealed numerous differences between children with the CBCL-DP and their peers on psychiatric symptomatology, temperament, parenting behavior, and parental personality, psychopathology, and marital functioning. In multivariate analyses, children with the CBCL-DP exhibited greater temperamental negative affectivity and lower effortful control. They also had more depressive and oppositional defiant symptoms, as well as greater functional impairment. Parents of CBCL-DP children reported engaging in more punitive, controlling parenting behavior than parents of non-profile children. Conclusions In a non-clinical sample of preschoolers, the CBCL-DP is associated with extensive emotional and behavioral dysregulation and maladaptive parenting. PMID:22409304

  12. Relationship between growth of facial morphology and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Shigeto; Ueda, Koichiro; Shinohara, Mitsuyo; Mano, Mikiko; Kanegae, Haruhide; Namaki, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between facial morphology using cephalometry and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods From a group of lateral cephalometric radiographs taken of 35 children with OSA for diagnostic purposes, 15 were selected for the present investigation based on head position. The subjects consisted of preschool children with both OSA and primary dentition, all of them with a lowest documented SpO2 <90% and a lowest 0 preschool children with primary dentition and without enlarged tonsils or adenoids. Results The present findings reveal that, compared to the controls, OSA children had a narrower pharyngeal airway space related to OSA. In addition, we found that, although there were direct correlations between heights, nasal floor and corpus length, with chronologic age in the controls, there was no significant correlation between height, nasal floor length or corpus length with age in the OSA children. Conclusion Obstructive sleep apnea in children may be associated with growth disturbances of the nasal floor and corpus length. PMID:25756027

  13. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Nur Azwani Mohd Nor; Jalaludin, Juliana; Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents.

  14. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents. PMID:25984527

  15. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Nur Azwani Mohd Nor; Jalaludin, Juliana; Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents. PMID:25984527

  16. Applying a Socioecological Model to Understand Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Parents and Preschool Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…

  17. Parenting Stress and Coping Styles in Mothers and Fathers of Pre-School Children with Autism and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabrowska, A.; Pisula, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The study examined the profile of stress in mothers and fathers of preschool children with autism, Down syndrome and typically developing children. A further aim was to assess the association between parenting stress and coping style. Methods: A total of 162 parents were examined using Holroyd's 66-item short form of Questionnaire of…

  18. Malnutrition among pre-school children in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Sayed, N; Mohamed, A G; Nofal, L; Mahfouz, A; Zeid, H A

    2001-12-01

    The study was conducted in Alexandria, Egypt, to assess the current status of malnutrition among 1,217 pre-school children aged 6-71 months. A two-stage cluster-sampling technique was used for selecting the sample. Data on sociodemographic and environmental characteristics of the family, morbidity profiles, and breast-feeding patterns were collected from mothers of the children. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and the prevalence of malnutrition was assessed using three indicators, such as stunting, under-weight, and wasting, following the WHO guidelines and cut-off points. Simple and multiple regression analyses were done for examining the factors associated with the occurrence of malnutrition using principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation. Stunting, under-weight, and wasting were observed in 15%, 7.3%, and 3.6% of the children respectively. High-socioeconomic condition was associated with low prevalence of stunting and underweight (OR = 0.67, confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-0.8 and OR = 0.75, CI = 0.58-0.96 respectively). Good environmental condition was associated with a lower stunting rate (OR = 0.83, CI = 0.72-0.96). Increased age of child and living in a non-squatter area were associated with wasting (OR = 1.02, CI = 1.001-1.03 and OR = 0.38, CI = 0.15-0.97 respectively). Interventions to improve socioeconomic and environmental situations are recommended to reduce the already low level of protein-energy malnutrition further.

  19. Associations between Classroom Quality and Children's Vocabulary and Executive Function Skills in an Urban Public Prekindergarten Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Christina; Ulvestad, Kchersti; Sachs, Jason; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that high-quality preschool programs have substantial, long-lasting impacts on young children's developmental outcomes, associations between preschool quality measures and children's cognitive outcomes within preschool programs are generally small or null. Using data from a large urban prekindergarten program, we examined…

  20. Handicapped Immigrant Preschool Children in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Gunilla

    1988-01-01

    Examines provisions made in Sweden for the education of handicapped and immigrant students and the services offered to their families. Stating that all handicapped persons have the right to receive government services, the article discusses preschool education, day nurseries, mother-tongue language activities, family services, and courses for…

  1. Effect of Prosocial Cartoons on Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forge, Karen L. S.; Phemister, Sherri

    If live-model prosocial programs such as "Sesame Street" and "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood" can facilitate favorable behavior in preschoolers, as was shown by Rushton (1982), then it seems reasonable to suggest that cartoons might have a similar positive impact. This study sought to determine whether viewing a prosocial cartoon would be as…

  2. Children's Delay of Gratification and Preschool Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool…

  3. Preschool Instruction and Children's Emergent Literacy Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Slominski, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Preschoolers' (N = 156) classroom language and literacy experiences, defined across multiple dimensions, and their vocabulary and emergent literacy development were investigated. Videotaped classroom observations revealed substantial variability in amount and types of language and emergent literacy activities, across classrooms and for individual…

  4. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  5. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  6. Perceptual Anchoring in Preschool Children: Not Adultlike, but There

    PubMed Central

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. Methodology/Principal Findings Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference), a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference), no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. Conclusions/Significance The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a true deficit rather

  7. [Neuropsychic development in preschool children in conditions of the informatization].

    PubMed

    Tkachuk, E A; Tarmaeva, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The new millennium was marked by the transition of humanity to a new stage of the development--the Information Society, which is an objective reality and affects on all aspects of living environment, including the health of children. The last decade was characterized by the increase of the use of means of informatization, the level of aggression and aggressiveness of children, the decrease of intellectual indices, deterioration of mental health, an increase of children with behavioral problems, hyperactivity, inattention, decrease of mental capacity. In a study on the example of preschool educational institution in the city of Irkutsk in the conditions of the changing of the informatization level of the society in the time period from 1998 to 2012, there were revealed the changes in indices of intellectual development, mental capacity and anxiety of children. Under observation there were 211 children aged from 5.5 to 6.5 years in the preschool institution of the central district of the city of Irkutsk. There were formed two groups of children: I group--children who attended kindergarten in 1998 and group II--children attending kindergarten in 2012. Age groups of preschool children were consistent with their calendar age: from 5 years 5 months 30 days to 6 years 5 months 30 days. In the study of intellectual development there has been shown the decrease of the number of children with average intelligence level and an increase in children with the below-average intelligence level, the increase of the speed (p < 0.05.) and the decrease of the quality (p < 0.05.) of the information processing in the Anfilov test for the mental performance and the increase the general level of anxiety, aggressive background and unmotivated fears "out" at the present time stage (2012).

  8. Anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Frank W; Backes, Aline; Sander, Charlotte S; Weber, Monika; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in preschool children and their associations with behavioral inhibition as a temperamental precursor. A representative sample of 1,342 children aged 4–7 years (M = 6;1, SD = 4.80) was examined with a standardized parental questionnaire, including items referring to anxiety disorders at the current age and behavioral inhibition at the age of 2 years. The total prevalence of anxiety disorders was 22.2 %. Separation anxiety (SAD) affected 7 %, social phobia (SOC) 10.7 %, specific phobia (PHOB) 9.8 % and depression/generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD) 3.4 % of children. The prevalence of most types of anxiety was higher in girls except for separation anxiety, which affected more boys. Behavioral inhibition in the second year of life was associated with all types of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are common but frequently overlooked in preschool children. Different subtypes can be differentiated and are often preceded by behavioral inhibition. Assessment, prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders are recommended in preschool children. PMID:24659133

  9. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  10. Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. Methods A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. Results There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.” Conclusion The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity. PMID:25938022

  11. Teachers' education, classroom quality, and young children's academic skills: results from seven studies of preschool programs.

    PubMed

    Early, Diane M; Maxwell, Kelly L; Burchinal, Margaret; Alva, Soumya; Bender, Randall H; Bryant, Donna; Cai, Karen; Clifford, Richard M; Ebanks, Caroline; Griffin, James A; Henry, Gary T; Howes, Carollee; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Mashburn, Andrew J; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Pianta, Robert C; Vandergrift, Nathan; Zill, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide high-quality preschool education, policymakers are increasingly requiring public preschool teachers to have at least a Bachelor's degree, preferably in early childhood education. Seven major studies of early care and education were used to predict classroom quality and children's academic outcomes from the educational attainment and major of teachers of 4-year-olds. The findings indicate largely null or contradictory associations, indicating that policies focused solely on increasing teachers' education will not suffice for improving classroom quality or maximizing children's academic gains. Instead, raising the effectiveness of early childhood education likely will require a broad range of professional development activities and supports targeted toward teachers' interactions with children.

  12. Clinimetric Properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Shen, I-hsuan; Liu, I-Shu; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty-two children with CP (age range, two to five years and 11 months) and their caregivers participated in this study. The APCP consists of diversity and intensity…

  13. Evidence for General and Domain-Specific Elements of Teacher-Child Interactions: Associations with Preschool Children's Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamre, Bridget; Hatfield, Bridget; Pianta, Robert; Jamil, Faiza

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates a model for considering domain-general and domain-specific associations between teacher-child interactions and children's development, using a bifactor analytic strategy. Among a sample of 325 early childhood classrooms there was evidence for both general elements of teacher-child interaction (responsive teaching) and…

  14. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...

  15. Effects of a Preschool Staff Intervention on Children's Sun Protection: Outcomes of Sun Protection Is Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Tripp, Mary K.; James, Aimee S.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Mueller, Nancy H.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Parcel, Guy S.

    2007-01-01

    The preschool is an important yet understudied setting for sun-protection interventions. This study evaluates the effects of Sun Protection is Fun! (SPF) on preschool staff behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to protecting children from sun exposure. Twenty preschools participated in a 2-year, group-randomized trial to evaluate SPF, a…

  16. Nutrition Knowledge and Behaviours of Low-Income Latino Parents of Preschoolers: Associations with Nutrition-Related Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusser, Wendelin; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Prelip, Michael; Fischer, Heidi; Cumberland, William G.; Frankel, Fred; Neumann, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Parents are in an ideal position to promote long-term healthy dietary behaviours for their children. This study aimed to determine parent and child characteristics and to test their associations in a cross-sectional sample of urban low-income, low-education Latino immigrants with preschool-age children. Also determined were family demographic…

  17. Does IQ influence Associations between ADHD Symptoms and other Cognitive Functions in young Preschoolers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. Methods In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). Results The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Conclusions Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low. PMID:24884579

  18. Expressed emotion displayed by the mothers of inhibited and uninhibited preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Raishevich, Natoshia; Kennedy, Susan J; Rapee, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, the Five Minute Speech Sample was used to assess the association between parent attitudes and children's behavioral inhibition in mothers of 120 behaviorally inhibited (BI) and 37 behaviorally uninhibited preschool-aged children. Mothers of BI children demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional over-involvement (EOI) and self-sacrificing/overprotective behavior (SS/OP). However, there was no significant relationship between inhibition status and maternal criticism. Multiple regression also indicated that child temperament, but not maternal anxiety, was a significant predictor of both EOI and SS/OP. PMID:20390810

  19. Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Smith, Leif M; McKeen, Kim

    2009-11-01

    Gender differences in cross-sectional relationships between fundamental movement skill (FMS) subdomains (locomotor skills, object-control skills) and physical activity were examined in preschool children. Forty-six 3- to 5-year-olds (25 boys) had their FMS video assessed (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and their physical activity objectively monitored (Actigraph 7164 accelerometers). Among boys, object-control skills were associated with physical activity and explained 16.9% (p = .024) and 13.7% (p = .049) of the variance in percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity, respectively, after controlling for age, SES and z-BMI. Locomotor skills were inversely associated with physical activity among girls, and explained 19.2% (p = .023) of the variance in percent of time in MVPA after controlling for confounders. Gender and FMS subdomain may influence the relationship between FMS and physical activity in preschool children. PMID:20128363

  20. Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES): Study protocol for a randomized trial evaluating a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a recognized public health concern. Inadequate proportions of children in the U.S, including those of preschool age, are meeting physical activity recommendations. In response to low numbers of preschool children attaining appropriate physical activity levels, combined with the large number of young children who attend preschool, researchers have identified the need to devise interventions to increase physical activity at preschools. However, few multi-component interventions to increase physical activity in preschool children exist. The aims of this study were to observe the effects of a multi-component intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure in 3-5 year-old children; identify factors that associate with change in those variables; and evaluate the process of implementing the multi-component intervention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the study design and intervention protocol. Methods/design The overall design of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) was a two-year randomized trial (nested cohort design), with two conditions, two measurement occasions, and preschool serving as the unit of analysis. Sixteen schools (eight intervention and eight control) were enrolled. The intervention protocol was based on the social ecological model and included four main components: (a) indoor physical activity (“move inside”), (b) recess (“move outside”), (c) daily lessons (“move to learn”), and (d) social environment. Components were implemented using teacher and administrator trainings and workshops, site support visits, newsletters, and self-monitoring methods. Outcomes included accelerometer assessment of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure; weight status; and demographic factors; family/home social and physical environment; and parental characteristics. An extensive process evaluation

  1. Children's Physical Activity in Day Care and Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Hakala, Liisa; Saros, Leila; Lehto, Satu; Kyhälä, Anna-Liisa; Valtonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of physical activity (PA) in day care and preschool. The participants were 823 Finnish 1-7-year-old children from 50 day care centres and preschools. The research methods were systematic observation, evaluation of children's skills and interviews with children. Altogether 18,366…

  2. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  3. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  4. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  5. Fourth Grade Outcomes of Children with a Preschool History of Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.

    2009-01-01

    Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…

  6. Assessment and Early Instruction of Preschool Children at Risk for Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindson, Barbara; Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Newman, Cara; Hine, Donald W.; Shankweiler, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Preschool children at familial risk for reading disability were assessed on cognitive and linguistic variables and compared with preschoolers without familial risk. Risk children displayed performance profiles resembling those of older children with reading disability. Each group received intensive instruction in phonemic awareness and structured…

  7. The Predictive Effects of the Behaviour Problem Variables on Peer Victimisation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Behaviour problems in young children are fairly common. It has been suggested that approximately 5-14% of preschool children exhibit problem behaviour. There are many reasons for behaviour problems in preschool-aged period children. Researches reveal that link between victimisation and individual differences. However, but still, we do not know the…

  8. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  9. Verbal Reinforcement and Task Performance of Middle and Lower Income Black Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Steve H.

    A study was conducted to assess the effects of verbal reinforcement on task performance of black preschool children. Subjects were 36 black children in preschool centers serving families of two income levels. The children were stratified by age, sex, and income level and were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) middle income, praise; (2) middle…

  10. Modeling and Verbalizations of Lower-Class, Black, Preschool Children: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele E.

    Two purposes guided this study: (1) to investigate the effects of modeling on the verbalizations of lower-class, black, preschool children; and (2) to investigate the relationships between the dialect employed by the model and children's language production. As subjects, 72 black, preschool children in lower-class neighborhood day care centers of…

  11. Hebrew Language Assessment Measure for Preschool Children: A Comparison between Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenberger, Irit; Meilijson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The Katzenberger Hebrew Language Assessment for Preschool Children (henceforth: the KHLA) is the first comprehensive, standardized language assessment tool developed in Hebrew specifically for older preschoolers (4;0-5;11 years). The KHLA is a norm-referenced, Hebrew specific assessment, based on well-established psycholinguistic principles, as…

  12. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration in nasal wash fluid indicates severity of rhinovirus-induced wheezy bronchitis in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cangiano, Giulia; Proietti, Elena; Kronig, Marie Noelle; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Sadeghi, Christine D; Gorgievski, Meri; Barbani, Maria Teresa; Midulla, Fabio; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent; Alves, Marco P; Regamey, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The clinical course of rhinovirus (RV)-associated wheezing illnesses is difficult to predict. We measured lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, RV load, antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines in nasal washes obtained from 126 preschool children with RV wheezy bronchitis. lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely associated with subsequent need for oxygen therapy. lactate dehydrogenase may be a useful biomarker predicting disease severity in RV wheezy bronchitis.

  13. Assessment of iron status among preschool children (6 to 59 months) with and without malaria in Western Province, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kisiangani, Isaac; Mbakaya, Charles; Makokha, Anzelimo; Magu, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is a major public health concern. Globally, iron deficiency ranks number 9 and is responsible for about 60% of all anemia cases among preschool children. In Africa iron deficiency is 43-52% while in Kenya, children under 5 years constitute the largest burden with 69% of them being deficient. There is limited iron deficiency data in Kenya. This study determined haemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, nutritional status and P.falciparum malaria infection in preschool children. Methods A household cross sectional study was undertaken among 125 preschoolers in Western province, drawn from 37 clusters. Systematic random sampling was used for sample selection. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires, entered in Microsoft package. Data analysis was done in Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results The prevalence of iron deficiency (Serum ferritin <12mg/l), anaemia (Hb < 110g/l) and plasmodium falciparum malaria were 20.8%, 25% and 6.8% respectively. There was a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia (OR = 3.43, 95% CI: 1.33-8.84, p = 0.008). A preschool child with anaemia was 3.43 times likely to be iron deficient compared to a preschool child who was not anaemic. Conclusion Iron deficiency, anaemia and plasmodium falciparum malaria was prevalent among preschool children. The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore effective interventions to improve iron status will have large health benefits by greatly reducing anaemia in preschool children. PMID:26405498

  14. Federal Food Assistance Programs and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Low-Income Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paige; Montgomery, Michele; Ewell, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant public health concern. Children from lower income households have a greater risk of being obese. Low-income families generally have less access to healthy, affordable food choices and turn to federal food assistance programs. Few studies have examined the impact of food assistance programs on childhood obesity rates. This study explored the association between BMI, blood lipid levels, and three food assistance programs (WIC, reduced lunch, and food stamps) in a sample of predominantly low-income, minority preschool children enrolled in a city-wide preschool program. Screenings were performed at on-site health fairs conducted at nine schools in disadvantaged areas. Screenings included vital signs, a finger stick, head-to-toe exam, vision screening, dental screening, and hearing screening. Of the sample of 229 preschool children, 23.1 % were obese, almost three times the national rate in preschoolers. Children whose families received WIC benefits weighed significantly less than those who did not receive benefits. In addition, 20.6 % of the children screened had elevated systolic blood pressures. Of the sample, 33 % had unhealthy triglyceride levels and 46 % had unhealthy HDL levels with those that received WIC benefits having significantly lower levels of LDL cholesterol This study confirms that low-income, minority children in the South continue to be disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. In addition, the results of this study indicate WIC as a potential public health initiative to combat the childhood obesity epidemic and reduce other cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood lipids and blood pressure. PMID:26704910

  15. Low Blood Zinc, Iron, and Other Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Behavior Problems in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ma, Chenjuan; Zhao, Sophie R.; Cao, Siyuan; Compher, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls) from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3–5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years). General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother’s education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers. PMID:24473235

  16. Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

  17. Relationship of maternal parenting behaviors to preschool children's temperament.

    PubMed

    Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F

    1981-01-01

    Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.

  18. Preschool children's cognitive styles and their social orientations.

    PubMed

    Saracho, O N

    1990-06-01

    300 children ages 3 to 5 yr. were tested for their cognitive style, measured by the Preschool Embedded Figures Test, and their play preferences, measured by the Play Rating Scale, observed and recorded. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that (1) field-independent children favored all types of play more than field-dependent children, (2) field-dependent and -independent boys engaged more in physical and block play than did the girls, (3) order of preference for play differed between field-dependent and field-independent children (e.g., field-dependent children preferred physical, dramatic, and manipulative play, while field-independent children preferred dramatic, physical, manipulative and block play), (4) boys engaged more in all forms of play than girls, and (5) order of preference for play differed between boys and girls. Boys preferred physical, block, dramatic and manipulative play, while girls preferred dramatic, manipulative, physical, and block play. PMID:2377427

  19. Prevalence of asthma among preschool children in Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yolsal, Guner Emel; Yazicioglu, Mehtap; Ture, Mevlut; Kurt, Imran

    2007-01-01

    Allergic diseases generally begin early during childhood, but a late diagnosis is common. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms among kindergarten children in Edirne, Turkey. 873 subjects based on a modified ISAAC questionnaire were included. The prevalence of 'wheezing ever' and 'wheezing during the previous year' was 23.3% and 8.6%, respectively. Prior physician diagnoses existed for 36 of 873 (4.1%) children. The prevalence of children undiagnosed with asthma, but reporting asthma-related symptoms was 3.1%, 51.9% of which had previous beta-agonist prescriptions. However, none of these children received inhaled anti-inflammatory medications. In conclusion, it was found that a large population of preschool children had undiagnosed respiratory symptoms suggestive of asthma. Conducting simple surveys of young children is particularly important, as identification of asthma early in the disease course will facilitate effective prevention and treatment.

  20. Reference standards for forced expiratory indices in Chinese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting F; Liu, Tak C; Mak, Kwok K; Su, Xuefen; Sy, Hing Y; Li, Albert M; Lau, Joseph T F; Lum, Sooky; Wong, Gary W K

    2013-11-01

    Spirometric testing is traditionally achievable in children of school-age and beyond. Incorporation of interactive incentives motivates preschool children to facilitate measurement of forced expiratory indices. Validated spirometric reference standards are available for Caucasian preschoolers but lacking in Asians. We established spirometric references in Chinese children aged 2-7 years, who were recruited from 19 randomly selected nurseries and kindergartens in Hong Kong. Parents completed International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, and children concurrently performed incentive spirometry on-site according to international guideline. Prediction equations for spirometric indices were formulated by linear regression. One thousand four hundred two (72.9%) of 1,922 consented children, with mean (SD) age 4.4 (1.0) years, successfully performed spirometry. Following exclusions due to medical and technical reasons, 895 (63.8%) children contributed spirometric data to our references. Girls had lower FEV0.5 , FEV0.75 , FEV1 , FVC, and PEF but similar FEF25-75 than boys, adjusted for age, weight, and standing height as covariates. Standing height was the most important predictor for FEV0.5 , FEV0.75 , FEV1 , FVC, and PEF in both boys (adjusted R(2) 0.525-0.734) and girls (adjusted R(2) 0.583-0.721), whereas the best prediction model for both gender is formed by standing height, weight, and age. At various standing heights, our preschoolers had FEV1 Z-scores 0.13-1.00 higher than those of collaborative Caucasian reference. This study justifies the need for ethnic-specific reference equations and presents spirometry references in young Chinese children. Their forced expiratory indices are determined by gender, age, weight and standing height, and standing height is the best anthropometric index to predict all spirometric indices.

  1. Measuring implicit attitudes of 4-year-olds: the preschool implicit association test.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2011-06-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects (flowers=good) and (b) gender attitudes (girl=good or boy=good). The gender attitude PSIAT was positively correlated with corresponding explicit attitude measures and also children's actual sex. The new implicit and explicit measures of gender attitudes demonstrated discriminant validity; each predicted variance in children's gendered play activities beyond that predicted by the other. Discussion describes potential uses of the PSIAT to investigate development of societally significant attitudes and stereotypes at younger ages than are achievable with currently available methods.

  2. Physical activity for preschool children--how much and how?

    PubMed

    Timmons, Brian W; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2007-01-01

    Alarming trends in childhood obesity even among preschool children have re-focused attention on the importance of physical activity in this age group. With this increased attention comes the need to identify the amount and type of physical activity appropriate for optimal development of preschool children. The purpose of this paper is to provide the scientific evidence to support a link between physical activity and biological and psychosocial development during early childhood (ages 2-5 years). To do so, we summarize pertinent literature informing the nature of the physical activity required to promote healthy physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development during these early years. A particular focus is on the interaction between physical activity and motor skill acquisition. Special emphasis is also placed on the nature of physical activity that promotes healthy weight gain during this period of childhood. The paper also discusses the strongest determinants of physical activity in preschool-age children, including the role of the child's environment (e.g., family, child-care, and socio-economic status). We provide recommendations for physical activity based on the best available evidence, and identify future research needs. PMID:18213943

  3. Executive Function Among Preschool Children: Unitary Versus Distinct Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) are considered related but separable executive functions (EFs) among adults and adolescents. Although available evidence suggests that these constructs have not diverged especially among younger preschool children, questions remain regarding the age at which separable factors emerge. This study used confirmatory factor analysis to test a 2-factor model of EF among 289 preschool children whose ages ranged from 45 to 63 months (M = 55.74, SD = 7.56). As hypothesized, the model including separate but related factors provided a significantly better fit than a unitary model, indicating the presence of distinct WM and IC factors. Based on evidence that WM and IC measured during preschool relate differently to a variety of academic and behavioral outcomes, it was hypothesized that a model including separate factors for each EF would fit the observed data better than a single-factor model. Although the two-factor model provided the best fit for the full sample, the correlation between WM and IC factors was significantly higher for younger (ϕ =.95) than older (ϕ =.68) children, indicating increasing divergence as a function of age. PMID:25642020

  4. Tracing Developmental Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant Behaviors in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Núria; Navarro, José Blas; Penelo, Eva; Domènech, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB), which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3–5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments. Method A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM) estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5. Results The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high) or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers). Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%–9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way. Conclusions Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children. PMID:24972147

  5. General Health-Related Quality of Life in Preschool Children with Strabismus or Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ge; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Varma, Rohit; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A.; Borchert, Mark; Azen, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations of general health-related quality of life (GHRQOL) with strabismus or amblyopia in preschool children. Design Population-based study. Participants Sample of children aged 25 to 72 months in the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study (MEPEDS). Methods The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), a measure of GHRQOL, was administered to the parents of the children. Main Outcome Measures The PedsQL consists of 4 sub-scales (physical, emotional, social, and school functioning) and 3 composite scores (physical summary, psychosocial summary, and total). Regression models were used to evaluate the associations of GHRQOL with strabismus (in children 25 to 72 months) or amblyopia (in children 30 to 72 months), respectively. Results Of the 4,218 children aged ≧ 25 months, 121 (2.9%) were diagnosed with strabismus. Significant differences were found in all 3 composite scores between children with and without strabismus, before and after controlling for gender, age, race, family income, systemic health conditions, and prior knowledge of strabismus diagnosis (p<0.05). These differences were present in both esotropes and exotropes, and in both children with intermittent and constant strabismus. 3,318 children were ≧ 30 months and 71 (2.1%) had amblyopia. There were no significant differences in any PedsQL scores between children with and without amblyopia, even after adjusting for gender, age, race, and family income (p>0.05). Conclusions Strabismus was associated with significantly worse GHRQOL in preschool children. While we did not find any detectable association between amblyopia and GHRQOL, further study using vision-specific instruments is required to explore the impact of both strabismus and amblyopia on pediatric quality of life. PMID:20884059

  6. Emotion Understanding in Preschool Children: The Role of Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Eva Costa; Osório, Ana; Veríssimo, Manuela; Martins, Carla

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at studying the relations between executive functions (EFs) and categorical emotion understanding while controlling for preschoolers' IQ, language ability and theory of mind (ToM). Specifically, we wanted to analyse the association between emotion understanding and set shifting, due to the lack of studies with this EF.…

  7. Preschool Sleep Problems and Differential Associations With Specific Aspects of Executive Control in Early Elementary School.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Kidwell, Katherine M; James, Tiffany D; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the differential associations between parent-reported child sleep problems in preschool and specific aspects of executive control in early elementary school in a large sample of typically developing children (N = 215). Consistent with expectations, sleep problems were negatively associated with performance on tasks assessing working memory and interference suppression inhibition, even after controlling for general cognitive abilities, but not with flexible shifting or response inhibition. The findings add to the literature on cognitive impairments associated with pediatric sleep loss and highlight the need for early intervention for children with sleep problems to promote healthy cognitive development. PMID:26151614

  8. A functional analysis of verbal delay in preschool children: Implications for prevention and total recovery

    PubMed Central

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior in the shaping of verbal behavior is discussed. PMID:22477077

  9. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI > 95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4 days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of a parent training and emotion socialization program for families of hyperactive preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Sharonne D; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Jasmin L; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that involved teaching parenting strategies for managing hyperactive and disruptive behavior as well as emotion socialization strategies for improving children's emotion regulation. Compared to WL mothers, PT mothers reported significantly less child inattention, hyperactivity, oppositional defiance, and emotional lability; were observed using significantly more positive and less negative parenting; and reported significantly less maternal verbosity and unsupportive emotion socialization practices. Results provide some support for the effectiveness of this parenting program for reducing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and associated problems in preschool-aged children.

  11. The association of household pollutants and socio-economic risk factors with the short-term outcome of acute lower respiratory infections in hospitalized pre-school Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Aderele, W I

    1992-01-01

    In a 9-month study of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI), the short-term prognostic implications of socio-economic and household risk factors were examined in 103 hospitalized pre-school Nigerian children. Seventy-nine (77%) subjects were potentially exposed to the combustion products of kerosene stoves, 16 (16%) to wood smoke and five (5%) to the products of cooking gas combustion. Only 17 subjects (17%) were exposed to household cigarette smoke. A highly significant association (p < 0.005) was shown between household cooking fuel and the outcome of hospitalization: five (63%) of the eight who died were potentially exposed to wood smoke. The duration of hospitalization was only significantly associated with paternal income (p < 0.05). None of the other domestic risk factors was significantly related to outcome or duration of admission. These findings suggest an association between an adverse outcome of ALRI and domestic exposure to wood smoke. While the hospital-based source will not allow definite conclusions, the present findings underscore the need for community-based studies. The implications for future strategies of ARI control are discussed, with suggestions.

  12. Parents and Preschool Children Interacting with Storybooks: Children's Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline; Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Ann; Shapiro, Jon

    2008-01-01

    This research reports on one area of a larger study in Western Canada examining the literacy activities of families from culturally diverse backgrounds. The research focused on parents' interactions with preschool children in storybook sharing and children's emergent reading development as measured by the "Test of Early Reading Ability-2…

  13. [Mental representation, psychic structure, and behaviour problems in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Juen, Florian; Benecke, Cord; von Wyl, Agnes; Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

    2005-03-01

    Mental health problems in terms of deviant behaviour and emotional problems are assumed in context with mental representations and indicators of internal psychic structure. In distinction to adults there is little empirical research concerning this matter. On the basis of Childrens' Play Narratives (MacArthur Story Stem Battery) we collected data about content-themes, structural indicators and process criteria of 73 preschool children and implicated these information with behaviour ratings of parents and kindergarden teachers. Many correlations were found particularly with structural indicators, process criteria and behaviour ratings. The results are discussed both with respect to content and methodical aspects. PMID:15850165

  14. [Mother-child interaction and child behavior in preschool children with a history of iron-deficiency anemia in infancy].

    PubMed

    De Andraca Oyarzún, I; Salas Aliaga, I; de la Parra Cieciwa, A; González López, B

    1993-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is a highly prevalent nutritional disorder. Research in the last two decades shows that if this nutritional disorder occurs during the first two years of life it is associated with poor psychomotor performance and changes in behavior, such as reduced levels of responsitivy to persons and stimuli, irritability and inhibition. Further studies demonstrate that effects observed during infancy persist in the long term; preschool children who were anemic at twelve months show lower cognitive and motor scores than control children with normal iron nutritional status. In the study we evaluated 35 preschool children with an average age of 5 years and 6 months, 20 were anemic at one year and 15 had normal iron status. Behavior characteristics of the child and the mother-child interaction patterns were analyzed. All children participated in a semistructured play and teaching task trial which was filmed and later codified through a specially designed guideline. Results suggest that formerly anemic preschool children are less active, more inhibited and timid than the corresponding controls. Mothers of children with normal iron status during infancy are more responsive, having a rich two-way interaction with their sons, while mother of preschool children who were anemic are more frequently restricted to a response to the child. Although findings are not conclusive, they may direct future studies designed to clarify the complex relationship between anemia and behavior.

  15. Influencing factors of screen time in preschool children: an exploration of parents' perceptions through focus groups in six European countries.

    PubMed

    De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Wijndaele, K; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Grammatikaki, E; Iotova, V; Usheva, N; Fernández-Alvira, J M; Zych, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2012-03-01

    Preschoolers already spend significant proportions of their waking hours being sedentary. Screen time (i.e. television/DVD viewing and computer use) has been negatively associated with several health outcomes but interventions aiming to reduce preschoolers' sedentary behaviour are scarce. This study aimed to explore parents' perceptions of their preschool children's screen time. One hundred twenty-two parents of low and medium-high socioeconomic status from six European countries with children between 4 and 6 years old were involved in 24 focus groups. Following a qualitative content analysis, the available information and key findings were centrally analysed. Results showed that children tend to like watching television (TV) and most parents do not express worries about their children's TV viewing time. Education is considered to be the main benefit of watching TV and in general, parents only have informal rules about TV viewing. Computer and active games use are less frequent compared with TV viewing. No univocal results are found about the influence of siblings or friends on children's screen time. Weather conditions and parental habits at home are the most important factors influencing children's screen time. Alternatives for screen activities and information on how to set rules for screen time should be provided to parents to assist them in decreasing their preschool children's screen time. PMID:22309066

  16. Elevated arterial blood pressure and body mass index among Nigerian preschool children population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arterial blood pressure tends to rise with growth and development. Elevated blood pressure (EBP) in children usually occurs during the first two decades of life, and the children with hypertension tend to grow into adulthood with the high level of blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in children is increasing, the causes likely to be of different combination of factors. In this study we ascertained the prevalence of EBP in pre-school children in Enugu metropolis, South-East Nigeria and also determined its association with some factors like the Body Mass Index (BMI), urinalysis finding, family history, gender, age and socioeconomic class. Method A Stratified method of sampling was used to select subjects from registered nursery schools (Pre- elementary school) within Enugu metropolis. Physical examination of the recruited pupils was done with emphasis on arterial blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and urinalysis. Result Six hundred and thirty children (630) were studied out of which 345 (54.8%) were males and 285 (45.2%) were females. Sustained EBP (mainly systolic) were recorded in 12 pupils (1.9%) giving a prevalence of 1.9% of the pre-school population. The twelve (1.9%) pupils were all 5 years of age (p value = 0.001) and 11 (1.72%) of them were of under-weight BMI. The prevalence of obesity is 0.5% and that of under-weight is 92% of the studied population. There is no association between EBP and obesity (p value = 0.679). All the pupils with EBP had protein-free urine and no hematuria. Conclusions EBP and under-weight malnutrition is common in children in 5 years age group. EBP in preschool children is not influenced by their body mass index, urinalysis finding, gender, family history of hypertension or socioeconomic class. PMID:24593321

  17. Raising Our Voices for Children. Association for Children of New Jersey Annual Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Children of New Jersey, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Through research and policy advocacy, the Association for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) works to change state policies and improve programs for children, and advocates to bring together many more voices on behalf of children. The annual report reviews 2006 accomplishments, including: (1) More state funding for preschool ensure that more children…

  18. An Evaluation of Social Adaptation Skills of Children with and without Preschool Education Background Based on Their Mothers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunindi, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…

  19. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  20. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  1. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  2. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  3. A portable device based on the interrupter technique for measuring airway resistance in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Derman, O; Yaramis, A; Kirbas, G

    2004-01-01

    The interrupter technique for measuring airway resistance is a noninvasive method reported to require minimal subject cooperation. Therefore it has a good potential for use in young children who are not able to cooperate with conventional lung function tests. The interrupter method is based on transient interruption of airflow at the mouth for a brief period during which alveolar pressure equilibrates with mouth pressure. In order to investigate the compliance rate with the interrupter technique in preschool children and to look for associated baseline measures of RINT we performed a study in 214 children of ages from 3 months to 5 years. There was a significant inverse correlation between baserint and age (r = -0.672, p<0.001), and standing height (r = -0.692, p<0.001) in children with recurrent wheezing. However, this was not seen in healthy children. We concluded that the portable interrupter device is very useful in preschool children. The measurements showed that the age and standing height are inversely proportional to the baseline RINT values measured. We reported that these differences would be more apparent in children with a history of recurrent wheezing. PMID:15301301

  4. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  5. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  6. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  7. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style. PMID:12056110

  8. A Report of Survey on Conditions of Preschool Children's Family Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Yujuan

    2011-01-01

    The author composes a questionnaire about conditions of preschool children's family music education. The survey includes 280 preschool children in a city of Shandong province. It finds that most parents have recognized the importance of early childhood music education, but there is the tendency of utilitarian. The content of family music education…

  9. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the KABC-II in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kimberly E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; McIntosh, David E.; Hunt, Madeline S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) in relation to the synthesized Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence with a preschool sample. Participants were 200 preschool children between four and five years of age. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, and different…

  11. A Latent Variable Approach to Determining the Structure of Executive Function in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael R.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Muller, Ulrich; McInerney, Robert J.; Kerns, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    The composition of executive function (EF) in preschool children was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A sample of 129 children between 3 and 5 years of age completed a battery of EF tasks. Using performance indicators of working memory and inhibition similar to previous CFA studies with preschoolers, we replicated a unitary EF…

  12. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  13. Interaction Processes as a Mediating Factor between Children's Externalized Behaviour Difficulties and Engagement in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöman, Madeleine; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This study examined social interaction as a mediator between externalized behaviour difficulties and children's engagement in preschool. Data from 663 children (340 boys), aged 18-71 months, were collected at 81 Swedish preschool units in six municipalities to test a path model that included child, teacher, and child groups. The results indicated…

  14. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  15. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  16. Predictors of Care-Giver Stress in Families of Preschool-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, K. M.; Sanders, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined the predictors, mediators and moderators of parent stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disability. Method: One hundred and five mothers of preschool-aged children with developmental disability completed assessment measures addressing the key variables. Results: Analyses demonstrated that…

  17. A Pilot Study of Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation for Children with Behavioral Problems in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Reed, George

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a pilot demonstration project called Together for Kids, which used a mental health consultation model to address the needs of young children with challenging behaviors who are identified in preschool classrooms. The study was conducted in four preschool programs and one Head Start program serving children ages…

  18. The Oregon Project for Visually Impaired and Blind Preschool Children (OR Project). Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donnise; And Others

    The Oregon Project for Visually Impaired and Blind Preschool Children (OR Project) materials are designed primarily for use by teachers or counselors working with visually impaired and blind preschool children and their parents in the home. The OR Project contains a manual, skills inventory, and descriptions of teaching activities. The manual…

  19. Analogic and Symbolic Comparison of Numerosity in Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfe, Barbara; Lucangeli, Daniela; Genovese, Elisabetta; Monzani, Daniele; Gubernale, Marco; Trevisi, Patrizia; Santarelli, Rosamaria

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how preschoolers with cochlear implants process numerical comparisons from two different inputs: a) nonverbal (analogical) and b) verbal (symbolic). Preschool cochlear-implanted children (CI) ranging in age from 4;3 to 6;1 were compared with 99 age-matched hearing children (HC) in three numerical tasks: verbal counting, a digit…

  20. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  1. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  2. Making Differences and Reflecting on Diversities: Embodied Nationality among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on embodied practices in processes of nationalization among preschool children at the age of 6. It analyses how children define themselves and others, how they characterize and frame Finnishness through embodiment. The analysis is based on an ethnographic study in two preschool classes. It is argued that nationality works in a…

  3. A Survey of Swedish Teachers' Concerns for Preschool Children at Risk of Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Birgitta; Andershed, Henrik; Janson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a problem that is related to pre-school teachers' prolonged and temporary concerns for children's home situations and the extent to which these children were in need of special support in pre-school and/or were reported to the CPA. Data were obtained from a Swedish prospective study (the SOFIA-study)…

  4. Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

  5. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…

  6. Effects of Social Stories on Prosocial Behavior of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Shannon; Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Social Stories[TM] are a popular intervention for preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little research on Social Stories has been conducted with this population. This study investigated the effects of Social Stories on prosocial behavior of three preschool children with ASD in an inclusive setting. An ABAB design was used…

  7. A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

    2012-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…

  8. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  9. Investigating Mechanisms of Suppression in Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated 2 suppression mechanisms--(a) resistance to distracter interference and (b) inhibition of a prepotent response--in preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing peers. Method: Twenty-two preschool children with SLI and 22 typically developing controls participated in this…

  10. Nutritional Status of Mexican American Preschool Children in East Los Angeles and San Diego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…

  11. Preschool Age Children, Divorce and Adjustment: A Case Study in Greek Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…

  12. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  13. Drawing Children into Reading: A Qualitative Case Study of a Preschool Drawing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFauw, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    This article details a qualitative case study of 24 preschool children engaged with step-by-step drawing instruction provided by five educators as they developed their fine motor skills and drew detailed objects using the Drawing Children Into Reading curriculum (Halperin, W. A. (2011a). "Project 50 preschool manual." South Haven, MI:…

  14. Development of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS) on Children's Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Cheung, Jasmine; Lau, Vanessa; Lam, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed to describe the design and development of the social domain of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS), which would be used for assessment of preschool children with different developmental disabilities. The original version of the social domain consisted of 30 items. Children were asked questions about their social…

  15. The Screening, Assessment, and Educational Programming of Pre-School Handicapped Children: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Steve E.; Churton, Margaret

    The training manual is intended to meet the training needs of Head Start personnel and others working with preschool handicapped children who have not had formal training in special education. The book attempts to provide the basic concepts and practices of providing individualized instruction to preschool handicapped children as mandated by P.L.…

  16. Effects of Preschool on Educationally Advantaged Children: Implication for Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Jean M.

    As part of a study to investigate the immediate and long term effects of preschool upon educationally advantaged children, data from three waves of preschool-age subjects (N=291) and followup data on two waves of kindergarten-age subjects (N=171) were analyzed. All children in the sample were determined to be educationally advantaged, and all…

  17. Development and Validation of a Musical Behavior Measure for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Gina Jisun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure for use in assessing musical behaviors of preschool children in the context of regular music instruction and to determine the validity and the reliability of the measure. The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure (ECMBM) was constructed for use with preschool-aged children to measure their…

  18. Physical Education and Language Integration: Effects on Oral and Written Speech of Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Kourtessis, Thomas; Goti-Douma, Efthimia; Kyrgiridis, Pavlos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the integration of physical education and language on oral and written speech of preschool children. Sixty seven preschool children (34 girls and 33 boys), ages 4 to 6, were randomly divided into two groups. Group A participated at a 5- week movement and language program in the gym while Group B…

  19. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  20. The Effects of TV Program Pacing on the Behavior of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assertions that television (Sesame Street in particular) produces hyperactivity, impulsivity, disorganized behavior, and shortened attention spans in pre-school children were investigated. No evidence was found that rapid television pacing has an immediate negative impact on behavior of preschool children. (Author/STS)

  1. Salivary Alpha Amylase Diurnal Pattern and Stress Response are associated with Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison L.; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can “get under the skin” and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n = 195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child’s BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU’s (p < .04); for each 1-SDU increase in sAA slope across the day, the child’s BMI z-score increased by 0.12 (SE 0.05) SDU’s (p < .03); and for each 1-SDU decrease in sAA AUCI during the stress elicitation, the child’s BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU’s (p < .03). Blunted stress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. PMID:25588701

  2. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (p<.04); for each 1-SDU increase in sAA slope across the day, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.12 (SE 0.05) SDU's (p<.03); and for each 1-SDU decrease in sAA AUCI during the stress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (p<.03). Blunted stress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. PMID:25588701

  3. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  4. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  5. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  6. Earthcycles: Environmental Education with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Webber, Mavis

    Early childhood educators and parents face the task of educating young children in Canada about environmental issues. The sooner young children participate in activities with an environmental theme, the more likely they are to appreciate the environment. This booklet is designed to introduce early childhood educators to environmental education…

  7. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  8. Preschool Children's Understanding of Semantic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Panfang

    Two experiments investigated 4- to 5-year olds' understanding of semantic relations and methods for incorporating new words into their lexicon. In one experiment, 24 children were shown a picture of a container and told that an object called "X" was hidden inside it. Children were asked questions about the object X and about "Y," which indicated a…

  9. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  10. E.T.: Preschool Children's Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Bruce; Peterson, Karen L.

    An exploratory study investigated preoperational children's understanding of the fictional movie character E.T. (The Extra-Terrestrial). Of 40 participating children (ages 40 to 66 months), 85 percent indicated they had seen the movie. Data were collected according to an interview method, and responses were recorded on audiotape, transcribed, and…

  11. Conservation of Social Roles in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Valerie Barnes

    The development of children's understanding of the permanence of various social roles was examined in 16 four- and 16 five-year-old children. A social role conservation battery consisting of 12 items on the permanence of self-identity, gender, child and sibling roles was given under three temporal conditions: the past (i.e., when you were a baby,…

  12. Sustained attention and unintentional injury among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bennett Murphy, L; Caroline, E; Rose, C L

    2001-06-01

    This study examined vigilance in preschool-aged children and explored the relationship between vigilance and unintentional injury. There were 28 participating children, aged 4 and 5 years, who completed a computerized vigilance task for two 5-min sessions. The task generated measures of correct detections, false alarms, reaction time, and the signal detection indices of d' and c. Primary caregivers completed daily injury phone journals for a 4-week period. Results indicated that age and signal probability affected vigilance. Older children made more correct detections, had greater perceptual sensitivity, and performed in patterns similar to adults. Performance was enhanced in the high signal probability condition. In addition, vigilance indicators of perceptual sensitivity and response bias were predictive of injury, while age was not. Specifically, children with lower perceptual sensitivity scores, and who were less responsive to the vigilance task, experienced more unintentional injuries over the course of the study.

  13. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child's general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869) and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284) and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759) were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families. PMID:26090927

  14. Perceived Impact of Dental Pain on the Quality of Life of Preschool Children and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Clementino, Marayza Alves; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the perceived impact of dental caries and dental pain on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children and their families. A cross-sectional study was conduct with 843 preschool children in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, their child’s general/oral health and history of dental pain. The Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to determine the perceived impact of caries and dental pain on OHRQoL. The children underwent an oral examination. Logistic regression for complex sample was used to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables (OR: Odds ratio, α = 5%). The independents variables that had a p-value <0.20 in the bivariate analysis were selected for the multivariate model. The prevalence of dental caries and dental pain was 66.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Order of birth of the child, being the middle child (OR: 10.107, 95%CI: 2.008-50.869) and youngest child (OR: 3.276, 95%CI: 1.048-10.284) and dental pain (OR: 84.477, 95%CI: 33.076-215.759) were significant predictors of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for children. Poor perception of oral health was significant predictor of the perceived impact on OHRQOL for family (OR=7.397, 95%CI: 2.190-24.987). Dental caries was not associated with a perceived impact on the ORHQoL of either the children or their families. However, order of child birth and dental pain were indicators of impact of OHRQoL on preschool children and poor perception of oral health was indicators of impact on families. PMID:26090927

  15. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  16. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  17. The impact of epilepsy on preschool children and their families.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Müberra; Mutluay, Fatma Karantay; Tarakçi, Devrim; Güler, Serhat; Iscan, Akin

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the possible presence of sensory-motor developmental impairments in preschool children with epilepsy and explored epilepsy impact on their activities and quality of life and on the stress load of their family. Study participants were children aged 2-6years diagnosed with epilepsy without any other comorbidities (epi-only children). The instruments used for assessment included the Neurological, Sensory, Motor, Developmental Assessment (NSMDA) scale for sensory-motor development, the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale (ICNDS), and the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Scale (IPES) for disease impact on disability and Quality of Life (QoL), as well as the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) for functional health status, and the Parental Stress Scale (PSS) for the family stress load. Required data were obtained from direct testing or observation of children's activities and mother-supplied answers to questions. Eighty-two children were investigated. The NSMDA scores were in the normal development range 6-8. Significant moderate impact of the disease on disability and QoL was estimated with the ICNDS and IPES instruments. The PODCI scores were similar to healthy population levels except for the happiness dimension which was better for children with epilepsy. PSS were significantly above normal. The functional health and QoL of the children as well as their family stress were found to be positively correlated with increasing age. It is found that epilepsy does not degrade neuromotor development and functional health status of preschool epi-only children, though it has a significant impact on their neurological disability and QoL and the stress level of their families; this impact seems to decrease with age. PMID:27428870

  18. Investigation of MONE Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006) According to Children Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…

  19. Ideas Exchange: "How Important Is Activity in Young Children (Preschool) to a Lifetime of Physical Activity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, GLenn; Morrison, Jaime; Mally, Kristi; McCall, Renee; Corso, Marjorie; Kamla, Jim; Magnotta, John; Chase, Melissa A.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Lorenzi, David G.; Barnd, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the opinions of several professionals who were asked: "How important is activity in young children (preschool) to a lifetime of physical activity?" These professionals point out the importance of physical activity to young children.

  20. The Effects of Possession and Ownership on the Sharing and Proprietary Behaviors of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg-Berg, Nancy; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigates preschool children's behavioral responses to linguistic cues regarding ownership of objects, examining the effects of such cues on children's physical or verbal attempts to take an object in another's possession, and on verbalization of claims of ownership. (RH)