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Sample records for preschool children exposed

  1. Children Exposed to Drugs in Utero: Their Scores on the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L.; Harris, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers was administered to 54 children who had been prenatally exposed to drugs. Results indicated a tendency toward the lower end of the spectrum with poorer performance identified on test items measuring tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular processing and language. (JOW)

  2. An anthropological approach to the evaluation of preschool children exposed to pesticides in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, E A; Meza, M M; Aquilar, M G; Soto, A D; Garcia, I E

    1998-01-01

    In this comparative study, we compensated for many of the known variables that influence children's growth and development by selecting two groups of 4-5-year-old Yaqui children who reside in the Yaqui Valley of northwestern Mexico. These children share similar genetic backgrounds, diets, water mineral contents, cultural patterns, and social behaviors. The major difference was their exposure to pesticides. Pesticides have been applied to the agricultural area of the valley since the late 1940s. In 1990, high levels of multiple pesticides were found in the cord blood of newborns and in breast milk. Building on anthropological methods for rapid rural appraisal of problems within the environment, a Rapid Assessment Tool for Preschool Children (RATPC) was developed to measure growth and development. The children of the agrarian region were compared to children living in the foothills, where pesticide use is avoided. The RATPC measured varied aspects of physical growth and abilities to perform, or function in, normal childhood activities. No differences were found in growth patterns. Functionally, the exposed children demonstrated decreases in stamina, gross and fine eye-hand coordination, 30-minute memory, and the ability to draw a person. The RATPC also pointed out areas in which more in-depth research on the toxicology of pesticides would be valuable. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9618351

  3. Comparative study of the phonology of preschool children prenatally exposed to cocaine and multiple drugs and non-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Madison, C L; Johnson, J M; Seikel, J A; Arnold, M; Schultheis, L

    1998-01-01

    Cocaine and multiple drug abuse among young adults has spawned research interest in fetal exposure and the sequela of that exposure during the formative developmental years. Previous study of the language development of exposed children has not specifically addressed phonological acquisition. In the present study, the speech of 25 children prenatally exposed to cocaine and multiple drugs was analyzed and compared to that of 25 children who were not prenatally exposed to determine if differences were evident in their phonological patterns. The children ranged in age from 22 months to 51 months. The number and type of phonological processes produced, number of utterances needed to produce a 50-word sample, number of unintelligible words produced, and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores were recorded and analyzed. The use of cocaine and multiple drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increase in the use of phonological processes.

  4. Preschool Israeli Children Exposed to Rocket Attacks: Assessment, Risk, and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Versano-Eisman, Tali; Slone, Michelle; Margalit, Nitzan; Laor, Nathaniel

    2015-10-01

    Preschool children are among the most vulnerable populations to adversity. This study described the effects of 4 weeks of daily exposure to rocket attacks on children living on Israel's southern border. Participants enrolled in this study were 122 preschool children (50% boys) between the ages 3 and 6 years from 10 kindergartens. We assessed mothers' report of children's symptoms according to the DSM-IV and alternative criteria resembling the DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general adaptation, traumatic exposure, and stressful life events 3 months after the war. The prevalence of PTSD was lower when the diagnosis was derived from the DSM-IV (4%) than from the DSM-5 criteria (14%). Mothers of children with 4 or more stressful life events reported more functional impairment in social, occupational, and other important areas of functioning compared to children with 0 or 1 stressful life event. Children with more severe exposure showed more severe symptoms and mothers had more concerns about the child's functioning (η(p)(2) = .09-.25). Stressful life events and exposure to traumatic experiences accounted for 32% of the variance in PTSD and 19% of the variance in the adaptation scale. Results were explored in terms of risk and resilience factors. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  5. A Year-Long Caregiver Training Program to Improve Neurocognition in Preschool Ugandan HIV-Exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Michael J.; Bangirana, Paul; Nakasujja, Noeline; Page, Connie F.; Shohet, Cilly; Givon, Deborah; Bass, Judith K.; Opoka, Robert O.; Klein, Pnina S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mediational intervention for sensitizing caregivers (MISC) is a structured program enabling caregivers to enhance their child’s cognitive and emotional development through daily interactions. The principal aim was to evaluate if a year-long MISC caregiver training program produced greater improvement in child cognitive and emotional development compared with a control program. Methods 119 uninfected HIV-exposed preschool children and their caregivers were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: biweekly MISC training alternating between home and clinic for one year or a health and nutrition curriculum. All children were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year with the Mullen Early Learning Scales, Color-Object Association Test (COAT) for memory, and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for psychiatric symptoms. Caregivers were evaluated on the same schedule with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25) for depression and anxiety. Results The treatment arms were compared using repeated-measures ANCOVA with child age, gender, weight, SES, caregiving quality, caregiver anxiety, and caregiver education as covariates. The MISC children had significantly greater gains compared to controls on the Mullen Receptive and Expressive Language development, and on the Mullen composite score of cognitive ability. COAT total memory for MISC children was marginally better than controls. No CBCL differences between the groups were noted. Caldwell HOME scores and observed mediational interaction scores from videotapes measuring caregiving quality also improved significantly more for the MISC group. Conclusion MISC enhanced cognitive performance, especially in language development. These benefits were possibly mediated by improved caregiving and positive emotional benefit to the caregiver. PMID:23535340

  6. Potential Mediators of Adjustment for Preschool Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Living in a home where violence is present places young children at great risk for developing emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and health problems. While many studies have examined direct relationships between violence exposure and adjustment, fewer have considered how children's mental health problems may interact over time. The…

  7. Potential Mediators of Adjustment for Preschool Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Living in a home where violence is present places young children at great risk for developing emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and health problems. While many studies have examined direct relationships between violence exposure and adjustment, fewer have considered how children's mental health problems may interact over time. The…

  8. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  9. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  10. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  11. Deviant smooth pursuit in preschool children exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco affects integrative visuomotor capabilities.

    PubMed

    Melinder, Annika; Konijnenberg, Carolien; Sarfi, Monica

    2013-12-01

    Although an increasing number of children are born to mothers in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT), little is known about the long-term effects of these opioids. Previous studies suggest an association between prenatal OMT exposure and difficulties in eye movement control. Also, the effects of tobacco smoking on eye movements have been reported. The present study examined the influence of eye movements, i.e. smooth pursuit, on visuomotor capabilities in children of smoking mothers in OMT. The study comprised a 2 (OMT versus contrast group) × 2 (slow versus fast smooth pursuit) between-subject factorial design. The cognitive developmental research unit at the University of Oslo, Norway. Participants were 26 4-year-old children of tobacco-smoking women in OMT and 23 non-exposed 4-year-old children, with non-smoking mothers, matched by gender and age. Eye movements and smooth pursuit were recorded using a Tobii 1750 eyetracker. Visuomotor functions were examined by Bender test. The OMT group tracked slowly moving objects with smooth pursuit in a similar manner to their non-exposed peers. When fast smooth pursuit was measured, the OMT group of children tracked the object more slowly than the contrast group, P = 0.02, ηp(2) = 0.11. A regression analysis showed that fast smooth pursuit predicted children's performance on a visuomotor task, R(2) = 0.37. Impaired eye-tracking skills in 4-year-old children exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco prenatally could inhibit the development of some cognitive functions in later life. ©2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Deviant smooth pursuit in preschool children exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco affects integrative visuomotor capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Melinder, Annika; Konijnenberg, Carolien; Sarfi, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Although an increasing number of children are born to mothers in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT), little is known about the long-term effects of these opioids. Previous studies suggest an association between prenatal OMT exposure and difficulties in eye movement control. Also, the effects of tobacco smoking on eye movements have been reported. The present study examined the influence of eye movements, i.e. smooth pursuit, on visuomotor capabilities in children of smoking mothers in OMT. Design The study comprised a 2 (OMT versus contrast group) × 2 (slow versus fast smooth pursuit) between-subject factorial design. Setting The cognitive developmental research unit at the University of Oslo, Norway. Participants Participants were 26 4-year-old children of tobacco-smoking women in OMT and 23 non-exposed 4-year-old children, with non-smoking mothers, matched by gender and age. Measurement Eye movements and smooth pursuit were recorded using a Tobii 1750 eyetracker. Visuomotor functions were examined by Bender test. Findings The OMT group tracked slowly moving objects with smooth pursuit in a similar manner to their non-exposed peers. When fast smooth pursuit was measured, the OMT group of children tracked the object more slowly than the contrast group, P = 0.02, ηp2 = 0.11. A regression analysis showed that fast smooth pursuit predicted children’s performance on a visuomotor task, R2 = 0.37. Conclusion Impaired eye-tracking skills in 4-year-old children exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco prenatally could inhibit the development of some cognitive functions in later life. PMID:23734878

  13. Preschool iron-folic acid and zinc supplementation in children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero confers no added cognitive benefit in early school-age.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Morgan, Mary E; Murray-Kolb, Laura; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Schaefer, Barbara; Cole, Pamela M; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M

    2011-11-01

    In Nepal, antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation improved aspects of intellectual, executive, and fine motor function among school-age children. We examined the impact of added zinc to the maternal antenatal supplement (M-IFAZn) and preschool supplementation from 12 to 36 mo with iron-folic acid (C-IFA) ± zinc (C-IFAZn) on cognitive outcomes compared to maternal iron-folic acid (M-IFA) alone. Children 7-9 y old (n = 780) who participated in early childhood micronutrient supplementation trial during 2001-2004 and whose mothers participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation between 1999 and 2001 were followed for cognitive assessments in 2007-2009. Using multivariate analysis of variance and adjusting for confounders, M-IFA with child supplementation (either C-IFA or C-IFAZn) did not impact scores on the tests of general intelligence (Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test), and executive function (Stroop and go/no go tests) relative to the M-IFA alone. However, children in the C-IFAZn group had slightly lower scores on the backward digit span (-0.29, 95% CI: -0.55, -0.04) and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (1.33, 95% CI: 0.26, 2.40) relative to the referent group, whereas both C-IFA (-1.92, 95% CI: -3.12, -0.71) and C-IFAZn (-1.78, 95% CI: -2.63, -0.92) produced somewhat lower finger tapping test scores (fine motor skills). The combination of M-IFAZn and C-IFA or C-IFAZn did not lead to any outcome differences relative to M-IFA alone. Preschool iron-folic acid ± zinc to children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero or addition of zinc to maternal iron-folic acid conferred no additional benefit to cognitive outcomes assessed in early school age. The late timing of supplementation during preschool may explain the lack of impact of iron and/or zinc.

  14. Movement Education For Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Maida L., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet explores why movement education is important for preschool children, what activities to include in a program, how and where to conduct a program, and criteria that can help to structure the program environment. The first section presents a rationale for the use of movement education for helping preschool children to develop…

  15. What Do Children Learn at Swedish Preschools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindström, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research are, first, to make visible, examine, and illuminate preschool teachers' perception of what children enrolled in preschools learn and how they learn it; and second, to highlight and illuminate what abilities preschool teachers perceive that children can develop during their stay at preschools. As a theoretical…

  16. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young children

  17. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic--potential alleviation by selenium.

    PubMed

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E; Vahter, Marie

    2015-07-01

    Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4-5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2), corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=-2.8; 95% CI: -5.5, -0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=-0.79; 95% CI: -3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young children in rural Bangladesh. Better selenium status appears to be protective

  18. Young Children's Influence in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilson, Anette

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how very young children can influence their daily life in preschool, in relation to teacher control. The specific questions studied were: What opportunities do the children have to make their own choices and take the initiative? How does teacher control manifest itself? What form do permanent…

  19. Numerosity Discrimination in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Alzira; Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2007-01-01

    We used a numerical bisection procedure to examine preschool children's sensitivity to the numerical attributes of stimuli. In Experiment 1 children performed two tasks. In the Cups Task they earned coins for choosing a green cup after two drumbeats and a blue cup after eight drumbeats. In the Gloves Task they earned coins for raising a red glove…

  20. Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development because of greater reactivity and reduced regulation during challenging tasks. Few studies have examined whether cocaine-exposed children show such difficulties during the preschool years, a period marked by increased social and cognitive…

  1. Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development because of greater reactivity and reduced regulation during challenging tasks. Few studies have examined whether cocaine-exposed children show such difficulties during the preschool years, a period marked by increased social and cognitive…

  2. [Early Intervention for Handicapped Preschool Children].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainato, Diane M.; Strain, Phillip S.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter focuses on early intervention for handicapped preschool children. The lead article, entitled "Promoting Independent Work Skills in Handicapped Preschool Children," highlights findings of a project designed to identify critical skills needed for independent functioning in mainstream preschool and kindergarten…

  3. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  4. Preschool Children's Informal Division Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins-Knabe, Belinda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…

  5. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  6. Barriers to Vaccinating Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orenstein, Walter A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing disease, preschool children, particularly in the inner cities, are not being adequately immunized. Inadequate clinic staff and hours, inconvenient locations, prohibitive policies, and missed opportunities within the health care system may contribute to this problem. Suggests policy changes…

  7. Mozart Effect in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, Rauscher et al. reported a temporary increase in spatial-temporal ability after listening to Mozart's music. This led to numerous replication and extension studies with mixed findings in the past decade. This study investigated the "Mozart effect" in preschool children. Forty-one boys and girls, aged three to five, attempted a series of…

  8. Barriers to Vaccinating Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orenstein, Walter A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing disease, preschool children, particularly in the inner cities, are not being adequately immunized. Inadequate clinic staff and hours, inconvenient locations, prohibitive policies, and missed opportunities within the health care system may contribute to this problem. Suggests policy changes…

  9. Preschool Children's Comprehension of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robin

    A new methodology for testing preschool children's comprehension of television is described and the results of the first experiment with this method are presented. Original program material was created by filming 30 second animated stories in color and transferring them to videotape for subsequent editing and addition of sound. Thirty-five…

  10. Controlling Relationships in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Jose Manuel; Braza, Francisco; Carreras, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    In order to facilitate the comprehension of social structure in preschool children, our research has two foci: first, to define controlling behaviours (nonaggressive group organisation) and to determine their organisational principles, and second, to analyse the relation of the controlling behaviours with aggressive behaviours. Through direct…

  11. Parent Preference of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, David B.; Cross, Amy De Palma

    1974-01-01

    In individual sessions with 150 preschool children aged two through four, youngsters were asked to choose which parent (in the next room) they wanted to participate with them in each of seven play activities. Boys showed a strong father preference. Girls showed no parent preference when age groups were combined, but younger girls preferred…

  12. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  13. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  14. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  15. Imaginary companions of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gleason, T R; Sebanc, A M; Hartup, W W

    2000-07-01

    The developmental significance of preschool children's imaginary companions was examined. Mothers of 78 children were interviewed about their children's social environments and imaginary companions (if their children had them). Results revealed differences between invisible companions and personified objects (e.g., stuffed animals or dolls) in terms of the pretend friends' stability and ubiquity, identity, and relationship with the child. Relationships with invisible companions were mostly described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Mothers reported that personification of objects frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy, whereas invisible friends were often viewed as fulfilling a need for a relationship. Compared to children without imaginary companions, children with imaginary companions were more likely to be firstborn and only children.

  16. Exploring Preschool Children's Science Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Bowles, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe children's science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children's science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year. Results showed…

  17. Attachment, Temperament, and Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szewczyk-Sokolowski, Margaret; Bost, Kelly K.; Wainwright, Ada B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations between preschool children's attachment security, temperament, and peer acceptance. Ninety-eight preschool children and their mothers were recruited through childcare centers in the southeast. Mothers and their children participated in two two-hour home observations. Attachment security was assessed using the…

  18. Exploring Preschool Children's Science Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B.; Bowles, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe children's science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children's science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year. Results showed…

  19. Children's Strategies for Agency in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Ann-Marie; Hallden, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on an ethnographic study of children's everyday life in Swedish preschools. The ethnography is used to explore children's strategies for influencing, defending and constructing the social order of a preschool institution. The focus of our concern is on how the children, in their interactions with each other and with the…

  20. Research of Fears of Preschool Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.

    2016-01-01

    One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…

  1. Music Enhances Sleep in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effect of playing background classical guitar music at nap time on alternate days to toddlers and preschool children attending a model preschool. Specifically assessed music's effect on nap-time sleep onset. Found that children fell asleep faster on the music days than on the nonmusic days. Toddlers fell asleep faster than did the…

  2. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  3. Interpersonal Problem Solving in Preschool Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Arthur J.; Siegel, Lawrence J.

    This study was designed as a partial replication and extension of the research on interpersonal problem solving in preschool children by Shure and Spivack. Fifteen well-adjusted and 14 impulsive children from Head Start Centers were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving test (PIPS) under either incentive or no incentive…

  4. Preschool Iron-Folic Acid and Zinc Supplementation in Children Exposed to Iron-Folic Acid in Utero Confers No Added Cognitive Benefit in Early School-Age123

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Morgan, Mary E.; Murray-Kolb, Laura; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Schaefer, Barbara; Cole, Pamela M.; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M.

    2011-01-01

    In Nepal, antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation improved aspects of intellectual, executive, and fine motor function among school-age children. We examined the impact of added zinc to the maternal antenatal supplement (M-IFAZn) and preschool supplementation from 12 to 36 mo with iron-folic acid (C-IFA) ± zinc (C-IFAZn) on cognitive outcomes compared to maternal iron-folic acid (M-IFA) alone. Children 7–9 y old (n = 780) who participated in early childhood micronutrient supplementation trial during 2001–2004 and whose mothers participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation between 1999 and 2001 were followed for cognitive assessments in 2007–2009. Using multivariate analysis of variance and adjusting for confounders, M-IFA with child supplementation (either C-IFA or C-IFAZn) did not impact scores on the tests of general intelligence (Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test), and executive function (Stroop and go/no go tests) relative to the M-IFA alone. However, children in the C-IFAZn group had slightly lower scores on the backward digit span (−0.29, 95% CI: −0.55, −0.04) and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (1.33, 95% CI: 0.26, 2.40) relative to the referent group, whereas both C-IFA (−1.92, 95% CI: −3.12, −0.71) and C-IFAZn (−1.78, 95% CI: −2.63, −0.92) produced somewhat lower finger tapping test scores (fine motor skills). The combination of M-IFAZn and C-IFA or C-IFAZn did not lead to any outcome differences relative to M-IFA alone. Preschool iron-folic acid ± zinc to children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero or addition of zinc to maternal iron-folic acid conferred no additional benefit to cognitive outcomes assessed in early school age. The late timing of supplementation during preschool may explain the lack of impact of iron and/or zinc. PMID:21956955

  5. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  6. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  7. Children's Perspectives on the Role of Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine critically the roles and pedaogogy of preschool teachers from the perspectives of five- to six-year-old children who had extensive experience of being full day preschool children from the age of two. The participants were 32 children in the oldest preschool group in two preschools in Reykjavik. Data was gathered…

  8. The Ecological Education of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    The system of ecological education of preschool children includes multiple interconnected blocks that cover all aspects of the ecological pedagogical process in a preschool institution: the content of the ecological education, the ways it is conducted (methods and technologies), and the organization and management of the process.

  9. Preschool Children's Ideas on Sustainable Development: How Preschool Children Perceive Three Pillars of Sustainability with the Regard to 7R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Guler, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe ideas of preschool children about sustainable development. Basic qualitative research was utilized and 36 preschool children enrolled in four different preschools in Ankara were included in the study. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data related to ideas of preschool children on three pillars…

  10. Harmonious Parents and Their Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1971-01-01

    This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder among preschoolers exposed to ongoing missile attacks in the Gaza war.

    PubMed

    Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Werbeloff, Nomi; Faroy, Michal; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Danit R; Fraser, Drora; Novack, Yelena; Bilenko, Natalya; Vardi, Hillel; Elhadad, Naama; Pietrzak, Robert H; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence and manifestation of posttraumatic stress symptoms in young children may differ from that observed in adults. This study examined sociodemographic, familial, and psychosomatic correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among preschool children and their mothers who had been exposed to ongoing missile attacks in the Gaza war. One hundred and sixty-seven mothers of preschoolers (aged 4.0-6.5 years) were interviewed regarding PTSD and psychosomatic symptomatology of their children, as well as their own reactions to trauma. Fourteen mothers (8.4%) and 35 children (21.0%) screened positive for PTSD. Sociodemographic characteristics were not associated with PTSD among mothers or children. Among children, the only significant risk factor was having a mother with PTSD (OR = 12.22, 95% CI 2.75-54.28). Compared to children who did not screen positive for PTSD, those who did screen positive displayed significantly higher rates of psychosomatic reactions to trauma, most notably constipation or diarrhea (OR = 4.36, 95% CI 1.64-11.60) and headaches (OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.07-7.94). Results of this study add to the burgeoning literature on child PTSD, emphasizing the important role of maternal anxiety and the psychosomatic reactions associated with exposure to ongoing traumatic experiences in young children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Preschool children's interests in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, R. I.

    1991-12-01

    Studies of children's attitudes towards science indicate that a tendency for girls and boys to have different patterns of interest in science is established by upper primary school level. It is not know when these interest patterns develop. This paper presents the results of part of a project designed to investigate preschool children's interests in science. Individual 4 5 year-old children were asked to say what they would prefer to do from each of a series of paired drawings showing either a science and a non-science activity, or activities from two different areas of science. Girls and boys were very similar in their overall patterns of choice for science and non-science items. Within science, the average number of physical science items chosen by boys was significantly greater than the average number chosen by girls (p=.026). Girls tended to choose more biology items than did boys, but this difference was not quite significant at the .05 level (p=.054). The temporal stability of these choices was explored.

  13. The Impact of Reading Children's Literature on Language Development in the Preschool Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovi; Fekonja, Urska; Kranjc, Simona; Musek, Petra Lesnik

    2003-01-01

    Explored the impact of regular reading of selected children's books in Slovenian preschools on the development of language competencies among 4- to 6-year-olds. Found significant differences in receptive language, expressive language, and storytelling between children exposed to 2 selected books per week over 2 months and those exposed only to the…

  14. Metamemory Development in Preschool Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Nastasi, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An aspect of metacognition, metamemory (knowledge and awareness of one's memory) was investigated across time in preschool children with ADHD (n = 31) and a sample of age, sex, socioeconomic and IQ-matched typically developing children (n = 31). Only children with stable ADHD diagnoses were included. Participants were assessed on a variety of…

  15. Can Preschool Children Really Learn to Conserve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Dorothy

    Two studies explored the possibility of inducing conservation understanding in intellectually normal preschoolers and mildly mentally retarded children of comparable mental age. Retarded children, MA 3-10 to 5-0, received Verbal Rule instruction. Three- and 4-year-old children were given Verbal Rule training in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design…

  16. Changing Preschoolers' Attitudes toward Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thios, Samuel J.; Foster, Sally B.

    This study investigated the impact of a program called "New Friends: Mainstreaming Activities To Help Young Children Understand and Accept Individual Differences" in teaching preschool children about similarities, differences, and disabilities, and assessed its effectiveness in improving nondisabled children's attitudes toward, and…

  17. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  18. Temperament and Helping Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanhope, Linda; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between children's temperaments, in interaction with situational factors, and their helping behavior. Twenty-four preschool children were presented with four opportunities for helping a female adult. Mothers rated children's helpfulness at home. Multiple measures of sociablity were gathered from mothers and preschool…

  19. Mental Models of School for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kildan, A. Oguzhan; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan; Ahi, Berat

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine mental models of 334 pre-school children concerning school. Children in the city center of Kastamonu in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey were included. Content analysis was conducted on pictures drawn by the children, and the models were split into two groups, scientific and nonscientific. The…

  20. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  1. Children's Participation in Preschool--On the Conditions of the Adults? Preschool Staff's Concepts of Children's Participation in Preschool Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Eriksson, Anette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyse and describe preschool staff's concepts of children's participation in everyday preschool life, as well as preschool staff's experiences and concepts of what characterises the children who participate. Furthermore, it addresses the conditions that preschool staff consider as crucial in…

  2. Children's Participation in Preschool--On the Conditions of the Adults? Preschool Staff's Concepts of Children's Participation in Preschool Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Eriksson, Anette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyse and describe preschool staff's concepts of children's participation in everyday preschool life, as well as preschool staff's experiences and concepts of what characterises the children who participate. Furthermore, it addresses the conditions that preschool staff consider as crucial in…

  3. Impact of Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Following Exposure to the September 11 Attacks on Preschool Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression,…

  4. Impact of Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Following Exposure to the September 11 Attacks on Preschool Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression,…

  5. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  6. The Situated Nature of Preschool Children's Conflict Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the peer conflict strategies of preschool children are situated and therefore vary across different conflict situations. Hypothetical conflict interviews were administered through a series of puppet shows. Participants were 178 preschool children. Results indicate that preschool children's conflict…

  7. Peer Effects on Head Start Children's Preschool Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; M[subscript age] = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were…

  8. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  9. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  10. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  11. Teaching Probabilities and Statistics to Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pange, Jenny

    2003-01-01

    This study considers the teaching of probabilities and statistics to a group of preschool children using traditional classroom activities and Internet games. It was clear from this study that children can show a high level of understanding of probabilities and statistics, and demonstrate high performance in probability games. The use of Internet…

  12. Object Identification in Preschool Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Loftus, Geoffrey R.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce computer-based methodologies for investigating object identification in 3- to 5-year-old children. In two experiments, preschool children and adults indicated when they could identify degraded pictures of common objects as those pictures either gradually improved or degraded in clarity. Clarity transformations were implemented in four…

  13. Selective Listening Asymmetry in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill; Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1977-01-01

    Forty-two right-handed preschool children listened to dichotic presentations of digit names and were told to report only the digit arriving at the designated ear. A significant right-ear superiority was found, demonstrating a left lateralization of verbal processing in children as young as three years of age. (Author/JMB)

  14. Young Gifted Children: Strategies for Preschool Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitano, Margie

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews the literature on gifted education for young children, offers specific methods, and recommends guidelines for working with gifted children in the regular preschool setting. A sample social studies unit on animals and a sample science unit are included in the text. (Author/RH)

  15. An Art Appreciation Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Kim; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week art appreciation curriculum on 17 preschool children's levels of self-esteem, art involvement, and art appreciation. Pre- and postintervention tests demonstrated that, as a result of the curriculum, the children's self-esteem increased and that they displayed greater interest and knowledge of art. (MDM)

  16. STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

  17. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  18. Behavior Modification of Retarded Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kaoru

    1977-01-01

    In a study of behavior modification two Down's syndrome preschool children, the first a 5-year-old boy with autistic behavior patterns and the second a 4-year-old girl whose behavior problem was to reject other children, were examined. The first S was engaged in ball catching activities with a teacher with positive reinforcement (playing the S's…

  19. Object Movement in Preschool Children's Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scofield, Jason; Miller, Andrea; Hartin, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined whether preschool children preferred to select a moving object over stationary objects when determining the referent of a novel word. In both studies three- and four-year-olds observed three novel objects, one moving object and two stationary objects. In Study 1, children (n=44) were asked to select the object that best…

  20. What Preschool Children Like Best about School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Susan; Jacobs, Jennifer; Kochanowski, Leslie; Vaughn, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    While conducting a needs assessment for a large Midwestern social service organization, the authors asked 252 preschool children from six Head Start programs what they like best about school. They wanted to reveal how children perceived their school and what they liked best about school--more specifically, what were their favorite areas and…

  1. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  2. Relating Preschool Quality to Children's Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Denise D.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool classrooms were investigated to determine the extent to which quality is related to children's literacy development. The study included 24 classrooms of 428 prekindergarten children in a large, urban Midwestern school district. Results suggest that global classroom quality and literacy environment quality are strongly related. Literacy…

  3. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  4. Object Movement in Preschool Children's Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scofield, Jason; Miller, Andrea; Hartin, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined whether preschool children preferred to select a moving object over stationary objects when determining the referent of a novel word. In both studies three- and four-year-olds observed three novel objects, one moving object and two stationary objects. In Study 1, children (n=44) were asked to select the object that best…

  5. Developmental changes in threat and self-blame for preschoolers exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV).

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2014-06-01

    The presence of threat and self-blame in children exposed to violence in the home has been linked to a number of negative behavioral and emotional consequences across developmental periods. Little research, however, has examined self-reported attributions of threat and self-blame in children under the age of 6. The current study evaluated the developmental trajectories of appraisals of threat and self-blame in preschool-aged children recently exposed to intimate partner violence. It was hypothesized that (a) children's appraisals of threat and self-blame would naturally decrease over time and (b) there would be a main effect of child sex on appraisals of self-blame but not threat, such that girls would report higher levels of self-blame than boys. Participants included 68 preschool-aged children (ages 4-6) who were interviewed at two time points over the course of 1 year. Multilevel modeling was employed to examine the effects of violence exposure, child age, and child sex over time. Children's attributions of threat were stable over the course of 1 year, but greater child age was related to lower appraisals of threat. Children's appraisals of self-blame increased over time, and there was a trend for girls to report more self-blame than did boys. It appears that without intervention, young children may be at risk of developing relatively stable maladaptive cognitive patterns, thereby heightening their risk of subsequent developmental psychopathology. Furthermore, girls may need additional intervention targeted at addressing attributions of self-blame.

  6. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    PubMed

    Byun, Wonwoo; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior. Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools.

  7. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  8. Changing Perceptions: The Literacy Development of Children Prenatally Exposed to Crack or Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of 26 children prenatally exposed to crack or cocaine and a case study of one focal child. Notes that the children are in stable home settings. Describes the success in the development of literacy of the majority of the children as they moved through preschool and elementary school. (SG)

  9. Towards a Policy for Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the status of preschool education in the industrialized nations today. The results of three studies show that preschool students demonstrate rapid gains in I. Q., and children who experience preschool programs do not have to repeat classes as often as those children who do not attend. (SA)

  10. Using Children's Literature in Preschool: Comprehending and Enjoying Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2004-01-01

    Build a rich literature environment that will foster preschoolers' reading comprehension. Emphasizing the importance of children's literature in the preschool classroom, this book shows how to effectively read stories to young children and create a classroom literacy center. Teachers will be able to use literature to help preschoolers understand…

  11. Analyzing Interaction Techniques Using Mouse and Keyboard for Preschool Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünzweil, Bettina; Haller, Michael

    Nowadays, even very young children begin to use software applications - mostly playing games. Not surprisingly, both skills and abilities of preschool children differ not only from adults, but also from older children. In this paper, we analyzed preschool children in the kindergarten to show the most effective ways of interacting with an application. In contrast to related work, we mainly focus on how preschool children interact with applications using various interaction metaphors and devices.

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Laurence L; Posner, Kelly; Vaughan, Brigette S; Kratochvil, Christopher J

    2008-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a childhood onset of symptoms and impairment. Although it is most frequently identified during elementary school years, epidemiologic data suggest that the onset of ADHD frequently occurs earlier, with presentation as young as 3 years of age. Early identification, however, allows consideration of appropriate interventions. Many data are available on safe and efficacious treatment options for school-aged children who have ADHD; however, little is known about the use of these modalities in preschoolers and, ultimately, the long-term effects of early treatment. Recognition of the preschool presentation of ADHD, appropriate differential diagnosis, and identification of comorbid conditions, and a developmental perspective on the course and potential outcomes of the disorder may guide treatment planning. Newly available data on the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial intervention for preschoolers who have ADHD may help clinicians make treatment decisions for these young children and their families.

  13. Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Haun, Daniel B M; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous public judgments right before them. A follow-up study with 18 groups of 4 children between 4;0 and 4;6 years of age revealed that children did not change their "real" judgment of the situation, but only their public expression of it. Preschool children are subject to peer pressure, indicating sensitivity to peers as a primary social reference group already during the preschool years. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Objectively measured sedentary behavior in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in children attending Montessori preschools with those attending traditional preschools. Methods The participants in this study were preschool children aged 4 years old who were enrolled in Montessori and traditional preschools. The preschool children wore ActiGraph accelerometers. Accelerometers were initialized using 15-second intervals and sedentary behavior was defined as <200 counts/15-second. The accelerometry data were summarized into the average minutes per hour spent in sedentary behavior during the in-school, the after-school, and the total-day period. Mixed linear regression models were used to determine differences in the average time spent in sedentary behavior between children attending traditional and Montessori preschools, after adjusting for selected potential correlates of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Results Children attending Montessori preschools spent less time in sedentary behavior than those attending traditional preschools during the in-school (44.4. min/hr vs. 47.1 min/hr, P = 0.03), after-school (42.8. min/hr vs. 44.7 min/hr, P = 0.04), and total-day (43.7 min/hr vs. 45.5 min/hr, P = 0. 009) periods. School type (Montessori or traditional), preschool setting (private or public), socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and socioeconomic status) were found to be significant predictors of preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. Conclusions Levels of objectively-measured sedentary behavior were significantly lower among children attending Montessori preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. Future research should examine the specific characteristics of Montessori preschools that predict the lower levels of sedentary behavior among children attending these preschools compared to children attending traditional preschools. PMID:23286454

  15. Food Acceptance and Nutrient Intake of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrill, Inez; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Preschool personnel have a responsibility to help children achieve and maintain nutritional well-being. Nutrition education in the preschool program is an effective means of establishing positive attitudes toward food. (BL)

  16. Exploring Preschool Children's Science Content Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Piasta, Shayne B; Bowles, Ryan P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe children's science content knowledge and examine the early predictors of science content knowledge in a sample of 194 typically developing preschool children. Children's science content knowledge was assessed in the fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) of the preschool year. Results showed that children exhibited significant gains in science content knowledge over the course of the preschool year. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that the level of maternal education (i.e., holding at least a bachelor's degree) significantly predicted children's Time 1 science content knowledge. Children's cognitive, math, and language skills at Time 1 were all significant concurrent predictors of Time 1 science content knowledge. However, only Time 1 math skills significantly predicted residualized gains in science content knowledge (i.e., Time 2 scores with Time 1 scores as covariates). Factors related to individual differences in young children's science content knowledge may be important for early childhood educators to consider in their efforts to provide more support to children who may need help with science learning.

  17. Preschool Education Programs for Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra L., Ed.; Handleman, Jan S., Ed.

    This book highlights 10 preschool education programs for children with autism, focusing on each program's structure and content, diagnosis and assessment, staffing and administration, curriculum, integration, use of aversive behavior modification techniques, family involvement, and outcomes. The book consists of 11 chapters, the first of which is…

  18. Inclusive Therapeutic Preschool Programs for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines definitions, scope, and negative effects of child abuse and neglect. Recommends inclusive therapeutic preschool programs to address special needs of children with significant histories of child maltreatment. Identifies service coordination for families and integration of early education and related services as critical components of the…

  19. Self-Concept Enhancement of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Richard G.; Pardew, E. Michelle

    This study investigated whether a self-concept enhancement program would effect significant change in the self-concepts of 4-year-old middle class preschoolers as compared with classmates not in the program. All participating children (N=52) were pre- and posttested using the Thomas Self-Concept Values Test and the Developmental Profile. The…

  20. Developing Gifted Children in Hungarian Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene

    2013-01-01

    At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of…

  1. Correlates of Attraction Among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael B.

    The generalizability of several variables which have been related to attraction among adults to preschool children was investigated. It was found that perceived physical attractiveness, perceived proximity, and familiarity are all significantly positively correlated with how popular a child is in his nursery school class. (Author)

  2. Preschool Children's Control of Action Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good…

  3. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  4. Race and Sex Identification in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymer, Elizabeth

    Identification is a learning process important to the development of self-concept and to the role behavior of an individual. This study investigated the degree of race and sex identification and preference in both black and white disadvantaged preschool children. The measurement instrument developed was a 96-item paired picture selection task…

  5. Preschool Education Programs for Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra L., Ed.; Handleman, Jan S., Ed.

    This book highlights 10 preschool education programs for children with autism, focusing on each program's structure and content, diagnosis and assessment, staffing and administration, curriculum, integration, use of aversive behavior modification techniques, family involvement, and outcomes. The book consists of 11 chapters, the first of which is…

  6. Reference values for spirometry in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Burity, Edjane F; Pereira, Carlos A C; Rizzo, José A; Brito, Murilo C A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Reference values for lung function tests differ in samples from different countries, including values for preschoolers. The main objective of this study was to derive reference values in this population. A prospective study was conducted through a questionnaire applied to 425 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years, from schools and day-care centers in a metropolitan city in Brazil. Children were selected by simple random sampling from the aforementioned schools. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volumes (FEV1, FEV0.50), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75) and FEV1/FVC, FEV0.5/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC ratios were evaluated. Of the 425 children enrolled, 321 (75.6%) underwent the tests. Of these, 135 (42.0%) showed acceptable results with full expiratory curves and thus were included in the regression analysis to define the reference values. Height and gender significantly influenced FVC values through linear and logarithmic regression analysis. In males, R(2) increased with the logarithmic model for FVC and FEV1, but the linear model was retained for its simplicity. The lower limits were calculated by measuring the fifth percentile residues. Full expiratory curves are more difficult to obtain in preschoolers. In addition to height, gender also influences the measures of FVC and FEV1. Reference values were defined for spirometry in preschool children in this population, which are applicable to similar populations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Preschool Children's Outdoor Play Area Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Procaccino, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's outdoor play preferences. The sample was 40 (20 male, 20 female) primarily European-American three and four year olds. Data were collected via naturalistic observation and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and MANOVAs. The independent variable was sex of child; dependent variable was play space…

  8. A Preschool for Developmentally Advanced (Gifted) Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallister, Corliss; And Others

    A model summer program for developmentally advanced preschoolers is described, including identification procedures, staffing, and curriculum. An open classroom approach was utilized with art, music, dance, and drama activities to encourage creative growth; reading, math, and science taught in an exploratory way for those children ready for…

  9. The Cognitive Environments of Urban Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Robert D.; And Others

    This report describes the first phase of a two-part study of the processes through which social and economic disadvantagement affect the early cognitive development and educability of urban preschool Negro children. Contents include: the background, conceptual context, and research procedures; the relation of family resources and maternal life…

  10. The Moral Judgments of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruen, Gerald E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Preschoolers' responses to Piagetian moral judgment stories indicate that they respond differentially to good and bad intent (punishing the bad intentions but not responding to good or neutral intentions), but that only older children respond reliably and differentially to consequences. (RL)

  11. Starkweather Target Game for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, Elizabeth K.

    The Starkweather Target Game is designed to measure preschool children's willingness to try difficult tasks independent of ability. The game consists of a box-shaped target which responds, when the target is hit by a rolled ball, somewhat like a jack-in-a-box. When the bull's eye is hit, the lid opens and a surprise picture appears. After being…

  12. Developing Gifted Children in Hungarian Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Iren; Papp, Irene

    2013-01-01

    At a conference, a secondary school teacher was very surprised when she heard about the idea of talent development in preschool education. "What does it mean?" she asked. In this paper we answer the above question with a model created by joint research. We describe our method of developing gifted children with the involvement of…

  13. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  14. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry…

  15. Language development in preschool-age children adopted from China.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jenny A; Pollock, Karen E; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C; Wang, Paul P

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However, the vast majority scored within or well above the average range on 2 or more measures. Contrary to other reports on the language development of internationally adopted children, the results suggest that "second first language" acquisition proceeds rapidly in the majority of preschool-age children adopted as infants and toddlers. For the children in the sample who scored below average, results indicated that they were among the children who had been exposed to English for the least amount of time. The results of this study demonstrate both the robustness of the language system in the majority of adopted children from China as well as slower growth in a small subset of lower performers in the 1st years after adoption.

  16. Imaginary Companions of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Sebanc, Anne M.; Hartup, Willard W.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed mothers to examine the developmental significance of preschoolers' imaginary companions. Found that relationships with invisible companions were described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Object personification frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy; invisible friends were viewed…

  17. Toothpaste Utilization Profiles among Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Bennadi, Darshana; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Sibyl, S; Reddy, C V K

    2014-03-01

    Oral healthcare for pre-school children is given due priority, as their oral health will determine the oral health status of future generations. Generally, the type, frequency and quantity of toothpaste used by children are based purely on parental preferences. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers of preschool children by using a questionnaire. Sixty two percent (n=154) mothers started brushing their children's teeth more than one year after eruption of their teeth. A majority of the mothers used adult toothpaste to brush their children's teeth and supervised their children while brushing. Fiftytwo percent mothers were aware about presence of fluoride in tooth paste but its clinical significance. Half the mothers applied full length of tooth paste to their children's brushes and most mothers made their children brush their teeth twice daily. Based on the findings of this study, it appears that there is still much lack of awareness on the proper guidelines on the selection and usage of toothpastes in children. Dental professionals should use this knowledge to help and motivate parents to properly supervise and assist their children's brushing, with the goal of reducing the potential risk of fluorosis.

  18. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  19. Reading to Preschoolers Exposed: Is the Emperor Really Naked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.

    1994-01-01

    Argues there is reason for more optimism concerning the effects of reading to preschoolers than suggested by the Scarborough and Dobrich review in this issue (PS522390). Discusses methodological problems in many studies; cites studies indicating direct and indirect links between reading to preschoolers and reading achievement, suggesting that…

  20. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  1. Nighttime Fears and Fantasy-Reality Differentiation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…

  2. Nighttime Fears and Fantasy-Reality Differentiation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears…

  3. Children's Physical Activity in Day Care and Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Hakala, Liisa; Saros, Leila; Lehto, Satu; Kyhälä, Anna-Liisa; Valtonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of physical activity (PA) in day care and preschool. The participants were 823 Finnish 1-7-year-old children from 50 day care centres and preschools. The research methods were systematic observation, evaluation of children's skills and interviews with children. Altogether 18,366 observations…

  4. Preschool Children's Conceptions of Moral and Social Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined preschool children's conceptions of moral and conventional rules. Children judged the seriousness, rule contingency, rule relativism, and amount of deserved punishment for 10 depicted moral and conventional preschool transgressions. Constant across ages and sexes, children evaluated moral transgressions as more serious offenses and more…

  5. Children's Physical Activity in Day Care and Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Hakala, Liisa; Saros, Leila; Lehto, Satu; Kyhälä, Anna-Liisa; Valtonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of physical activity (PA) in day care and preschool. The participants were 823 Finnish 1-7-year-old children from 50 day care centres and preschools. The research methods were systematic observation, evaluation of children's skills and interviews with children. Altogether 18,366 observations…

  6. Introducing Pre-School Children to Reading Through Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Don

    Introducing Preschool Children to Reading through Parent Involvement is a project funded by a New York State Education Department mini-grant. The major activity of the project is to inform parents of preschool children of the research findings and theories concerning reading to young children. Three newsletters are mailed each year to families…

  7. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  8. Peer effects on Head Start children's preschool competency.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Hanish, Laura D; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether young children attending Head Start (N = 292; Mage = 4.3 years) selected peers based on their preschool competency and whether children's levels of preschool competency were influenced by their peers' levels of preschool competency. Children's peer interaction partners were intensively observed several times a week over 1 academic year. Social network analyses revealed that children selected peer interaction partners with similar levels of preschool competency and were influenced over time by their partners' levels of preschool competency. These effects held even after controlling for several child (e.g., sex and language) and family factors (e.g., financial strain and parent education). Implications for promoting preschool competency among Head Start children are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Measuring Preschool Children Temperament: Implications for Preschool Care and Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorkapic, Sanja Tatalovic; Loncaric, Darko

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of measuring preschool children temperament, EASI temperament Survey has been applied. Preschool teachers (N = 192), all female, rated a total of N = 3275 children (1612 girls and 1639 boys) with mean age M 4.368 (SD = 1.482) within age range between 7 months and 7.7 years. Validation for the instrument was run. Factor analysis on…

  10. Hidden Spaces and Places in the Preschool: Withdrawal Strategies in Preschool Children's Peer Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanfors, Lovisa; Lofdahl, Annica; Hagglund, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses how children make use of their preschool context in order to withdraw. Ethnographic observations were made of two-to five-year-old children's interactions during free play and teacher-led activities in the preschool, and documentation was carried out through field notes and video recordings. The empirical material was…

  11. [Mortality by avoidable causes in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Lurán, Albenia; López, Elizabeth; Pinilla, Consuelo; Sierra, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    The infant-mortality rate in children aged less than five is an indicator of the general state of health of a population and directly reflects the quality of life and the level of socio-economic development of a country. Avoidable mortality was assessed in preschool children as a reflection of Colombia quality of life and socio-economic development. Mortality trends were analyzed in preschool children aged less than five throughout Colombia during a 20-year period from 1985-2004, and focused on mortality causes that were considered avoidable. This was a descriptive, retrospective study; the sources of information were Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística records of deaths and population projections 1985-2004. Mortality rate due to avoidable causes was the statistical indicator. In children aged less than one, the reducible mortality due to "early diagnosis and medical treatment" occupied the first place amongst causes for every year of the study period and accounted for more than 50% of recorded deaths. In children aged 1 to 4, the category "other important reducible causes" was associated with 40% of recorded deaths-deaths due mainly to respiratory diseases. Over the 20-year period, the avoidable mortality rate decreased by 34% in children aged less than one, in children 1-4, it decreased by 23%. Although the infant-mortality rate in preschool children was reduced, the decrease was small, from 80% to 77%. The situation requires more analysis with respect to strategies in public health, particularly concerning preventable diseases of the infancy.

  12. Physical activity in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School), and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 minute/hour), MVPA (7.7 versus 6.5 minute/hour), and total PA (15.4 versus 13.0 minute/hour) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 versus 6.2 minute/hour) and All Day (8.5 versus 7.6 minute/hour), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 versus 7.0 minute/hour; 8.1 versus 6.7 minute/hour; 16.1 versus 13.6 minute/hour, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  13. Physical activity in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; O’Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children’s physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. METHODS We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School) and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. RESULTS Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr), MVPA (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr) and total PA (15.4 vs. 13.0 min/hr) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 vs. 6.2 min/hr) and All Day (8.5 vs. 7.6 min/hr), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 vs. 7.0 min/hr; 8.1 vs. 6.7 min/hr; 16.1 vs. 13.6 min/hr, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children. PMID:25274171

  14. REFLECTIONS ON QUALITY AND DOSAGE OF PRESCHOOL AND CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Miller, Portia

    2016-06-01

    This ambitious monograph tackles several important questions related to children's preschool experiences that have relevance for program and policy initiatives at the state and federal levels. The authors' approach is rigorous: they conduct parallel analyses across eight large and diverse studies of preschool children in center care and use meta-analysis to summarize patterns across studies. The study finds nonlinear associations between preschool quality and gains in language and literacy skills, with larger associations in higher versus lower quality classrooms. Results also show that domain-specific measures of preschool quality were more strongly related to children's development than global quality measures. The "dosage" of preschool was likewise important: more years in Head Start predicted larger vocabulary and literacy gains, whereas more time spent on instruction predicted greater literacy and math skills growth. In this commentary, we situate these findings in the broader literature addressing links between preschool experiences and children's development and discuss key takeaways for research, practice, and policy.

  15. Toothpaste Utilization Profiles among Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Bennadi, Darshana; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Sibyl, S; Reddy, C.V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral healthcare for pre-school children is given due priority, as their oral health will determine the oral health status of future generations. Generally, the type, frequency and quantity of toothpaste used by children are based purely on parental preferences. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers of preschool children by using a questionnaire. Results: Sixty two percent (n=154) mothers started brushing their children’s teeth more than one year after eruption of their teeth. A majority of the mothers used adult toothpaste to brush their children’s teeth and supervised their children while brushing. Fiftytwo percent mothers were aware about presence of fluoride in tooth paste but its clinical significance. Half the mothers applied full length of tooth paste to their children’s brushes and most mothers made their children brush their teeth twice daily. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it appears that there is still much lack of awareness on the proper guidelines on the selection and usage of toothpastes in children. Dental professionals should use this knowledge to help and motivate parents to properly supervise and assist their children’s brushing, with the goal of reducing the potential risk of fluorosis. PMID:24783140

  16. The Effects of Sex-Typed Labeling on Preschool Children's Information-Seeking and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbard, Marilyn R.; Endsley, Richard C.

    The main purpose of this study was to address this question: When preschool children are exposed to novel objects, will their tactual and verbal information-seeking about these objects and the amount of information they remember about these same objects be influenced by whether an adult labels them as things "for girls" or "for boys"? Thirty-six…

  17. The Effect of Semantic Set Size on Word Learning by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Adlof, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine whether semantic set size, a measure of the number of semantic neighbors, influenced word learning, and whether the influence of semantic set size was broad, showing effects on multiple measures both during and after learning. Method: Thirty-six preschool children were exposed to 10 nonobjects, varying in…

  18. The Effects of Sex-Typed Labeling on Preschool Children's Information-Seeking and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbard, Marilyn R.; Endsley, Richard C.

    The main purpose of this study was to address this question: When preschool children are exposed to novel objects, will their tactual and verbal information-seeking about these objects and the amount of information they remember about these same objects be influenced by whether an adult labels them as things "for girls" or "for boys"? Thirty-six…

  19. Preschool children's control of action outcomes.

    PubMed

    Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-03-01

    Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good abilities to access goals at the lowest level of the representational hierarchy. However, only 5-year-olds consistently aligned their response choices with goals at superordinate levels. These findings suggest that the ability to maintain top-down control and adjust behavioural responses according to goals at multiple levels of abstraction undergoes a marked improvement throughout the preschool period. Results are discussed in relation to current accounts of cognitive control and the monitoring of conflict in sequential action.

  20. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  1. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  2. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  3. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  4. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  5. The Development of Distinct Speaking Styles in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Melissa A.; Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine when and how socially conditioned distinct speaking styles emerge in typically developing preschool children's speech. Method: Thirty preschool children, ages 3, 4, and 5 years old, produced target monosyllabic words with monophthongal vowels in different social-functional contexts designed to elicit clear and casual speaking…

  6. I Compagni: Understanding Children's Transition from Preschool to Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.; Molinari, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    What happens when children in creative, Reggio-like preschools go to a more traditional elementary school? In this book, William Corsaro and his Italian coauthor, Luisa Molinari, tell a complete and important story about the lives of children as they grow from young preschoolers to preadolescents in Modena, Italy. The authors both explore and…

  7. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  8. The Benefits of Reading Aloud to Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankey, Janel Christine

    Noting that reading aloud to preschool children significantly influences their reading development, this master's thesis examines the many benefits from reading aloud to preschoolers. The thesis reviews research indicating that when parents read aloud, they help their children learn vocabulary, complex sentence structure, and story structure.…

  9. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  10. Children's Sense of Agency in Preschool: A Sociocultural Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…

  11. I Compagni: Understanding Children's Transition from Preschool to Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.; Molinari, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    What happens when children in creative, Reggio-like preschools go to a more traditional elementary school? In this book, William Corsaro and his Italian coauthor, Luisa Molinari, tell a complete and important story about the lives of children as they grow from young preschoolers to preadolescents in Modena, Italy. The authors both explore and…

  12. Parenting Style Associated with Sedentary Behaviour in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…

  13. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  14. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  15. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  16. Children's Access to Pre-School Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Using the "Education Watch" household survey database, this paper explores children's access to pre-school education in Bangladesh. Participation in pre-school education has been increasing in Bangladesh at the rate of 0.6% per year and the net enrolment rate was found to be 13.4% in 2005. Enrolment of over-aged children in pre-school…

  17. Children's Sense of Agency in Preschool: A Sociocultural Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilppö, Jaakko; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rainio, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This socioculturally informed study investigated children's sense of agency in relation to their everyday life in preschool. The empirical data comprised focus groups reflection situations wherein Finnish preschool children (n. 19, aged 6-7) reflected on their everyday life with the help of photographs and drawings they made. Building on a…

  18. Enhancing Self-Concept Development in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravid, Ruth; Sullivan-Temple, Kara

    This paper describes three studies that evaluated the Marvelous Me-Preschool Edition curriculum, a 12-session program designed to enhance the self-concept of preschool children. The program is organized around 6 central themes: feelings, self-image, getting to know oneself, family friends, and community. Children participate in activities such as…

  19. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist (BPC) with preschool children. Found the BPC sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. Findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population. (Author)

  20. Take-Home Numeracy Kits for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Agnes

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the practical aspects of a project aimed to offer access to numerate knowledge for preschool children by providing them with take-home numeracy kits. A Koori preschool in an urban regional area of New South Wales, Australia, was involved in the project. The centre catered for 18 four- and five-year-old children. The two main…

  1. Social competence of preschool children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, K; Timonen, S; Hagström, K; Hämäläinen, P; Eriksson, K; Nieminen, P

    2009-02-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the social competence of 3- to 6-year-old children with epilepsy (n=26) compared with that of age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n=26). Social competence was assessed with the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised, and the Child Behavior Checklist. The results indicate that the children with epilepsy, especially with complicated epilepsy, had fewer age-appropriate social skills and more attention and behavior problems than the healthy children, as reported by parents. It is possible that the lack of age-appropriate social skills and the presence of attention problems predispose to behavioral problems. Also, epilepsy-related factors impaired the achievement of social competence. This study shows that the preschool children with complicated, early-onset epilepsy are at increased risk of difficulties in social competence.

  2. Activity Group Therapy for Emotionally Disturbed Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plenk, Agnes M.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the comprehensive services offered emotionally disturbed preschool children by a voluntary social agency (the Childrens Center in Salt Lake City, Utah), focusing on activity group therapy, the major therapeutic tool used there. (Author/DLS)

  3. Coding Group Behaviours for Preschool Children in the Playground and the Effects of Teachers' Proximity on Preschool Children's Playground Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, April; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Hudson, Carmen; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Horton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Preschool-age children (range: 2.5-5 years old) were videotaped while in the sandbox and the climbing apparatus areas of a preschool playground prior to (i.e. baseline) and after a teacher "zone defence" training. The zone defence involved teachers being assigned to specific playground areas to monitor safety and facilitate the children's play and…

  4. Coding Group Behaviours for Preschool Children in the Playground and the Effects of Teachers' Proximity on Preschool Children's Playground Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, April; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Hudson, Carmen; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Horton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Preschool-age children (range: 2.5-5 years old) were videotaped while in the sandbox and the climbing apparatus areas of a preschool playground prior to (i.e. baseline) and after a teacher "zone defence" training. The zone defence involved teachers being assigned to specific playground areas to monitor safety and facilitate the children's play and…

  5. Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda

    2007-01-01

    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

  6. A Turkish Perspective on Nutrition Education and Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unusan, Nurhan; Sanlier, Nevin

    2007-01-01

    Preschool education is extremely limited in Turkey, suggesting an absence of public recognition of its importance and a lack of state support. In the "VI. Five Years Development Plan," it was exposed that the target in preschool education could not be reached. Especially, regional differences played an important role. According to…

  7. A Turkish Perspective on Nutrition Education and Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unusan, Nurhan; Sanlier, Nevin

    2007-01-01

    Preschool education is extremely limited in Turkey, suggesting an absence of public recognition of its importance and a lack of state support. In the "VI. Five Years Development Plan," it was exposed that the target in preschool education could not be reached. Especially, regional differences played an important role. According to…

  8. Impact of maternal posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following exposure to the September 11 attacks on preschool children's behavior.

    PubMed

    Chemtob, Claude M; Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Yehuda, Rachel; Schwartz, Deena; Abramovitz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether conjoined maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with increased behavioral problems among terrorism-exposed preschool children (N = 116; 18-54 months), this study compared clinically significant child behavioral problem rates among the preschool children of mothers with PTSD and depression, depression alone, and neither disorder. Behavioral problems were independently rated by mothers and preschool teachers. Maternal depression and PTSD, relative to maternal depression alone, and to neither disorder, were associated with substantially increased child problems. Notably, maternal depression and PTSD were associated with increased emotional reactivity (relative risk [RR] = 5.9 by mother's and 3.4 by teacher's reports) and aggressive behavior problems (RR = 11.0 by mother's and RR = 5.9 by teacher's reports). This was corroborated by teacher ratings. Implications for intervening with terrorism-exposed preschool children are discussed.

  9. Dissociation and Posttraumatic Symptoms in Maltreated Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    HULETTE, ANNMARIE C.; FREYD, JENNIFER J.; PEARS, KATHERINE C.; KIM, HYOUN K.; FISHER, PHILIP A.; BECKER-BLEASE, KATHRYN A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines dissociation and posttraumatic symptomatology in a sample of maltreated preschool-age children in foster care. Analyses compared Child Behavior Checklist subscale scores for the foster care sample and a community sample, and also examined differences between maltreatment subtypes. Exposure to any type of maltreatment was associated with greater dissociation and posttraumatic symptomatology in this sample. Preschool-age children with documented sexual abuse displayed high levels of posttraumatic symptoms, whereas children with documented physical abuse tended to use dissociation as a primary coping mechanism. The finding that physically abused children had high levels of dissociation confirms previous research with preschoolers.

  10. Dietary lead intake of preschool children

    SciTech Connect

    Bander, L.K.; Morgan, K.J.; Zabik, M.E.

    1983-07-01

    A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 ..mu..g and ranged from 15 ..mu..g to 234 ..mu..g. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children.

  11. Dietary lead intake of preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Bander, L K; Morgan, K J; Zabik, M E

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide, seven-day food consumption survey of 371 preschool children between the ages of birth and five years indicated that a direct linear relationship existed between age and increased dietary lead intake from foods consumed. Daily dietary lead intake averaged 62 micrograms and ranged from 15 micrograms to 234 micrograms. The various levels of lead intake were attributed to frequency of consumption of food items, quantity of food consumed, and the lead content of particular food items. To account for variation in the quantity of food consumed by the various children, average lead intake per 500 kilocalories consumed and per 500 g of food consumed was calculated. When these standardization procedures were followed, an equalization in the average daily dietary lead intake values was observed among the various aged children. PMID:6602559

  12. Behavior management for preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Williford, Amanda P; Shelton, Terri L

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes behavior management strategies for preschool children who are at high risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder that have found to be effective in improving child behavior. Both parent and teacher training programs are reviewed, as these have been backed by substantial research evidence. In addition, multimodal treatments that include some combination of parent training, teacher training, and social skills training are also reviewed. Interventions emphasize the need for a strong adult-child relationship combined with proactive behavior management strategies to improve child behavior.

  13. Just Kids: A Practical Guide for Working with Children Prenatally Substance-Exposed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This guide was developed to provide effective and practical strategies to meet the needs of prenatally substance-exposed children in preschool or day care settings. Techniques are based on good child development practices and are equally effective for both teachers and parents. The first chapter outlines information about prenatal substance…

  14. Day care for pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Zoritch, B; Roberts, I; Oakley, A

    2000-01-01

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  15. Phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in Swedish preschool dust in relation to children's exposure.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Kristin; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo Ag; Giovanoulis, Georgios; Bibi, Momina; Bottai, Matteo; Bergström, Anna; Berglund, Marika

    2017-03-05

    Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier. The most abundant plasticizers in preschool dust were the phthalates di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with geometric mean levels of 450 and 266μg/g dust, respectively, and the non-phthalate plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) and diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH) found at 105 and 73μg/g dust, respectively. The levels of several substitute plasticizers were higher in newer preschools, whereas the levels of the strictly regulated phthalate di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were higher in older preschools. The presence of foam mattresses and PVC flooring in the sampling room were associated with higher levels of DiNP in dust. Children's exposure from preschool dust ingestion was below established health based reference values and the estimated exposure to different phthalates and BPA via preschool dust ingestion accounted for 2-27% of the total exposure. We found significantly lower urinary levels of BPA and metabolites of strictly regulated phthalates, but higher levels of DiNP metabolites, in urine from the children in this study compared to the children who provided urine samples fifteen years earlier.

  16. Enhancing Safety-Planning through Evidence-Based Interventions with Preschoolers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Hunter, Erin C.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Preschool children who witness severe intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for a wide range of emotional, behavioural, cognitive, and health problems. Although much of intervention research has focused on alleviating their psychological symptoms, we know little about efforts to provide these children with preventative safety…

  17. Effects of Instructional Condition on Preschool Children's Novel Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Lori A.; Barron, Eunice V.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that children's exposure to complex vocabulary during the preschool years has an impact on their later reading achievement. Yet, the most efficient way to incorporate vocabulary instruction into preschool classrooms remains an open question. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate effects of…

  18. Children's Images of Preschool: The Power of Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, Darlene; Ethridge, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Families often ask, "What did you do at school today?" when their children come home from preschool. When a child responds with a typical "Play" or "I don't know," it is difficult for families to learn details about their child's program day. But when preschoolers have access to cameras to take photographs of their experiences, they can provide an…

  19. The Relational Judgments of Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Selma; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Report summarizes the activities of a team of researchers in seven pre-school centers on Long Island, between October 1967 and April 1968. Aim of the project was to find a normative base for the construction of a new curriculum for pre-school children, in particular for those labeled disadvantaged.'' (Authors/CB)

  20. Social Interactions of Preschool Children as Correlates of Play Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beehler, Kay A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to summarize an examination of the social interactions of a sample of 370 preschool children and to demonstrate from the summary that social settings within the preschool environment differentially affect both the quality and quantity of social interaction. The Social Interaction Observation Procedure was used to…

  1. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  2. Teachers' Ratings of Preschool Children's Behaviours. Discussion Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metham, John

    This paper reports upon the evaluation and implementation of a 30-item Likert-type rating scale for teachers to use in assessing children's behaviors within preschool classrooms. The Preschool Observation Scale (POS) was developed to evaluate programs of the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project, North Ryde, Australia. Items were constructed on the…

  3. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  4. Language Competence and Social Focus among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerland, Terje

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how various aspects of language competence are related to social focus among preschoolers. The study presented is based on video-recorded observation of 64 children, aged 11-61 months, during free play at their kindergarten. A measure of social focus in the preschool, regarded as an indicator of social status, was constructed…

  5. The Integration of Migrant Children Into Pre-School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France). Committee for General and Technical Education.

    This working paper was prepared by the Council of Europe Programme Adviser for Pre-School Education for a symposium on "the integration of migrant children into pre-school education". The symposium aimed to identify and suggest appropriate pedagogical measures which should be taken to facilitate and improve the integration of migrant…

  6. Assessment of the Social and Emotional Functioning of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roy P.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews selected issues and techniques in interviewing, direct observation, rating scales, sociometry, and associative techniques as used in the context of preschool assessment. Special problems encountered in assessing the social and emotional functioning of preschool children are discussed. (Author/LMO)

  7. Cognitive Effects of Preschool Programs on Different Types of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherstone, Helen J.

    This study investigated whether various kinds of preschool programs have differential cognitive effects on different kinds of children. Relevant literature was reviewed and data, generated in the first 2 years of the Head Start Planned Variations Study (PVS), were analyzed. The eight preschool programs associated with the PVS were considered.…

  8. Behavioral Problems in Turkish Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ural, Ozana; Kanlikilicer, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    To diagnose behavioral problems in preschool children, and to look for an appropriate solution, is vital to prevent the problem from becoming permanent and insoluble. Teachers, working in preschool education institutions, need some instruments to diagnose behavioral problems of their students in order to help them and their parents. In this study,…

  9. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M

    2017-03-01

    Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95(th) percentile. Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity.

  10. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  11. Affective forecasting bias in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Shalini; Bulley, Adam; von Hippel, William; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-03-10

    Adults are capable of predicting their emotional reactions to possible future events. Nevertheless, they systematically overestimate the intensity of their future emotional reactions relative to how they feel when these events actually occur. The developmental origin of this "intensity bias" has not yet been examined. Two studies were conducted to test the intensity bias in preschool children. In the first study, 5-year-olds (N=30) predicted how they would feel if they won or lost various games. Comparisons with subsequent self-reported feelings indicated that participants overestimated how sad they would feel to lose the games but did not overestimate their happiness from winning. The second study replicated this effect in another sample of 5-year-olds (n=34) and also found evidence of an intensity bias in 4-year-olds (n=30). These findings provide the first evidence of a negative intensity bias in affective forecasting among young children.

  12. Sleep and Skin Temperature in Preschool Children and Their Mothers.

    PubMed

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Shirakawa, Shuichiro

    2016-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare sleep and skin temperature (Tsk) of preschool children with those of their mothers. The subjects included 18 pairs of preschool children and their mothers. The actigraphic measurement of sleep, Tsk, heart rate, bedroom climate, and the microclimate temperature and humidity (bed climate) were measured. Proximal and distal Tsk, the temperature gradient of distal and proximal Tsk (DPG), and bed climate temperature were significantly lower in the children. Approximately 70% of the children slept without bed covering. Heat dissipation during sleep in preschool children may primarily rely on the proximal Tsk. The lower Tsk than adults, and behavioral thermoregulation, may be important for sleep in preschoolers.

  13. An Examination of Pre-School Children's Attitudes Toward the Physically Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg-Asher, Nancy

    This research study was designed to examine the attitudes of preschool children toward the disabled, evaluate the children's awareness and understanding of physical impairment, and examine the possibility of modifying preschool children's attitudes towards disabled children. Subjects were 102 children, 3-5 years of age, enrolled in preschools or…

  14. Characteristics of Print in Books for Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole; Kessler, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Children begin to learn about the characteristics of print well before formal literacy instruction begins. Reading to children can expose them to print and help them learn about its characteristics. This may be especially true if the print is visually salient, for studies suggest that prereaders pay more attention to such print than to print that is visually less salient. To shed light on the characteristics of the print that US children see in books, especially those characteristics that may contribute to visual salience, we report a quantitative analysis of 73 books that were chosen to be representative of those seen by preschoolers. We found that print that is visually salient due to color, variation, and other features tends to be more common on the covers of books than in the interiors. It also tends to be more common in recently published books than in older books. Even in recent books, however, the print is much less visually salient than the accompanying pictures. Many studies have examined the behavior of adults and children during shared reading, but little research has examined the characteristics of books themselves. Our results provide quantitative information about this topic for one set of characteristics in books for young US children. PMID:27239231

  15. Characteristics of Print in Books for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole; Kessler, Brett

    Children begin to learn about the characteristics of print well before formal literacy instruction begins. Reading to children can expose them to print and help them learn about its characteristics. This may be especially true if the print is visually salient, for studies suggest that prereaders pay more attention to such print than to print that is visually less salient. To shed light on the characteristics of the print that US children see in books, especially those characteristics that may contribute to visual salience, we report a quantitative analysis of 73 books that were chosen to be representative of those seen by preschoolers. We found that print that is visually salient due to color, variation, and other features tends to be more common on the covers of books than in the interiors. It also tends to be more common in recently published books than in older books. Even in recent books, however, the print is much less visually salient than the accompanying pictures. Many studies have examined the behavior of adults and children during shared reading, but little research has examined the characteristics of books themselves. Our results provide quantitative information about this topic for one set of characteristics in books for young US children.

  16. Exposing Preschoolers to the Printed Word: A Case Study of Preschool Teachers in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear

    2013-01-01

    Mauritius is a multilingual island, where there is a linguistic and literacy paradox. While Mauritian Creole dominates as the spoken language of the population, English and French are the main print languages, as well as the main languages of literacy and education. In such a complex situation, preschool is an interesting terrain in which to…

  17. Exposing Preschoolers to the Printed Word: A Case Study of Preschool Teachers in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear

    2013-01-01

    Mauritius is a multilingual island, where there is a linguistic and literacy paradox. While Mauritian Creole dominates as the spoken language of the population, English and French are the main print languages, as well as the main languages of literacy and education. In such a complex situation, preschool is an interesting terrain in which to…

  18. Sleep clinical record: what differences in school and preschool children?

    PubMed Central

    Shafiek, Hanaa; Evangelisti, Melania; Rabasco, Jole; Cecili, Manuela; Montesano, Marilisa; Barreto, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The sleep clinical record (SCR) may be a valid method for detecting children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). This study aimed to evaluate whether there were differences in SCR depending on age and to identify the possible risk factors for OSA development. We enrolled children with sleep disordered breathing between 2013 and 2015, and divided them according to age into preschool- and school-age groups. All patients underwent SCR and polysomnography. OSA was detected in 81.1% and 83.6% of preschool- and school-age groups, respectively. Obesity, malocclusions, nasal septal deviation and inferior turbinate hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent in school-age children (p<0.05); however, only tonsillar hypertrophy had significant hazard ratio (2.3) for OSA development. Saddle nose, nasal hypotonia, oral breathing and tonsillar hypertrophy were significantly more prevalent for development of OSA in preschoolers (p<0.03). The SCR score was significantly higher among preschool children than in school-age children (8.4±2.22 versus 7.9±2.6; p=0.044). Further, SCR score >6.5 had a sensitivity of 74% in predicting OSA in preschool children with positive predictive value of 86% (p=0.0001). Our study confirms the validity of the SCR as a screening tool for patient candidates for a PSG study for suspected OSA, in both school and preschool children. PMID:27730168

  19. Correlates of Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Preschool Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)

  20. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  1. Factor Analysis of Measures of Nutritional Status of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, H. A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    On the basis of the findings of this study, it is reasonable to recommend elimination of some of the demography, anthropometry, and biochemical indices commonly evaluated in nutritional surveys of U.S. preschool children. (DM)

  2. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) EXPOSURE OF 257 PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure of 257 preschool children and their adult caregivers in their everyday environments. Participants were recruited randomly from eligible homes and daycare centers within six North Carolina (NC) and six Ohio (OH) c...

  3. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  4. Iron Status Predicts Malaria Risk in Malawian Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; Phiri, Kamija; Geskus, Ronald B.; Brabin, Bernard J.; Leenstra, Tjalling

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency is highly prevalent in pre-school children in developing countries and an important health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. A debate exists on the possible protective effect of iron deficiency against malaria and other infections; yet consensus is lacking due to limited data. Recent studies have focused on the risks of iron supplementation but the effect of an individual's iron status on malaria risk remains unclear. Studies of iron status in areas with a high burden of infections often are exposed to bias. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of baseline iron status for malaria risk explicitly taking potential biases into account. Methods and materials We prospectively assessed the relationship between baseline iron deficiency (serum ferritin <30 µg/L) and malaria risk in a cohort of 727 Malawian preschool children during a year of follow-up. Data were analyzed using marginal structural Cox regression models and confounders were selected using causal graph theory. Sensitivity of results to bias resulting from misclassification of iron status by concurrent inflammation and to bias from unmeasured confounding were assessed using modern causal inference methods. Results and Conclusions The overall incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria was 1.9 (95% CI 1.8–2.0) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.6–0.8) events per person-year, respectively. Children with iron deficiency at baseline had a lower incidence of malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria during a year of follow-up; adjusted hazard ratio's 0.55 (95%-CI:0.41–0.74) and 0.49 (95%-CI:0.33–0.73), respectively. Our results suggest that iron deficiency protects against malaria parasitemia and clinical malaria in young children. Therefore the clinical importance of treating iron deficiency in a pre-school child should be weighed carefully against potential harms. In malaria endemic areas treatment of iron deficiency in children requires sustained prevention of

  5. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  6. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Preschool Education on Middle Class Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Jennifer; And Others

    To determine whether preschool education benefits middle-class elementary school children, a study was conducted which compared the social, motor, and academic progress of kindergarten and elementary school children who had attended a Montessori preschool, another kind of preschool, or no preschool. The sample was chosen according to age,…

  7. Making Oneself Heard--Children's Experiences of Empowerment in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Almqvist, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Children's experiences of empowerment in relation to preschool peers and in child-adult interactions were studied, involving 25 four- to six-year-olds from four Swedish preschools. Group interviews using puppets comprised pre-constructed scenarios to examine preschools' activities. Children took photos of indoor and outdoor preschool environments,…

  8. Interviews with Children Exposed to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how research practices may simultaneously follow principles of children's citizenship rights to participation and principles of protection and support when children exposed to violence are informants. The article focuses upon organisation of interview processes and interactions between adult researchers and child…

  9. Interviews with Children Exposed to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how research practices may simultaneously follow principles of children's citizenship rights to participation and principles of protection and support when children exposed to violence are informants. The article focuses upon organisation of interview processes and interactions between adult researchers and child…

  10. A Nutrition Education Program for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A curriculum was designed to give preschool caregivers basic nutrition background through a programed self-instructional unit; incorporate nutrition education into existing parts of a typical preschool day; and provide learning activities designed to help preschoolers relate food/nutrients to health. Development of materials, caregivers'…

  11. Comorbidities in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2014-03-01

    Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that comorbidity plays in determining children's outcomes. The preschool attention, executive function and motor skills of 112 children at family risk for dyslexia, 29 of whom also met criteria for language impairment, were assessed at ages 3½ and 4½ years. The performance of these children was compared to the performance of children with language impairment and typically developing controls. Weaknesses in attention, executive function and motor skills were associated with language impairment rather than family risk status. Individual differences in language and executive function are strongly related during the preschool period, and preschool motor skills predicted unique variance (4%) in early reading skills over and above children's language ability. Comorbidity between developmental disorders can be observed in the preschool years: children with language impairment have significant and persistent weaknesses in motor skills and executive function compared to those without language impairment. Children's early language and motor skills are predictors of children's later reading skills. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Child developmental outcomes in preschool children following antidepressant exposure in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Galbally, Megan; Lewis, Andrew J; Buist, Anne

    2015-07-01

    To examine child developmental outcomes in preschool-aged children exposed to antidepressant medication in pregnancy and compare their outcomes to children not exposed. A prospective case-controlled study of 20 children exposed to antidepressants in pregnancy and 21 unexposed controls was available from the Victorian Psychotropic Registry. Child development outcomes at 4 years of age were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, third edition; the Movement Assessment Battery for Children; Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Preschool; and the Child Behavior Checklist (1.5-5 years). Maternal depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II in pregnancy and at four time points across infancy and early childhood. Children exposed to antidepressants in pregnancy had no statistically significant differences compared to unexposed children on any of the measures of child development undertaken. There was a trend to slightly lower scores in motor development with a small effect size for two scales of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children: balance - Cohen's d=0.36; aiming and catching - Cohen's d=0.34. The finding of no effect on cognition and behaviour are consistent with other previous studies conducted with younger children. Likewise, the trend towards lower motor development is similar to earlier findings from this study and a number of other similar studies. Given this trend there is a need for future research that focuses on this area of development in older children using robust measures of motor development. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  14. Functional residual capacity in healthy preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, J H; Van Bever, H P; Desager, K N; Willemen, M J; Creten, W L; Van Acker, K J; Vermeire, P A

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of routine functional residual capacity (FRC) measurements in healthy preschool children aged 2.7-6.4 yrs. Furthermore, accuracy and reproducibility were investigated and normal values were collected. A mass-produced closed-circuit helium dilution device (rolling seal) was used. Selection of the 113 healthy children (from the 571 measured) was based on an extensive personal and family history questionnaire and on clinical examination before measurements were performed. With three successive attempts it was possible to achieve at least two reproducible measurements in 73% of the children (repeatability coefficient 95.3 mL). The main problems were leakage at the corner of the mouth and irregular breathing pattern. The mean time to perform a measurement was 113 s. Mean FRC was significantly higher in boys than in girls: 778 versus 739 mL for a body length of 110 cm (p<0.05). FRC correlated with height (H) (r=0.69), weight (W) (r=0.56), age (A) (r=0.62) and all three combined (r=0.70): FRC = -534.89 + 1.84 x W (kg) + 10.07 x H (cm) + 2.51 x A (months). When a power or exponential function was used to describe FRC as a function of height, the results were not superior to the linear regression (r=0.69): FRC (mL) = -766.2 + 13.8 x H (cm) (r=0.69) or FRC (L) = 0.620 x H (m)(2.03) (r=0.69) or FRC (mL)= 99.5 x e(0.018xH (cm)) (r=0.69). Among these, we recommend the power function because it will better fit broader height ranges. Reliable functional residual capacity measurements can be routinely performed in preschool children with a mass-produced device. Reference values were collected for children 95-125 cm in height.

  15. Young Children's Views of the Role of Preschool Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore young children's (from one to three years old) perspectives of the role and pedagogy of educators in play in an Icelandic preschool. The intention is to explore the meaning that children put into involving educators in their play and whether the children experience educators' actions as a resource for their play. The…

  16. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  17. The Relationship between Creativity and Conformity among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Cheryl W.; Tegano, Deborah W.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between creativity and conformity (social conformity and impersonal conformity) with 45 preschool children. Findings support the hypothesis that highly conforming and highly nonconforming children do not score as highly on creativity measurements as children in the freedom of expression group (i.e., not…

  18. Syntax and Prosody in Narratives: A Study of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanchi, Paola; Zampini, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco; D'Odorico, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines narrative competence and its relationships with syntactic and prosodic skills in preschool children. The narrative skills of 30 typically developing Italian children were assessed during their first year of kindergarten attendance (T1) and again one year later (T2). A picture book was used to elicit children's…

  19. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  20. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  1. Beyond the Preschool Years: Children's Perceptions about Starting Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Santo, Aurelia; Berman, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a research study that investigated three- and four-year-old Canadian preschool children's perceptions about starting kindergarten. Findings from 33 focus-group discussions suggest that children begin to formulate ideas about starting kindergarten prior to school entry. Children's responses were grouped according to three…

  2. Evaluating Preschool Children's Sensitivity to Developmental Differences in Their Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This study first found that an adaptation of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children exhibited construct validity and test-retest reliability in assessing preschool children's sensitivity to age-related differences in peers' developmental abilities. Second, children with disabilities were viewed as less…

  3. Young Children's Views of the Role of Preschool Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore young children's (from one to three years old) perspectives of the role and pedagogy of educators in play in an Icelandic preschool. The intention is to explore the meaning that children put into involving educators in their play and whether the children experience educators' actions as a resource for their play. The…

  4. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  5. Phonological Abilities and Writing among Portuguese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Silva, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in writing in preschool children. The participants were 44 children, with an average age of 5 years and 6 months, and whose writing was syllabic with phonetization. The children were divided into three groups. They were…

  6. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  7. Beyond the Preschool Years: Children's Perceptions about Starting Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Santo, Aurelia; Berman, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a research study that investigated three- and four-year-old Canadian preschool children's perceptions about starting kindergarten. Findings from 33 focus-group discussions suggest that children begin to formulate ideas about starting kindergarten prior to school entry. Children's responses were grouped according to three…

  8. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  9. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  10. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  11. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool Onset (PO) Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202

  12. Acquiring the Language of Learning: The Performance of Hawaiian Preschool Children on the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, Mary

    The Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) was designed as a diagnostic tool for 3- to 6-year-old children to assess children's abilities to use language to solve thinking problems typically posed by teachers. The PLAI was developed after observing middle-class teachers in preschool classrooms encourage children to use language in…

  13. An Evaluation of the Preschool PATHS Curriculum on the Development of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Cerian; Cline, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), an early years curriculum designed to improve children's social and emotional competence, and reduce problem behaviour. Fifty-seven children aged three to four years took part in the study over one academic year. The control group (Group 1) received…

  14. An Evaluation of the Preschool PATHS Curriculum on the Development of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Cerian; Cline, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), an early years curriculum designed to improve children's social and emotional competence, and reduce problem behaviour. Fifty-seven children aged three to four years took part in the study over one academic year. The control group (Group 1) received…

  15. Oral Candida albicans carriage in healthy preschool and school children.

    PubMed

    Rozkiewicz, D; Daniluk, T; Zaremba, M L; Cylwik-Rokicka, D; Stokowska, W; Pawińska, M; Dabrowska, E; Marczuk-Kolada, G; Waszkiel, D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to detect Candida albicans carriage in the oral cavity of healthy preschool and school children. The second aim was the determination of correlation between C. albicans occurrence and dental caries in children population. The samples for mycological examinations were collected from the pharynx and supragingival plaque, and carious lesions in 102 children, aged 4-7 years (preschool children) and 104 children and adolescents, aged 12 and 18 (school children). All samples were cultured directly on Sabouraud agar medium. Isolated yeasts were identified based on API 20C AUX (bioMérieux). A total of 123 C. albicans strains were isolated, in which 61 (49.6%) derived from supragingival plaque, 48 (39%)--from carious lesions, and 14 (11.4%)--from pharyngeal swabs. C. albicans was isolated from the samples of single material in 61 children (35--school children, 26 --preschool children) while from the rest of 29 children, C. albicans was isolated from two (25x) or three materials (4x). C. albicans was detected in 48/75 (64%) children with dental caries; the rate was statistically significantly higher as compared to the overall number of children with C. albicans carriage (90/206; 43.7%) (p = 0.0026). Similar results was obtained in preschool children (38/61; 62.3% and 47/102; 46.1%, respectively) (p = 0.0449), as in school children (10/14; 71.4% and 43/104; 41.3%, respectively) (p = 0.0336). 1) Candida albicans was observed in the oral cavity of healthy children with high (approximately 40%)--comparable rate in school and preschool children (p > 0.05). 2) C. albicans was isolated with high comparable rate from carious lesions in preschool and school children. The statistically significant differences between the rate of C. albicans in carious lesions in preschool children (62.3%) and school children (71.4%) and the overall number of children with C. albicans carriage in the oral cavity of children in both age groups (p < 0.05) were showed.

  16. Toxocara canis infection in preschool age children: risk factors and the cognitive development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S; Greene, T; Ernhart, C B

    1996-01-01

    Risk factors for Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection were evaluated in a prospective study of disadvantaged preschool children. In addition, the hypothesis that T. canis exposure is associated with lower intelligence was tested. Seropositivity was tested at 2 years, 3 years, and at 4 years 10 months (4-10). Intelligence was measured at age 4-10 by the Full Scale IQ of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence (WPPSI). Pica and ownership of a dog were unrelated to seropositivity. Seropositive children had lower scores on the Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at age 1 year (prior to likely exposure). They also had less favorable scores on a measure of the quality of childrearing. These findings suggest that, for disadvantaged children, lower initial intelligence and less advantageous child rearing are risk factors for T. canis exposure. Seropositive children also had higher blood lead levels, probably as a result of the common pathway of hand to mouth transmittal. Seropositivity at 3 years, at age 4-10, or, cumulatively, at any of the age 2, 3, or 4-10 assessments was associated with the WPPSI IQ after adjustment for sociodemographic factors. Exposure at age 4-10-years was significantly associated with reduced IQ scores (p = 0.030). However, when the age 1 year MDI score was controlled, the estimate became nonsignificant. We, thus, can neither confirm nor deny a relationship of T. canis and intelligence, but the importance of considering prior developmental status is emphasized.

  17. Eating out of home and dietary adequacy in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Teresa; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Sara; Lopes, Carla

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to describe dietary intake and dietary adequacy according to eating location in preschool children. A sub-sample of 2414 children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal), evaluated during the follow-up between 2009 and 2011, was included. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 d food diaries and four groups of children were defined according to the eating location: 'Home' ( ≥ 80% of meals at home), 'Other homes', 'Preschool' and 'Restaurants'. A dietary adequacy index was developed based on general recommendations for children; a higher score represents a better dietary adequacy. The comparison of nutrients and foods daily intake according to the eating location groups was performed by ANOVA and ANCOVA to adjust for potential confounders. Children classified in 'Preschool' group ate significantly more vegetables, fruit, bread and fish, and less meat, compared to children classified into the 'Home' group. Children classified in the 'Restaurants' group ate more cakes, salty snacks and fruit juices than children in 'Home' group; and less vegetables, dairy products and pasta/rice/potatoes. In 'Restaurants' children obtained the lowest mean score of the dietary adequacy index (15.5, 95% CI 14.8, 16.3) and in 'Preschool' children had the highest mean score (18.3, 95% CI 18.1, 18.4), corresponding to a better dietary adequacy. Preschools seem to have a relevant role in promoting the intake of healthy foods in preschool children. The consumption in restaurants/coffee shops seems to contribute to energy-dense food intake and reduced consumption of nutrient-dense foods.

  18. Determinants of ECC in Sardinian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Campus, G; Solinas, G; Sanna, A; Maida, C; Castiglia, P

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of determinants on the presence of caries in pre-school children. A matched case-control study (1:2) was designed: 55 children (32 males, 23 females) with at least one buccal or lingual caries lesion on one primary maxillary incisor were selected (caries affected=1) and compared to randomly selected controls (no caries=0) paired for age and gender. Several variables concerning oral hygiene habits, use of fluoride supplementation, dietary habits, socio-economic status of the family and lifestyle factors were considered as risk predictors for early childhood caries (ECC). A conditional logistic regression model was used to perform matched case-control analysis. Bottle feeding at night (OR=1.90; 95%CI=1.03-3.50) and socio-economic level (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.01-2.81) were positively associated with case status. We conclude that ECC seemed to be associated with bottle feeding at night and a low socio-economic level.

  19. Cross-sectional study of social behaviors in preschool children and exposure to flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Shannon T; McClelland, Megan M; MacDonald, Megan; Cardenas, Andres; Anderson, Kim A; Kile, Molly L

    2017-03-09

    Children are exposed to flame retardants from the built environment. Brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE) and organophosphate-based flame retardants (OPFRs) are associated with poorer neurocognitive functioning in children. Less is known, however, about the association between these classes of compounds and children's emotional and social behaviors. The objective of this study was to determine if flame retardant exposure was associated with measurable differences in social behaviors among children ages 3-5 years. We examined teacher-rated social behaviors measured using the Social Skills Improvement Rating Scale (SSIS) and personal exposure to flame retardants in children aged 3-5 years who attended preschool (n = 72). Silicone passive samplers worn for 7 days were used to assess personal exposure to 41 compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer. These concentrations were then summed into total BDE and total OPFR exposure prior to natural log transformation. Separate generalized additive models were used to evaluate the relationship between seven subscales of the SSIS and lnΣBDE or lnΣOPFR adjusting for other age, sex, adverse social experiences, and family context. All children were exposed to a mixture of flame retardant compounds. We observed a dose dependent relationship between lnΣOPFR and two subscales where children with higher exposures were rated by their preschool teachers as having less responsible behavior (p = 0.07) and more externalizing behavior problems (p = 0.03). Additionally, children with higher lnΣBDE exposure were rated by teachers as less assertive (p = 0.007). We observed a cross-sectional association between children's exposure to flame retardant compounds and teacher-rated social behaviors among preschool-aged children. Children with higher flame retardant exposures exhibited poorer social skills in three domains that play an important role in a child's ability to succeed academically and socially.

  20. Preschool Children's Social Play and Involvement in the Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Nekane; Larrea, Inaki; Muela, Alexander; Barandiaran, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between social play and involvement in the outdoor preschool environment. The study included 173 children ranging in age from 3 to 6 years (M[subscript age] = 3.95, SD = 0.82) and attending 19 preschools in the Basque Country (Spain). A total of 51 teachers…

  1. Cognitive, Linguistic and Print-Related Predictors of Preschool Children's Word Spelling and Name Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…

  2. Cognitive, Linguistic and Print-Related Predictors of Preschool Children's Word Spelling and Name Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children begin to represent spoken language in print long before receiving formal instruction in spelling and writing. The current study sought to identify the component skills that contribute to preschool children's ability to begin to spell words and write their name. Ninety-five preschool children (mean age = 57 months) completed a…

  3. Talking about Children's Resistance to the Institutional Order and Teachers in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Ann-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights the parent-teacher conferences in the Swedish preschool and the talk about children's inappropriate and undesirable behaviour in a preschool setting. The focus of the article concerns how teachers talk about children's resistance to the social order in preschool and especially how children show resistance to teachers. The…

  4. Talking about Children's Resistance to the Institutional Order and Teachers in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Ann-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights the parent-teacher conferences in the Swedish preschool and the talk about children's inappropriate and undesirable behaviour in a preschool setting. The focus of the article concerns how teachers talk about children's resistance to the social order in preschool and especially how children show resistance to teachers. The…

  5. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with preschool children.

    PubMed

    Gayton, W F; Thornton, K; Bassett, J E

    1982-04-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with preschool children, a sample of 101 male and 103 female children initially rated on this scale. Ss ranged in age from 42 to 72 months and currently were enrolled in Maine Headstart programs. Sixty-six of these children also were assessed on a preschool rating system developed to assess hyperactivity and withdrawal. Results revealed that the conduct disorder and socialized delinquency dimensions correlated most highly with the hyperactivity scales, while the personality disorder and immaturity dimensions correlated most highly with the withdrawal dimensions. The BPC was found to be sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. These findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population.

  6. Relationship between Preschool Teachers' Reports of Children's Behavior and their Behavior toward those Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Jennifer; Arnold, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between preschool children and their teachers are an important component of the quality of the preschool experience. This study used attribution theory as a framework to better understand these relationships, examining the connection between teachers' perceptions of children's behavior and teachers' behavior toward those…

  7. The Construct of Social Competence--How Preschool Teachers Define Social Competence in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Preschool teachers share their environment with young children on a daily basis and interventions promoting social competence are generally carried out in the preschool setting. The aim was to find out if and how preschool teachers' definitions of social competence are related to factors in the preschool environment like: a) the number of children…

  8. Preschool--An Arena for Children's Learning of Social and Cognitive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in Urie…

  9. The Construct of Social Competence--How Preschool Teachers Define Social Competence in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillvist, Anne; Sandberg, Anette; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva; Granlund, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Preschool teachers share their environment with young children on a daily basis and interventions promoting social competence are generally carried out in the preschool setting. The aim was to find out if and how preschool teachers' definitions of social competence are related to factors in the preschool environment like: a) the number of children…

  10. Preschool--An Arena for Children's Learning of Social and Cognitive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Sandberg, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to investigate Swedish preschool teachers' accounts of children's learning in relation to the goals in the Swedish preschool curriculum. The research question is: "What do preschool teachers see as fundamental aspects of learning in preschool practice?" The study is based on interactionist perspectives founded in Urie…

  11. Serum copeptin in children exposed to maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta; Levandowski, Mateus L; Mansur, Rodrigo B; da Cunha, Graccielle Rodrigues; Asevedo, Elson; Zugman, André; Salum, Giovanni A; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro M; Rizzo, Lucas B; Manfro, Gisele; Mari, Jair J; Rohde, Luis A; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Brietzke, Elisa; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been related to a persistent reprograming of stress-response. Copeptin is a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation; however, few studies have examined copeptin levels in children exposed to CM. The aim of this study was to compare serum copeptin levels in children reporting child abuse and/or neglect and children with no history of CM. This study included 65 children with a positive history of moderate to severe CM, as reported by themselves and their parent(s) during a clinical interview, and 71 children with no history of CM as a comparison group. CM was considered moderate to severe based on the child-reported frequency of being exposed to events related to sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and/or physical neglect. Child psychopathology symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We measured serum copeptin concentration using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children exposed to CM exhibited higher levels of serum copeptin compared to children without CM when controlling for sex, age, and psychiatric morbidity. The CBCL total score, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, was higher in children with CM. We found no correlation between copeptin and CBCL scores for internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms. CM is associated with copeptin serum levels independently of age, sex, and symptom severity. Copeptin is a promising new biomarker for children with a history of abuse and/or neglect. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (p<.05). The choice of tool for assessment of attention is discussed in relation to outdoor stay and play characteristics in Swedish preschool settings. The results indicate that the restorative potential of green outdoor environments applies also to preschool children and that environmental assessment tools as OPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  13. Comorbidities in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Background Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that comorbidity plays in determining children’s outcomes. Method The preschool attention, executive function and motor skills of 112 children at family risk for dyslexia, 29 of whom also met criteria for language impairment, were assessed at ages 3 ½ and 4 ½. The performance of these children was compared to the performance of children with language impairment and typically developing controls. Results Weaknesses in attention, executive function and motor skills were associated with language impairment rather than family risk status. Individual differences in language and executive function are strongly related in the preschool period and preschool motor skills predicted unique variance (4%) in early reading skills over and above children’s language ability. Conclusion Comorbidity between developmental disorders can be observed in the preschool years: children with language impairment have significant and persistent weaknesses in motor skills and executive function compared to those without language impairment. Children’s early language and motor skills are predictors of children’s later reading skills. PMID:24117483

  14. Novel-word learning deficits in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with specific language impairments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuchun; Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Children with SLI exhibit overall deficits in novel word learning compared to their age-matched peers. However, the manifestation of the word learning difficulty in SLI was not consistent across tasks and the factors affecting the learning performance were not yet determined. Our aim is to examine the extent of word learning difficulties in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI, and to explore the potent influence of existing lexical knowledge on to the word learning process. Preschool children with SLI (n=37) and typical language development (n=33) were exposed to novel words for unfamiliar objects embedded in stories. Word learning tasks including the initial mapping and short-term repetitive learning were designed. Results revealed that Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI performed as well as their age-peers in the initial form-meaning mapping task. Their word learning difficulty was only evidently shown in the short-term repetitive learning task under a production demand, and their learning speed was slower than the control group. Children with SLI learned the novel words with a semantic head better in both the initial mapping and repetitive learning tasks. Moderate correlations between stand word learning performances and scores on standardized vocabulary were found after controlling for children's age and nonverbal IQ. The results suggested that the word learning difficulty in children with SLI occurred in the process of establishing a robust phonological representation at the beginning stage of word learning. Also, implicit compound knowledge is applied to aid word learning process for children with and without SLI. We also provide the empirical data to validate the relationship between preschool children's word learning performance and their existing receptive vocabulary ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of Symbolic Modeling to Promote Social Skills in Preschool Children with Low Levels of Social Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Martha Freese; Carlson, Peter M.

    1974-01-01

    Nineteen socially isolated preschool children were exposed either to four videotapes in which social skills were modeled (treatment) or to four sequences of a nature film (control). Observations indicated that treatment produced increases in the frequency with which subjects dispensed and received social reinforcement and the frequency of social…

  16. Assessing fears of preschool children with nighttime fears by a parent version of the fear survey schedule for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Gothelf, Doron; Sadeh, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Although excessive fears are common in preschool children, validated assessment tools for this age are lacking. Our aim was to modify and provide preliminary evidence of the utility of a preschoolers' fear screening tool, a parent-reported Fear Survey Schedule for Preschool Children (FSS-PC). 109 Israeli preschool children (aged 4-6 years) with chronic night time fears (NF) and 30 healthy children (controls) participated. The FSS-PC analysis included: 1) internal reliability, 2) correlations between FSS-PC scores and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) measures, 3) differences between NF and a comparison sample of FSS-PC scores, and 4) FSS-PC sensitivity in detecting change in NF following an intervention for NF. There were low-to-medium positive correlations between the FSS-PC scores and several internalizing scales of the CBCL measures. FSS-PC scores in the NF group were significantly higher than the control children's score. FSS-PC scores had adequate internal reliability and were also sensitive for detecting significant changes in fear levels following behavioral interventions. Unique cultural and environmental circumstances and specific study group. This new version of the FSS-PC may provide clinicians with a novel and useful screening tool for early assessment of fear- and anxiety-related phenomena of preschool children.

  17. Financing Preschool for All Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svestka, Sherlie S.

    This digest compares the efforts of the United States and of other member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to finance center- and facility-based preschool. In many OECD countries, public preschool is more widely available than in the United States. For example, in France, 100%, and in Italy,…

  18. Speech Development Patterns and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Virginia A.; Foy, Judith G.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the association between speech production and early literacy skills, this study of 102 preschool children looked at phonological awareness in relation to whether children were delayed, typical, or advanced in their articulation of consonants. Using a developmental typology inspired by some of the literature on speech development (Kahn…

  19. Social Cognitive Predictors of Body Image in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Gustitus, Cheryl; Leitzel-Schwalm, Jamie

    2001-01-01

    Examined predictors of body image in preschool children, including models, verbal messages, physiological factors, and experience of competence related to body image. Data from child interviews and parent and teacher questionnaires indicated that there were no gender differences in children's body image. Messages from the mother to "be bigger"…

  20. Facilitating Young Children's Use of the Web in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Christina; Danby, Susan J.; Given, Lisa M.; Thorpe, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Current perspectives on young children's use of digital technology suggest that preschool teachers need to provide more effective guidance for children. There is still little research, however, to inform how guidance might be understood and practiced during interactions with digital technology. This article employs an ethnomethodological…

  1. Non-Abused Preschool Children's Perception of an Anogenital Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulla, Kari; Fenheim, Gred Eva; Myhre, Arne K.; Lydersen, Stian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: An anogenital examination is usually part of the standard medical assessment in children evaluated for suspected sexual abuse, and the emotional impact on the child has been studied. The primary aim of this study was to assess non-abused preschool children's responses to an anogenital examination. Method: One hundred and fifty-eight…

  2. Preschool Children's Representation and Understanding of Written Number Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Bin

    2004-01-01

    Two samples of preschool children's representation and understanding of written number symbols was examined in two time points in one academic year. About 40% of Chinese four year olds (mean=4:7) were able to use conventional number symbols to represent the quantity of ten, on average. The majority of these children (85%) could represent written…

  3. Teachers' Emotional Consistency Matters for Preschool Children. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Brock, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' emotional support in classrooms and how it relates to children's outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Findings suggest that more consistent emotional support was related to better academic and social outcomes, emphasizing the potentially important role of consistency in children's school experiences. [This research…

  4. Helping Children Develop Healthy Self-Concepts (Preschool - Third Grade).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAnda, Natividad

    This unit of the Flexible Learning System (FLS) is designed to help teachers analyzing the effects of classroom situations on the self-concepts of children in preschool through third grade. Among the questions addressed are: What is a healthy self-concept; How do teaching practices affect children's self-concepts; and When are situations…

  5. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  6. Assessing Preschool Children's Competitive Behaviour: An Observational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiakara, Angeliki; Digelidis, Nikolaos M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a direct observational system in order to assess competitive behaviours in preschool children. Participants were 176 children (90 boys, 86 girls; M[subscript age]?=?5.2 years) from 10 kindergarten classes of one town of Central Greece. A new observational system (Observational System Assessing Competition in…

  7. The Effect of Preschool on Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjanovic Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska; Bajc, Katja

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence and parents' education. The sample included 219 children from 68 to 83 months old attending the first year of primary school, differentiated by whether or not they had attended…

  8. Attachment, Behavioral Inhibition, and Anxiety in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir-Essakow, Galia; Ungerer, Judy A.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the association between insecure attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety in an at risk sample of preschool children. The relationship between maternal anxiety and child anxiety was also assessed. Participants were 104 children aged 3-4 years who were assessed for behavioral inhibition and mother-child attachment (using…

  9. An Examination of Attachment Status of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan Ildiz,Gökçen; Ahmetoglu, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to study factors that influence attachment status of preschool children. Type of the study is relational screening and its sample comprise 78 typically developing children between 60-77 months who attend a Kindergarten affiliated to the Directorate of National Education in Süleymanpasa district of Tekirdag province. The…

  10. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  11. Let's Pretend!: A Semantic Analysis of Preschool Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Chris; Hunt-Berg, Mary

    1995-01-01

    This study explored the semantic content of spontaneous speech of 10 children (ages 4-5) during pretend play. More references to family were made during home play and to peers and self during preschool play. Use of daily routines and fantasy/cartoon characters as common play themes was analyzed. Discusses intervention programs for children with…

  12. PAH EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...

  13. Pre-School Children's Agency in Learning for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caiman, Cecilia; Lundegård, Iann

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in pre-school children's meaning-making and learning in education for sustainability. Young children should be recognized as "agents for change" and active participants in their own day-to-day practices. Such issues are thoroughly discussed in the early childhood education for…

  14. A Study of Race and Class Heterogeneity Among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietze, Peter M.; Sigel, Irving E.

    An experimental preschool was set up to study the effect of mixing children differing in SES and race on racial awareness and interaction. It was hypothesized that racial self-selection could be explained in terms of SES level and that interracial contact when different SES children were included would serve to counteract racial stereotypes and…

  15. Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

  16. The Development of Flexibility and Abstraction in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joanna; Muller, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of flexibility and abstraction in preschool children by using a newly designed Pattern Completion Task (PCT) and the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST). In the PCT, children were presented with an incomplete pattern consisting of different-colored shapes and were asked to select the colored shape that…

  17. Pre-School Children's Agency in Learning for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caiman, Cecilia; Lundegård, Iann

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in pre-school children's meaning-making and learning in education for sustainability. Young children should be recognized as "agents for change" and active participants in their own day-to-day practices. Such issues are thoroughly discussed in the early childhood education for…

  18. EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN (1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEWART, LUCILLE M.

    THE AIM OF AN EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN WAS TO PREPARE THEM FOR REGULAR KINDERGARTEN CLASSES. ACTIVITIES AND EXPERIENCES WERE PROVIDED WHICH HELPED THE CHILDREN EXPRESS THEMSELVES VERBALLY AND BECOME AWARE OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT. THE BUDGET FOR A 6-WEEK PROGRAM, INCLUDING STAFF, PROGRAM SUPPLIES, AND…

  19. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  20. Effects of Animated Videos on Preschool Children's Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jane W.; Geringer, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of audiovisual media on preschool children's attitudes toward music presentations from "The Lion King" and "Fantasia." Finds that the listening times for music-plus-video presentations of both selections were longer and a majority of the children expressed a preference for "The Lion King" over "Fantasia." (CMK)

  1. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  2. PAH EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...

  3. Conceptions of Art in Hong Kong Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kit-mei Betty

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports part of a phenomenographic inquiry into arts education in early childhood. Research studies into how young children understand and conceive their early arts experiences are limited. In documenting children's views, this study contributes to an understanding of arts education in a preschool context, and raises possibilities for…

  4. Facilitating Young Children's Use of the Web in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Christina; Danby, Susan J.; Given, Lisa M.; Thorpe, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Current perspectives on young children's use of digital technology suggest that preschool teachers need to provide more effective guidance for children. There is still little research, however, to inform how guidance might be understood and practiced during interactions with digital technology. This article employs an ethnomethodological…

  5. Body Awareness in Preschool Children with Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…

  6. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  7. Assessing Preschool Children's Competitive Behaviour: An Observational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiakara, Angeliki; Digelidis, Nikolaos M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a direct observational system in order to assess competitive behaviours in preschool children. Participants were 176 children (90 boys, 86 girls; M[subscript age]?=?5.2 years) from 10 kindergarten classes of one town of Central Greece. A new observational system (Observational System Assessing Competition in…

  8. African American Father Involvement and Preschool Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    A developmental ecological model was used to identify child attributes, father characteristics, and familial factors associated with multidimensional father involvement with preschool children enrolled in Head Start. The relations between father involvement and children's school readiness were also investigated. Eighty-five African American…

  9. EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN (1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEWART, LUCILLE M.

    THE AIM OF AN EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN WAS TO PREPARE THEM FOR REGULAR KINDERGARTEN CLASSES. ACTIVITIES AND EXPERIENCES WERE PROVIDED WHICH HELPED THE CHILDREN EXPRESS THEMSELVES VERBALLY AND BECOME AWARE OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT. THE BUDGET FOR A 6-WEEK PROGRAM, INCLUDING STAFF, PROGRAM SUPPLIES, AND…

  10. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  11. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite poor vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of specific vocabulary teaching methods on vocabulary learning for this group. The authors compared three vocabulary instruction conditions with preschool children with hearing loss: (a) explicit, direct instruction; (b) follow-in…

  12. Social Skills Development for Preschool Children with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrenkopf, Carol; And Others

    Social skills development of preschool children with visual impairments is discussed. A review of the literature considers the field of child development and social cognition, the effect of blindness on child development, and the effects of blindness on social cognition. Three areas concerning the development of social skills for children with…

  13. Effects of Animated Videos on Preschool Children's Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jane W.; Geringer, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of audiovisual media on preschool children's attitudes toward music presentations from "The Lion King" and "Fantasia." Finds that the listening times for music-plus-video presentations of both selections were longer and a majority of the children expressed a preference for "The Lion King" over "Fantasia." (CMK)

  14. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  15. Preschool Children's Visual Attention to Attributes of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship of preschool children's visual attention to the presence of 37 visual and auditory attributes of television programs. Attributes included the use of puppets, women, and children, auditory changes, peculiar voices, movement, cuts, sound effects, laughter, applause, adult male voices, extended zooms and pans, eye contact,…

  16. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…

  17. Civic and Patriotic Education of Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokeyeva, Ekaterina V.; Andreeva, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the current research devoted to civic and patriotic education of pre-school children is determined by the contradiction between the necessity of civic-patriotic education of children in the current context, their readiness to defend their Motherland and the lack of the development of this issue both in pedagogical theory and…

  18. Preschool Provision and Children of Migrants in Beijing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Berenice; Nyland, Chris; Yan, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese children with an urban household registration ("hukou") normally attend subsidized preschools for three years prior to primary school. This is an experience available to relatively few of China's many millions of migrant children whose families are registered as rural residents but choose to migrate to urban areas. This paper…

  19. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  20. Energy cost of activities in preschool-aged children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cos...

  1. Illustrated Storybooks for Preschool Children Published in Turkey between 1980-2013: A Study Based on Preschool Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isitan, Sonnur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of topics featured in illustrated storybooks that address preschool children. The sample of the current study included a total of 1,050 illustrated storybooks published in Turkish between 1980 and 2013. Books for pre-school children that incorporated the components of setting, attempt, and…

  2. Factors That Influence Fast Mapping in Children Exposed to Spanish and English

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Figueroa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if children exposed to two languages would benefit from the phonotactic probability cues of a single language in the same way as monolingual peers and to determine if cross-linguistic influence would be present in a fast mapping task. Method Two groups of typically-developing children (monolingual English and bilingual Spanish-English) took part in a computer-based fast mapping task which manipulated phonotactic probability. Children were preschool-aged (N = 50) or school-aged (N = 34). Fast mapping was assessed through name identification and naming tasks. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing and simple regression. Results Bilingual and monolingual preschoolers showed sensitivity to English phonotactic cues in both tasks, but bilingual preschoolers were less accurate than monolingual peers in the naming task. School-aged bilingual children had nearly identical performance to monolingual peers. Conclusions Knowing that children exposed to two languages can benefit from the statistical cues of a single language can help inform ideas about instruction and assessment for bilingual learners. PMID:23816663

  3. Nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Zisenwine, Tamar; Kaplan, Michal; Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-02-01

    Nighttime fears are very common in preschool years. During these years, children's fantasy-reality differentiation undergoes significant development. Our study was aimed at exploring the links between nighttime fears and fantasy-reality differentiation in preschool children. Eighty children (aged: 4-6 years) suffering from severe nighttime fears were compared with 32 non-fearful controls. Fears were assessed using child and parental reports. Children viewed images depicting fantastic or real entities and situations, and were asked to report whether these were imaginary or could occur in real life. The results revealed that children with nighttime fears demonstrated more fantasy-reality confusion compared to their controls. These differences in fantasy-reality differentiation were more pronounced in younger children. Additional significant associations were found between fantasy-reality differentiation and age and specific characteristics of the stimuli. These preliminary findings, suggesting a developmental delay in fantasy-reality differentiation in children with nighttime fears, have significant theoretical and clinical implications.

  4. Assessing Preschool Children's Physical Activity: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M. Joao C. A.; Pate, Russell R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system--the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed…

  5. Physical activity in overweight and nonoverweight preschool children.

    PubMed

    Trost, S G; Sirard, J R; Dowda, M; Pfeiffer, K A; Pate, R R

    2003-07-01

    To compare the physical activity levels of overweight and non overweight 3- to 5-y-old children while attending preschool. A secondary aim was to evaluate weight-related differences in hypothesized parental determinants of child physical activity behavior. Cross-sectional study. A total of 245, 3- to 5-y-olds (127 girls, 118 boys) and their parent(s) (242 mothers, 173 fathers) recruited from nine preschools. Overweight status determined using the age- and sex-specific 85th percentile for body mass index (BMI) from CDC Growth Charts. Physical activity during the preschool day was assessed on multiple days via two independent objective measures-direct observation using the observation system for recording activity in preschools (OSRAP) and real-time accelerometry using the MTI/CSA 7164 accelerometer. Parents completed a take-home survey assessing sociodemographic information, parental height and weight, modeling of physical activity, support for physical activity, active toys and sporting equipment at home, child's television watching, frequency of park visitation, and perceptions of child competence. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their nonoverweight peers during the preschool day. No significant differences were observed in girls. Despite a strong association between childhood overweight status and parental obesity, no significant differences were observed for the hypothesized parental influences on physical activity behavior. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of overweight children may be at increased risk for further gains in adiposity because of low levels of physical activity during the preschool day.

  6. Working memory and early numeracy training in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Costa, Hiwet Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence children's performance in mathematical achievement, including both domain-specific and domain-general factors. This study aimed to verify and compare the effects of two types of training on early numerical skills. One type of training focused on the enhancement of working memory, a domain-general precursor, while the other focused on the enhancement of early numeracy, a domain-specific precursor. The participants were 48 five-year-old preschool children. Both the working memory and early numeracy training programs were implemented for 5 weeks. The results showed that the early numeracy intervention specifically improved early numeracy abilities in preschool children, whereas working memory intervention improved not only working memory abilities but also early numeracy abilities. These findings stress the importance of performing activities designed to train working memory abilities, in addition to activities aimed to enhance more specific skills, in the early prevention of learning difficulties during preschool years.

  7. Diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder in preschool children.

    PubMed

    De Young, Alexandra C; Kenardy, Justin A; Cobham, Vanessa E

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to assess for PTSD in their child at 1 and 6 months postinjury and the Child Behavior Checklist for 1.5-5 was also completed. The proposed algorithm for PTSD in preschool children for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) provided the most developmentally sensitive and valid measure of PTSD. The rate of PTSD diagnosis was 25% at 1 month and 10% at 6 months. The predictive utility of Criterion A was not demonstrated. These findings provide support for the inclusion of the proposed algorithm for PTSD in preschool children.

  8. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  9. SARS, Preschool Routines and Children's Behaviour: Observations from Preschools in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    All schools in Hong Kong were closed in April 2003 to prevent the spread of SARS. This paper considers the influence of the SARS epidemic on children's routines and behaviour when preschools re-opened, after a six-week closure. Observations were made in 20 kindergartens and principals of another 10 kindergartens completed questionnaires. The…

  10. SARS, Preschool Routines and Children's Behaviour: Observations from Preschools in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    All schools in Hong Kong were closed in April 2003 to prevent the spread of SARS. This paper considers the influence of the SARS epidemic on children's routines and behaviour when preschools re-opened, after a six-week closure. Observations were made in 20 kindergartens and principals of another 10 kindergartens completed questionnaires. The…

  11. Program Performance Report 1980-81. Preschool Program: A Regional Demonstration Program for Preschool Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    One of 10 documents developed by the Preschool Program for Handicapped Children of the Putnam/Northern Westchester (NY) Board of Cooperative Educational Services, the report details accomplishments during the 1980-81 school year. The following are reported as major accomplishments: Joint Dissemination Review Panel (JDRP) unanimous approval;…

  12. Classroom-Directed Home Training Activities. Preschool Program: A Regional Demonstration Program for Preschool Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jacquelyn O.

    One of 10 documents developed for preschool programs for handicapped children, the manual presents classroom directed home training activities. The activities are based on such principles as the effectiveness of home instruction by a parent and the need for a parent to feel responsibility for the child's learning. Intended to provide teachers of…

  13. Health and Safety in the Preschool. Together for Children: Cooperative Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siska, Heather Smith

    The intent of this manual is to present health and safety standards and procedures for the special environment of cooperative preschools, where both teacher-supervisors and parents are present and responsible for the well-being of the children. After a brief discussion about meeting environmental standards, child health is investigated in terms of…

  14. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  15. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  16. The Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: The Revised Preschool Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan J.; Spence, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity and factorial structure of a modified version of the Preschool Anxiety Scale (Spence, Rapee, McDonald, & Ingram, 2001). The measure was completed by 764 mothers and 418 fathers of children aged 3 to 5 years. After removing, two items tapping obsessive compulsive symptoms, confirmatory factor…

  17. Health and Safety in the Preschool. Together for Children: Cooperative Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siska, Heather Smith

    The intent of this manual is to present health and safety standards and procedures for the special environment of cooperative preschools, where both teacher-supervisors and parents are present and responsible for the well-being of the children. After a brief discussion about meeting environmental standards, child health is investigated in terms of…

  18. The Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: The Revised Preschool Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan J.; Spence, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity and factorial structure of a modified version of the Preschool Anxiety Scale (Spence, Rapee, McDonald, & Ingram, 2001). The measure was completed by 764 mothers and 418 fathers of children aged 3 to 5 years. After removing, two items tapping obsessive compulsive symptoms, confirmatory factor…

  19. Nutritional status of preschool children attending kindergartens in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Rysha, Agim; Gjergji, Tahire M; Ploeger, Angelika

    2017-06-02

    There is very limited data on malnutrition of preschool children in Kosovo. The main objective of the study is to provide a nutritional status profile of preschool children attending kindergartens in Kosovo. Cross-sectional study of children aged 12-59 months (n = 352 children) and children aged 60-83 months (n = 134) enrolled in public and private kindergartens of Kosovo. Anthropometric measurements used for this study are weight and height of the preschoolers (12-83 months). A measuring board was used for measuring the length/height of children younger than 2 years, while digital weight and height scale Seca 763 was used for measuring of preschool children taller than 110 and Seca 213 was used for measuring the height for children who were shorter than 110 cm. Statistical analyses of underweight and overweight trends across sex and age groups as well as between children from public and private kindergartens were carried out. Qualitative variables were tested with a chi-square test. The differences between groups were assessed with a Student t test for normally distributed variables and a Mann-Whitney test for abnormally distributed numerical variables. The mean z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and BMI-for-age largely fell within 0.0 and 1.0. The percentage of stunted children is 3%, whereas child wasting is 1.9%. The overall percentage of obese children is 2.3%; furthermore, 8.9% are overweight and 27.3% have a possible risk of being overweight. The incidence of children underweight is slightly decreasing. The prevalence of overweight and obese children in sample chosen is evident.

  20. Energy Cost of Activities in Preschool-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Puyau, Maurice R; Adolph, Anne L; Liu, Yan; Wilson, Theresa A; Zakeri, Issa F; Butte, Nancy F

    2016-06-01

    The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cost of common activities of preschool-aged children in terms of VO2, energy expenditure (kilocalories per minute) and child-specific metabolic equivalents (METs) measured by room calorimetry for use in the Youth Compendium of Physical Activity, and 2) to predict METs from age, sex and heart rate (HR). Energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), HR, and child-METs of 13 structured activities were measured by room respiration calorimetry in 119 healthy children, ages 3 to 5 years. EE, VO2, HR, and child-METs are presented for 13 structured activities ranging from sleeping, sedentary, low-, moderate- to high-active. A significant curvilinear relationship was observed between child-METs and HR (r2 = .85; P = .001). Age-specific child METs for 13 structured activities in preschool-aged children will be useful to extend the Youth Compendium of Physical Activity for research purposes and practical applications. HR may serve as an objective measure of MET intensity in preschool-aged children.

  1. Privacy-Preserving Health Data Collection for Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2013-01-01

    With the development of network technology, more and more data are transmitted over the network and privacy issues have become a research focus. In this paper, we study the privacy in health data collection of preschool children and present a new identity-based encryption protocol for privacy protection. The background of the protocol is as follows. A physical examination for preschool children is needed every year out of consideration for the children's health. After the examination, data are transmitted through the Internet to the education authorities for analysis. In the process of data collection, it is unnecessary for the education authorities to know the identities of the children. Based on this, we designed a privacy-preserving protocol, which delinks the children's identities from the examination data. Thus, the privacy of the children is preserved during data collection. We present the protocol in detail and prove the correctness of the protocol. PMID:24285984

  2. Privacy-preserving health data collection for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shaopeng; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2013-01-01

    With the development of network technology, more and more data are transmitted over the network and privacy issues have become a research focus. In this paper, we study the privacy in health data collection of preschool children and present a new identity-based encryption protocol for privacy protection. The background of the protocol is as follows. A physical examination for preschool children is needed every year out of consideration for the children's health. After the examination, data are transmitted through the Internet to the education authorities for analysis. In the process of data collection, it is unnecessary for the education authorities to know the identities of the children. Based on this, we designed a privacy-preserving protocol, which delinks the children's identities from the examination data. Thus, the privacy of the children is preserved during data collection. We present the protocol in detail and prove the correctness of the protocol.

  3. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.

  4. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Amanda K.; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G.

    2015-01-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0–6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach’s alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75% vs 25%; Fischer’s Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  5. Sleep Duration and School Readiness of Chinese Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  7. How Do Caregivers Select Preschools? A Study of Children with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how parents and other caregivers conceptualize preschool quality, or what factors they prioritize when selecting a preschool. Caregivers of children with disabilities have the additional challenge of finding a preschool that can address their children's special needs. Objective: We explored the factors caregivers…

  8. Characteristics of Swedish Preschools That Provide Education and Care to Children with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…

  9. The Relations among Young Children's Peer-Reported Trustworthiness, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, K. J.; Michalik, N.; Eisenberg, N.; Betts, L. R.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five (38 male and 27 female) preschool children (mean age=5 years 1 month) completed measures of peers' trustworthiness (promise keeping and secret keeping). Teachers rated the preschool children's inhibitory control, trustworthiness, and preschool adjustment. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) yielded support for the hypothesized model. The…

  10. The Impact of Pre-School on Young Children's Cognitive Attainments at Entry to Reception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Elliot, Karen; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the impact of pre-school experience on young children's cognitive attainments at entry to primary school and analyses data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study, the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) project, which followed a large sample of young children attending 141 pre-school centres drawn from…

  11. Characteristics of Swedish Preschools That Provide Education and Care to Children with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Johanna; Westling, Mara Allodi; Siljehag, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool inclusion is embraced and preschools are open for children both with and without special educational needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of a number of preschool units in Sweden that provide education and care to children with special educational needs with regard to organisation, resources and…

  12. How Do Caregivers Select Preschools? A Study of Children with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how parents and other caregivers conceptualize preschool quality, or what factors they prioritize when selecting a preschool. Caregivers of children with disabilities have the additional challenge of finding a preschool that can address their children's special needs. Objective: We explored the factors caregivers…

  13. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  14. Examination of the Messages Preschool Teachers Use against Undesirable Behaviors of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, through in-class observations, the messages preschool teachers use against children's undesirable behaviors, in order to warn the children and remove negative behaviors. The study group consisted of six preschool teachers. The messages used by preschool teachers against undesirable behaviors of children…

  15. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  16. Implementing a Program of Supportive Services to Severely Handicapped Preschool Age Children in Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Ronald A.

    The practicum addressed the need to serve a group of severely handicapped preschool children within local neighborhood programs rather than in a segregated preschool center. The practicum goals were: (1) to maintain the enrollment of severely handicapped children in neighborhood preschool and daycare centers through the provision of adequate…

  17. The Relationship Between Preschool Teachers’ Reports of Children's Behavior and Their Behavior Toward Those Children

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Jennifer; Arnold, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between preschool children and their teachers are an important component of the quality of the preschool experience. This study used attribution theory as a framework to better understand these relationships, examining the connection between teachers’ perceptions of children's behavior and teachers’ behavior toward those children. One hundred seven preschool children and 24 preschool teachers participated in this study. Two teachers reported on each child's behavior using the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Commands and praise directed toward children by the teachers in the study were coded from classroom videotapes. Teachers gave more commands to children they perceived as having greater general behavior problems, even after controlling for the shared variance in the other classroom teacher's report of the child's behavior. Implications for school psychologists, teachers, and researchers are discussed. PMID:20431714

  18. Mothers' taste perceptions and their preschool children's dental caries experiences.

    PubMed

    Alanzi, Abrar; Minah, Glenn; Romberg, Elaine; Catalanotto, Frank; Bartoshuk, Linda; Tinanoff, Norman

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine the caries experiences of preschool children whose mothers exhibited various genetic taste sensitivities to sweet foods, as reflected by their ability to taste the chemical 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). A convenience sample of 38 healthy two- to three-year-old preschool children and their mothers was selected. Data regarding maternal demographics and children's oral hygiene practices were obtained by questionnaires. Children received oral clinical examinations. Mothers received a PROP test to determine their taste type. Twenty mothers were PROP supertasters (disliking sweet food), and 18 mothers were PROP nontasters (liking sweet food). Children of nontaster mothers were found to have a greater prevalence of dental caries and a greater number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (dmfs) of maxillary anterior teeth than those of supertaster mothers (P<.05). Children of nontaster mothers whose grandparents reportedly lived in the same household had increased dmfs vs. those without grandparents in the household (P<.05). The prevalence of dental caries in two- to three-year-old-children was significantly greater in children of mothers who couldn't taste the chemical 6-n-propylthiouracil than those of mothers who could. A mother's PROP type could be an important variable related to the caries experience of preschool children.

  19. Nasal nitric oxide levels in healthy pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, G L; Bodini, A; Peroni, D G; Sandri, M; Brunelli, M; Pigozzi, R; Boner, A L

    2010-12-01

    The evaluation of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has been proposed as a screening tool in children with clinically suspectable primary ciliary dyskinesia. Nevertheless, normal values have been reported for school-aged children. This study was designed to identify normal nNO levels in pre-school children. nNO was assessed in 300 healthy children aged between 1.5 and 7.2. Two hundred and fifty of them were unable to fulfill the guideline requirements for nNO measurement and were assessed by sampling the nasal air continuously with a constant trans-nasal aspiration flow for 30 s during tidal breathing. For those children who were able to cooperate, the average nNO concentration was calculated according to guidelines. A statistically significant relationship between nNO level and age was demonstrated in this study group of pre-school children (p < 0.001). An increase in nNO of about 100 ppb was observed in children older than 6 yr vs. those aged < 3. This study presents a description of normal nNO values in pre-school children. The effect of the age and the eventual presence of rhinitis and snoring need to be considered whenever nNO is evaluated in the clinical practice, in particular in non-cooperative children. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. [Relationship between phonological awareness and behavioral problems in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Linda P; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2010-07-01

    Phonological awareness is a key precursor of reading and writing skills in preschool children. Many children with reading and spelling problems have comorbid disorders that have a negative impact on their development. Research to date has rarely focused on the interaction between behavioral problems and phonological awareness. The study investigates whether preschool children with difficulties in phonological awareness already show behavioral problems. Children (N = 188) were interviewed to assess their level of phonological awareness and teachers used the SDQ to rate their behavioral strengths and difficulties. Children with low levels of phonological awareness have more emotional problems, are more hyperactive, and have more problems with peers than children with higher levels of phonological awareness. No gender differences were found. The results indicate that already at preschool age children with low levels of phonological awareness show more behavioral problems than children with higher levels of phonological awareness. The results are comparable to those of school children who have writing and reading difficulties and behavioral problems.

  1. Animal cruelty by children exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L

    2006-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. A community sample of 47 mothers with two children and a history of domestic violence were compared to a matched sample of 45 mothers with two children who did not have such a history. Children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to have been cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The age and gender of children who were cruel to animals did not differ from children who were not cruel to animals. However, exposed children cruel to animals were significantly older than non-exposed children cruel to animals. Animal cruelty by children is correlated with exposure to domestic violence.

  2. Socioemotional Correlates of Creative Potential in Preschool Age Children: Thinking beyond Student Academic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Wright, Cheryl; Brehl, Beverly; Black, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of creative potential in preschool children, with a focus on children's social behavior. Ninety-four preschool-aged children, their mothers, and teachers participated in the study. Mothers completed a questionnaire measure of children's shyness, and teachers reported on children's levels of shyness, prosocial…

  3. Socioemotional Correlates of Creative Potential in Preschool Age Children: Thinking beyond Student Academic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Wright, Cheryl; Brehl, Beverly; Black, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of creative potential in preschool children, with a focus on children's social behavior. Ninety-four preschool-aged children, their mothers, and teachers participated in the study. Mothers completed a questionnaire measure of children's shyness, and teachers reported on children's levels of shyness, prosocial…

  4. Orientation and Mobility for Preschool Children: What We Have and What We Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Kay Alicyn

    1979-01-01

    The article describes preschool orientation and mobility programs for blind and visually impaired preschool children and makes suggestions for improvements in existing practices. Current programs are outlined including the skill areas covered and materials used by mobility instructors. (PHR)

  5. Predicting future asthma morbidity in preschool inner-city children.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Nadia N; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Rusher, Robert; McCormack, Meredith C; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Peng, Roger D; Mazique, Derek; Breysse, Patrick N; Diette, Gregory B

    2011-10-01

    Children living in the inner city are particularly vulnerable to asthma. While we know much about factors that affect near-term outcomes in inner-city children, there is little evidence to guide clinicians on what to expect in the coming years, especially in preschool children. The purpose of our study was to determine which clinical and environmental factors are predictive of poor long-term asthma control in preschool inner-city children. Baseline characteristics determined to be potential predictors of asthma severity were examined: demographics, asthma symptoms, medication use, healthcare utilization, early life medical history, family history, allergen exposure and allergic disease, and pollutant exposure. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression to examine the association of predictors of asthma severity with healthcare utilization at 2 years. Of the 150 children at baseline, the follow-up rate was 83% at 2 years; therefore, 124 children were included in final analyses. At baseline, the mean age was 4.4 years and participants were predominantly African-American (90%). Most of the children were atopic and 32.5% reported using inhaled corticosteroids. Nighttime awakening from asthma and a history of pneumonia were predictive of future poor control. Preschool children with nighttime awakening from asthma and a history of pneumonia may deserve closer monitoring to prevent future asthma morbidity.

  6. Feasibility of measuring lung function in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Nystad, W; Samuelsen, S; Nafstad, P; Edvardsen, E; Stensrud, T; Jaakkola, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: There have been difficulties in applying spirometric tests to children of preschool age. Methods: The feasibility of measuring lung function was examined in 652 children aged 3–6 years using dynamic spirometry with an animation programme and the guidelines approved by the European Respiratory Society. Results: Data from 603 (92%) children with at least two acceptable forced expiratory manoeuvres were analysed; 408 (68%) achieved at least three acceptable manoeuvres. Children with only two acceptable manoeuvres were younger, shorter, and weighed less (p<0.001). The lower levels of lung function in this group were partly explained by body size. 63% of those with three acceptable manoeuvres had a difference of ≤5% between the highest and second highest forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1); when a difference of ≤10% was applied, 91% of the children were included. A similar trend was seen for forced vital capacity (FVC). The acceptability and reproducibility increased with increasing age, and levels of lung function increased linearly with age. The linear regression model showed that standing height was a satisfactory predictor of lung function; the explained fraction of variance (R2) was 59% for FEV1. Most FVC manoeuvres in children older than 3 years were acceptable and reproducible. Conclusions: Spirometric testing is feasible in preschool children and may be useful for both clinical practice and research. This study may fill the deficiency in reference values for European preschool children. PMID:12454295

  7. Physical Activity, Obesity Status, and Blood Pressure in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Vale, Susana; Trost, Stewart G; Rêgo, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Mota, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    To examine the combined effects of physical activity and weight status on blood pressure (BP) in preschool-aged children. The sample included 733 preschool-aged children (49% female). Physical activity was objectively assessed on 7 consecutive days by accelerometry. Children were categorized as sufficiently active if they met the recommendation of at least 60 minutes daily of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Body mass index was used to categorize children as nonoverweight or overweight/obese, according to the International Obesity Task Force benchmarks. BP was measured using an automated BP monitor and categorized as elevated or normal using BP percentile-based cut-points for age, sex, and height. The prevalence of elevated systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP was 7.7% and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obese was 32%, and about 15% of children did not accomplish the recommended 60 minutes of daily MVPA. After controlling for age and sex, overweight/obese children who did not meet the daily MVPA recommendation were 3 times more likely (OR 3.8; CI 1.6-8.6) to have elevated SBP than nonoverweight children who met the daily MVPA recommendation. Overweight or obese preschool-aged children with insufficient levels of MVPA are at significantly greater risk for elevated SBP than their nonoverweight and sufficiently active counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Separation: Supporting Children in Their Preschool Transitions. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Kathe; Polland, Barbara K.

    2007-01-01

    This book, updated since initial publication in 1989, offers explanations, practical tips, and encouragement for teachers and families of preschool children facing the excitement--and stress--of separation. Topics discussed include ambivalence about separation and attachment, the comfort of routines, understanding the child perspective, supporting…

  9. Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior in Japanese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…

  10. Canadian Families' Strategies for Employment and Care for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Michael; Stalker, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2006 Canadian Census "long form" sample of one in every five households, the authors develop a detailed typology of family strategies for employment and the care of preschool children. The analysis is restricted to opposite-sex couples with at least one child under age 6 and no older child or other adult in the household.…

  11. Speech Sound Disorders in a Community Study of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…

  12. Processes of Curiosity and Exploration in Preschool Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia

    This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…

  13. A Unique Program for Preschool Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.

    A pilot program was designed to address the special problems of children of substance abusers. The program was established at the Child Development and Family Guidance Center by Operation PAR, a nationally recognized substance abuse treatment and prevention program. The staff are well-trained preschool professionals who have received special…

  14. Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…

  15. Affiliative Structures and Social Competence in Portuguese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…

  16. Emergent Verbal Behavior in Preschool Children Learning a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Richard J.; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]).…

  17. Story Based Activities Enhance Literacy Skills in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazici, Elçin; Bolay, Hayrunnisa

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impact of story-based activities on literacy skills in pre-school children. The efficacy of story-based activities program were tested by literacy skills survey test. Results showed that, the scores of overall literacy skills and all subsets skills in the study group (n = 45) were statistically significantly higher than the…

  18. A Model Program for Diversely Handicapped Children (Pre-School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    Described is a model program for developing the educational readiness and self-help skills of severely handicapped kindergarten and preschool children with a wide range of physical, mental, neurological or sensory deficits. It is explained that the program should provide heterogeneous grouping, individualized instruction, door-to-door…

  19. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  20. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  1. Objective Measurement of Emerging Affective Traits in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.

    An objective measure of motivation to achieve for preschool children called Gumpgookies is described. It is an objective-projective technique that requires choice between two alternate types of behavior portrayed in pictures and accompanying verbal descriptions. Gumpgookies are amoeba-like creatures who behave in ways intended to show differences…

  2. Evidence-Based Family-School Interventions with Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Stacey L.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen studies of family-school interventions with preschool children conducted between 1980 and 2002, and published in peer-reviewed journals, were reviewed and evaluated according to the criteria developed by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Intervention in School Psychology (Division 16 and Society for the Study of School Psychology Task…

  3. Functional analysis and treatment of noncompliance by preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wilder, David A; Harris, Carelle; Reagan, Renee; Rasey, Amy

    2007-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that noncompliance occurred most often for 2 preschoolers when it resulted in termination of a preferred activity, suggesting that noncompliance was maintained by positive reinforcement. A differential reinforcement procedure, which involved contingent access to coupons that could be exchanged for uninterrupted access to the activity maintaining noncompliance, was successful in increasing compliance for both children.

  4. The Study of Drawing and Painting Abilities in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Rus, Andreea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is two-fold: first, to offer preschool children new learning situations in order to develop their drawing and painting abilities and second, to learn new techniques in a shorter period of time. The paper is grounded in the theory of creativity. Creativity is defined as the ability to propose something new, original and…

  5. Auditory Threshold Variability with Severely Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold variability across repeated measures (N=10) was observed at 250 and 1,000 Hz with five severely hearing-impaired preschool children. Results indicated that variability at 1,000 Hz was within a 10 dB range (except for one measure) across Ss, while variability at 250 Hz was substantially larger, even though false positive responses to…

  6. Preschool Impact on Children: Its Sustaining Effects into Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterlind, Steven J.

    1980-01-01

    Children in kindergarten grade were studied comparing pupils who had previously attended preschool with those who had not. Reading (or reading readiness) and mathematics achievement, academic potential, social and emotional maturity, conformity to successful pupil behaviors, and adjustment to academic and social setting in the classroom were…

  7. Speech Sound Disorders in a Community Study of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…

  8. Emergent Verbal Behavior in Preschool Children Learning a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Richard J.; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]).…

  9. Teachers' Definitions of Self-Esteem When Rating Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)

  10. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  11. Preschool Children Conflate Pragmatic Agreement and Semantic Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David R.; Astington, Janet Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to ascribe beliefs to themselves and others has been shown to develop in the late preschool and early school years. This ability to represent, that is to think about, beliefs known to be false is described as metarepresentational development. This article extends these findings to the domain of linguistic representations by…

  12. Auditory Threshold Variability with Severely Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    Threshold variability across repeated measures (N=10) was observed at 250 and 1,000 Hz with five severely hearing-impaired preschool children. Results indicated that variability at 1,000 Hz was within a 10 dB range (except for one measure) across Ss, while variability at 250 Hz was substantially larger, even though false positive responses to…

  13. Preschool Teachers' Beliefs about Children's Print Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Beliefs have often been considered important because of their relation to practice. Little is known about the literacy beliefs of preschool teachers, particularly their print literacy beliefs, even though young children's experiences with print have implications for formal schooling. Therefore, this study explored the print literacy beliefs of…

  14. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  15. Reflection-Impulsivity and Self-Control in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among children's performance on a simplified version of Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test of conceptual tempo, their IQ, their performance on several measures of self-regulatory behavior, and their general activity level. Subjects were 55 preschool boys and girls. (Author/JMB)

  16. Preschool Children Conflate Pragmatic Agreement and Semantic Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David R.; Astington, Janet Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Children's ability to ascribe beliefs to themselves and others has been shown to develop in the late preschool and early school years. This ability to represent, that is to think about, beliefs known to be false is described as metarepresentational development. This article extends these findings to the domain of linguistic representations by…

  17. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  18. Teachers' Definitions of Self-Esteem When Rating Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)

  19. Prevalence and Speech Production Characteristics of Ankyloglossia in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisenboum, Jean M.; And Others

    The study investigated the prevalence and associated problems of ankyloglossia, characterized by restricted movement of the tongue usually due to the adhesion of the tongue to the frenum, among a preschool Head Start population (N=1,440). Ss were screened for six primary characteristics of the condition and of the 78 children who exhibited the…

  20. Diet Management of PKU for Infants and Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Phyllis B.; Wenz, Elizabeth

    The report focuses on the diet management of infant and preschool children with phenylketonuria (PKU), a congenital deficiency resulting in brain damage. The effective methods for rapidly lowering serum phenylalanine levels following diagnosis are discussed, a method for prescribing and calculating the phenylalanine-restricted diet is described,…

  1. Am I Interfering? Preschool Teacher Participation in Children Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the timing and strategies of teacher participation in children's play and the factors which have a bearing on teacher participation. This study used qualitative research and conducted observation of natural situations. The samples were preschool teachers in an elementary school's affiliated kindergarten in Hualien. The…

  2. Promoting Physical Activity in Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Carol; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Jensen, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Child- and family-serving programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) design and conduct interventions to improve the health of their clients through better nutrition. But these programs present a significant opportunity to improve physical activity levels in the preschool population as well,…

  3. Temperament, Family Environment and Anxiety in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Helen F.; Bovopoulos, Nataly

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between behavioural inhibition (BI), family environment (overinvolved and negative parenting, parental anxiety and parent-child attachment) and anxiety in a sample of 202 preschool children. Participants were aged between 3 years 2 months and 4 years 5 months, 101 were male. A thorough methodology was used…

  4. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  5. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  6. Funding Preschool Programs for Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenberg, Dolly F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes funding and communication strategies at six, nonprofit, nonsectarian, tuition-free preschools for mentally retarded and developmentally delayed children. Details marketing strategies; the role of multiple markets; the targeting of potential funders among local citizens, foundations, and corporations; and the creation of honorary…

  7. Preschool Teachers' Beliefs about Children's Print Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Beliefs have often been considered important because of their relation to practice. Little is known about the literacy beliefs of preschool teachers, particularly their print literacy beliefs, even though young children's experiences with print have implications for formal schooling. Therefore, this study explored the print literacy beliefs of…

  8. Separation: Supporting Children in Their Preschool Transitions. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Kathe; Polland, Barbara K.

    2007-01-01

    This book, updated since initial publication in 1989, offers explanations, practical tips, and encouragement for teachers and families of preschool children facing the excitement--and stress--of separation. Topics discussed include ambivalence about separation and attachment, the comfort of routines, understanding the child perspective, supporting…

  9. Grief Counseling for Muslim Preschool and Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.

  10. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  11. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  12. Grief Counseling for Muslim Preschool and Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.

  13. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  14. Preschool Children. Tech Use Guide: Using Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.

    One of nine brief guides for special educators on using computer technology, this guide focuses on uses with preschool children with either mild to severe disabilities. Especially noted is the ability of the computer to provide access to environmental experiences otherwise inaccessible to the young handicapped child. Appropriate technology for…

  15. Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…

  16. Preschool Children's Memory for Repeated Changes in the Lunch Routine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krackow, Elisa

    An experiment examined the possibilities that: (1) repeated deviations in a routine event become fused into the general event representation (GER) for that event; and (2) when deviations go unreported, it is because they have been forgotten. Preschool children were interviewed to get their script reports before and after repeated deviations in the…

  17. Relational Aggression and Prosocial Behaviours in Australian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…

  18. Inhibitory Control and Emotion Regulation in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Stephanie M.; Wang, Tiffany S.

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control and emotion regulation. Preschool children (N=53) ages 4-6 (M=5; 0) were assessed on brief batteries of inhibitory control of prepotent responses and emotion regulation. Individual differences in inhibitory control were significantly correlated with…

  19. Prevalence and Speech Production Characteristics of Ankyloglossia in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisenboum, Jean M.; And Others

    The study investigated the prevalence and associated problems of ankyloglossia, characterized by restricted movement of the tongue usually due to the adhesion of the tongue to the frenum, among a preschool Head Start population (N=1,440). Ss were screened for six primary characteristics of the condition and of the 78 children who exhibited the…

  20. Affiliative Structures and Social Competence in Portuguese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…

  1. Activities for Developing Psycholinguistic Skills with Preschool Culturally Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Merle; And Others

    Intended as a guide, not as a curriculum, the manual presents activities designed to improve communication and information processing skills in culturally disadvantaged preschool children, as well as to ameliorate deficits. Generally following the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, except for a section on visual closure derived from…

  2. Mainstreaming Preschoolers: Children with Visual Handicaps. Edited Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contract Research Corp., Belmont, MA.

    Written for parents, teachers and preschool personnel involved with visually handicapped children, the book provides an overview of mainstreaming procedures and implications. The first chapter provides a definition of mainstreaming and considers benefits' professional involvement, and resources available for parents and teachers. Diagnostic…

  3. Canadian Families' Strategies for Employment and Care for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Michael; Stalker, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2006 Canadian Census "long form" sample of one in every five households, the authors develop a detailed typology of family strategies for employment and the care of preschool children. The analysis is restricted to opposite-sex couples with at least one child under age 6 and no older child or other adult in the household.…

  4. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  5. Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior in Japanese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…

  6. Children's Participation in Slovene Preschools: The Teachers' Viewpoints and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorec, Marcela Batistic

    2015-01-01

    This article presents part of the research performed in a project from 2008 to 2013, regarding the introduction of the Reggio Emilia approach to Slovene preschool educators. The study's aim was to recognize the possible influence of the training--from 2009 to 2011--in this project on educators' viewpoints and the promotion of children's…

  7. A Unique Program for Preschool Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Kate; Howze, Wendell M.

    A pilot program was designed to address the special problems of children of substance abusers. The program was established at the Child Development and Family Guidance Center by Operation PAR, a nationally recognized substance abuse treatment and prevention program. The staff are well-trained preschool professionals who have received special…

  8. Rhythmic Characteristics of Improvisational Drumming among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    A call-and-response drumming activity was carried out to determine the rhythmic characteristics of improvised patterns created by preschool children. Specific goals of the study were to: (1) determine the durations, start and stop times, and rhythmic patterns of improvised responses to a simple given call using drums; (2) determine the presence or…

  9. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  10. The Pedagogical Support for Preschool Children with Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…

  11. Implementing a Musical Program to Promote Preschool Children's Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyeda, Iris Xóchitl Galicia; Gómez, Ixtlixóchitl Contreras; Flores, María Teresa Peña

    2006-01-01

    In light of the correlation between musical and linguistic skills, a program of musical activities was designed to promote discrimination of rhythmic and melodic elements and the association of auditory stimuli with visual stimuli and motor activities. The effects of the program on the vocabulary of preschool children were evaluated and compared…

  12. Preschool Children's Ability to Coordinate Spatial Perspectives Through Linguistic Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, William

    Preschoolers' ability to utilize language in spatial problem solving was tested with 64 predominately middle-class children. The number of correct responses was analyzed using an age/sex/medium analysis of variance. It was found that the verbal response mode leads to substantially more correct responses than do pictures and that girls performed…

  13. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  14. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  15. Promoting Physical Activity in Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Carol; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Jensen, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Child- and family-serving programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) design and conduct interventions to improve the health of their clients through better nutrition. But these programs present a significant opportunity to improve physical activity levels in the preschool population as well,…

  16. The relations among young children's peer-reported trustworthiness, inhibitory control, and preschool adjustment.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Ken J; Michalik, Nicole; Eisenberg, Nancy; Betts, Lucy R

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five (38 male and 27 female) preschool children (mean age = 5 years 1 month) completed measures of peers' trustworthiness (promise keeping and secret keeping). Teachers rated the preschool children's inhibitory control, trustworthiness, and preschool adjustment. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) yielded support for the hypothesized model. The expected positive paths were found from (1) gender to preschool adjustment and inhibitory control, (2) age to peer-reported trustworthiness, (3) peer-reported trustworthiness to preschool adjustment, (4) inhibitory control to peer-reported trustworthiness, and (5) inhibitory control to preschool adjustment. The findings confirmed the hypothesized development of trustworthiness with age and girls' advantage over boys in inhibitory control and preschool adjustment. The findings supported the hypotheses that trustworthiness is associated with preschool adjustment and mediates, in part, the relation between inhibitory control and preschool adjustment.

  17. The relations among young children's peer-reported trustworthiness, inhibitory control, and preschool adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Michalik, Nicole; Eisenberg, Nancy; Betts, Lucy R.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five (38 male and 27 female) preschool children (mean age = 5 years 1 month) completed measures of peers' trustworthiness (promise keeping and secret keeping). Teachers rated the preschool children's inhibitory control, trustworthiness, and preschool adjustment. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) yielded support for the hypothesized model. The expected positive paths were found from (1) gender to preschool adjustment and inhibitory control, (2) age to peer-reported trustworthiness, (3) peer-reported trustworthiness to preschool adjustment, (4) inhibitory control to peer-reported trustworthiness, and (5) inhibitory control to preschool adjustment. The findings confirmed the hypothesized development of trustworthiness with age and girls' advantage over boys in inhibitory control and preschool adjustment. The findings supported the hypotheses that trustworthiness is associated with preschool adjustment and mediates, in part, the relation between inhibitory control and preschool adjustment. PMID:18846246

  18. Update on leukotriene receptor antagonists in preschool children wheezing disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in young children. About 40% of all preschool children regularly wheeze during common cold infections. The heterogeneity of wheezing phenotypes early in life and various anatomical and emotional factors unique to young children present significant challenges in the clinical management of this problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy, mainly consisting of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), is the cornerstone of asthma management. Since Leukotrienes (LTs) are chemical mediators of airway inflammation in asthma, the leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are traditionally used as potent anti-inflammatory drugs in the long-term treatment of asthma in adults, adolescents, and school-age children. In particular, montelukast decreases airway inflammation, and has also a bronchoprotective effect. The main guidelines on asthma management have confirmed the clinical utility of LTRAs in children older than five years. In the present review we describe the most recent advances on the use of LTRAs in the treatment of preschool wheezing disorders. LTRAs are effective in young children with virus-induced wheeze and with multiple-trigger disease. Conflicting data do not allow to reach definitive conclusions on LTRAs efficacy in bronchiolitis or post-bronchiolitis wheeze, and in acute asthma. The excellent safety profile of montelukast and the possibility of oral administration, that entails better compliance from young children, represent the main strengths of its use in preschool children. Montelukast is a valid alternative to ICS especially in poorly compliant preschool children, or in subjects who show adverse effects related to long-term steroid therapy. PMID:22734451

  19. Applying a Socioecological Model to Understand Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Parents and Preschool Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…

  20. Applying a Socioecological Model to Understand Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviors from the Viewpoints of Parents and Preschool Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…

  1. Sleep-wake schedules in preschool children who snore.

    PubMed

    Wasilewska, J; Kaczmarski, M; Citko, D; Kowalczuk-Krystoń, M; Protas, P T; Semeniuk, J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare sleep-wake schedules between snoring and nonsnoring preschool age children. Daytime and nighttime sleep duration, daytime and nighttime symptoms were assessed in 34 children at preschool age who snore (5.38+/-1.21 years) and in 66 age- and sex-matched nonsnorers (5.67+/-1.12 years). The snoring group consisted of children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) scores <+3.5 and >-1, the nonsnoring group with OSA score <-1. Children who snore differ from the nonsnorers in daytime sleep duration (51.62+/-28.9 minutes vs. 10.70+/-20.2 minutes; p<0.001), but not in nighttime sleep (10.97+/-0.52 hours vs. 9.83+/-1.34 hours; p>0.05). The percentage of children with daytime napping was higher in the snoring group than in the nonsnorers (47.1% vs. 9.1%; p<0.00004), and parents-reported behavioral problems were more frequent in children who snore (41.2% vs. 19.7%; p<0.02). Multivariate odds ratios, including variables for nighttime (sleep apnea) and daytime symptoms (daytime napping and oral breathing), showed that regular sleep during the day was the most predictive of snoring (OR=6.1; 95%CI 1.76-21.04; p<0.005). In preschool age children, when the daytime nap begins to disappear, snoring may have an effect on daytime schedule through an increased need for daytime sleep.

  2. Nutritional status of preschool children in Togo, 1976-77*

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, H. C.; Ayeboua, A.; Brink, E. W.; Agle, A. N.; Staehling, N. W.; Lane, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Survey teams visited 163 rural villages and 41 urban quarters in Togo and collected data on weight, height, arm circumference, age, and pedal oedema from 6120 children aged 6-72 months. Haemoglobin levels were determined for one-fifth of the survey children. When 80% of the reference median weight-for-height was used as the cut-off point, the prevalence of acute undernutrition was 2.0%. When 90% of the reference median height-for-age was used as the cut-off point, the prevalence of chronic undernutrition was 19.1%. The prevalence of both types of undernutrition was significantly higher in the northern rural regions, with the lowest prevalence in the urban areas. The prevalence of anaemia was 58.6%, with the highest prevalence in the northern regions. Anthropometric data on socioeconomically privileged preschool children were collected and compared with those for the survey children and the reference population. The socioeconomically privileged preschool group of Togolese children had a nutritional status substantially better than that of the survey children and nearly equivalent to that of the American reference population. The survey method was economical in terms of money, time, and personnel. The methodology employed rapidly provided objective data on the extent and distribution of protein-energy undernutrition and anaemia in the preschool children of Togo. PMID:6971186

  3. Managing unwanted behaviour in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Theresa

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a behaviour group, set up as a pilot project to empower parents and to promote their self-confidence in managing pre-school children's undesirable behaviour. Led by community nursery nurses (CNNs), the programme has already worked with six groups, each of six parents or carers and their children. Families are guided through coping strategies and learn management skills in changing undesirable behaviour problems in their pre-school children. Children between the ages of two to five years have been referred along with their parents to the group. Types of behaviours referred include: sleep problems, feeding/eating difficulties, sibling rivalry, temper tantrums, defiant anti-social behaviour and toilet/potty training. All these behaviours are prevalent among pre-school children, but are sometimes difficult for parents to manage. The evaluation of this pilot programme was based on pre-post-programme questionnaires and direct observation of parent-child interaction. Success of the behaviour group has indicated the need for such early preventative work to continue with parents and children. The children's services team, which includes health visitors and school health advisors, refers targeted families for immediate intervention, without families being on a long waiting list. Parents and carers who have difficulties coping with their child's undesirable behaviour can now access a service in their local clinic. Feedback from parents has been positive. Such a group is also beneficial in reducing the problem of less severe behavioural difficulties being referred to hard pressed and understaffed CAMHS teams.

  4. Identifying preschool children at risk of later reading difficulties: evaluation of two emergent literacy screening tools.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shauna B; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Emergent literacy skills are predictive of children's early reading success, and literacy achievement in early schooling declines more rapidly for children who are below-average readers. It is therefore important for teachers to identify accurately children at risk for later reading difficulty so children can be exposed to effective emergent literacy interventions. In this study, 176 preschoolers were administered two screening tools, the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R) and the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs), and a diagnostic measure at two time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that, at optimal cut scores, GRTR-R provided more accurate classification of children's overall emergent literacy skills than did IGDIs. However, neither measure was particularly good at classifying specific emergent literacy skills.

  5. Effect of Prosocial Cartoons on Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forge, Karen L. S.; Phemister, Sherri

    If live-model prosocial programs such as "Sesame Street" and "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood" can facilitate favorable behavior in preschoolers, as was shown by Rushton (1982), then it seems reasonable to suggest that cartoons might have a similar positive impact. This study sought to determine whether viewing a prosocial cartoon would be as…

  6. Effect of Prosocial Cartoons on Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forge, Karen L. S.; Phemister, Sherri

    If live-model prosocial programs such as "Sesame Street" and "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood" can facilitate favorable behavior in preschoolers, as was shown by Rushton (1982), then it seems reasonable to suggest that cartoons might have a similar positive impact. This study sought to determine whether viewing a prosocial cartoon would be as…

  7. Children's Delay of Gratification and Preschool Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool…

  8. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Barbara A; Russo, Theresa J; Burdick, Patrick A; Jenkins, Paul L

    2004-02-01

    Television viewing has been associated with increased violence in play and higher rates of obesity. Although there are interventions to reduce television viewing by school-aged children, there are none for younger children. To develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Randomized controlled trial conducted in 16 preschool and/or day care centers in rural upstate New York. Children aged 2.6 through 5.5 years. Children attending intervention centers received a 7-session program designed to reduce television viewing as part of a health promotion curriculum, whereas children attending the control centers received a safety and injury prevention program. Change in parent-reported child television/video viewing and measured growth variables. Before the intervention, the intervention and control groups viewed 11.9 and 14.0 h/wk of television/videos, respectively. Afterward, children in the intervention group decreased their television/video viewing 3.1 h/wk, whereas children in the control group increased their viewing by 1.6 h/wk, for an adjusted difference between the groups of -4.7 h/wk (95% confidence interval, -8.4 to -1.0 h/wk; P =.02). The percentage of children watching television/videos more than 2 h/d also decreased significantly from 33% to 18% among the intervention group, compared with an increase of 41% to 47% among the control group, for a difference of -21.5% (95% confidence interval, -42.5% to -0.5%; P =.046). There were no statistically significant differences in children's growth between groups. This study is the first to show that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects associated with reductions in young children's television viewing.

  9. Association between dental caries and obesity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Yen, C E; Hu, S W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity in preschool children. A total of 329 preschool children were recruited from nine day care centers. A qualified dentist examined the oral health of each child and a caries score was recorded. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, and body fat. Body mass index, and weight-for-height index were calculated. Parents or guardians answered a questionnaire regarding their children's dietary patterns, oral hygiene habits, and medical history, as well as parental practices and attitudes towards their children's oral health. The prevalence of dental caries was 73% in this study. Fourteen percent of the children were overweight or obese. The caries scores were not significantly different according to weight-for-height index categories. After taking into account important factors in the multiple regression models, body mass index and weight-for-height index, respectively, were not significantly associated with dental caries. This study showed that obesity was not significantly associated with dental caries in preschool children.

  10. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  11. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  12. Implicit knowledge of grammatical gender in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Belacchi, Carmen; Cubelli, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed at investigating the role of nominal gender in animal categorization in preschoolers. Given the regularities characterizing gender system, at both syntactical and morphological level, Italian language is suitable to address this issue. In three experiments, participants were asked to classify pictures of animals as male or female. Half stimuli had names of feminine gender and half of masculine gender. In Experiment 1, Italian speaking adults and preschoolers classified animals according to the nominal gender. This effect was not found with English speaking participants (Experiment 2) but confirmed with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old Italian-speaking children (Experiment 3). These results showed an implicit knowledge of grammatical gender in preschoolers, suggesting that semantic processing may be modulated by linguistic information.

  13. Perceptual Anchoring in Preschool Children: Not Adultlike, but There

    PubMed Central

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. Methodology/Principal Findings Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference), a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference), no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. Conclusions/Significance The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a true deficit rather

  14. Perceptual anchoring in preschool children: not adultlike, but there.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference), a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference), no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a true deficit rather than a developmental delay.

  15. Preschool oscillometry and lung function at adolescence in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Knihtilä, Hanna; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Mäkelä, Mika J; Bondestam, Jonas; Pelkonen, Anna S; Malmberg, L Pekka

    2015-12-01

    Reduced lung function in early childhood is associated with persistent symptoms and low lung function later in life. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is feasible for assessing lung function also in preschool children, and some of the parameters, such as respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (Rrs5) and the frequency dependence of resistance (dRrs/df), have been suggested to reflect small airway dysfunction. Whether changes in preschool IOS predict later lung function remains unknown. The medical data of 154 asthmatic children with IOS performed at 2-7 years and spirometry at 12-18 years were analyzed. IOS and post-bronchodilator spirometry parameters were compared, and the association was estimated in a multivariate model. Measured at preschool age, particularly Rrs5 and dRrs/df were significantly correlated with post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) at adolescence (Rrs5: r = -0.223, P = 0.005; dRrs/df: r = 0.234, P = 0.004). Although the number of children with decreased FEV1 was low, associations of increased Rrs5 (odds ratio (OR) 5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7; 20.9) and decreased dRrs/df (OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.7; 39.6) with decreased FEV1 remained significant in multivariate analyses. Similar findings were observed also with other spirometric parameters. In asthmatic children, preschool IOS is associated with spirometric lung function at adolescence, but the scatter is wide. Normal preschool IOS seems to indicate favourable lung function outcome, whereas in some individuals IOS could potentially be of clinical use, at a younger age than spirometry, to screen lung function deficits and increased risk for later lung function impairment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Targeting Preschool Children to Promote Cardiovascular Health: Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Woodward, Mark; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND School programs can be effective in modifying knowledge, attitudes, and habits relevant to long-term risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles. As part of a long-term research strategy, we conducted an educational intervention in preschool facilities to assess changes in preschoolers’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits toward healthy eating and living an active lifestyle. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 14 preschool facilities in Bogotá, Colombia to a 5-month educational and playful intervention (7 preschool facilities) or to usual curriculum (7 preschool facilities). A total of 1216 children aged 3–5 years, 928 parents, and 120 teachers participated. A structured survey was used at baseline, at the end of the study, and 12 months later to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS Children in the intervention group showed a 10.9% increase in weighted score, compared with 5.3% in controls. The absolute adjusted difference was 3.90 units (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–6.16; P <.001). Among parents, the equivalent statistics were 8.9% and 3.1%, respectively (absolute difference 4.08 units; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.12; P <.001), and among teachers, 9.4% and 2.5%, respectively (absolute difference 5.36 units; 95% CI, −0.29–11.01; P = .06). In the intervened cohort 1 year after the intervention, children still showed a significant increase in weighted score (absolute difference of 6.38 units; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A preschool-based intervention aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to healthy diet and active lifestyle is feasible, efficacious, and sustainable in very young children. PMID:23062403

  17. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; de Oliveira, Arli Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. Methods: 370 preschoolers, aged 4–6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6–90.9%), followed by light (4.6–7.6%), moderate (1.3–3.0%) and vigorous (0.5–2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.05–0.83) and the playground (OR 0.08, 95%CI 0.00–0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.00–0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77), the playground (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.14–6.96) and the recess (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.35–1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. Conclusions: The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. PMID:26975560

  18. Use of dietary supplements among preschool children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Yamagishi, Azumi; Hashimoto, Yoko; Virgona, Nantiga; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Umegaki, Keizo

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the characteristics and use of dietary supplements by preschool children in Japan. A survey was conducted among 2,125 parents of preschool children to discover the status of dietary supplement use and their attitudes towards supplement use by their children. Logistic regression models were used to determine which characteristics predict supplement use in this population. For detailed characterization, child supplement users were also categorized as either the users of vitamins and minerals only or the users of other supplement components. For parents of non-user children, the parent's knowledge and attitudes toward supplements for children were investigated. Fifteen percent of children had used dietary supplements. Two parent-related factors were especially important, the frequency with which they referred to nutritional labels and their own supplement use, which had a significant encouraging effect on their children's supplement use. The parents of child supplement users showed limited awareness of the government system concerning diet and food, placed safety over efficacy, selected products with natural ingredients, and did not seek consultations with professionals. These parents, especially those who were aware of the specially designed supplements for children, exhibited positive responses to supplement use by their children. It is likely that parents' knowledge and attitudes toward dietary supplements and nutrition have a striking effect on their children's use of supplements. Unfortunately, their knowledge at present was less than satisfactory. More accurate information on nutrition, dietary intake and dietary supplements must be disseminated.

  19. African American preschool children's physical activity levels in Head Start.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K L C

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3 accelerometers. Results revealed that the children spent the most time in sedentary and light physical activity, while their participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities was low. Given the sedentary class format and limited physical space for the Head Start programs observed, we suggest adding a structured physical activity component to Head Start schools to fight the overweight and obesity crisis.

  20. Preschool children's Collaborative Science Learning Scaffolded by Tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridberg, Marie; Thulin, Susanne; Redfors, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on a project aiming to extend the current understanding of how emerging technologies, i.e. tablets, can be used in preschools to support collaborative learning of real-life science phenomena. The potential of tablets to support collaborative inquiry-based science learning and reflective thinking in preschool is investigated through the analysis of teacher-led activities on science, including children making timelapse photography and Slowmation movies. A qualitative analysis of verbal communication during different learning contexts gives rise to a number of categories that distinguish and identify different themes of the discussion. In this study, groups of children work with phase changes of water. We report enhanced and focused reasoning about this science phenomenon in situations where timelapse movies are used to stimulate recall. Furthermore, we show that children communicate in a more advanced manner about the phenomenon, and they focus more readily on problem solving when active in experimentation or Slowmation producing contexts.

  1. [Food insecurity and nutritional status of preschool children in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the relation between malnutrition and food insecurity (FI) in preschool children from Mexico. Information of 10 513 preschool children and their families was analyzed. The FI was measured through the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). Adjusted prevalence of FI and malnutrition with related variables were assessed by logistic regression. 31% of households had moderate and server FI. Rural and south, indigenous households, in the Q1 and Q2, showed the highest prevalence of moderate and severe FI as well. We observed a high tendency of malnutrition in the severe FI group; the prevalence of overweight was similar in the four groups of FI. Conclusions. The risk of chronic malnutrition is 42% bigger in children less than five years old with severe FI than in those that experienced food security.

  2. ADHD Symptoms in Preschool Children: Examining Psychometric Properties using IRT

    PubMed Central

    Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Clear and empirically supported diagnostic symptoms are important for proper diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Unfortunately, symptoms of many disorders presented in the DSM-IV-TR lack sufficient psychometric evaluation. In this study, an Item Response Theory analysis was applied to ratings of the 18 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in 268 preschool children. Children (55% boys) in this sample ranged in age from 37 to 74 months; 80.4% were identified as African American, 15.1% Caucasian, and 4.5% other ethnicity. Dichotomous and polytomous scoring methods for rating ADHD symptoms were compared and psychometric properties of these symptoms were calculated. Symptom-level analyses revealed that, in general, the current symptoms provided useful information in diagnosing ADHD in preschool children; however, several symptoms provided redundant information and should be examined further. PMID:20822267

  3. Perception of Childhood Obesity in Mothers of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Ok; Kim, Gyo Nam; Park, Euna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of childhood obesity in mothers of preschool children using Q methodology. Methods A total of 38 Q statements about childhood obesity were obtained from 41 participants. The QUANL PC program was used to analyze the results. Results There were three types of perception toward obesity in mothers of preschool children: the “authoritative discipline type,” the “generous home meal focused type,” and the “home meal based on household financial situation type.” Conclusion The perception of mothers toward childhood obesity can affect the extent of maternal interaction with children or meal preparation for the family. Based on these results, it is necessary to plan specific programs according to the types of maternal perception toward childhood obesity. PMID:25938022

  4. [Fluoride urinary excretion in Mexico City's preschool children].

    PubMed

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Murrieta-Pruneda, Francisco; López-Jiménez, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of urinary fluoride excretion during dental developing stage has been reported for different countries with community fluoride programs. Also, one of the factors that could influence on retention and excretion of fluoride is the deficient nutrition so the aim of this study was to determine fluoride urinary excretion by a group of preschool children with and without malnutrition. Urinary samples from 24 hours were collected from 60 preschool children selected by convenience from Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, 30 with malnutrition and 30 with standard nutritrional status by weight for age. The samples were analyzed by fluoride especific electrode. Orion 720A. The average concentration of fluoride in urine from preschool children with and without malnutrition were 0.89 +/- 0.4 mg/L and 0.80 +/- 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The mean of 24 hours total fluoride excreted were 367 +/- 150 microg/24 hrs. in malnutrition children and 355 +/- 169 microg/24 hrs. for those with standard nutritional status. There were no differences statistically significant between groups. The urinary fluoride excretion for children with and without malnutrition were in the optimal range of fluoridation for the prevention of caries decay. Malnutrition was no associated with changes on fluoride orine concentration and excretion rates.

  5. [Effect of parents' occupational and life environment exposure during six months before pregnancy on executive function of preschool children].

    PubMed

    Ni, Lingling; Shao, Ting; Tao, Huihui; Sun, Yanli; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effect of parents' occupational and life exposure during six months before pregnancy on executive function of preschool children. Pregnant women involved in the study came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study,a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study. Between October 2008 and October 2010, pregnant women who accepted pregnancy care in four municipal medical and health institutions in Ma'anshan city were recruited as study objects. A total of 5,084 pregnant women and 4,669 singleton live births entered in this cohort. Between April 2014 and April 2015, a total of 3,803 pre-school children were followed up. Finally, except 32 preschool children did not have EF evaluation result, there were 3,771 children included in this study. By using self-designed " Maternal health handbook", we researched parents' general demographic characteristics, and life and occupational exposure during six months before pregnancy. To research preschool children's executive function, we used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Univariate and multivariate statistical method was used to analyze the association of parents' life and occupational exposure during six months before pregnancy and preschool children's EF. 3,771 preschool children's detected rate of inhibitory self-control index (ISCI), flexibility index (FI), emergent metacognition index (EMI) and global executive composite (GEC) dysplasia were 4.8% (182), 2.3% (88), 16.5% (623) and 8.6% (324) respectively. During six months before pregnancy, children whose parents were lived in a noise environment (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.36-2.54), whose maternal were exposed to pesticides were the risk of ISCI dysplasia(OR=3.60, 95% CI: 1.45-8.95). During six months before pregnancy, children whose maternal were exposed to pesticides (OR=6.72, 95% CI: 2.50-18.07) and whose father were exposed to occupational lead (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.25-3.54) were the risk of FI dysplasia. During six months

  6. Effects of a Preschool Staff Intervention on Children's Sun Protection: Outcomes of Sun Protection Is Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Tripp, Mary K.; James, Aimee S.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Mueller, Nancy H.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Parcel, Guy S.

    2007-01-01

    The preschool is an important yet understudied setting for sun-protection interventions. This study evaluates the effects of Sun Protection is Fun! (SPF) on preschool staff behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to protecting children from sun exposure. Twenty preschools participated in a 2-year, group-randomized trial to evaluate SPF, a…

  7. The Development of Preschool Children's Musical Abilities through Specific Types of Musical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolic, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the conducted research was to explore how much preschool teachers value certain types of musical activities, which positively influence the development of preschool children's musical abilities. The assumption in the research was that preschool teachers would choose musical games as the most prominent activity type in their educational…

  8. Effects of a Preschool Staff Intervention on Children's Sun Protection: Outcomes of Sun Protection Is Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Tripp, Mary K.; James, Aimee S.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Mueller, Nancy H.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Parcel, Guy S.

    2007-01-01

    The preschool is an important yet understudied setting for sun-protection interventions. This study evaluates the effects of Sun Protection is Fun! (SPF) on preschool staff behavioral and psychosocial outcomes related to protecting children from sun exposure. Twenty preschools participated in a 2-year, group-randomized trial to evaluate SPF, a…

  9. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...

  10. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...

  11. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...

  12. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...

  13. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted...

  14. Factors influencing exposure to secondhand smoke in preschool children living with smoking mothers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lynsey M; Semple, Sean E; Wilson, Inga S; MacCalman, Laura; Amos, Amanda; Ritchie, Deborah; O'Donnell, Rachel; Shaw, April; Turner, Stephen W

    2012-12-01

    The health effects on young children of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are well described. Recent work suggests that over one quarter of school-aged children in Scotland are regularly exposed to SHS in the home. The study was designed to describe SHS exposure in preschool children whose mothers smoked and identify factors that influence exposure. Smoking mothers with at least one child aged 1-5 years were recruited to the Reducing Families' Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in the Home study. Concentrations of airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in size (PM(2.5)) in the home were measured together with child's salivary cotinine. Demographics including age, accommodation type, socioeconomic status, and number of cigarettes smoked at home were recorded. Data were collected from 54 homes. In 89% of the homes, concentrations of PM(2.5) exceeded health-based guidance values at some point of the day. Household PM(2.5) concentrations were highest during the evening hours of 6 p.m. to midnight. Younger children had higher salivary cotinine concentrations than older children, and the geometric mean of salivary cotinine was 2.36 ng/ml. Household smoking restrictions and maternal confidence in enforcing smoking restrictions in their own home were strongly associated with child's SHS exposure. Preschool children's exposure to SHS in homes where the mother smokes is considerable. Interventions and policy development to increase parental awareness of the health effects of SHS and provide parents with the confidence to implement smoke-free households are required to reduce the SHS exposure of preschool age children.

  15. Stereoacuity of preschool children with and without vision disorders.

    PubMed

    Ciner, Elise B; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Maguire, Maureen G; Quinn, Graham E; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Cyert, Lynn A; Moore, Bruce; Huang, Jiayan

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate associations between stereoacuity and presence, type, and severity of vision disorders in Head Start preschool children and determine testability and levels of stereoacuity by age in children without vision disorders. Stereoacuity of children aged 3 to 5 years (n = 2898) participating in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study was evaluated using the Stereo Smile II test during a comprehensive vision examination. This test uses a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with four stereoacuity levels (480 to 60 seconds of arc). Children were classified by the presence (n = 871) or absence (n = 2027) of VIP Study-targeted vision disorders (amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, or unexplained reduced visual acuity), including type and severity. Median stereoacuity between groups and among severity levels of vision disorders was compared using Wilcoxon rank sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Testability and stereoacuity levels were determined for children without VIP Study-targeted disorders overall and by age. Children with VIP Study-targeted vision disorders had significantly worse median stereoacuity than that of children without vision disorders (120 vs. 60 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Children with the most severe vision disorders had worse stereoacuity than that of children with milder disorders (median 480 vs. 120 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Among children without vision disorders, testability was 99.6% overall, increasing with age to 100% for 5-year-olds (p = 0.002). Most of the children without vision disorders (88%) had stereoacuity at the two best disparities (60 or 120 seconds of arc); the percentage increasing with age (82% for 3-, 89% for 4-, and 92% for 5-year-olds; p < 0.001). The presence of any VIP Study-targeted vision disorder was associated with significantly worse stereoacuity in preschool children. Severe vision disorders were more likely associated with poorer stereopsis than milder or no vision disorders. Testability was

  16. Stereoacuity of Preschool Children with and without Vision Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ciner, Elise B.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Maguire, Maureen G.; Quinn, Graham E.; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Cyert, Lynn A.; Moore, Bruce; Huang, Jiayan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate associations between stereoacuity and presence, type, and severity of vision disorders in Head Start preschool children and determine testability and levels of stereoacuity by age in children without vision disorders. Methods Stereoacuity of children aged 3 to 5 years (n = 2898) participating in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study was evaluated using the Stereo Smile II test during a comprehensive vision examination. This test uses a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with four stereoacuity levels (480 to 60 seconds of arc). Children were classified by the presence (n = 871) or absence (n = 2027) of VIP Study–targeted vision disorders (amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, or unexplained reduced visual acuity), including type and severity. Median stereoacuity between groups and among severity levels of vision disorders was compared using Wilcoxon rank sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Testability and stereoacuity levels were determined for children without VIP Study–targeted disorders overall and by age. Results Children with VIP Study–targeted vision disorders had significantly worse median stereoacuity than that of children without vision disorders (120 vs. 60 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Children with the most severe vision disorders had worse stereoacuity than that of children with milder disorders (median 480 vs. 120 seconds of arc, p < 0.001). Among children without vision disorders, testability was 99.6% overall, increasing with age to 100% for 5-year-olds (p = 0.002). Most of the children without vision disorders (88%) had stereoacuity at the two best disparities (60 or 120 seconds of arc); the percentage increasing with age (82% for 3-, 89% for 4-, and 92% for 5-year-olds; p < 0.001). Conclusions The presence of any VIP Study–targeted vision disorder was associated with significantly worse stereoacuity in preschool children. Severe vision disorders were more likely associated with poorer stereopsis than milder

  17. Disfluency Data of German Preschool Children Who Stutter and Comparison Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natke, Ulrich; Sandrieser, Patricia; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Kalveram, Karl Theodor

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the disfluencies of German-speaking preschool children who stutter (CWS, N=24) with those produced by age- and sex-matched comparison children who do not stutter (CWNS, N=24). In accordance with Yairi and Ambrose's [Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. (1992). A longitudinal study of stuttering in children: A preliminary report.…

  18. Clinimetric Properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Shen, I-hsuan; Liu, I-Shu; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty-two children with CP (age range, two to five years and 11 months) and their caregivers participated in this study. The APCP consists of diversity and intensity…

  19. Clinimetric Properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Shen, I-hsuan; Liu, I-Shu; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the criterion-related validity and clinimetric properties of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Eighty-two children with CP (age range, two to five years and 11 months) and their caregivers participated in this study. The APCP consists of diversity and intensity…

  20. Astigmatism and early academic readiness in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Orlansky, Gale; Wilmer, Jeremy; Taub, Marc B; Rutner, Daniella; Ciner, Elise; Gryczynski, Jan

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between uncorrected astigmatism and early academic readiness in at-risk preschool-aged children. A vision screening and academic records review were performed on 122 three- to five-year-old children enrolled in the Philadelphia Head Start program. Vision screening results were related to two measures of early academic readiness, the teacher-reported Work Sampling System (WSS) and the parent-reported Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Both measures assess multiple developmental and skill domains thought to be related to academic readiness. Children with astigmatism (defined as >|-0.25| in either eye) were compared with children who had no astigmatism. Associations between astigmatism and specific subscales of the WSS and ASQ were examined using parametric and nonparametric bivariate statistics and regression analyses controlling for age and spherical refractive error. Presence of astigmatism was negatively associated with multiple domains of academic readiness. Children with astigmatism had significantly lower mean scores on Personal and Social Development, Language and Literacy, and Physical Development domains of the WSS, and on Personal/Social, Communication, and Fine Motor domains of the ASQ. These differences between children with astigmatism and children with no astigmatism persisted after statistically adjusting for age and magnitude of spherical refractive error. Nonparametric tests corroborated these findings for the Language and Literacy and Physical Health and Development domains of the WSS and the Communication domain of the ASQ. The presence of astigmatism detected in a screening setting was associated with a pattern of reduced academic readiness in multiple developmental and educational domains among at-risk preschool-aged children. This study may help to establish the role of early vision screenings, comprehensive vision examinations, and the need for refractive correction to improve academic success in

  1. Social information processing in preschool children: Relations to sociodemographic risk and problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in preschool are related to both sociodemographic risk and behavior problems in preschool. Response evaluation and in particular the positive evaluation of an aggressive response were related to both sociodemographic risk and children's aggressive behavior and partially mediated the links between sociodemographic risk and aggressive behavior in preschool.

  2. Autism, processing speed, and adaptive functioning in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Holm, Anette; Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6-6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls) with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n = 77) or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III) (n = 113). Cognitive data were related to adaptive functioning as measured by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Cognitive profiles were characterized by low verbal skills. Low processing speed quotients (PSQs) were found in 66 (78%) of the 85 children who were able to participate in the processing speed subtests. Except for Socialization, all VABS domains (Communication, Motor Skills, Daily Living Skills, and Adaptive Behavior Composite scores) correlated significantly with PSQ. Multiple regression analysis showed that PSQ predicted 38%, 35%, 34%, and 37% of the variance for Communication, Daily Living Skills, Motor Skills, and total Adaptive Composite scores, respectively. Preschool children with ASD had uneven cognitive profiles with low verbal skills, and, relatively, even lower PSQs. Except for Socialization, adaptive functioning was predicted to a considerable degree by PSQ.

  3. Autism, Processing Speed, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Holm, Anette; Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study cognitive test profiles with a focus on processing speed in a representative group of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and relate processing speed to adaptive functioning. Methods. Cognitive assessments were performed in 190 3.6–6.6-year-old children (164 boys and 26 girls) with ASD, using either Griffiths' developmental scales (n = 77) or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III) (n = 113). Cognitive data were related to adaptive functioning as measured by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Results. Cognitive profiles were characterized by low verbal skills. Low processing speed quotients (PSQs) were found in 66 (78%) of the 85 children who were able to participate in the processing speed subtests. Except for Socialization, all VABS domains (Communication, Motor Skills, Daily Living Skills, and Adaptive Behavior Composite scores) correlated significantly with PSQ. Multiple regression analysis showed that PSQ predicted 38%, 35%, 34%, and 37% of the variance for Communication, Daily Living Skills, Motor Skills, and total Adaptive Composite scores, respectively. Conclusion. Preschool children with ASD had uneven cognitive profiles with low verbal skills, and, relatively, even lower PSQs. Except for Socialization, adaptive functioning was predicted to a considerable degree by PSQ. PMID:23766675

  4. Relationship between Bruxism and Malocclusion among Preschool Children in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Ghafournia, Maryam; Hajenourozali Tehrani, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Bruxism is defined as a habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. In younger children bruxism may be a consequence of the masticatory neuromuscular system immaturity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bruxism and investigate the relationship between occlusal factors and bruxism among preschool children. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional survey, 400 3-6-year-old children were selected randomly from different preschools in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into two groups of bruxers and non-bruxers as determined by the clinical examination and their parents’ reports. The examiner recorded the primary canines (Class I, Class II, and Class III) and molars (mesial step, distal step, flash terminal plane) relationship, existence of anterior and posterior crossbite, open and deep bite. Also, rotated teeth, food impaction, sharp tooth edges, high restorations, extensive tooth caries, and painful teeth (categorized as irritating tooth conditions) were evaluated. The relationship between bruxism and occlusal factors and irritating tooth conditions was evaluated with chi-square test. Results Bruxism was seen in 12.75% of the subjects. Statistically significant relationships existed between bruxism and some occlusal factors, such as flash terminal plane (P = 0.023) and mesial step (P = 0.001) and also, between food impaction, extensive tooth caries, tooth pain, sharp tooth edge and bruxism. Conclusion The results showed significant relationship of bruxism with primary molar relationships and irritating tooth conditions among preschool children. PMID:23277860

  5. Intellectual maturity and physical fitness in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Mora-López, David; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    There is an important connection between body growth, physical fitness and cognition. The association between physical fitness and cognitive function has been investigated in some studies, but little is known about the relationship between physical and motor performance and intellectual maturity in preschool children. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the association between intellectual maturity and physical and motor fitness in preschool children. A total of 1012 children aged 3-6 years participated voluntarily. A fitness test battery and the Goodenough-Harris drawing test (GHDT) were used. Boys did better in the standing broad jump and 20 m sprint (P < 0.001), and girls had a better crude GHDT score (P = 0.001). With regard to age group, there were significant differences (P < 0.01) between all groups in all fitness test variables and GHDT. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between crude GHDT score and the fitness test variables. From an early age, physical-motor performance and intellectual maturity are linked. Fitness condition is able to predict intellectual maturity. Increasing the amount of time devoted to physical education can promote cognitive benefits in preschool children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Relationship between Bruxism and Malocclusion among Preschool Children in Isfahan.

    PubMed

    Ghafournia, Maryam; Hajenourozali Tehrani, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as a habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. In younger children bruxism may be a consequence of the masticatory neuromuscular system immaturity. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bruxism and investigate the relationship between occlusal factors and bruxism among preschool children. In this cross-sectional survey, 400 3-6-year-old children were selected randomly from different preschools in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into two groups of bruxers and non-bruxers as determined by the clinical examination and their parents' reports. The examiner recorded the primary canines (Class I, Class II, and Class III) and molars (mesial step, distal step, flash terminal plane) relationship, existence of anterior and posterior crossbite, open and deep bite. Also, rotated teeth, food impaction, sharp tooth edges, high restorations, extensive tooth caries, and painful teeth (categorized as irritating tooth conditions) were evaluated. The relationship between bruxism and occlusal factors and irritating tooth conditions was evaluated with chi-square test. Bruxism was seen in 12.75% of the subjects. Statistically significant relationships existed between bruxism and some occlusal factors, such as flash terminal plane (P = 0.023) and mesial step (P = 0.001) and also, between food impaction, extensive tooth caries, tooth pain, sharp tooth edge and bruxism. The results showed significant relationship of bruxism with primary molar relationships and irritating tooth conditions among preschool children.

  7. Z-score growth reference data for Saudi preschool children.

    PubMed

    El Mouzan, Mohammad Issa; Shaffi, Ahamed; Salloum, Abdullah Al; Alqurashi, Mansour M; Herbish, Abdullah Al; Omer, Ahmad Al

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of growth using Z-score methods is important for clinical care and research, yet growth reference Z-score data for preschool Saudi children are not available. Establish Z-score tables and corresponding growth charts. Uses data from a national survey in 2004-2005. Community-based random sample of preschool Saudi children. Raw data from the previous nationally representative sample were analyzed using the L, M, and S statistical methods to calculate Z-scores of growth. Z-scores reference values for weight, length/height, head circumference, weight for length/height, and body mass index for age for boys and girls from birth to 60 months of age. For 15 601 Saudi children (7896, 50.6 % boys) Z-score tables and graphs from birth to 60 months of age were derived for boys and girls. The tables and graphs include weight for age, length/height for age, head circumference for age, weight for length/height, and BMI for age. Z-score reference data on the growth of preschool Saudi infants and children is essential for healthcare and research. Does not include regional variations.

  8. The Relationship Between Food Insecurity and BMI for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Speirs, Katherine E; Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-04-01

    The literature exploring the relationship between food insecurity and obesity for preschool-aged children is inconclusive and suffers from inconsistent measurement. This paper explores the relationships between concurrent household and child food insecurity and child overweight as well as differences in these relationships by child gender using a sample of 2-5 year old children. Using measured height and weight and responses to the Household Food Security Survey Module collected from a sample of 438 preschool-aged children (mean age 39 months) and their mothers, logistic regression models were fit to estimate the relationship between household and child food insecurity and child BMI. Separate models were fit for girls and boys. Twenty-seven percent of children from food insecure households and 25 % of child food insecure children were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85 %). There were no statistically significant associations between either household or child food insecurity and BMI for the full sample. For girls, but not boys, household food insecurity was associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.23, p = 0.01). Although food insecurity and overweight were not significantly associated, a noteworthy proportion of food insecure children were overweight or obese. Programs for young children should address food insecurity and obesity simultaneously by ensuring that young children have regular access to nutrient-dense foods.

  9. Teachers' language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David K

    2011-08-19

    Early childhood programs have long been known to be beneficial to children from low-income backgrounds, but recent studies have cast doubt on their ability to substantially increase the rate of children's academic achievement. This Review examines research on the role of language in later reading, describes home and classroom factors that foster early language growth, and reviews research on preschool interventions. It argues that one reason interventions are not having as great an impact as desired is because they fail to substantially change the capacity of teachers to support children's language and associated conceptual knowledge.

  10. The relationship between leadership and sociometric status among preschool children.

    PubMed

    Fukada, H; Fukada, S; Hicks, J

    1997-12-01

    In the present study the relationship between leadership behavior and sociometric status among preschool children was examined. Leadership behaviors of 24 6-year-old Japanese children were observed during free play and scored on the basis of a 2-dimensional leadership scale (facilitation of play and consideration-evaluation of playmates; Fukada, Fukada, & Hicks, 1994). Participants were categorized into three sociometric-status groups. Children who had high sociometric status showed higher scores on both leadership dimensions than those with low sociometric status.

  11. Dental caries prevalence and treatment levels in Arizona preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, J M; Altman, D S; Robertson, D C; O'Sullivan, D M; Douglass, J M; Tinanoff, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in a large group of preschool children, to determine the extent to which the children received dental treatment, to examine the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the prevalence of caries, and to compare these findings with those from previous studies of preschool populations in the United States. METHODS: Dental caries exams were performed on 5171 children ages 5 months through 4 years, and a parent or other caregiver was asked to complete a questionnaire giving information about the child and her or his household. The children were recruited from Head Start programs; Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition programs; health fairs; and day care centers in a representative sample of Arizona communities with populations of more than 1000 people. RESULTS: Of the 994 one-year-old children examined, 6.4% had caries, with a mean dmft (decayed, missing [extracted due to caries], and filled teeth) score of 0.18. Nearly 20% of the 2-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 0.70. Thirty-five percent of the 3-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 1.35, and 49% of the 4-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 2.36. Children whose caregivers fell into the lowest education category had a mean dmft score three times higher than those with caregivers in the highest education category. Children with caregivers in the lowest income category had a mean dmft score four times higher than those with caregivers in the highest category. Children younger than age 3 had little evidence of dental treatment, and most of the children with caries in each age group had no filled or extracted teeth. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that dental caries is highly prevalent in this preschool population, with little of the disease being treated. Timing of diagnostic examinations and prevention strategies for preschool children need to be reconsidered, especially for children identified as having a high risk of

  12. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  13. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  14. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  15. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  16. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  17. Preschool Language Profiles of Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia: Continuities with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method: The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls.…

  18. Modeling and Verbalizations of Lower-Class, Black, Preschool Children: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele E.

    Two purposes guided this study: (1) to investigate the effects of modeling on the verbalizations of lower-class, black, preschool children; and (2) to investigate the relationships between the dialect employed by the model and children's language production. As subjects, 72 black, preschool children in lower-class neighborhood day care centers of…

  19. Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  20. Failure to Detect Signs of Psychological Distress in the Preschool Children of Alcoholic Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Hypothesizes higher rates of psychopathology in preschool children of alcoholic parents, based on findings of higher rates of psychopathology in school-age children of alcoholic parents. Forty-four children of at least one alcoholic biological parent were studied. Higher levels of distress were reported only in the preschool offspring of alcoholic…

  1. The Relationship between Body Weight and Motor Skill Competence in Hispanic Low-SES Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Michelle; Liu, Ting; ElGarhy, Sayed

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor competence and BMI in Hispanic preschool children from low SES backgrounds. One hundred and forty-eight Hispanic low SES preschool children (male = 81, female = 67 participated in this study. All children were measured on gross and fine motor competence using the Peabody…

  2. Fourth Grade Outcomes of Children with a Preschool History of Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.

    2009-01-01

    Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…

  3. The Immediate Impacts of Preschool Attendance on Turkish Children's Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Durmus; Aktas Arnas, Yasare

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the immediate impacts of preschool attendance on Turkish children's mathematics achievement. The participants were 200 children who attended or did not attend preschool. The number and operation task and the geometric shapes sorting task were used as the data collection tools. The children who attended…

  4. Preschool Quality and the Development of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: The influence of preschool quality on the development of 67 4-year-old children from poor and rural families in South India was examined. Children's developmental status was assessed using a modified version of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and through physician ratings. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  5. Fourth Grade Outcomes of Children with a Preschool History of Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.

    2009-01-01

    Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…

  6. Early Intervention for Poverty-Stricken Children: A Study of Preschoolers Receiving Jumpstart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of Jumpstart, a supplemental early literacy intervention, on preschool-age children from low-income backgrounds. Participants consisted of 74 low-income children from three preschools and child-care programs. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned by Jumpstart to the treatment group and 33…

  7. Relationships between Study Behavior, Object Knowledge, and Recall-Memory Proficiency in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Garret; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined two hypotheses that might account for episodic-recall differences in preschool children: (1) young children's differential tendencies to attend to and interact with presented stimuli account for verbal free-recall differences, and (2) improvements in episodic-recall memory are knowledge-dependent among preschool children. (Author/DB)

  8. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  9. The Effectiveness of Dialogic Reading in Increasing English Language Learning Preschool Children's Expressive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Diana; Dauksas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of dialogic reading in increasing the literacy interactions between English language learning parents (ELL) and their preschool aged children and children's expressive language development were studied. Twenty-one ELL parents of preschool aged children received dialogic reading training every other week for a ten-week period.…

  10. Early Intervention for Poverty-Stricken Children: A Study of Preschoolers Receiving Jumpstart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of Jumpstart, a supplemental early literacy intervention, on preschool-age children from low-income backgrounds. Participants consisted of 74 low-income children from three preschools and child-care programs. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned by Jumpstart to the treatment group and 33…

  11. The association between chronotype and sleep problems in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Jafar, Nur K; Tham, Elaine K H; Eng, Derric Z H; Goh, Daniel Y T; Teoh, Oon-Hoe; Lee, Yung S; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Gooley, Joshua J; Broekman, Birit F P

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents and adults who are evening-types exhibit shorter sleep duration and more sleep problems than individuals with an earlier chronotype. We hypothesized that already at a preschool age, evening-types would exhibit more sleep problems relative to children who are morning or intermediate chronotypes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronotype and sleep problems among preschool children. We studied a subset of typically-developing 4.5-year-olds taking part in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes birth cohort study (n = 244). The Children's Chronotype Questionnaire (CCTQ) was used to categorize children into morning-, intermediate-, and evening-types. Sleep problems were measured using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), with higher scores corresponding to greater sleep problems. The relation between chronotype, sleep-wake timing, and nocturnal sleep time was also evaluated in a subsample of 117 children using actigraphy recordings with parent-reported sleep diaries. After controlling for potential confounders (maternal education, child's sex, birth order, and ethnicity), a significant main effect of chronotype on sleep problems was observed, in which evening-types exhibited greater CSHQ scores compared to morning- and intermediate-types (all p < 0.001). Actigraphy data in the subsample confirmed that evening-types had later bedtimes (p < 0.001) and get-up times (p = 0.02) during weekdays and weekends, but shorter nocturnal sleep time (p = 0.034) only during weekdays, compared to children who had earlier chronotypes. In preschool children, sleep problems were greater in evening-types compared to morning- and intermediate-types, suggesting that chronotype could be a contributing factor to sleep disturbances in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hebrew Language Assessment Measure for Preschool Children: A Comparison between Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenberger, Irit; Meilijson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The Katzenberger Hebrew Language Assessment for Preschool Children (henceforth: the KHLA) is the first comprehensive, standardized language assessment tool developed in Hebrew specifically for older preschoolers (4;0-5;11 years). The KHLA is a norm-referenced, Hebrew specific assessment, based on well-established psycholinguistic principles, as…

  13. Preschool children's mathematical knowledge: The effect of teacher "math talk.".

    PubMed

    Klibanoff, Raquel S; Levine, Susan C; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Hedges, Larry V

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the amount of mathematical input in the speech of preschool or day-care teachers and the growth of children's conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year. Three main findings emerged. First, there were marked individual differences in children's conventional mathematical knowledge by 4 years of age that were associated with socioeconomic status. Second, there were dramatic differences in the amount of math-related talk teachers provided. Third, and most important, the amount of teachers' math-related talk was significantly related to the growth of preschoolers' conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year but was unrelated to their math knowledge at the start of the school year.

  14. Association between dental caries and body mass in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pikramenou, V; Dimitraki, D; Zoumpoulakis, M; Verykouki, E; Kotsanos, N

    2016-06-01

    This was to explore the association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) by conducting a cross-sectional study of a sample of preschool children from a major Greek city. The sample consisted of 2180 children aged 2.5-5.9 years from 33 private day care centres of Thessaloniki. The examinations were performed on site in ample day light by one examiner using disposable dental mirrors and a penlight. Oral examinations included recording of dental caries by dmfs index. Subject's height and weight were measured using a portable measuring unit and a digital scale, respectively. The overall prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese children in each BMI-based weight category was 11.8, 72.2, 12.8, and 3.2 %, respectively. The mean age of the total sample was 50.09 (±10.28) months, mean dmfs was 0.36 (±1.9) and the caries-free children were 90.0 %. Overweight children were 1.36 times and obese children 1.99 times more likely to have higher dmfs than normal weight children. The mean dmfs values of underweight children did not significantly differ than that of children with normal weight. The relatively higher dmfs of the obese and overweight children was mostly evident in the older (60-71 months) age group. Caries prevalence in this sample of Greek children attending private day care centres was low. Overweight and obese preschool children were at higher risk of dental caries than normal- and underweight children.

  15. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  16. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  17. Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children: Opportunity for Improvement.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Joy M; Watterworth, Jessica C; Haines, Jess; Duncan, Alison M; Mirotta, Julia A; Ma, David W L; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2017-08-11

    Dietary patterns established in childhood track into adulthood. Despite this, little research has explored preschoolers' snacking. This study examined snacking patterns (frequency, quality, quantity) of preschool-aged boys and girls. Cross-sectional data were collected on 52 children (23 males; 3.4 ± 1.1 years of age; BMI 16.1 ± 1.4 kg/m(2)) enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study pilot. Parent-reported 3-day food records were analyzed for children's snacking patterns including frequency (number of snacking occasions per day), quantity (percent energy from snacks) and quality (inclusion of food groups from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, macronutrient distribution, sugary and salty snacks). Mann-Whitney U tests examined sex differences in snacking patterns. Ninety-six percent of children snacked daily, consuming a mean of 2.3 ± 0.7 snacks per day. Snacks accounted for one-third of daily energy. 78% of boys' versus 63% of girls' snacks contained a food group (P = 0.016). Boys consumed significantly fewer sugary snacks (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.6 snacks per day, P = 0.016), although the percent of snack calories from sugar for both boys and girls was high (group mean 37.2 ± 6.7%). Nearly all preschoolers in this study snacked daily, and consumed a variety of snack foods. Boys' and girls' snacking preferences begin to diverge early in life. Preschool children should be encouraged to consume healthful snacks.

  18. Behavioral assessment of physical activity in obese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Normand, Matthew P; Larson, Tracy A

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent measures used, in that the two measures covaried and a similar degree of change was observed with each across baseline and intervention phases.

  19. Assessing volume of accelerometry data for reliability in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Trina; O'Connell, Eoin; Okely, Anthony D; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2012-12-01

    This study examines what volume of accelerometry data (h·d) is required to reliably estimate preschool children's physical activity and whether it is necessary to include weekday and weekend data. Accelerometry data from 493 to 799 (depending on wear time) preschool children from the Melbourne-based Healthy Active Preschool Years study were used. The percentage of wear time each child spent in total (light-vigorous) physical activity was the main outcome. Hourly increments of daily data were analyzed. t-tests, controlling for age and clustering by center of recruitment, assessed the differences between weekday and weekend physical activity. Intraclass correlation coefficients estimated reliability for an individual day. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula estimated the number of days required to reach reliability estimates of 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9. The children spent a significantly greater percentage of time being physically active on weekend compared with weekdays regardless of the minimum number of hours included (t = 12.49-16.76, P < 0.001 for all). The number of days required to reach each of the predetermined reliability estimates increased as the number of hours of data per day decreased. For instance, 2.7-2.8 d of data were required to reach a reliability estimate of 0.7 with 10 or more hours of data per day; 3.3-3.4 d were required to meet the same reliability estimate for days with 7 h of data. Future studies should ensure they include the minimum amount of data (hours per day and number of days) as identified in this study to meet at least a 0.7 reliability level and should report the level of reliability for their study. In addition to weekdays, at least one weekend day should be included in analyses to reliably estimate physical activity levels for preschool children.

  20. Management of asthma in pre-school children.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, T P; Lenney, W

    1992-01-01

    The management of asthma in pre-school children often presents physicians with challenging problems. This article addresses the diagnostic criteria by which the diagnosis may be made, discusses the prognosis of untreated asthma and states the principles underlying the treatment of asthma in this age group. The management according to a stepwise protocol is discussed with reference both to maintenance therapy, and the treatment of acute severe asthma. The methods by which appropriate medication may be delivered are also described. PMID:1466923